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IEEE 485 Lead Acid Batteries for Stationary Applications

This standard details methods for defining the dc loads and for sizing a lead-acid battery to supply those loads in full float operation. A brief description of the methods presented by the standard is provided below. For a full and accurate description, refer to the full standard.

Calculation of Battery Size
Number of Cells and Cell Voltage - the number of cells is estimated based on the maximum battery voltage and float charge voltage:

The minimum battery voltage is the minimum system voltage (including voltage drops across cables). Given the minimum cell voltage the minimum cell voltage is given by:

Temperature Correction - at temperature decreases the capacity of a cell decreases (and vise verse as the temperature increases). Manufacturers quote cell capacity at a given temperature and appropriate correction factors should be used for other temperatures. Aging Factor - battery performance is relatively stable through out its life, dropping of rapidly towards the end. To ensure the battery can meet the design requirements throughout its life the standard suggestions the initial capacity should be 125% of the design capacity. Design Margin - to cater for unexpected circumstances (increased loads, poor maintenance, recent discharge, etc.) it is common to allow a design margin of 10% to 15%.

Sizing Methodology - the required capacity of the cell FS is given by:

Where S can be any integer from 1 to N depending on the section being calculated and FS is expressed in watt-hours or ampere-hours depending on which Ct is used. The required uncorrected cell size F, is then given by:

where:

       

F - is the uncorrected (temperature, aging and design margin) cell size S - is the section of duty cycle being studied (containing all previous sections) N - is the number of periods in the duty cycle P - is the period being analysed AP - the amperes required for period P t - the time in minutes from the beginning of period P through the end of Section S Ct - is the capacity rating factor (for a given cell type, at the t minute discharge rate, at 25 °C, to a definite minimum cell voltage FS - is the capacity required by each section

Capacity rating factor
There are two ways of expressing capacity: Term Rt o The term Rt is the number of amperes each plate can supply for t minutes, at 25 C to a defined minimum cell voltage. giving:

Term Kt o The term Kt is the ratio of ampere-hour capacity, at a standard time rate, at 25 C and to a defined minimum voltage which can be delivered for t minutes. giving:

Rt is not equal to 1/Kt because each factor is expressed in different units.

Watts Per Cell Method (UPS Applications)
Normally information supplied for lead acid batteries designed for short discharge times (5-120 minutes) is in the form of kilowatts per cell tabulated for various back-up times. The required [Watts] per cell are given by:

Where:

    

VA = VA of the load pf = power factor η = efficiency of the UPS N = Number of cells Al = any addition load connected to the batteries (in VA)

Amperes per cell
Long term discharge lead acid batteries and most nickel cadmium batteries are sized using charts expressed in available amps for specified periods of time. The required amperes per cell is:

Where:

    

VA = VA of the load pf = power factor η = efficiency of the UPS inverter (dc to ac) Vdc = Average Discharge Voltage Al = any addition load connected to the batteries (in A)