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EXERCISES FOR READING AND GLOSSARY BY ADOLF ERMAN. HENRIETTA STREET. SOUTH FREDERICK STREET. TRANSLATED BY JAMES HENRY BREASTED. . EDINBURGH. WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE. U. 1894. BIBLIOGRAPHY.niTiPTIAN 3^ GRAMMAR WITH TABLE OF SIGNS. COVENT GARDEN. LONDON AND 20.

.Authorized Translation.

that something else the study of Egyptian necessary to to be at all grammar if it is a fruitful study. I need not premise is with the remark. For those who are familiar with the peculiar situation of Egyptian philology. viz. the only phase of the Egyptian language which we really understand. will never properly comprehend it in its older . As the outgrowth of practical academic instruction. and which must guide us in the interpretation of texts. this book is designed to facilitate as far as possible. It aims to acquaint the learner with those grammatical phenomena which are well established. the acquisition of the Egyptian lan- guage and writing. and is also intended for those who in must dispense with the assistance of a teacher the study. It further aims to afford him as correct a picture as possible of the general structure of the Egyptian language. for the beginner.AUTHOR'S PREFACE. is the simultaneous acquisition of One who not familiar with this. Coptic.

The paragraphs therefore deal the classic language. to note also the in both. constant cross references The material selection offered and limitation of the grammatical especial difficulty. with which the idiom later employed as the learned and official language is practically identical. would therefore request the student of my book to work through Steindorff's Coptic Grammar —a book parallel with this — and especially. and even leaving Late Egyptian still later idioms out of account. is The material in the chrestomathy also taken from texts of this character in order that the beginner may accustom himself to their linguistic usage and especially to their consistent orthography. fifteen hundred still years of the history of the language remain to be dealt with. The Egyptian and language as we find presents quite different stages of development.IV periods. it. and those with what of the popular language of the middle empire on the other. I have tried . most ever attain more than a superI capacity for reading Egyptian texts by rote. the may be caUed language of the inscriptions and poems of the middle empire. nor. at the ficial acthor's preface. These difficulties have been surmoun- ted by relegating to certain paragraphs (A and B) the peculiarities of the ancient religious literature and the inscriptions of the old empire on the one hand.

3 893. to facilitate the understanding of the chrestomathy by division into sentences.author's preface. August IQth. and should then work through the If in first part of the Chrestomathy. The appendix to the chrestomathy contains the most important of the formularies from the list which must now be mastered. . designated by an asterisk. doing this he not only looks tries to up the paragraphs indicated. that in this book. clear print and explanatory remarks. he will then be sufficiently advanced to take hold of the second part of the chrestomathy. In the use of the book the beginner should first it has seemed to me that familiarize himself with the most important paragraphs. where as a rule he must recognize the grammatical forms for himself. much which not so designated undoubtedly belongs to Steindorff cussed these things separate it But we have so often disamong ourselves. Adolf Erman. that we could not our "intellectual property" even if we deemed and Sethe. in order to understand Egyptian inscriptions correctly. It further behoves is me to state. at all important to do so. SiJDENDE. but also a connected idea of the sections of the form grammar thus referred to.

and due to a confusion with . does not yet exist in English. the Nestor of English Egyptologists. difficulties experienced by the trans- in transferring into English the results of the grammatical investigations of his honored teacher. Bagster & Sons. 2nd. i". that the "vowels were very commonly omitted". But this * venerable scholar. classified under a list of vowels! and the statement added. On p. C &c. and this about a system of orthography exclusively is consonantal (with the exception of one or two doubtful endings). Prof. ed. The peculiar lator. as it has been created by the German grammatical school in the last fifteen years. on p.TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. Le Page Renouf. to the unique charac- ter of the language investigated. His book is therefore entirely obsolete. an assertion in direct contradiction of the facts. has not followed the modern development in Egyptian grammar. Erman. 1 jou will find the Egyptian consonants «. Ex. and secondly to the fact that the new science of Egyptian Grammar.). render a word of explanation necessary.* that the The above statement may seem strange to one who knows grammar of Le Page Renouf was reedited in 1889 ("An Elementary Grammar of the Ancient Egyptian Language" by P. 50 the In of the tn-form of the verb stated to be inse- parable from the subject and separable from the verb. difficulties These were due firstly. London. gr.

18 in the classic language st is always used absolutely. The entire treatise is therefore as reasonable as would be a grammar. In France the new science is equally disregarded. as the recent "Manuel de la Langue egyptienne" of Further. 2 f. s. e. Victor Loret here translated. this grammar would be to repeat a large portion of the work though Mr.. The ready with which the German lends itself to the is expression of compound ideas in one word. for to p. s. Or turn called a suffix. the latter being called an "independent personal pronoun". 3 f. separably.. the parallel would be complete and it could be stated with impunity that the Latin article was il and that the Italian nouns were comprised in five terminationally inflected declensions. s. But to enumerate forms and phenomena unknown to absolute pronouns. no hint of these changes appears in the treatment of grammatical forms and syntax. VII There were therefore no termini technici of Egyptian grammar ready facility at hand in English. s.. Le Page Renouf has stated in his "Concluding Observations" that the Egyptian language suffered many changes during its enormously long history. and 3 m. i. enti- rely foreign to English for and the peculiar phenomena which a the flexile felicitous compound was always ready in German were sometimes the despair of the the particle In. which. . In the same chapter one searches in vain for any paradigm of the old Those of the 1 c. between st. and all the plurals are wanting. If the end of the period thus included were two thousand years removed from us. sn and s. but the 2 m. should present the forms of Latin and its offspring Italian in heterogeneous combination from the Augustan age down to the present day.translator's preface. without any distinction of time. may testify. are incidentally mentioned. the author being misled orthographic in late where the absolute pronoun sHs by the confusion purely and corrupt texts.

being simply the transferred "substantivirte". James Henky Breasted. and which are herewith presented for the first time in English. Nov. 1893. One word has been With the coined. which render the grammatical structure of the ancient Egyptian tolerably intelligible. and after with the author. It only remains to be hoped that the results.VIII translator's preface. but to have used this term would have been a liberty not justified in translating. 11th. It is hoped. that such terms have intelligible to the been made at least English reading is student and the indulgence of the reader craved wherever felicitous English has been sacrificed for the sake of clearness. . it is. may be as interesting and in- structive to the English and American student as they lips of the have been to the translator. Berlin. translator. however. viz. and meaning. from the to man whom they are almost solely due. very similar to the Assyrian "permansive". "substantivized". is it The term "pseudoparticiple" word both for in conjugation another di- rectly transferred which nothing better could be found. achieved within the last fifteen years. but could find nothing better stands. German the translation "uninflected passive" for the German "endungsloses Passiv" consultation writer was not at all satisfied.

. a. PRONOUNS. a.CONTENTS. a. Unusual Styles of Orthography Rules for Transliteration f. Personal suffixes 73 — 79 84 85 Old Absolute Pronoun Later Absolute Pronoun Expression for "self 80—83 d. In general 53 54 Orthography of the Ideograms Purely phonetic Orthography Abbreviations Inversion of the Order of —5^ 59 63 d. 3. —31 —35 36 —44 28 32 45 — 52 — 6^ — 71 ^ 5. 4— 12 The Alphabet Special Points in Phonetics Syllabic Signs 13—27 c. c. 1. In general Phonetic Signs. §§ INTRODUCTION 1—3 ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. &. h. h. Ideograms Determinatives Orthographj'. 4. 2. Personal Pronoun. —68 69 72 Words 70 G. c. e. 1. GRAMMAR.

y. h. t- 86—90 91 — 94 NOUNS. ns) 138 — 139 — 145 3. c. e. Forms with m. ^. 119 g. . Numerals. c. The Genetive. The Article The Absolute Substantive Apposition and Coordination 104—106 107—109 110—112 113—116 117 — 118 — 121 — 124 f. Classes of the Verb. Substantives. In general — 171 . yS. a. Plural /?. h. c. 162 163—169 170 2. b. Adjectives a.2. Plural. a. Expression of Gender 95 99 Forms of the Substantive — 98 — 103 Expression of Number. . h. . pForms with n- i. 1. a. Imy. In general. Beal Numerals Appendix to the Numeral 140 146—147 VERBS. Dual Use of the Singular. Direct Genetive 122 Genetive with n 125—127 128— 131 132 2. r?. . Demonstrative Pronoun. Usual Inflection. a. a. h. . a. Voice Expression of the Subject (Inflection). y. Adjectives without Ending Adjectives in ? — 137 Appendix {ir'i. Dual. Usual Classes Rare Classes and Irregular Verbs 148—154 155 — 160 161 The Causative . a. The a. 1.

In the Conditional sentence D. Its Formation Use 194 196—199 200 d. Dependent upon Verbs E. of the Usual Inflection. As a Subjunctive E. In the Passive.CONTENTS. — 173 — 176 177 — 178 179 — 180 172 174 181 As an Optative The Forms of the Second Group. 6. The <»-Form sdminf. a. In a Final Clause F.) 204—205 206—207 3. a. Dependent y. The Uninflected Passive Old Inflection. 208—215 a. B. XI §§ The Formation sdmf. 220 With Double a. . ^. The Forms iw sdmf and tw sdmnf. The Forms A. . 189 190 191 upon Prepositions Appendix — 193 — 195 The M-Form sdmnf. /3.Intransitive 5. "it is". 224—227 icntnf sdmf. (Pseudoparticiple. Its /8. In the Active-Transitive ^. The Forms tcnf sdmf and The Form Jjrf sdmf. b. In Conditional Clauses 184—186 188 D. Its h. y. —203 The /^r-Form sdmhrf. C. Formation Use. . Formation as Indicative Use C. Its Formation B. . With the Auxiliary Verb wn Subject. e. 228 229 . Its 4. a. iwfsdmf. Form Form 216 217 —219 — 222 223 Compounds with Forms a. Introduced hy a. c. . /3. Its of the First Group. Use as an Indicative 182 — 183 187 A.

Compounds with "make" or Infinitive. a. 10. 7. . 283—288 288—292 Verbal Adjective 293—295 296—299 ii. 258—261 262—268 269—271 272—281 Formation Substantive Nature Its y. Prepositions. c. §§ With a Verb a. d. 9. In general. . In general 282 y. Use Substantivized Forms. Without the Auxiliary Verb (Improper Nominal Sentence) 240—245 246—249 250 b. Its c. /3. The Form sdmf piv ir 6. prn and Iw 230—234 235—236 237 (I. 301 —305j Z14 306 Compound Prepositions 315—3171 . Its /3. To Denote a Person or an Object. /3. 253 —252 —264 255—257 of the Verb.XII c. Adverbs 300 2. Appendix to the Verb: the Object PARTICLES. Introduced by Auxiliary Verbs. . a. Infinitive. Compounds with r and the The Imperative The Nominal Forms a. 238—239 Compounds with the Pseudoparticiple a. With ChCn and ChC With In. b. /3. Participles b. 1. of Motion. CONTENTS. Simple Prepositions . With the Auxiliary Verb Iw With the Auxiliary Verb wn Infinitive 8. To Denote the Action Itself. a. a.

r and in Ellipses —346 347 —350 344 The 351—355 3. The Parts a. 1. With n and nn The Circumlocutions with The Negative Adjective 364 im-. /3. The Order Emphasis. In general Enclitic Conjunctions 318 319 Non-enclitic Conjunctions —322 323 —326 — 331 —333 —335 THE SENTENCE. With the Substantivized Verb With the Passive Participle With the Adjective nt'i — 393 —399 400 401 —404 392 394 Page I7i TABLE OF SIGNS BIBLIOGEAPHY i94 . 6. 332 The Nominal Sentence with pw 334 of the Sentence. 8. c. XIII §§ Conjunctions. a.CONTENTS. Without Introduction With ir. tm-. . . y. 384 386 — 385 — 391 — 383 f. Interrogative Sentence 356 —363 — 372 Negative Sentence. Clauses. Kinds of Sentence. 3. b. c. a. b. a. Ir-. . )3. . m. The Simple Nominal Sentence 327 The Nominal Sentence Introduced hy iw and wn. Dependent and Substantivized Temporal Clauses Conditional Clauses Relative Clauses. Words 336—342 343 In geneial y. a. b. of 2. a. 373—377 378—380 381 d. . /3. e. c. Without Connective y. C. a. The Nominal Sentence.

FIRST PART. Examples of the Royal Titularies Examples of Grave Formulae. 28* 1. Story of Sinuhe Story of the Eloquent Peasant 17* 2. . 40* 42* GLOSSARY . From the From the APPENDIX. Canalizing of the First Cataract 3* I. 1.XIV CONTENTS. 2. 0. From the Address of Thutmosis' to the Priests of Abydos 3. 2. 1. 4. 37* 39* . A Writing of Thutmosis' I. 4* 6* Medicinal Receipts Cosmetics and Domestic Receipts 8* 11* From the Proverbs of Ptah-hotep SECOND PART. to the Authorities of El- phantine. Pace EXP]RCISES FOR READING. 3.

: Wni Papyrus Westcar (Bibliography Be). n. Pyramid Texts (Bibliography Bf).ABBREVIATIONS. 17*). RIH. Eouge. Isq. Auswahl (Bibliography Ba). Math.: Sinuhe (Exercises for Beading p. 1882.: Mariette Abydos (Bibliography Bd). d'Ab. : : . Brugsch. fiir agyptische Sprache (Bibliography C. ed. Ab. : Wb. Hdb. : Butler: Papyrus Butler (Exercises for Heading p. : : Siut: Griffith. . Peasant Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Exercises for Reading p. Leps. Inscriptions hi§roglyphiques (Bibliography Ba). e. Eb. Mar. NaviUe (Bibliography (AZ. Una: Inschrift des Westc. Pyr. Bf). 3in. or Merenre': Pyi-amid of Merenre' (BibUography : Bf). Mar. Lepsius. Leipzig 1868.: Middle Empire. Mastabas (Bibliography Bd). Coptic Grammar.) W.: Eisenlohr. Ausw.: New Empire. : Coptic. Cat. Mar.).: Papyrus Ebers (Bibliography Be). Old Empire. Worterbuch (Bibliography Ab). masculine. 28*). L. Steindorff. Brugsch.: Late Egyptian. : Copt.: Totenbuch. e. Mariette. LE. Inscriptions of Siut (Bibliography Bd). or Prisse: : Pepy I.: Mariette. Pyramid of Pepy I. C. Mast. Catalogue des monuments (Bibliography Bd). Totb. Papyrus Prisse (Bibliography Be). M. Gr. : : P. AZ.: Zeitschrift Br. 28*). Die agyptische Gi aberwelt. Br. Denkmaler (Bibliography Ba). Feminine.: Lepsius. m. LD. Mathemat. m. Handbuch (Bibliography Be). (Bibliography Bf).

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[of the middle empire and the Late-Egyptian . gramm. \ . 3. The Egyptian language is related to the &c. The language of oldest monuments belongs C. the employment of which as the learned. mitic languages (Hebrew. Pe- form (found in the so-called "pyramid texts") are noted in the remarks "A" under [the different paragraphs. the po- )ular language of the new empire the most important livergences found in this period are noted in the reErman. literary language continued into culiarities of its oldest Roman times. 2. Aramaic the East-African languages (Bischari. Somali and others). as far back as the fourth millennium B. the language: The Old-Egyptian^ the oldest language treated in this book.).INTRODUCTION. and did not entirely die out until three centuries ago. Egypt. Galla. and to the Berber languages of Northits Africa. The Middle-Egyptian^ the popular language . distinguish the following chief periods of 2. Arabic. We 1. Seto 1.

It is more fully treated in: Erman Sprache des Papyrus Westcar (Gottingen 1889) and Erman. last The Demotic^ the popular language of the pre-Christian centuries. *4.2 INTRODUCTION. &c. Coptic^ The the Cf. 3. Cf. Since the idioms cited. from 1 — 4. Brugsch (Berthe language of — of course obsolete. grammar. 1880). is very large. Christian the Coptic Egyptians written with Greek letters. though only about 500 are in frequent use. It is therefore necessary. 2. which I hereafter cite as "C". lin 1855) 5. Hieroglyphic writing consists of pictures of men. by Steindorff. Neuagyptische Grammatik (Leipzig ^.. 1. their number 13. to acquire a knowledge of Coptic. The alphabetic and syllabic signs of §i5 33 — -35. written in a peculiar ortho- graphy. IN GENERAL. and the determinatives of § 47 are sufficient at the start for . § 14) the Coptic affords the only possibility of understanding the structure of the Egyp- i tian language. 3. animals. marks "B". (cf. — Only one who is already proficient in Old-Egyptian and Coptic should venture into Late-Egyptian or Demotic. plants. parallel with this book. even for the- beginner. "Grammaire demotique". ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. are all written without vowels.

for it reasons of convenience we always write direction. could V only be written as follows 1 t "^ l arrangements like )e <:::> barbarous. nevertheless. Caligraphy demanded that a number of conti- 7. The frequent abbreviation ^:=^ | mBC-hrw or ] "justified" is preferably written |. inscription is is to be read from the right or the easily determined figures. would the present day we do not always A* ilosely follow this caligraphic law but to the Egyptian . in the latter Whether an left. 1. by the heads of the animal and face human which always toward the beginning.ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. almost the only ones used in both positions are the especially 'requent signs <«=> or 'cf. 5 — 7. the other signs he will best learn through usage. The signs stand in part vertically as M j H^' ^• in part horizontally _. A Ci "great" and ^^-^ or } § 47). the beginner. The writing properly runs from right rative purposes) to left. IN GENERATi. and 5. guous signs should together form an approximate rectangle. only exceptionally (when employed for certain deco- from left to right.pf--rr . Hence the words "nearest friend" rpCfi "hereditary prince". — At . smr tvQ'i and d /?s "praise".f_ <cz> 'wwvv ^^.

and should especially familiarize thimself with the abbreviations for the different birds there employed. hCh "to play" and rmt_ "man" \shc. \ J o i^&c. when written upon Egyptian paper. 9. 8. he sometimes departed from the correct orthography. rate writing We have accustomed ourselves to contrast these abbreviated hieroglyphs as a sepa- — the so-called "hieratic" — with the in- writing of the monuments. From the earliest times the individual signs were very much shortened and rounded off. For example. 1. 4 it ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.^ . he wrote for P sCJi "prince". was so important. only in large ornamental inscriptions.^=_ hft. *8. in most cases it is regarded as sufficient to outline them in a con- ventional manner with a few strokes. — were unpleasing. ^ r^. Similarly ^^ often written for the rvt more correct but unpleasing and for 5^. than are presented by our printed and written . This is however correct. It is customary to sketch the hieroglyphs exactly. 9. The beginner should take as his pattern practically the writing in Brugsch's Dictionary. for they have no other points of distinction letters. because the correct writings ° L " K'X- Jl' is "^—-^ ^<. that out of respect in almost all cases for it. IN GENERAL.

em) is as follows: . -2. out of which the Demotic (cf. Ideograms. which represent a certain word. 12. 5 A knowledge of the Hieratic is not an immediate necessity for the beginner. It was this cursive writing. The two hieratic writing is subdivided further into 10.2. its e. fall into three classes ac- 11*. a more angular uncial. which often contracts an entire word into one ligature. THE ALPHABET. for ori- ginal determinatives pass over into ideograms original ideograms into syllabic signs. but are also very often employed for another the word having same consonants 3. to indicate meaning in a general way. Phonetic signs. a. 10 — 13. in which the individual signs remain for the most part separated. i. PHONETIC SIGNS. signs placed after a word. varieties. arrangement of which is The alphabet (the mod- 13*. as the first. PHONETIC SIGNS. The hieroglyphic signs cording to their meaning: 1. and a more rapid cursive. As may be seen from the table of signs these classes are often not to be sharply defined. § 2. which are alphabetic or syllabic. THE ALPHABET. 4) finally grew. So-called determinatives. a. and 2.

Since the tw »ew empire also written for w. C. but by means of the Coptic (cf. PHONETIC SIGNS. 14*. § 15) and . Our transliteration of these signs must be regarded only as an approximate equivalent of the respective sounds. 14. THE ALPHABET. «. i II (Eagle) © 1 t (Reedleaf) ('Ajin) ^— j^ __fl c -^ J ^f AAAftAA UP A k ^==^ k n O t h "1"" to be To these are further signs (j(]y added two secondary « (s is • B. / for and %/ for n.: 2.

(1 Cf. i and in many 16*.) "wine". «. copt. 7 the manner in which Semitic words are transcribed it is in Egyptian. (1^ It "father". cf. 6. ciation. ^^ irp and Rem. the later syllabic writing 70) is also used for indication of a vowel. §§ 15 on W ^ cf. . 1 AMOyN "Amon" (from *^mon. words always remained a EICDT. ^ — In ^^ "husband" (*ha^). The vowels. since the ^^V ^' n. just as in Semitic writing. and Egyptian words in Semitic. THE ALPHABET. a pronuny. g Al (cf. C§ 15 a. hoTT (from *ierp). which the later orthography indicates by "^ (cf. or (J imn copt. e. an established fact that all signs represent consonants. copt. 16. 15. But with most words it was early lost. ii. § 27). written ra ^^ ^^^ ®- *^"J^ ^^pt. i probably corresponds approximately to 15** But in many words n^ early became i. — In certain endings was used in the oldest orthography to indicate an i. § 27. [1 I etymologically corresponds to i.g- often indicated by the addition of uU m a.2. 18. PHONETIC SIGNS. g. exceptional use of some few con- sonants for the indication of certain vocalic endings cf. are not in- — For the — 16. ^. (1 e. § (cf. C§ ^^v 15 2). dicated.

® but both were so early we transliterate them with . w corresponds to Semitic Copt. in the syllabic orthography (Cf. — Cf. standing very near to merged into one sound that one and the same sign '22. § 70) and in a few endings. In certain words n also was probably pronounced an /. ^ is also used to indicate a vowel (something like u). ciation was very long preserved but in Coptic it has disappeared.8 2. Cf. Cf. but they were also so early merged into one sound that we transliterate them both with the same sign s. czszi] s corresponds to it our sh. C§ 8a. PHONETIC SIGNS. 19. 2. P h and • O h differ like arab. C§ 13. h. arab. n. ~~*^~ ^^^ ' were likewise originally different sounds. (something like cli M) and (something like German in ach)\ nevertheless in many words © h it appears to have also possessed a softer sound. ffl. oy. cf. as well as r. C§ 15 Rem. ». THE ALPHARET. *17. . C§ / 12bc. - — \:> a c corresponds to Semitic y and this pronun. 1. — ^-=> was originally a special sound. Qj? to the Semitic 20. for interchanges with s. 2i\^=>- /about corresponded to our English /". 18. C§ 14. S. 17 — 22.— Cf. <=^ like r^ represented aaaaaa C§ 8. 2j^ ru h is Heb.

however.27*. with y. is Cf. quently recurring grammatical ending it cannot stand at the beginning or in the middle of a word. e^i^i t3 : o in the at a very early s=5 Cf. Cf.2. 4. e. at the . very near to but not to be defined more closely. only. 23 27. Ill (In ms^Y (something like *mesioi "I bear". e. ^C3^ ^ to d. 'W^ a special modification of the same sound. In the it period <:=^> becomes t. g. s= But / is a special 24» modification same sound.24. e. for the fre. . Concerning its origin cf. e. WiUy msis it is i. *mesios "she bears").C§ <^ t 10. From the m. {1(1 still the indication of two (I's in the oldest 26*. had. S^ is a sound 23. (j. § 108. 9 z] k corresponds to p. written for in so far as this has remained (cf. corresponds to Semitic of the like f\ . end of word stems and it in certain endings N\ i' we then transliterate e. i. PHONETIC SIGNS. in most words already passed over C§ 11a. 2. sounded about period ints ^. p. cf. which must have sounded something like But in most words 'W^ very early passed into latest c=^3. C§ 11a. U. texts. THE ALPHABET. at. d corresponds for the most part to Semitic i? is 25. down 1. § 16). which must have n. so that coincides with ^ in Copt. is a sign used since the m.

b. many words i was also early lost. Such is a kind of <^:> r occurring as the final letter of words.10 2. some- times as second. Remarkable is the writing of [{'=' it "father" (copt. sm^m In with sm9 "kill". are expressed by a combination of several. holies". is 28. ssp and §p "receive". EIODT) which since the oldest times appears also as c. SYLLABIC SIGNS. cf. which interchanges with <^^^^(1. 32. k:$m and rv^hi "hall of km^ "create". s. sometimes as third consonant. C. PHONETIC SIGNS. t also. Ami tvh:^ "co- lumn" and columns" &c. PHONETICS. 28 —32. A shtn further interchange is ss. for which a sign wanting. ssp. wh^h with wh^ "seek". syllabic signs were also used which. phenomena appear sometimes with 30. [1 many i and is written (1 and further the combination a- and for initial 29. Along with these occur forms like km:$m with "create". very § 157. t^m and mi "pleasant". g. ss and ss9 also hs sh. e. b. Along with the simple consonants. and and hsm "holy of 31. according to § 40 have become I . ^^ it i produces In many words stands. SPECIAL POINTS IN PHONETICS. The weakness of the breathing peculiar phenomena. SYLLABIC SINGS. Certain sounds. (I — Similar and s^i "wise".

w are almost as frequent as 34*. SYLLABIC SIGNS.2. 33. writ „anoint" &c. really an ideogram for mn "rethe main". The syllabic signs in . i^ y mS #^i tB ^ &i LToTsi r^^tS Of these kB and occur also in syllabic writing all (^C3:^^^^5^^^^) occasionally also hB\ with others the syllabic sign must be used. whose second consonant is 33*. the alphabetic writing may also be used: . PHONETIC SIGNS. C. i^^^^. really an ideogram for wr ''great". i. The ^^. list of hieroglyphs. To be noted are: --« {] TV^ l^vs I *^ sB U« O t^ J. are of importance for the beginner. syllabic signs. 34. for such for syllables the most part must be written with these signs. For further examples cf. the The rare ex- ceptions (like jn^ in s&i "door" and dhB "restore") phonetic conditions in probably indicate peculiar these words. however. 11 pure phonetic signs from original ideograms. wrs "spend time". Thus •^^. the above for these. mnli "wax" etc. appears as a syllabic sign in swri "drink". appears as syllabic sign in hsmn "natron". .

IDEOGRAMS. O K sun. concrete objects in some way suggestive of them are used Scepter I as ideograms for them: is the ideogram for Mi "reign". § 43). IDEOGRAMS. originally *36. . 37^ Since abstract conceptions and the like cannot be sketched. ^^^ ' ^^^' ^v ' ^^^^ ^^^' § ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ early used in many words as initial .12 3. (cf. v^^^ M wood. tQi ^ face. (cf. ^ . 35 — 37. § 133). frv nrv hw sw g7\ li sw and Sw JB^. § 102). The ideograms denoted the objects which they represent: tiTD pr house. lir © nt city.w (cf. 1^ m&c soldier. tb heart. rm 1 Note further the \ syllabic signs: (J perhaps IS^ il or sometimes also ^ (l- probably ri. the sign of the ending fiw for fi. ^^ Iw If^ *35. &c. incorrectly also 3. (like the sign for i) or %.

). according to the above remarks. The ideogram therefore denotes only the consonants forming the stem.3. and not in any a special vocalization of it. 38. e. Although. 13 § Staff of *i* Plant office for hrp "lead". nevertheless the Egyptians from the oldest times transferred signs to such words as accidentally contained the many same consonants. used as the arms of upper Egypt for rs "south". g. An ideogram word but "cities". also for all forms derived from it. ^ to "shoot". Sacred falcon for Hr Target for st "God Horus". likewise. IDEOGRAMS. its used not only for one specific 39*. words belonging to the same stem written with the may properly be same ideogram. is used for all forms of the verb Mi "reign" and the substantivs Mi "ruler" Mif way "ruler" (fem. ^. In a few cases more than one sign are found united form one ideogram. . without belonging to the same stem. © all not only for nt "city" but also for the plural as well as the adjective [ ntvt nt'l "urban" and forms. only 40*. as _y£^ ')^'^nn "this" is sm^rvt'i "the uniter (of Egypt)" etc. 38 — 40.

g. occur much more frequently than words like "lute. — Many of these signs were further transferred to so many words that they eventually became purely phonetic syllabic signs. 42. in the merging together of the signs . the original con- crete meaning in the case of many such ideograms was therefore nearly forgotten. Thus. flute. many cases however where a double value it apparently occurs has been caused by the subse- quent merging together of two originally different signs. son. Since words like "good. truth. In this manner ideograms for stract all sorts of ab- conceptions were obtained. goose. &c. e. ^^^ rvr "great" 1^ pB "fly" &c. A e. few ideograms really have double values. to pr "go out". hpr "beetle" si "goose" • ?: H hpr "become". become. g. 42. [3Z: pr "house" transferred r-^i-. "rest"'. great" &c. g. IDEOGRAMS. htp "offering" transferred to htp T 1 nfr "lute" transferred to nfr "good". thus 41. Cf. dove" &c. Thus e.: 14 3. § 32seq. wr "dove" 91 wr "great". mia "flute" •>i n mic^ "truth". 41. beetle. n 55 55 si "son". so ^ which In is employed for tpt "head" and dBdB "head".

rnj)t -^ kmC | tr "south". . mine the correct form of a difference in: * Note especially the S I I 5^. The following frequently recurring ideograms are differently formed from "go". differentiated are: l\ In "bring". one sign its origin. 44. with both meanings found &c. which are regularly confused in the inscriptions. [^ sm s^^ is il "come". 44..3. A similar confusion of different signs occurs so 43. it is frequently. i ist "troop".^and^n^. that o/ten no longer possible to detersign. ~7T" sh "walk through".. /H hr "below. "rob". IDEOQRAJIS. '^^^ &s "bring in". kd "build" &c. 2\ nst "throne". "time". in which one sign of going separated into different Similarly ideograms by the addition of consonants. "I j "year". 15 () and Y? 0116 of which meant hrp "lead" and the other () shm "mighty". 43. [j all others: J\ Irv i "go". rnp "bloom". | mdw "speak" ^^and^/)>. j4j rs "south". hrtv "voice".

45 — 47. like that of the tree in l<zz>0 hr "tamarisk". B. the writing. which every one recognizes of himself. DETERMINATIVES. after the more special. ^ still. animal. (l^/^w. Irt "do". The determinatives are At a far rarer in the pyramid texts than later. plant. they are not used. e. ^ man. DETERMINATIVES. which their word denotes g. woman. ^^px 's:s==' nish "crocodile". m A. latest part of the Egyptian 45 The determinatives. which far more numerous indicate only in general the (I meaning of their word. bird. g.16 4. ^^ Tvr "great". . later period there is an inclination to attach several determinatives to a word . Note especially: P» goddess. "in" &c. with very frequent words. A ject few determinatives represent exactly the obe. in this case the more general (of. 4. the determinative of heaven and of crocodile in the words ^p^„heaven" and *47."tobe". insect. are intended to facilitate the reading. revered person. But those determinatives are and important. § 47) comes *46. ^ "^ ^people.

:

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

48. 49.

17

Q
s;
AAAAAA AAAAAA

tree,

o

o

dust,
fluid,

(late

V)

land,

S

water,
foreign

J\

go,
see.

r\^^^ desert,

.^^

and,

^
city.
1

what

is

done with

©
1

the mouth,

house,

^
"^

(late

;

n)

that

barbarian,

which demands strength,
little,

9

(late e) flesh,
fire.

bad,

1

.-^•^ abstract.

O

time,

When

a determinative

is difficult

to write, espe- 48,
is

cially in manuscripts,
St "Isis"

an abbreviation \

used,

e. g.

i
m.

for

jj

^ ^•
still

Exact scribes, especially those at the end of the 49*
e.

distinguish

closer difi'erences

in

deter-

mination. They
to render its

mark a determinative with
e. g.
^

m, in order

meaning general,

L^™9 B^r "roast" but (1^ /w/ 2^0\^ pnw "mouse" but "l^"^ Cwt "cattle"
"flesh"

'^T /«rr# "flower" but (1

^

"^

1

Brman,

_^o "^^'iAr^'onionY?).
III

^

Egypt, gramm.

:

18 50.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

50. 51.

These scribes further add the sign
minative, in order to restrict
its

I

to a detere. g.:

meaning,
1^

""^^^O rk "period of time", but
^
'

%^®
Ji
I

hrw "day",

''°\ ' ^"^s/Wi^^e "northern", but "~^il[l'^ mry? "dyke".
B.

-^nn^
e.

In the

n. e. these

additional

signs

1

1

1

and

I

are often

incorrectly employed.

—To the m,
^
.).

belongs the rare practice of

occasionally furnishing the determinatives

@ and fw^ with the

feminine ending
"city',,

t

(^'

as if they

were the substantives nt

smt "land".

*51.

The stroke must be regarded
determinative which
are written with
determinative,
is

as a special kind of

added to substantives, which

only one sign and have no other

e. g.

^^ dw
°

"mountain",

"^^

ri (?) "mouth",
si "son",

c "arm",

'^'

or (with the feminine ending
dt "hand",

i):

smt "desert" etc.

Nevertheless the usage varies

much here and two

ex-

ceptions to the law here given are found in all texts:
J^

hr

1.

"face", 2.

"upon" with

|

even when the

word

is ~~^

^

a preposition, not a substantive.
s

"man" with

|

notwithstanding the other]

determinative which follows.

cf.

also § 58.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

tt.

IN GENERAL.

52. 53.

19

A

determinative

is

frequently transferred from 52*

one word to others, which have the same consonants,
even when
it

does not suit their meaning.
is

Thus,

e. g.

the syllable kd

written

:

\

^

or

I

because of
Ih "to thirst"

kd

"circle"
(1

and kd "make pottery";

written:
written:
A.

\^^^ because oilh

"'calf";

^^"eternity"
etc.

^1

because of dt "landed property",
is

Especially to be noted in the old texts

the writing
flesh

O

twf "he

is"

which has taken on the determinative of

from hcf

"flesh".

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
a.

IN GENEEAL.
trans- 53.

The orthography, which experienced great
often arbitrary

formations in the course of time, determines in an

manner how

far phonetic signs, ideo-

grams, and determinatives must be employed in writing
different words.

The most widely spread and import-

ant system of orthography which
as classic,
is

may be

designated

found

in the greatest purity in the
e.
;

manu-

scripts of the

m.

with this system the beginner

should seek to make himself as familiar as possible,
before he approaches texts in another orthography.

B*

:

20

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

b.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.
of the p3ramid texts
is

54. 55.

A.
able,

The orthography

exceedingly varidifficult

and renders the understanding of them very
it is

indeed;

but for us

of importance, because

it

often

—even though not
classic
o. e.

consistently

— distinguishes

grammatical forms which the

orthography leaves undistinguished.
seeks the greatest possible brevity.

—The orthography of the

b.

OETHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGEAMS.
of

54«

The majority
gram, to which
is

words are written with an ideoits

added an indication of

pronun-

ciation in alphabetic signs.

Whether

all

the conson-

ants of the

word are

to be written, or only a part;

whether they are to stand before or after or on both
sides of the ideogram, is decided

by usage for each

separate word.
the usage
(cf.

The following paragraphs present

of the classic orthography.

— Caligraphy
is

§ 7) is

moreover often the motive

for the selection

of a given writing.
*55.

Usually
added.
is

it

is

only the final consonant which

To

biliteral
e.

ideograms the

final

consonant

subjoined,

g.:

^^J\ pr
r\\ms

"go out",

^^yv,
t

^h "go in",

"to bear",

'^
^1

M "white",
e,

to triliterals the final consonant,

g.

^
f

tipr

"become",
"stand",

^7\^

^-'^

T | ^^^ "lay", '^ rvSd "green", I

:

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.
last

56. 57.

21

or also
e. g.:
/->

— but more rarely — the
Cn?i "live"
n "1

two consonants,

AAAAAA

-¥-

n l<zi> rvsr "strong".

T

nfr "good".

More
§

rarely all the consonants are written,
hi)

e.

g.

:

56*.

\'^ZE^

"feast",

"times" (germ. Mai), (^ ^^

and

still

more

rarely only the initial consonants^ as in:

^ ^
n^ J
A.
frequent,

llgrg "sieze possession",

s&i "star".
AAAAAA a^^^ AAAAAA

In the oldest orthography writings of just this kind are

H
nfr "good",
o

Q

cf. e. g.

:

t

and

t

^

a

ChC

"stand"',

^

a

n 9

M
§t

AAAAAA

ChC "palace",
'

"Lord'' instead of the

classic writings T

v

n

'

m

'

^—^

Mt^.

Finally in some isolated cases the initial conson-

57.

ant of the ideogram or
placed after
it,

its

entire phonetic writing

is

e, g.

W'
J
A.

^(J "to

command",

^^

dmd

"unite",
"'^^ sick",

jj[ ur-3 Cr "storehouse", ?

^^^^^''

mA
This

'"^
is

"pyramid".
remnant of the oldest orthography;
in the

also a

pyramids such writings are frequent.

Jl^ ^ %. § '^^ ^ for "^^ ^ i/jf "field". without ideograms. healthy". pr "house". ' nb "every". n^^(l^ A.: 22 *58. ^ Jmt "woman". '^^nir ^ mh nb "lord". ^ rn "name". mrvt "mother". All words for which the orthography possesses no ideogram are written with purely phonetic signs — i. St "Isis". 59. "fill". OETHOaEAPHY. . These are in part very frequently recurring words. Note the rare cases v\ | for v\ h ^^ - wd:$ "sound. 5. ^ ss (?) "scribe". °'=s. 58. In the oldest orthography the purely phonetic writing very frequent. 59. as: — except — are left without any pho- ^ I hr "face". PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. which also occur occasionally later. like: (1^ ^^^ tw "to be". ^ ^ ^ ht "house". "god". C. e. iM m 2i \\\ msC "armv". V ^^'^ (] l\ "^^^"' »^^^ "lion". is STvrl "drink". PUBBLY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. etc. Only a few especially frequent ideograms the abbreviations of § 67 netic addition. &c. and the feminines ^ I c.

originally ideograms. rvn. g. C. written. employed without phonetic addition. It mostly the ms. But in many cases the initial consonant also is written (and such syllabic signs are thereby dist- inguished from the real ideograms. PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. § 56) e. e. mn^ ^^ &c. the pronunciation is is added to them in the is same way. g. thus 6i. '^ hr. cf. those derived from sub- stantives then receive a stroke according to § 51. e. in which the subjoined i be inserted within the syllabic sign. according to § 40. As a rare writing note that of the syllabic sign is ^— ^ w'^ • Y>. and is to 'Ij— p^^O f^n-l. 60 — 62. .: : 5. 23 Since the syllabic signs employed in these writings 60*. were. g. final consonant which mr. LJ ^j>^ [q] 5J>^ O ^^ . A few syllabic signs moreover are often also 61*.* * according to Sethe. OKTHOGRAPHY. ^ tirv. in which the phonetic value indicated by means of another frequently recurring sign for nw. Note the writing of the words mln and si^ : [1 62. sS-i.

for for hCp "Nile". ABBREVIATIONS. ^ for sm^ "land". Further with many phonetically written words a consonant regularly or often omitted. d. ORTHOGRAPHY. them from the connection: Hi for the plural sr{w) "princes". Almost all grammatical changes left is therefore which take place within a word are hmrvt plur. 63. v^ s^ for f^sr "desolate". d. n for sms "follow". the grammatical endings are also often omitted. Note especi- ally the frequently used words: S ^ ^_^ for llf h ^ "father". But further. g. Since the Egyptian writing was naturally intended only for such as were familiar with the language. °|| for c^i "correct". woman" is &c. 3 ^^37 for hmt «&[^] "every 64.24 6. the Egyptians omitted much as dispensable. ^ « ^ Jl ^^^ ^^- "°^^"''5 oQ j] for htm "to seal". e. "woman" written J) i (that is without indication of the tv). 63. where will perceive it is supposed that the reader himself n. of J) Jimt unindicated. ^^^ ^ for hrd "child". . ° ^ for ptr "see". which seemed to them self-evident. 64. mr "stone". ABBREVIATIONS. for iht "thing". .

hale.. &c. 65 — 67. ^^^ for d |l I for rpCtt "hereditary prince". 1 0| for nhh "eternity".5. titles &c. Further. "offering". Here belong also the cases where only its second 65. A. titles In frequently used arbitrary "prince". abbreviations occur. I () for shmt "name of a goddess". consonant is added to a of § 55. are: c^ for Iao^ tt "father".^ for shsh "walk.sr "strong".. ^^'^ '^"^^ for l<=r>«. Belonging to the earliest period. the bene- diction nr for Cnh wdB snb "living. tr'i "be- longing to". . n &c. (a "o" I for I ^^^ oD I ^^^ "to reign". d. which 67. the old divine names. run". jf triliteral ideogram in violation e.. ORTHOOKAPHY. also \\ "^^ for \\ \\ "^^ iwf "flesh". are written with only an ideogram are abbreviations. healthy". <^II> for (J .: I for stn "king of upper Egypt". 25 '^ for dfS "food". like: ^^^ tvp rv^rvt "opener of ways" (a divine name). ABBREVIATIONS. but sometimes occurring later also. g. ® n T. like: still more hCfi 66. and formulae.

e. there developed along with the usual writing. words which desig- *69./. 70. 68 — 70. mi RC "like ReC". Finally. is very often so abbreviated that only its deter- minative s Q is inserted. nht "strong". g. INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS. a syllabic orthography. a word which obvious from the connec- tion. Toq"^] 68. priest". formulae. for O ^ ^"^^^^^ is hCwf-RC «his diadems are those of ReC" (royal name) &c. I Sci 1 5 J}n-ntr Hkt "priest of the goddess Hkf". nate the king or a god are inserted in the writing before the others belonging thereto. 1 "^^ sB I stn "son of the king". trvi "statue" &c. for ^^— ^ for l I S>j kBt "labor". e. UNUSUAL STYLES OF ORTHOGRAPHY. e. y '^ hn-ntr "servant of the god. which nevertheless was only used for the writing of foreign words. D e. g.^ It consists of proper names &c. in reading. In titles. UNUSUAL STYLES. the correct order must of course be restored. names &c. INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS.: 26 e. (For the most important cases the table of signs). i oQ /. the syllabic signs . Since the m. | for s"^"^!! cf.

27 treated in §§ 33 TV. c^:^ drv "moun- tain^ represents d. in which ideograms serve as simple consonants. e. er and en. 71. mt. —A summary 1872). RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION. The f_TV-pB-'irB for )'r^(i) the Hebrew nsb "scribe" &c. Sportive methods of writing. syllables ^. e. determinatives and un- precedented signs are used as ideograms. imate indication of the vowels e. g. are found as early as the m. 72. 6. The orthography so often leaves the phonetic form of the words uncertain. ^C^^ \\ for HI msdmt „cosmetic". 71. 6. wherein 2j) as determina- tive of m5 "child" represents this syllable. \\ mrvt "mother" first the syllable — But this wanton method attains importance from the fact that such an orthography gradually superceded the old hieroglyphs in the Greek period. 72. cf. seem to correspond to and j'TT ^ employed therein. — 35 and of other rv . s=> ^ A^ ^. that a transliteration free from some arbitrariness is impossible. UNUSUAL STYLES.: /. syllables in i and The sounds i and evidently serve as the approxof. One should accustom himself to the following rules . g. of these signs may be found inBru^sch. Lauttvert (Leipzig Verzeichniss der Hieroglyphen mit RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION.

to express poa . only those and grammatical endings should be supplied which occur in parallel cases really written out. texts of the ra. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. (§ 29. Hence 2. a.28 PRONOUNS. when in doubt. a. e. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. already become n. Since most s=>'s and '^"^'s according to §§ 24. 1. in the m. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 1. 30) Words in which the order of consonants changes should be written. 25 had. The personal which are subjoined to tl noun. Hence nk ^\ according to § 133 but 3. in and and d should always be transliterated in cases of doubt. when this reading is phonetically written outj In compound words the component parts should fn be separated by a hyphen: "Ramses". t -^li and ci^^i. e. 65) (§ 63). *73. e. Hence first mi andj only i^m 4. '1 v^ R(^-ms-sw PRONOUNS. 73. restored. j j| w^r but | <zr> nirt} In the case of omitted consonants (§§ 64. the prepositions and the verb. with the form r) . PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 1. in which they oftenest occur. '^-=^ and I and d only employed when s=> and are actually written out. suffixes. and rather too little than too much should be imi.

Sing. g. e. 1. S'^"^ mr/t "thou rdk (copt. g. e. r:z::y(> 2. a woman or a god speaks. 194). pATK) "thy foot". pAT "fuy foot" C 5). especially in the «-form of the verb it (I. e. 1 sg. sdm-k "thou hearest"). sometimes unindicated here (cf. \ I 3. ®' g- ^^ ^ or ^^Ji is ^^ "^^ Ji left according s^l as a man. . n ( 2 m. lovest". down it mostly indicated by determinatives. A. later also. f. ^^ f (--) . falls After consonants the suffix later cf. in the o. it is always left l^mt\l\ unindicated.= P V/WWVA /^~^ 5«[/wsAAA» 1/ (O) n A/\AAAA •* 3 m. § also.77. from the m.1. ^-'^^'^tn ' ' ' jaa^aaa j I I . away (e. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. pr-k "thy house". The pyramids aways write as and this writing occurs an exception B. I They are written after the determinative of the e. word to which they are subjoined. is To "my office". 29 session or the subject (e. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. g. read Nevertheless it "my son". is according to the Coptic an i 74. f. tt. c. c. c. according to the classic orthography are: c. g. g. hr-k "upon thee". copt. 74. suff. XODI "my head"). 1 ^ ^^ (^'^) k t Plur. glj ^^^z::^ The (e.

j .* "between them both" **«*« ] is still to ] A. The pyramids write such a *^- — [l fc. were early superceded where we would expect the 77. sg. s= t of the 2 sg. ImitTV-sni o^'''^ be found. very strangely take the dual ending i. when they are subjoined to a noun in the dual or having the dual meaning. cf C§ 50. suffix TvCrftfi ""his two| snnrv/'i "his A 79*. g. al^ In the m. tt. THE PERSONAL PEONOUN. f. On the other hand the suffixes of the singular. legs". f. 2 du. are d 3\ and in Copt. occurs even for more than one person. []' snl. 75 — 79. 1. Cw?/'«"his two arms". Late writings of the t 2 sg. g. often used for the neuter of it" . 76. These suffixes are not used as object. 'V ^^i'C^^^ second". 78. sg. pi. 3 plur. 7. sptw'iki\ "thy two lips".* 30 75. B. . though it is not always written out. attached to infinitives (e. f^AA^^f^tnt. The 3 m. The suffixes of the dual by those of the plural. e. e. ^ v::.. nevertheless "ir^. this suffix has lost the (-E). The pyramids have 3 du. is sometimes and the 3 "it". PERSONAL SUFFIXES.g. t . e. "^1 hrs "on account the 3 f. f. . 5. and 2 ready passes over into o nevertheless £= and jlJ . — are often written later also. Nevertheless] as possessive suffixes * Todth.

3 c. and the 2 m. are: Sing. on the other hand regularly as object. 383). almost only in a certain few cases § § 166. with the suffixes in the plural. 31 ° ^[j^l"" /?r Ithk "when they draw thee" lit. "at thy drawing") they represent the object to our grammatical sense and the Egyptians themselves later conceived them as such. ^^J n III tn 2m. ^. 80.\\c^ They are still employed (cf.t=>^tTv. are already tw and tn. which externally at least are identical 80*. c. e. '^-^^^ 2. as subject. 1 c. AftAAAA tn aaaaaa I 1 1 {1m or Inl) 3m f. is is fji written in the in the o. 81. verb are infinitive. 1. THE PERSONAL PROHOUN. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. 328. even when the ^ not written. Its forms. is pi. . b. ject suffixes in Copt. '^^ ?v2 Plur. The 2 m. SW 3. c. C§ 174). The 1 sg. C. b. trv 81. mostly made with the these suffixes have therefore become real ob(cf. B. -The 3 f. e. the copt. Since the forms of.i::^^tw f. I I ' /WWVA^^ III III W St SI Neutr. 369.1. of course always to be read «.

A. 2 f. wll. e. a. The pyramids write the 1 sg. c. § 350). C.32 1. only e. down. by means of Inwk AAAAA^ In (cf. 83. For the tn. LATER ABSOLUTE PEONOUN. from e. They are: c. It is used with decided preference and a number of persons (cf. Plur. tm and The form \\^ the 3 the f. These forms are only employed as emphatic sub- and correspond to the emphasizing of the sub- stantive Sing. sTvt. v\ 2 (1. they have two forms tw and kw. Of these. sn is almost entirely superceded St by it. ? 2 m. f. like pnt. stt. i ^^ swt is be found in the m. "it") about". *84. f. and for the *82. 1 c. the pyramids have also further forms of these pronouns which they employ with special emphasis. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 2 m. pi. the pron. ntf 1 3 c. "it". 3 still to 1 sg. fwt. I ntsn ^ nts . nttn o '^^ -^ (later n^^w)| Zm. ject. 1. Along with the above. st perhaps originally belonged to but it is nevertheless regularly used. f. . LATER ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. 3 f. m. refer to § 76). oi ntk ntt {latter ntt) 2 AAAAAA g ) ^wvaaa c. 2 m. 3. g. time of the m. for neutr. may even Cf. Cnnsn "they turned themselves (lit. 82 — 84.

m. already ob- and are replaced by nn after § 91). Erman.. dsk "thyself". for "self"*. ^(3i(Xi' descends C§ 52). "himself etc. e. — In cere- Sin. t-. e.. There 1 sg. (hi "myself". 1 sg. in the (cf. The most common demonstrative "this".* pn [1 ^ f. J LD 1 1 1 ht in AAA^/W "this castle". Eg^pl. (J later an inclination to write the M^i. C.(cf. pronouns have descended. C§ 51. (i Iptn (ptn) The plural forms solete. 33 As may be seen. occurs rarely The word hC "body" with or -without suff. cf. Prom these forms the copt.2. m. . The word with the suff. 86. Ipn (pn) f. 103) the others consisting of a little syllable nt. t-. later becomes more frequent. still A. FORMS WITH MASC. WITH p-. the and the possessive B. (cf. m. a. In the pyramids they are is rare. — It always stands the substantive: I pr AAAA/VN j9n "this house". 85. g. d. this expression. J9-FEM. AAAAAA is: 86. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 66. AA/SAAA Plur. THE EXPRESSION FOR p| ds- "SELF". from which the copt. 2. are. granim. means "self. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. is an exceptional form. ^5/" B. Sing. § suffixes.

trvy In the archaic language m. pf. The usual later demonstrative sing. (properly p/?? //i?). WITH p-. f. In n. A. lost. . 2. m. — (like The pn plur. prv.pi). tw . O. "this prince"). it A. is "90. (lit. especially in direct address. o^ (J (1 occur. it with especial emphasis before the m pn gs "on this side". (^mw'i-n-sl. ipw f.! 34 2. The pyramids use substantive also. B. 88. 239. it still survives: sing. plur. the prince of Tnw" Iptw. t-. which also later written *^-=--. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. 334. in 3. ceremonial address : Ppy prv "o Pepy" prv n Tnrv ^'Cmwi- in apposition. lJX\i\ also (1 pwy. for "this" (following its noun) almost only in this one form and then only in the cases in §§ 237. In the later language it is entirely lost. m. is replaced by w/i. is m. 87 90. and are properly perhaps identical with the old 89. B. monious language it also follows proper names of persons. The old word i/" for "that" is sing. f. e. m. *87. § 93. 1^ \\ ^h^ P^f'i- It follows the substan- tive and often adds an implication of despicableness. In the pyramids f. The pyramids have also the plural ipf and also place § 86 A) before the substantive. hhB n-Sl. it is almost entirely The weaker word prv^ occurs 1. A. pw (also p. cf.

t^i which.^^ I ^^ properly a substantive. it Sin. 2 Bauer Westc. "this of peasant"). 35 pS. A. . § 113. Later the genetive § 86). § 94. this combi(cf. C* . The article is later c. ^^^^ "these n falls away: nn (4-4-) and AA/\A/W I I are AA/v^A^ I I incorrect writings for nn. | 4-4. 92. in ^ nw n 12. Usually replaced by ni. — also used as a substantive (jai pw Wslr Q/^^ "this Osiris") and then has also a plural. is always placed before the substantive: ^^^^ D/>^^^ It is is v"^ pi* S/drv "thi&_book". FORMATIONS WITH n-. b. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.* . f. the later demonstrative also pB'i TTAl (C§ 68) is descended from pB. i- — cf. "this". 5.* I ddnf nn "he said this"^ — But |j^[j|j it is for the most part connected by the genetive n with a following singular or plural: I I aaaaaa ^ nn n sht'i "these peasants"^ (lit. D v\ (older nn. . the plural is ^^ ^ cf. FORMATIONS WITH U: 91. as a substantive > \\) nn> it is used precisely like 92. developed from p^. &. In the pyramids B. nation replaces the plural of j9« B. differing from the others. "this": 91. pB does not occur. 32. means 75. o^.2.

serves § 90. The feminine has the ending 1. It more archaic I I than nn. ^^^^ plural ^^^ ^^ '^^ same way replaces the of/?/". B. like nst "throne". EXPRESSION OF GENDER. e. various inanimate objects. wCrt "leg". 20.?i (cf. The masculine and feminine are distinguished. . EXPRESSION OF GENDER. and denotes -t 95. % K^ the «i "this" is a substantive. AA/ViAA 95. 2 Eb. Here also the genetive n article is falls away wi. e. 5. e. SUBSTANTIVES. 113). in the n. 2. which are conceived as feminine. To the pyramids nB is still unknown. t Eb. g.36 NOUNS. a. 1. AAA/SA^ for the most part ''K^ § 113 B. as the plural of . it in the combination wi n with following plural. 1. B. NOUNS. "V ''^'^ /'^wT III wi n gmhrvt "these wicks" ^ A. 297. 108. also *94. 3 Siut I. a.. "this". § 87): is o WW n LA ntrw^ "These gods". g. the naturally feminine. 2. SUBSTANTIVES. replaces J| I I the plural of prv (cf. hence cf. In ^^' it is lost. w/j? n c^wt "those swellings (?)"^.

(] ^ ^^O^ lost. ^^^^£=3% Mntw Month. It is nevertheless only rarely with divine names etc. 97. is still A. 395. is always written. Expressions in the neuter. U. with substantives which denote a person and Q are derived from an adjective or verb: M+i hrvrrv ^^^^^^ "pauper" (from Q^^""^^^ ny J\ /?wr "poor"). 2. the ending was probably already -^.: [I vx^^wpw Anubis. like. In the pyramids this ending B.«sw "follower" (from sms "follow") cf.1. Itrw "stream" (pronounce *jotru. 96. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. more frequent. also §§ 282. Abstract conceptions. which 96. 4. 97. like stnyt "kingdom". The ending of the feminine. like ntt "that which". and the 5. In the n. e. chiefly 1. s. rhyt ''huma- nity". u. JmtC^) "evil". rv. with various substantives like c. 292.5 hnw CTZ] hnw "interior". D%>. The masculine originally had an ending was denoted by written. ?]\. 258. 37 3. like Cs^t "multitude". Collectives. SUBSTANTIVES. also those with n like ''-' Fioop). . especially "jar". Hnmrv Chnum. ^ V^ 3.

and only disregarded |n^ g in abbreviations (like | J for ht ntr "house of god").s 38 a. — The collective — It rmtt "humanity". ?^^ dnh = *denli . (HOn) "wine". ^ sm = *sm (cim) "herb". g. although they do not have the feminine ending. E. noun C§ 63 possess- ed various definite formations seq. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. place- The names of foreign lands. the feminine ending loses e its t. ^rn = *ran (oAN) "name". C§ 61). 98. :^ lrp=*ierp (TNg) "wing". is understood with them. like ^:z:^ v\ J^^s "Ethiopia" are treated as feminines. probably because smt "foreign land" b. 1 From the n. O K = (1 *reC (oh) "sun". e. and feminine substantives end in the fem. 99. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE.99.). at S=rr> I I is written almost without exception B. Hence often omitted in the n. ending is or a long vowel (cf. because they are for the most part distinguished only by different vocalization. I ^. . that the (cf. e. but these are not to be recognized in hieroglyphic ortho- graphy. We perceive from the Copt. FOEMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 6. which seems to have super- ceded the plural of ^ "^ rmf "man". down. or added in the wrong 98.

'^^'^^ ^-^^ spr = *spir (cnip) "rib". Hr "Horus". in m. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. SUBSTAKT1VE8. yt. <*. A ical large number of substantives l\ this others by the ending ending is probably ident- with the adjectival ending of § 132. f. . in the m. f. derived from 100. most cases these words have taken on a peculiar form in their orthography: in the o. ai. e. ""^ . with the numerous substan- m. So g. ui^ uit'^). w. The old writing of this ending. they end in m. 39 yC^ ^^^ "" *^orA (^(Dps) "night". wt (pronounce e. loi. ^%^ I trvt == *?«. 101. like ^w^ u flri "the one belonging to Horus" In (German "der Horische") from ^^. is found later only in proper names. QUI fl in most \v III sC'i "sand" (0)0)). figure". e. h. /'^^ snf = is *snof (CNOq) "blood". yt^ the question seems rather one of an i belonging to the stem. 1.: ningstar" II ^ "^ ^ Im^hw mrrvt (1 . 100. .. in the is older period the ending of the masculine cases not written: °.^(1 fl ^ Im^Jiy "revered" l\l\ci mryl "love". f.5^ (TOYa)T) "statue. On tives in the other hand. ?/. than of an ending.

. i 103. v\ tt-sio "the one belonging e. and the expressions. §35): I ^ All \ "ihst "scales" (from h^ "measure"). by means of a prefixed m. — A remarkable form ) the frequently recurring -^^ ^^ AAAAAA - wn m^c L (properly. . is true").=^^ m (of. this prefix written preferably with the syllabic sign . i. aaaaaa r\ r\ 102. wesen". 102. "place". A number is of substantives is derived from verbs e. msdmt "eye cosmetic" &c.40 1. 103. made with ^ in^ i. The prefix tl "belonging to" title A I is entirely obsolete. are perhaps old duals. nt-^ Note further the prefix (like the which is used German ". for abstract ideas {bw nfr e. \ b. . FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE.) to express the nature it is or practice of that to which prefixed {nt-hsb "Rechnungswesen") J . which is used like a substan- A. n probably: "it tive "truth". "good is place" "the good"). Those in rv'i like ^ i=^ Mwi' "darkness". Since the m. SUBSTANTIVES. A^/^A^A J n \\ nhs'i "negro" ? f] iJ U ^ nJjsyt "negress". follower of the king. it is nevertheless found in the to him".

df^to" victuals". repetition of phonetic signs. which follows the ideogram standing alone: !^i lions". (j. ntrrv "gods". 1 Mw "mil- 1 ntrrv "gods" (abbreviation of III.1. l<rz>^|^ ^ "princes" (abbreviation A. 105. by threefold hCt'iw writing of the determinative: =^wiM^wi 3. which follows the deter5r/y minative: of 2. Such writings also occur sporadically later. also X X U . 4. C. 1. EXPKES8I0IT OF NUMBEB. by means of i. "princes" (obsolete). orthographi. hkSw "charm". • www mnw 000 "monument". 2.). PLURAL.104*. There is often found in the pyramids also the threefold e. retained with some words). The plural of the masculine ends ^ tv (about 105" . ^^ ^^ ^^ .). SUBSTANTIVES. . III. is Apart from the ending. they (1 put o o o after purely phonetic writings: v° in ° ° ^^^^ "®^" cellent" (pi.). a. by a threefold writing of words written with | | j an ideogram: "houses". (more rarely ° °°). 104. by means of i. prw but still ^P nwt "cities" (archaic. 41 c. «. the plural cally indicated: 1. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. PLURAL.

e. Eb. 4.). e. The w is. that of the adjectives in ti ends later in ^\ (I lA ^W- "106. v'^ sww "herbs". e. B. g. The plural of the feminine ends in ^ rvt {*wetj C§ 1 109. j | [^^^ Miw "rulers". that ofl (1 (1 stn "king of upper Egypt" has the form 1 I ^ jv in stnyrv. On the plural of ""^^^ ^ cf. 106. the of the plural not written out: ^^ 3. for the most part. firv (cf. is consistently written in good manuscripts. C§ 109 seq. ^i. SUBSTANTIVES. With words which rv in the singular already is in V^.42 like 1.). Note especially: 1. § 97. '^|J^^w^&wr'necks"i 58. | ^ i dSd^w ntrtv ''gods". § it 133) take plural ending. ^ The adjectives in fi (cf. so words which contain no phonetic "heads". 116 seq. '^^. C. there are also plurals in (J (J y. § 133 those in write with the sign and 43. ^w cf. . 12. 61). end ''-' 2. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. PLURAL. which g. a. not written with signs. In the n. hrrv plural of hrw ''day". cf. probably because the word already ends i in the sing.

. which is still e. '^V'||i ^^P^^ "years"' (pMnooyp. With other words the determinative is repeated: thnwi "the two obelisks". so also in the dual there sign. (from ^ In '^ Cj^tvt "swellings (?)^ ^ c^t) &c. 108.1. 43 (horn nhbt). is orthographically indicated: repetition of the sign. SUBSTANTIVES. being usually written for Ijmrvt 3 i "women" &c. wwva^^^ mnti "the two ending is legs". is mrfi{l) "the two eyes". 107. 19. DUAL. 5 used or as a determinative in the oldest texts. by the with words t^w'i written with only an ideogram: "the two lands" -ending 2. 107* The dual 1. classic orthography these endings are nevertheless rather seldom written. is Just as there a determinative. by which the threefold writing of the ideogram or determinative is avoided. |3. nn III tit ^ ®'^'^\y ^^-^ % Cfi "the two members". i i was a corresponding or \^. DUAL. ill. — In this case the not written. CI P. from rnpt pOMNF). - Eb. — The written for the most part. 108. C. in the plural. g. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. \\ 1 Grave in Assuan. 108.

all Differently from our conception of is it. g. in the m. "600 men ed) from ^^ the brave". The singular often employed collectively. this But since the has i. is then also employed for every similar ending?. where we expect the is plural. . m. DUAL. e. meaning of I I. The older or writ^' ^Ol] V^ tvli^ I1h ov c^ tl\ from the m. 111. e. the plural used: 1. is The dual ending masculine is properly an i which. (for ~^). "from 111.44 Y- USE OF THE SINGULAR. USE OP THE SINGULAR. subjoined to the substantive. e.. 110. on. in joined to the masculine ending t. is 110. W ^(] v:^ U (j CrvU "the two arms". with abstract nouns. g. especially where e. the feminine to the feminine ending ings of these endings are m. m^^^ ^ h^f» 1 LU II 122 b. S^ | it gmhrvTi "the two door jambs". kn nb "every brave one"\ e. they are written ^ rv'l f. ^^^::^ nb "every" (selecti. PLURAL. PLURAL. \>v is forgotten and the value of a vocalic sign for the dual ending which "109. DUAL.

^^—^fkBrv "reward" &c. d. to 113. g. m. with names of material e. Plur. — cf. is only used of persons extinct. It early became d. ^^ . mw the "water"). instead of "^ n^ with following sq. first and the popular language of the m. sort are early treated as mntv "monument". are used nb "gold". The forms are: i>^. g. (cf. ^"Ix^nil tSw «heat". Sing. "^^^^. or things in 121. C§ THE ARTICLE. nbw "gold nuggets". 'Tk AAAAftA ^^ e. 113. begins to employ the demonstrative pi § 90) as an article. C§ 112 . definiteness or indefiniteness of a sube. AAAAAA B. 2. in the singular. The dual pairs. 112. like names of the metals. cf. — With words of material. THE ARTICLE. t^' '^"^ nB n ("the of ') with following singular or plural. The older language has no expression known us for the stantive.1. g. . this But plurals of singulars also (e. hrw "height". n \\ =0==D==D= Irpw "wine" &c. plural is written nB n. e. SUBSTANTIVES.. Since the m. the plural denotes separate pieces of the material. which. f. aaaaaa mw "water". 45 "time".

Before a substantive it denotes the possessive suffixes (cf. . OY C§ 122) grew out of this wCw n in the n. e. TSq-. e. The feminine is tByf^ the plural nByf n B. "any' The indefinite article wC copt. These the names of all parts of the body. the plural is nByf.^(1(1j^^^ for pSyfpr (really "the his house") ^^ prf "his house". would be used.. this (cf.) - tions . "possessive article" 116. further. cult the expressions of the and the kingdom. is the HEq-. in all cases. . NEq- C§ 55). (lit. e. . . In the n. THE ARTICLE. nCDq (cf. does not yet exist in the popular '^'^'^ tongue of the m. f 115. In the later language. 114 — 116. a few words occurring with especial frequence. This popular language of the m. the expression pByf "his" "the his") copt. many designations of localities. 4. 3. AAAftAA Jl fit — I o^^i wCt B.".) still mean (cf. "one of . originates from the combination of the article with the possessive suffixes. (fem. n " . in Copt. SUBSTANTIVES. d. 46 114. . are 1. the combina(masc. g.. a^^. \\ 'ww^ I rvCro "one of. e. 1. C§ 54). re- gularly omits the article with certain words. . The later "indefinite" article also. relation and replaces the possessive where the article § 73) e. 2. .

"every sun"). 1. krs "white stone. APPOSITION A. g.^ 2. 1 1 9. ikr shrw "excellent in plans". 49. 3. it specifies material: n ^ j 1^ i. COORDINATION. 2 Una 5. (dIIII fnpt 4 „in the fourth year".e./. 3. r j for designation of iime^ e. a sarcophagus". phagus of white stone . ^^ Inr a sarco- hd. APPOSITION AND COORDINATION. 47 e. THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. ^ rC nh "every day" (lit. °^ mht "northern". apposition. e. O n "at the time of". substantive follows an adjective in order to specify that to which the quality of the adjective refers: "^ ^ ^ /. belong the numerous cases where a 118. for designation of place in expressions like <^ hnt "in front". THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. stands after the one explained. . Here also. '^"'"^ The substantive stands absolutely: r\ very often tr 117. In an the substantive explaining 119. The following peculiar cases are important: 1. 117. it specifies locality : -^ ^ Jc^%\@ Tm{7) ' Sin. : in expressions with sp "time" %» 1 1 1 spw 4 1 "four times".

e. i. 120.^ e.48 /. The pyramids cooi'dinate also by means of the particle * which comes after the words to be connected. Jj i they are usually left unconnected: hmtvt t^yw ^^"^^ U U \>i^=fi> ^ "women and men".^ — Things which are /?r. A. rmt 600 "number. Leps. comes after the words by "or": m sn. a consisting of 600 men. Prisse 9. 22 jars of beer^. 9. 11. . 293. 1 AZ 29. 122 "^ a. to be closely connected [dC hr hrvyf "storm and wind") are joined by the preposition n sition ft ^ while the prepo- AAAAAA hnC permits each of the connected words to stand forth individually {Itf hnC mrvtf "his father. 120 — 121. Abydos'V i. « Sm. e. 22 jars". Abydos situated nomos 3. 14. 121. 9 S^ ) [It] ^^^hkt my 22 "Beer. Ausw. tsf. in the Bhdrv "Thinis. APPOSITION AND COORDINATION. ^\^^^^ number 120. 6 2 glut I. it specifies number and measure: i. of Thinis. Jisb. 3 LD H. as well as his mother"^). 8 d. 600 men". In rare cases r-prv repeated after every] word. 132^ 5 Westc. The expression for "or" dv^v r-jow (older to be separated D^) m nb. m hnms r-prv "as lord or as brother or as is friend"". In a series of coordinated words.

D . ." The connection between the two loose. 122 — 124. in other cases the two words 123*. g. THE GENETIVE. that they words is for the e. direct genetive is especially preferred: 124. a.. and are treat- On the other hand. After general designations of locality: ^^. Erman. THE GENETIVE. ^1 mr-shi'irv mnh "an excellent ants".-^-^ [l I may be ihrvt Is separated. n «=^ ^ n pw pr-hCfi "but they are not things of the prince's house" ^ where the genetive Ihrvt pr-hCfi is divided by is pw. "="^ » Siut I.-n-^. show that the former of the words as in so joined shortening. ed only by the position of the two substantives. is This older kind of genetive apparently express- 122*. This last case persisted the Coptic forms suffered down C§ 140). in which the governing word stands before the governed til It mil i-\ pr imn "House of Amon.: g. ^ramni. 49 g. ed as a compound word. a.. 2 Sin. g. (cf.^ overseer of peasinto the Copt. E^ypt. DIRECT GENETIVE. 244.2 B. most part so . ^ JlM^ M. in the combination cannot be separated. the ans^logous form of the Semitic "status constructus". The 1. e. 288. DIRECT GENETIVE.

It is formed by means of an adjective *m. are: 1 Sin. only the cases of § 123 are preserved. § 69.^ m m hrdwf "at the head of his children". "the priest belonging to of Amon" for "the priest Amon". This adjective agreed in gender and it num- ber with the noun to which belonged. pr "house". 125. rk hnf "at the time of his majesty". cf. On the written order of these words B. 1 ] p. g.z "king" and | «?r "god" are the T AAAAAA I governed words : I hmt stn "wife of the king". After general designations of time : ^\ O y m 3. ^"^cz^^^^ '§1 ^jS k. . 4. which. § 140.— 50 |3. ^^^ "overseer of si "son": ^^\ nT) ^^ the works". according to classic orthography. like mr "overseer". INDIEECT GENETIVE WITH n. its forms. cf. in Copt. e. INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH W. ^^37 nb "lord". The direct genetive was gradually superceded by the j later indirect. 78.^ 2. After certain frequently recurring words. *125. Where 1 '^ s/. according to § 135 means something like "belonging to".

§ 141. II. 3 Una 6 43. f. fj. INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH tl. the plural. sg. once 1 pi. also the feminine. C. This word early lost its inflection. m.j^ smmf "the first of his harvest. '^ nw. 2 5 Slut I. indirect genetive ?nust be used: 126. In the older period there was further a dual m. The old writings are: also ). Mar.: p. e. v\.) lost the dual. to designate material I hip CB ni sst AAAAAA C^ "a great offering tablet of alabaster. /WNAA/v nw {*niw). where we would ^'^ often employ an adjective: c^:?. ^ 1 * LD LD IT. nt {*nii). 138 d. cf. m. 24. nt {*nijvt. ^P^ ^^ to designate a part: "' ^ •'" . The 1. 310. and Since the LE. f.' s ni mSQ "a man of truth". mv'i. ^ I ^^^^ 111 5 ^^^ 3000 "an army of 3000. 126. A. 51 Sing. m. 149 d. to subjoin that which will more nearly define the noun. 122 b. m."^ 3. B. it first e. § 106). D ..^. A nt (in the m." 2. then (already in the popular language of the m. II. LD II. /wwv^ n {*ni) Plur. cf. Ab. like Copt."^ S v^ ^"^^ ni Kht'irv "the city of Coptos. aa^w\a n became an unchange- able particle.

note especially."^ ^. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. g.: common to substan- nfr "good' *wa/r (NOyqE). perhaps derived from verbal stems. a. ADJECTIVES. to express the idea of appurtaining to or hav- ing source in a place: ni ^^ aaaaaa jQ X ^ | Snd WSw^t "Acacia wood from Nubia". Cf. These adjectives. 1 Eb. a. had various forms also tives (cf. 2. ^^zz7 rib "every" *m& (nIM). § 99) e. 3. J| ht ntr ni Wnn-nfr "the temple of 2. 128.52 127.^ 2. to designate the possessor M ^"^^^ W. ^v ndm "sweet" (NOyTM). Ci "large" *Coi (-0). ^^ wr "great" *mer (-oyHp). | J [I ^^J)ln "^nodm "bad" Holn (bodcdn). 128. I . 127. ADJECTIVES. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. t '^^^ . 2 Una 46. On the further optional use of the indirect geneit is tive. 2. 13. C§ 146 sq. 75. that preferred: : | 1.

. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 129. U|l 2. was first lost. Rarer combinations of the adjective are: 1. a. forms one word with the substantive: c\^H^ tB-M-sn "their white bread". 53 it They follow in their substantive and agree with i29*. 30. 11. the plur. 15. is 1. 2 5 Una Siut 14. fem. self evident of course to the Egyptian reader. 15. fem. number and gender: § ^ 8 1^ ^ ^^kt ndmt "sweet beer'V III £1^1 <$=lv V ^^^^ ^^^^ [v^ "many ten thousands". J LD ni. it 130. 24 d. The possessive suffix of the noun repeated with the adjective: son".^ Cf. the ending of the sing. C§ 147). always.^ %" ^ ^'5^^ ^^^^ 5ww?(?) "all bad things". 3 6 Eb.^ J ^^^ AAAAV YV C 3 iCIi \\ bhnt'i wrt'i ^ "two great towers". masc. that of the plur. Most adjectives later become unchangeable (of. is often wanting. 225. 130. ADJECTIVES. 1 "^^ """^ rh 2^^^=^ sSfrvrf "his great 6 Eb. 54. I i i also.— 2. LD II. 124. survives. and for the most part the sign B. Of ^^ y nh "every" only the fem. C§121. being replaced by the plur. I.* Nevertheless most texts are not exact in the writing of these endings. fem.

In the the was left unindicated even in the sing. 1). § tv'i cf. „ „ i « (tiwt). They are positions by all derived from substantives or preis means of an ending. (irv) „ „ „ ^ ^^ ^ g (ii) (tit) (?w. § 43. derived from fem. and the 'i — As may cf. ending ^^ cf. It is employed also as a g. „ „ „ o (it) Plur. On the employment of the adverb b. ADJECTIVES IN ?. 131 — 133. — Thus: .54 131. is where really forms the end of the word. that only in the sing. C§ 93. it This ending i is only written. "133. be seen from the Copt. masc: Sing. 61. — On its the employment of the adjective as predicate and § 331.) o (iwt) 0. and such writings are often found in later texts also. cf. ADJECTIVES IN ?. there arises a final from the junction of the feminine ending of the adjective. 300. b. \\ (i). m. substantive^ e. 132. which ^ . ^^^ «. from a feminine. written with i and in Coptic has the sound of if the adjec- tive is derived syllable. e. f. this ending was accented. masc.. TIT nfrw "beauty" (Plu- ral according to § 111.r "the great one". -t ti.^ f. m.

134.. . from nt "city" . native) god". e. . M fl for fi. 55 Iri "existent at" hnti "existent before" AAAAAA Sing.134. V\ m. ^^^ or horizon. the plur. fl^^^"^ A. m." ^^^ Jlr Iht'ii^) "Horus dwelling in the . in the oldest orthography. ntr A few such writings occur "the note: |^ nt'i urban (i. m. (j Plur. is also written . and ni'i "two cities"). m the [\l\. n. B. . stantives were identical in form with the dual of these substantives (e. since they were pronounced about alike according to § 97 B. (according to § 104 a). e. for V^. The Pyramids write ^^. also. g.()'^. corresponding adjectives: later also are often written for the ^ |l[|w^^ "urban". In the v\ already occurs incorrectly for the sing. nt'i "urban". such duals. e. e. and ^| V\ l\l\. Since the adjectives derived from feminine sub. A confusion between and begrins in the n. ADJECTIVES IN ?. and V\ vX and ^^. masc. I i for «. b.

mit'i o\\ ss.^ 1 LD ni. 24 d. b. Those adjectives which are derived from a preposition. m "existent y ' ^ "^ \ ^''^ "existent upon" (from /ir). "being like". "^ imt Ibf-'the one (fem. likewise a few others. like: ^ Irvii "not being" (Copt.mht'i "north of" &c. C§ 89). (^^^(rffi^i^) /wwvA ni (cf. (from m). ^^^ "existent under" (from hr). . V . g.^ ir'i Q "belonging to the house". § hnti "existent before" (from hnt). 135.) existent in his heart". very often govern a following substantive or personal suffix (like the prepositions etc.56 135. like: ~[F^^^"[1"^' (J'^(y^) ^"11") ^"*^ "existent in" at" (from r). cf. tp'i ^ ij^ IJ "existent upon" (from tp). 2 Louvre C 172. ADJECTIVES IN 'i. 125) "belonging to" (from w). AT-. =^ e. from which they are derived).

^ \ n dirt "the interior of an onion Vo mit'iwk "one like thee"^ (with masc.^ is All that stated in §§ 129.' . 2).. Imirv h^rvsn "the priests serving in their times''^ "existent in their times").Q Arjfws^ "those existent upon <=» JK 000' e. hr'isst^ "one supervising (lit. 36.^ Very frequently they are employed stantive.^ f ^ ^ / M I ^ rn i ^^^^^ -^i(lit.¥\^^/wvaaa (?)". i the sand" lira III (i. 16.b. g. 3 Siut 7 311. 72. 6 149 e. valid also for the adjecru of. Sin. 24.137. 70. ^ \>. Prisse . especially those in e. /^ . Eb. 136. substantive end- ing according to § 96. II. < LD 9 III. lb. ^^. o jgv I I oo I ^ smwt III mhfirvt "northern lands'V f=^ gssn hr'i "their hri-sn upper side likewise ^ gs "their upper-side". g. Una 8 Eb. tives in i. 137. the Bedouins). 13.^^ ^^ hft'i "enemy" I. 4. 57 -H ^. "over") secrets"/ y mlt'if "resembling him". ADJECTIVES IN ?. In this manner many new substantives ti\ originat- ed. 24d. I like a sub. 5 2 lD 6. 130 concerning the 136* is adjectives without ending. 1 Mar. e. Ab. II.

g. 9. (J Iri [1 ir'iw (?) "belonging to. ns). e. as reward therefor'V ^v r \\ St Iri "in the corresponding place. 11. 2 prisse 13. in proper condition". ft Imntt "the west" (emnT. 24 d. 139.^ 2. I I'^y "belonging to him ' with changeable ra^AAAAAA ^^<S^ ^^ ^^^ ''^y "^^® oldest one belonging to them. APPENDIX (iri. correiri) in sponding to" (properly probably the adjective expressions like ^\ J^gj^. the oldest of them".^ 139. . The following remarkable unchangeable expressions are probably descended from adjectives: 1. m). 11. which we also often translate "belonging to". c. On and e. the other hand the word is «s. (1 m m isw'i Iri "as corresponding reward. g. 3 Westc. ((^Aqx). 138. Iwtt "nothing" &c. l\ ^A\i\ ^f suffix. 138. APPENDIX {iri.58 c. imy. in the old really an old verb] language is still construed as suchj 1 LD III. from smt Imntt "western land"). imy.

\ T^"^ irv ns St mr wC "they are from one stone" "one stone possesses them")^.3. lD III. tens of thousands. "^^^^ § hundreds. Cat. — In dates the units are indi( cated by horizontal strokes — . 24 d. REAL NUMERALS. NUMERALS.635. "the horizon possesses him")'/ \sm (lit. a. 59 ^i zon" (I V [I ^^ ^^ f'h^O) "belonging to the hori- (lit. NUMERALS. 141. less: The greater number precedes the ITT 12. the numerals run thus: \ wC hmt 2 4 fdrv 5 drv^ 2 sn 3 1 6 sis Mar. 999. d'Abyd. 140*. hundreds of thousands. "the house-overseer possesses it") »\3 3. In so far as they are known. ns s'imr-pr "it belongs to the house- P overseer" (lit. The numeral I figures are: units. 140. n tens. IZ &c. a. 3 Peasant 16. REAL NUMERALS.) 141. T I thousands. .

of the units was used. sq. 60 3. accounts. the gods"). 30 is mCb^. The pyramids it treat the numeral as a substantive. the ones upon the year". 142. XUMERALS. 143. for the others the plural Cf. does the old construction remain. in specifications of measure and time. with the numeral 2. the 5 intercalary B. - 7 sfh 100 §^C 1000 h^ 8 hmn 9jos(^ 10000 ^&<: h/'n 10 m^ 100000 Of the tens. \ This construc- tion has been preserved in the expression ^— i. j rnpf iiO "110 years' ^^|||| inh 4 "4 ell8^ A. v\ 5 hriw rnpt "the days. "these his 4 gods''. '^^^''^ The numeral wC "one". 142. five. also with the numeral two. REAL NUMERALS. a. >J>ii 1 1 wl:^ 2 "two ships" 2. The numeral follows the noun and the for the latter is most part in the plural: stnyjv 8 "three kings." ^S V^'HI On the other hand the noun 1 ^ stands in the singular 1.: ~ . e. In LE the numeral precedes the noun. which is mostly writ . "these his four. and suhjoin to the numbered word as an apposition: fdwf ipiv ntrto (lit. also in . C§ 157. n\ only in the specifications of an account and Cf. which is for the I most connected by C§ 162 143.

"first" is supplanted by ^ tp'i (cf. which. Kzzy(> The probably dual word: m. \ 61 ten out. up" (the third" b. snnw "the second"." also The numerals are used as substantives: 144. 146. I nw. its — By placing is rvC before an adjectiye or verb. f. APPENDIX TO THE NUMERALS.: may precede or follow their noun. In the pyramids the ordinal numbers are entirely written out: in like manner U \\Ml^ snntv "the second" is later.^ the other numerals perhaps did the same. agrees with its noun in gender: SI- rnpt wCf "one year". as substantives also. as an ad- jective always follows its noun.144 — 146. The ordinal numerals are formed by the ending 145*. u (] ky. § 116. (cf. cf. kt (for ktl) "the other" is construed like the numerals in the 1 pyramids 47. They are all used A. Aw/«w "the third" &c. they ( — Ml" hi m ii "thousand of bread".^ : b. § 142 A) Una . § 135). = "that which fills up three"). They are early supplanted by a circumlocution with "fill mh 165. B. — On tvCrv n cf. also C§ APPENDIX TO THE NUMERAL. lative: " tvC meaning rendered super- Ikr "the only excellent. still found.

means "every". a. into various classes. 13. e. 147. USUAL CLASSES.62 THE VERB. Butler IG.- The first real plural of the word is \^ ar A-wj' (the W is the old determinative of the dual). 1. ^^(jlj^^^^ ^ ky gsw ^ "^£55 "another salve"/ ktyf ruBt "his other way". others. "number of their revolts"). i. IN GENERAL. These classes differ in manner of 1 inflection. 148. a. ac-J '148. 2 and how considerable these 3 Eb. THE VERB. USUAL CLASSES. with following cf. THE CLASSES OF THE VERB. The verbs are divided cording to the number and character of their consonants. 1 . pirv The substantive plural or singular l/vww\ tfiff) "number". 147. the so-called "radicals". is more i frequently a circumlocution kt-ht "another used for it ^ o II I hody" and Ill kt-lht "another thing". 26. o. o ] M[sn "every one of their revolts"^ (lit. Una 28.

a. as ^^unmr rvn "to open".THE VERB. -differences were. 63 may still be seen from the forms of cf. The most common verbs (abbrev. ^^terdae infirmae" (Illae 151*. The verbs '''secundae {radicalis) geminatae'' (II ae 150*. gem.— They retain all consonants in forms unchanged. 149 151. " zl ^^rvnn AAAAAA 1 "to be". km &c).>>^ yy^ icals fall together where they are not separated by a full vowel. less is visible only in certain forms: in most cases they show only the wr. i The very numerous verbs inf. qa Hj' mr "love". signation of these classes is C§ 185 sq. C§ 199. |\) kbb "become cool". first \>- two radicals or double mrr.) have as third radical an or ""j which neverthe(1(1. g.: II lit. ^nlX WVV ^ WS> kmm "become black". also the second: — e. The de- that common to Semitic grammar. -*^^^\ V\ in^^ "see". USUAL CLASSES. g. the verb preserved in Copt. Cf. Cf. fflfl ms "bear". But as these similar rad<s>. in most forms they resemble the biliterals {mn.) class is that of the bi-literal 149*.) are properly triliteral verbs having the last two radicals alike e. Jd^^^rp M"build"&c. ^^ their mh "fill". e. g. ^~~^ J\ j9r"goout". . C§ 186 sq.

(§ 150). USUAL CLASSES.— The frequently curring verb Ir "make" writes the forms Ir and Iry: . IV ae Cf.) correspond to the II and III lit. 152 — 154. (§ 151). which as a rule became i or \ lit.). V lit. and the verbs '''•quartae infirmae" (IV ae inf. They . Both double the third radical A j (I 5p<? "prepare": Hc^ii ii spdd\ h^l ' "be revered": ppl > 1) spss)\ only isolated examples ips'i). their consonants remain unchanged. C§ 200 sq. The and quadriliteral and quinqueliteral verbs (IV lit.) which correspond to the Illae ed. can be safely classed with the 154. geminatae" (Illae gem. on the other hand the form irr is written A. lit. and like these. re- j^ hS "descend".<2=^ and <2>-(l[l.) like the II (§ 149) Cnh "live . 153. 'Cv ^ nhm "rescue". Cf. C§ 213. as a rule are not to be distinguishin certain forms ffflfl^ . C§ 227. ^ © ^ ' Stp "load". which The verbs '"''tertiae correspond to the II gem. With a part of these verbs the third radical was originally a M or m. inf. in which an i is written out { ^y inf. 152. Cf.64 THE VERB. a. The triliteral verbs (I'll lit.

second radical. According to the Copt. roar' (from ^^1^ lit. The verbs mediae i. as also 157. cannot be certainty. points III which distinguish them from lit. Illae i). however. Cf. y distinguished with e. nhni).p. p. T '^^ is smB "unite" along withT'^^.: Rj^:^ ^ hmhm nhmhm (from and V lit. III r— lit. Egypt. g. which. § 29. (Ilae i. | ^°1 rvM "become green". and — Moreover. E . further subdivisions by reason of the special phonetic character of one of the radicals. within the exist. which have an ^^. the frequently "strike" recurring verbs dd "say" and ^ ndr present other II many lit. "low. Beside these ordinary classes there are apparently other. 65 are mostly derived from II lit. 155. appears — at least orthographically — as the third radical: H] IH^ A&i for Ai&. BARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. like Hi'^. have apparently early Occasionally it lost the i. jfiamni. for the ise. 155 157. the IV seem to have had the same form (cf. \j\ hBb "send". and */?w). C§ 224. above contrived classes. smaller groups. RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. The verbs uUimae i Erman . sBm. 226).

The verbs primae like %> n rvsh "be far" are.. had various peculiarities (cf. the probable form ris (according pOFlC "wake") The verbs is always written "l rs. like ps "divide". is only retained out of preference customary orthography. C§ 221. in i. because to e. wU\ . 158. «.66 p. g.. part is probably early lost hence ^. RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. especially § 161. to § 29) 208). 159. 222. Note especially. — The existence verbs mediae I may only be conjectured from the Copt. also written w. evident from the Copt. Ilae gem. by many texts without their in certain forms. 159. that (according a few verbs Illae 9 (mostly those in -mS) repeat the second radical after the i. in part. rv only rarely. r^ ^t "die" al- ways written for <rz=> for mrvt (cf. C§ 192) and often "^^ of ^ ^ ) rrvd "grow". as a rule make the form^s^^ 7vss^ insdead oipH.. rv — The verbs and in mediae write the it. cf. in certain forms kmB "create" These forms are possibly to be read k^m and rvSh and the syllabic sign for the 158.

C§ 231). rh "know": srh "cause know" (i. 161. cf. Iw "go". These causatives do not remain in the class to which their stem verb belongs thus the causatives of most biliterals have feminine infinitives {hr "fall": shrt "to fell". f.a A. more rarely with transitives (i. § 30. Cm "swallow": s^^m "cause to to swallow" "wash down"). sometimes 7^^ li ^w. IRREGULAR VERBS. nfr "be beautiful": snfr "make beautiful".) A AAAAAA in^ sometimes written TT jj sometimes A int. and especially rdl rdl. and . Entirely irregular are: In "bring" (properly Illae inf. — On the other 1 hand ° [ 11 \\ ps (older fs) "cook" has \\ pfs and —m— psf. THE CAUSATIVE.p. ^ ° dldl{J)\ the last corresponds to the reduplicated forms. °. 67 cf. from every verb. "go" sometimes \\J\ Ui^\ sometimes \\ « H. e. which has the form <ir> A . with intransitives lir "fall": sTir "cause to fall". "give". inform against). g. e. I By means of the prefix s there may be formed 161*. 0. sometimes I y\^ ^w. another verb with causative meaning.f. 160*. Y. 160. THE CAUSATIVE. — D dl and A A. E.

a few of these writings occur later also. g. The is earlier. — the The causatives of the (cf. and the beginner ize himself must be satisfied to familiar- with the forms thus far known to us. 242. continuous condition). divided incipient. C§ 238). and not improbable that the (1. 6. 182. C. VOICE.s§«befar. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (iNFLKCTION). 164. 163. c. 2. the causative of the last mn (infin. still employed in the language only within cf. e. classic 163. all details are as yet obscure. without being able to understand their systematic connection more exactly.68 b. restricted limits (as pseudoparticiple. — With verbs primae w. smnt) furthermore doubles cf. which reminds one of the Semitic perfect. g. . There are two methods of inflecting the verb. later method uses the personal sdm "hear": suffixes of Cf. The § 73. broad": Hfl® ssh "broaden". are treated as quadriliterals TV. C§ 171. It is certain that the transitive verb distinguish- ed an active and a passive. § 208). 162. %P n. away. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). intransitive verb was analogously cf. consonant in certain forms (smnn triliterals C§ 232). 164. Nevertheless. § 241. e. 162. falls according to the old orthography. VOICE.

(cf. 69 Sg. An also absolute pronoun (cf.* ed and the substantive follows the noun unconnected: hears thy voice". 75. 2 m. Apart from the uninflected passive inflection § 206 A). in the pyramids B.v/ ^^^^ PI 2 c. ^v^^^ *^^^ A^)^ 'V'^^^^sdmtn ^^\ g=> sdmt g) rvAAAAAA 3 m. § 80) is.C. no suffix is employ- 165. si 166. and V lit. ^ ^^^ V V S()^^~^ sdmtw I hrrvk "thy voice is heard". by exception. also. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). pronoun. this was first lost with IV lit. 2^-^ sdmf ^^\ I sdms cf. employed thus as subject: hpr m hsbt "it changes into worms" (for hprs). 165 167. f. ^^. Dual forms occiii- § 74. When the subject is a substantive or an absolute 167. the verb frequently receives an ending ^ 1 According to Sethe.^ If the subject is a substantive. ^^^\ f. ^ . On the writing of each sn ffix A. . 1 c.

' 25. is (logical) subject. irn AAAAAA Note cf. m to"^. designation of the — On the omission of the subject in animated § 353. 43. Sin. all forms. sin. "it is said"^. Abyd. to express the ) French "on"): o y\ rhtrv "it is known"^. . 6 3 " LD III 24 d. "man". (1^ 1 Jl ^w "it is"^. This impersonal subject is furthermore. indefinite subject (Germ. Hdb. 168. 26. hprhr ($r-form. subject). EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION).70 C. 169. 49. The impersonal use of the verb (without occurring in especially: § 194) "that cf. 55. often a respectful king. Sin. 263. 243. 216. y dd I a o\> ^^^ntw "one stands" . § 204) "that amounts — The passives are employed with especial preference. 1 narrative cf. II. (w-form. 41. A second actor. 169. amounts to"^. shdw srv t^Tv'i r itn "he illuminates the earth better than the sun"/ 168. Hdb. rdlln "they caused"^ is probably also to be explained thus. Math. Math. is frequently met with. done by means of the particles In and hr: \ * 8 Mar. 225. to indicate the real often added to a passive or intransitive verb This is which already has a grammatical subject. 5 2 Sin.

of forms. These latter forms have orthographically. Gr. In the same to infinitives manner the logical subject is added and participles by means of ^. sdmlnf)^ but in part also. in the case of most verbs. which are in part indicated by endings attached to the stem (like sdmnf. essentially the same external appearance (sdm/"). fall. 139. IN GENERAL. USUAL INFLECTION. The most important aid for the recognition of the verbal 1 Eh. USUAL INFLECTION. are distinguished by the vocalisation only. and only the two great groups into which they are distinguished. 47. 170. a. hr s "some (of the fruit) is chewed by the man"^ 3™^ ^ O ^^P ^^ t'^ ^^ " ''by arm is siezed &y Re^"^. work). a. 71 nM . on the part of the artificer"^.>^ ^w: L making ^ [1 'wwvA ^^ ^j>^ ifi hmti "working (lit. 2.2. 19. is Any exact separation of these various forms. W. so that it is difficult for us to distinguish them correctly. I. therefore not attempted in the following. 3 Br. The later inflection of the verb falls into a series 170*. A. . IN GENERAL. 97. . 2 Ppy. .

has lost this passive. forms. "man". the differences which. t (tl. — The ending in written.) t live". 172. e. a. for the expression of an impersonal subject (Germ. 172. ITS FORMATION. and the n. The pyr. V\ ). THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. first made with transitives and causatives. pronounced something like unindicated by the classic This prosthetic vowel Q J( ' left orthography of the *171. THE FORMATION Sdmf. The passive of the which is later inflection ends in attached at the end of the word.72 h. V ^^§^^ "they (impers. but It is precedes the suffix: sdmtwf^ sdmntrvf. THK FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. or tw in the m. THE FOEMATJON sdmf. write the ending B. then also impersonally with intransitives. trv). French "on"): Tis ' ^ irv. is afforded by the pyramids. e. follows Its most important classes are as . The Copt. which often prefix a e. A. on the other hand the manuscripts it new empire again indicate by means of [I ^7\.. are no longer to be determined. [] for the indication of the prosthetic vowel to the fornas beginning with two consonants: ''Smok. (I' /( ' V\ is . sdmintrvf. b. always A. a. 11 tl or c:^ t. It apparently includes three or four frequent in forms.

denoted by " .=^. in the case of the II ae 173. do not: -^^ wnf § 180). 'kdy «he builds" : i c^> FM '^^_. but in others. which in certain cases separate their like radicals: -^^^. cf. ). s'dmof. sometimes Itv l\ Inf (cf. sometimes Ifvif both forms: "go" varies between 7^^ . with the other forms nothing cf. s'dmf "he hears": ^^^. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. § verb dependent upon rdl "cause 6 179) an {'Mof. In classic orthography only written in the 1 l^M^ this rn'rl^i.^^ wnnf "he K. may be seen e. vowel was in one case (with the that''. only occasionally written by the pyra- mids ( ( 0''^^=—) and by the manuscripts of the it is n. cf. is cf.. g. That this group really includes different forms. C§ 234 it. § 178). ^^^-^^-5 III ae inf. 173. THE FORMATION Sdwf.) . known about (Concerning TTPXACl C§ 247).=^ is" (cf. The position of the vowel. <^ Int/' (cf. III lit.b. n (1 ^^ sg. Furthermore. § 26. sq. with irregular /\ a verbs: in "bring" sometimes has § 180). m'rr/' "he loves": the I is nevertheless. 73 II lit. (cf. gem. e. indicated is in § 170 A. § 178). «. m'rlo/'.

hr srht "the house overseer complained of (the peasant) ddlnsn nf they said. ("he is justly punish- ed &c".74 b. forms and constructions for narration 230. 239). rdl "give". Una 2. 180). an d _A^2^-=^ Irvf. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. § rdif{% 174) and ^ — ° 178. THE FORMATION Sdmf. which prefers other (cf.) gr-prv irn mr-pr the house overseer was there- upon silent. sdmf is retained in more descriptive senessential pro- tences. *174. makes no This is especially the case at the close of a short paragraph: Tvnln mr-pr . B. I. . . B. In the old language sdrnf of the group. 174. § 222. wshf n 1 sht'i pn "He did not answer the princes. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. is the usual form for the chief events in ordinary narrative: nt smr "His majesty established friend"'. in which the action gress. me in the rank of a In the later language. X TT YiP 3 I Jr/ I I I n wsof n nn n /\AA<V\A \\ r i srn>. between ^^/ (cf.

E. which introduces direct discourse. 51. (cf. m^^k rdl 178. The Ilae gem. 75 (but) answered this peasant''^ (The last two clauses simply enlarge upon the fact of the silence already stated. ^give". the form -D. you see"). ddhrk "If find it .. 37. a combination which led to the formation of a new causative > in Copt."^.) Here belongs also the formal ^^^. 179*. in 176. § 389): st . are doubled *if in this case {Ir I\ . 179. used in conditional clauses introduc(1 It is further 177. €d by the particle Ick . . (1 <^:>^'i>^ . 18. m THE CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. cause that". D. ^^Z3?6 gmk . It is further ddf "he 175. "he says". AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. it I rrvds hr hts grows upon its creeps)"^. 177. &c. assertions and the like: it "The plant snwtt "^ belly (i. Eb. 1^^ you . 3 g. C§ 230b. then say . IN THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. used where a fact is expressed. descriptions. In ^ "bring" has the form °. cf. C. ^ .: Bauer 50. <=^ Ir .^^ said". It is very frequently dependent upon rdi "give. 16. ^ e.C. * Eb. AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. E . .

C§ 234 sq. according to the Copt. ' " Vff^ ^ ^ rdlnf stpl nl "he caused that I choose for myself (of his land)"^ 180. Irvt "come" j'^^ . — The cf.): -^^^-^^^^^^ 3 i^ mBSk "see"^ 1 Sin..76 E. are not doubled. stands without introduction to : "You might allow your servant come to me. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. vowel was here an 6. qA *182. Ih: It is often introduced by means of the particle (] ^ ^^^ ^ Ih dds nl "let her say to me"^ or by means of a preceding Ir "do" (impv. 181. 172. Prisse 10. . *181. E. 9. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. 12. F. 2 Peasant 38. 79. Probably identical with the preceding: ^^zi:^ Jj ^^zi:^ mrk hmtk "Love thy wife"^. 5 Eb. In . 75. is This very frequent form probably identical It with that of the subjunctive and optative. AS AN OPTATIVE. * Sin. 182. AS AN OPTATIVE. I ra^ Jj^W _ 1^ therefore send ^ \\hMnk sw hrs that may E. "bring" has the form A rdl "give" . In this case the II gem. him to you^.

A. In. f. (J V\ ^^\ tml (imperative is of rdl "cause that". e. is 185. rnk (mik^ cf. . for it : cf. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP.m. There are also found forms of this group in y. 77 B. In. 185. According to Sethe. ^^ lo and (J [J Rj^^v V. A. only with those verbs which are marked by the doubling of the § 185. certainty. p."!' like) m?. The form with the * final consonant doubled. ITS FORMATION. (and the Plur. § 256) with following verb often substituted (lit. The word the optative: Sg. Since the n. 1. especially in old texts. ^^^^ "thou but probably ?& comest down".— ^^ v\ f. this The forms of group may be recognised with 184*. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. § 35). last consonant according to In the case of most verbs they are not to be recognised from the orthography. g. ^^ (I [I -^~^ ddyk "thou t only with verbs which have a or (according to § 151 A) a as the last radical'. A.^. for "behold" undoubtedly belongs to 183. tmi mdicf ni "let him speak with me'' cause that he speak with me). ITS FORMATION. e.-—« saj'est". 184. (and the like) mtn.p.

-priest" come out for)^ divide"-. threats. the irregular A A. 7. 187. 22. B. 311. 186.: <^=><. Illae gem. as well as the Illae inf. 3 Eb. inf. to be noted that. significance the form is apparently with reference to the future it is used very often. Ir "make". The emphasis . of 187. 289. \ or ^ verb i. B. With the it. -H— X ^^ nn pssf "he shall not drop in"^.^>0'" n sndt'i '^^^^ ^ ^°^ gL prr grt will hrrv 3 pn nb ''These three days (rations) (lit. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. . 2 Siut I.78 A.. be delivered to every s. in the case of the frequently re- curring verb Illae indicated by 186. questions &c. 1 Siut I. the form didl(i) § 160). rdl e. in promises. ITS FOllMATION. the form Irr is In place of the form with final consonant doubled. found in the case of the Ilae gem. 296. directions. and IVae inf. {di) "give" has (cf. last two it is especially easy to recognise for they are It is not doubled except in the case of § 259.. USE AS AN INDICATIVE.

* Weste."'. which 190. 149 e. 8. ONPBEPS. where 188. It is further used in conditional clauses. VERBS.. E. 2 LD II. dependent upon various prepositions. ^^ ^ <cz> snd "fear". D.C. 15. QO^' E. "I desire that you say"*. Ir (cf. likewise '^'^v tvd ^^ ^^ ff"^ "find". mr "wish" "love"). 190. then say &c. D. Z'^^O) (lit. nirrf "My majesty knows that he ^°^(jO^^^^^==^ is a god"^. 188.CL. 9. ddhrk "If you find that his body . g. E. "command" and v\ I the like: n. ^ _ ^°^ . 79 C. | "^ .UPON VERBS. Y wdnnnfprri that I go to this r sw? ^w "His majesty commanded mountain"^. 1 Eb. _ } It further follows the rh "know". DEP.. DEPENDENT UPON PREPOSITIONS. DEPENDENT UPON verbs "see". 189. 24 d.DEP. 3 LD IH.INCONDIT. It is govern a sentence after the manner of our conjunctions the usage seems to vary. gmfnk fitf . IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. . 36. . § the particle 389) does not js immediately precede : /^-^^ f\ . 189.

APPENDIX. "let the patient drink this "till <:z^%'^^ '"'^ r wssf he urinates"^ '^ I \^ \^ \> ^ hr mB^f ml "because he sees me"^. Y. All that is stated in §§ 172 — 191. 191.80 Y. 191—193. H 0%^*^-:^ msiwf. 117. as far as t (cf. APPENDIX. first group the II : lit. in contrast with The form sdmf. 1^=^^^^ ml hccfm in the region of light"^''Be hft IBhti^) "as he shines not haughty toward him is ^^^^ hssf when he wretched"*. the for- mation sdmf is found elsewhere. : may be seen. 193. 15. § 282 sq. * Prisse . In the is valid also for the passive in § 171). 3 LD lU. so especially in cf. 6. tive sentences. § 396.. the Illae inf. sdmnf (§ 197). Beside the cases cited in §§ 172—190. rdl\ ||| \i^\ 1 Eb. dltwf. rel ie sometimes present in meaning. 192. on the relative forms § 394. — On the substantivized forms cf. 2 Sin. where it is not possible to state anything definitely concerning the forms employed. 24d. make the form 'kd^twf.

may it: be seen from §338sq. is written after the determinative: It Q7\ mrnf "he loves". § without the prosthetic vowel. its formation. 195. . Note further. Granim. belongs inseparably to the stem. the verb rdl "give" ( § 160) nearly . the passive ending follows is /*-n\ ^. which 194*. In this form the stem receives an ending w. mBnf "he the Illae sees . '^^ ' Qf^ntws "she found". 81 in the second group however rdl has the form A D ^ "^"^ dldltrv/'. c. contract their consonants: 1.c. for the part. . 195. a.^ ^^ 2. (cf. <iz>/\ most The M-form had. J" Ermaa. Ag-ypt. form began with a simple consonant (that cf. 194. mrnf\ -<2>- "make" has the form A^AAA^ § 151. e. has the form B. always j. show only the second consonant: Ir ^\ according to 3. inf. already lost its n in the n. THE n-FOKM sdmnf. 170 A). a. that the is to say. ITS FORMATION. as . and that: the II ae gem. THE w-FORM sdmnf.

- shrnf hft'iwf "he had overthrown the «-form different 17. in an entirely 1 manner. 196—198. which iginally in is only used independently. ye. served to narrate events an old text. ^gg e. orwith animation. I. it cut to pieces the land of the Bedouins. ly) will ra . the events of war are recalled with ^^'^^^ liveliness by means of the n-form: f^ ^^ Mt^ /i Hr'irv-sC "This army came. 3 his enemies"* e^ after he *198. in contrast . 1221 . e. that etc.82 p. used for the mc it part.rUv not grow (again)". siut 310. Oo >«CZI> g > ^^ know 197.^. : "Lay this " ^ upon the place of the nrrvdnf^ii (certain- extracted hair. g. explanation and the like. 2 Eb." (in ceremonious style). This form. e. ITS USE. had overthrown them). * LD H. "His majesty came in peace ^ ® S^ « ^"'"^ ©^ f^ /R (i. especially in relative clauses (cf.a . adds to Una 22. ITS USE. g. is Since the m."^ Thence further also. /www rnin rnntn "behold. 283) . 63. § 220. but occurs elsewhere also with a preceding verb: n I (cf. which otherwise usually employs sdmf for narrative. § 396). p. in asseveration. It often indicates the past.

the As may be seen question is no longer one respecting an unimportant accompanying circumstance._jv^ c::^:> V^ ^ ^''' ^ fndrvnf ''The mouth silent and he does not speak". „ ^vwwv ^ jiL^_ n skdn dpi hrf and no ship sailed upon it (longer)". 170. an accompanying remark more particularly explaining it (circumstantial clause). seemingly always takes the w-form: place is nfrn drv "The good'V nfrn Ppy "P. F* . is well".' ^^a_^ Iv "He found the canal obstructed >j2i£:.^ in the case of the last clause. So in descriptions: '^ ^ is .^ And likewise in narratives /^^-O) : "Then * this peasant went to implore him ^^ V A gmnf srv lir prt and found him as he came out &c". 83 preceding word or sentence. 4. It is a remarkable fact. ITS USE. 199. 3 Bauer 34. 2 » Inscription of Sehel. in a stylistic is pushed into the background manner only. but the second occurrence (he found).. Prisse 10. The pyramids already employ the above also. that T nfr "be good" 199. 9.p. A. i69. Pepy ].^ 1 J Prisse 4. overagainst the preceding important event (he went).

That which is stated in §§ 194. (I a/wwv y /jn/ "the king occasioned"^ (sentences of the context with other forms). 195 valid also for the formation of the In-iorm: 201. also employ it else- in narrative. 243. tp 1 Sin. is — 204. Eb. in "bring". "Let the it. g. 1^^ AAAAAA ^ [I ^j.h V ^ M irlnk ns then make e. for it (the receipt) &c". where e. 32. 21.^ THE ^r-FORM sdmhrf. comItv mon words: ^°^ dd "speak". often [I used in directions. e. its This rare form also corresponds to the w-form in formation. 9. ^^. g. THE (n-FOEM 200. wn^irf 3 w3d mi wnn 56. d. It is employed in descriptions: -^^ _ [1 1 ^^ A/V _ .84 d THE iw-FOEM sdmlnf. <2>]\ A/VWAA J\\^ "go" and 203. 202. e.^ or in "when water comes out of <3>. e..^. IJ sdmlnf it Originally this form was ceremonial. 204. It is further. fore especially preferred where the subject to is there- is a person rdlln whom respect is due. . But many texts of the m. 2 Eb. especially in the case of the Ir "do". 200 sdminf. the /ir-roRM sdmhrf.^ v8j I srvrlln s man 1 drink".

AAAAAA \ S) ^^ in tw. is it This formation. It certainly is so. e. 6 3 Eb. 20. 11. one in doubt whether should It is be classified with the earlier or later inflection.^ * The word "uninflected" does not adequately translate the term used by the author. 205. 2 Eb. Westc.^ also.^ occurs more frequently in directions (like the 205. § 203). 86 is ^i "He was green Here 'i^-^^ (i. leaves exactly 206*. e. with nominal subject. (as far as inflection involves pronominal endings) that it was 1 uninflected. THE UNINFLECTED PASSIVE. 5. i4. the passive ending viz. 3. 2. 16. g.^ THE UNINFLECTED* PASSIVE. e. ddhrirv "let there be said". Math. m-form to her"/ Kzi:^<zi>Uddhrk rs "say '^ ® o %^ 3. . which when written. 9. transl.3. "endungslos" as distinguished from but "endungslos" has absolutely no equivalent in Eng. 5 41. probably belong the formulae ^ It Jiprhrf "that is"^ (as result of a £^ com- putation) and ^ ^°^ <rz> 1 (Ellipse for ddhrttv rs "they say to her") "her name is". for the practical purposes of grammar. 206. 4. 36. it may be stated with the greatest probability. and as this passive can with certainty be found only with nominal subject. 1 1 1 ms «yt hrdw 3 "Three child- ren are born to thee". throve) like one who upon earth". g. Eb. like the active. * Eb. only to be found with certainty.. Hdb.

86 4. impersonal verbs of § 168 also. 208. There are a few obsolete passive forms with hrss "she suffixes. OLD INFLECTION (pseudoparticiple). 1 c. cannot be used in dependent clauses. for example after rdi. It is found in only one form. § 198) or the combination with it § 230). A. OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE). mntl mntl AAAAAA 13 AAAAAA 3 m. 4. t^ 207. — The e. *208. ITS formt'n. a. the passive in must always be used. a. It often takes the place of the passive in especi- ally where the latter would be in the «-form. Mast. participle. the so called pseudoe. g. are probably to be explained in part as uninflected passives. so that. 201. mntl 1 Mar. AAy>^A^ mn ^u^ \\\ f. (cf. in the m. and occurs with unchangeable stem. On t the other hand. The uninflected passive would then belong to the later inflection. the formation of which. ITS FOEMATION. mnkrvlijnnkwTj "I remain" \v\ AAA/V\A 2 m. ac- cording to the usual orthography 1*^"^ is as follows: Sing. Ol f. 207. like was buried". ^ and these may also belong here. in a cir- cumstantial clause ChCn (cf. . in one form only.

^-i: B. AA/V\AA I mnwin 1 I 2c.). it was pronounced In the case of the endings ti. ITS FORMT'N. . 1 The ending of the sg.. (cf. B. in Copt. sg. e. e. mnty) were early other forms also begin to drop out. the ending was at that time. caixed" in the case of the Illae inf. has supplanted all the others and only a few sg. r\\T\. 3 c. a. e. ^ M ^^? jQ ^^) ^^^'' ^^) anointed". 3 f. 87 w AAAAAA Plur. >t ^ C)ther writings are -^ziiPt (o.^ originally had the ending "(^® . tnnivy. more 211. Vulgar writings of the n. pi. (cf. is 210. (I .4. OLD INFLECTION (pSEDDOPARTICIPLe). 209 — 211. especially in the manuscripts of the m. § A. customary. B. •v^:^ v\ and rarely -Ic. : sg. to use this and many texts seem regularly certain verbs ( form with )• -^^ . "^Q ^ V • -^^^^ "(^^ inf. already spoken The rarely 3 m. In the n. f. are sr=D -t. and IVae the g. The original forms of the 3 of the dual (m. t and c^ v\ tio. In the n. e. 212) and the forms lost. the writing o:. e. C§ 181) the 3 m. 1 c. with the final ^ becomes (1(1 Details according to Sethe. | . is also written ^zi::^^ 209. '^ '^ mnt'iwm w mn. mntyiv. are preserved with them.

ITS formt'n. f. ^213. m. f. probably already ^^^- ^^ 1 I I may *' also be written for 3 m. occasionally occurs in the m..: 0^ Ifv "they come". hemJiomte ("roaring"). mente ("remaining") II gem. the ending of most verbs was lost. first lost. but those in > (1 have disappeared. m. hemhome. 214. e. OLD INFLECTION (pseudopahticiple). and -te: lit. In the m. in the pas- which are retained in the Copt. as -e j II ^. m. the endings being added according to the later pronunciation. mene. in the most important cases runs about as follows. ^sdomte ("heard") gem. it thus restored. in v\ JL . . I \ the'^e \ was originally in the plural a in AiJ ^^. mosje ("born") llll (III lit. sepdode ("prepared") lit. f. n(l(l msil "(he is) born". the writings in [1 (1 are frequent. m. 212 — 214. an active-transitive and a passive-intransitive. sodme. those in ^ not rare. m. originally The pseudoparticiple apparently had But the was very early two forms. kebe ("cool") (III inf. e. v\ and a 3 f but both were already lost at a very remote period and only the 3 m. a.88 4. The vocalisation can be restored only sive-intransitive forms. (lY m.

the pseudoparticiple. ITS USE. it is — Only the (cf. although transitive. lit. 215 — 217. The pseudoparticiple of the transitive of the II like erJj'w ("knowing"). from which it draws a conclusion. texts.b. p. ACT. has preservits ed a living pseudoparticiple. form %:v dldlrv. o^ dlw and otherwise I "go" makes the 3 m. rdl "give" has the rdlrv. 241). ITS USE.-TRASS. also . occur side by side. p. verb rh "know". fu ^^ y^ shikrvl "and caused to descend". 89 was \ A.-INTRANS.. PASS.. the more — Of Vs> . FORM. seemingly. as well as that of and pasrh 217. The few old which still it make this form of 2J6. s^till oc1 curs. a. the transitive verb I . of the intransitives The pseudoparticiple sives. IN THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM. and preferably at the close of a short paragraph. the forms is |T| l^and 215. the irregular verbs. a. use corresponds ex- actly with that of the passive-intransitive form § 217sq. pronounced something In the case of the Illae inf. 0()(l7]\5 b. only in the sg. but the latter frequent. 1 It. IN THE ACTIVE-TRANSITIVE FOEM.: I Irkwl "and I did". employ as a narrative form.

re command came <iz>^ me. On the use of the pseudoparticiple as apparent cf. . 219. verb. 182. 122 a. predicate 1 §§ 240 sq. 3. 7.. 36.^ B. his htf khti "If you find his (lit. out". C§ 181. and they are satisfied" 2 It is (8 m.90 p. sole hot and body cool" "if you find his sole. 348.. 234.. 37.^ most part. 218.'' STV slsy "Look at him stretched Cf. Eb. 233. ^ Eb. 6 Pepy I. 219. e. 199. g. "know" (cf. § 216). sJitpf vtrwi''. 2 LD II. E. "This ChCktvi tribe)". is still used as an independent 1 sg.) and the like. the remains of the pseudoparticiple have entirely gone over into participles. In Copt. 246 sq. 402. g. du. almost only in the | l90''^^~-^ V ^ *218. employ a participle. it is hot)". hfpwci "he satisfies the two gods. g. The pyr. we would.^ A. IN THE PASSIVE-IKTRAKSITIVE FOKM. (as) I A midst of fl to stood (in the my O I lyAAA^AA hugmmk drwfsm. 3 Sin. have. e. ^ I hskrvl hrs still "and I was therefore praised". more frequently employed pronoun a closer for the in order to annex where to a substantive or limitation.

the forms sdm ntr "the god hears".221. tiie impersonal auxiliary verb ^ irv "it 220*. With the first. -ed where a fact to be express. 5. is It is therefore used. IS". (1 With is". INTEODUCED BY "IT THE FORMS Itv sdmf AND a. o'^'tl:!. sdmnf. in a single independent remark: "This plant is used so and so ^ fl^ ^ ^n^^^~^(j. sdmn ntr "the god heard". to grow by means of its fruit''. only the passive in run: irv t. the hair of a woman is made said. WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. /wwva^ st J) N^ irv grt srrvdtrv sn n m tSyfprt "further. both passives occur with the second. COMP.'^ irv inni Ddi have brought Ddi 2 Eb. § 115). 47. 8. . "The prince came % ' to the king I and (I ^A hither". — In contrast with the simple forms sdmf and these have a certain independence (like other irv cf. there are made two forms. 332). With nominal irv subject. 19 (cf. . 221. irv sdm7if"-\s. (had) heard" (past. § 197).\ 5. 8. Westc.Q cf. itv a. which as a rule are distinguished in usage as follows: irv sdmf "he hears (heard)". 220. 91 COMPOUNDS WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. ^dmnf clauses introduced by § 246.

Iwf 225. re- It is used (similarly. WITH DOUBLE SUBJECT. (1 With ^n.92 222. '^w^w sd'w/' &.. This form [1 ^ it ^ ^^ is ^^^ srfw/ (lit. is used especially at the beginning of a narra- tive or of one of its paragraphs: (1 ^ fU^^ me vm. THE FORM iwf Sclmf. p." ^ (Beginning of the narrative). W\S- ^^ ^ ^>^ ^ ^v '^^^ sdmnf "he heard" and a -^^ "he heard". is first of them only. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB 223. 222 — 225. 1 ^ • ^w Ai&« w^ w&^ "My lord sent out &c. a^. ha. ". AUXILIARY fEKB tVU. the forms of § 221) in 149 e. means "he accustomed to hear". nominal subject irv runs as follows: is ^ ] J|^ ntr sdmf "The god used with the accustomed to hear". 224. "he is. THE FORM iwf sdmf. he hears"). The corresponding use of the auxiliary verb -^^ Tvn "it is". It. » LD II. . "When a number of verbs in this form follow one another. is far more rare and probably archai There are found -^^ AftAAAA ^ ^\ tvn sdmf "he hears ^. a.

226 — 228.. 2 Totb.. Eb. 51.^ It is especially preferred in the case correspond- 227. THE FORMS lonf sdntif AND wtiinf sdmf. in which a fact A is stated: U y> 1 DO V^ l^S Irv grt prts dlttvs hr tB "Further. Eb. ing to § 249. 20. q°\^ 93 marks..^ fl ^^'^^ /vwvAA (I W ?^ ^^ iTvl dll mrv "I gave water to the thirsty". 3 Sin. its fruit is accustomed to be laid upon bread". for the continuation of a relative clause ior the like: ~^ A/vwwv'v\ 8 J o "^^^^ ^7 s^^ "^ nhbtf. he knows f^ V m K^m it is "^ ^ ^^ Irvf ckf irvf all rhf hprrvt nf nbt goes in and out .^ also But on the other hand the forms in §§ 246 criptive narratives: y \n lb employed (like 226. 51. 18.'* p. 15 B.p.. Irvf mnf Cfi n nhbtf "A man on whose neck there is a swelling and "who has pain in the two organs of his neck". that happens to him".^ this "He who has book (j%>^^^_-^ ^^^ '--' / prf .- sdmf * is very 228. — 249) in descriptions and des- V^. 96... rvnf The form » ^ V\ 6. I . THE FORMS wnf sdmf AND -^'^^ ^^==_ wrdnf sdmf. 5^^=.

en.. is used in directions Y fi i '^cn^ =^ hrk ^ roBhk dtk "lay your hand". . Eb.^ c. THE FORM hrf sdnif. it is weakened to the usual is form for narrative ("he heard"). originally markc an occurrence in the narrative. 3 Eb. a. ^:zi>« and like it. 174. 230. This rare formation evidently related to sdmh?f. with chon> and OlC. however. ten archaically ^ "' v A also writ- AAAAAA dv \ ¥ 'A . 2 Eb. rvninf sdmf. 3. 44. 47. another. WITH cAc« AND chC- *230. as significant (some? thing like 'then he heard"). hrf sdmf. THE FORM is 229. In the popular language of the m. CJiCn The very frequent combination y ^^ sdmnf ("he arose and heard"?). e.229.^ o %> A c^ \\ "Let there be given". Aa « 1 Sin. rare. 3.. 21.94 bf.^ o\ ^ 1^ l[] ^^^ §f* s? 5^55 d^dSs Im "Let the woman hrtw anoint her head with diirv it". 48. and ^ i^-^^^^. WITH A VERB OF MOTION. forms the subject: -^" AAA/VV\ (1 I majesty sent to me'V Y- is explained by § 346. 7^ . which only occurs where one of the words for king.

this 95 still A. No example of the passive in-^ occurs. 2 ib. In the language of the to be wanting. always has the w-form following: ChCn rdlnf "he gave". 122 b. 122 a.^ in § 240sq. U. 6.. o.CO."* a ^ fm^' Cj/^^^^^^^^H^^^'' intktvi. the unin. also used the 234. Q^w 231*. ''P^ ^^ sspt ''The house was (-hCn fitted out'V Y verb is in rdl "they (impers. 4. M—^n » ^ ^lA chCns grtl "She is 3.) occasioned". there Westc. § 207): f—^nn ° Hi^ V^^ is freely used after QiCn ''^^'"' (cf. The nominal sentence described the pseudoparticiple.^ Other than in narrative. ^ <^=^^ A ^^^^ ^ ^^^ "=^ ^'^^'^ ^^^ "The prince said". compound seems In the case of the active of the transitives. employed with "His majesty went in peace". 5 ceased". .232*. is fleeted passive. however. it is attached to CJiCn as suffix: "I sailed f up". 3 LD LD 11. e. WITH chCn AND C^O 231—234. transitive verbs: whose in- 233*. 8. 8. 3. Westc.^ If the subject is a pronoun..

d- the form sdmf pio. 237. which are "come" and pr "go out". WITH in. 7. prn and iiv. The form sdmf pw. while low in the pseudoparticiple: nbt "then he discharges all worms''. 2^^- in construction and original ^ V ^^ $ °^ "^°" ^^ ^^^^ employed like I Qf. 36. am full".^ "flra'^']|(l^ falls ^^^^^« fi^i^ ^^r ^ "then she immediately". in the first instance. 35. 235—237. y\ -t=::p5 V\ Vv?» ^^^ mhkrvl "then d.^ cf. Eb.96 p. The forms derived from ^ Q -^ In and ^ . just as with ChCn. ^ Eb.^ /J. which transitive verbs follow in the intransitives. 3 Math. 235. are far rarer it than QiCn. 18. The verb has thi form of the second group. Hdb. WITH (1 in. prn AND '~~' iw. but like meaning. fol- form sdmf. 51.^ THE FORM sdm/ pw. 1^ . form Y A ^^^. something like but it means "it is he who hears" (cf. 20. § 87 on prv)'^ further appears to denote also a condition a^ tained: "When you find this or that in is him 1 jj ^ 1 siibf pw then he well". Eb. 2 § 184 sq. 37. cf.

B. With compound verbs ^^zz^^ 9 ) Ov^ Irni dr-tS "I journeyed"^. Hdb. granim. do" with an dependent upon as object ("he does hearing"). a. 238. The model of the nominal sentence § 327 sq. because pr is a verb of going.6. D V^ prv Irnf ("it sdm is 239*. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPAETICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. and cans. g.*. Gr Erman. with the (of. WITH Ir. The combination of nitive is "make.) 240*. was early transferred to sentences with verbal predi1 Sin. infi. 2 Una 30. Often with verbs of going: <2>-^'^=i ^v =?s= « irt smt "I went"^ 2. prt pw irnf "he went out". Egypt. used: 1. 19. * According to Sethe. IV lit. was hearing which he did"?) which e. especially with verbs of going. \ . while the parallel verbs are expressed by means of sdminf or ChCn sdmnf. with pseddoparticiple or infinitive. WITHOUT THE AUXILIARY VERB (IMPROPER NOMINAL SENTENCE). used since the m. 7. 3 Math. 41. The strange combination ^^N. later with all verbs C§ 249). is as a form of narrative. This combination first supercedes the inflection. E. -<2>- ^ Irhrk rv^- dSdi "you multiply"^. (cf. COMPOUNDS WITH Ir it "MAKE". Ill lit. vs\ AAAA/v^ much more frequent. 240. 7.238. 97 ir 6.

C§253sq. even with following object. when they denote the {m^rv "recommence". Iw "go". § 216). COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. rh "know" (cf.). "go". . it means "become". ik "diminish". in the case of transitives. shr "overlaid" the verbs of going etc. 242. the following are in the pseudo- the passives (ph^ "divided". are in the infinitive the transitive verbs with or without an object following. / 3.). (qCOTM) and twfhr sdm (qCCJOTM).98 7. but also hpr "to be" even where 4. The with hr: 1. {rdl "give". 2. This kind of sentence was the origin of the late Egyptian forms twfsdm 241. f 242. ftv mr "be "be broad" &c. the subject (a noun or pronoun) preceding. the verb in the pseudo- participle in the case of intransitives and passives. entrance upon the condition. hrp "lead". and in the infinitive with the preposition ^ Jjr. hpr "happen"). however.). the is verb following. Cf. following. 241. hr "fall"). cate. m^ "see" &c. ssp "receive". the continuation of the condition (mh "be sick". exactly. In general. More participle: 1. the verbs of condition when they denote full". B. (Ai "descend". verbs of condition. 3.

was Its made with all verbs use corresponds to that of the real nominal (cf. 2 Sin. verbs of crying and weeping {nml "roar. Sinuhe comes as an Asiatic"^. It is further used in descriptions and in the des- 244. 243.7. weakness(?) recommences"^ AAAAAA G( iLDII. It is used. . 136h. 99 3. « Prisse 4. still for at that time the pseudoparti(§ 213). 265. 244. G* 1 . V ^ ^ V^tI a"^^^^^ Y>^^'^^^^^'^^^"B6hold. .). criptive parts of a narrative ^\ on .).. therefore in asserI I n a <::::> o tn rl "No contradiction comes out of my mouth'". 2— 3. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 8. \i. Ihw hr m^rv "Old age comes . § 243. I come "3 "*. low". and especially after mk "behold" (§ 183) where the old absolute pronouns (§ 80) are used: S^-nht iw m c^m "Behold (thou woman). In the oldest language the infinitive with to does not yet have been usage here. ) iBw h^rv . . lir rmy "weep" seem ciple A.-\\t^m-^. sentence 328 n sq. &c. 12. 3 Westc.

^'^--^^(f^\ ¥^f M^ upon it. Iw 3. iJl ^ hdn nl. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. ^§««^« • • hnbntsn Sbhw m hrt whose summits reach heavenV or expresses a subordinate circumstance in connection with which an action took place: >ca&. 2 10. Wfrv "He sailed down his heart being glad"*. (cf. while every heart burned me'" (not narrative but description). Such a description conjunction the (1 is often introduced by the ls=s Isf (§ 323). Just as the forms sdmf and sdmnf are introduc ed by the auxiliary verb 1 fi^ Westc. had become evening"^. J • J ^Afl'^? ijs^x^v "two obelisks . . h. belongs use of ^^ ^ it j\ fn- M "after" in temporal clauses: V\ A -^^ _23^'v\'Tr^ ^ m hi mlrrv hpr "After 245. — Here also. WITH THE VERB iw. according to hCfi rib mBh about: "Day broke and now for came the people of Tnrv. 246. 24 ^ Inscription of Sehel. i 246. . ^^ § 98) Itl. t^. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. o. . ft fl . relative clause: ^'^ J . LD IH. «. §§ 3 220—222) Sin.100 b. Tnrv (fern. 129—131. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB iw. is A sentence of this kind often also used as a .

§ 222): ^\ o Iw twtl shr m nb. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. 307. 36 17. In the popular language of the m. 101 SO the nominal sentence with verbal predicate just treated.WITHTHE VEBB (w.fe. 247. It is Cf. (j^^^^^ e. 2 Sin. . C§ 251. (j expressed in a single 247. 262 sq. Indwtf its m rv^sm "My statue silver- was overlaid with gold and gold. as FqCOTM (cwf sdm) and PqCCDTM hr sdm). a.^y\ V but therefore to corresponds ^^^^.248. expresses Eb. . They are {iwf preserved in Copt. — If the subject is a pronoun. ^^-A^sdm the use of twf E. The modifiexpressed by cation introduced by this Iw^ is both cases the same. the forms twf and twfhr sdm. are already sq. it is a suffix: (1^^^ to . supplanting the nominal sentences of §§ 240 sdm later becomes still more extended. it. is also often introduced by in irv."^ apron with Even when the sentence « in question. especially. is used where a fact (cf. J mrstfi?) ph^tl his liver (?) is is divided" ^ It further employed at the beginning of a its narrative or of one of paragraphs (cf. independent remark § 221): "Say concerning 1(1 Irv ^ i-=c ^ '^'^-^ ° "^ ^ 248. in the case of a pronominal subject.

. . § 245) "^ . p. 14. . Here belong the forms. § are joined to one noun Irv (cf. 149 c. 26. nht hif hrs. this form is used like that without Irv (cf. 3 Hr-hwf II a.^- <CZr> l) OaaaaaaIII v. 2 Eb. only an accompanying subordinate circumstance. 250. all but the first are introduced by 1 § 227): . Irvf hr mn r-lbf "If is you see any one with a swelling . whose body there- fore stiff and who is diseased in his stomach (?)"^.^^ AA/\AAA '^^ ^ nn mnf sdm (the verb is pseudoparticiple) and -^"^^. it. WITH THE AUXILIAEY VEEB wn.IARY VERB WH.. 245). distinguished according to § 241—242. WITH THE AUXU.^===^ N^ \\ ms^ pw Irns hrf^ Irv msC pn n stn hr mii "she bore upon looked on"^ 249. -^^=^1. 250.:^^^ Ir mBBk hri-stt .. 4..102 p.c^^ '-==^-'" l-jic^^ ^ ^ ^\ rvnf hr sdm: l^vz^ rvnfhrdrvBntrw nb "He worshipped all gods "3 1 LD II.<2>- J^ . . while this army of the king When a number of relative nominal sentences (cf.

They are therefore employed for the most part. more frequent. The forms distinguished according to § 241 A AAAAAA /^N. and the heart of his majesty was (on that account) I f\ ^^^^^ '^ \\v) "^''^^ hJ\/\f^f\/\ WTlln It tl llUf Jib cheered (lit. 187). t . 3 Westc. in which the auxiliary also in the pseudoparticiple. gave them book and said I to n them M I &c. is I 251. — 242 252* CT ^^y ^^^ A AAAAAA ra ^ ¥^ are ^^7 w«fw/ sdm and -^^^(1 ^^ roninf hr sdm. 103 -^ AAAAAA *^^=a — ^ 1 ® wnn/' Cnh '-He will live"^ (§ 184. 6. at the close of a para- graph: "This or that was done to cheer the king ^^ AAAAAA j] 1 AAAAAA O I AAAAAA U | -£^ A A \-J. 1. 149 c. 252. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB Wn. A verb remarkable formation. 252.p. which represent an action or a condi- tion as the result or conclusion of that previously narrated. is found in -^^ AAAAAA -^^ J\ '^^zi^^ VQi jvnkl drvnkrvl "I threw myself down(?)"^. then connect the latter with that which precedes "The wise man had the children the called. Sin. I New paragraph: | AAAAAA I I i I 1 1 I S O 2 _^ i: I ^ AAAAAA \^?s^^ M AAAAAA I | ml AWWVI 1 LD II.". But they are further employed where they ^ at the beginning of a paragraph also. 251. cool)"^.

wninsn their hr sdt "And they threw themselves upon &c. "he will fl%^Pf ^^|^^ «V i. . r AND THE INFINITIVE."^ n. B. "he will be a friend"^).. 2 sin. .) and the ^^^ "^i® form thus originating. Irv #254. COMPOUNDS WITH V AND THE INFINITIVE. Toward the end of the temporarily the most becomes so frequent. C§ 269). ^^k. form in the popular language of the m. ''^f ^ has already nearly superceded the simple e. this bellies and they read B. The auxiliary verb I will take thy ass"^. indicates the future -. that it is common form 8. e. 253.„ mk r nhm c^k "Behold. Tvi ^. e. there developed a kind of nominal sentence. - . 280. 254.. (1^ (1^ was early prefixed to this kind of sentence also (as in § 246 sq. it is preserved as EqBCCDTM Bauer 11. will hear". (cf. Itv/" 253. "to". In Copt. § 240) the preposition <^:^ r. COMPOUNDS WITH On be something" is for (e. r smr "he a friend". of narrative. in which (cf.^ -^.104 8. with following 1 infinitive. 5. 1 Prisse 2. I I I I I c::^ St o rvninsn it hr rdlt st Jir htvtsn. . . 3 . the basis of the construction g- r .

IMPERATIVE. in The imperative had no ending the singular: 255*. in the plural it ended in w {'mhorv). of "make. older ^^\ . still possesses but few imperatives of the C§ 305. ihr (something like %ro. ni^\ QA lit. the II sing. however. rrf^"give. according to § 170 indicate the prosthetic vowel. the signs and h n are the deter- minatives of giving). cf. and the like. imi incorrectly in the n. is used as imperative of cf. Since the n. old formation.i^^ (1^ and Mar. e. the third radical is and the ending l. in the "fall" Ilae gem. In detail note further: impv. cause". . ^v • ml^ more rarely \J\i II. do". A. 256. i. n Ma. these endings are almost never written. the Copt. later . 105 9. In classic orthography. the infinitive also used instead of the imperative. e. i shBw "remember" or entirely unindicated. and the plural of the imperative is indicated only by the left determinative i. (1 . In the pyr. 256. 255. B. (J ^\ ^^ . Ab 3i. A: pM. the The plural of the Illae inf. IMPERATIVE. (Copt. in the t pyramids ends in [J(J. e. are doubled.9. C§ 305. °^ mh "fill" ^ (something like or 'mho)'.

AMH. . r- and Ir-^ employed with suffixes for 348). § 182 B. 24 d. A. The imperative solute is often followed by the old ab- pronoun (cf. contracted ^S\ ^-^^^r^ ). 3 Sin. -^^^^sij n<zi>^/vwsA ji. cf. m. but is not indicated in the ortho- graphy. 2 Totb. 27. forms just cited. ^^v 1 (I '^'^'^•^ sdmw Irf in "hear ye"^. The pyr. V\ From w\ "give" in clauses expressing a wish. AMOy. LD HI. \\ -'^ /wvwv rud^rv tn "go (ye)''^ The words emphasis (cf. the like. (Copt. frequent usage since the m..a -0 inu rdi. Nav. On the employment of cf. § 80): trv . they have further a real imperative of which is written A dt. I. e. C§ 305).. often follow it also ^^^^'^r^"gehe". imt loses its original meaning "give". ed. 282.^Q-J\c^^s f[ "hasten (thou)". mi "give" for the most part (J . IMPERATIVE. imt ditw "cause that to (J there be given" (in the replaces it.ri i^rtn "open ye". (with the sign ^ -write d). LE.106 9. 257. (I B. 257. f. as imperative of the verbs of coming. was probably existent in the old language also. The distinction in gender observable in the two Copt.

258. had a vocalic ending m. 25. Ab. The follows participles. ^^[j[j^l and I. » ^ Mar. in detail: II ae The gem. conjectured from the often TV The sing. 2 LD 11. PARTICIPLES. which as a rule are written as 258* Sg. a. 259. ^%\ sdm Pl. part. 3 According to fiethe. •sometimes contracted consonants: -^^ wnn AAAAAA "being" *^ or -^^ rvn.m. :getter"\ j> e. the masculine substantive it (cf. 122 a. m. 259. THE NOMINAL FORMS OF THE VERB. 107 10. as may be ending most has 96). and those of the past seem to have been distinguished. m. stands alone as a substantive. ^^v for the ^^^^ f- ^^v pi. II.10a. § especially where g.^ Note 1. . ' sdmywt(l) ^. furthermore. those of the present and future. have sometimes AAAAA^ separated. of which. Tvttw "be- — ^ V' ^^/'^ "chosen one" The participles occur in active and passive forms. may have. PARTICIPLES.

aiat.) (present) there occur in the passive. sometimes double the second radical (present). 1. and sometimes do not (past): <cz>^ mrrw (T| 1 "loving".^g>-(j(]^^^^ wrong done against him"'. 260. . lOa. written for irr^ <2>-(](| for according to § 151. in the active. J\ pr "having gone out. participle is active lorm 260. but "having born" (fern. try. 13. A p.) but gmmt "being found" is — In the case of and A§^^ •<2>- "make. The either used attributively like an adjective: £v^t^^^. The irregular verb rdi "give" has the M^. ^^y^ "found" (fern.108 2. § f^^nK %J\\^ do". prr "going out". others in which the third radical i (cf. or like a substantive: » Eb. 3.). PARTICIPLES. 2 RiH 19 sq. liwwt{l) iryrvt rf "the hr liQl "the kings who were before me"^. The Illae inf. "giving". — Beside the forms with doubling 151) is visible (past): (fern.

261. 26. who ^^v T (l(]'v\ if ^^''^^ ^^fc-^ sdmytv "the listeners"^. f actus malum contra eum a I Eb.<2>(J (] T ^^^ ifii ffij-f rf gjif "He to whom injury is done by his brother" fratre)^.-^ sSf mryf "his son beloved The grammatical subject of a verb may also be cf. 2 Prisse 5. 109 ftiP'^^'^^^'W^ has born a boy"^ ^^^ -^^ "^^^ (fern. « Eb. A (i.^ by him"."^ A remedy v\ •^ '^^'ww III . PARTICIPLES. retained. to indicate logical the one. 16. when it is put in the passive participle. passive e. 14. ' Bauer 25. substantive or a suffix participle. especially \\ K.10a. often its added to a subject 261. from whom iBrvi the action in question proceeds): (1 (1 mry [1 ]\ "beloved by the two lands". the whole according to Sethe. '^ ^^ "^^^^ Ss mr n iryt rf "pain about that done to him.). 6 Merenre' 465.Ms^<z:> o is »j I irrwt n ht oi that which is made for the body"*. (lit. like ifi : §400 and examples AAAAAA y (1 . 11. ^^ K^. 19. .

.>>^ i also of the ae gem. sdm "hear" CCOTM (with ^'^^^ suffixes COTM=). I ms n "born of". uncertain. of like meaning. ITS FORMATION. II ae Whether the infinitives of the other gem. 263. The old expressions f'^^''^^^ /www tr ^yiy jj "beloved of" are of". «. . ^^. IV and "IT^ A li^^t (cf. A. An III lit. With the following first after the consonant. ITS FOKMATION. The vowel ending II infinitive has different forms in the different classes it verbal classes. a. b. like ^^\ ^. like ^ is f'^O) wH "urinate". AAAAAA n "begotten pro- bably passive participles also.110 b.. THE INFINITIVE. is found after the second consonant of some like <z: which denote a quality. with suffixes cAccdA*). V lit. CoAcA.^ kmom "become black".. THE INFINITIVE. (for *isor) dsr II TOGO) "become red" and . 263. and no special lit. ^^. has the *262. wn "open" OYODN (with suffixes OYON=) III lit. are also to be vocalised thus. 262.

h.

THE INFINITIVE,

a. ITS

FORMATION. 264

— 268.

Ill

The Illae

i>,

according to the Copt, have for the 264.
after the second
i

most part an a
infinitive:

consonant in the
['

^

I

"^^

wdB "be healthy" oyxAl,

U
\\

%^

sk5 "plow" CKAl.

Certain infinitives, like ? ?

a

hM

"seek",

265.

^ '^
I

"^''^^

"land"

(i.

e.

die,

MOONE),

in careful

orthography, end in

i.

The

III ae

inf.

have
i

infinitives
^:

with feminine 266*.

ending and the vowel
n.

or

H 1^
nppF,

mst "bear"
trt

MICF

prt "go out" TTipe,

"make,

do", FlpF, rn

V\
lit.

A h^t '-descend" gF &c.
have likewise feminine
"^^^''

A
like

few III

infinitives, 267.

^dh

^^^^

^-

C^HCl,

as well as the
o

irregular verbs
"give".

Q

fl

/\

iit{^)

"come" und

rdit

The causatives of the

II lit.

have likewise femi1

268.

nine infinitives (according to § 161):

j^ ^^

shrt

"overthrow"

(from

hr

"fall").

e^
AAAAAA
Hi

smnt

"establish" from

mn MOyN "remain") CMINF.-— Among
inf.

the causatives of the Illae

are found
sh^yt

W
"cause

smsi to

"unbind", but also

^^'^(1(1^

112
descend",

p. ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE. 269

— 271.
lit,

— The causatives of the
lit.

III
1

are classified
/\

with the IV
up", Copt.

in the infinitive,

^

sCJiC

"get

COOgF
p.

(from

*soC}i'C).

ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE.
was originally a substantive with and governs no ob-

269.

The
no

infinitive

the general meaning of the verb. It therefore belongs
to definite voice of the verb

ject; "to kill

him"

is

rendered in possessive form by

hdbf "his killing"

(cf. § 79),

and

Mh

hffi "to kill the

enemy" was originally undoubtedly a genetive, "the
killing of the enemy",
270.
(cf.

173.)

Of

itself,

hdbf "his killing" may also have the
killing,

meaning "the

which he does", as
wsrfr nds

in fnl

^

^"^ r^^^^^
hearing
is
is

sdmf "an ear whose

is

small"

^

(i.

e.

a deaf ear), but such usage

practically rare (the substantivised form of § 283

preferred in this case) and a possessive suffix on
is

the infinitive

always

first to

be translated as the

object of the latter.
271.

The substantive character

of

the infinitive
is

is

evidenced also by the fact that a plural
it.

made from

In contrast with the singular

it is

best rendered

by a substantive:
1

Eb. 91,

2.

/. ITS

USE. 272.

113
Plural

Singular

msrvt "birth"'/

""^^o wr^ "to

love"

"^^^"^mrw^
I

"love";^

|-^ ChC "to
\

stand"

^

-^
;^

QiCrv

"standing

place"

^^^ Mr "to hunger"

Q
"

V^^
4 ger ^

likrrv

"hun-

With many verbs however,
and of rejoicing) the plural
the singular.
Y-

(e. g.

those of going

infinitive is also

used like

ITS USE.

It stands, precisely like

a substantive, as the sub-

272,

ject of a sentence:

Irt

nf

St

"My
cf. §

wish was to make
335),

it

for him"^ (Irt

is

subject,

or as part of the genetive relation

"The day of the lamp-lighting

in the temple",*^

L Intr^
1 «

^
fj

^

n

i U=/]
2

St

krs "place of burying",'
H, 122 a.
« 3 I,

Westc,
II,

10, 8.
5

LD

LD

122 b.

LD

IH, 24 d.

Siut

291.

"

Westc. 6, 13, Westc. 7, 8.
j[

Erman,

Egpypt gramm.

114

Y.

ITS USE.

273—275.

or for the qualification of an adjective
T
<:=^:3

(cf.

§ 118):

I

^ Wj

w/r

mdw

"excellent in speak-

mg
273.

"

1

Further, as object after verbs of willing, like
rvd

"command",

mr

"desire",

^i^

q7\

snd

"fear", as well as

^^^^=^^^8A
(cf.

^-^

"think" and

rh "know, be able"

C§ 314):

rf&i St "It

was commanded him

to

pay

it".^
is

Beside

the above, the construction in § 189

also in use

with these verbs.
274.

The
position
;

infinitive

with the

may be dependent upon any premore common prepositions these

combinations have in part taken on special meanings,

which are noted below:
275.

The

infinitive with

^^^

m

"in",

denotes for the

most part time,

"They were astonished
came",^

p^mUt when

theyj

but nevertheless occurs with other meanings,
V

e.

g.l

V ^v
sin
1
.

^1

^^
2

^^

^ ^^^ ^^^"^

"free

from do-

mg

Peasant

75.

Peasant 48.

3

Prisse

2, 4.

*

Mar. Ab.

11,

24^

Y-

ITS USE. 276. 277.

115

With
pose (as

<;:::>

r "to", it

almost always indicates pur- 276*
cf.

still

in Copt, with e

C§ 315):

hntf r shrt 'hfUrvf
his enemies'V

(cf. § 7)

"He

sailed

up

to

overthrow

"He went <=:>

^

/wwv.

^^^

ra r spr n mr-

pr-wr to beseech the chief house-overseer".^
In the

common

expression <=i>

^) r ^<? ''in order

n^

to say" the idea of
in the

purpose had already disappeared
it,

m.

e.,

so that

(like its derivative 2£P,

370), only indicates the beginning of direct discourse,
AAAAAA

a

"I wandered through the

camp
nhm
r dd: irtrv nn mi

^=^ TV.

1 1 A ^ X J^ y U ^

Q
J^f'

m.^,

while I cried,

'How

is this

done?'".^
')*,

With

^

hr

it

denotes simultaneousness ("while
^-'^

277*.

•JUjOiv^in
ing him",^

hu

hr smsf^'I went, follow-

^'^^^l^tS^^'^^'^^^ ^ri?r^"He
found him going out"
(''as

he was going out").^

On
*
1

the use of this combination as a substitute

Best rendered in English by the present participle, teansl.

LD

II,

122a,

2

Bauer

33.

3

sin. 202.

*

LD
H*

II,

122a.

Bauer

34.

8. .. and drinks 100 jars of beer". Westc.. 3 Eb. honored by the king \ . . . for the pseudoparticiple § 240.. .=^Vi ^ ^^ /wwvA I j\ mC irt mSCt n stn because I wrought truth for the king". cause: "I lived. 40. of. 242. /m^ sTvrl hkt ds 100 "He eats 500 loaves . and give him the remedy". I .* 2 '9TinC "with" connects the infinitive with a it preceding verb whose meaning now adopts: (I /wvAAA Q7\ ^ g (g iwf hr mm tS 500 . 3..^ 280. TinC rdlt nf phrt "Make for it . with transitive verbs. 8. 7..116 Y- ITS USE. with the infinitive. '278—280.^ This method of continuation is especially prefer- red with imperative and optative expressions: /"S "CH^ ^ O "^^''^^^^ «dl> AftAAAA ° Irhrk -<2>^d^^ ' X -y • • • rf . An absolute infinitive is subjoined to a sentence for the addition of an explanation: 2 1 Prisse 19.. 278. The prepositions scripts) /wvwv n (the —•— of good manudenote and ^v mP.

c._n_^ <: AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA (var. X . (| d (it) ^C^ \\\\\^''^^=^pshrmTV^ ijb nn rdit Sfryf "Cook seethe (?)". AAAAAA ."^ . 7. . an infinitive 281. i . . 'y having made two great obelisks for him"^ sQ}C "having set up"). 24 d. . . . . hnC rdit In . 307. . glut I. 281. (especially for the sake of intelligibility) in this case In^ a nominal subject is introduced by the prepositin is but a pronominal subject expressed by means of ra the later absolute pronouns of § 84: "Agreement made with so and n AAAA^\A I I <CZI^ so AAA/W\ ^^\ i A^ IN A AAAA/\A r~\ h. m rdlt nf hnC prt ntsn . . O *^^=i^ (Li dJl ^^^ made ^rws m mnrvs n as her Imn^ Irt nf thnrvi wrwi "She for her father (it) monument Amon. 117 •ODD ^^^ itfs ' I AAAAAA Vj. ^"^h^\ . a..". without letting The logical subject may be added to . IN GENERAL.^. . IN GENERAL.2 in water. and that they go out . o. TvCh "that (they) give him .C. later formation (cf. SUBSTANTIVIZED POEMS. § 170) 282*.t\N\/^ r\ Q a \ ^<=>J\ . 2 Eb. a. and that the priest give . 42. SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS. 282. The verbal forms of the s^w/and sdmnf^ can be converted 1 into masculine 3 and LD in.

10. to their stem.118 |3. In the n. f. in part a person or an object. that which he hears and the B.^^ mntf^ with thelllae . t. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. gem. (cf. the substantivized forms have disappeared. 197). § the meaning of a perfect. The forms which denote the action especially: are sdmtf "the fact that he hears". denote in part the action fact that he hears). "283. » I'risse JO. Irtf. 283.. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. feminine substantives by adding the substantive endings m. . therefore -^^^ prtf. \ The formation sdmf is of the first group § 172) used in this case with the it is form sdmtf with the II ae inf. like). '^'^'^ sdmtnf "the fact that he heard" (with cf. \ ^ -^^ (lit. p. with Ir o ^^i. e. do" rdltf. ^^-^^ with tdl "give" Only in the case of a future meaning do forms of the second group seem tr to be employed here. Jiv^^=_ "make. w. The "substantivized" itself (the forms thus made. itself. ^^zz:^ n rvnntk "the time when you will be"^ "the time of the fact that you will be"). to which the action has reference (he who hears.

^ however. 95. If it follows a sentence.285. These substantivized forms are treated precisely like substantives and are used with special frequency where we would expect a conjuncE. c:^::^ 1 IJJEL 4 1/vwvvA ^W ' I^Jl 2 ^^^ ^ rdwil. further. .n its lord". havlug givcu i. tivized form. g. it contains 286. dmlnl inbw hkB 3 Eb.. 284 — 286. Siut I. it adds to it an explanatory limitation: "Agreement. for If.. 119 284. a temporal qualification: o ^ 8.p. it precedes the sentence. that they give him a loaf AAAAAA I <=> A o AAAAAA I v dltfif HSH Jivs hc. * Siut I. I. ^v. 274.hem .^ Note. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. it". Sw'} "on mI P V'^ ^* ^^^^ ^^ "when she bore New-years-day <zi> A c^ [331 '^'^^^ hft rdlt p}. the absolute use of this substan.^ nhf when the house gives (presents) to They gave him /wsAAA this piece rum <iz> A o to l/wwvA hnt rdltnf nsn before he had given tiiem". I J^±5^ ^^^'^ siut 289. 276. tion with a dependent clause. after prepositions.

that his majesty made the southern boundary". As may be most seen.120 f. whereas the substantivized form ''They were astonished is otherwise chosen. rnpt 18 Irt hnf tBS as: This is probably to he understood "In the year 18 (oc- curred) the cirumstance. they came" Thus. "When came 287. n I in J ^-^ czsiD n ^^ X X lO ^ n MM o rst^. that which he hears etc. identical with that of the infinitive. ginning of a text after a date. 136h. the use of this form is for the part. 1 had given the way to my feet. made the southern boundary. the person The substantivized forms which denote ence (he or thing to which the action of the verb has refer- who hears. \\\\ r. In general they are distinguished as follows: the infinitive is used where its (logical) subject is identical with the subject of the preceding sentence. e. m I i ! ItSH. I to the wall of the prince"/ It sometimes stands independently at the hee. 287 — 289. . 15. but "/ was astonished when they came" A 289. fled). (i. i. when ^^^ m lit.) are theoretically as follows: 1 Sin. "his maj. 2 LD II. g. TO DENOTE A PERSON OK AN OBJECT. e." 288. Y- TO DENOTE A PEESON OR AN OBJECT.

•- mr Innt hCp '^Oxerseer oHha. it is with the form of with the Illae ir therefore Irrif with ^^ mtrtf with "make. 291. m. The forms ^ ^\ sdmtf and ^ ^^^ '^""'^ 291*. precisely after the manner of real substantives as subject. Certain of them are furthermore employed with definite meaning. § the use of these forms in relative sentences 290. 149 c. On cf. do" dlditf. (in contrast inf. 77. sdmtf is sdmtnf in which the n-form again used for the past. 2 LD II. sdmrvnf f. rdi "give' —In the case of the II lit. 121 m.t » Sin. these substantivized forms are not to be distinguished from those of the first kind. as well as with all verbs in the w-form. 290. or after a preposition. is — The formation of the second group (§ 184) used for the forms sdmrvf and sdmtf § 283). sdmtnf with the meanings "that which he hears" and "that which he heard" are the most frequent: I ^ is ^ ^/^ ^^^^^ ^^ "That which I do thee good". sdmrvf f. 394. . in the genetive. as object.* A ^ZXZ H Q ^^^ vhich the Nile brings'.Y- TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. and III lit.

is noteworthy. sdmtif'i. 44 prisse . VERBAL ADJECTIVE. The archaic forms Sg. is The form sdmrvf denotes persons and almost only with nominal subject: used ifr^^ hssm nbf^^he ^'v^^- whom his lord lovesV I "K ^^5^ Vh^ J\ tvnnw " 4 sndf ht smwt "he. sdmt'isi. 136h. f. 5. ^'^'^'^(j^^ §A ddtnfim it"^ "according to that still liv- which he had said about (while he was I — The not infrequent masculine fl dldisn I I 1 "that which they give"^ 292. 5 LD II. 3 lD n. PI. after the lands VERBAL ADJECTIVE.« LD II. 137. e.^ make this boundary "as something brilliant (i. ^ ing). 2 c gin. useful) for him who will hear 1 it". whose fear comes d. < Sin. *293. m. 113f. who will hear" and are employed both as adjectives and substantives: J^ s^l ^^ tSi 3 rib srrvdt'if'i S _^^ Xcm /wwv^ <CZ> Ul iCi "^ W pn "every son of mine who shall increase". sdmttsn almost always mean "he (she). 293.122 d. 8. 292. 34 d.

a pronoun it § 337 sq. rn do" has ^^ ^ ^ . the in. K\^ also occur. m. always double the second radical.297. 2<. sin. Cat. p^'i. the endings are for the 294. 2 » Mar. its mina absoluia.296. in the singular.. always expressed by the old prono§ 30. d'Aby.::=_ or . In respect of the formation. that it is the II ae gem. 807. . PI. APPENDIX TO THE VERB. o l\«v or o 1 Willi n or ^n till \ f. 294 — 297. however. it is could not originally govern an object. •^^ I W rvnnt'isi. direct object (accusative) cf. If it is ed only by the order of words. On account finitive of substantive character. is cf. 295. THE OBJECT. f.11. 123 In classic orthography. <r "make. APPENDIX TO THE VERB. most part written: Sg. 11. the Illae inf. THE OBJECT. . to be noted. rdi "give" has <=> A rdldfi.=:^h^rvt'ift (ct § 151 A). in part take w for the ending of the stem. 75. The is to be recognis.

r mrt it" ("them). § 306). is 299. . thus: 1 Siut I. possessive suffixes. r^ iht ''the one knowing (something)". 223. (cf. e. A special adverbial formation Beside the prepositions stantives (cf. ADVERBS. which by good manuscripts. "in l'^ order to love him". Note ^ i. 300. Only the neuter pronoun § 82) can also follow the infinitive. e. verbs which have no special object. The indirect object (dative) ^^aaaa expressed by means of the preposition n (cf. 271. 1. 1. 298 300. the adjectives are used as ad- verbs. § 303) and absolute sub- § 117). PARTICLES. PAETICLES. before substantives. the wise man. Irt iht "to do (something")'.^ e. 2 glut I. St "it" (cf. to make offering. according to § 269. i. ADVERBS. especially not to be translated by us. combined with the i.. St "in order to love Transitive 298. is written — :_. does not exist. are often followed by the word iht "thing" as a general object. r mrtf "for his loving".124 therefore.for the god.

^ 2. With the preposition r. sB "in the hack". 125 1. 37. i. They are that is in part employed like conjunctions also. a.^ "He wept ^"^'^'^•[1^^^ <. in the masculine. 20. 66. Since they were originally suhstantives. they are com{lirf bined with the possessive suffixes lit. m GENERAL. IN GENERAL. PREPOSITIONS.i'wwr^ very sorely". in part simple {m "in". 18. to say. "upon him" "his face"). in the masculine or feminine AAAAAA ^ . in the feminine (especially "very") with the intensifying wrt vomits often".' ^ 2. '2 Eb. 302. in part compound {m e. or more rarely. 17. "hehind"). 302. . 1 Eb.2. verbs may be dependent upon them.^ Alone. § 190 and for details § 306 sq. PREPOSITIONS. as is still clear in the case of many. r CBt "very". < Peasant 25. Cf. 3 Eb. a. The prepositions are "with"). 301. hnC 301. r mnh "excellently". 37.

which. to the connection. "the entire sides". C§ 349).^ 305. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 306. The prepositional phrase like a substantive also. e. b.^ i. they should properly have. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. e. distinguish each as 7. 310. brv "place" : smnf im "he had gone into" the preposition and imf "into it"). g. where we would employ a or an adjective. b. a. g. e. gin. is sometimes treated i I ^ QA 1 hswt nf hr stn "the rewards of the with-the-king". ll referring to ("into" for 304. 6. Una U. 2 —:— 3 ('^n) and Priase 2. 303 — 306. manuscripts dating from the end of the m. . The prepositional phrase the word dependent it) is frequently subjoined to a relative clause substantive.^^_ t^ pn r drf "this land up to its boundary"/ y V e. gsw'i 1/vwvAA ml kdsn "the two sides i. e. i. "this entire land". Note especially the expressions for C§ 152): <z:> ^ i. like AAAAAA n is pronounced before nouns. "entire" (cf. They are very often used with the suppression of the as adverbs also. something (cf.126 303. according to their extent". 1 e. suffix. and the beginning *'^n. the rewards on the part of the king. e. (i. with suffixes *na- of the n. according e.

307. in As a conjunction and before the it means "because". SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. is pronounced before nouns something (1 like 307*. C§ 350). in the year. in particular 1. "because of". before suffixes ^emo-. to 3. some one. ^^^ m **»?. — The to do to original meaning it is "for the advantage of any one". after the verbs "to be" or "to make (into) some- . to among a number. in the to manner of. a period of time.b. empty of something 4. because of a thing. to say something to some one come to some one (only with persons). 127 (na-). without any in particular: accompanying idea of direction. § 278) 4. in the capacity of. 3. con- sisting o/ something. a command. — The original meaning of place. a condition. on the day and the like. out of something (inexact for "«r) 2. «s. provid- ed with something. made out o/ something. to bring or give something (dative). like\ according 5. of time. itisused 1. infinitive (cf. belonging something. existent m. then means: something for some one. in 6. written ^^ Im- (cf. is "within". into something. 2.

remains untranslated. . four days" and the like 6. e. § 275. 2 where we | » Westc. *308 ally ^^ ^'^ "*^^ servant there" ^ (humbly <=> (*<^r. therewith (by means of)" . without any accomusual meanings are: existent at or by something. C§ 348) origin- meant "at" or "by" something. with suff. 175. thereinto. g. where 8. gin. ''per day". 2. 308. 1. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. b. into something (inexact for m) as far as . '•''every distributively of time. ^^ *erof. ing) .128 things". to speak to some one 4. Its cf. thither to something (the most frequent mean. «^ ^s^s. adverb it has the form ^v and means "therein (there). (j^^^. 1. As a conAs an means "when" and "if (1 (§ 391). On m junction it before the infinitive cf. C§ 350. it is also joined to a substantive. panying idea of direction. therefrom. for "I"). hostile toward some one (in contrast with «). thereout. 4) occasionally for the introduction of direct disit course. (cf. 3.^^^'^n^^^ ^ iw/'m nds "He is a citizen" 7. by means of a tool. especially after adjectives ''more than\ 7. 5.

309.6. it is also written (I <zz> . in the north and the like. also in inexact specifications of place and time. 4. gramm. also use before the infinitive § 276. cf. with or without ^ hr (lit. and "so that". at the time of and the like. upon each one. anoint. 3. cook &c. its 7. the suffix. and the like.^ As a conjunction on its it means "until" cf. 8. On § 120. pleasant for the heart. Cf. on hr with the it § 277. 6.53. Erman. Egypt. T nfr r tht nbt "more beautiful than everything".' and means existent upon something (the most frequent meaning). 129 <=:> . As a con- junction 1 means 12.-^-^ would employ our comparative. with suffixes is written ^ es- 309*. pecially: 1. distributively. Westc. "because". § 2. 2. use in the co-ordination of substantives infinitive cf.in correct orthography (C§ 351). down upon something. to deviate from some- thing. with something. hr. In the pyr. because of something (frequent). and the like. 5. A. in addition to something to pass by something. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. "face"). .

existent rvith some one and the it is like. "under" (also of direction). ®o 313. means ^carrying or posses- Cf. is ^ hr. something done by some one. 278.). the most part employed for^ to it according corresponding and also for. receive from one. On mC with the infinitive cf. cf. take something from some one. is also used of being laden (because the bearer under the burden) and therefore often sing something". 310 — 313. to receive something /rom some one. mC (perhaps arising from mc «in the arm") in the possession of. originally. also. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS.130 310. 2. 311. and the is like. ^^^ means 1. because of a thing. — As an adverb means conjunction^ "when". — On its use in the passive § 169. hr. rescue from some one. Note further the simple prepositions: . lit. § cf. 4. b. some 3. simultam "in front". 312. C§ 352. hft (on orthography is for § 7) originally meant "m front of\ but to. as ously with. obsolete and still used almost only in specifications of reigns (under King X.

"behind". compounded with a subof a part of the body). COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. "as re- ward for".^ P*^^ VI ^ )) ^^^ ^^^ compensation). 315.C. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. § 169.i'^'f^ii)} midst of". if" (cf. 1) (1 mi (in the pyr. occiput). it is obsolete. since" c. rCU "opposite". § 279. 315. Cm\ hnt (lit. also § 120. § 391). head or the like) "upon" .— Cf. . often y <:i=> mr) "like". "as. 131 "between. 314. 314. AAAAAA In only for the expression of the subject Cf. with the passive and the infinitive. ^ dr "when. As a conjunction. Many prepositions are stantive (usually the name Note especially: ^iv. nose) "before" (rest or motion) as an adverb. with the infin. hniw "before". hnC "together with". ^'^ O 9 AAAAAA JiB (lit. ir ^v^'^ in the (1 V ^^^^^ (^^ *^® Py^'. tp (lit.

s9 ("in the back") <=> ^ r sS. "at the summit". (cf. m ht "behind. hr hQ^ as an adverb. also /wwvA ^ I n si.385). persons". ^-^ mhCt ^^^ of". often as a conjunction. is also used as a conjunction. an adverb. "formerly". "after" ^^ m "after". as a conjunction. r si. . hr sB are used. "afterward".^^ hr s9 "behind. V J\ ^ ^^^ "^^ ^^® inside of" (cf. m. hr-lb: "in the midst of". "formerly". As an adverb "afterward". C§ 356). "in order that". COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. e^ /ww\a iju^ (for love). ^-^ fir JiQ. after". after".132 C. r si. ^^(=Qidr hBh as an adverb. "^ hft hr "in front X m y^ C§ 357). 1= C§ 359). § 244. 315 J skin". '^ mhr "in front of. as (cf. "before m h^h („in the fore(also as some one" an ad- verb). cf. -^ m m m "among n mrrvt^ in the m.

"as ^^ With dMB ("upon the head"). there prefixed to the preposition. frequent (C§ 359. C§ 361. r gs ("at the side"). as an (j adverb according to § 307 ^ ^ tp Im "formerly". others. e. it. ^^ ^ "before some one. 317. COMPOUND PEEPOSmOSS. <zi> side". A ^ *'^^ ("i° order to separate"). very rare. v. .C. 338). Brugsch. something". Finally. 316. 317.5. LE. a word more exactly qualifying thus in: X ^^ Tvprv hr "except" (also for "but" con- junction). <=> far as". y C§ Wb. there are such peculiar formations as: '=^^:. in the m. Suppl. cf. "^ Jir gs: "be- ^^^ in the "together with". and the old ^ wprv r "except". s. "upon" is cf. 354). 316. ^ Tir vK. "between" 1 (cf. r drw ("up to the boundary"). ^ <^^> nfryt r ^^ "as far as". ^ ^^X^<cz> \\\\\ hrrv r "apart from". 133 ^ midst ^ J^ wrf^' ^ ^^^ ^"^^ *^® entrails'y "in the of".

LM with"). ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. 306 sq. a. (I) the king LD II. (^ 319. h. b.. a. serves for the most part (like our "namely") to introduce an explanatory addition: C/T • • • 4. in part enclitically joined 318.. thus § 257. others which are treated elsewhere.. I ^§121. ^s § 363. IN GENERAL. 349. 319. On those prepositions which are § 302. cf. 348. stn is . 24(1. The conjunctions are to the first its word of the sentence. 318. CONJUNCTIONS. . "I made 1 it for him . M ' • • • '^^^ . 35.". in gen. nf . . "from" (cf.134 3. "as far as". s^c m ("in order to begin C§ r 355). mn m} ("in order to remain with"). in part appear at beginning also. . .^ . and D §347. — Apart from there are the conjunctions noted in the following. 124. 2 LD lU. 3. coNjuNCTioxs. used as conjunctions. enclitic conj.

i)^=>. then Ir grt . g. e. 2 Eb. b. In the pyr. is is very frequent. § 323 B.320.^^ HJ if it "^ ^^^^ ^H use hB mrv Ims but rule. Ir srvt § 97) nht but all men (who preserve who But this contrast is sometimes so weak that these conjunctions really serve for the attachment of the clause only. 51."). eye bleeds. "If the 321. (cf. <=:> grt^ also properly means "but". 321. this later language cf. . who &c. its upon bread laid 1 upon Siut I.)". . 320. 18."^ (or "Further. ^^ IU% fruit is laid I Z\ grt prts ditws hr tB but &c. ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. 135 On the other hand .h.''^ As a of "but": however. 3 Eb. A. (1 .^ 1}^ (like our "but") ex.:^a_^(1 I n is means "but not". press the opposite of that which precedes: "All men who \\\ O:^ injure the tomb. ^ ^ its is f. water comes out of it &c. joins an explanation or a continuation. 225. 8. as a restricting adjunct. like "further" or our weaker "This plant is employed so and ifv so. (1 Vi. on the is of the 1 ^ C^ srvt and ^ ^^ rmtt &c. 66. (1 <ci:> I V^ Jl g —>^ it.

(1P^= (IP^ (older H s=5 is() specifies the circumstances under which anything happens wi m si& . 322. kind are The archaic ^\ which seems to intro- duce the sentence as the result or consequence of that which has been previously narrated..^ 1 Una 5. 2. ist^ is especially used. § 348. . it is employed for the introduc- tion of parenthetical or incidental remarks. Since the m. . 349): pn "this peasant said (this) however.. i^h 323. C.). CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. . at the time of king Nb-kr. . 8. when I was j. 323.. 2 jb. made me made me f. mnQ() »*s in direct discourse. e. 3 Bauer 71. e. then his his majesty maj. 45. where these circumstances are to be emphasized as remarkable.136 322. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. designates that which has been stated as something self-evident or well known. c. Rarer conjunctions of 1. especially with following r/ (cf. friend"- (i. rdl rvi hnf m smr "I was judge . this twC^. .

"2 B. The pyr. with is many ^i used in promises. I will which is stated: ^^ Sh ^ 2 ^'^''^ k^rduhprmTv"S\LTe- cause water to be". In LA hr 7\ is very frequent. []^^^ thr originally intro. directions.C. 9. 12. or the time at which something occurs: "He erected this tomb for his son child". CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC 324 — 326. In ist LE it is written the late Egyptian Ist. use B. (like for or because). with much weakened significance. (like the more frequent 1st) the circumstances under which. ElC-> seems to have arisen from n I '^^n^ Isk (older I ^=^:=:^ Isk) mostly designates 324. tstio\ 137 A. § 120 A. after the days had passed by varied meanings. cf. Is also. also intro- duces new paragraphs of a narrative and precedes especially temporal clauses: hrw this. 200. 9. . it duced a substantiating clause Then.^ l^z::^ 1^ ^v % sk stv m hrd when he was a older ® ^. Westc. 3 ib. in order to strengthen that "^""^ ly. then &c. threats and 326. sjv^ hr nn ^^No?v.^ 1 Mar. 17. Mast. enclitically also.325. Copt.

328. while its subject is a noun or absolute pronoun. 1. a. understood a is *327. '> rnk nfr "Thy name is beautiful".^ ^=^T AAAAAA <. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. * Sin. 328. 3. By the (pure) nominal sentence sentence without a verb. 14. 2 Louvre C 172. THE SENTENCE. § 80 are then where the old pronouns of as subject: employed m hShk "Behold I (am) before thee". THE NOMINAL SENTENCE.138 la. Occasionally it receives the suffix of the 2 m. It is used in assertions: ^^^^^^^ inwk nb ImSt "I am the lord of graciousness". "^^^^ ^ ^^1 ^'v^ "^^^ throw". adjective or prepositional phrase. . 3.^ A. 263.^ 1 Westc.* and is especially frequent after rnk "behold" (§ 183). The sub- ject precedes the predicate. is THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. whose predicate then a substantive. 327. 3 Prisse 5. In the oldest language kS is ^^^ ^^^^ "'^^^^ ^^^^^ also used enclitically.

are under thy charge"* face). Snwtf ^ (for: rns S7iwtt). * Eb. cate precedes the subject. 23. . THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 329. 15. are under the place of thy It is. » 2 Sin. like 1^ ^\ whose 1 D v\ is "^ QA I sm^ snwtt rns "an herb name 2. » Eb. when the subject is a demonstrative or an ab- solute pronoun: ^ qA ^^ {^ 1 I dpt mrvt nn "This is the taste of death". further. 19. . the predicate is thereby emphasized. . <:^> fruits are ^ ^ I ^^^ ^ ""^ ' ' </A:r nb hr htwf «A11 upon its trees''. . 1.^ and often also as a relative clause (cf.^ Occasionally. Thus in expressions with rn "name". I ^^'^\\o^ n rmtj : Is nt m St "They are not people of strength'"" (for n Siat 269. . in violation of the rule. LD II. § 393): man on whose neck are swellings". 6 st rmtt ni ift). the predi. 51.^ ^^^ MO I. 136 h. 139 n ihrvt .330.a. . 330. 51. hr St hrk "Behold these things (lit. » Sin. often used in descriptions: ' 329. 83.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY iw AND The nominal sentence is wn. §§ 220 sq. the popular language of the m. 2 Butler 16.^ e. In the pyr.* j In this case the adjective often receives an ending ^ rv'i^ which perhaps lends it a special emphasis: is I face!" ^ nfrrv'i hrk "How beautiful thy A. sometimes introduced byj "to the auxiliary verb (1 Vi^ iw be" (cf. 331. In way was under water". This inverted order the predicate 1 is especially frequent. a preposi-j 246 sq. especially when the predicate tional phrase: is mrv "His one B.).. h. 1 Bauer 3. the pronouns where they would stand as the subject of a nominal sentence are superceded by the forms of this verb : (1 v\ ^^ for Inwk &c.140 *331. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY llV AND IVn. where is an adjective: c^ I ^ }^ ^"^ Vwi nfr mint "My way is { good". 332. . 332. this ending is written v\ or h.

g. yw is already superceded by the demonstrative pB'i. i . "she". 25. 5 Eb. wnm precedes. in order to render 1 Prisse 2. 2 Mar. Ab.) as in ^^ \ \^^^ for '^v' 1 rvnin nfr st hr ibsn "It cf. 141 More rarely it is introduced by the auxiliary verb 333. e. expression. the similar word TTE. § 223. 136h. 75.' 334.^ properly have as subject. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH 'pW. * LD II. Sentences like ^^^'^d\\ BC pw "-^^ '^ «It is ReC". This construction is then used to emphasize the 335. 333 — 335. 250 sq. but this pw is now a long ° weakened an unchangeable word having the mean- ing "he".C. B. nS'i in the LE. II. NE probably arose from this. 3 ib. 2 . was good where their heart"/ (for st nfr § 330. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH ptv. This tS'i. 2). "it" or "they". the predicate according to § 330. TF. ^^ n rvn (cf. prv — If the predicate is it: may be PJi^t inserted within D v\ ^^ ^^ truth" ^ • P^ ^f rvn-m^c «It is a remedy of (cf. 6. ^o^° D ^ ^ to ^^'*^ ^"^ ^^^*"'' i ^ ^ ^^ ^ which follows fiwrw prv "They are paupers". predicate of a nominal sentence. the demonstrative prv "this". 12. § 103). c.

-^ (^ FS^ M^^. for alone indicates how a sen-]] tence 337. that is to he especially noted. containing the verb. In the preceding part of the sentence the order] in principle: 1. verb. a. containing specifi-^ cations of time and place and the like. g. 2. pw ipt "It is is the horizon. subject. if parts 2 —4 are partly substantives an< partly pronouns. THE ORDER OF WORDS. to be analysed. subject. is it 336. and Ipt then follows as apposition to Iht prv "it": ^ n'^(l° jl'^© Karnak'V i. § 299). direct and in- and one following. Ipt tht is emphatic the word is is "Karnak the horizon".:^^ rdln stn nb AA/W\A O O O bkf "The king gave his servant gold". g. 24d. 1 LD III. the pronouns precede the substai tives. the sentence tht prv "It first the horizon" made. E.142 2 a. *338. e. THE ORDER OF WORDS. 336 iht "horizon" in — 339. viz. THE PARTS OP THE SENTENCE. . divided into two parts: one pre ceding. But E. 2. is 4. it is The order of words often the case. "The horizon Karnak". 339. is The sentence direct object. direct object| indirect object (cf. 3.

340*. 143 a \Si S!l 1 T AAAAAA O O O rdm ni stn nb „The king gave AAAAAA me gold". for stylistic purposes. THE ORDER OF WORDS. 341.C\ vgi v\ rdinf nl srv "He gave (cf. in the part which precedes: QiSrvf "1 caused that his weapons pass by me"^ (for swB ChBrvf hrl). v^ Sr rdlnf nl O O O rib "He gave me gold".^^ AAAAAA it to his servant". that the pronominal suffix precedes the absolute pronoun: a AAAAAA v^ 1 <^ T V4 T 11 '"'^^^ AAAAAA ^^ ^^ *^^ "The king gave it to me".C. the direct. may be inserted by exception.) the above laws are inviolable. CZIZI^^ AAAA/V\ AAAAAA O I . 136. it to me". Except for the sake of emphasis § 343 sq. . the indirect precedes is. A vocative stands as a rule at the end of the 342.i s/y sifw w hkf "The king gave 0^^. under certain circumstances. 340 342. Q AftAAAA 1 1 ^ /T I /www AAAAAA I (^^ _/ J. however. an expression which belongs in the latter part of the sentence. ^Cda ^ r<?«'. sentence » Sin. If both objects are pronouns.

thus. it is ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ "^^ it is t^ lord. e. I will take mk rvi r nhm ass.^ somewhat ceremonial. IN GENERAL. g. in placing before the sentence. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. hold. also § 330. The original phasized word without further introduction. Emphasis consists a word to which it is desired to attract attention. J) as in '^^:z7 ^ (] "^ A^7\ ^k.144 6 a. like ru q7\ K\ hS and the like.:. the word 'king' is often em- phasized without reason. ^ f'=Ti) 1. p. 335. 343. sht'i. hr wmf "Be- away thy peasant. 344. p. 331. 343."^ If it be placed at the beginning of the address. 1 Bauer 11. — Cf. h. It is by a pronoun in the sent- very frequently used and often contrary to our sense. g. because he devours &c. method of emphasis leaves the eme. 344. . 2 Bauer 74. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. a. it and as a rule resuming ence. EMPHASIS. I have found". IN GENERAL. [1 then often introduced by an interjection. c^k.

reached heaven" ^ (for j97« As^*' pt). lower Egypt 1 expired". I '^. I Irt st ri rf). I was a hero(?) therein"^ rs).* If the sentence has one of the compound verbal it. 345. Erman. 122a. is irni hd m smt nbt. the auxiliary verb with which is formed. 2 Sin. I r i AAAAAA cii. Yi . 144. he drinks (it) if thou wishest". 8. Egypt. 233.^a k^tnf irt st ri irni st rf "That which he had thought to do it to me. 3 gin. 145 ""^ § ? it V§^ D § _SS)fl ° ^ ^s^* i>/*« J3^ "My praise.^ LD II. ?risse 2. rrvini The resumptive pronoun especially in poetry: occasionally omitted. 101. I t!?^ • • • U f^ (^h<^n hn n sin . . 346. gramm. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. had done it to him"- (for Irni kBtnf r\ I £^1 -Zl J\ 2i 1 1 _Zl AAAAAA cl CI^I^ vR to [1 ^\ I smt nbt rrvtnl rs. 346. minnf "The majesty of the king of upper and . forms as its verb. . irv irni hd ims "Every land (for irv which I went. 345. .p. m Itrm swrif mrk "The water in the stream. * Sin. stands before the emphasized word: T bit'i .

3 prisse 2. Y. I entirely Cf. Tvdt nl linf^ rvn hprnl ml kd "All that his majesty completed". it m. also § 228. also. 347. e. • V360 o^ ^^^ year". g. (that) I '^[]''^~^^^^n\>^'^^{^ 1 i nhtntr. ^ 1 wnln hnf tbf rvS r hrvt(?) hrs it". 12. but in the n. kind of sentence. (often in legal style).^ "The heart of his majesty was sad concerning AAAAAA LJ V^ l\f\f\f\J\f\ ^ I U rvn Iht nbt. ir-.^ Here to § 346. * Siut I. 2 Una 42. an auxiliary verb is still is treated according This construction i-egarded as ceremonious in thel e. 9. B. r-. superceded all the] other methods of emphasizing. AND Ir is in. the resumption of the emphasized word by means of a pronoun sentence^ is only occasionally suppressed. 4. hear it"^ tr firw is t\<=> ^ /wwvA 1 III (3(3(3 nnn _zr r 360 pn> n rnpi "A temple-day.' commanded me. r- and in. 1 Westc. sdm St "All that is written.146 Y- WITH ir. ir-. WITH \r. The emphatic particle H used with every . in the case of the subject of a nominal e. 347. 30C .

'5 K* . often still has the archaic form rk "''''''^ A): ^ ^. is The subject of a sentence 1 Westc. In the pyr. 24 d. (like that of § 349). it in the last case (cf. Peasant 29. Irf. 8. This r. Peasant 52. 248.^ ^ That dik rk ni "give me".Y- WITH ir. * Sin. which. r- and in. (J sdmrv irf tn "hear ye". is written follows the word to be emphasized JiT^ (1 dsk irf "thou thy- self". Irt. 147 The emphatic word [1 <>/. § 356) and with imperatives and optatives. often emphasized by 350.^ It is often used in interrogative sentences (cf. rf. 348 — 350. in many texts 348. which is added to the verb (espe.349.had originallj' irvin rf shti pn changeable suffixes also. irk. 2 LD III. Irs. cially those of going) at the beginning of short sec- tions seems to be different T from irf rf tS rf\ ^ AAAAA/v Mn "The earth became light'/ A\\ "This peasant came".^ A. b--. this tr takes the suffix corresponding to the subject of the sentence: r/. 3 7.^ A.

^ AAAAAA r\ I I n N\fy/\y^ '^ -<2>-| I AAAAAA ntsn irsn ni "It is they who do it for me". *n according to late pronunciation). 351. 2 LD III. the resumpself ^ pronoun for the most part omitted as evident: I A\'w\A y it in hnf rdi irtf "His majesty - Q' caused that be made"' (for in hnf rdif irtf). 24 d. e. The frequent tive ellipses the omission of effec- words as dispensable) often render the underdifficult. the pronouns ntk. 351. where.^ B. Siut I. 308. THE ELLIPSE. 4 c. one or more indentical words are suppressed: 5^" AAAAAA I I I I AAAAAA I III I I I yr III 3 AAAAAA I I I 1 Sin. are substituted for in § 84: and the pronoun according to ntf ssm wi "It is he who leads me". means of tive \ AAA/SAA In (old writing is (1 1 ^^ J in) . 289. standing of the text very first They are found in poetry. of all in the parallel members in the second member.148 C. e. (i. In LE this In is written: ^^\ (i. If the subject to be emphasized is a pronoun. THE ELLIPSE. ntf &c. * Sethe .

found in the second compared member: AAAftAA sfwf (lit. mkhS ddrv grg "Turning his countenance to him who speaks truth. my memory with your children". . 149 iml mi m r n linrvtn sh^l hr msTvtn "Establish (Establish) my name in the mouth of your servants. the latter sometimes written with the only. thus in animated narrative: > Mar. mine) like (the heart of) the prince of any land". 31. (turning) the back of (his) head (to) those lies". 353. II. broadens) the heart of the servant there e.^ ^ f ^^ ^ tms hrf r dd m^Q. same subfirst 353. where it is 352. Ab.smt nbt "He re- joices (i. 3 gin. 352.C. lb n bk im ml hkB n. 2 Louvre C 26.- who speak Similar is the ellipse in comparisons.^ several successive verbs have the is When ject. THE EIXIPSE. 176.

2 jRC "saith Re".^ "She takes Egypt like the god <::^ ''Ir-s?i lO r to rvtj lift ^^-=^ V ^ ^'^^-^ shprnf (for shprnf si) /I ffwf he created (her) to wear his diadem 355. rdl sdt Im "I captured their women. cut down their barley. 24 d. * Eb. 3 lD III. » LD 136h. g. it An is object may likewise remain unexpressed."* /wvAAA Q ^'. These stand B. with accompanying ellipse of the subject) into his village". 2 Peasant 24. went to their wells. ntrrv Jw dd. 5 Stele from Kuban.^ 354. up)". 355. < . e. C THE ELLIPSE. (]/wwv^ Maaaaaa /^^^^ "they say". 354. (lit. pr r hnmrvtsn^ hrv kBrvsn^ rvhB I led its?i. stole his ass. where clear from that which precedes. ( « Thus. 20. (I fiir is QA II. set fire thereon". ]'^ I I ntrm lir "the gods say"^ ddhrtrv. later written for Inf. ddinsn. "He "^^ s^^k for sCk sw.150 inni hrrvsn. away their people. he drove (him). slew their steers.^ Another form pressions like: is the ellipse of |) dd "say" in ex- <^^% §r^w [] "it is said". 9.

C§ 394. it is The indication of the question by the accent alone is very rare. INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE. on the read- who?": nn hr m? /y ^J^J^^-^f phnk "Why (on ac- count of what) have you reached this (place) ?''^ "^^^ irtw nn mi m ? "Like what 2 (1 % 1 1 ^^ 18. 3. 8. end of inter- 358*. the sentence C§ is 392). a. § 34) "what?. 202. v\ ml cf. . 2 is this » done?"'' Westc. Fre- quent emphasizing whether of the verb or of the interrogative particle. 3 Peasant sin. INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE. cf. 356 — 358. < ib. as a rule externally marked. the interrogatives stand at the (cf. 151 3. (Jaaaaaa 357*. KINDS OF SENTENCE. in iw is perhaps preserved in PNE. The most common mii^ rogative pronoun ing. If the sentence contains it is no special interrogative.^ n /www [1 ^' °^^-^ v^ In irv m^Ct piv "Is it truth?" 2 B. As a rule. 356. introduced by means of in or [Jaaaaaa [1 v^ 1 Q 1 Jm o tf Ji ^ I 2^-=^ _M^ ^n upon his Crvitrvl rf m v^ . is characteristic of the inter- rogative sentence. 35. "Shall be robbed land(?)?". .3fl.

y?«Whosaysit?''^ m m "Who B. 359. 2 Irt r tn? "Whither goest 2 f. 6 Westc. 46. O^O is {l)-nw "When?"'' "What 361.^ijij|«^sy(?). m is already written aaaaaa \^\ 3^ at the end LE there has arisen from in m. Hdb. I . 9. 15. 14. Other old expressions for "who?. Sin. a new word jQ w 360.). 35. (T^ '|W£5£f>*V/^w?"Wherei8it?"' ^^^^<=> thou?"^ 1 ^ \%& q^ 35. This in of the m. "Toward where makest thou". AAAAAA PI e. 12. 2).^^5. 359 — 361. 9. what?" e. " 6 Totb. Hdb. 58. 126.Qi.. (I B. C§ 60. in irf inf sw ? brings it?"^ (with doub e emphasis). C§ m is already superceded by Ih A(l) "what?". (lit. LE. 30. a. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE. Math. Math. as subject with the meaning "who?". 3 sg. '^. Cf. n'im "who" MIM (cf. 8ib. ^— ^ "^ 1 "^ ^^. Eb.i//. 4. 7 ib.152 In cf.: I ^ I'VI'^^^ (with emphasis). is (Igp^^D^ -75-(l(j Isstpfv "What is it? who it?"^ |d^ /sy(?) pw of the time?"). § 350): is usually emphasized by in A A^AA^A (cf. "~^^ 60. Schlr. 10. g. "Who is it?"^ Here belongs also TO" (lit. The interrogative for "where?" is ^ AAAAAA V^^=^tn. are (jg[l^^ m^and^.

^ ptfi. Eb.^n_„ and '^'^. A. b. Cf. 362 — 364. "WITH n AND nn. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. 49. ed. B. 3. archaically written 1 Q7\. 17. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. 153 it is written. which are usually distinguished in good orthography: 1 . TCDN. Their pronun3 Math. o. tmc. whence?" B. As a characteristic of the interrogative sentence. means "whither?. 31. Copt. . "show" or the like. pif-i hut generally -I QA pi'i^ is pro- bably not an interrogative. and even without a pre- position. 362. and in LE. it is written trc. 2 Totb. note further the particle trw^ which follows the first 363. the beginning of the sentence It always stands at ° field?" ^ (^'^§'^1'^-- Pt'i ^W "What is his ° f^^^^l^ P^'^ ^f ^^ "What is it?" 2 (with emphasis). (1] The common word. In LE. word shJnk "Didst thou remember?"^ A. \) The usual negation in v^ii-^ (more rarely / appears 354* two different forms. a. Hdb. In the pyr.b. tnl. 2. C§ 364. Nav. tn. In the pyr. WITH « AND ««. but something like an imperative.

ing. was perhaps approximately n and nn or similar. the negation is preserved N-. without being partisan). B. it however. * LD II. nn rdit hr gs "Judgside"* (i.^ 366. 365 — 367. both forms are written c^JU^. without putting upon one e..): -^ nn pssf "He shall (will) not di- M- 367. . (cf.^n^ J\ ^v n prnf im then will not come out".154 ciation 6. and always with the w-form mw "Lay (] n rhi srv "I know him not". § 280) AAAAAA i& Especially frequent in this case is onn rdit "without giving. 114. 0. Before the absolute infinitive used. is used with the form sdmf^ when is. ^. 2 Eb. . 311.. has the meaning of a future (that cf.^-A-^ is used with the verbal form sdmf. as LE. 19. 1 Sin.0^.' this upon the snake's it hole. AA^/^AA § 184sq. always has (Cf. 365. without causing": -J- a— ^^2 ^/^^ rvdC. 97. C§ 389). 3 Siut I. NEGATIVES SENTENCES. belongs to the second group. In the pyr. . A. WITH n AND nU. in Copt. U9e. in so far as it is not future in meaning.

272. ^ 2 c^ n grt "however not" (weaker than the former): 1 Eb. 13.^ In this combination. o^A^ stands before the nominal sentence.^ ^n®^-^^^N. the later ab§ 84): . the same meaning: AA/VAAA AAAAAA § 80) for "it -^^^ nn wn also appears with 1 _iir^ AAA/W\ /T >^\ \ _/J^^ Im "There is no water there. this case when the subject is a pronoun. nn hms «A ship Note further the combinations .^ n wsht. and only means "without" its (e. D ^^ is ^^lo \ n ntf pw m msCt "It \ not really he". solute pronouns are used . 6. g. < Eb. WITH H AND mi. . NEGATIVE SENTENCES. rdit has sometimes lost causative meaning. 368 370. nn rdit pssf st^ "without his dividing it"). (cf. 43. 155 "Set it where it is cool ^^"^^3^ '^ "^ P B ^O see nn rdit m^^s srv without permitting the sun to it". 3 sin.b. Siat I.^a_^(1 I n Is "but 370. lowing noun or old absolute pronoun does not exist". 17.^n-^ is c:^ (cf.^ not" and s^-a. 267.^ -^-^^^ however. I am not there". 5 Sin. very frequently used with a fol. and in 368. which has no rudder".369. a. 69.

n wsh Is prv "It was narrow.^ 371. 4 (of. tm-. 390. 8. 3 LD 6 II. V\ Jl D ® n: _ hot sp with an old negative iwt also occurs 372. m. probably obsolete in the classic language. 149 e. A strengthening of the negative.^^JU^.156 a. ^ Una 31 5 Gr6baut. Mast. the circujil. Mar.^ nfr n irt mitt "Never was the like THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-. the subject of such a sentence often emirt phasized by means of the demonstrative fB.*^ Jy p. pi. musee Egyptien. 371 — 373. certaii 373. with im-. pBt: n sp pBt "The like was never done". since the time of the god". § 378). . is |1 found in w/r "^^^^I v^-f^ ^^ %\ in nfr n rvnn niCtii "If it is done". m. .^ is A. ^^^jT_^ n ^ ® n sp means "never" yc^£^£i -^^r^fc^ra^y hS mUif hr smt tn ^ Q\nsp dr rk ntr "One like him never came down in this land. In old texts. 1 not in your possession". 2 Eb. tm-. WITH n AND nn. and replaced by circumlocution^ Butler 15. mitt f. 104. but v. p. 18. l^^o : rvrt but not much".^-n-^[j it was not wide"J n is "His skin grows. The usual negatives are avoided with forms of the verb.

^^ ^^ Vi^Q^ when the verb to be denied is 374. serves for the negation of imperatives and optatives with a nominal subject: . In the pyr. 2 Eb. which is written 375. the Illae inf.^i. 157 fol- witli the obsolete verbs Im- and tm-. * Totb.^ written SI ^\. 3 m ChC rim . 8. 30 A 2. B 3. in which the II ae gem. Prisse 5. M. 110. 374.^ m CB ibk "Let not thy heart A A.^ imk I I I ir iht rs "Do not do anything for it". THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-. ed. tm-. optative or final in meaning and has a pronominal subject: "Treat it with cold fi |\ ^"^C30 l\ l\ Q mf smm that it may not become hot".^ The imperative of the old verb. These are lowed by a (participial?) form of the verb. 6.^^ be proud". m. . plural it is mtrw "Do not stand against me as a witness". 3. 91. Nav. are doubled. 375. are not doubled and rdl "give" has the form H ^s. they have also a 1 Eb.

^"^i Eb. imtf'i QiB lirf "He who unlooses it". 2 Eb. 377. § 204) hsbt "If it does not become worms" . among other uses.158 B. cr "do not". from which arose the Copt. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH Instead of im-. m the language of the n. M AND e. The circumlocution according to ^^^ the above means "not since tm ^^imr tm rdl. this com- bination is also construed as such: is "The boundary 1 erected 6. 3 LD II. is then an infinitive. . 26. which is to cause that".' ''^Tifl ^ ir tmf wU St "If he does not discharge in the form sdmhrf (cf. is Cf. tm-. 25. in sentence \\ <==> cvjr^ l:^^ ^ ^^ it".^ (cf. very often employed to substantivize a negative clause of intention . emplo3's the cir- cumlocution ^^^^ m 7. 376. <=z>^^ii=n: ^^^^ 136 h. C§ 305. 377. 7. ^iezil ^^^^ tm-^ the use of which is more extended. the conditional found.^ it (the boun- dary) and does not contend for further as an optative in final and interrogative clauses. MTfp. and in the verbal adjective § 293): fhtf'i stv. p. 376.

8. it vj-O-t. as 1 2ti also seems to be B. e. did not see thee".^ e.^ The pyr. 159 >) _-Zl A/vvv\A /N ^^ Q I <^ iinr ^^~~^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ order that no negro at all should overstep it" ^ (lit. tm rdl occurs with tiv tm rdi mBni "that I Y. 11. the rare writing W Copt. Eb. rlj ^^^=^ itvt'imrvtf^ihe motherless one". Cf. 7. which has not writing. a remedy) in order that the vulture weakened meaning. ^^^^ Itvtt^ The adjective which belongs to the 378. e. 136i. meant something like "not having". In the popular language of the n. and gative irvt is derived from the ne- of § 371 A. "to cause that not any negro should overstep it"). C§ 89. for simple negation. formations of § 132 sq. may not steal". rdi hnp drrvyt prv "It is something (i. . a book without ^ Tk "^^^v A. g. A iwU. In such combinations has also been preserved in the AT-. •» Eb. its writing". 3. 30.^ i. write it [I v\ old. THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. 2 LD n.Y- THE NEGATIVK ADJECTIVE. * Peasant 64. B. 378. 5. originally e. 3 Westc. 98.

where dition it (cf. Nav. c. It C. and that which e. As is observable from the examples cited. the usual case of the dependent clause. ed. 2 ib. 17. 1 Totb. § 401 sq. it means "that which is is not": is not""* "that which (i. this is "^^^ often employed as a substantive also. 79. irvtt skdrvt hrs "This place(?) is of the spirits. 3 LD II.) and like the latter attaches clauses of all kinds "^ I 1 ^5*^ twy nt i^hrv(?). where is 381. On a verb dependent upon rdl "to cause" cf. 149. stands in the feminine entirely without ad95.160 379. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. 379 — 381. everything). DEPEND. . . 149 c. CLAUSES. (clause: rh hrv "The place known"). used in is a remarkable fact that this irvt'i is the old language as a negative companion to the relative adjective ntl (of. on which there no navigation" ^ (with junction of the nominal sentence skdrvt hrs "Navigation is upon it"). 4). 380. 5. St m o -^ v\ I I :=^^ ® v\ J Jl ^ W is -^ o I 1 ¥\ _M^ iTVt'irv rh bw nt'i "Those whose place is not known". DEPENDENT AND SUBSTANTIVIZED CLAUSES.

"because I know"). is another method viz. LD m. DEPEND. 383. 24d. cf. § 179. L . § — On clauses dependent upon other verbs 189. 72. 302. CLAUSES. Erman. — On the dependence upon conjunctions § 190. 2 siut 311. Eg^pt. 161 cf. every sentence may be converted into verbs or pre- a substantive and positions: made dependent upon Iwl rhkrvl ntt tht prv ipt "I know that Karnak is a region of light". % iwl means of rhkrvL) be substantivized this ntt^ the subject is not expressed by the auxiliary verb. The substantivized forms of § 282 sq. § a sentence of the kind treated in 246 ( ^ by 383. 5. Nav. take the 382. e. ed. place of a great part of the dependent clauses of our own language. but by means of jibe old absolute pronouns of § 80: i<=>oJi^®U cause of the fact that I '- Jimknow" I. A I WAAA A A I "" hr ntt rdlsn tB-hd pn "Because they If give this white bread". of substantivizing used in the same manner. (i. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ.C. gramm. 382. by prefixing ntt^ parallel with these. 3 Totb.

^ The temporal clauses which are introduced by the conjunctions (really prepositions) as". 385. Prisse 5. cedes the principal clause. If no conjunction used for the introduction of the temporal clause. d.162 d. hft "when. I came to Ptn". sdm those St nt'iw m in t^-Mrl^ w^hsn d^dBrvsn m tB "When who are it Egypt heard it.^ '^""'^ ^. lord as he sailed up". is it 384. e. "at work") a wicked speech". <=:>^ r 5i* "after".^ More rarely follows the principal clause Irvf hr mdrvt hint "Be not silent. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. as a rule. ld II. 298.^ 3 Sinuhe II. 14. when he is at (? as we say 385. follow the principal clause: nhi hft hntf » "I followed 2 my 149 f. 5 LD 122 a. . TEMPORAL CLAUSES. they laid their heads upon the earth". 384. 20. As a rule it pre- "As the earth became light. * Siut I. ^^''^^ J\mht "after". can be recognized as such only by means of the connection. cf. g.

ddhrk . the The conditional clause precedes clause. It is always left without a particle. 36.387. 244). 36. 163 On the other hand the clauses with after' so J\ hr mht "now common (of. . always precede 325. . repeat the examining) then say hrl^ imi mhkrvi "A third of full". THE CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. when it con. § 204) or is a nominal sentence: rvhmhrk mi . can likewise be left without a particle.e. tains any other verbal form than sdmf (frequently sdmhrf ci. 386 — 388. . introduced by means of a particle and but may also stand without such in- troduction. 35. always belongs to the "second group" § 184. . 188): s ^® X • ^AAAAA Eb. like ir It principal 386.^ me (added) to me. 15. § at beginning of paragraphs. then I am it If the conditional clause contains the form sdmf^ 388. 2 Math. may be ml.". THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. the verbal form then (of. L* . e. "If you examine again &c.^ (lit. Hdb.

ddhrk his sto. . "If you examine a man who is diseased in mach (?). however.3 391.. while the second treated according q<==^„v^i '^^ (abbreviation) s T ^ hr . . 5. In the pyr. . it (the result) is i/seo"-^ As a rule. . a (I tr gmk dUsw . in "first form always belongs to the group" ^ thou findest a wise (out of reverence). . » is far more rare: 3 Siut I. Prisse 5. . mn ri-ibf. If a number of conditional clauses are connected. ye divide all . . 286.164 e. A. 390. . Eb. this case the verbal introduced by (J'==^^^^^^ tr. . m r 360 "If psstn art Iht nbt . 389 — 391. 40. The introduction of the conditional clause by means of 1 I] (1 mi or ^v m.". then say &c. hprt prv now 389. is employed only with the to § 388: first. . a conditional sentence conis taining the form sdm/". the construction with Ir as a rule. gmmk st hr psdf. is. THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. and you find it upon his back . 10— 11. 300. . him Crvik "If - man then bend thy arms" awaaa In is used instead of Ir. .

. 159. 165 . ^1 say". relative 394. are identical with the substantivized forms treated in § 289 sq. |3. WITH. (Tl ' is rare and is The j)seudoparticiple thus used in H illll v^ ^ "^^^ Jr Vh^ ^ ^1_M5j CT) [| ^^ t^ msktvl imf "The land in which I was born". REL. The peculiar verbal forms of the usual clause. in this manner. 392/4. The custom of joining one of the usual verbal forms as a relative. . . . 330. CLAU8. v\ . <=::> ^'wvAA ^^ . noun 227. a. . WITHOUT A CONNECTIVE. a. 392. Hdb.- m mrrtn Inprv ./. . directly to a noun. 711.^ are frequently joined 393. at the same time agreeing 1 Math. (Jdtn "If ye love Anubis /. 245. d'Ab. Nominal to a clauses. what is its content?"^ (lit. Cat. EELATIVE CLAUSES. doubtless obsolete. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. however. A CON. They are co-ordinated with the noun as an apposition. 2 Mar. cf.— II fl tk »»« s^ s I n hi o\\ lit I ^ V\ K I *^-^=^— dd nk: ifd n 3ht n 10 r 2. WITH SUBST. §§ 329. pti Bhtf "If there be said to you: 'A square of field of 10 measures by 2 measures'. VERBS. . 49. its field). 3 Sin. 249 and p.

. nearly The masculine ending w. is here never written out. whom I love". e. not every- where uniformly inserted A. Illae inf. is it is the mas- culine ending w in the form sdmrvf not usually written out (most frequently with a nominal subject. tree of life.. the ic is § 96). WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. In the pyr. sdmtl belong to the second group (§ 184) of the form sdmf\ in the case of the Ilae gem.166 j3. also. connected. for "the woman whom I love" I is said hmt mrrti "the woman. Corresponding to the statement in § the forms derived from the «-form have here always the meaning of the past. with love" it in gender . ht piv n Cnh. from which they Uve"'. which in the «-form. 197. must be written sn As was remarked in § 289. used in its stead Merenre' 616. 397. when written). frequently written. an at- tributive participle 1 as a rule. ^^_ rdi "give" rvnntf. the forms sdmrvi. ^^^ dldttfko. hence. 395 397. g. In those sentences in which the subject of the relative clause tive to would be indentical with the substanis which the relative clause is. 395. it is therefore prrtf. just as in other cases. stands quite within the word. Cnhwsn tmf "that 396. (cf. — Furthermore. the one but "the brother mrrrvi.

is the ills(?). WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VEUBS. if it is refers to the substantive to 398. in which.) made". Mar. is joined. The pronoun which which the relative clause wanting. position. 1/vwvvs ^'^\ govern"/ ww# hkStsn "the villages. LD II. to be sure. most 3 part. for the 6. however. examples. dependent upon a pre- 399. There are. even in this case. a relative clause seems to be used. which have invaded his back"^ (for thnsn).^ t^s pn irn lyni "this boundary whicb my majesty hath made". whose pronominal subject is. ye give me"^ (for diditvtn nisw). « Una 108. § 260). 40.^ thn hr psdf ''W. which are laden with incense". they 9 _L©S' XC13 Vl/W\A y A^ft/v\A .^ if it is On the other hand. 25. Siut 276. 136 h. II.^ struction which he (lit. expressed: I. 167 (cf. is almost always the object of the relative clause*: rvhi w<'"this white bread. 399. II . 4. 2 Eb. 398.(3. the pronoun 6 is. omitted: "300 asses. Hr-hwf » C. Abyd.

try nfmltt "There is is no humble one. WITH THE ADJECTIVE nti. to ei whom the like done"^ (properly. parvus factus 0. 401. 3 sinuhe 309. "by means of often wanting: "the place in which my heart tarries'. . tltl. it is m "in". The substitution of an a relative clause is extended is (in violation of § 397) to clauses whose subject different . which belongs to those sq.^ 7ibt.168 Y- WITH A PASS. 2 Sin. treated in § 132 was originally used in purely if nominal relative clauses without a verb. idem). rwtni rs "every land to which I journeyed Only with the preposition &c. 101. 168. ^ I ^ <^^^ \> Jl JA A ^ ^ '^^^^^\\ 1 smt '. from the substantive to which they are joined this is the pare. Ace. WITH A PASSIVE PARTICIPLE. 0. especially the subject of the relative clause was identical with the noun to which it was joined: 1 Sin. The adjective nti "which". PARTIC. 400. ticipial construction treated in § 261.^ Y. to Sethe.. WITH THE ADJECT. 401. attributive participle for also 400. g.

' for JiiVw? is ^^ ^ I I • inXi early becomes an unchangeable particle. WITH THE ADJECTIVE AAAAAA ntt. 176. The sentences of 240 sq. A. g. msw nt'i m § ChCf "the children who are in his instead of nt'ito). nt'i hrf "every officer who was with him". 3. M. Another archaic writing B. 32. it first loses the plural palace" 6 (e. » Louvre C 172. who are upon the mountain". ^ Eb. 21. gin. 303. 495 = P.' ^ » I T ^s. of the'pure nominal sentence. In the pyramids 1^v ^ forniw. 2 Eb. 169 |]<::z>' °V\5iKz::7 '^ a .^ iri-Cf nb. 8.' Hot Jit/' t\ =^^^ ddft nbty ntt m "all worms which l—'%2r are in his body". 8 Eb. may also be so joined.'^ W> they P^fl ^^ &w is nt'i St im "the place where are""* (with a different subject). « » Westc. 3 Sin.1 1 1 1 IJ l| "a man who suffers with heat".6. ^i^^ s nt'i mr "a man who is ill. later also the feminine. Avritten for AAAAv\A «ft'. 9. 10. 20. . L 262. 402. their verb is always in the pseudoparticiple or the infinitive i with hr: /\/WJV^ ^ H ^ . made after the analogy 402.^ o ^) M ^ I W ^ 1^ m I ^ <c:=> f^^^ mrw-k^t I «f?w /?r //r? "the overseers of the works. 35.

as a substan(f.'' 1 18. 3 Mar.fv ^~^ i\ A n ^ Li A iCi <ZZ> _Z1 Sti. 4. tive "he who" ntt "that which''): nt'iw ^1^ 1 ^^^^^ ml ^ m smsf "those who are m his following". and which have given you". e. written). but it occurs elsewhere also. 295. I m htf "Let him drink in whose body there are Eb.^ 404. 47.Z> AA'^A A swrlln nt'i mrwt I I 2-1' /WAAAA C^ \\ I <!II> I I I —CT^ lO (it). WITH THE ADJECTIVE Tltl. this is always the case . nti is also often used independently. II.i "1^ tk 6/ /TH ^/~V _ac^ C_Zj UJ 9^5? •<2>.170 403. was then further used to connect verbal . 25. 2. nt'i 0. ills".^ <. _crN^ aawaa -ad III /^ \\ Si AAAAAA T _ZI knbt. rela- tive clauses also with negative clauses.AAAAA -rr- /-^ ^-- -^ nt'i n mrf "who is not sick".^ itt (^ ^ nbt m ss "all that was in ^1:1 writing" (i. where a misif understanding might be apprehended there were no express connection A. which the I officials deliver to me. Ab. 14. * Prisse Eb. 403. » 2 siut I. . nt'i rdini ntn sjv "this bread and beer. 404. 6.

. 404. WITH THE ADJECTIVE uU. S 382. ^ ^^^ w cf.0. 171 also used AA/^A^A with the meaning "that which is" is alone. § 379. — On On the use of ntt to substantivize clauses the relative use of cf. especially in the idiom cited in § 380.

orthographic compound.. that the determinative occurs at the abbreviation of a word (§ 68). the order and with the numbering current in the of Thein- probably incorrect. d. but there are many details here which are still uncertain. in. in list signs and meanings are taken up. meaning as an ideogram (§§ 36 39). indicates the origin of the sign by the combination of two others.. .TABLE OF The more important hardt even where this d. to praise. most frequent transferred meaning (§ 40). hn 10^^ Phon. Abb. supplicate. f/wi supplicate. Jj'^ Bm 7 adoration. is SIGNS.. t).. ^Det. /i high. Abb. MEN. or the syllable which the determinative always accompanies (§ 52). A. Abb. — Phon. sTDet. Det. The abbreviations signify: Prop. high. the Ort.. rejoice. the proper Trfd. sign (§ 32-35). the phonetic value as a sjllabic sign or as an alphabetic Det. it was not the intention to enumerate all the homophonous words for which each sign can be used. rejoice. value as a determinative (§§ 45 — 47). Com.. The feminine ending is separated from the stem. The phonetic values are given as exactly as possible (distinguishing between t.

k:$-t Abb. rest. Det. </wi supplicate. child. 100 Prop. sr 29 TO Prop. . kd build. 70 l| As. 1. ^ws build. Det. Det. 94 that which 95 ^ Det. ^w^statue. ks bow down. Tfrd. death. 82 hft'i enemy. Det. (originated from 48. Det. mummy.toload. barbarian. done with mouth. msC(^) soldier. ^ Prop. my t=:±3 . Det. Abb. king. Det. 89 Abb. soldier.build. man. ^ 1 Det. 101 /^ Prop. conceal. ps. 105 y^ Det. 27 Det. carry. /i" ^rd child. to bow down. (cf. TvCb pure. Phon. ^ Prop. ^tp to load. 92 93 47"^ the (sir) prince. Abb. Abb.i^w. hh great number. enemy. 106 work. Abb. demands strength. Abb. Tvr great. mum91 sing. old. TvCb priest. ^ Det. captive. that which is Det. ^i/> conceal Phon. hn to praise. Prop. Abb. i:^w old. Prop.173 15 19 jj Det. 85 Det. § 74). imn conceal. 79 -^i Det. statue. Det. dance.) Det. 71 t(y king.

Det. frJf C. 15 pregnant. existent at. Abb m^C-t mi(^-^ goddess M. sps glorious or sim. Abb. . revered per- M Det.). Abb. &A-i A 89). 31 Qo Det. si break. truth. Det. son to (corresponds 131 89). revered dead (masc).174 110 B. C. ms bear. Abb. 7 WOMEN.. Abb. GODS. B. 9 Det. revered dead (fern. 27 RC Re. hr fall. 5i shepherd. 14 }f ^ Det. GODS. bear. 133^ Det. Det.woman (corresponds to pregnant. Abb. A ^ Trfd. 119 Det. Pth Ptah.7mw Amon. JVs- Det. *V(?) Osiris. B/pvt'i 4 11 Det. Det. Det. 128 Pro p. Thoth. 55 Det. revered dead Trfd. 129 113 Det. St Set. king. Abb. and Abb. WOMEN. 12 Trfd. Abb. (masc). fall. Det. si watch over. Abb.

35 37 \ that which 14^^ Det. 1 MEMBERS OP THE tp-t . happen. see. 13:^>=Det. 39 Abb. nurse. rm weep. eye.wlr destroyed.Prop. MEMBERS OF THE BODY.s/?^ lip. ir pupil (of the eye) . breast. 10 -cs:."n^Prop.) mouth. 29<==>Prop. Phon. (cf. rS{'^). I . s$« embrace. up. Trfd. ir. Trfd. eye. destroyed. color. ^ ^ Prop. breath dMB head 3 Trfd. 12-^^ Det. head.D. Phon. 15 flows from the body. divine Abb. slm Prop. weep. Abb. cut Phon.si?r with Trfd. upon. Phon. wsr ^. do. 5 Abb. Prop. eye cosmetic. embrace. N 30. Trfd. BODY. Det. eye. hr. Det. N28/'=^Prop. mnC-t nurse. Det. mdw speak. fnd nose. In hair. ^r face. 33/^ Det. head. Ir Ir. Abb. 175 D. m:^{f). Phon. Trfd. the back. ip T 26 and F 4). htit F5 ^ J iibtr. nose. mS see. wr-?(?) eye. hr upon. jo^i. ?}nt in front. ^ Det. divine jvd^-t i^-t back. 28 (/p| Prop. r. >^ Det. 42 A Variant of D 47. Trfd. nose. hair. arrive at. Cn. ^ ( Det.si?r Confusion rib. 40 ) Prop. 17 Det. Abb. Cn beautiful. 31 r^(-^.

Q 12. that which or sim. C.rfsr splendid 69L=/]Det. row. w^ ell. ion with culine. 76 c:^^ Prop. ^ Prop. 63 a nProp. that ii:Tfrd. 59^^ DProp. that which is done with the arm. 46 U Prop. witness. (tin) 47 _/u. w^r middle. Phon. Det. 72 to ^^ 51^ Prop. 84 ^ ] Abb.^imas . > 90 ('==0) Prop. MEMBERS OF THE BODY. hn Phon. mc give (imp\>. rmn arm Conrmn fuscarry. Phon. c/ii com- 82 ti) Det.). im grasp. hnk to pre- Det. mas-. 10. grasp bat. which strength demands Det. A'i. dbc rect. culine Abb. 65-0 —oProp. I . Abb. sent. mt. ^&c finger (cf. Phon. b:^h phallus Phon. ai. Trfd. (= D 62 63).).<^arm. Det. mi give not having. 52 hn. spirit . mtr . nht strong. to demands strength. kind of k^.176 D. 49 \=^ I Trfd. correct. $w reign. Phon. middle. di give. (impv. Abk. 58 hr^ Prop. n irvt'i not. Det. n (nn) oProp. arm. /—^ Prop. Q/^ Prop. corc/cS (=D69). Prop. fist. T 1). 66 Q . 93 "fl^ Incorrect for T 20.</«'give.000. hrp to lead. d-t hand. kS steer H 17. Prop. negation.

M is H^-«P-r on the isthmus of Suez. Amen-em-he't reasons. this news. L. D. a „by means of" or sim. (11. of high position at the court of while on a campaign against the Libyans. Bb . c Name of a fortification hk^ is written defectively in this old name. a man «J.) h ^^ ^1z!iOM. Erraan. TW^ S^-nht). 17* Second From the Story of Sinuhe (Epic ( Part. for terrifies unknown him that he immediately Palestine.) 34. (c. 2100 B. Published poem 12 of the middle empire in the archaic language.P ] (I T © passed by the red mountain. learns the death of his king. seeks flight to o.From the Story of Sinuhe. r I ^ 3J AA/WA/» I A^AAA^-| X 1 I L N. I. Eg^pt. is wanting. gramm. 104 seq.). VI. ^ IP^^.) I. — so Sinuhe. b the peculiar ending explained by the coming together of the dual ending and the 1 suffix sg.

referring to a collective „the d e like our vulgar „pull one's self together".?Q^ ilSl. strued as if it — & the sentries.^?P 1"^ ^^AAAAAA cy ^ r^^^ r\^''v/1 (At the Km-wr I fell down for thirst. in apposition with mtn. self". CSI ^?.2 286 ^ d I « ' ' « t 1 1 1 1 1 1 t AAAAAA [ /VWAAA /VWAAA ^ ^kl-¥Pfl.l.?.18* From the Story of Sinube. or „gather one's p^ like a noun. I were fem. e conguard**.) D 330.^ a poetic for „I concealed myself". AA/W\A P^ HI AAAAftA VS\ l^f^ > A/VV\AA AA/VWA AA/VAAA J] '^^^a ^:. .^.

330. /" 125 B. I I I W f J p"j^| AAAAAA 1 O 78 f\rAfiAf\ . (II. d „a half year"? „a year and e a half"? probably „thou art prosperous with me". 80. AAAAA/V a perhaps to be corrected „he cooked for me". b read whwt. lives manj' years with him.^ 1 C^ A^^AAA 1 I I I I -H AA/\AAA A r^^^ AAAAAA \\ I rv^^^ A W AA/^AA^ Q f^^^^^ /-^ 1^ ^ o i:=^¥ 27. '\m c cancel r in irtnsn according to 151. 19=^ . — 94.) Sinuhe. .From the Story of Sinuhe. heaped with benefits by the prince of Tntc.

I D ^^=i=.20* From the Story of Sinuhe. .® ro\ X 31 AAA/W\ £1^ ilii A/w^A^ I I S \J I ^^-^J ^1 ^K\^ I I I I I :=> III o 1^^^ (C^ 1 I O O O Awv\^ . c The determinatives of d^b can not be read with certainty in the hieratic.^1- « I I t I I I t I 11 I '5^ (He also made me prince of a tribe.M:^# n=^-=>-i I 1 O III ID la. [J ^ ^? lYI^fl n a I \\ I # tk -n- IfV^ I a the determinative applies to tvnt refers to tlie entire expression. 6 125B J the land.) f^^^r^^ -2x jf\ -fv I 1 .

<T:r>.f\ . AAAA.) Sinuhe defeats a hero in single combat. (11. deal.) 21=* (By means of the hunt I also gained a great . —Zi. 98.From the Story of Sinuhe. c the land of a the word is Avanting in the manuscript. Jq^r.NA ^W\ '::^l fl C^ AAAAAA ifLL I I ^^K I III AAAAAA @ I I I 111^ <zz 1"^^^I1M?!4 III. cf. Tmv.) 210 s: I °^]^--]^^^ b ^J: sell. ^-^ -'"~ O Jj iljL /VSAAAA JL ' ^^^ A/NAAAA — n^^ B AAAAAA n AAAAA^ _ / C> n AA/\AAA ^ — O "fV ^^ AA/\AAA AAAAA/\ ^ (I accepted the challenge and prepared AA/VW\ my weapons. 109 — 145. . 351.

161. 22.22* From the Storj' of Sinuhe.) ^ . 1 I a (He seized his weapons and the combat began.3 -0. b after". e m lit probably as an adverb „thered a verb is probablj' wanting: „[they he shoots him therefore from behind. c inexact s cf. Q V (J AA/\AAA J^ D^ I I I 3X I OO R5 e A^/v\AA n n /^ Ann iO A^^^AA ^ AA/'AA^ ^ a (I stepped upon his neck. 397. /W^AAA I I olio I ! 78 242. . fell to] the ground useless".) 1 I a like a relative.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

23"

y^^
)

^ Vfii

O

[]

&
Q

^\

AAAAAA AAAAAA
AA/VNAA

ifLL AA/VV>A

WV^

\^
AAAAAA

I

\\

0"^ f~"l
AA^NAAA

©
^AAAAA r
i
I I

-^
1

JJ
I

r
AAA/v^A
1'

n
zd

f

I

r*

I

I t I I I I

t

I

I

-^ /^

^

AA^SAAA A^\^>A

2^^=^

iC:^

A/VWAA

/^>

AAAAAA AAAAAA
a

"^

^o

JF.

(Z. 241

—257,)

As an

old

man

Sinuhe-receives from King

TT^i

tsn

I.

the permission to return

home and

goes to Egypt.

A

i^

AAAAAA Cli.

I

_C

Ml
168

Mm%.
Ji
fl QaaaJ.

AAAAAA

O

®

U

AAAAAA

[13

^

I

1

2lM

I

I

^

o

7\

m

A

a^

a the people of the dead man.

b emphasis, 344.

24*
305

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

a

h

I

I

I

/J AAAAAA

TV

(9

r\

(He goes further to the city of the king.)

AAAAAA

H—

4 lira

/^v

>Ti^^
(I

trod the palace.)

in
crzD
1

I

1

u
I

D
Ci

J]
£1^

2ti

IJ^fJ,
261

,^^
I

f^miT]
III

MkJ^^i^-1
a „Tvho had followed me, while they led me", b he presents c Impersonal; one expects r l^§. d indicates the action of the people who lead him forth, e Nominal sentence, f old writing according to 109. f the order of words is free according to 341.
them,

I

From

the Story of Sinuho.

25*

(then terror seized me)

^±!^^ ^-rk^^-^PflT'^l
I

I

1

Zl-'W QkM<
—269.)
The king
presents Sinuhe to the queen,
-a

V. (Z. 263

a

^

AAAAAA

ra

J\

\
X
6

A

IHf'^l,^, ^
^^ o
c^O
I

Jl^
<-^
I

"I
I

1

I

I

I

I

I

AA/WW

o
AA/WW

\

AAAAAA
AAAAAA

o

D
I I
I

f^^"^
I I

AAAAAA

;p
I
I

1

I

I

I

b
(I

a Perhaps relative sentence: „as an Cim whom the S. made". sign of unknown meaning. c i. e. „altogether". for they had hrought them with them, e „m their hands"?
hieratic
312. 76.

cf.

Bb*

26*
YI. {Z. 279

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

—310.)
A

At the

intercession of the queen, Sinuhe

is

pardoned and concludes

his life at the court in great prosperity.

t-=^^

"1
\

^ AAAAAA

f?^^t&-"&^P-^l>,
h

9
-• -*
I
I I

A/VWVv
I I
I

"

^
,

sic

Jl

w
I I

286

r

^

I

X
I

o

fl

AAAAAA

A A/WV\A

o
W

\^
\

I

I

i

I

1

I

W
.C\

\\

mrrA
CTT]
[Z-ZJ

j^

t\N\N\f\

A

(and there were other good things therein)

^
^liin

I

Ollll^ AAAAAA^

l^^^_^ffi.¥.

X
c^

r-^
111

%^]
mm
315. h passive, c read
e

a for

<=>
Cxc'i,

?

d 329

as

accom„P.

panying circumstance, whom the king loves"?

read «t and

f read mrrf?

g „they caused" (impersonal

„they".)

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

27*

^'-%^r"i^ I'm
^51

1-35-1 o

—»_~»3

ji

±1°
111

n

^

-^
A/^WAA AAAAAA

Tl^jr
(and there was built for
e

me my own

house)

IS

-Pk

n

A^AftAA AAAAAA

-<T1

n

ii_a^t^cr=i
ra

tko

f

a „they gave"; the sense
to

is,

„the dirt etc. I
c

now

resigned
I

the

desert",

b

i.

e.

the coarse ones,

upon which

had
tptl;

hitherto slept, in contrast with hnkyt.

d

in contrast

with

read nt.

e passive,

f read hw8.

with the King's assent he prolongs the peasant's affair in order thus to prompt him to further discourse. Published LD VI 108 seq. (Prose text of the middle empire in language not so markedly archaic.F^^ '^^^ AAAAAA A (^ /n I I 1 >A ra if^^ From the Story of the Eloquent Peasant. Bibl. before Mrwitns'i a prince of Herakleopolis. 1892. I. so charms the latter by his eloquence. e read <--^-> A m .. that. c one expects the plural. (Butler 2 — 13. passive. only the speeches of the peasant are poetic. <? 50 B.) Content: a Peasant who complains of an injustice done him. Proc. Soc. and rob him of his ass. was furnished with the best) ^^r J] AAAA/Vv . Archaeol. f l^-\ I o\\ s ^ f ^^ead a which he needs for his grave.28* (it Prom the Story of Sinuhe. the beginning by Griffith. h the statue.) An inferior official meets the peasant as he desires to journeys toward Herakleopolis.

probably „one edge of the road".) I plans a stratagem for him. h „his one way" e. < ^jos^^ The official ° [It'] — 19. c i. . or sim. on one side water. L^ J I 2^^=>_ I W ii ^ A.. JJ.VWVA I q? S I I ^\f]\ man e is . on the other. e. upper side a field.. . one of the peasantry. 5 the name of the wanting. The following is probably an for oath: may every excellent image [of a god] me I" g The situation must be: a narrow road. i.. the asses which pleased him . f here he hegins elliptical direct discourse.%5 ^X32_ .. 29* J\ AAAAA/" 't3. d temporal clause.^ ^ n ^li <: m '"i J AAAAAA AAAA^W I > AAAAAA a a hieratic sign of unknown meaning.Story of the Eloquent Peasant. (Butler 13 . AAA/V\A I VS D AAAAAA ^i— MC I I I I I AAAAAA f AAAAAA ^ 0V>. i.

r^ \ AAAAAA njkT D 1.30* Story of the Eloquent Peasant.) robbed and derided.^ AAAAAA (T^ I I I y^\ I \\i Y\ A^^AA^ Ci I ^^ r .1 D AAAA/^A <II> L _£!>*V^ J AAAAAA I is wanting. The peasant is D ^ D I I I O . (Butler 22—23. A^A^A^ I I III \\ I (and spreads out the clothes in the way. 1—24. w D AV\A/^A 3 ^ AAA^A^ c_J.) HI. d „[Take care] my fruit is on (<=>) the road". . a passive.^ w AAAA^^ I A/V/VAAA I 1 /^ . I JJ r\N\/-Af\ i-LL Id—a "7:\ I I >^. b the middle of the road. c „have a care" or sim. Berliner Papyrus Z.

I will go along its [upper] edge.Storj' of the Eloquent Peasant. I I I X '=^ I 1 1 ^ I AAAftAA r '- i i^^v) IW-^ZK w r'=^ L AA^^AA ^q h X ^. d read mhM I . Q I M+i a n (I ® AAAAAA 35 /I "ft \oJ ra AAAAAA ^^'^T[ ^^ I I I I M <__^-> Till I ' ^ AA/^A^^ ^ ^5=^ I I I JIT.xn2_ C > _iir^ AAAAAA I 1 1 o I X AA/\AAA JL AAAA/' J ^^1 a [The lower part of the road is] under water. b „Wil] you not let us pass by then!" e meaning something like: since one [lower path] is obstructed. 31* ^.

_ AAAAAA AAAAAA A\ a relative belonging to Jin.t AAAAAA A I AAA/VNA AAAAAA AAAAAA ^^q-^' sio 353 AAAAAA ra C 354 I 1<^ ^^=11) tl * I I JF. you think first of my lord. e peculiar infinitive. (ib. 24 — 32. e read the . h probably a proverb: instead of the poor man one makes mention of his lord.^^ .) The peasant implores the f official in vain. n-form. . Z. c meaning: though you should address me.32* I—H1 Story of the Eloquent Peasant. d the tamarisk was not dry rf is probably corrupt.^^5>^/ Jl AAAAVV O I I I lO V> /' ^V S1fc. ^ AAAAAA TTT /vvvvv> W Ci OW n ^^' [TZ] W AAAAAA D AAAAAA '^' .

to be connected with the following. c perhaps an invocation. (ib. the meaning of the sentence is not clear.l\\ s jr n 3\\ /^AAAA^ ^1 1 I < . Erman. " . Qq f against the injustice. d 182. Egfypt gpramm.<E>- ra Ik o \ @ I Mil • . 33* ^^ D c:.=:>Jrilll AAAAAA v^A^ lo f relates to F. Z. 32—42). 3 V^ y^' AAAAA> [3III a „yoa are to" for „you go of the dead one must not to". The peasant goes to the prince and him his matter.- flf ^fl AAAAAA Q^ A AAA/V\A /I I I 1 ^ 2^ A/V\AAA f^ (^ I I I J] . e probably error for O or O.story of the Eloquent Peasant. b in the place of the god make noise.

who unlawfully desired to deliver his taxdues to another. £^ I I \V\AA I U O ^ SAj AAAAAA FJ.^ away the peasant would not probably a peasant suhject to /WW\A AAAAAA I I 5*L=_ o As the prince detain him.34* story of the Eloquent Peasant kZ^^! Ol A. 42—51. AA/^/yA^ AAAA^^ /\A/v/\AA /CilW AA/NAAA [J I 1 P^^^. 6 desires to sail it is they mean: him. h' >j^i^ ra^^_y^<=>^^^ A\ I AAAAAA a W) AA^^^A . (ib. Z.) The prince questions his counsellors. .

(i:t: j^\ ^ I I I AAAAAA O ^ a /-X . A/WAAA 52—71. he must pay this as a fine.story of the Eloquent Peasant. (with which the asses were loaded)? b His reply is not given. he should be punished because of the natron etc. Z. (ib.-^-^ ^ I I 1 I ^p I 1 1 <2>- A AA/^AA^ H ^ AAAAAA '5ffY^^^i2i AAAA/> I ra a ra P--J X D w FIT. .) The first complaint of the peasant. ^^ Ezm —ill AA/^AA^ I C—J. 35* AAAAAA III D . or.^. r-"^^ \ a Sense probably.

6 treat me so justly that I shall prefer thy name is to aU laws. g sense probably. (Thou wilt be fortunate in everj-thing) (==11) 1 ^^^== — CLL AA/^^^^ V . I f '^ wanting.36* Story of the Eloquent Peasant.X in I " J) 9 AAAAA\ 6 D S A/VVV\A i: AAA^w I wvV 77 -^ -" icl I _Z1 WxS I J] I '0\ m. prove. I . g ^ sic kA/WvAA ra o read nif. how much have to bear. c imperative. is d imperative. e imperative.

) I. Supplement.) The prince announces W sic . . to the Authorities in Elephantine. YIII.Storj' of the Eloquent Peasant. 71 — 77. Ztsch.7^' -<2=- W ^ w ^. AAAAAA The titulary of the n Q ^ w I I I ® Jx U^ c:^ M a passive. Z.-m^i new ruler AAAAAA O ^^^^ 1 -J1 AA^/^A^ AA^w^ /T O UL >\ II. it 37* to the King. 117 from a copy of Heinrich Brugscb. (Stone in the Cairo Museum. A writing of Thutmosis I. Published Aeg. b sense optative. Announcement of the coronation. (The king writes to you) © 0^ o 78 mn^i.-M A AAAftAA ^^^^¥--1 ioV\ /' I I I fl V. 29. (ib.

1 c±f=]^ — Ji — a I o n I I 1 mnm mi^i J 11 e MPhih^fip IV. What name is to be used in taking oath. ^AW^filw in /O ^^ n AAAAAA f d h MP f\ AAAAAA F.^ A writing of Thutmosis I. f likewise further that etc. e d formula of that which is correspondence for „this writing purposes". 5 lit. remain". What name - is to be used in the cult. communicated. f £^ £Ii T AAAAAA a read Q. J . „cause that one cause that the oath c 259. defectively written. Concluding formula. 2 passive. H o I I Jfffp^^-^ 1 III.

for explanation compare titulary fully written out in the preceding letter. Date. (Lepsius. Titularies. IL Thutmosis HI. 349) o "^^^l V a n 0| I = s III O -3 >d2 1% ^ TTmrr ^ o . (Written in abbreviations throughout. Konigbucla 177).) I.Examples of the Eoj^al VI. 39* onni ^^^'i'—^O® s \rT. 11 n f5SS^ Q ^ Iaaaaaa (ib.k Examples of the Royal Titularies. the Wsrtsn I.

420). b optative. and often in barbarous orthography) The sacrificial formula. (Filled with abbreviations throughout. (ib.l^k -^f^l in jr. The same another form.f. I.40* Examples of QTave-formulae. Ramses 11. . llLi \M^U'^ f^A v-i^_-^ ^Al>i3^' AlH^ilfJe AP-oTs^^ ^£7 Di I z2i T :::ii ^Jrj. (Gravestone in Florence). o \ r — I M o 4 III o o III ffl Examples of Grave-formulae. lU. (Gravestone in Alnwick Castle). a unintelligible formula. c relative clause.

— 391 fl 1 A^AAAA 1 1 V. c Cc* I .O AAAAAA AAAAAA JJ 'Vir:- — «3=a 7ZZ. in different form (RIH 16). shorter (Gravestone IV. 2.Examples of Grave-formulae. 2 active. The same. 291 41* 1} _ 291 ' Q 291 AAAAAA Q _ ^AAAAAA £Ii AAAAAA —^U — M I f) ^l^f^^ / I a —^fliri'^Pjl in Turin). plural. passive defectively written. _Cr^'^~~—-* AAAA^V* I AAAAAA W c^> \ AAAAAA JS _Hr^ "^ ^ C^ Dill a 259. b 259. d. A D /WWV\ AAAAAA -CaS. the pronouncing of this formula procures the deceased nourishment. Invocation to the visitors to the grave (LD II. Impv. 122). The same.

place. for ^) goose (abbr. PREFATORY NOTES. The correct orthography occupies the first place. abbr. and are not taken into considera- tion in the alphabetic arrangement. m. as archaic. to the meanings can be only approximately has been added. cease. n. roast. that of ^Q \ (§ 48.GLOSSARY. Compound words are to be found under the first part of the compound. 9b-dw u^ T 1 Abydos. i6- Ele- fj f^^^ phantine. only does not entirely correspond to that of the simple stem. or sim. refer to the — The §§ I. denotes the f. With proper names pr. designates a writing as an abbreviation in accordance with arch. n. or sim. hour. §§ 63 — 68. 1. such tcords. The meaning of the causative has been subjoined. n. where it The — cited grammar. To a considerable extent determined. pr. n. that of a man. name of a a woman. construction of the verb has been added by CO. n. . The endings are separated by -. 1.

220. to outrage? be (abbr. 64A) meat. cause. ImBh fl (abbr. hr: who twt-t ' has not. 253 venerableness. 157) tent. (§ set.l.) give. ^^^^(§380) nothing. iSr-t —^^ c^ \ frait. branch. (§29. w \\ -\\-W (arch. 0! Ibdw --c?^ (abbr. n) call. (cc. 2^^^ ^n. 1 ilV J someone. iw iwt-i /\'t^(§ 160. (§ 168. Amon. ||) V" heart. tfd I] chest. '') 224. (Ill ae gem.n) walk. 182 B. come t^ to anyone.) month. tmBm ^'^ "^ ^^^1. D count. § 307 orsim.^^.) to be. f. 379) he § 100) honored (cc. 246. III orsim. t^ (§ 378. ^mn ih \\ M (abbr. cc.43* Sd angry? perish.ij- -§135) existent in.) im-i grow old. by anyone). Ay^ /ij? (§ 160) come.) to load. .

n. Ari. the head of the dwellers in the west. . (i. 389 yr'i IT ~]T' J\ hasten. firmity or sim. (§ 100). ih-t I I I or near. is his duty. ihil) shine. any one. verb: § 238. ^§64^ thing.<2>. irt-t 1 I oo 1 1 1 V Oi 1 iC^i y Imr-w in AAAAAA or ih milk. § 135) belonging to. ed land. I inwk inb (abbr. Ir :> § 347. e. ihf HAAAAAA ^^.1= inundatI WAAA — AAAAAA intf 1 '^ m. Sim.) ox cf. 357. existent in the west. ih in Jj (§ 160) bring on thither. 350. that which ih-tO) brilliant. § 319. aux. bring lead away. deaf.44* that which pertains to imn-y tmn'fi If^^Nl n.) wall. beget spend time to be. or sim. the '0 . dead)". 1 (§ 137) D III /CiO Imn-tt s the west. ih-w IX Jl ^^mentalin- in-t AA/V\AA I kind of fish. § 151) . § 314. pr. ft m. .(Illae. be ex- celleut or sim. sim. I'W hnti tmnt'iw "he who at make. et f. ins-t 1 AAAAAA I J> Sim. "^^ (abbr. pr. inf. irt ! . is ex- inr n nnni stone. 348. cellent or sim. 239. '1 Tamarisk.

chamber. Ci. (§ 31) father.pr.46* 100) pr. itl Ifi °-jj-'rn take away. arm. (I n. hr-Cw'i immediaass. or sim CS-hpr- ^t^ k g ca -fl /I 1 V\2i ^ *^^ sim. tpiw Cw'i ancestors. Itn O sun. Ar-C.f. M7i It spend (time).^^. ^^ ^^. m ctn-w tstw 1 DY\^^(CC.«_^ up I J^comb? braid? . (as part of j3r).»H) toward."^{Icabbr. small Ar) to please? c^ \ Bedouin C-t or on house sim. sim. o=>) great. (Dual -fl'tkw ) rj a "Sn- — ^ strike or _M^ sim. (^-t Q. it. excellent or aim. CCb n. uninjured.fei. pr. issl (I 1 I %(•) itf J1 king or sim. or c^ § 323. ntr kind of priest. member.m. o o o J be excellent. cf. H refractory ckr \ It ^^ barley. large. tely. °'^*> °^ Thutmosis' I.

Crr-1/t <=^[ll lace or sim. ® Cnh Cnttw oath. many. Cr goat. _MAAAAAA Si J] ber. m. n abbr. 5^ d'^'II AAAAAA _Z1 U snb : sound. Cnh T -?-( • '"''' T'^ palace. stand. Cnh wd^ "living. Q 1 time. or sim. or sim. pr.*46 GLOSSARY.: food. Cw-t Y "Kv animals. —J a Cb9 Cff JA^ Y sacrifici- J\ ChCn Tk 230 ff. pa- CwB CU ) rob. or sim. ChC ChC Chn-wtl p) ^^1 nru a kind of ship. § deceitfulness. n. enter. O CZD Ck-w I I 1 Plur. A^^AAA HI p) AA/\AAA or Sim. ChC-w fly. m on anything). I numerous. or sim. al tablet. :^=i Cm-mw'inn-Si AAA/VNA ChC-w 1 I quan- tity. V-^ ear. .lb Ch^-w ChC arrow.) or sim. CwB f[ Ch9 Q^^ [Kx .number. X healthy" (as adjunct to royal name). a combat. plunder. Q£l^ to contend. live (cc. Cwn Cwn. § 109 ) AA/WV Ol U royal chamber. (pi. (§ 70). A myrrh.

wC abbr. Er wCb abbr . =5= ) I wC (§ 143) way. wp-w^wtX/^:^ J^=^ (abbr. |) f) caus.)n. clean.). (sic. caus. nrz2 in the palace.. verb. *^®^°" ^^ ^^^ late. 250 sq. f] ^ ^ I I I (abbr. ) 5 I household sw^h U'^h-'i to visit. or sim. 47* w I \ § 80. or aim. cc. wB <^^ Pf]^4^ <C _ (abbr. contrary to § S51) districtjOrsim.). %^^ _zr ^:^) name god of the dead. or sim. \>=/l or sim. fl chamber 1 i. Jl L__J or sim. cook. to praise. servant.) to be aux. one (as adj.. road. ^^ AftAA/V\ (Ilae gem. w^-wt- wCb I I I pure. tvS-t (§ 116) one (as subst. or sim. green. hr pass by something.CHiOeSART. wp-tvt message. . III applause. of a w^s-t wf^ flm wBd w^dic o ^""^' ) praise. § 223. wCf to increase. ' wn green cosmetic. I (^ to bend.

or sim. twiw-f -^^ S lay w§C dSSU. inf. (niae inf. wdB _ 8wd^ § lb hr to rejoice the 100) Bedouin w8-ir IrO) jj tribe. ^_fC=3a tvrS wdn spend day. ^^^^^ to answer.48* QLOSSABT. priesthood. ^^' pr. 41-^ -^^^ AAAAAA (for -f hour. indolence. polite phrase for communicating thing. wrh anoint. also of itching.gold wdB wdC-t go. or the Jl /wvAAAvli or Sim.) name II. (abbr. a°i forsaken one?? I . wsr p.m. weakness. magnate. to rest. \> bite. (abbr. o 1 1 1 alloy.) X throw. ton) e^t. sim. or sim. be fortunate. Osiris. in titles also !^) great.) strong. I) cHj _ _ _ be well. di AAAAAA lontc-f "jlc <0 i<: wsh broad. of Bamses n.-^" mXt-BC wsrtsn m p (abbr. or sim. some- wsm wsr F«^ 1 I silver. or . (also of emission of a cry). W^J X sim. t^nn-nfr^l"^^ AAA'VSA name wih of Osiris. heart concerning something.) >o lord wd (§57 Illae command.

&c. thicket.) Py M> flea. P^ PU) . | htn ^j^ cf. bnrt hBh btiTi date wine.GLOSSARY. P'>'-H CTID ? house" imi i.). (Illae depart (from the way. ^ pry ^^^A go out. hw hole. "the i. pn ° D AAftAAA § Erman. inf. gramm.. § also for possessions. ^^ prominent?? Eg:ypt. 1% bk calf. J^ l| I I place (§ 103). bhs dr bsh § 315. (abbr. 6/ ^^^ jj^ Sim. "silver e." king of lower '^ l^"^^"^^ iO o o o I spelt (kind of wheat). Dd I . pt D t ^ heaven. "I. cm servant ID bt-ti there" bd-t e. ) p D pr ^^• ( I 1 j house. J bi-t 70| I < honey. bk(bikl)'^^ °"- servant. | ) in m JiA. orsim. treasury. (§ 28) date. Egypt. 49* J h^-t J (^^^ or W VC\ branch.J^ % U t] "^ § 87.

bite. large. or sim. caus. ^^>o '^\J/'\\\ winter (one of D phr-t <= I the three seasons). go fur- fb fd _j\ ther. or sim. pr1. of the heart "be fnd loosen. 1. dual: strength. Negation § 375. spliB ht purge.50* pr't GLOSSART. / /«' ^^ glad". arrive at. broad. I I pr4 vrt-Snw ^ (abbr. >lll V _MI1I| /> "hair Mil p7ir-t(l) I g I 1 troop. ""^"'-^ psJi for the dead. n. as name of a ps <»"'"••* n 3 f™(?) ph ph-U T d| ^'4 Q (§ 159) to cook ctpfst.^T D finest j I linen. L&> I (abbr. m. or sim. O) remedy. 1^^ sents. pr.*3^) ptn ^ (\/\ri n. . pth-Mp divide is satisfied" n. -^^ (abb'^.) fruits. belong. /fi n. attain to. pr. pk-t l. Ph^ m. fruit" fruit. D m § 307. pull out. .

\P^\ one ^ like (§ 135. miChrw A (abbr. ^ 137). ) "true of m m >'*°m^ §315. . abbr. mc-w rdcmSC cc. 51* § 183 behold.GLOSSARY. (I^ renew ml-tt ^^|^(§137)thatwhich is like (something).^^) truth. obj. m^Ct ^ for \ . e. justice.) goddess of '1 trnvt mother. declared mn mn i'^^*^ (i^^^ remain. mnt. voice" i.wwvv (§ 111) water. § 312. v ml ^l^inhhr. Yl truth. III etc.^1 recur. or sim.: ' ' suffer (cc. die.) /~^ 0)§314 mn-t diseased AAA/v\A ^tt^ place. mi mBC ^'^ ^^ offer in m ^e gem. true. appellation of the dead. mt-tw mi mSw ^ self. up something. Dd* . new. mi/t 'f\ bum. of. ^^%6 obj. o AAAAAA daily (food). m^C-t A (abbr. with something.) just. see.) mttt "likewise". P|§48(abbr.

make cellent. n. or ex- caus. mntw 1. mnmn-t ^r^^^^lher*!' mrc mrw'itnsi ''^^(If© Egypt. mr mr mr I — . desire. mnh sim. suffering. mr^ ntr ntn-w i^^^ (§ 104 A) plur. canal. be full. 01 mry-t mrh-t "^^[JH^dyke. north (§ 137). grease. mr K^ii^) overseer. m Thou (belongs per- haps to an other word of mas. <CZ> -21 I AA/\AAA I 1 CU.^ (Ulae love. anyone). inf. mni {mini) '' ' AAAAAA qi (§ (cc. or sim.52* ' GLOSSARY. pr. "beloved of god".) bear. be sick. oil. priestly title. (mlnWi)DOD monuments.1 c^ 1^ jju god war.).) to musical instrument. ms inf. sim. A excellent. OW (Illae --^ mr ^^fe^ mourning. "'^^^^ or mh fill. gen. 62) mr-tO) ' marry. m. to mni (mini) a^^ /wvAAA land mr kind of (euphemistic for die) mnl4 (mlnfi) /w^A^^ ^^^l\^^ ^11 ? abbr. Vft C people.. . «x=>^ mh-tt northern. sill ? be sad. give mr birth to.

GLOSSABY.

53*

ms-io

mtn
AAAAAA
i

(T"^

I

I

I

way, road.
J

ren.
I

o
ms-yt
ipijlj

I

I

I

1^

mtn
I

kind

of

)|

sheikh of the Bedouins,
or sim.

food which was eaten

on stated (?) evenings.
*"*^

^^ ~^ J\
instrument).

mtr
bring

give

testi-

mony

(cc,

obj.

about

on or near; play (an

anyone).

m tB
msdm-t
II

V

eye
cosmetic.

^

to

challenge?? to insult??

msdd

Ulllaegem.)
il

mdw
md-t
{mdw-tl)l}

speak.

to hate.

speech,

mk
mt
a

(§ 13

B) pro-

c^
affair.

tect.

matter,

o

organ (of body.)

mdni-t

\

^
^^
'^
'(?)
III

^^^^
(]

j^

©

n.

1.

n
n'i

/wwv\
AAAAAA

(

)

§ 306.

nCC

of.

nd.

of the gen. § 125.
(Xdi;^) § 364
ff.

^
n-tCi)

-^
^ §
AAAAAA

nCffwl

abbr. powder, or
r^
'-' Ill

O
H

Sim.
1

AAAAAA

city.

ny-t
Ij

kernel, grain,

1

or Sim.

n-fi

§ 134 urban.

nB

1K

§ 94.

)

lord, master.

64*
nh-kBwT}^ BC

GLOSSARY.

^ O ^

^ ^ ^^^^^^

\
I

i
I I

III
unknown
everj', all.

name
king.

w7«m

-Dtakeaway,

^

-S'^

or sim.

of an

nb nb
nb-p

^^—^

nhh
gold.

f^^^^^^iii

V j eternity.
nh-tvt

FS^
t

[J (J

goldsmith.

^
X
)
I I I

com-

Hi' plaint ?
(/vwvvN n

nfr

"^^^
(t abbr. § 199).

nhb-t

®
titulary. alary.

J

good, beautiful, be good.
AAAAAA

nmi

cry out,
(

^^\

(1

to

low.

nht
be strong,

(^>=/l abbr.)
stifif.

AAAAAA

_— ° [=^^
^
.Oil
I

1

(cf.

sC)

name

of

nht
nht

^-^fc/^M5ihero.

the Bedouins.

W=^
i:2i

abbr.
victory.

might,

***^^

I ^v I f^
AAA/WA
/OS

»^orphan.
nht
ns
strength,
nsr-t

AAA/\AA

"^^^^ n, pr. m.

nn
AAA/WA'

nr
<c=:>

^
O

•'^

(§ 139) possess.

_

n

manhood, or

[^ flame (as

sim.

nh
nh-w

AAAAAA
(iJ

name
lack, mis-

of the royal ser-

"^^111 something.

pent, the

symbol of the

royal rank).

ra
or sim. nh-t

fortune,

ngS-w
n.

^^ ^ ^^
1.

[—

I

a U sycomore.
nti
nt-t

AAA/v^A

§ 401

flf,

§ 382. 401. 404.

55*
ICpH

nt-pr-hd

103)

nd

triturate
1

t

that which belongs to
the treasury
i.

)\nd snCC rub
fine (on

e.

costly

furnishing, or sim.

the palette).
sweet.

ntf

o
c^
AAAAA^

§ 84.

ndm
ndm
ndnd

nts

aaaaaap^ sprinkle?

be well.
AAAAA^ AAAAAA
I

ntk

^

§ 84.

to counsel, or
AAAAAA
r\

ntr

1(10 god.
^t|lj^
littleness,

sire

nds

be small.

"#-«

<=>
<:Z>

§ 308.

rC-msof

particle

em-

sw
rw-t

jlP^n.pr.m. Bamses.
exterior,

phasis
ri'(?)
.

(§ 348. 349).

mouth, opening.
ri"

or sim.

rwt'i

writ part

In

n Ktnt

affairs??

of the palace.

language??

In

rS n

wBt
rC

=

<=>'^(|j^
rwd

(irreg.)

?

O

sun, sungod.

(most

grow; caus

proper

names

made
srivd

with rC are to be found

under the second word
in the name).

and

srd:

make

grow, restore.

66*

GLOSSARY.

rpC.n

^
sim.
bility).

(^
(title

abbr.)
\

^p-t ['^
year.

([o,

[,

[g)

hereditary

prince,

or

of the no-

rh

know, be learned.

^
121.

cans,

de-

r-pw
r-pn-t
I

0\\%
AA/^A^^S
I

^li nounce.

rh

^^^~>

scholar, wise

>r man.

unknown
local

name.

D

south,
o

cf. tp-rs.

r-pr
I
I

4>

v

Oj
rs-wt
(niaeinf.)

Sill

southern grain, ^

i. e.

barley.

temple.

v\

lov.

•weep.

f/c

,o
^
^
a

time of anything,
epoch.
<? legs, feet.

rmt

'^^^jD

64.

97)
»-<i

o

I

1

I

people.

rit
/SAAft/\AC_l!

^
aJ

cf. di.

\a/VAAAA XA/VAAAAy

\l^

h ra
h^
HJ

^\ j\

descend, (also
1

of going on board ship)
enter.

^
1-5^
to

band.

hb
'vN""^^^
pi.

rn

plow?

h^'W

rU^X
rU^^.

time

hp

^^ law,
'

or place of a thing.

hnw

^ O V\ earthen vessel.
/T
I

^b

La J

send, send

AAAAAA

as messenger.

hrw

^

^^

(Oabbr.)day.

57*

h
h-t

\
I

I

large house, castle.

hb

Jffi
A
-idJ

feast cf.Ar-A6.

lit

ntr temple.
particle
(?)

Ai

1i/^'fex^d()

/]
'

mourn for?

of wishing: "if only", or
aim.

^5s

iJP N

*o clothe.

increase, addition.

I I

I

)

garment.
embrace.

h^k
AC
"

\

^
a
I

take
booty.

as

^_
Q

body.

nut

serpent.

hC

(?)

^J) cc.m: begin here
(as superscription).

Am
hm-t

^t\ N,

^

X

rudder.

hC-t

^
o^
I

beginning;

m

woman,

wife.

hCt

and hr hCt

§ 315.

hCfi
hCp
hCti

^
fl

hm^-t
!

salt.

abbr. prince, (as title

of the nobility).
n AAAAAA

obstruct,
/\ AAAAAA

or

^
o\\

sim.
(cir-

AAAAAA Nile.

hn
heart.

=^ !^
strike.

y

I

majesty or sim.

cumlocution for king),

'-n\^'i
hivr-w
pauper.

(m

hn
AAAAAA

slave, servant.

hnC

^
Q

§ 314. 120. 279.

hnw

\^ O^'^'^^^

things,

kr-w tp-hsb. A/W\AA hnn-stn J. AAAAA^ L^ ^^ lizard. I ^11! abbr. ^ i^ w g existent hs _/j approach. [hr-w^wt] hs cf. hst n I hnk AAAAW C present. sign of favor. I ^J AA/\AAA J-1 '^ n. hstf "do according to AAWV\ his wish". iv^-wt. cf. \ a> beer. ^1 hntSsw "=5=1^^ bed? hsst praise.l. ^ natron. ) superior m-t § 316. (III ae inf. GLOSSARY. or sim. hr hr-t ^ I § 309. hr-dSd^'^^ hri-dBdS "^ § 315 j hsmn AAAAAA vii/ I I I ^ chief vilo Q Vvy/ III overlord. reckoning. 1 praised. Y ^iii Qj\ ) approbair tion. !0 to pi-aise. above upper part. abbr. hsb . or sim. ruler. abbr. 5 hr hr-nb title Horus. O) w . king. hns n narrow.) (Heracleopolis). M) . name goddess. title of tbe hkS of the king. prince. of a hr-yt ^ •n-i I hk-t terror. to offer.58* Ci yC.

n hdbl oflfering. coronation. hSm ®T % droop. c^ pi. build. iht. h h-t m and hw8 . feiJVi arrive at?? (cc. hr) D '( I 1 I Vo D htp the hd hd Y TTj) become light. or sim let (the himself. hm Ignorant one. hCte S e ons.) shine. bright- hfn ^^ (§ 7) enemy. abbr. o Mp-t htp be satisfied. \ offering. create. gods). thousand. shpr arms) hprt h^r-t wi- (^ Or? 1 ^^ that 1 which ^ happens.-«(?)C^'^ ^ I the bad. hpr ^ be. (^ abbr. I § 7.p^ pi^v ) (for A—n cf. or sim. 313. destroy. /T yW htm cans.OLOSSABT. (for offering T I lessen. (S I abbr. o o ntr D. 59* hJcn^ A AAAAAA o"^ ^praise. or sim.) become. Au. h^w hpr dsf begetting caus. weap- hm not to know. . dow. 111 ness.

m) meet. embrace? having something. Step ly a pleonastic addition with words of speaking. J^ ^^ . DV^ CnH interior. n hrt thf favorite ser- upon. friend. be hot. hr hr-t ® § 311. of hr hr-'i ^ /I\ § 310. that which has the day). _Zl hr hr ® ® interior of a house .. hn hn-w AT> AAAAA^ A (cc. or sim. ney toward the south. hmt think. e. _Cr^ that which I daily . hnty-t harem. hr-t-hrio /i\ e I <=> I 1 ra <=: is o (lit. or sim. bow. a hntt tmntiw J\ hms fl Imnti. one trusted. statue. hnt'i for simple that belonging to something. cf. hn n mdivt mdwt. hnt hrw J . §msio hit ^W figure. (§ 52. jour- sim. the arms. intend or - journeyup-stream. to fall. km limC 'M C^=^ — c>. vant. 141). court of the king.60* GLOSSARY. § 325. hn-Cl - interior Qt i.a [\ existent in front. attack? hnt bend. nn vK ^A apparent- hnd d^ ^ ^ (on anything). - hnt-i flee? — . or sim. hnmw hnms Q^ j| AAAAAA VJ <:zr> god Chnum.

pr. (cc. of 1 ) kind of priest. wood. m sB % 315 son. 8-t i Ir'i seat. m st si '5 back. n of J s-t-Hr fl the throne.) to re- offer. correct. to neck. . hrd hf hh hs Ill ©if I aP^ abbr. or sim. sB-nht A«Xn. future. hrp possessed of a good dis- understanding and position. m. son of the sycomore.^ children. (for hr-hb X ^ ksm holy holies in the temple. J § 315 . Bpd). . hd inf. sB-t l|^^^=f_^1 name in. and fl [st-ir] [j-<S5- cf. n) punish anyone. ^v *^^^* I *^^ goose (cf. ht tree. ra^y^ daughter.) journey ^^ (niae down stream. toward north. Ws-tr. s-t-C i kind of s-t-wrt Imiiw st-C priest. place . (cc. afterward. ^^ pulse. or sim. obg. journey be wretched. sacrifice.61* hrp lb be first.

door. su 2. designation of anything bad. rive at. proposal ("here is . . (substantive?) sbB-yt teach- mg. sp ] swnl swrt §80. y\ cry out. to shB land. pw for the intro- duction of a courteous n. (trans. inspection. defend one's self against.").62* si (cc. sign that the is sip-n ll(J"\\i ]iz^ preceding word to U or aim. n) request ill I anyone. spr I I ^ (cc.) sbS-w ^^'^^ '^ i=£=3 teach- ing. or sim. 1. S^k together. . sti. be repeated in reading. cc. . 8^i cf. as. arrive at. StJ? draw sbh m ^ II (§ 62) recognize. an opportunity to to drink. m) s6i ^ ^\ r train ^ to teach. spr s6 -TT- 1^ lead. J^ I I lice ? ? 8f o yesterday.

to unknown warm. second shw HWi unite. lit. upper and lower AAAAAA Pi M r» Egypt. ^^^^-^ ion. prince. r\ Cnh.GLOSSARY.)b. rt^^^^ smi D AAAAAA cream. . swi-fi i land". ? at court I AAAA/V\ cans. "perhaps"). (desig- nation of an officer of n AAAAAA _/Ji to trespass. p7'|(|la6br. fill sntr AAAAAA < smwn -*—^\ /\ pro. "uniting of local snwh AAAAAA 1®^ sim. or sim. cf. e.pr. smr ) snd a rank abbr. smB-id'i ^^ of uniter. >| 1 I in- bably an expression of deprecation (like. or designation. cook. snd ^^q7\ to fear.m. sntr cense. -i^^^oj^ blood.sy snbw snf |1 J ^n. desert. sniB to slaught^. "Per- mit me") or of doubt (like. . 63* bro- sfisf^?)^ sm-t ^'^^^ <£) be mild. i. or sim. lord snbt healthy. or foreign sn ^11 sim. ssn ) £s breathe. m. companion c^ I land. J AAAAAA (1 n. sn-nw 10 the (§ 145). 1^ —— •* (I P' ) ther. rank). pr.

cos- ing grey (noun). St 1^ 1 § 82. ) king of upper 8sm-w leader. J . (medically) or sim. or sim. is-t n^ sical a musd ~*^ f^ijp ^ instrument of the (sistrumi). sdr St . stp nd. sh-Vi W \ peasant. or sim. remember anything. I AAAAAAVJ. "*^ ^ a shoot. clothe. \ AAAAAA Ci abbr.64* aLOSBABT. women skm sdm sdm ^^^.) select. y^mA iA J bring c overlay with.abbr. 8t-lW (cc. hear. scribe. metic apply to. stn lead. stwh to treat I v^ I A cf. 8tny-t luOo c-"=^^ 1 kingdom. memory. Egypt. St^ tO swelling.) I Bedouins. shm shr y W=/l mighty. to sleep. 1 {!> — I s abbr. open. king. obj. be at night.

=^ Mil' sC Ill dig. itch. I I Erman. cnn"^^^^M^i Sn-w ^ A/SA/SAA ^\\ ) ) ( ^ abbr. or e. sw p^°d. from.o ^\a'^{^\'§) servant. Sms. food. m) free (nae gem. gianim. I splendid.65* s I w 1 c^^p"^ swine. as designation of food r-vr furnished by the king. or sim. I rank)? hair" that which I I In nil name of "groundfruit M\ is I i^v-i S gn^nv X courtiers. people ^W=^ sand. ss con. humSnw-tS I ble one (not of highest IC\.) 1 I go anyone. to i^ sr *^^^-) *P^o°- Smw I \\ I AAAAAA summer -^^ be small. §ms-Er follower of Horus. \\ I §nC of I'-^-O designation like. of mythic time. sim. i. hair.. Egrypt. locality Sfto-t the "margin" or sim. Sndyt 9 AAAAAA e^y^'Tf' I Sm ^^ (IHae go. or sim.. (one of the three seasons). X r^. revolve about. £e . KV or sim. inf. go away. Ss^ U I I fine linen. or sim.) ho -^^^ (cc.

^^^1 pi.. boat. or sim. f. pv. 1 I k^ij-t U Vtx ' I dun<:. I or sim. another. kl bad. or sini.. %. . of a god. or sim. km think (of something). A (CO. C^^ (lit. or sim). A \\ kd J^ AAAAAft AA^/V\A circle. (nnR east?) k-y im. obj. personality. perhaps "bath"? cooling. or sim. jiL skm. /c^ A j^ spirit kind of ^q. kbb Cans. kdm sP^^n.66* GLOSSARY. f. kt-iht I 1 others. crouch. ^ u I 1. kn X AAAAAA be strong. fei ai human "Ht?T> steer. figure cleverness. rrri I^\M:'. I r^^- receive. Ofl § 315. or sim.tl D form.11 create. ssp §§ \\ I D Jcsiv n. \ .) black cf. skd to sail. k A A abbr.

nation of the body. cf. land. t V —H - — uy of a bird ^ tiv § 80. earth. § 315. cf. s X^ grg furnish establish pr a household. abbr. name of a plant. ( ) bread. s: I twt DmxADx s) boundary. mo Z5 (1 %^ find. tp m Be* .GLOSSARY. need. gmv "-^ O S AAAAAA —»^ anoint. of something injurious. lack. designation s nb-sgr be silent. tp ^ upon § 316. ffrg ^ ill "«• ffs side. come upon. half.314. (ttch) stwh. Kaus. statue. name of Osiris.. sgr to silence. J § 321. § . 67* km-t r I ks-to ^^z::^U^rh incli- o ^ Egypt. g g^-U (3 S g*' Q -'^K. r gs catch sight of. logB. perhaps.

tnt tp'iwCtv'i A 1 i^ I old age. m) aji- ^\ Negation 377. tsm i:^ hound. difV 1T^ constrain. highest official. "^^"-^^v"^^^ or ^11 "• sim. or AA/SAAA Jl sim. the-first. l— <^^ to AAAAAA trespass. or sim. time. or sim. tm m. 376. vince. male child. -? (vizier. i . ts ZI ^^^"^^^ I raise. r^^^ c^ \\ \ll/ month. man. or sim. tp-tt ( kind ^°?^)ki I o th close up. JO . tr tp-t CI q9 of oil. § tti [1 7^ proach n. tsw e officer.). vertebra of the spinal column. tp hsb correct computation. ancestors. head. n fg^^ \\ i=«>=3-f\ / proverbs. J dress hair. r or sim. rcll § t ^ Q take.68* tp ^ tp rs southern pro- tn § 86. or sim. tp-'i ^ D /^\ tniv n. pr. lift up. compel. first tn AA^AA^ § I I 80 I correctness. 1. /~\ tm tm tkn (cc. d^b figs.

o w^ of ship. I ry. lay let?. \\ city. permit that. or part of sim. didt dpt Do ^"^^ \ V ^/ £\A taste.GLOSSARY. dion dml dr (cc. Chnwfi dwJt the palace. dbS restore." stop up. payment. aim. D m. cause that. ' vanquish. dm make mention. . fl) (also dbB-i dldi § 160): give. 1 dBls-io ''^"^ (l-t a^wj 1 coll. 69* dl A rdi. dkr ^=^> A d?= see. peasantj wise man. dm I r\A praise. orsim. ^^. (a D. r rdtt in order that. pr. pay. name of III . ^ ^ ^^ A/^\AAA A spread out. X sail across. or deliver over . set down. dtvS i< O morning. income. to name. hr) expell from. give back express. l^iiid dpt didlw n. fruit. or sim. dwS-t i< meet with. do horn. down. o a fruit. or sim. dgS s dt o^ M eternity. c-'=^ 1/ (J n — fl touch._^ ™v.

(Busiris). kind of d\o .kind of under L official. ^|] (Wabbr. . 1 I parallel semble". all. or sim.) or sim. hSh. or O the day (only sim dates). vessel. as far as ® ^ n. instrument. name of the food.70* ds- ^^ § 85. kind of cry. rfZ/i. Caus. n^. ddb 1. whole. LEIPZIG. ^(^_^ Thutmosis. ddw (I (^ r drf end) § i. in village. drw boundary. pr. say. UNKNOff'N PHONETIC VALUE. sdsr beautify. end. dr its (Id r-=^ \ to talk. ^^ as 1 1_ _Q occurring to "as- ms m. dsr J wind. speak. self./K J yy . t^-dsr necropolis. e. PRINTED BY W. name of a musicalclothing. magnificent. ""^ n. . or sim. dhS dfB cf. UNKNOWN READING. '"'-=*. Caus. dr dlmti- ^ 314 cf. or sim. DKUGOLIN.

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.. t. Breasted \^i^^^ . Adolf Egyptian grammar with table of signs.DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET PLEASE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY Erman.