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STEFAN ARTENI

Perspective as Form and Medium and the Interplay of Proportion Systems and Perspective III

SolInvictus Press 2006

Deep Symmetry

A symmetry is fundamentally an invariance of a configuration of elements under a group of automorphic transformations… When surface characteristics are underlain by a recognisable deep symmetry… the symmetry ties together the individual parts without denying them their individual interest or identity. At the same time as it gives an overall harmony and unity, deep symmetry highlights the individuality and unique interest of the parts of a composition… John Collier and Mark Burch, Symmetry, Levels and Entrainment [www.nu.ac.za/undphil/collier/papers/20140.pdf]

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes

Albert Gleizes

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

tapestry Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Maurice Estève

Jean Bazaine

Jean Bazaine

Jean Bazaine, stained glass window

Jean Bazaine

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

André Lanskoy

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Paul Klee

Roger Bissière

Roger Bissière

stained glass window Roger Bissière

Roger Bissière

Alfred Manessier

Alfred Manessier

Alfred Manessier

Alfred Manessier

Alfred Manessier

Alfred Manessier

stained glass window tapestry

Alfred Manessier

Alfred Manessier

stained glass window Jean Le Moal

Raoul Ubac, stained glass windows

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon, stained glass windows

Ben Nicholson

Ben Nicholson

Ben Nicholson

Ben Nicholson

Ben Nicholson

Ben Nicholson

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Organization and Structure

Emergence is the process whereby by means of a small number of simple rules - such as first organizing the surface into abstract areas with the help of the Golden Section and then constructing local-area networks within these areas - one creates new unpredictable and surprising structures. The organization is realized through structure…Form-ing is selectively contingent... relationship of parts to whole and of self-similarity. Robert Rosen defines a formal system as syntax, symbols (in the Peircean sense), and rules of symbol manipulation. It is a matter of mereotopological (parthood and connectedness) contingency: speaking about areas (the two-dimensional regions or continua), the transformations allowed before the space is changed; speaking about the image, the transformations of an image conceived as a diagram that may gain or lose parts and yet preserve its identity. The flexibility of structure is the basis for the complexity of parts, wholes, boundaries, interpositions and overlappings, nested regions, contact, separation, and transition (passage). But what of inner boundaries combined with passages, a device used by El Greco? In this case of intrinsic vagueness, there is a degree of arbitrariness about any particular choice resulting in trapping regions as inner boundaries – a sort of inner vectorial graph - and creating indeterminate outer boundaries. Such an influence is visible also in Villon’s and in other Western artists’ work, a fact showing that to remain in the background, which is the case for the procedural memory of Byzantine practices, is not synonymous with unimportance. Procedural memory is also known as tacit or implicit knowledge. Figurative synthesis is responsible for the genesis of a determinate representation. ‘Schematism’ specifies the conditions for recognition as well as the topological invariant within the abstract building… Deleuze formulates the image as a “mobile assemblage”. This allows for shifting conglomerations of elements – each image is contingent and evolving. Any figurative elements - re-cognizable configurational elements – are grouped in clusters within the variable layout of the abstract areas that fit together like pieces of a puzzle. By means of color-scheme, placement, and linking, natural spatial and dynamic categories are destabilized. Emerging patterns convert image data into pictorial equivalents - fiat entities, that is, created entities - and construct a pattern of configured non-emptiness and voids, an intense simultaneity. Stefan Arteni [http://www.stefanarteni.net/writings/Emergence/Emergence.html]

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Nicolas de Staël

Nicolas de Staël

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Russian Icons

Tver Icons

Anonymous, 13th century

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez}

Structure
Computer aided design and visual pattern recognition use and thus reveal the underlying artifice, the ancient studio processes and devices (from Latin dividere, to divide distinguish, invent).

Topology is a qualitative study of shapes and other mathematical objects. It has evolved from features of geometry in order to formalize concepts such as convergence, connectedness and continuity. Topology is the mathematical study of the properties that are preserved through deformations, twistings, and stretchings of objects. Topology can be used to abstract the inherent connectivity of objects while ignoring their detailed form. Standard introductions to the basic concepts of topology take as their starting point the notion of transformation. We can transform a spatial body such as a sheet of rubber in various ways which do not involve cutting or tearing. We can invert it, stretch or compress it, move it, bend it, twist it, or otherwise knead it out of shape. Certain properties of the body will in general be invariant under such transformations – which is to say under transformations which are neutral as to shape, size, motion and orientation… Let us use the term ‘topological spatial properties’ to refer to those spatial properties of bodies which are invariant under such transformations (broadly: transformations which do not affect the integrity of the body – or other sort of spatial structure…)

Barry Smith

[from Shunji Murai: www.profc.udec.cl/~gabriel/tutoriales/giswb/vol1/cp2/cp2-4.htm]

[from Shunji Murai: www.profc.udec.cl/~gabriel/tutoriales/giswb/vol1/cp2/cp2-4.htm

Vector field [from mathworld.wolfram.com/VectorField.html]

Vector [from en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Vecab.png]

Topology could be described as qualitative geometry. Region-based qualitative geometry points to contour and surface geometry and illusory contour. Mereology (from the Greek μερος, ‘part’) is the theory of parthood relations: of the relations of part to whole and the relations of part to part within a whole. [from plato.stanford.edu/entries/mereology]

Mereotopology is a formal theory, combining mereology and topology, of the topological relationships among wholes, parts, and the boundaries between parts. [from www.answers.com/topic/mereotopology]

One may view mereotopology as consisting of two independent but mutually related components: a mereological component, concerned with the concept of parthood (or overlap), and a topological component, concerned with the concept of wholeness (or connection). Achille C. Varzi Nicolas de Staël

Visual topology
1.Prototype formation 2.Morphing Can generate morph sequences for shape that are not very dissimilar
[from www.lems.brown.edu/vision/researchAreas/CurveMatching/applications.html]

Robustness to Visual Transformations: 1. Boundary Noise 2. Articulation and Deformation of Parts 3. Viewpoint Variations 4. Segmentation Variations, e.g., due to Illumination Variation 5. Partial occlusion Occluder blends with the shape Occluder blends with the background
[from www.lems.brown.edu/vision/researchAreas/ShockMatching/results.html]

Through various sequences of transformations, edge-based and/or region-based visual fragments are grouped in various configurations to form object hypotheses, and are related to stored models

1. A translation is a correspondence between points and their image points so that each image is the same distance in the same direction from the original point.
[from www.beva.org/ math323/asgn5/oct31.htm]

By Yuki Yoshinaga

2. A rotation is a correspondence between points and their image points where one point is fixed and the image points are transformed at a new angle position. The example shows 5 rotations of the original shape around the center point.

3. A reflection is a correspondence between points and their image points so that each image is transformed as a mirror image over a horizontal (vertical or other) line.

4. A glide reflection is a correspondence between points and their image points where the image points are the product of a reflection and a translation parallel to the fixed line of reflection. This is often used in ornamental patterns - seen especially in the Alhambra in Grenada, Spain.

[from www.beva.org/math323/asgn5/oct31.htm]

Transformational geometry [rotations; translations, or slides; and reflections, or flips, are geometric transformations that change an object's position or orientation] deals with transformations and their properties; it considers transformations as things in their own right, and asks how they can be combined and altered.

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos), translation and reflection

proportional scaling being a particular case of dilation - lets us make images larger or smaller.

Dilation

Gino Severini, squared up studies prepared for enlargement

Stefan Arteni, squared up studies

Stereometric diagrams and planar transformation of the human head: studies by Albrecht
Dürer

Albrecht Dürer, De Symmetria

Topology compression - a compression which preserves the complete topology [from wwwcg.in.tum.de/Teaching/WS2004/HauptSem]

Mesh simplification [from www.cse.ucsc.edu]

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Marino Marini

Marino Marini

Marino Marini

Marino Marini

Marino Marini

Marino Marini

André Lhote

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

A projective transformation is related to mapping, in which a three-dimensional form may be projected onto a twodimensional surface.

Projective transformation

Affine transformation

[from www.mathworks.nl/access/helpdesk_r13/help/toolbox/images/registr6.html]

Related to the tool of linear perspective is the branch of geometry known as descriptive geometry.

A modern exercise in descriptive geometry, first done by Albrecht Dürer.

Aegean wall painting

Gold ring from grave, Mycenae

Persian miniatures

Romanesque miniature

Byzantine miniature

Ottonian miniature

Ottonian miniatures

Medieval miniature

Pietro Cavallini

Pietro Cavallini

Lorenzo Monaco

Giovanni di Paolo

Bernardo Daddi

Cimabue (Cenni di Pepo)

Mario Sironi

Alberto Giacometti

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

We naturally see objects as being composed out of parts. Instead of perceiving indivisable objects, we perceive objects in terms of their labelled or categorized parts. We break objects into parts that we have learned are relevant or important.

Edge-based segmentation: borders between regions Region-based segmentation: direct construction of regions

[from/www.icaen.uiowa.edu/~dip/LECTURE/Segmentation3.html]

Edouard Vuillard

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Skeletonization [medial axis transform]:
the skeleton of the pattern, i.e., the thinnest representation of the original pattern that preserves the topology.

Hawaii petroglyph

Alberto Giacometti

Alberto Giacometti

André Derain

Marino Marini

The geon model of perception

Irving Biederman notes that certain properties of visual features remain invariant to perspective transformation through small angles. For example a straight edge appears straight, while a curved edge appears curved, through a wide range of rotations of the object, although the exact angle or curvature of that edge changes with rotation. Biederman thus proposes the Geon Theory, a representation of visual form in terms of these relatively invariant features. Steven Lehar [http://cns-alumni.bu.edu/~slehar/webstuff/pcave/biederman.html]

[from www.psych.utah.edu/psych3120-classroom/psy3120_2005F.html]

The geon model of perception

Geons and Interrelations

Spatial Organization of Components Invariance Importance of Components: Altered Geons
[from Kimberly Kirkpatrick, Department of Psychology, University of York]

David Marr's model
Computational Theory of Visual Perception http://www.doc.gold.ac.uk/~ffl/MSC101/Vision/Marr.html

David Marr’s 3D Model Principle: Describe shapes and their organization using a modular and hierarchical organization of volumetric and surface primitives. From David Marr's book: Vision, 1982.

Indian sculpture

Cycladic sculpture

Arturo Martini

Constantin Brancusi

Woman from Ostrava Petrkovice, Czech Republic, ca. 23,000 B.C.E.

Ossip Zadkine

Ossip Zadkine

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Henri Matisse

André Derain

Fernand Leger

Marino Marini

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Mnemotechnic geometric schemata

Marie-Thérèse Zenner, "Villard de Honnecourt and Euclidean Geometry," Nexus Network Journal, vol. 4, no. 2 (Autumn 2002): 65-78, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Zenner.html

Milton Avery Villard de Honnecourt, The Wheel of Fortune

Medieval miniature Villard de Honnecourt Mnemotechnic geometric schemata

Villard de Honnecourt, Mnemotechnic geometric schemata

Trypilia and Cucuteni culture

Cycladic sculptures

Aegean sculpture

Amedeo Modigliani

Marino Marini

Milton Avery

Henri Matisse

Morphing: Transformation of one image to another by the gradual distortion of corresponding points/change of shape

Giorgio Morandi Henri Matisse

Illuminated initial S

Massimo Campigli

Structure Metamorphosis

Roman mosaic

Roman wall paintings

Roman mosaics

Piazza Armerina, Roman mosaic

Piazza Armerina, Roman mosaic

Piazza Armerina, roman mosaic

Piazza Armerina, Roman mosaic, detail

Piazza Armerina, Roman mosaic

Byzantine mosaics

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaics

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Attributed to Manuel Panselinos, end of 13th Century. Dionysios from Fourna in the Agrapha, the author of the famous Painter's Manual (Hermeneia, ca. 1730) and painter of a chapel at Karyes (1711), taught himself the painter's art on Athos itself, and in his works and manual the influence of the Panselinos technical procedures is clear. In his manual he shows himself to be a staunch supporter and pupil of Panselinos.

Russian Icon

Pskov Icon

Pskov Icons

Pskov Icons

Pskov Icon

Moscow Icon

Pskov school Icons

Pskov school Icon

Russian Icon

Byzantine Icon

Romanesque miniature

Romanesque miniatures

Romanesque miniature

Utrecht Psalter

Romanesque wall painting

Romanesque paintings

Romanesque wall paintings

Romanesque painting

Chronicle of John of Worcester

Romanesque Bible covers

Romanesque miniature

Eadwine Psalter (c 1150)

Romanesque sculpture

Romanesque relief

Medieval miniature

Wiligelmo

BONANNO DA PISA

Niccolò del Mercia

Guido da Siena

Guido da Siena

Andrea Bonaiuti (Andrea da Firenze)

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Bartolo Di Fredi

Bartolo Di Fredi

Bartolo Di Fredi

Bartolo Di Fredi

Anonymous Valencian master

Anonymous Valencian master

Nicola Pisano

Gothic relief

Veit Stoss

Veit Stoss

Pesellino (Francesco di Stefano)

Pesellino (Francesco di Stefano)

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello)

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura)

Filippino Lippi

Filippino Lippi

Filippino Lippi

Filippino Lippi

Tiziano Vecellio

Edouard Vuillard

Jacques Villon

André Derain

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani

Gino Severini

Gino Severini

André Derain

Jean Metzinger

André Lhote

Georges Braque

Albert Gleizes

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Jean Metzinger

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Albert Gleizes

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Georges Braque

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Marino Marini

Marino Marini

Marino Marini

Marc Chagall

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Arturo Martini

Arturo Martini

Arturo Martini

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Massimo Campigli

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Surface Geometry as Matrix

…developing a space using a particular two-dimensional geometric construction -- a matrix -- to create a ready-made framework into which the imagery is then fitted. Further I would say that the imagery within the paintings is sometimes directly inspired by the geometry and imagery of the matrix itself. The matrix contains both a surface grid/pattern and the diminishing proportions that provide the characteristic convergence, and the controlled changes of scale necessary to create the spatial illusion. I will demonstrate that this kind of matrix can be developed simply from the geometric patterns found in pre-Renaissance paintings…The artists appear to show complete control over the conjunctions of elements that are spatially unconnected within the paintings. Elements that are on the surface…appear to complement…elements that are deeper in space.

Richard Talbot,
"Speculations on the Origin of Linear Perspective", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Talbot.html

The process of the successive subdivision of a square (which produces a construct that corresponds to an Albertian perspective construction) and the construction extended sideways: it is conceivable…that the geometry of linear perspective may have been born out of a simple piece of flat geometry derived from patterns, and not from a conscious desire to understand and rationalise space. Richard Talbot, "Speculations on the Origin of Linear Perspective", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Talbot.html

Maestro dell’Osservanza

Pietro Lorenzetti

Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Ambrogio Lorenzetti

Ambrogio Lorenzetti, The Presentation in the Temple [floor pattern similar to the floor in Domenico Veneziano’s Saint Lucy Altarpiece]

Domenico Veneziano

Domenico Veneziano, Madonna and Child with Four Saints, also known as La Sacra Conversazione or the Saint Lucy Altarpiece

Domenico Veneziano’s Saint Lucy Altarpiece …the St. Lucy Altarpiece floor is not a true hexagonal pattern, but is one that can be derived from the repeated subdivision of squares... I think that it would be fair to assume that Domenico Veneziano was following a process essentially the same as that used by Lorenzetti… Richard Talbot, "Speculations on the Origin of Linear Perspective", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Talbot.html

Paolo Uccello (Paolo di Dono)

Paolo Uccello (Paolo di Dono)

Paolo Uccello (Paolo di Dono)

The panel on which Paolo Uccello's Hunt in a Forest (ca. 1467, Ashmolean Museum, Oxford) is painted is 177cm wide x 73.3 cm high, giving it the precise proportions of 2.414 : 1, or (1 + √ 2) : 1. The painted area is slightly less wide and high than this. In order to demonstrate the general principle behind the construction, I am only showing the lower part. Richard Talbot, "Speculations on the Origin of Linear Perspective", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Talbot.html

Piero della Francesca… has linked elements of the receding architecture to a spatially suggestive two-dimensional surface matrix, the geometry of which also provides key points for the perspective construction. Richard Talbot, "Speculations on the Origin of Linear Perspective", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Talbot.html

The pattern…derived from an octagon, is the basis of the elaborate floor pattern within the palace where Christ is standing. It was used in earlier paintings by Gaddi and Cione, and contains the √2 proportions that control the composition of the painting.

Richard Talbot, "Speculations on the Origin of Linear Perspective", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1 (Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Talbot.html

From the Line Associated with Color to Chiaroscuro: Rhetoric of Contrasts and Contours

According to André Lhote, one has to choose between ornament [line], color [flat areas of color – aplats ] and chiaroscuro. For example, when ornament is exalted, color [areas of achromatic or chromatic colors] will be subordinate to the rhythm of the composition and chiaroscuro will be almost eliminated. Modulation [whereby some characteristics of the colored surface are varied] may be achieved by means of graphic elements and/or the play of brushstrokes and of under- and over-painting. One may speak of the rule of three contrasts: one contrast is dominant, the second one becomes subdominant, and the third contrast will be subdued or almost eliminated. André Lhote also describes the methods used to subordinate, through the use of passages, the individual elements to the unified whole. The emphasis is on the emergent pattern which is hypothetically in a dynamic equilibrium, that is the play of fiat boundaries [the limit of a pattern and system is a fiat determination, i.e. a distinction] and bona-fide boundaries, in short on constrained randomness of a morpho-chromatic structure of the color model including out-of-gamut transposition. Figure-ground relationships – the rhetoric of contours – consists of a triad of contrasts: outside contour, inside shadow, and reflection. The effect of figure-ground ambiguity and cue integration will allow figure and ground to merge into an interwoven surface of shifting planes by means of passages [the French term should be used in the sense of going past, across, over or beyond.] A passage simply indicates that a color or value has melded with the same color or value adjacent to it, even though that adjacent color or value exists on a DIFFERENT plane.

André Lhote, an example of passages

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Raoul Dufy

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh

Vincent van Gogh

Giorgio Morandi

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Raoul Dufy

André Derain

Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy

Kees van Dongen

Kees van Dongen

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens, detail

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Eugène Delacroix, copy after Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

André Derain

André Derain

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Eugène Delacroix

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Peter Paul Rubens

Giorgio Morandi

Pierre Bonnard

André Derain

Giorgio Morandi

Kees van Dongen

Milton Avery

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Lorenzo di Credi

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani

Félix Vallotton

Félix Vallotton

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

Félix Vallotton

Pierre Bonnard

Eugène Delacroix

André Lhote

Milton Avery

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Félix Vallotton

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Maerten van Heemskerck (an apparently unfinished work)

Maerten van Heemskerck

Maerten van Heemskerck

Maerten van Heemskerck

André Derain

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Composition as Collage or Assemblage

Organization
Architecture and design have always involved a search for general laws of beauty. Is beauty in the eye of the beholder or does it come about through intrinsic properties of space? Three general principles: repetition, harmony, and variety lie at the basis of beautiful designs. Repetition is achieved by using a system that provides a set of proportions that are repeated in a design or building at different scales. Harmony is achieved through a system that provides a small set of lengths or modules with many additive properties which enables the whole to be created as the sum of its parts while remaining entirely within the system. Variety is provided by a system that provides a sufficient degree of versatility in its ability to tile the plane with geometric figures…. Proportional systems based on Phi , Root 2, and Root 3 were the principal systems used… Root 2 and Root 3 geometries also have connections to the symmetry groups of the plane.

Construction of the Golden section

VT = TB = AB/2 AV = AG

Jay Kappraff

Construction of the root phi rectangle: 1.Draw golden section rectangle ARSZ. 2.It is next required that the long side of the rectangle ARSZ, that is, AR, be rotated through arc RQ to point Q on the opposite side, SZ, of the rectangle.

The root phi rectangle can be divided into three similar rectangles and so ad infinitum [from Matila Ghyka, The Geometry of Art and Life]

Continued subdivision of a root-two rectangle into figures, with a ratio of three.

The drawing of the mark and the subsequent self-interactions of the mark create the form-space [from French ‘espace plastique,’ from Greek plastikos “able to be formed, molded,” from plastos "formed," from plassein "to mold, to give form",] that is to say, the painting as

Etymology to paint – to cut, to decorate with cut marks, to decorate with variegated adornment to write - to carve, scratch, cut mold - from Latin modulum (nom. modulus) "measure, model," dim. of modus "manner"

virtual irreality.
irreality - the state of being insubstantial or imaginary; not existing objectively or in fact virtual – efficacy, as good as real

Fine visual art is not necessarily figurative. An artificial material visual image is not necessarily fine visual art. Visual culture is not necessarily visual art. Visual art ≠ artificial image Artificial image ≠ visual art } No material equivalence No identity

Organization and Structure
…a system's organization specifies a category, within which there may be many specifically-realized instantiations. Specific systemic entities exhibit more than just the general pattern of their organization -- they consist of particular components and relations among them. The 'particulars' of a given system's individual realization make up its structure… Humberto Maturana (1975) notes 'organization' comes from the Greek and means 'instrument'…A systemic unity's organization is specifically realized through the presence and interplay of components in a given space. These comprise the unity's structure…Maturana (1975) points out the word 'structure' comes from the Latin meaning 'to build'. Randall Whitaker

Modified photograph illustrating the principle of organization by means of areas

Byzantine Icon

Nicolas De Staël

Nicolas De Staël

tapestry

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Serge Poliakoff

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Albert Gleizes, tapestry

Gino Severini

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Jacques Villon

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Milton Avery

Giorgio Morandi

Mario Sironi

Stefan Arteni

Stefan Arteni

Stefan Arteni

Stefan Arteni

Theatricalization

Vitruvius calls perspective scaenographia. Scenography is a way of "view-planning," that is coordinating the real with the visual, the rational with the painterly, usually conventionalized as a system of screens: foreground, middleground, background. Artifice creates new stage settings, painted stage-settings , and painted representations, artifice creates plays of visual constructs. One may assign a value to each screen, e.g. dark, light, grey, respectively, or one may follow Jacques Villon’s idea and assign a dominant color to each screen.

Benozzo GOZZOLI

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio

Vittore Carpaccio

Alessio BALDOVINETTI

Filippino Lippi

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Francesco di Giorgio Martini

Andrea Mantegna

Piero di Cosimo (Piero di Lorenzo)

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Domenico BECCAFUMI

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci)

Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin

Nicolas Poussin

Felice Casorati

Stefan Arteni

Stefan Arteni

Stefan Arteni

Stefan Arteni

Analysis of the Syntactic Code

"L'opera d'arte deve nascere fuori dalle cause: è il fulmine a ciel sereno. L'opera d'arte è l'unione tra il personale e l'infinito. L'universale è il punto di coincidenza". Arturo Martini [The work of art must be born outside of causality: it is a thunderbolt in the cloudless sky. The work of art is the unity of the personal and the infinite. The universal is the point of coincidence. Arturo Martini]

Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi), The Adoration of the Magi

Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi), The Adoration of the Magi [diagram by Stefan Arteni]

φ

Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi), The Adoration of the Magi [diagram by Stefan Arteni; the modified photograph indicates the areas of passage]

Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi), The Adoration of the Magi [the modified photograph indicates that ruins and landscape were conceived as set backdrops]

Sandro Botticelli (Alessandro di Mariano Filipepi), The Adoration of the Magi [modified photograph showing the alternating planes acting as repoussoir]

Hugo van der Goes, Monforte Altarpiece

Hugo van der Goes, Monforte Altarpiece [perspective diagram by Stefan Arteni]

Hugo van der Goes, Monforte Altarpiece [modified photograph indicating areas of passage]

Hugo van der Goes, Monforte Altarpiece [modified photograph indicating the play of screens: foreground, middleground in color, background]

Albrecht Dürer, Adoration of the Magi

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Albrecht Dürer, Adoration of the Magi [proportions diagram and perspective diagram (in red) by Stefan Arteni]

Albrecht Dürer, Adoration of the Magi [modified photograph suggestive of the preliminary drawing]

Albrecht Dürer, Adoration of the Magi [modified photograph indicating the play of contrasts and passages]

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello), approximately a √φ rectangle

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Piero della Francesca, subdivision of a root two rectangle into figures, with a ratio of three, embedded perspective, and musical ratio 4/6/9 [diagram by Stefan Arteni]

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6

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Tiziano Vecellio, composition within a root two rectangle [diagram by Stefan Arteni]

Paolo Caliari Veronese, chiastic composition

Pieter Brueghel the Elder [diagram by Charles Bouleau: there is a set of parallel oblique lines which join points dividing the sides into nine equal parts; other oblique lines, each at a constant angle to the first ones, form another network]

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Jan Vermeer [diagram by Stefan Arteni]

Variations on a Formal Theme: the Deposition

Novgorod Icon, 15th century
Wall-painting in the outer-narthex of the Katholikon depicting the Deposition of Christ from the Cross, 1312, Vatopedi monastery, Mount Athos.

Luca Signorelli (Luca d’Egidio di Ventura)

Filippino Lippi

Master of the St. Bartholomew Altar

Anonymous Flemish master

Jan GOSSAERT (Mabuse)

Pedro Machuca

Jacopino del Conte

Giorgio Vasari

Daniele da Volterra

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Rossi)

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens, composition on the dynamic musical ratio [diagrams by Charles Bouleau]

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Rossi), 375 x 196 cm

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Rossi), modified photographs Indicating the play of value contrasts and of passages

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Rossi), detail

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Rossi), detail

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), 313 x 192 cm

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), dynamic composition inscribed within a φ rectangle and based upon the serpentine or spiral schema of which Giovanni Paolo Lomazzo was so fond [diagrams by Stefan Arteni]

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), modified photograph indicating the areas of passage

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), details

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), details

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), details

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), detail

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), detail

Michael Polanyi and tacit knowledge:
One of the central concepts in Polanyi`s notion of knowledge is tradition. He writes: “An art which cannot be specified in detail cannot be transmitted by prescription, since no prescription for it exists. It can be passed on only by example from master to apprentice. This restricts the range of diffusion to that of personal contacts. We find accordingly that craftsmanship tends to survive in closely circumscribed local traditions…To learn by example is to submit to authority. By watching the master and emulating his efforts in the presence of his example the apprentice unconsciously picks up the rules of the art, including those which are not explicitly known to the master himself. A society which wants to preserve a fund of personal knowledge must submit to tradition.” Tacit knowledge underlies many artistic capabilities. The workshop experience, stored as tacit knowledge, reaches consciousness in the form of insights, intuitions, and flashes of inspiration. The marvelous capacity of the mind to make sense of previous collection of experiences and to connect patterns from the past to the present and future is essential to the artistic process. The creativity necessary for innovation derives not only from obvious and visible expertise, but from invisible reservoirs of experience. Tacit knowledge, or implicit knowledge, as opposite to explicit knowledge, is far less tangible and is deeply embedded into operating practices. Tacit knowledge include norms, values, and standard operating procedures. Inaccessible from explicit expositions, tacit knowledge is much harder to detail, copy, and distribute. What increasingly differentiates success and failure is how well you locate, leverage, and blend available explicit knowledge with internally generated tacit knowledge.