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Handout

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Essay Structure Outline
This is an outline of a five paragraph essay. This outline may be expanded to include as many body paragraphs as need to support the thesis.

I.

Introduction
1. Hook (First sentence of introduction) 2. Transition statement(s) 3. Thesis Statement (Last sentence of the introduction)

II.

Body Paragraphs:
Body Paragraphs One (First supporting idea)
1. Topic Sentence (first sentence of paragraph) 2. Supporting sentences: (facts, examples, analysis) 3. Transition

Body Paragraphs Two (Second supporting idea)
1. Topic Sentence (first sentence of paragraph) 2. Supporting sentences: (facts, examples, analysis) 3. Transition

Body Paragraphs Three (Third supporting idea)
1. Topic Sentence (first sentence of paragraph) 2. Supporting sentences: (facts, examples, analysis) 3. Transition

III. Conclusion
1. Back Reference: statement reflecting back on thesis 2. Transition statement(s) 3. Final Thought: statement that provokes thought (Last sentence)

Handout Les “Vous” et les “Tu” Philis, qu’est devenu ce temps Où, dans un fiacre promenée, Sans laquais, sans ajustements, De tes grâces seules ornée, Contente d’un mauvais soupé Que tu changeais en ambroisie, Tu te livrais, dans ta folie, A l’amant heureux et trompé Qui t’avait consacré sa vie? Le ciel ne te donnait alors, Pour tout rang et pour tous trésors, Que les agréments de ton âge, Un coeur tendre, un esprit volage, Un sein d’albâtre, et de beaux yeux. Avec tant d’attraits précieux, Hélas! qui n’eût été friponne? Tu le futs, objet gracieux; Et (que l’Amour me le pardonne!) Tu sais que je t’en aimais mieux. Ah, madame! que votre vie, D’honneurs aujourd’hui si remplie, Diffère de ces doux instants! Ce large suisse à cheveux blancs, Qui ment sans cesse à votre porte, Philis, est l’image du Temps: On dirait qu’il chasse l’escorte Des tendres Amours et des Ris: Sous vos magnifiques lambris Ces enfants tremblent de paraître. Helas! je les ai vus jadis Entrer chez toi par la fenêtre Et se jouer dans ton taudis. Non, madame, tous ces tapis Qu’a tissus la Savonnerie, Ceux que les Persans ont ourdis, Et toute votre orfèvrerie, Et ces plats si chers que Germain A gravés de sa main divine. Et ces cabinets où Martin A surpassé l’art de la Chine; Vos vases japonais et blancs, Toutes ces fragiles merveilles; Ces deux lustres de diamants Qui pendent à vos deux oreilles; Ces riches carcans, ces colliers, Et cette pompe enchanteresse, Ne valent pas un des baisers Que tu donnais dans ta jeunesse. Vous and Tu Phyllis, what has become of the days When, out riding in a carriage, Without lackeys, without trappings, Adorned only by your graces, Content with a poor supper Which you changed into ambrosia, You delivered yourself, in your extravagance, To the happy and deceived lover Who had devoted his life to you? Heaven gave you then, For all rank and treasures, Only the advantages of your youth, A tender heart, a capricious mind, Alabaster breasts, and beautiful eyes. With so many precious allurements, Alas! who would not have been mischievous? You so were, graceful creature; And (may Love pardon me for this!) You know I loved you all the more for it. Ah, Madame! how your life, Today so filled with honors, Differs from those sweet moments! This large Swiss with white hair, Who lies incessantly at your door, Phyllis, is the image of the Times: One would say he chasses away the escort Of tender Loves and Laughter: Beneath your magnificent paneled ceilings Those children tremble to appear. Alas! I saw them in former days Enter your home through the window And frolic in your hovel. No, Madame, all those carpets Woven at the Savonnerie, Those which the Persians loomed, And all your gold jewelry, And those expensive plates which Germain Engraved with his divine hand, And those cabinets in which Martin Has outdone the art of China; Your Japanese and white vases, All those fragile wonders; Those two splendid diamonds That hang from your two ears; Those costly chokers, those necklaces, And that enchanting pomp, Are not worth one of the kisses That you gave in your youth.

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Handout En Sourdine, Paul Verlaine Calmes dans le demi-jour Que les branches hautes font, Pénétrons bien notre amour De ce silence profond. Fondons nos âmes, nos cœurs Et nos sens extasiés, Parmi les vagues langueurs Des pins et des arbousiers. Ferme tes yeux à demi, Croise tes bras sur ton sein, Et de ton cœur endormi Chasse à jamais tout dessein. Laissons-nous persuader Au souffle berceur et doux Qui vient à tes pieds rider Les ondes de gazon roux. Et quand, solennel, le soir Des chênes noirs tombera, Voix de notre désespoir, Le rossignol chantera. Quietly Soft, Paul Verlaine Calm in the half-day That the high branches make, Let us sink well into our love Of this profound silence. Let us melt away our souls, our hearts And our ecstatic feelings, Among the languorous waves Of the pines and the bushes. Close your eyes halfway, Cross your arms on your breasts, And from your sleepy heart Chase away all intention. Leave us to prevail On the sweet and cradling wind Who comes to your feet to ripple The waves of the russet lawn. And when, solemn, the night From black oaks will fall, Voice of our desperation, The nightingale will sing.

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LE BRET: Eh! mon Dieu, quelle est donc cette femme? CYRANO: Un danger Mortel sans le vouloir, exquis sans y songer, Un piège de nature, une rose muscade Dans laquelle l'amour se tient en embuscade! Qui connaît son sourire a connu le parfait. Elle fait de la grâce avec rien, elle fait Tenir tout le divin dans un geste quelconque, Et tu ne saurais pas, Vénus, monter en conque, Ni toi, Diane, marcher dans les grands bois fleuris, Comme elle monte en chaise et marche dans Paris!

LE BRET: Eh! my God, what then is this woman? CYRANO: A danger Mortal without wanting it, exquisite without dreaming of it, A trap of nature, a nutmeg rose In which love holds itself in ambush! Who knows her smile has known perfection. She is graceful with everything, she makes To be held the divine in whatever gesture, And you would not know, Venus, to get on a shell, Nor you, Diana, to walk in the great flowered woods, Like she gets in a chair or walks in Paris!

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Du Fu (Dù Fǔ 杜甫) is considered to be one of China’s greatest poets. He lived in Tang Dynasty China during the 8th Century A.D. One of his poems, “Late Afternoon,” consists of four verses of five words each.

遲 日 春 風 泥 融
mud thaw ní róng The mud thaws flying swallows.

江 山
mountain shān


beautiful lì

late day/sun river chí rì jiāng The afternoon river and mountains are beautiful.

花 草
grass cǎo


fragrance xiāng

spring wind flower chūn fēng huā Spring breezes a fragrance of flowers and grass.

飛 燕
fly fēi swallow yàn


DIMIN

zi

沙 暖

睡 鴛
duck(m) yuān


duck(f) yāng

sand warm sleep shā nuǎn shuì The sand warms sleeping Mandarin ducks.

The afternoon river and mountains are beautiful. Spring breezes a fragrance of flowers and grass. The mud thaws flying swallows. The sand warms sleeping Mandarin ducks.

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Grammatical Person and Viewpoint Imagine that there are 3 people sitting in a room. The person who is talking is the first person. The person who is listening and being spoken to is the second person. The person who is not listening and not being spoken to is the third person. When the first person talks about himself, he uses the pronoun “I” to refer to himself. The person who is speaking uses the pronoun “you” to refer to the person who is listening or being talked to. The person who is speaking uses the pronoun “he” to refer to the person who is not part of the conversation. “I” is a first person pronoun. “You” is a second person pronoun. “He” is a third person pronoun. “He” is a masculine, third person, singular pronoun. It is referred to as having masculine gender. “She” and “it” are also third person singular pronouns. “She” has feminine gender and “it” has neuter gender. Masculine gender is used to refer to males. Feminine gender is used to refer to females. Neuter gender is used to refer to everything else. “I”, “he”, “she”, and “it” are singular pronouns and refer to one person. “You” is both a singular and a plural pronoun and can refer to either one or more than one person at a time. The first person plural equivalent of the singular “I” is “we” which is a first person pronoun. The plural equivalent of “he”, “she”, and “it” is “they.” “They” has no specific gender and refers to all genders in the plural. There are other forms of the pronouns that are referred to as possessive and object pronouns. The pronoun forms above are subject pronouns because they are used as subjects of sentences. The table below gives the subject, possessive, and object forms of the most common pronouns. 1st person singular 1st person plural 2nd person singular & plural 3rd person singular masculine 3rd person singular feminine 3rd person singular neuter 3rd person plural subject I we you he she it they possessive my our your his her its their object me us you him her it them

Grammatical person is related to the concept of viewpoint in writing. A piece of written text uses either 1st, 2nd, or 3rd viewpoint or a combinations of the three viewpoints. No other viewpoints are possible in English. For most writing, it is best to stick to one consistent viewpoint. In general 2nd person viewpoint is restricted to instructions and recipes. Novels usually use either a 1st person or 3rd person viewpoint. Novels written in 1st person only have the knowledge of the “speaker” so 1st person narratives necessarily have what is called limited omniscience. The word “omniscience” is derived from the Latin word omnis which means ‘all’, and the Latin word ‘to know’ which is scire. Therefore, omniscience means to know everything. 3rd person narratives have a much greater possible range of omniscience since the writer can directly use the knowledge and experience of any of the characters in the work. The world’s most prolific fiction writer, Edgar Rice Burroughs, used a 3rd person viewpoint in his Tarzan novels. However, in his John Carter of Mars novels, he uses 1st person. Many of Burroughs novels use a simple plot device of using three main prototypical characters which are the hero, the beautiful woman, and the bad guy, where the story is about the bad guy abducting the beautiful woman and the hero searching for her until the climax where he rescues her and deals justice to the bad guy. In his novel The Son of Tarzan, the chapters are written with a 3rd person viewpoint and they alternate between the activities of the hero and the bad guy until the final climatic chapter. On the other hand, because the John Carter of Mars novels are written with a 1st person viewpoint, such an alternation is not possible because the narrative is limited to the experiences of the hero. One of the biggest problems that students have in writing is the control of viewpoint. They often indiscriminately mix the three viewpoints where a consistent use of one viewpoint would be clearer and much more sophisticated.

Handout Essay Components First Principles 1. All language is talking (or writing) about something and saying something about it. 2. All levels of language have structure. 3. Learn to recognize the components of the structure. 4. Learn to manipulate the components of the structure. Essay Components:

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I. Introduction
A. Hook:
The hook is a sentence that catches the readers’ attention and makes them want to read more.

B. Transition:
The transition is one or more sentences that leads the reader from the hook to the thesis statement.

C. Thesis statement:
The thesis statement is an encapsulation of what the essay is about. 1. Subject: The subject is what the writer is talking about. 2. Predicate: The predicate is what the writer is saying about the subject.

II. Body Paragraphs: (Each body paragraph corresponds to a *subpredication of the thesis
statement.)

A. Topic Sentence:
A topic sentence states an idea that supports the thesis statement and informs the reader what the body paragraph will be about.

B. Supporting sentences:
Supporting sentences discuss examples and analyze the idea expressed in the topic sentence.

III. Conclusion:
A. Back reference:
The back reference is one or more sentences that refer in general to the content of the essay.

B. Final thought:
The final thought makes a good point that brings closure to the essay.

*Subpredication is one of the ideas that the writer is expressing about the subject of the thesis statement

Handout MLA FORMAT:

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CREATING IN-TEXT CITATIONS (also known as parenthetical citations) A “citation” is a method of giving credit to the originator of a source. To correspond with a works cited page, you must also make shortened citations within the body of your paper. The first word of the in-text citation should match the first word of the works cited entry to which it corresponds. For example, if the works cited entry begins with the author’s last name, then use the author’s last name for your in-text citation. If the works cited entry begins with the title of a work, then use the same title for your in-text citation. If the title of the work is long, use the first meaningful words of the title. If you use the author’s name (or any other citation information) in the sentence, you do not need to include it in the in-text citation. For example: Correct: According to Fischer, “All dogs do go to heaven” (175). Correct: “All dogs do go to heaven” (Fischer 175). Incorrect: According to Fisher, “All dogs do go to heaven” (Fisher 175). Basic format: List the last name of the author (or editor or translator) and the page number. “Janie’s life flashed before her eyes, but it wasn’t the life she remembered” (Weaver 56). No author: List a shortened title or the full title (if short) and the page number. If the title is underlined in the works cited entry, underline it in the in-text citation. If it has quotation marks around it, put quotation marks around it in the in-text citation. “Due to its large number of lakes, Oklahoma has a high population of water fowl” (Nature 68). No page number: List the last name of the author (or editor or translator) OR if there is no author, just use the title “The guerillas, whose original purpose was to fight the government for the people’s sake, eventually became more corrupt than the government” (Cortazar). Sacred Texts: List the title of the text, an abbreviated or full title of the book or section, the chapter number (if applicable), and the verse number (if applicable). (Holy Bible, Proverbs 3.5-8) Two or more works: If you want to cite more than one work in the same in-text citation, use semicolons to separate them. (Gray 78; “Heavens” 59-61; Shooting Stars) BOOKS Basic format: 1.) Author’s name 2.) Title, underlined 3.) City of publication 4.) Publisher 5.) Date of publication Author, last name first. Title of Book. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Book by a Single Author: Sparrow, Jack. The Wings of Eternity. Omaha: Feather, 1999.

Handout Question Words There are two types of questions: 1) yes/no (polar) questions and 2) content questions. 1) yes/no (polar) questions

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A polar question asks for a “yes” or “no” answer. Polar questions usually start with a form of the verb “to do.” Do you like to eat watermelon? Does she read mystery novels? Did he swim across the lake? The answer to these three questions would be either yes or no.

2) content questions Content questions ask for more information that can be expressed by a simple yes or no response. WHO A who question asks about a person. Who is the chef in the kitchen tonight? WHAT A what question asks about a thing, object, or idea. What is your plan for making more money? WHERE A where question asks about a place, either concrete or metaphorical. Where is the shovel? WHEN A when question asks about a time either concrete or metaphorical. When is the party? HOW A how question asks about the manner of an action or event. How should I cook the eggs? WHY A why question asks about the cause of an action or event. Why did he build the tree house? HOW MUCH / HOW MANY A how much / how many question asks about the amount of something. A how much question asks about the amount of a mass noun. A how many question asks about the amount of a count noun How much marble should they use for the kitchen? How many marbles were in the bag?

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Grice’s Maxims In 1975, Paul Grice proposed the following conversational maxims in "Logic and Conversation" and provided these guides for "cooperative speakers" regarding how we work out the purposes or direction of communication at the various stages of the exchange. The Cooperative Principle: Make your contribution such as is required, at the stage at which it occurs, by the accepted purpose or direction of the communicative exchange in which you are engaged. Grice's Conversational Maxims: Quantity: 1. Make your contribution to the conversation as informative as necessary and required. 2. Do not make your contribution to the conversation more informative than necessary or required. • FOCUS Be informative, but do not make your contributions more or less informative than required so try to be as informative as possible and give as much information as is needed but no more which means that one should make the contribution to the exchange as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange. Quality: 1. Do not say what you believe to be false. 2. Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. • LOGOS, ETHOS and PATHOS Be truthful, do not say anything for which you lack adequate evidence and do not give information that is false or that is not supported by evidence. Relevance or Relation: Be relevant (i.e., say things related to the current topic of the conversation). • STAY ON TOPIC Say things that are pertinent to the discussion and make your contributions relevant. Manner: 1. Avoid obscurity of expression. 2. Avoid ambiguity. 3. Be brief (avoid unnecessary wordiness). 4. Be orderly. • DIRECT, CLEAR, and TO THE POINT Tries to be as clear, as brief, and as orderly as one can, and avoid obscurity and ambiguity. All discourse does not follow the Gricean Maxims. Such things as deceit, longwindedness, irrelevance, obscurity, laconicity are all occur in discourse for a variety of reason and communicate other things. There have been criticisms of these maxims for not reflecting the full range of human communication such as dishonesty and not being universal in terms of specific cultural norms. For example, in Madagascar the value of information leads to a much higher level of laconicity in letting others find out what one knows.

(5 Digit ID #)

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12345 (5 digit ID #) 8:00 pm, M/W (class hour and day) Essay 3 01/25/12 (date) Essay Format (title) This format must be followed exactly in order for an essay to be graded. To insert page numbers, go to the “Insert” menu at the top of the Word window that is just below the title bar. Select “Page Numbers”. Then for “Position:” select “Top of page (Header)” from the dropdown box, and for “Alignment:” select “Right” from the dropdown box. Finally check the box that says to show numbering on the first page. All essays should have the following characteristics: 1) double spaced, 2) 12 point Times New Roman font, and 3) 1 inch margins on all sides. This is the format that must be used for essays. To format the page margins and the header, go to the “File” menu at the top of the Word window that is just below the title bar. Select “Page Setup” The margins should all be set to 1” and 0.5” should be the setting for the header and footer. Remember to use only the last five digits of your ID number. Go to “View” and select ”Header and Footer” to insert the last five digits of your ID 3 in the header. Choose right justification so that it will appear next to the page number. Your name should not appear anywhere on any essay. Also keep in mind that the date to be used is the due date as listed in the syllabus. Essays that are late will receive the penalty as specified in the syllabus. It is also important to write to the end of the page. The bottom margin will be between 1 inch and 1 1/2 inches.