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Polarized nuclear target based on parahydrogen induced polarization

D. Budker∗ Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 and Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley

arXiv:1203.2712v1 [nucl-ex] 13 Mar 2012

National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 M. P. Ledbetter Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7300 S. Appelt Central Institute for Electronics, Research Center J¨lich, D-52425 J¨lich, Germany u u L. S. Bouchard Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, California NanoSystems Institute, Biomedical Engineering IDP, Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA B. Wojtsekhowski Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606

(Dated: March 14, 2012)


which is based on parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP). 2 . One may be able to reach a 33% free-proton polarization in the ethane molecule. and operation with large intensity of an electron beam. fast (∼100 Hz) polarization reversal.Abstract We discuss a novel concept of a polarized nuclear target for accelerator fixed-target scattering experiments. The potential advantages of such a target include operation at zero magnetic field.

As far as weak interactions are concerned. A new way to study the nucleon spin emerged in the last decade: the SIDIS (semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering with transversely polarized nucleons) experiments are probing the effect of nucleon polarization on the azimuthal variation of the leading meson-production cross section in deep inelastic electron-nucleon scattering. these are hard to measure because the event rates in polarized-target experiments are usually low.2 ]. This effect potentially provides access to the parity violating structure 3 . The hadron facility FAIR at Darmstadt. as predicted in Ref. those aimed at studying the physics of the nucleon structure functions3 .I. [1. around the spin direction. the experimental accuracy needs to be improved by orders of magnitude. Currently. While important measurements have been performed at the Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY)7. It was first observed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) with an unpolarized target (see Ref. The concept of OAM is attractive.4 . The structure functions g1 and g2 for both proton and neutron are important for understanding of the quantum chromodynamical (QCD) nature of the nucleon spin.13 and references therein). in particular. however. a number of accelerator based scattering experiments explore polarization observables for the structure-function investigations3. A nonzero value of OAM means that quarks move coherently. However.14 . Complementary parity-violating asymmetries arise for an unpolarized beam and a longitudinally polarized target. as discussed by Sivers5 and Collins6 . reliable SIDIS data are needed to validate it. The Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) at Newport News. Motivation Polarized nuclear targets. Germany has a physics program for studies of the antiproton interaction with polarized proton and neutron targets12 .8 and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN)9. INTRODUCTION A. This effect will allow measurement of the quark orbital angular moment (OAM). Virginia has a large program of SIDIS experiments with a 12 GeV electron beam11 . recently reviewed in Refs. at least a fraction of the time. play an important role in particle physics in investigations of fundamental symmetries and dynamical aspects of known interactions.10 . a parity non-conserving term in deep inelastic electron-scattering (DIS) cross section appears for a polarized electron beam due to the interference of electromagnetic and weak-neutral-current processes (γ − Z interference).

in electrons/s). low-intensity muon-beam polarized-target experiments18. which takes into account the fraction of polarizable nucleons in the target material. including restrictions on the detector solid angle and deflection of the particle trajectories by the target’s magnetic field. (1) usually given in Hz/cm2 . and. (2) where PN is the polarization degree of the polarizable nucleons. and D is a dilution factor. which were measured in deep inelastic neutrino/antineutrino-nucleon scattering and high momentum transfer electron-proton DIS15 . Both polarized-proton16 and polarized-neutron targets17 were developed. A polarization of protons Pp ≈ 0. These targets allow an almost 4π solid angle for the detectors and require only a modest magnetic field of 3 kG on the target in spite of the high intensity of the electron beam.functions4 . which is the product of these quantities L = N × I. High-energy.9.9 was achieved with a dilution factor D = 1. the electron-nucleon luminosity. There are several experiments with polarized targets specifically designed to study the DIS/SIDIS processes: 1. This lower dilution factor reflects a large fraction of unpolarized nucleons in that target. The average nucleon polarization is P = PN × D. B. Internal polarized-target experiment HERMES at the HERA storage ring at DESY operated at a low luminosity of L ≈ 1 × 1032 Hz/cm2 .19 . which provide a modest luminosity of L ≈ 5 × 1032 Hz/cm2 (achieved with the beam intensity of 3 × 107 muons per second. finally. The magnetic field 4 . Pp ≈ 0. the impact of the target magnet on particle detection. 2.5 m and total areal density of ∼50 g/cm2 ). the usable beam intensity (I. in nucleons/cm2 ). It will be interesting to verify these using an unpolarized electron beam and a polarized nucleon target. and a dilution factor of D ≈ 0. target length of almost 1. Polarized nuclear targets The key parameters of a nuclear target are: the areal density of the target material (N . the average degree of nucleon polarization (P ).16.

investigation of the neutron structure has a good outlook. Beam intensities up to 15 µA were used resulting in L ≈ 3 × 1036 Hz/cm2 . requires several hours.3. effective dilution D ≈ 0. and a modest magnetic field on the target of 10 kG.25. This target is designed to provide a high degree of nucleon polarization. 5 . There are several polarized targets for experiments with the high-intensity mediumenergy electron beam at JLab25 : i) An advanced version of the SLAC 3 He target with neutron polarization of Pn ≈ 0. D ≈ 0. Re-polarization of the target is performed in a 50 kG field.33.on the target could be as low as 5 kG during data taking. L ≈ 3 × 1036 Hz/cm2 . The target29 is projected to operate at a luminosity of L ≈ 1 × 1034 Hz/cm2 . Polarized-target experiments with up to 32 GeV electron beams at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC)20–22 . which used a 3 He target23 with Pn ≈ 0. Higher-luminosity 3 He targets additionally allow operation in small magnetic fields (typically. A combination of the high beam energy and a modest value of the target’s magnetic field allows for the required detector acceptance.125.43 and D ≈ 0. iv) A novel HD polarized target for the CLAS detector. thanks to the advances in the 3 He target. and L ≈ 7 × 1035 Hz/cm2 for studies of inclusive deep inelastic scattering. 3.16. and is usually repeated every two days. The latest development with circulating-gas approach allows even higher luminosity26 . In addition to the upgrade of the polarized targets. there is a program developing a set of new detectors. A large set of polarized-target experiments (both DIS and SIDIS) is already approved. iii) A “frozen-spin” target for the CLAS detector28 . ii) A polarized NH3 /ND3 target from the SLAC experiments and a similar one for the large-acceptance detector CLAS27 . The JLab accelerator will be upgraded to 12 GeV. and NH3 /LiD targets24 with Pp ≈ 0. 4.9. the target polarization lasts for hundreds of hours. 25 G). Because of the low beam intensity. It is apparent that. a low dilution factor of 0. and some experiments are already in preparation30 .

If beam induced target warm-up and depolarization are not important. and that unpolarized nuclei in the target cause a loss of experimental accuracy. the required amount of material is small. with a 10−4 uniformity. Basic parameters of a target and luminosity Productivity of an experiment depends on the target’s Figure-of-Merit (F oM ). is about 1033 Hz/cm2 . target polarization. in addition to the radiation damage in the target material. This problem is significant for medium-energy experiments at JLab. which is too large for a SIDIS experiment. which means that average nucleon polarization is important. All known targets with polarized protons and some with polarized neutrons operate at low temperatures. As a result.5 cm2 . D. Assuming a target area of 1. a projected dilution factor is 0. the field deflects the secondary particles of interest. the total mass of the 6 . and the dilution factor as F oM = L × P 2 = L × (PN × D)2 .C. which is defined by luminosity. In many currently running and planned experiments. (3) A minimum F oM required for a productive future SIDIS experiment. A transverse magnetic field bends the beam trajectory and leads to an additional background in the detector. 3 mg/cm2 . Even more importantly. in a polarized NH3 target. For example. whose energies are much lower than the incident-beam energy. the average nucleon polarization is only 1/6 of the free-proton polarization. nuclear spins in the target should be oriented transversely to the beam direction. With a transversely polarized NH3 target. With the two protons in a C2 H4 molecule polarizable by the parahydrogen technique discussed below. Polarization and magnetic-field issues Investigation of the nucleon spin structure requires the study of both inclusive and semiinclusive processes. 50 kG. where the secondary particles have energies in the 2-4 GeV range. the above F oM translates into a required luminosity of 2 × 1036 Hz/cm2 . even with a large solid angle detector as CLAS. Such requirements result in limited acceptance usable for the experiments’ detectors. the deflection of a 2 GeV pion is about 15 degrees. where the heat load from the incident particle beam becomes an issue. the beam intensity at JLab could be up to 100 µA. A reduction of the field is possible for a low-luminosity regime.07. Magnetic fields required in proton polarized targets should be large. With such a large beam intensity.

it is exposed to a DC pulse induced by the magnetic coil (shown in Fig. the combined spin state of 13 C and the protons undergoes evolution under the scalar (J-coupling) Hamiltonian. pre-loaded with an appropriate catalyst (Sec. II. and the temperature rise is small due to a significant mass flow.material in the target is 5 mg. The mixing occurs in the Reactor. the product flows into the actual target volume. and in particular. 1. (IV) would not require cryogenic temperatures to operate. we propose a concept of a polarized target that potentially addresses all of these requirements. Moreover. one can see that the reactor should produce at least 500 mg/s of polarized C2 H4 material. adding the two hydrogen atoms across the carbon-carbon double bond. its zero-field version33 . the power deposition in the target by the beam is ≈ 1 W. the two protons coming from a parahydrogen molecule (and which are now incorporated in the product. such polarization can be induced34 by applying an appropriate magnetic pulse (a typical pulse would be of DC magnetic induction ∼1 G and a millisecond duration). and (V) would not require tesla-size magnetic fields hindering one’s ability to control the polarization. for example. Pure parahydrogen (pH2 ) is mixed with the initial substrate. however. This evolution results in a spin state that is devoid of net dipole polarization. Here. The idea is based on the concept of parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) of nuclei31. proton polarization will oscillate with a characteristic J−coupling frequency on the order of 100 Hz. with the exception of (i). IV. for example. Once there. C2 H4 molecule) are initially in the singlet state. compressed 13 C-enriched acetylene (C2 H2 ) gas or liquid. where a catalyst-assisted hydrogenation reaction takes place. In this scheme. THE CONCEPT OF THE TARGET The basic idea of the proposed target is illustrated in Fig.V). Once the hydrogenation reaction is complete. Using a conservative value for the spin-relaxation time of T1 ≈ 10 ms. An ideal target for polarized-target experiments would (i) consist solely of protons (a simple nucleus) at high density and with (ii) full polarization. while undergoing relaxation with a typical decay time of several seconds. however.32 . 1 surrounding the Polarized Target). After the DC pulse. Upon hydrogenation. The direction of the polarization is 7 . it would allow for (iii) fast and efficient reversal of polarization (necessary to control systematic effects).

while a fresh batch of hydrogenated material flows into the target volume. magnetization oscillates along the 8 .Initial Substrate pH2 preparation REACTOR High-energy beam POLARIZED TARGET CONVERTOR FIG. III. The used product is chemically regenerated (dehydrogenated) into substrate and hydrogen in the Converter. collinear with the direction of the magnetic-field induction in the pulse. After such a pulse. A block diagram of the proposed arrangement. the contents of the target is emptied into the converter. Once the polarization oscillation decays. J-COUPLING INDUCED POLARIZATION OSCILLATIONS As mentioned above. synthesized from 13 C labeled acetylene (13 C12 CH2 ) via addition of parahydrogen. The polarization oscillation represents the fast reversal of the polarization in the target. 1. Figure 2 shows the zero-field NMR spectrum of such a compound. and can be reused for subsequent cycles. a promising candidate for a target polarized via parahydrogen is ethylene (C2 H4 ). following application of a DC pulse of magnetic field.

The different frequencies displayed here should also show up in a Fourier transform of the scattered signal. Recently.0 0. Imaginary component of the zero-field PHIP enhanced spectrum of ethylene. We note that stray magnetic fields. 2. synthesized from singly 13 C labeled acetylene via addition of parahydrogen. 1.0 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Frequency Hz FIG. HYDROGENATION AND DEHYDROGENATION REACTIONS Parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) proceeds by hydrogenation across an unsaturated carbon-carbon bond.direction of the pulse field at several frequencies.0 0. IV. propene (C3 H6 ) can be hydrogenated to yield propane (C3 H8 ) using a suitable catalyst. For example. it has been demonstrated for this re9 .5 Im Mz 0. The zero-field NMR signal could thus be used as a diagnostic/reference in scattering experiments. so it will be important to control the fields at a milligauss level. including the magnetic field of the high-energy beam itself may modify the spectrum.5 1. This simulation shows oscillations of the observable nuclear magnetization at several frequencies corresponding to relative reversal of proton and 13 C spins. corresponding to rapid reversal of 1 H and 13 C spins with respect to each other.

The efficiency of 10 . This means that the overall polarization of the hydrogen nuclei on the substrate molecules is ≈ 0.. The interesting product here would be polarized ethylene. • The choice of the substrate molecule.5 K).) 77 K] cold finger to get a high density of polarized hydrogen nuclei (b.action in the gas phase35 that it is possible to obtain up to 60% polarization at the sites of the two added protons. To this end. The theoretical maximum (for 100% PHIP) would be 25% overall polarization. yielding a potential theoretical maximum polarization of 50%. OPTIMIZATION In order to make an efficient polarized target. Dehydrogenation of propane and other alkanes is possible. which would yield a theoretical maximum of ≈33%. albeit catalysts will differ in their selectivity and the conditions of the dehydrogenation reaction (pressure. with the use of vanadium. of ethylene is 169.6 × (2/8) = 15%. It may be possible to separate the desired product from the mixture and condense it to the liquid phase using a liquid nitrogen [boiling point (b. 13 C).p. we may envisage closing the circuit by adding a dehydrogenation step after the polarized target loses its polarization. such a reaction will yield a mixture of ethylene and ethane. Subsequent evolution of the spins of the protons and the magnetic nucleus under the influence of each other leads to net magnetization that can be generated after the application of a magnetic-field pulse.g.p. The following is a partial list of parameters and issues that should be addressed. it is sufficient that one of the carbons adjacent to the added protons be magnetic (e. V. We note that one way to obtain nuclear-spin order that can be converted into magnetic polarization in zero or low magnetic fields is to use a molecule that possesses an asymmetric J-coupling topology. for example. Our goal here is to have the highest fraction of polarized nucleons compared to the overall number of nuclides in the molecule in addition to having an overall high areal density of the target. An improved choice may be ethylene (C2 H4 ) to ethane (C2 H6 ). with four hydrogen nuclei: two of which are polarized and two are unpolarized. all aspects of the process must be optimized. Because selectively 13 C-labeled molecules are expensive and experiments done in continuousflow mode may rapidly consume molecules. it may be desirable to recycle the hydrogenated product (see Fig. In the case of propane. temperature) may be different. 1). If one uses acetylene (C2 H2 ) as the starting molecule. molybdenum and tungsten oxides36 .

elevated pressures and/or low operating temperatures may be required to suppress evaporation. typically. The PHIP targets may offer a number of advantages over the existing polarized targets.polarization. which would be detrimental for this experiment. There is also no need for a solvent in many heterogeneous reactions. Both homogenous and heterogeneous catalysts options are available. a supercritical phase? Liquid state would be advantageous in terms of density and. So far. Short transit times are needed to avoid depolarization. however. the ability to flow and recycle the material are all important factors. There are important issues that must be addressed when designing an appropriate reactor. Sufficiently good control of the transport is needed to transport and subsequently immobilize the product. • The choice of the catalyst that will ensure efficient hydrogenation on the time scale of spin relaxation. Efficient heat transport is required to avoid deterioration of the catalyst. perhaps. VI. The reacted product is free of catalyst contamination. but not too dense as to hinder transport processes. Will the substrate be compressed gas or liquid. longer relaxation times than gas. • An efficient flow/shuttle/transport system is required to bring the reaction product to the target region. however. This is essential to have high spin polarization. a catalytic converter (reactor) is needed. A short residence time is desirable in order to avoid depolarization of the product. CONCLUSION AND POSSIBLE EXTENSIONS A spin-polarized-target concept based on parahydrogen-induced polarization (PHIP) has been proposed. no “show stoppers” are seen. polarization relaxation time (which we need as long as possible). or. The highly efficient catalyst for PHIP35 mentioned above meets these requirements. The reactor should be dense enough for efficient reaction. An additional consideration is the temperature dependence of the hydrogenation reaction. • The converter chemistry: If a heterogeneous catalyst is used. specific technical details 11 . Heterogeneous catalysts have the advantage that they can be packed into a reactor. including fast polarization reversal and non-cryogenic operation at nearzero magnetic field.

More generally. IV. the 1 H chemical shift of 12 12 CH3 is different from that of CH2 -F (by a few ppm). more importantly. without parahydrogen) that has been discussed in the context of polarized targets for over twenty years42 should be revisited. The ini- tial pH2 singlet polarization at zero field “spreads” over the whole molecule via the J-coupling network. The difference with the cases discussed in Sec. may also be considered. however. for example. photochemically induced nuclear polarization (CIDNP41 . • The possibility of doing the hydrogenation reaction in-situ should also be considered. Now. hyperpolarized HD molecules were also produced. the review32 ) that rely on relatively high magnetic field and removing the degeneracy between the two protons not by J-coupling. but by chemical-shift differences. • Photochemically induced reactions with parahydrogen should be considered. we briefly discuss PHIP polarized ethyl fluoride 12 CH3 -12 CH2 -19 F. which is partially a chemical-engineering task to be addressed in future work.of the novel target still need to be worked out. The advantage here could be that protons are the only polarized nuclei (for example. where NH-PHIP of aminoacids and peptides was demonstrated.38 expands the types of substrates that could be polarized. Note that a zero-field nonhydrogenative PHIP experiment has recently been performed39 . • The PASADENA/ALTADENA PHIP schemes (see. • Finally. as revealed by application of the magnetic-field pulse. the oscillation frequency after the pulse is smaller due to the fact that the second-order H-F coupling is smaller than the first-order H-13 C coupling (2 JHF <1 JHC ). instead of 13 19 C. which are an attractive polarized-target material. so at moderate DC 12 . is that here. eliminates the need for the dehydrogenation step. An advantage is that this would avoid sample transfer. it is F that breaks the symmetry between the protons. It is interesting to note in this context that in the work40 . In this case. no 13 C nuclei are involved). which will likely involve homogeneous catalysis. and. There are several interesting extensions of the basic concept that deserve further consideration: • Nonhydrogenative (NH) PHIP37.

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