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5^

niTiPTIAN

3^ GRAMMAR

WITH

TABLE OF SIGNS, BIBLIOGRAPHY,


EXERCISES FOR READING
AND

GLOSSARY
BY

ADOLF ERMAN.
TRANSLATED
BY

JAMES HENRY BREASTED.

WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE,


U, HENRIETTA STREET, COVENT GARDEN, LONDON AND 20, SOUTH FREDERICK STREET, EDINBURGH.
1894.

Authorized Translation.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.
As the outgrowth of practical academic instruction,
this

book

is

designed to facilitate as far as possible,

for the beginner, the acquisition of the

Egyptian lan-

guage and writing, and

is

also intended for those

who
in

must dispense with the assistance of a teacher


the study.
It

aims to acquaint the learner with those

grammatical phenomena which are well established,

and which must guide us in the interpretation of texts.


It further

aims to afford him as correct a picture as

possible

of the general structure of the Egyptian

language.

For those who are familiar with the peculiar


situation

of Egyptian philology, I need not premise


is

with the remark, that something else


the study of Egyptian

necessary to
to be at all

grammar

if it is

a fruitful study,
Coptic.

viz.
is

the simultaneous acquisition of

One who

not familiar with this, the only

phase of the Egyptian language which we really understand, will never properly

comprehend

it

in its older

IV
periods, nor, at the
ficial

acthor's preface.

most ever attain more than a superI

capacity for reading Egyptian texts by rote.

would therefore request the student of my book

to

work through

Steindorff's Coptic

Grammar

book

parallel with this

and

especially, to note also the


in both.

constant cross references

The
material

selection
offered

and limitation of the grammatical


especial difficulty.
it,

The Egyptian
and

language as we find

presents quite different stages

of development, and even leaving Late Egyptian


still

later

idioms

out of account, fifteen hundred


still

years of the history of the language

remain

to

be dealt with.

These

difficulties

have been surmoun-

ted by relegating to certain paragraphs (A and B)


the peculiarities of the

ancient

religious literature

and the inscriptions of the old empire on the one hand,

and those
with what

of the popular language of the middle

empire on the other.

The paragraphs therefore deal


the classic language, the

may be caUed

language of the inscriptions and poems of the middle


empire, with which the idiom later employed as the

learned and official language

is

practically identical.
is

The material

in the chrestomathy

also taken from

texts of this character in order that the beginner

may

accustom himself to their linguistic usage and especially to their consistent

orthography.

have tried

author's preface.

to facilitate the understanding of the chrestomathy

by division into sentences, clear print and explanatory remarks.

In the use of the book


the beginner should
first

it

has seemed to

me

that

familiarize himself with the

most important paragraphs, designated by an asterisk,

and should then work through the


If in

first

part of

the Chrestomathy.

doing this he not only looks


tries to

up the paragraphs indicated, but also


a connected idea of the sections of the

form

grammar thus

referred to, he will then be sufficiently advanced to

take hold of the second part of the chrestomathy,

where as a rule he must recognize the grammatical


forms for himself. The appendix to the chrestomathy
contains the most important of the formularies from
the
list

which must now be mastered,

in order to

understand Egyptian inscriptions correctly.


It

further behoves
is

me

to state, that in this book,

much which

not so designated undoubtedly belongs

to Steindorff

cussed these things


separate
it

But we have so often disamong ourselves, that we could not our "intellectual property" even if we deemed
and Sethe.

at all important to do so.


SiJDENDE, August IQth,
3

893.

Adolf Erman.

TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE.
The peculiar
lator,
difficulties

experienced by the trans-

in transferring into English the results of the

grammatical investigations of his honored teacher,


Prof.

Erman, render a word of explanation necessary.


difficulties

These

were due

firstly, to

the unique charac-

ter of the language investigated,

and secondly to the fact

that the

new

science of Egyptian

Grammar,

as

it

has

been created by the German grammatical school in


the last fifteen years, does not yet exist in English.*

that the

The above statement may seem strange to one who knows grammar of Le Page Renouf was reedited in 1889 ("An Elementary Grammar of the Ancient Egyptian Language" by P. Le Page Renouf, Bagster & Sons, London, 2nd. ed.). But this
*

venerable scholar, the Nestor of English Egyptologists, has not

followed the modern development in Egyptian grammar. His book


is

therefore entirely obsolete. Ex. gr. on p. 1 jou will find the Egyptian consonants , i", C &c. classified under a list of vowels! and the statement added, that the "vowels were very commonly

omitted",

and

this

about a system of orthography exclusively


is

consonantal (with the exception of one or two doubtful endings).

On

p. 50

the In of the tn-form of the verb

stated to be inse-

parable from the subject and separable from the verb, an assertion
in direct contradiction of the facts,

and due

to a confusion with

translator's preface.

VII

There were therefore no termini

technici of

Egyptian

grammar ready
facility

at

hand

in

English.

The ready

with which the

German

lends itself to the


is

expression of

compound

ideas in one word,

enti-

rely foreign to English


for

and the peculiar phenomena

which a

the flexile

felicitous compound was always ready in German were sometimes the despair of the

the particle

In.

Or turn

called a suffix, the author being misled

orthographic in late

where the absolute pronoun sHs by the confusion purely and corrupt texts, between st, sn and s, for
to p. 18

in the classic language st is

always used absolutely,

i.

e.

separably.

In the same chapter one searches in vain for any paradigm of the old

Those of the 1 c. and 3 m. s. are incidentally mentioned, the latter being called an "independent personal pronoun", but the 2 m. s., 2 f. s., 3 f. s., and all the plurals are wanting. But to enumerate forms and phenomena unknown to
absolute pronouns.
this

grammar would be

to repeat a large portion of the

work

though Mr. Le Page Renouf has stated in his "Concluding Observations" that the Egyptian language suffered many changes during its enormously long history, no hint of these changes appears in the treatment of grammatical forms and syntax. The entire treatise is therefore as reasonable as would be a grammar, which, without any distinction of time, should present the forms of Latin and its offspring Italian in heterogeneous combination from the Augustan age down to the present day. If the end of the period thus included were two thousand years removed from us, the parallel would be complete and it could be stated with impunity that the Latin article was il and that the Italian nouns were comprised in five terminationally inflected declensions. In France the new science is equally disregarded, as the recent "Manuel de la Langue egyptienne" of
Further,
Victor Loret

here translated.

may

testify.

VIII

translator's preface.

translator. It

is

hoped, however, that such terms have


intelligible to the

been made at least

English reading
is

student and the indulgence of the reader

craved

wherever felicitous English has been sacrificed for the


sake of clearness.

One word has been With the

coined, viz.

"substantivized", being simply the transferred


"substantivirte".

German
the

translation "uninflected

passive" for the

German "endungsloses Passiv"


consultation

writer was not at all satisfied, but could find nothing


better
stands.

and

after

with the author,


is

it

The term "pseudoparticiple"


word
both
for
in conjugation

another

di-

rectly transferred

which nothing better could

be found;

it

is,

and meaning,

very similar to the Assyrian "permansive", but to have

used this term would have been a liberty not justified


in translating.
It

only remains

to be

hoped that the

results,

achieved within the last fifteen years, which render the

grammatical structure of the ancient Egyptian tolerably intelligible, and which are herewith presented for the
first

time in English,

may be

as interesting

and

in-

structive to the English

and American student as they


lips of the

have been to the translator, from the


to

man

whom

they are almost solely due.

Berlin, Nov. 11th, 1893.

James Henky Breasted.

CONTENTS.
GRAMMAR.

INTRODUCTION

13

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.


1.

2.

In general Phonetic Signs.


a.
h.

12

The Alphabet
Special Points in Phonetics
Syllabic Signs

1327

c.

3. 4.

Ideograms
Determinatives
Orthographj'.
a.
h.
c.

31 35 36 44
28
32

45

52
6^ 71

5.

In general

53
54

Orthography of the Ideograms Purely phonetic Orthography


Abbreviations
Inversion of the Order of

5^

59
63

d.
e.

68
69
72

Words
70

G.

Unusual Styles of Orthography Rules for Transliteration


f.

PRONOUNS.
1.

Personal Pronoun.
a.
&.
c.

Personal suffixes

73

79
84 85

Old Absolute Pronoun


Later Absolute Pronoun
Expression for "self

8083

d.

2.

Demonstrative Pronoun.
a.
h.

Forms with m. pForms with n-

i.

t-

8690
91

94

NOUNS.
1.

Substantives.
a.
h.
c.

Expression of Gender

95
99

Forms

of the Substantive

98 103

Expression of Number.
a. Plural
/?.

y.
r?.

Dual Use of the Singular, Plural, Dual.

e.

The Article The Absolute Substantive


Apposition and Coordination

104106 107109 110112 113116


117

118
121 124

f.

119

g.

The Genetive.
a.
yS.

Direct Genetive

122

Genetive with n

125127
128 131
132

2.

Adjectives
a.
h.
c.

Adjectives without Ending

Adjectives in ?

137

Appendix

{ir'i,

Imy, ns)

138

139
145

3.

Numerals.
a.
h.

Beal Numerals Appendix to the Numeral

140

146147

VERBS.
1.

In general.
a.

The
a.

^.
y.
b.
c.

Classes of the Verb. Usual Classes Rare Classes and Irregular Verbs

148154
155

160
161

The Causative
.

Voice
Expression of the Subject (Inflection).
. .

162

163169
170

2.

Usual Inflection. a. In general

171

CONTENTS.
6.

XI

The Formation sdmf.


a.

The Forms
A.
B.
Its

of the First Group.

Formation
as Indicative

Use

C. In the Conditional sentence

D. As a Subjunctive
E. In a Final Clause
F.
/3.

173 176 177 178 179 180


172

174

181

As an Optative The Forms of the Second Group.


Use as an Indicative

182

183
187

A. Its Formation
B.
C. In Conditional Clauses

184186
188

D. Dependent upon Verbs


E. Dependent
y.
c.

189 190
191

upon Prepositions

Appendix

193 195

The M-Form sdmnf.


a. Its
/8.

Its

Formation Use

194

196199
200

d.
e.

The <-Form sdminf.

203

The /^r-Form sdmhrf.


(Pseudoparticiple.)

204205 206207

3.

The Uninflected Passive


Old Inflection.
a. Its
h. Its

4.

Formation
Use.

208215

a.

In the Active-Transitive

^. In the Passive- Intransitive


5.

Form Form

216
217

219
222
223

Compounds with Forms


a.

of the Usual Inflection.

Introduced hy
a.

"it is".
.

^.
b.

The Forms iw sdmf and tw sdmnf. With the Auxiliary Verb wn


Subject.

220

With Double
a.
/3.

iwfsdmf.

224227
icntnf sdmf.
.

y.

The Forms tcnf sdmf and The Form Jjrf sdmf.

228 229

XII
c.

CONTENTS.

With a Verb
a.
/3.

of Motion.

With ChCn and ChC With In, prn and Iw

230234 235236
237

(I.

The Form sdmf piv


ir

6. 7.

Compounds with

"make"
or Infinitive.

238239

Compounds with the Pseudoparticiple


a.

Without the Auxiliary Verb (Improper Nominal


Sentence)

240245 246249
250

b.

Introduced by Auxiliary Verbs.


a.
/3.

With the Auxiliary Verb Iw With the Auxiliary Verb wn


Infinitive

8.
9.

Compounds with r and the


The Imperative The Nominal Forms
a. Participles
b. Infinitive. a. Its
/3.

253

252 264

255257
of the Verb.

10.

258261 262268 269271 272281

Formation
Substantive Nature

Its

y. Its
c.

Use

Substantivized Forms.
a.
/3.

In general

282

y.
d.

To Denote the Action Itself. To Denote a Person or an Object.

283288 288292

Verbal Adjective

293295 296299

ii.

Appendix to the Verb: the Object

PARTICLES.
1.

Adverbs

300

2. Prepositions.
a.
b.
c.

In general. Simple Prepositions


.

301

305j
Z14

306

Compound

Prepositions

3153171

CONTENTS.
3.

XIII

Conjunctions.
a.
b.
c.

In general
Enclitic Conjunctions

318

319

Non-enclitic Conjunctions

322 323 326 331 333 335

THE SENTENCE.
1.

The Nominal Sentence.


a.
b.
c.

The Simple Nominal Sentence 327 The Nominal Sentence Introduced hy iw and wn. 332 The Nominal Sentence with pw 334
of the Sentence.
of

2.

The Parts
a.
6.

The Order
Emphasis.
a.
/3,

Words

336342
343

In geneial

y.
C.

Without Introduction With ir, Ir-, r and in


Ellipses

346 347 350


344

The

351355

3.

Kinds of Sentence.
a.
b.

Interrogative Sentence

356

363
372

Negative Sentence.
a.
/3.

y.
c.

With n and nn The Circumlocutions with The Negative Adjective

364
im-,

m,

tm-.

373377 378380
381

d.
e.

Dependent and Substantivized Temporal Clauses


Conditional Clauses
Relative Clauses.
a.
)3.

Clauses.

384
386

385
391

383

f.

Without Connective

y.
8.

With the Substantivized Verb With the Passive Participle With the Adjective nt'i

393 399 400 401 404


392 394
Page I7i

TABLE OF SIGNS BIBLIOGEAPHY

i94

XIV

CONTENTS.
Pace

EXP]RCISES FOR READING.


FIRST PART.
1.

Canalizing of the First Cataract

3*
I.

2.

From

the Address of Thutmosis'

to the Priests of

Abydos
3. 4. 0.

4*
6*

Medicinal Receipts

Cosmetics and Domestic Receipts

8*
11*

From

the Proverbs of Ptah-hotep

SECOND PART.
From the From the APPENDIX.
1.

Story of Sinuhe
Story of the Eloquent Peasant

17*

2.

28*

1.

Writing of Thutmosis'

I.

to the Authorities of El-

phantine.
2.
3.

37* 39*
.

Examples of the Royal Titularies Examples of Grave Formulae. .

40* 42*

GLOSSARY

ABBREVIATIONS.
AZ.: Zeitschrift
Br. Gr.
Br.
fiir

agyptische Sprache (Bibliography C.)

W.
:

Wb.

Brugsch, Die agyptische Gi aberwelt, Leipzig 1868. Brugsch, Worterbuch (Bibliography Ab).
:

Butler: Papyrus Butler (Exercises for Heading p. 28*). C. Steindorff, Coptic Grammar.
:

Copt.

Coptic.

Eb.: Papyrus Ebers (Bibliography Be).

Feminine.
LE.: Late Egyptian.

LD.: Lepsius, Denkmaler (Bibliography Ba). Leps. Ausw. Lepsius, Auswahl (Bibliography Ba). M. or Merenre': Pyi-amid of Merenre' (BibUography
:

Bf).

m, masculine. Mar. Ab.: Mariette Abydos (Bibliography Bd). Mar. Cat. d'Ab.: Mariette, Catalogue des monuments (Bibliography Bd). Mar. Mast. Mariette, Mastabas (Bibliography Bd). Math. Hdb.: Eisenlohr, Mathemat. Handbuch (Bibliography Be). m. e.: Middle Empire, n. e.: New Empire. Old Empire. Peasant Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Exercises for Reading p. 28*).
:
: . :

P. L, or

Prisse:
:

Pepy I. Pyramid of Pepy I. (Bibliography Bf). Papyrus Prisse (Bibliography Be). Pyr. Pyramid Texts (Bibliography Bf). RIH. Eouge, Inscriptions hiroglyphiques (Bibliography Ba). 3in.: Sinuhe (Exercises for Beading p. 17*).
:

Siut: Griffith, Inscriptions of Siut (Bibliography Bd).

Totb.: Totenbuch, ed.

NaviUe (Bibliography
(AZ. 1882,
Isq.).

Bf).

Una: Inschrift des


Westc.
:

Wni

Papyrus Westcar (Bibliography Be).

INTRODUCTION.
The Egyptian language
is

related

to the
&c.),

Seto

1.

mitic languages (Hebrew, Arabic,

Aramaic

the East-African languages (Bischari, Galla, Somali

and

others),

and

to the

Berber languages of Northits

Africa.

The language of

oldest

monuments belongs
C.

as far

back as the fourth millennium B.

and did

not entirely die out until three centuries ago.

We
1.

distinguish the

following

chief periods of

2.

the language:

The Old-Egyptian^ the oldest language treated

in this book, the

employment of which as the learned,

literary language continued into


culiarities of its oldest

Roman

times.

Pe-

form (found

in the so-called

"pyramid

texts") are

noted in the remarks "A" under

[the different paragraphs.


2.
3.

The Middle-Egyptian^ the popular language


,

[of the

middle empire and the Late-Egyptian


;

the po-

)ular

language of the new empire the most important

livergences found in this period are noted in the reErman, Egypt, gramm. \

INTRODUCTION.

2.

3.

marks "B".

It

is

more

fully

treated in:

Erman

Sprache des Papyrus Westcar (Gottingen 1889) and

Erman, Neuagyptische Grammatik (Leipzig


^.

1880).
last

The Demotic^ the popular language of the

pre-Christian centuries, written in a peculiar ortho-

graphy.
lin 1855)
5.

Cf.

"Grammaire demotique", Brugsch (Berthe language


of

of course obsolete.
Coptic^

The

the
Cf.

Christian
the Coptic

Egyptians written with Greek

letters.

grammar,

parallel with this book,

by Steindorff, which

I hereafter cite as "C".


3.

Since the idioms cited, from 1

4,

are all written

without vowels,

(cf.

14) the Coptic affords the only

possibility of understanding the structure of the

Egyp-

tian language.

It is therefore necessary,

even for the-

beginner, to acquire a knowledge of Coptic.

Only

one who

is

already proficient in Old-Egyptian and

Coptic should venture into Late-Egyptian or Demotic.

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.


1.

IN GENERAL.

*4.

Hieroglyphic writing consists of pictures of men,


animals, plants,
&c.;
their

number
13,

is

very large,

though only about 500 are in frequent use. The alphabetic

and

syllabic signs of

i5

33

-35,

and the

determinatives of 47 are sufficient at the start for

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.

1.

IN GENERATi. 5

7.

the beginner;

the

other signs

he will best learn

through usage.

The writing properly runs from right


rative purposes)

to left,

and

5.

only exceptionally (when employed for certain deco-

from

left to right; nevertheless, for


it

reasons of convenience we always write


direction.

in the latter

Whether an
left,

inscription
is

is

to be read

from

the right or the

easily determined
figures,

by the

heads of the animal and


face

human

which always

toward the beginning.

The signs stand

in part vertically

as M

H^'

in part horizontally _,f_ <cz> 'wwvv

^^;

almost the

only ones used in both positions are the especially


'requent signs <=> or
'cf.
A

Ci "great"

and ^^-^ or

47).

The frequent abbreviation ^:=^ | mBC-hrw


or
]

"justified" is preferably written

|.

Caligraphy demanded that a number of conti-

7.

guous signs should together form an approximate


rectangle.

Hence the words


"nearest friend"

rpCfi "hereditary prince",

smr

tvQ'i

and
d

/?s

"praise",

could
V

only be written as follows

"^

arrangements like
)e

<:::>

barbarous.

At

,pf--rr
;

would

the present day

we do not always
A*

ilosely follow this caligraphic

law but to the Egyptian

4
it

ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS.

1.

IN GENERAL.

8. 9.

was so important, that out of respect


in almost all cases

for

it,

he

sometimes departed from the correct orthography.

For example,

he wrote for
P

sCJi

"prince", hCh "to play"

and

rmt_

"man"

\shc, \

J
o

i^&c,
^

r^,

because the correct writings

"

K'X-

Jl'
is

"^-^

^<.

were unpleasing.

Similarly

^^

often written for the


rvt

more correct but unpleasing

and

for

5^;^=_ hft.

*8.

It is

customary to sketch the hieroglyphs exactly,

only in large ornamental inscriptions; in most cases


it is

regarded as sufficient to outline them in a con-

ventional

manner with a few

strokes.

The beginner

should take as his pattern practically the writing in


Brugsch's Dictionary, and should especially familiarize
thimself with the abbreviations for the different birds

there employed.
9.

From the earliest times the individual signs were very much shortened and rounded off, when written
upon Egyptian paper.
rate writing

We have

accustomed ourselves

to contrast these abbreviated hieroglyphs as a sepa-

the

so-called

"hieratic"

with

the
in-

writing

of

the

monuments.

This

is

however

correct, for they have

no other points of distinction


letters.

than are presented by our printed and written

2.

PHONETIC

SIGNS.

a.

THE ALPHABET. 10

13.

knowledge of the Hieratic

is

not an immediate

necessity for the beginner.

The
two

hieratic writing

is

subdivided further into

10.

varieties,

a more angular uncial, in which the

individual signs remain for the most part separated,

and a more rapid cursive, which often contracts an


entire

word

into

one ligature.

It

was

this

cursive

writing, out of which the

Demotic (cf.

2, 4) finally grew.

The hieroglyphic signs


cording to their meaning:
1.
-2.

fall into

three classes ac-

11*.

Phonetic signs, which are alphabetic or syllabic.

Ideograms, which represent a certain word, but

are also very often employed for another


the

word having

same consonants
3.

as the first.
i.

So-called determinatives,
its

e.

signs placed after

a word, to indicate

meaning

in a general way.
12.

As may be seen from the table of signs these


classes are often not to be sharply defined, for ori-

ginal determinatives pass over into ideograms


original ideograms into syllabic signs.

and

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.
a.

THE ALPHABET.
arrangement of which
is

The alphabet

(the

mod-

13*.

em)

is

as follows:

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

THE ALPHABET.

14.

i
II

(Eagle)

(Reedleaf)
('Ajin)

j^

__fl

-^

^f
AAAftAA

UP

^==^ k

"1""
to be

To these are further


signs
(j(]y

added two secondary

(s is

B. Since the
tw

ew empire

also written for w,

for

and %/

for n.

14*.

Our transliteration of these signs must be regarded


only as an approximate equivalent of the respective

sounds; but by means of the Coptic

(cf.

C. 15)

and

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

THE ALPHABET.

15.

16.

the

manner

in

which Semitic words are transcribed


it is

in Egyptian,

and Egyptian words in Semitic,

an

established fact that all signs represent consonants.

The vowels,
dicated.

just as in Semitic writing,

are not

in-

For the
16;
18;

exceptional use of some few con-

sonants for the indication of certain vocalic endings


cf.

15

on

cf.

27.
ii.

i probably corresponds approximately to

15**

But

in

many words

n^

early

became

i,

a pronuny,

ciation,
6- g-

often indicated

by the addition of uU

m
a,

^.

^
In

^^ "husband" (*ha^), since the ^^V


^'

n. e.

written ra

^^ ^^^

*^"J^ ^^pt.

g Al
(cf.

(cf.

C
^^v

15

2).

the later syllabic writing

70)

is

also used for indication of a vowel.

[1

etymologically corresponds to
i,

and

in

many

16*.

words always remained a


EICDT.
(1

e. g.

(1^ It "father", copt.

But with most words

it

was early

lost,

cf.

^^ irp
and Rem.)

"wine", copt. hoTT (from *ierp), or

(J

imn copt.
1

AMOyN "Amon"

(from *^mon,
(1

Cf.

15

a,

In certain endings

was used

in the

oldest orthography to indicate an

i,

which the later

orthography indicates by

"^ (cf. 27),

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS,

ffl.

THE ALPHARET. 17

22,

*17.

\:>

corresponds to Semitic y and this pronun;

ciation

was very long preserved

but in Coptic

it

has

disappeared.
18.

Cf.

15

Rem.
1,

corresponds to Semitic

Copt,

oy;

in

the syllabic orthography (Cf. 70) and in a few endings,

is

also used to indicate a vowel (something

like u).
19.
2i\^=>-

/about corresponded

to our English

/";

Qj?

to the Semitic
20.

S. Cf. C
/

12bc.
as well as
r, cf.

<=^
like

r^

represented
aaaaaa

8.

In

certain words

n also was probably pronounced

an

/;

8a,

2.

2j^

ru h is

Heb. n, arab.

and

h differ like

arab.

(something like
cli

M)

and

(something like

German

in ach)\ nevertheless in

many words

h
it

appears to have also possessed a softer sound, for


interchanges with
s.

^-=> was originally a special

sound, standing very near to

merged into one sound that


one and the same sign
'22,

but both were so early we transliterate them with


;

h.

Cf.

14.

~~*^~

^^^

'

were

likewise

originally

different

sounds; but they were also so early merged into one

sound that we transliterate them both with the same


sign
s. czszi] s

corresponds to

it

our

sh.

Cf.

13.

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

U.

THE ALPHABET.

23

27.

z]

k corresponds to
p,

p,

^C3^ ^ to d;

S^

is

a sound 23.

very near to

but not to be defined more closely.

Cf.C
<^ t

10,24.

corresponds to Semitic
of the
like

f\

s=
But

/ is

a special 24

modification

same sound, which must have


n. e.

sounded about
period
ints ^.
e^i^i
t3
:

o in the

at a very early

s=5
Cf.

had, in most words already passed over

11a,

2.

d corresponds for the most part to Semitic


i? is

25.

'W^

a special modification of the

same sound,
at.

which must have sounded something

like

But

in

most words 'W^ very early passed into


latest

c=^3. In the
it

period

<:=^>

becomes

t,

so that

coincides

with

in Copt.
is

Cf.

11a,

4.

{1(1

still

the indication of two

(I's

in the oldest 26*.

texts,
cf.

e. g.
Ill

(In

ms^Y (something like *mesioi "I bear",


*mesios "she bears").
(j,

WiUy msis
it is

i.

e.

From

the m.

e.

down
1,

written for

in so far as this

has remained

(cf.

16), only, however, at the


;

end of word stems and


it

in certain endings
N\
i'

we then

transliterate
e.

with

y.

is

a sign used since the m.

for the fre- 27*.


i;

quently recurring grammatical ending

it

cannot

stand at the beginning or in the middle of a word.

Concerning

its

origin

cf.

108.

10

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS,

b.

PHONETICS.

C.

SYLLABIC SINGS. 28

32.

b.

SPECIAL POINTS IN PHONETICS.


is

28.

Certain sounds, for which a sign

wanting, are

expressed by a combination of several.

Such

is

kind of <^:> r occurring as the final letter of


words, which interchanges with
<^^^^(1;
[1

many

and

is

written
(1

and further the combination


a-

and

for initial
29.

The weakness of the breathing


peculiar phenomena.

^^
it

i produces

In

many words

stands, some-

times as second, sometimes as third consonant; t^m

and

mi

"pleasant", k:$m and


rv^hi "hall of

km^ "create";
Ami

tvh:^

"co-

lumn" and

columns" &c.

Along with

these occur forms like km:$m with

"create",
cf.

sm^m
In

with sm9 "kill", wh^h with wh^ "seek";


very

157.

many words

i was also

early lost.
(I

Similar
and
s^i "wise",

phenomena appear sometimes with


30.

also.
s;

A
shtn

further interchange

is ss, ss

and
ss9

also hs

sh, e. g. ssp, ssp

and p "receive",
holies".

and

and hsm "holy of

31.

Remarkable

is

the writing of

[{'='

it

"father" (copt.

EIODT) which since the oldest times appears also as

c.

SYLLABIC SIGNS.

32.

Along with the simple consonants, syllabic signs


were also used which, according to

40 have become

2.

PHONETIC SIGNS.

C.

SYLLABIC SIGNS.

33. 34.

11

pure phonetic signs from original ideograms.

Thus

^^,

really an

ideogram for wr

''great",

appears as a

syllabic sign in swri "drink", wrs "spend time", writ

anoint" &c.

i^^^^,

really an

ideogram for mn "rethe

main", appears as syllabic sign in hsmn "natron", mnli

"wax"

etc.

For further examples

cf.

list

of

hieroglyphs.

The
^^,
i,

syllabic

signs,

whose second consonant

is 33*.

are of importance for the beginner, for such


for

syllables

the

most part must be written with

these signs.

To be noted are:

--
{]
TV^

l^vs

*^
sB

U
O
t^

J.

i^

y mS
#^i
tB

&i

LToTsi

r^^tS

Of these kB and

occur also in syllabic writing


all

(^C3:^^^^5^^^^) occasionally also hB\ with


others the syllabic sign must be used.

the

The rare ex-

ceptions (like

jn^

in s&i

"door" and dhB "restore")


phonetic conditions in

probably

indicate peculiar

these words.

The

syllabic signs in
;

are almost as frequent as 34*.

the above

for these, however, the alphabetic writing

may

also be used:

12

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

35

37.
^
.

^^ Iw
If^
*35.
frv

nrv

hw
sw
g7\

li

sw

and Sw

JB^,

rm

Note further the


\

syllabic signs:
(J

perhaps

IS^

il

or sometimes also

(l-

probably

ri.

^^^

'

^^^'

^v

'

^^^^

^^^'

^^^^

^^ ^^^

early

used in many words as

initial ,w (cf. 102).

(like the sign for i) or

%,

(cf.

43), the

sign of the ending fiw


for
fi.

(cf.

133), incorrectly

also

3.

IDEOGRAMS.
originally

*36.

The

ideograms

denoted the objects

which they represent:


tiTD

pr house,

v^^^

M wood,
lir

nt city, O K sun,
tQi

face,

1^ m&c

soldier,

tb heart,

&c.

37^

Since abstract conceptions and the like cannot

be sketched, concrete objects in some way suggestive


of

them are used


Scepter
I

as ideograms for them:

is

the ideogram for

Mi

"reign",

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

38

40.

13

Staff of
*i* Plant

office for

hrp "lead",

used as the arms of upper Egypt for rs

"south",

^,

Sacred falcon for Hr Target for


st

"God Horus",

^
to

"shoot".
38.

In a few cases more than one sign are found united

form one ideogram, as _y^


')^'^nn "this"
is

sm^rvt'i

"the

uniter

(of Egypt)"

etc.

An ideogram
word but
"cities",
its

used not only for one specific

39*.

also for all forms derived

from

it, e.

g.

all

not only for nt "city" but also for the plural


as well as the adjective
[

ntvt

nt'l

"urban" and

forms.

likewise, is used for all forms of the

verb

Mi

"reign" and the substantivs

Mi

"ruler"

Mif
way

"ruler" (fem.).

The ideogram therefore denotes only

the consonants forming the stem, and not in any

a special vocalization of

it.

Although, according to the above remarks, only

40*.

words belonging to the same stem


written with the

may

properly be

same ideogram,

nevertheless the

Egyptians from the oldest times transferred


signs to such words as accidentally contained the

many
same

consonants, without belonging to the same stem.

14

3.

IDEOGRAMS.

41. 42.

Thus

e.

g.

[3Z: pr "house" transferred


r-^i-.

to

pr

"go out",
"rest"'.

htp "offering" transferred to htp

T
1

nfr "lute" transferred to nfr "good".

mia

"flute"

>i

n mic^ "truth".

hpr "beetle"
si "goose"

?:

H hpr "become".
n
55

55

si "son".

wr "dove"

91

wr

"great".

&c.

In this manner ideograms for


stract

all

sorts

of ab-

conceptions were

obtained.

Many

of these

signs were further transferred to so

many words

that

they eventually became purely phonetic syllabic signs,


thus
41.

e. g.

^^^

rvr

"great"

1^ pB "fly" &c.

Cf.

32seq.

Since words like "good, truth, become, son, great"


&c. occur

much more

frequently than words

like

"lute, flute, beetle, goose, dove" &c. the original con-

crete

meaning

in the case of

many such ideograms

was therefore nearly forgotten.


42.

A
e. g.

few ideograms really have double values, so

which
In

is

employed

for tpt "head"

and dBdB

"head".

many

cases however where a double value


it

apparently occurs

has been caused by the subse-

quent merging together of two originally different


signs.

Thus, in the merging together of the signs

3.

IDEOQRAJIS.

43. 44.

15

()

and

Y?

0116 of

which meant hrp "lead" and the other


()

shm "mighty", one sign


its origin,

with both meanings found

&c.

similar confusion of different signs occurs so 43.


it is

frequently, that

o/ten no longer possible to detersign.

mine the correct form of a


difference in:
*

Note especially the

S
I
I

5^.

2\

nst "throne", /H hr "below,

kd "build"

&c.,

ist

"troop",

hrtv "voice",

mdw

"speak"

^^and^/)>.,^and^n^,
which are regularly confused
in the inscriptions.
44.

The following frequently recurring ideograms are


differently

formed from
"go",
[j

all

others:

J\

Irv

i "go",

[^ sm
s^^
is il

"come",
"rob",

~7T" sh "walk through",


in

which one sign of going

separated into different


Similarly

ideograms by the addition of consonants.


differentiated are:
l\

In "bring", '^^^ &s "bring in",

j4j

rs "south",
rnj)t

-^ kmC
|
tr

"south",
"I

"year",

"time",

rnp "bloom".

16

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

45

47.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.
latest part of the Egyptian

45

The determinatives, the

writing, are intended to facilitate the reading; with

very frequent words, which every one recognizes of


himself, they are not used,
Irt "do",
e.

g.

(l^/^w,"tobe",
"in" &c.

^^

Tvr "great",

^
still,

A.

The determinatives are


At a

far rarer in the

pyramid

texts than later.

B.

later period there is

an inclination to attach several

determinatives to a

word

in this case the

more general

(of.

47)

comes
*46.

after the

more

special.

A
ject

few determinatives represent exactly the obe.

which their word denotes

g.

the determinative

of heaven and of crocodile in the words

^p^heaven"

and
*47.

^^px

's:s=='

nish "crocodile".

But those determinatives are


and important, which

far

more numerous

indicate only in general the


(I

meaning of

their word, like that of the tree in

l<zz>0

hr

"tamarisk".

Note especially:
P
goddess,
animal,
bird, insect,

man,

woman,

^
"^

^people.
revered person,

plant,

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

48. 49.

17

Q
s;
AAAAAA AAAAAA

tree,

dust,
fluid,

(late

V)

land,

water,
foreign

J\

go,
see.

r\^^^ desert,

.^^

and,

^
city.
1

what

is

done with

the mouth,

house,

^
"^

(late

n)

that

barbarian,

which demands strength,


little,

(late e) flesh,
fire.

bad,

.-^^ abstract.

time,

When

a determinative

is difficult

to write, espe- 48,


is

cially in manuscripts,
St "Isis"

an abbreviation \

used,

e. g.

i
m.

for

jj

^ ^
still

Exact scribes, especially those at the end of the 49*


e.

distinguish

closer difi'erences

in

deter-

mination. They
to render its

mark a determinative with


e. g.
^

m, in order

meaning general,

L^9 B^r "roast" but (1^ /w/ 2^0\^ pnw "mouse" but "l^"^ Cwt "cattle"
"flesh"

'^T /rr# "flower" but (1

"^

Brman,

_^o "^^'iAr^'onionY?).
III

Egypt, gramm.

18 50.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

50. 51.

These scribes further add the sign


minative, in order to restrict
its

to a detere. g.:

meaning,
1^

""^^^O rk "period of time", but


^
'

%^
Ji
I

hrw "day",

''\ ' ^"^s/Wi^^e "northern", but "~^il[l'^ mry? "dyke".


B.

-^nn^
e.

In the

n. e. these

additional

signs

and

are often

incorrectly employed.

To the m,
^
.).

belongs the rare practice of

occasionally furnishing the determinatives

@ and fw^ with the

feminine ending
"city',,

(^'

as if they

were the substantives nt

smt "land".

*51.

The stroke must be regarded


determinative which
are written with
determinative,
is

as a special kind of

added to substantives, which

only one sign and have no other

e. g.

^^ dw

"mountain",

"^^

ri (?) "mouth",
si "son",

c "arm",

'^'

or (with the feminine ending


dt "hand",

i):

smt "desert" etc.

Nevertheless the usage varies

much here and two

ex-

ceptions to the law here given are found in all texts:


J^

hr

1.

"face", 2.

"upon" with

even when the

word

is ~~^

a preposition, not a substantive.


s

"man" with

notwithstanding the other]

determinative which follows.

cf.

also 58.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

tt.

IN GENERAL.

52. 53.

19

determinative

is

frequently transferred from 52*

one word to others, which have the same consonants,


even when
it

does not suit their meaning.


is

Thus,

e. g.

the syllable kd

written

or

because of
Ih "to thirst"

kd

"circle"
(1

and kd "make pottery";

written:
written:
A.

\^^^ because oilh

"'calf";

^^"eternity"
etc.

^1

because of dt "landed property",


is

Especially to be noted in the old texts

the writing
flesh

twf "he

is"

which has taken on the determinative of

from hcf

"flesh".

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
a.

IN GENEEAL.
trans- 53.

The orthography, which experienced great


often arbitrary

formations in the course of time, determines in an

manner how

far phonetic signs, ideo-

grams, and determinatives must be employed in writing


different words.

The most widely spread and import-

ant system of orthography which


as classic,
is

may be

designated

found

in the greatest purity in the


e.
;

manu-

scripts of the

m.

with this system the beginner

should seek to make himself as familiar as possible,


before he approaches texts in another orthography.

B*

20

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

b.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.


of the p3ramid texts
is

54. 55.

A.
able,

The orthography

exceedingly varidifficult

and renders the understanding of them very


it is

indeed;

but for us

of importance, because

it

often

even though not


classic
o. e.

consistently

distinguishes

grammatical forms which the

orthography leaves undistinguished.


seeks the greatest possible brevity.

The orthography of the

b.

OETHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGEAMS.


of

54

The majority
gram, to which
is

words are written with an ideoits

added an indication of

pronun-

ciation in alphabetic signs.

Whether

all

the conson-

ants of the

word are

to be written, or only a part;

whether they are to stand before or after or on both


sides of the ideogram, is decided

by usage for each

separate word.
the usage
(cf.

The following paragraphs present

of the classic orthography.

Caligraphy
is

7) is

moreover often the motive

for the selection

of a given writing.
*55.

Usually
added.
is

it

is

only the final consonant which

To

biliteral
e.

ideograms the

final

consonant

subjoined,

g.:

^^J\ pr
r\\ms

"go out",

^^yv,
t

^h "go in",

"to bear",

'^
^1

M "white",
e,

to triliterals the final consonant,

g.

^
f

tipr

"become",
"stand",

^7\^

^-'^

T | ^^^ "lay", '^ rvSd "green", I

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.


last

56. 57.

21

or also
e. g.:
/->

but more rarely the


Cn?i "live"
n "1

two consonants,

AAAAAA

--

n l<zi> rvsr "strong".

nfr "good".

More

rarely all the consonants are written,


hi)

e.

g.

56*.

\'^ZE^

"feast",

"times" (germ. Mai), (^ ^^

and

still

more

rarely only the initial consonants^ as in:

^ ^
n^ J
A.
frequent,

llgrg "sieze possession",

s&i "star".
AAAAAA a^^^ AAAAAA

In the oldest orthography writings of just this kind are

H
nfr "good",
o

cf. e. g.

and

ChC

"stand"',

n 9

M
t

AAAAAA

ChC "palace",
'

"Lord'' instead of the

classic writings T

'

'

^^

Mt^.

Finally in some isolated cases the initial conson-

57.

ant of the ideogram or


placed after
it,

its

entire phonetic writing

is

e, g.

W'
J
A.

^(J "to

command",

^^

dmd

"unite",
"'^^ sick",

jj[ ur-3 Cr "storehouse", ?

^^^^^''

mA
This

'"^
is

"pyramid".
remnant of the oldest orthography;
in the

also a

pyramids such writings are frequent.

22
*58.

5.

OETHOaEAPHY.

C.

PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY.

58. 59.

Only a few especially frequent ideograms


the abbreviations of 67
netic addition, as:

except

are

left

without any pho-

^
I

hr "face",

ss (?) "scribe",

pr

"house", "god",
'=s. '

nb "every",

'^^nir

^
mh

nb "lord",
"fill",

iM

2i
\\\

msC "armv",

and the feminines


^
I
c.

^ ^
^

ht "house",
St "Isis",

mrvt "mother".

Jmt "woman",

etc.

PUBBLY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY.

59.

All words for which the orthography possesses

no ideogram are written with purely phonetic signs

i.

e.

without ideograms.

These are in part very

frequently recurring words, like:

(1^ ^^^

tw "to be",

^ rn "name",

Jl^ ^ %, V
^^'^
(]
l\

"^^^"'
^^^ "lion",

n^^(l^
A.
is

STvrl "drink", &c.

In the oldest orthography the purely phonetic writing

very frequent.

Note the rare cases

v\
|

for

v\

^^

wd:$ "sound, healthy",

'^^

^ for

"^^

i/jf "field",

which

also occur occasionally later.

5.

OKTHOGRAPHY.

C.

PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. 60

62.

23

Since the syllabic signs employed in these writings 60*.


were, according to 40, originally

ideograms, the

pronunciation
is

is

added to them

in the
is

same way.
written,
rvn,

It

mostly the
ms,

final

consonant which
mr,
'^
hr,

e. g.

mn^

^^

&c.

But

in

many

cases the initial consonant also

is

written (and such syllabic signs are thereby

dist-

inguished from the real ideograms,

cf.

56)

e. g.

As a rare writing note that of the

syllabic sign
is

w'^

Y>, in

which the phonetic value

indicated by means of another frequently recurring


sign for nw.

few syllabic signs moreover are

often also 61*.

employed without phonetic addition, thus


6i,

e. g.

tirv,

LJ

^j>^ [q] 5J>^

O ^^

those derived from sub-

stantives then receive a stroke according to 51.

Note the writing of the words mln and

si^ :

[1

62.

and
is to

'Ij

p^^O

f^n-l,

sS-i,

in

which the subjoined

be inserted within the syllabic sign.*


* according to Sethe.

24

6.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
d.

d. ABBREVIATIONS.

63. 64.

ABBREVIATIONS.

63.

Since the Egyptian writing was naturally intended only for such as were familiar with the language, the

Egyptians omitted much as dispensable, which seemed


to

them

self-evident.

Almost

all

grammatical changes
left
is

therefore which

take place within a word are


hmrvt plur. of
J) Jimt

unindicated,

e. g.

"woman"

written

J)

(that is without indication of the

tv).

But further, the grammatical endings are also often


omitted, where
will perceive
it is

supposed that the reader himself


n.

them from the connection:

Hi

for the plural sr{w) "princes",

^^37 for hmt &[^]

"every
64.

woman"
is

&c.

Further with

many

phonetically written words a

consonant

regularly or often omitted. Note especi-

ally the frequently

used words:
S

^
^_^

for llf h

"father", n

for sms "follow".

for iht "thing",

v^ s^

for f^sr "desolate",

Jl

^^^

^^-

"^^"''5

oQ
j]

for htm "to seal",


for

for hCp "Nile",

mr

"stone",

^^^

for

hrd

"child",

for ptr "see",

for sm^ "land",

|| for c^i "correct",

5.

ORTHOOKAPHY.

d.

ABBREVIATIONS.

65

67.

25

'^

for dfS "food",

n
&c.

n T;^

for shsh "walk, run",

A. Belonging to the earliest period, but sometimes occurring


later also, are: c^ for Iao^
tt

"father", <^II> for


(J

,.

tr'i

"be-

longing to", also

\\

"^^

for

\\

\\ "^^

iwf

"flesh".

Here belong

also the cases

where only

its

second

65.

consonant is added to a
of 55,
jf

triliteral

ideogram

in violation

e.

g.:
I

for

stn "king of

upper

Egypt",,

(a
"o"
I

for
I

^^^
oD
I

^^^ "to reign",


"offering",

^^'^

'^"^^

for

l<=r>;sr "strong",

()

for shmt

"name of a goddess", &c.


titles

In frequently used
arbitrary
"prince",

and formulae,
like:

still

more
hCfi

66.

abbreviations

occur,

^^^

for

d
|l
I

for rpCtt "hereditary prince", the bene-

diction nr

for Cnh

wdB snb

"living, hale, healthy",

1 0|

for nhh "eternity".

Further, the old divine names, titles &c., which 67.


are written with only an ideogram are abbreviations,
like:

^^^

tvp rv^rvt

"opener of ways" (a divine name);

26

e.

INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS./. UNUSUAL STYLES. 68

70.

Toq"^]
68.

for

^"^^^^^
is

hCwf-RC

his

diadems are those of ReC" (royal name) &c.


Finally, a

word which

obvious from the connec-

tion, is very often so abbreviated that only its deter-

minative
s
Q

is

inserted,
D

e. g.

for

^^

for

S>j kBt "labor",

nht "strong",

| for s"^"^!!
cf.

trvi

"statue" &c.

(For the most important cases

the

table of signs).

e.

INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS.


formulae, names &c. words which desig-

*69.

In

titles,

nate the king or a god are inserted in the writing


before the others belonging thereto; in reading, the
correct order

must of course be

restored,

e. g.

1 "^^ sB
I

stn "son of the king",

y
'^

hn-ntr "servant of the god, priest",

Sci 1

J}n-ntr

Hkt

"priest of the goddess Hkf",

oQ
/.

mi RC

"like ReC".

UNUSUAL STYLES OF ORTHOGRAPHY.


e.

70.

Since the m.

there developed along with the

usual writing, a syllabic orthography, which nevertheless

was only used for the writing of foreign words,^


It consists of

proper names &c.

the syllabic signs

/.

UNUSUAL STYLES.

71. 6.

RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION.

72.

27

treated in 33
TV.

35 and of other
rv
;

syllables in i

and

The sounds i and

evidently serve as the approxof.

imate indication of the vowels

e. g.

s=>

^ A^

^,
The

f_TV-pB-'irB

for
)'r^(i)

the

Hebrew nsb

"scribe" &c.

syllables

^,

seem to correspond

to

and j'TT ^ employed therein, er and en.


71.

Sportive methods of writing, in which ideograms


serve as simple consonants, determinatives and un-

precedented signs are used as ideograms, are found


as early as the m.
e. cf. e.

g.

^C^^

\\

for

HI

msdmt cosmetic", wherein

2j)

as determina-

tive of m5 "child" represents this syllable, c^:^ drv

"moun-

tain^ represents d,
mt.

\\

mrvt

"mother"
first

the syllable

But

this

wanton method

attains importance

from the fact that such an orthography gradually


superceded the old hieroglyphs in the Greek period.

A summary
1872).
6.

of these signs

may be found inBru^sch,


Lauttvert (Leipzig

Verzeichniss der Hieroglyphen mit

RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION.


72.

The orthography so often leaves the phonetic


form of the words uncertain, that a transliteration
free

from some arbitrariness

is

impossible.

One should

accustom himself to the following rules

28 PRONOUNS.
1.

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN,

a,

PERSONAL SUFFIXES.

73.

Since most s=>'s and '^"^'s according to 24,


e.

25 had, in the m.
texts of the
ra. e.

already become
n. e.
t

-^li

and

ci^^i,

in

and

and d should always be

transliterated

in

cases of doubt,
'^-=^

and

and d only

employed when s=> and

are actually written out.

Hence
2.

j| w^r but

<zr> nirt}

In the case of omitted consonants ( 64, 65)


( 63), only those

and grammatical endings

should be

supplied which occur in parallel cases really written


out,

and rather too

little

than too much should be


imi,

restored.

Hence nk ^\

according to 133

but

3.

( 29, 30)

Words in which the order of consonants changes should be written, when in doubt, with the form
r)
;

in

which they oftenest occur. Hence

first

mi andj

only i^m
4.

when

this reading is phonetically written outj

In

compound words

the component parts should


fn

be separated by a hyphen:
"Ramses".

'1

v^

R(^-ms-sw

PRONOUNS.
1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN.


a.

PERSONAL SUFFIXES.
suffixes,

*73.

The personal

which are subjoined to

tl

noun, the prepositions and the verb, to express poa

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN,

tt.

PERSONAL SUFFIXES.

74.

29

session or the subject

(e.

g.

pr-k "thy house", hr-k

"upon thee", sdm-k "thou hearest"), according to the


classic

orthography are:
c.

Sing.

^^

(^'^)
k
t

Plur.

1.

c.77; n
(

2 m.
f.

r:z::y(>

2. c. ^-'^^'^tn
' ' '

jaa^aaa
j
I
I

.=
P

V/WWVA
/^~^ 5[/wsAAA

1/

(O)
n A/\AAAA
*

m.
f.

^^ f
(--)
.

\
I

3. c.

They are written

after the determinative of the


e.

word

to

which they are subjoined,

g.

S'^"^
mr/t "thou

rdk (copt. pATK) "thy foot",


lovest".

glj

^^^z::^

The
(e. g.

suff.

sg.

is

according to the Coptic an

74.

XODI

"my head");
e.

in the o. e. it is always left


l^mt\l\

unindicated,

g.
is

To

"my

office",

from the

m.

e.

down

it

mostly indicated by determinatives,

' g-

^^ ^

or

^^Ji
is

^^

"^^ Ji
left

according
s^l

as

man, a woman or a god speaks, read


Nevertheless
it

"my

son".

sometimes

unindicated here
(cf.

also, especially in the

-form of the verb


it
(I,

194).

A. The pyramids aways write


as

and

this writing occurs

an exception
B.

later also.
falls

After consonants the suffix later


cf.

away

(e. g.

copt.

pAT

"fuy foot"

5).

30
75.

1.

THE PERSONAL PEONOUN.

tt.

PERSONAL SUFFIXES. 75

79.
pi, al^

In the m.

e.

s=

of the 2 sg.
t
;

f.

and 2

ready passes over into

nevertheless

= and
jlJ
;

are often written later also.


B.

Late writings of the


t

2 sg.

f.

are

d 3\

and

in Copt,

this suffix has lost the

(-E), cf

50.
f.

76.

The

m.

sg. is

sometimes and the 3


"it", e. g.

sg. often

used for the neuter


of
it"
;

"^1

hrs "on account

the 3

f.

occurs even for

more than one person,


were early superceded

where we would expect the


77.

3 plur.

The

suffixes of the dual

by those of the plural, nevertheless "ir^.


ImitTV-sni

o^'''^
be found.*

"between them both"


***
]

is

still to
]

A. The pyramids have 3 du.


78.

[]'

snl, 2 du. f^AA^^f^tnt.

On

the other

hand the

suffixes of the singular,

when they

are subjoined to a

noun

in the dual or

having the dual meaning, very strangely take the


dual ending
i,

though

it

is

not always written out,


,,

e.g.

^
v::.

Cw?/'"his

two arms",

sptw'iki\

"thy two lips",


legs",

'V

^^i'C^^^
second".
suffix

TvCrftfi ""his

two|

snnrv/'i "his

A
79*.

The pyramids write such a

*^-

[l

fc.

These suffixes are not used as object. Nevertheless]


as

possessive suffixes
* Todth.
7, 5.

attached to infinitives

(e.

g.j

1,

THE PERSONAL PROHOUN.

b.

THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN.

80. 81.

31

^[j^l""

/?r

Ithk

"when they draw thee"

lit.

"at

thy drawing") they represent the object to our grammatical sense and the Egyptians themselves later
conceived them as such.
B.
Since the forms of. the copt. verb are
infinitive,

mostly

made

with the

these suffixes have therefore become real ob(cf.

ject suffixes in Copt.

174).

b.

THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN.


which externally at least are identical
80*.

Its forms,

with the suffixes in the plural, are:


Sing.
1

c.

'^^

?v2

Plur.

1. c.

^^J n
III
tn

2m.t=>^tTv.i::^^tw
f.

'^-^^^ 2. c. AftAAAA tn aaaaaa I 1 1

{1m or Inl)

3m
f.

SW

3. C.
I

'

/WWVA^^

III III

W
St

SI

Neutr. 3 c.\\c^

They

are

still

employed
(cf.

as

subject,

almost

only in a certain few cases

166, 328, 369, 383),

on the other hand regularly as object.

The

sg. is
pi.
is
is
fji

written in the
in the

o. e.

^.

The

2 m.

trv 81.

and the 2

m.

e.

are already tw and

tn.

-The

f.

of course

always to be read , even

when the

not written.

32

1.

THE PERSONAL PRONOUN.

C.

LATER ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. 82

84.

A.

The pyramids write the

1 sg.

v\
2

(1.

For the
tn.

m. they

have two forms tw and kw, and for the


*82.

f.

tm and

The form \\^


the 3
the
f.
;

st

perhaps originally belonged to

but

it

is

nevertheless regularly used, from


e.

time of the m.

down, for neutr.

"it".

It is

used with decided preference and


a number of persons
(cf.

may even
Cf.
e.

refer to

76); the pron. 3. pi. sn is

almost entirely superceded


St

by

it.

g.

Cnnsn

"they turned themselves

(lit.

"it") about".

83.

Along with the above, the pyramids have also


further forms of these pronouns which they employ

with special emphasis, like


pnt, 3
still to

1 sg. wll,

m.

fwt,

f.

m.

sTvt,

f.

stt.

Of

these, only
e.

^^

swt

is

be found in the m.
c.

LATER ABSOLUTE PEONOUN.

*84.
ject,

These forms are only employed as emphatic sub-

and correspond to the emphasizing of the sub-

stantive
Sing.

by means of
Inwk
AAAAA^

In

(cf.

350).
1.

They are:
c.

1 c.

Plur.

2 m.
f.

oi

ntk
ntt {latter ntt)

AAAAAA g ) ^wvaaa c.

nttn

o
'^^ -^

(later n^^w)|

Zm. a.
f.

ntf
1

c.

ntsn

nts

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

C.

WITH

p-,

t-.

86.

33

As may be seen, the


and the possessive
B. There

1 sg. is

an exceptional form,
103)

the others consisting of a

little syllable nt- (cf.

suffixes.
still

A. In the pyramids they are


is

rare.
1 sg.,
(J

later

an inclination to write the

M^i.

Prom

these forms the copt. pronouns have descended,

cf.

51.
d.

THE EXPRESSION FOR


p|
ds-

"SELF".

The word

with the

suff.

means

"self,

e. g.

85.

(hi "myself", dsk "thyself", ^5/"


B.

"himself

etc. occurs rarely

The word hC "body" with

or -without

suff.

for "self"*; this expression,


(cf.

from which the

copt. ^(3i(Xi' descends

52), later

becomes more frequent.

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.
a.

FORMS WITH MASC. J9-FEM. t-. The most common demonstrative "this",
Sing. m.
AAAAAA

is:

86.*

pn
[1

f.
AA/SAAA

Plur. m.

Ipn (pn)

f.

(i

Iptn (ptn)

The plural forms


solete,

are, in the
(cf.

m.

e.,

already ob-

and are replaced by nn


after

91).

It

always

stands

the

substantive:
I

pr
AAAA/VN

j9n "this

house", J
LD
1
1 1

ht in
AAA^/W

"this castle".

In cere-

Sin. 66.
Eg^pl. granim.

Erman,

34

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

O.

WITH

p-,

t-.

87

90.

monious language

it

also follows proper

names of

persons, especially in direct address.


A. The pyramids use
substantive also;
it

with especial emphasis before the

m pn gs

"on this side".


lost.

B. In n.
*87.

e. it is

almost entirely

The weaker word


prv^ occurs
1.

for "this" (following its noun)

almost only in this one form and then only

in the cases in 237, 239, 334;

2. in
3.

ceremonial address

Ppy

prv "o Pepy"


prv n Tnrv ^'Cmwi-

in apposition; (^mw'i-n-sl,

hhB

n-Sl,

the prince of

Tnw"
Iptw.

(lit.

"this prince"). m.

A. In the pyramids
f.

it still

survives: sing.

pw

(also p,pi),

tw

plur.

m. ipw

f.

B. In the later language

it is

entirely lost.

88.
trvy

In the archaic language m. lJX\i\


also

(1

pwy,

f.

o^

(J (1

occur,
prv.

and are properly perhaps identical

with the old


89.

The old word


i/"

for "that" is sing.


is

m.

pf,

f.

(properly p/?? //i?), which

also later written

*^-=--,

1^ \\

^h^

P^f'i-

It follows the substan-

tive

and often adds an implication of despicableness.

(like

The
pn

plur. is replaced

by

w/i, cf. 93.


it

A. The pyramids have also the plural ipf and also place
86 A) before the substantive.
is

"90.

The usual later demonstrative

sing.

m.

2.

DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS.

&.

FORMATIONS WITH U:

91. 92.

35

pS,

f.

o^.

t^i

which, differing from the others,

is

always placed before the substantive:


^^^^

D/>^^^
It
is
is

v"^

pi*

S/drv

"thi&_book".

also used

as a substantive (jai

pw Wslr
Q/^^

"this

Osiris")

and

then has also a plural,


the plural
is

^^ ^
cf.

i-

cf.

Usually

replaced by ni,

94.

A, In the pyramids
B.

pB

does not occur.

The

article

is

later
c.

developed from p^,

113;

the

later demonstrative also pB'i

TTAl (C 68)

is

descended from pB.

b.

FORMATIONS WITH

n-.
|

4-4- ^^
I

^^

properly a substantive, "this":

91.*

ddnf nn "he said this"^

But
|j^[j|j

it is

for the

most part connected by the genetive n with a following singular or plural:


I I

aaaaaa

^ nn

sht'i

"these peasants"^

(lit.

"this of peasant"); this combi(cf.

nation replaces the plural of j9


B. Later the genetive

86).
^^^^ "these

falls

away: nn (4-4-)
and
AA/\A/W
I
I

are
AA/v^A^

incorrect writings for nn.

D v\ (older
nn; as a substantive
>

\\) nn>
it

is

used precisely

like 92.*
.
.

means
75.

"this", in
^

nw n
12.

it

Sin. 32.

Bauer

Westc.

5,

C*

36

NOUNS.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES,

a.

EXPRESSION OF GENDER.
AA/ViAA

95.

replaces
J|
I
I

the plural

of prv

(cf.

87):
is

WW n LA

ntrw^ "These gods". It

more archaic

than nn.
B. In
^^'
it is lost.

^^^^
plural

^^^ ^^ '^^ same

way

replaces the

of/?/", e. g. w/j?

n c^wt "those swellings (?)"^.


also

*94.

%
K^
the

i "this"

is

a substantive,

"this";
it

in

the combination wi n with following plural,


as the plural of ;?i
(cf.

serves

90, 113),

e. g.

"V

''^'^

/'^wT

III wi n gmhrvt "these wicks" ^


A. To the pyramids nB
is still

unknown.

B. Here also the genetive n


article
is

falls

away
wi,

in the n. e.; hence


cf.

AAA/SA^

for

the most part

''K^

113 B.

NOUNS.
1.
a.

SUBSTANTIVES.
EXPRESSION OF GENDER.
and denotes
-t

95.

The masculine and feminine are distinguished. The feminine has the ending
1.

the naturally feminine;

2.

various inanimate objects, which are conceived

as feminine, like nst "throne", wCrt "leg";


t

Eb.

2,

5.

Eb. 108,

20.

Siut

I,

297.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES. U. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 96. 97.

37

3.

Collectives, like Cs^t "multitude", rhyt ''huma-

nity";
4.

Expressions in the neuter, like ntt "that which",


like;

and the
5.

Abstract conceptions,

like

stnyt

"kingdom",

JmtC^) "evil".

The masculine originally had an ending


was denoted by
written, chiefly
1.
rv.

u,

which

96.

It is nevertheless

only rarely

with divine names

etc.:

[I

vx^^wpw Anubis,

^^^^=3% Mntw Month, ?]\, Hnmrv Chnum.


2.

with substantives which denote a person and


Q

are derived from an adjective or verb:


M+i
hrvrrv

^^^^^^

"pauper" (from

Q^^""^^^
ny J\

/?wr "poor"),

V^
3.

s;sw "follower" (from

sms "follow")

cf.

also 282, 292, 258, 395.

with various substantives like


c.

(]

^
^^O^
lost.

Itrw "stream" (pronounce *jotru,


also those with n like
''-'

Fioop), especially
"jar",

D%>.5 hnw

CTZ]

hnw

"interior".
is still

A. In the pyramids this ending


B. In the n.
e.

more

frequent.

the ending was probably already


-^,

The ending of the feminine,

is

always written,

97.

38

a.

EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 98.

6.

FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE.99.

and only disregarded


|n^
g

in abbreviations (like

for

ht

ntr

"house

of god"),

The

collective

It

rmtt "humanity", which seems to have super-

ceded the plural of


^

"^ rmf "man",


at
S=rr>
I I

is

written

almost without exception


B,

. 1

From the

n. e.

down, the feminine ending loses


e

its

t,

and

feminine substantives end in


the fem. ending
is

or a long vowel

(cf.

61).

Hence

often omitted in the n.

e.

or added in the

wrong
98.

place-

The names

of foreign lands, like ^:z:^

v\

J^^s

"Ethiopia" are treated as feminines, although they do

not have the feminine ending; probably because


smt "foreign land"
b.

is

understood with them.

99.

We

perceive from the Copt, that the


(cf.

FOEMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. noun


C 63

possess-

ed various definite formations

seq.);

but

these are not to be recognized in hieroglyphic ortho-

graphy, because they are for the most part distinguished


only by different vocalization.
E. g.
I

^.

sm

*sm (cim)

"herb",

O K =
(1

*reC

(oh)

"sun",

^rn =

*ran (oAN) "name",

:^ lrp=*ierp
(TNg) "wing",

(HOn) "wine",

?^^

dnh

*denli

1.

SUBSTAKT1VE8.

h.

FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. 100.

101.

39

yC^ ^^^

"" *^orA (^(Dps) "night",


'^^'^^

^-^^ spr

*spir (cnip) "rib",

/'^^

snf

=
is

*snof (CNOq)

"blood",

^%^

trvt

== *?;5^

(TOYa)T) "statue, figure".


derived from 100.

A
ical

large

number

of substantives
l\ this

others by the ending

ending

is

probably ident-

with

the adjectival ending of 132.


<*,

The old

writing of this ending,

is

found later only in proper

names, like ^w^ u

flri

"the one belonging to Horus"


In

(German "der Horische") from ^^, Hr "Horus".

most cases these words have taken on a peculiar form


in their orthography: in the o.
f.

e.

they end in m. w,
e.
,

wt (pronounce
e.

ui^ uit'^),

in the

m.

in

m.

?/,

f.

yt.

So

g.:

ningstar"
II

^ "^ ^ Im^hw
mrrvt

(1

.^(1

fl

Im^Jiy "revered"

l\l\ci

mryl "love".
loi.

On
tives in

the other hand, with the numerous substan-

m.

ai,

f.

yt^

the question seems rather one of

an

belonging to the stem, than of an ending; in the


is

older period the ending of the masculine


cases not written:
,
QUI
fl

in

most

\v
III

sC'i

"sand"

(0)0)), ""^

40

1.

SUBSTANTIVES,
\

b.

FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE.


aaaaaa
r\ r\

102. 103.

A^/^A^A

n \\

nhs'i

"negro"

?
f]

iJ

nJjsyt "negress".

Those

in

rv'i

like

^ i=^

Mwi' "darkness", are

perhaps old duals.


102.

A number
is

of substantives

is

derived from verbs


e.

by means of a prefixed m. Since the m.

this prefix

written preferably with the syllabic sign .=^^

(of.

35):

All
\

"ihst "scales" (from h^ "measure"),

i
103.

msdmt "eye cosmetic" &c.


nt-^

Note further the prefix


(like the

which

is

used

German

".

wesen",) to express the nature


it
is

or practice of that to which

prefixed {nt-hsb

"Rechnungswesen")
J

and the expressions, made with

in^
i.

"place", for abstract ideas {bw nfr


e.

"good
is

place"

"the good").

A remarkable form
)

the

frequently recurring

-^^ ^^
AAAAAA
-

wn m^c
L

(properly,

probably: "it
tive "truth".

is

true"),

which

is

used like a substan-

A. The prefix

tl

"belonging to"
title
A
I

is

entirely obsolete;

it

is

nevertheless found in the


to him",
i.

v\

tt-sio

"the one belonging

e.

follower of the king.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES.

C.

EXPKES8I0IT OF NUMBEB. . PLURAL. 104. 105.

41

c.

EXPRESSION OF NUMBER, a. PLURAL.


is

Apart from the ending, the plural


cally indicated:
1.

orthographi- 104*.

by a threefold writing of words written with


|
| j

an ideogram:
"houses",

ntrrv "gods",

prw
but
still

^P

nwt

"cities" (archaic,

retained

with some words).


2.

by threefold
hCt'iw

writing

of

the determinative:

=^wiM^wi
3.

"princes" (obsolete).
III,

by means of

i,

(more rarely

), which

follows the ideogram standing alone: !^i


lions",
4.
1

Mw

"mil-

ntrrv

"gods" (abbreviation of
III,

1.).

by means of

i,

which follows the deter5r/y

minative:
of
2.).

l<rz>^|^

"princes" (abbreviation

A. There

is

often found in the pyramids also the threefold


e.
(j.

repetition of phonetic signs,

^^ ^^ ^^
.

df^to" victuals",
also

U
.

hkSw "charm",

www mnw 000

"monument"; they
(1

put

o o o after purely

phonetic writings:

v
in

^^^^ "^"

cellent"

(pi.).

Such writings

also occur sporadically later.

The plural of the masculine ends

tv

(about 105"

42
like

1.

SUBSTANTIVES.

C.

EXPRESSION OF NUMBER,

a.

PLURAL. 106.

^w

cf.

C 109

seq.),
e.

which
g.

is

consistently written

in

good manuscripts,

'^^.

v'^

sww

"herbs".

Note especially:
1.

The w

is,

for the

most

part, not written with


signs, so

words which contain no phonetic


"heads",
|

dSd^w

ntrtv ''gods",
j
|

[^^^ Miw "rulers".


end
''-'

2.

With words which


rv

in the singular already


is

in V^, the

of the plural

not written out:

^^
3.

hrrv plural of

hrw

''day".
^

The

adjectives

in
fi

(cf.

it

133)

take plural

ending,
firv (cf.

^i,
133

those in

write

with the sign

and

43, 61).

4.

On

the plural of

""^^^

^
cf.

97; that

ofl
(1 (1

stn

"king of upper Egypt" has the form 1


I

jv
in

stnyrv,

probably because the word already ends

in the sing.
B. In the n.
e.

there are also plurals in


(J (J

y; that of the

adjectives in

ti

ends later in

^\

(I

lA

^W-

"106.
cf.

The plural of the feminine ends

in

rvt

{*wetj

C
1

109, 116 seq.),


Eb.

e. g.

'^|J^^w^&wr'necks"i

58, 12.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES.

C.

EXPRESSION OF NUMBER.
CI

P.

DUAL. 107. 108.

43

(horn nhbt),

'^V'||i

^^P^^ "years"' (pMnooyp.

from rnpt pOMNF),


(from

^
In

'^

Cj^tvt

"swellings (?)^

c^t)

&c.

classic

orthography these

endings are nevertheless rather seldom written,


being usually written for
Ijmrvt

"women"

&c.

|3.

DUAL.
107*

The dual
1.

is

orthographically indicated:
repetition
of the sign,

by

the

with words
t^w'i

written with only an ideogram:

"the two

lands"
-ending
2.
is

mrfi{l) "the

two eyes".

In

this case the

not written.

With other words the determinative is repeated:


thnwi "the two obelisks",
nn III tit

^ '^'^\y

^^-^

Cfi

"the

two members", wwva^^^ mnti "the two


ending
is

legs".

The

written for the most part.


is

Just as there

a determinative,

ill,

in the plural, 108.

by which the threefold writing of the ideogram or


determinative
is

avoided, so also in the dual there


sign,
i
i

was a corresponding

or

\^,

which

is still
e. g. 5

used
or

as a determinative in the oldest texts,

\\

Grave in Assuan.

Eb. 108,

19.

44

Y-

USE OF THE SINGULAR, PLURAL, DUAL. 110. 111.

W ^(]
v:^ U

(j

CrvU "the two arms", (for

~^),

S^ |
it

gmhrvTi "the two door jambs".


this

But since the


has
i,

m.

e.,

meaning of

I,

\>v

is

forgotten and

the value of a vocalic sign for the dual ending

which
"109.

is

then also employed for every similar ending?.


is

The dual ending


masculine
is

properly an

which, in the
m, in

joined to the masculine ending


t.

the

feminine to the feminine ending


ings of these endings are m.

The older
or

writ^'

^Ol]

V^

tvli^

I1h

ov c^ tl\

from the m.

e.

on, they are written

rv'l

f.

USE OP THE SINGULAR, PLURAL, DUAL.


is

110.

The singular

often employed collectively, where

we expect the
is

plural, especially

where
e. g.

^^^::^

nb "every"
(selecti.

subjoined to the substantive,

"600

men

ed) from

^^
the brave".

kn nb "every brave one"\

e.

"from
111.

all

Differently from our conception of


is

it,

the plural

used:
1.

with abstract nouns,

e.

g.

m^^^

h^f

LU

II 122 b.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES, d. THE ARTICLE. 113.

45

"time",

^"Ix^nil

tSw heat",

"^^^^.^^^fkBrv

"reward" &c.
2.

with names of material

e.

g. aaaaaa

mw

"water",

\\ =0==D==D=

Irpw "wine" &c.


this

But plurals of
singulars also
(e. g.

sort

are

early treated

as

mntv "monument", hrw "height",

mw
the

"water").

With words of material,

which, like

names of the metals, are used


nb "gold", nbw "gold nuggets".

in the singular,

the plural denotes separate pieces of the material;


e. g.

The dual
pairs.

is

only used of persons


extinct;
cf.

or things in
121.

112.

It early

became
d.

THE ARTICLE,
to
113.

The older language has no expression known


us for the
stantive,

definiteness or indefiniteness of a sube. first

and the popular language of the m.


(cf.

begins to employ the demonstrative pi

90) as

an

article.

The forms

are:
i>^,
f.

Sing. m.
Plur.
'Tk

AAAAftA

^^
e.,

^^
. .

t^'

'^"^ nB n ("the of

')

with following

singular or plural.
AAAAAA

B. Since the m.
instead of

"^

n^ with following
sq.

plural

is

written

nB

n.

cf.

C 112

46
114.

1.

SUBSTANTIVES, d. THE ARTICLE. 114

116.
e.

This popular language of the m.

further, re-

gularly omits the article with certain words.


are
1.

These

the

names of

all

parts of the body,


3.

2.

many

designations of localities,
cult

the expressions of the

and the kingdom,

4.

a few words occurring with

especial frequence.
f

115.
(lit.

In the later language, the expression pByf "his"


"the his") copt.

nCDq

(cf.

54), originates

from

the combination of the article with the possessive


suffixes.

Before a substantive

it

denotes the possessive


suffixes
(cf.

relation

and replaces the possessive


where the
article

73)
e. g.

in all cases,

would be used,

a^^;^(1(1j^^^
for

pSyfpr

(really "the his house")

^^ prf

"his house".
.

The feminine

is

tByf^

the plural nByf n


B. In the n.
"possessive article"
116.
e.

the

plural

is

nByf; in Copt, this


(cf.

is

the

HEq-, TSq-, NEq-

55).

The

later "indefinite" article also, does not yet

exist in the popular


'^'^'^

tongue of the m.
n
"
. .

e.;
.",

the combina(masc.)
-

tions
.

\\ 'ww^
I

rvCro

"one of.

AAAftAA

Jl
fit

o^^i

wCt
B.

"one of

(fem.) still

mean
(cf.

"any'

The

indefinite article

wC

copt.

OY

C 122) grew out

of this

wCw n

in the n.

e.

e.

THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. 117./. APPOSITION A. COORDINATION. 1 1 9. 47


e.

THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE.


1.
'^"'"^

The substantive stands absolutely:


r\

very often
tr

117.

r
j

for designation of iime^

e. g.

n "at

the time of",

rC nh "every day"

(lit.

"every sun"),

(dIIII fnpt 4 in the fourth year".


3. for

designation

of place in

expressions like

<^ hnt "in front",


3.

mht "northern".
:

in expressions with sp "time"

spw 4

"four times".

Here

also,

belong the numerous cases where a

118.

substantive follows an adjective in order to specify


that to

which the quality of the adjective

refers:
"^

^
/.

ikr shrw "excellent in plans".

APPOSITION AND COORDINATION.


apposition,

In

an

the

substantive

explaining

119.

stands after the one explained. The following peculiar


cases are important:
1.

it

specifies material: n
^

1^
i.

^^ Inr
a sarco-

hd, krs "white stone,

a sarcophagus",

e.

phagus of white stone ;^


2. it specifies locality
:

-^ ^ Jc^%\@

Tm{7)

'

Sin. 49.

Una

5.

48

/. APPOSITION

AND COORDINATION. 120

121.
in the

Bhdrv "Thinis,

Abydos'V

i.

e.

Abydos situated

nomos
3.

of Thinis;
it

specifies

number and measure:


i.

S^

[It]

^^^hkt my 22

"Beer, 22 jars",

e.

22 jars of beer^;
i.

^\^^^^
number
120.

Jisb,

rmt 600 "number, 600 men",^

e.

consisting of 600 men.

In

series

of

coordinated words,
Jj
i

they

are

usually left unconnected:


hmtvt t^yw

^^"^^

U U \>i^=fi>

"women and men".^

Things which are


/?r,

to be closely connected [dC

hr hrvyf "storm and wind")

are joined by the preposition


n sition
ft

while the prepo-

AAAAAA

hnC permits each of the connected words

to stand forth individually {Itf hnC mrvtf "his father,

as well as his mother"^).


A.
tsf,

The pyramids

cooi'dinate also

by means of the

particle

which comes

after the

words

to be connected.

121.

The expression

for "or"

dv^v r-jow (older


to be separated

D^)
m
nb,

comes after the words

by

"or":

sn,

hnms

r-prv "as lord or as brother or as


is

friend"".

In rare cases r-prv

repeated after every]

word.
1

AZ

29, 120.
14.
6

glut

I,

293.

LD

H, 122
"^

a.
9,

Sm. 132^

Westc.

11,

Leps. Ausw. 8

d.

Prisse

9.

g.

THE GENETIVE.

a.

DIRECT GENETIVE. 122

124.

49

g.
a.

THE GENETIVE.

DIRECT GENETIVE.
is

This older kind of genetive

apparently express-

122*.

ed only by the position of the two substantives, in

which the governing word stands before the governed


til It

mil

i-\

pr imn "House of Amon." The connection between the two


loose, that they

words

is

for the
e.

most part so
.,-n-^. ,-^-^
[l
I

may be
ihrvt Is

separated,

g.

=^

pw

pr-hCfi "but they are not

things of the prince's house" ^ where the genetive Ihrvt


pr-hCfi
is

divided by

is

pw. and are


treat-

On

the other hand, in other cases the two words 123*.

in the combination cannot be separated,

ed as a compound word,

e.

g.

^ JlM^ M..^
overseer
of peasinto the Copt.
(cf.

^1

mr-shi'irv

mnh "an excellent

ants".2
B. This last case persisted the Coptic forms
suffered

down

C 140);

show that the former of the words


as in

so joined

shortening,

the ans^logous form

of the Semitic

"status constructus".

The
1.

direct genetive is especially preferred:

124.

After general designations of locality: ^^. "="^

Siut

I,

288.

Sin. 244.

Erman,

E^ypt. ^ramni.


50
|3.

INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH W. 125.

^"^cz^^^^

'1

^jS k.^

m hrdwf

"at the head of

his children".^
2.

After general designations of time

^\

m
3.

rk hnf "at the time of his majesty".

After certain frequently recurring words, like

mr

"overseer", ^^37 nb "lord",


e. g.

pr "house",
^^^ "overseer of

si "son":

^^\

nT)

^^

the works".
4.

Where 1

'^

s/;z

"king" and

?r "god" are the

T AAAAAA

governed words

hmt

stn "wife of the king".


cf.

On

the written order of these words


B.

69.

The

direct genetive

was gradually superceded by the

later indirect; in Copt, only the cases of 123 are preserved, cf. 140.

p.

INDIEECT GENETIVE WITH

n.

*125.

It is

formed by means of an adjective *m, which,

according to 135 means something like "belonging


to"; "the priest belonging to
of

Amon"

for "the priest

Amon".

This adjective agreed in gender and


it

num-

ber with the noun to which

belonged;

its

forms,

according to classic orthography, are:


1

Sin. 78.

p.

INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH

tl.

126.

51

Sing. m. /wwv^ n {*ni) Plur. m.

f.

nt {*nii),
nt {*nijvt,
/WNAA/v

nw

{*niw),

f.

cf.

106).

A. The old writings are:


also
),

sg.

m.

nt (in the m.

e.

once

pi.

m.

v\,
mv'i.

'^ nw.

In the older period there

was further a dual m,

B. This word early lost

its inflection;

it

first
e.)

lost the dual,

then (already in the popular language of the m.


also the feminine.

the plural, and

Since the LE,


fj; cf.

aa^w\a

n became an unchange-

able particle, like Copt,

C. 141.

The
1.

indirect genetive ?nust be used:

126.
^P^ ^^

to designate a part:
"'

'"

,^;;j^

smmf

"the

first

of his harvest,"

2. to

designate material
I

hip CB ni sst
AAAAAA

C^

"a great offering tablet of alabaster."^


3.

to subjoin that which will

more nearly

define

the noun, where

we would
^'^

often

employ an adjective:
c^:?.

^^^^

111
5

^^^

3000 "an army of 3000,"^

v^

^"^^ ni Kht'irv "the city of Coptos,'


s

ni

mSQ

"a

man

of truth".

LD LD

IT, II,

138 d. 149 d.

2 5

Slut

I,

310.

Una
6

43.
II,

LD

II,

122

b.

Mar. Ab.

24.

52
127.

2.

ADJECTIVES,

a.

ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 127. 128.

On

the further optional use of the indirect geneit is

tive,

note especially, that

preferred:
:
|

1.

to designate the possessor

M ^"^^^
W."^

^, t

'^^^
,

J| ht ntr ni Wnn-nfr "the temple of


2. to

express the idea of appurtaining to or hav-

ing source in a place:


ni

^^

aaaaaa

jQ

^
|

Snd

WSw^t "Acacia wood from Nubia".^

2.
a.

ADJECTIVES.

ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING.

128.

These adjectives, perhaps derived from verbal

stems, had various forms also


tives (cf. 99)
e. g.:

common

to substan-

nfr "good'

*wa/r (NOyqE),
|

[I

^^J)ln
"^nodm

"bad" Holn (bodcdn),

^v

ndm

"sweet"

(NOyTM).
2.

^^ wr

"great" *mer (-oyHp).

3. ^^zz7 rib

"every"

*m& (nIM).
Cf.

Ci "large" *Coi (-0).

C 146 sq.

Eb. 75,

13.

Una

46.


2.

ADJECTIVES,

a.

ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 129. 130.

53
it

They follow
in

their substantive

and agree with

i29*.

number and gender:

1^

^^kt

ndmt "sweet beer'V

III
1^1

<$=lv

V ^^^^ ^^^^
[v^

"many

ten thousands",^

%"

^'5^^

^^^^ 5ww?(?) "all bad

things",^

^^^
AAAAV
YV

C 3

iCIi

\\

bhnt'i wrt'i ^

"two great towers".*

Nevertheless most texts are not exact in the writing of these endings,
self evident of course to the

Egyptian reader; the ending of the

sing. fem. is often

wanting, that of the plur. fem. always, and for the

most part the sign


B.

also.

Most adjectives

later

become unchangeable

(of.

C 147);

the plur. fem. was

first lost,

being replaced by the plur. masc.


survives.

Of

^^

y nh "every" only the fem.

Rarer combinations of the adjective are:


1. it

130.

forms one word with the substantive: c\^H^


tB-M-sn "their white bread".^
Cf.

U|l
2.

C121,
is

1.

The possessive

suffix of the

noun

repeated

with the adjective:


son".
1

"^^
"""^

rh

2^^^=^

sSfrvrf "his great

Eb.

11,

15.

2 5

Una
Siut

14.
I,

3 6

Eb. 30,

15.

LD

ni, 24 d.

225.

LD

II,

124, 54.

54
131.

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

?.

131

133.
substantive^
e.

It

is

employed

also

as

g.

^^^

;r

"the great one",


1).

TIT nfrw "beauty"

(Plu-

ral according to 111,

On
its

the employment of

the adjective as predicate and


331.

ending

^^
cf.

tv'i

cf.

On

the

employment of the adverb


b.

300.

ADJECTIVES IN

?.

132.

They are
positions by

all

derived from substantives or preis

means of an ending, which


^
;

written

with

and in Coptic has the sound of

if

the adjec-

tive is derived
syllable,
-t
ti,

from a feminine, there

arises a final

from the junction of the feminine ending


of the adjective.

and the

'i

As may
cf.

be seen from

the Copt, this ending was accented,


"133.

93.
it

This ending

is

only written,
is

where

really

forms the end of the word, that

only in the sing.

masc:
Sing. m.
f.

\\

(i),

derived from fem.

(it)

Plur.

m..^
f.

(irv)

^
^^

^ g

(ii)
(tit)

(?w,

cf.

43.

61.)

(iwt)
0. e.

(tiwt).

In the

the

was

left

unindicated even in

the sing. masc. and such writings are often found in


later texts also.

Thus:

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

?.

134.

55

Iri

"existent at"

hnti "existent before"


AAAAAA

Sing.

m.()'^,
(j

Plur. m.

fl^^^"^

A.

The Pyramids write


^^.

for

fl

for

fi,

and

V\ vX

and ^^,

V\
m.
e.

for

V^,

(according to 104 a).

B. In the

v\

already occurs incorrectly for the sing.

m the
[\l\,

n. e. the plur,

masc.

is

also written

and

^|

V\

l\l\.

confusion between

and

begrins in the

n. e. also, since

they were pronounced about alike according to

97 B.

Since the adjectives derived from feminine sub- 134.


stantives were identical in form with the dual of these

substantives

(e. g.

from nt

"city"

nt'i

"urban", and

ni'i

"two

cities"),

such duals, in the oldest orthography,


corresponding adjectives:
later also

are often written for the

|l[|w^^

"urban".
ntr

A few such writings occur


"the

note:

|^

nt'i

urban

(i.

e.

native)

god",

^^^ or
horizon."

^^^

Jlr

Iht'ii^)

"Horus dwelling in the

56
135.

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

'i.

135.

Those adjectives which are derived from a preposition, like:

~[F^^^"[1"^'
(J'^(y^)

^"11") ^"*^ "existent in"


at" (from r),

(from m),

m "existent
y
'

^
"^

^''^

"existent upon" (from

/ir),

V
,

^^^ "existent under" (from hr),


tp'i

ij^

IJ

"existent upon" (from

tp),

(^^^(rffi^i^)
/wwvA ni (cf.

hnti "existent before" (from hnt),

125) "belonging to" (from w),

likewise a few others, like:

Irvii

"not being" (Copt. AT-,


"being like",

cf.

89),

mit'i

o\\

ss.mht'i

"north of" &c.

very often govern a following substantive or personal


suffix (like the prepositions etc.

from which they are

derived),
=^

e. g.

"^

imt Ibf-'the one (fem.) existent in his heart".^


ir'i

"belonging to the house",^

LD

ni, 24 d.

Louvre C

172.

b.

ADJECTIVES IN

?.

136. 137.

57

-H

^.
hr'isst^

"one supervising (lit. "over")

secrets"/
y
mlt'if

"resembling him".^
is

All that

stated in 129, 130 concerning the 136*


is

adjectives without ending,


tives in
i,

valid also for the adjecru

of.

/^ ,^ f ^
^
/
M

^ rn
i

^^^^^ -^i(lit.

Imirv h^rvsn

"the priests serving in their times''^

"existent in their times"),

o
jgv

oo
I

smwt
III

mhfirvt

"northern lands'V

f=^

gssn

hr'i

"their
hri-sn

upper side

likewise

gs

"their upper-side".^

Very frequently they are employed


stantive,
I

like a sub- 137.

e. g.

^ \>- Q Arjfws^ "those existent upon <= JK 000'


e.

the sand"
lira
III

(i.

the Bedouins),' - - \^^/wvaaa


(?)",^

n dirt "the interior of an onion

Vo

mit'iwk

"one like thee"^ (with masc. substantive end-

ing according to 96, 2). In this

manner many new substantives


ti\

originat-

ed, especially those in

e. g.

^^.^^

^^

hft'i

"enemy"
I,

Mar. Ab.
Sin. 72.

II,

24.
5

lD
6,

II,
6

149

e.

Siut
7

311.
13.

<

LD
9

III,

24d.
lb.

Eb.

70, 4.

Una

Eb. 36, 16.

Prisse

58

c.

APPENDIX

(iri,

imy,

ns).

138.

139.

((^Aqx),

ft

Imntt "the west"

(emnT, from smt

Imntt "western land"),

Iwtt "nothing" &c.

c.

APPENDIX

{iri,

imy, m).

138.

The following remarkable unchangeable expressions are probably descended from adjectives:
1.
(J

Iri

[1

ir'iw (?)

"belonging

to,

correiri) in

sponding to" (properly probably the adjective


expressions like

^\ J^gj^;

(1

m m

isw'i Iri

"as corresponding

reward, as reward therefor'V

^v

\\

St

Iri

"in the corresponding

place, in proper condition".^


2.
l\

^A\i\ ^f
suffix, e. g.
I

I'^y

"belonging to him

'

with

changeable

ra^AAAAAA

^^<S^

^^ ^^^

''^y

"^^ oldest

one belonging to them, the oldest of them".^


139.

On
and
e. g.

the other

hand the word


is

s,

which we also

often translate "belonging to",


in the old

really an old verb]

language

is

still

construed as suchj

LD

III,

24

d.

prisse 13, 11.

Westc.

9,

11.

3.

NUMERALS,

a.

REAL NUMERALS. 140.

141.

59

^i
zon"
(I

V
[I

^^ ^^ f'h^O) "belonging to the hori-

(lit.

"the horizon possesses him")'/


\sm
(lit.
\

T^"^

irv

ns

St

mr wC

"they

are from one stone"

"one stone possesses them")^;

ns s'imr-pr "it belongs to the house-

P overseer"

(lit.

"the house-overseer possesses

it")

\3

3.
a.

NUMERALS.
140*.

REAL NUMERALS.

The numeral
I

figures are:

units,

T
I

thousands,
tens of thousands,

tens,
"^^^^

hundreds,

hundreds of thousands.
less:

The greater number precedes the

ITT

12,635.

In

dates the units are indi(

cated by horizontal strokes

IZ &c.)
141.

In so far as they are known, the numerals run


thus:
\

wC
hmt
2

4 fdrv
5 drv^

2 sn
3
1

6 sis

Mar. Cat. d'Abyd. 999.

lD

III,

24 d.

Peasant

16.

60

3.

XUMERALS.

a.

REAL NUMERALS.

142. 143.

7 sfh

100 ^C 1000 h^

hmn

9jos(^

10000

^&<: h/'n

10 m^

100000

Of the

tens, 30 is mCb^; for the others the plural


Cf.

of the units was used.


142.

157.

The numeral follows the noun and the


for the

latter is

most part

in the plural:

stnyjv 8 "three kings."

^S V^'HI On the other hand the noun

stands in the singular


1.

with the numeral

2, >J>ii

wl:^

2 "two ships"

2. in specifications of

measure and time, also in


,

accounts,
j

rnpf iiO "110 years'

^^||||

inh

"4 ell8^
A.

The pyramids
it

treat the

numeral as a substantive, and

suhjoin to

the numbered word as an apposition: fdwf ipiv ntrto


(lit.

"these his 4 gods'',

"these his four, the gods").


\

This construc-

tion has been preserved in the expression

^
i,

v\

hriw

rnpt "the
days.

five,

the ones upon the year",

e.

the 5 intercalary

B. In

LE

the numeral precedes the noun, which

is

for the

most connected by
C 162
143.

n\ only in the specifications of an account and


Cf. also

with the numeral two, does the old construction remain.


sq.
'^^^''^

The numeral

wC "one", which

is

mostly writ

b.

APPENDIX TO THE NUMERALS- 144

146,
\

61

ten out, agrees with

its

noun

in gender:

SI-

rnpt

wCf "one year";^ the other numerals perhaps did the

same.

On

tvCrv

cf.

116.
its

By

placing
is

rvC

before

an adjectiye or verb,
lative:
"
tvC

meaning

rendered super-

Ikr "the only excellent."


also

The numerals are

used

as

substantives:

144.

I
nw.
they

Ml"

hi

ii

"thousand of bread".

The

ordinal numerals are formed by the ending 145*.

snnw "the second",

Aw/w "the third"

&c.:

may

precede or follow their noun;

"first" is

supplanted by

tp'i (cf.

135),

which, as an ad-

jective always follows its noun.


as substantives also.

They are

all

used

A, In the pyramids the ordinal numbers are entirely written


out: in like

manner

\\Ml^ snntv "the second" is

later, still

found.

B. They are early supplanted by a circumlocution with


"fill

mh
165.

up" (the third"


b.

= "that which

fills

up three");

cf.

also

APPENDIX TO THE NUMERAL.


Kzzy(>

The probably dual word: m.

(]

ky,

f.

146.

kt (for ktl) "the other" is construed like the

numerals

in the
1

pyramids
47.

(cf.

142 A)

Una

62

THE VERB.

a.

USUAL CLASSES. 147. 148.

^^(jlj^^^^

^ ky gsw ^ "^55

"another salve"/
ktyf
ruBt

"his other way".-

The
first

real plural of the

word

is

\^ ar

A-wj'

(the

is

the old determinative of the dual);


is

more
i

frequently a circumlocution
kt-ht "another

used for

it

^ o

II

hody" and
Ill

kt-lht

"another

thing",
147.

i.

e.

others.
pirv

The substantive
plural or singular
l/vww\
tfiff)

"number", with following


cf.

means "every";

M[sn "every one of their revolts"^

(lit.

"number

of their revolts").

THE VERB.
1.
a.

IN GENERAL.

THE CLASSES OF THE VERB.


o.

USUAL CLASSES.
into various classes,
ac-J

'148.

The verbs are divided

cording to the number and character of their consonants, the so-called "radicals". These classes differ
in

manner of
1

inflection,
2

and how considerable these


3

Eb. 26, 13.

Butler IG.

Una

28.

THE VERB.
-differences were,

a.

USUAL CLASSES. 149

151.

63

may

still

be seen from the forms of


cf.

the verb preserved in Copt.


signation of these classes
is

C 185

sq.

The de-

that

common

to Semitic

grammar.

The most common


verbs (abbrev.: II
lit.)

class is that of the bi-literal 149*.


e. g,

as

^^unmr

rvn "to open",

^^
their

mh

"fill",

Jd^^^rp M"build"&c. They retain


all

consonants in

forms unchanged.

Cf.

186 sq.

The verbs

'''secundae {radicalis) geminatae'' (II ae 150*.

gem.) are properly triliteral verbs having the last

two radicals alike

e.

g. "
zl

^^rvnn AAAAAA
1

"to be",

^nlX WVV

WS>

kmm "become

black",

|\)

kbb

"become

cool",

-*^^^\ V\ in^^ "see". But as these similar rad<s>- >>^ yy^ icals fall together where they are not separated by a
full

vowel, in most forms they resemble the biliterals

{mn,

km

&c).

Cf.

199.
^^terdae infirmae" (Illae 151*.
i

The very numerous verbs


inf.)

have as third radical an

or

""j

which neverthe(1(1;

less is visible only in certain

forms:

in

most

cases they

show only the


wr,

first
\>-

two radicals or double


mrr.

also the second:

e. g.

qa
Hj'

mr

"love",

fflfl

ms "bear", ^~~^ J\ j9r"goout",

64

THE VERB.

a.

USUAL CLASSES. 152

154.
re-

j^ hS "descend".

Cf.

C 213. The frequently

curring verb Ir "make" writes the forms Ir and Iry:


.<2=^

and

<2>-(l[l;

on the other hand the form irr

is

written
A. With a part of these verbs the third radical was originally

a M or

m;

which

as a rule

became

or \
lit.

152.

The

triliteral

verbs

(I'll lit.)

like the II

( 149)

Cnh "live

'Cv

nhm

"rescue",

^
'

Stp "load".
153.

Cf.

C 200 sq.
geminatae" (Illae gem.), which

The verbs

'"''tertiae

correspond to the II gem. ( 150), and the verbs


'''quartae

infirmae" (IV ae inf.) which correspond to the

Illae
ed.

inf. ( 151),

as a rule are not to be distinguishin certain forms


ffflfl^

Both double the third radical


A

(I

5p<? "prepare": Hc^ii

ii

spdd\

h^l
'

"be revered":
ppl

>

1)

spss)\ only

isolated examples
ips'i),

in

which an

is

written out

^y
inf.

can be

safely classed with the


154.

IV ae

Cf.

227.
lit.

The
and

quadriliteral

and

quinqueliteral verbs (IV


lit.

lit.)

correspond to the II

and

III

lit.

and

like these, their

consonants remain unchanged. They

p.

RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. 155

157.

65

are mostly derived from II

lit.

and
*/?w),

III
r

lit.:

Rj^:^

^ hmhm
nhmhm (from
and V
lit.

"low, roar'

(from

^^1^
lit.

nhni).

According to the Copt, the IV

seem

to have

had the same form

(cf.

224. 226).

p.

BARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS.


155.

Beside these ordinary classes there are apparently other,

smaller groups, which, however, cannot be


certainty;
y

distinguished with

e.

g.

the

frequently
"strike"

recurring verbs

dd "say" and

ndr

present
other II

many
lit.

points
III

which distinguish them from


lit.

and

Moreover, within the


exist,

above contrived classes, further subdivisions

by

reason of the special phonetic character of one of the


radicals.

The verbs mediae

i,

which have an ^^, for the

ise.

second radical, like Hi'^.

\j\

hBb

"send",

^1

rvM "become green", have apparently early


Occasionally
it

lost the i.

appears

at

least

orthographically

as

the third radical: H]

IH^ A&i for Ai&,


sBm.

T '^^
is

smB "unite" along

withT'^^;

Cf. 29.

The verbs uUimae i


Erman
,

(Ilae i, Illae i), as

also 157.

Egypt, jfiamni.

66

p.

RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS.

158. 159.

evident from the Copt., had various peculiarities

(cf.

C 221. 222;
to 29)

208).

Note

especially, that (according

a few verbs Illae 9 (mostly those in -mS)

repeat the

second radical after the

i,

in

certain

forms

kmB

"create"

These forms are possibly to be read k^m and

rvSh

and the syllabic sign


for the
158.

is

only retained out of preference

customary orthography.
;,

The verbs primae

like

%>

rvsh "be far"

are, in part, also written


w;,

by many texts without their

in certain forms; cf. especially 161.


rv

The verbs
and
in

mediae

write the
it;

rv

only rarely,

part
is

probably early lost

hence

^.

r^

^t "die"

al-

ways written
for <rz=>

for mrvt (cf.

C 192) and often

"^^
of

rrvd "grow".

The existence

verbs mediae I

may

only be conjectured from the

Copt, because
to

e. g.

the probable form ris (according

pOFlC "wake") The verbs

is

always written

"l

rs.

159.

Ilae

gem. in

i,

like

ps "divide",

as a rule

make

the form^s^^

7vss^

insdead oipH,

wU\

p.

IRREGULAR VERBS. 160.

f.

THE CAUSATIVE.

161.

67

cf.

30.

On

the other
1

hand

[ 11

\\

ps (older

fs)

"cook" has

\\

pfs and

psf.
160*.

Entirely irregular are:


In "bring" (properly Illae inf.) A AAAAAA
in^

sometimes written

TT

jj

sometimes

int,

Iw "go", sometimes
I

y\^ ^w, sometimes 7^^


li

^w;f,

"go" sometimes

\\J\

Ui^\ sometimes

\\

H,

and especially rdl


rdl,

"give",

which has the form <ir> A


.a

A,

0,

dl

and A A,

dldl{J)\

the

last

corresponds to the reduplicated

forms.

Y.

THE CAUSATIVE.
I

By means

of the prefix

there

may be formed

161*.

from every verb, another verb with causative meaning.


E.
g.

with intransitives

lir

"fall": sTir "cause to fall",

nfr "be beautiful": snfr "make beautiful"; more rarely

with

transitives
(i. e.

Cm "swallow":

s^^m

"cause

to to

swallow"

"wash down"), rh "know": srh "cause

know"

(i.

e.

inform against). These causatives do not

remain in the class to which their stem verb belongs


thus the causatives of most biliterals have feminine
infinitives {hr "fall":

shrt "to fell",

cf.

231),

and

68

b.

VOICE. 162.

C.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (iNFLKCTION). 163. 164.

the causative of
the last

mn

(infin.

smnt) furthermore doubles


cf.

consonant in certain forms (smnn


triliterals

232).

the

The causatives of the


(cf.

are treated as

quadriliterals
TV,

238).

With

verbs primae w,
falls

according to the old orthography,

away;

e. g.

%P

n;sbefar, broad": Hfl ssh "broaden";

a few of these writings occur later also.


VOICE.

6.

162.

It is certain that the transitive

verb distinguish-

ed an active and a passive, and not improbable that


the
(1.

intransitive

verb

was

analogously
cf.

divided

incipient, 2. continuous condition);

241. 242.

171. 182.

Nevertheless,

all

details

are

as

yet

obscure, and the beginner


ize himself

must be satisfied to familiar-

with the forms thus far known to us,

without being able to understand their systematic


connection more exactly.

c.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION).


which reminds one of the Semitic perfect,
classic

163.

There are two methods of inflecting the verb.

The
is

earlier,

still

employed in the

language only within


cf.

restricted limits (as pseudoparticiple,


164.

208).

The
73.

later

method uses the personal


sdm "hear":

suffixes

of

Cf. e. g.

C.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 165

167.

69

Sg.

c.

^^. ^
,v/

^^^^

PI
2
c.

2 m.
f.

^v^^^

*^^^

A^)^

'V'^^^^sdmtn

^^\

g=> sdmt
g)

rvAAAAAA

m. ^^^\
f.

2^-^

sdmf

^^\

sdms
cf.

On

the writing of each sn ffix


A. Dual forms
occiii-

74. 75.
also,
(cf.

in the

pyramids

B. Apart from the uninflected passive


inflection

206 A),

this

was

first lost

with IV

lit.

and

lit.^

If the subject is a substantive,

no

suffix is

employ-

165.*

ed and the substantive follows the noun unconnected:

hears thy voice".

^ ^^^ V V S()^^~^ sdmtw


I

hrrvk "thy voice

is

heard".

An
also

absolute pronoun

(cf.

80) is,

by exception,
si

166.

employed thus as subject: hpr

hsbt

"it

changes into worms" (for hprs).

When

the subject

is

a substantive or an absolute

167.

pronoun, the verb frequently receives an ending

According to Sethe.

70

C.

EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). 168. 169.

shdw

srv

t^Tv'i

r itn "he illuminates the earth better

than the sun"/


168.

The impersonal use of the verb (without


occurring in
especially:
194) "that
cf.

subject),

all

forms,

is

frequently met with.


irn
AAAAAA

Note
cf.

(1^
1
Jl

^w

"it is"^;

(w-form,

amounts to"^;

m
to"^.

hprhr

($r-form,

204)

"that

amounts

The

passives

are

employed with especial preference,


indefinite subject (Germ, "man",

to express the
)

French "on"):

o y\ rhtrv "it is known"^, y


dd
I

o\> ^^^ntw "one stands"

"it

is

said"^.

This impersonal subject

is

furthermore, often a respectful


king.

designation of the

On

the omission of the subject in animated


353;
1

narrative

cf.

rdlln "they caused"^

is

probably also to be explained thus.


169.

A second
actor,
is

(logical)

subject,

to indicate the real

often

added to a passive or intransitive verb


This
is

which already has a grammatical subject.


done by means of the particles
In

and hr:

\
*
8

Mar. Abyd. II, Math. Hdb. 26. 41.


'

25.
5

Sin. 43. 225. 216.


6

3
"

LD

III 24 d.
49.

sin. 243.

Sin. 55.

Math. Hdb.

Sin. 263.

2.

USUAL INFLECTION,

a. IN

GENERAL. 170.

71

nM

hr

"some

(of the fruit)

is

chewed by the

man"^

3^

^^P

^^

t'^

^^

" ''by

arm

is

siezed &y Re^"^.

In the same
to infinitives

manner the

logical subject

is

added

and participles by means of


^;>^

^w:

L
making

[1

'wwvA

^^

^j>^

ifi

hmti "working

(lit.

work), on the part of the artificer"^.

2.

USUAL INFLECTION.
a.

IN GENERAL.

The

later inflection of the verb falls into a series 170*.

of forms,

which are

in

part indicated by endings

attached to the stem (like sdmnf, sdmlnf)^ but in part


also,

are

distinguished

by the vocalisation

only.

These latter forms have orthographically, essentially


the same external appearance (sdm/"), in the case of

most verbs,

so that

it is difficult

for us to distinguish

them

correctly.
is

Any

exact separation of these various

forms,

therefore not attempted in the following,


fall,

and only the two great groups into which they


are distinguished.

A. The most important aid for the recognition of the verbal

Eh. 47,

19.

Ppy.

I,

97.

Br. Gr.

W.

139.

72

h.

THE FORMATION Sdmf.

a.

THK FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. 172.

forms,

is

afforded by the pyramids, which often prefix a


e,

[]

for

the indication of the prosthetic vowel

to the fornas beginning

with two consonants:


''Smok.

(I'

/(

'

V\
is

pronounced something like


unindicated by the classic

This prosthetic vowel


Q J(
'

left

orthography
of the
*171.
trv),

V\

);

on the other hand the manuscripts


it

new empire

again indicate

by means of [I

^7\.
t (tl,

The passive of the


which
is

later inflection ends in

attached at the end of the word, but


It is

precedes the suffix: sdmtwf^ sdmntrvf, sdmintrvf.


first

made with

transitives

and causatives, then also

impersonally with intransitives, for the expression of

an impersonal subject (Germ, "man", French "on"):


Tis
'

^
irv.

V ^^^^ "they (impers.)


t

live".

The ending
in

written,

or tw in the m.

e.,

and

the n.

e.

always

A. The pyr. write the ending


B.

11

tl

or

c:^ t,

The Copt, has

lost this passive.

a.

b. THE FOEMATJON sdmf. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. A. ITS FORMATION.

172.

It

apparently includes three or four frequent


in

forms, the differences

which,

are

no longer to

be determined.
follows

Its

most important classes are as

b.

THE FORMATION Sdwf.

THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. 173. 73

II

lit.

'kdy he builds"

c^> FM '^^_,

III

lit.

s'dmf "he hears":

^^^.=^,
^^^-^^-5

III ae inf. m'rr/' "he loves":

the

is

nevertheless, only occasionally written by the pyra-

mids
(

0''^^=)

and by the manuscripts of the


it is

n, e.

(1

^^
sg.

).

In classic orthography

only written

in the

l^M^
this

rn'rl^i, cf. 26.

The position of the vowel, indicated


is

in 170 A,

denoted by

"

vowel was in one case (with the


that'', cf.

verb dependent upon rdl "cause


6

179) an

{'Mof, s'dmof, m'rlo/',


is

cf.

C 234
it.

sq.)

with the other

forms nothing
cf.

known about

(Concerning TTPXACl

247).

That

this

group really includes different forms,


in the case of the II ae

173.

may be

seen

e. g.

gem. which

in certain cases separate their like radicals:

-^^^.^^

wnnf "he
K..=^

is" (cf. 178),


(cf.

but in others, do not:

-^^

wnf

180).

Furthermore, with irregular


/\
a

verbs: in "bring" sometimes has


180),

<^

Int/'

(cf.

sometimes
Itv

l\

Inf

(cf.

178),

sometimes
Ifvif

both forms:

"go" varies between

7^^

74

b.

THE FORMATION Sdmf. B.

ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. 174.

an d

_A^2^-=^

Irvf;

rdl "give", between


^^/
(cf.

rdif{% 174) and

178. 180).

B.
*174.

ITS USE AS INDICATIVE.


I.

In the old language sdrnf of the

group,

is

the

usual form for the chief events in ordinary narrative:

nt smr "His majesty established


friend"'.

me

in the

rank of a

In the later language, which prefers other


(cf.

forms and constructions for narration


230. 239),

222.

sdmf

is

retained in

more

descriptive senessential pro-

tences, in which the action


gress.

makes no

This

is

especially the case at the close of a

short paragraph:
Tvnln

mr-pr

hr srht "the house overseer complained


of (the peasant)

ddlnsn nf

they said, ("he

is

justly punish-

ed &c".)
gr-prv irn mr-pr

the house overseer was there-

upon

silent.

TT
YiP
3

Jr/

n wsof n nn n
/\AA<V\A

\\ r

srn>,

wshf n
1

sht'i

pn "He did not answer the

princes,

Una

2.

C.

m THE

CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. 177. D. AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. 179.

75

(but) answered this peasant''^

(The last two clauses

simply enlarge upon the fact of the silence already


stated.)

Here belongs also the formal ^^^.^^


said", "he says",
It is further

ddf "he

175.

which introduces direct discourse.


used where a fact
is

expressed, in

176.

descriptions, assertions

and the

like:
it

"The plant snwtt

"^
belly
(i.

^
e. it

rrvds hr hts

grows upon

its

creeps)"^.

C.

IN THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE.


used in conditional clauses introduc(1

It is further

177.

d by the particle
Ick
.

<=^
Ir
.

(cf.

389):
st
.

(1

<^:>^'i>^
.

1^^
you

^
. .

^^Z3?6

gmk

ddhrk

"If

find

it

then say

&c."^.

The Ilae gem. are doubled


*if

in this case {Ir


I\
;

m^^k
rdl

178.

you see");

In
^

"bring" has the form


.

^give", the

form
-D.

AS A SUBJUNCTIVE.
179*.

It is

very frequently dependent upon rdi "give,

cause that", a combination which led to the formation


of a

new causative
>

in Copt., cf.

C 230b. E.
3

g.:

Bauer

50.

Eb. 51,

16.

Eb. 37,

18.

76

E. IN A FINAL CLAUSE. 181. F. AS AN OPTATIVE. 182.

'

"

Vff^

^
^

rdlnf stpl nl "he caused

that I choose for myself (of his land)"^


180.

In this

case the

II

gem. are not doubled; In


,

"bring" has the form

rdl "give"

Irvt

"come"

j'^^

The
cf.

vowel

was

here

an

6,

according to the Copt.,


E.
*181.

C 234 sq.

IN A FINAL CLAUSE.
is

This

very frequent form

probably identical
It

with that of the subjunctive and optative.

stands

without introduction
to

"You might allow your servant

come

to me,
I

ra^ Jj^W _ 1^
therefore send

^ \\hMnk

sw hrs that

may
E.

him

to you^.

AS AN OPTATIVE.
qA

*182.

Probably identical with the preceding:


^^zi:^

Jj

^^zi:^

mrk hmtk "Love thy

wife"^.
Ih:

It is often

introduced by means of the particle

(]

^^^

Ih dds nl "let

her say to me"^ or by means of a

preceding Ir "do" (impv.):

-^^^-^^^^^^
3

i^

mBSk "see"^
1

Sin. 79,
12.

Peasant

38.

Prisse 10,

9,

Sin. 172.

Eb.

75,

p.

THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. A.

ITS

FORMATION. 184. 185. 77

B. Since the n.

e.
(J

V\

^^\

tml (imperative
is

of

rdl

"cause that",
for
it
:

cf.

256) with following verb

often substituted
(lit.

tmi mdicf ni "let

him speak with

me''

cause that he

speak with me).

The word
the optative:
Sg- m.
f.

for "behold" undoubtedly belongs to 183.

1;^, In,
^^
v\

f,

In,"!'
like) m?,

rnk (mik^ cf. 35).

(and the

Plur.

(and the like) mtn.

p.

THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. A. ITS FORMATION.


this

The forms of

group may be recognised with

184*.

certainty, only with those verbs which are

marked

by the doubling of the


185.

last

consonant according to

In the case of most verbs they are not to be

recognised from the orthography.


A. There are also found forms of this group in
y, especially in old texts, e. g.

^^

lo

and

(J [J

Rj^^v

V,-
saj'est",

^^^^ "thou
but probably
?&

comest down",

^^

(I [I

-^~^ ddyk "thou


t

only with verbs which have a

or (according to 151 A) a

as

the last radical'.

The form with the


*

final

consonant doubled,

is 185.

According to Sethe.

78

A. ITS FOllMATION. 186. B. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. 187.

found in the case of the Ilae gem., Illae gem., as


well as

the Illae

inf.

and IVae

inf.

With the
it,

last

two

it is

especially easy to recognise

for they are


It is

not doubled except in the case of 259. 289.

to be noted that, in the case of the frequently re-

curring verb Illae


indicated by
186.

inf.

Ir

"make", the form Irr

is

In place of the form with final consonant doubled,


the

irregular

A,

\ or

verb
i.

rdl
e.

{di)

"give" has
(cf.

the form

didl(i)

160).

B.

USE AS AN INDICATIVE.
of

187.

The
emphasis
;

significance

the

form

is

apparently

with reference to the future

it is

used very

often, in promises, threats, directions, questions &c.:

<^=><;^>0'"
n
sndt'i

'^^^^

^ ^^

gL

prr grt
will

hrrv 3

pn

nb ''These three days (rations)


(lit.

be delivered

to every s.-priest"

come out

for)^
divide"-.

-H

^^

nn pssf "he shall not

drop

in"^.

Siut

I,

296.

Siut

I,

311.

Eb.

7,

22.

C.INCONDIT.CL. 188. D.DEP.UPON VERBS. 189. E. DEP. ONPBEPS. 190.

79

C.

IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES.
Ir
(cf.

It is

further used in conditional clauses, where 188.

the particle

389)

does not
js

immediately

precede

/^-^^ f\
.
.

^^
.,

gmfnk

fitf

ddhrk "If you find that his body ..

then say &c."'.


D.

DEPENDENT UPON
verbs
"see", Z'^^O)
(lit.

VERBS. _
}

It further follows the

rh "know", 189.
likewise

'^'^v
tvd

^^

^^

ff"^

"find";

mr "wish"

"love"),

^^ ^
<cz>

snd "fear", |

"^

"command" and
v\
I

the like:
n,

wdnnnfprri
that I go to this

r sw? ^w "His majesty

commanded

mountain"^.

nirrf

"My

majesty knows that he


^^(jO^^^^^==^

is

a god"^.

QO^'
E.

"I desire that you say"*.

DEPENDENT UPON PREPOSITIONS.


dependent upon various prepositions, which
190.

It is

govern a sentence after the manner of our conjunctions


the usage seems to vary. E. g.
1

Eb.

36, 15.

LD

II,

149

e.

LD IH,

24 d.

Weste.

9, 8.

80

Y.

APPENDIX. 191193,

"let the patient drink this


"till

<:z^%'^^

'"'^
r

wssf

he urinates"^

'^
I

\^ \^

\>

hr mB^f ml "because he

sees me"^.

1^=^^^^ ml hccfm
in the region of light"^''Be
hft

IBhti^) "as he shines

not haughty toward him


is

^^^^

hssf when he

wretched"*.

Y.

APPENDIX.

191.

Beside the cases cited in 172190, the for-

mation sdmf

is

found elsewhere,

where

it

is

not

possible to state anything definitely concerning the

forms employed.
282 sq.,
192.

On

the substantivized forms

cf.

on the relative forms 394.


in contrast with

The form sdmf,


tive sentences,

sdmnf

( 197),
rel

ie

sometimes present in meaning; so especially in


cf.

396.

193.

All that

is

stated in 172

191, as far as
t (cf.
:

may

be seen,
In the

is

valid also for the passive in

171).

first

group the II
:

lit.

make

the form

'kd^twf,
dltwf;

the Illae

inf.

H 0%^*^-:^ msiwf, rdl\


|||

\i^\

Eb.

6,

15.

Sin. 117.

LD

lU, 24d.

Prisse

c.

THE w-FORM sdmnf.

a. its

formation. 194. 195.

81

in the second

group however rdl has the form


A
D

"^"^

dldltrv/'.

c.

THE n-FOKM

sdmnf.

a.

ITS FORMATION.

In this form the stem receives an ending w, which 194*.


is

written after the determinative:


It

Q7\

mrnf

"he loves".

belongs inseparably to the stem, as


;

may
it:

be seen from 338sq.

the passive ending follows


is

/*-n\

^. '^^

'

Qf^ntws "she

found".
195.

Note

further, that the


is to say,

form began with a simple

consonant (that
cf.

without the prosthetic vowel,

170 A), and that:


the II ae gem. contract their consonants:

1.

.^

^^
2.

mBnf "he
the Illae

sees

inf.

show only the second consonant:


Ir

^\
according to
3.

mrnf\

-<2>-

"make" has the form

A^AAA^

151,
(cf.

the verb rdl "give"


(

160) nearly
,

always
j.

has the form


B.

<iz>/\
most

The M-form had,


Ag-ypt. Granim.

for the

part, already lost its

in

the n.

e. J"

Ermaa,

82

p. ITS

USE.

196198.

p.

ITS USE.

^gg
e. g.

This form, which


iginally
in

is

only used independently, orwith animation;

served

to

narrate events

an old text, which otherwise usually employs

sdmf

for narrative, the events of

war are recalled with


^^'^^^

liveliness

by means of the n-form:

f^

^^

Mt^

/i Hr'irv-sC

"This army came,

it

cut to pieces the land

of the Bedouins."^

Thence further

also, in asseveration,

explanation

and the

like, e. g.

"Lay

this
"
^

upon the place of the


nrrvdnf^ii (certain-

extracted hair,
ly) will
ra
.a

.^.rUv

not grow (again)".


Oo

>CZI>

>

^^
know
197.

/www

rnin

rnntn

"behold,

ye,

that etc." (in ceremonious style).

It often indicates the past, especially in relative

clauses

(cf.

396),

but occurs elsewhere also


with a preceding verb:
n
I

(cf.

220. 283)
.

in contrast
.

"His

majesty came in peace

S^

^"'"^

^ f^ /R
(i.-

shrnf

hft'iwf "he

had overthrown
the -form
different
17.
3

his enemies"*

e^

after he
*198.

had overthrown them).


e. is

Since the m.

used for the mc


it

part, in an entirely
1

manner;
I,

adds to

Una

22.

Eb. 63,

siut

310.

LD

H, 1221

p. ITS

USE. 199.

83

preceding word or sentence, an accompanying remark

more particularly explaining it (circumstantial clause).


So
in descriptions: '^

^
is

.,_jv^

c::^:>

V^

^'''

^ fndrvnf

''The

mouth

silent

and he does not speak".'


^^a_^
Iv

"He found the canal obstructed


>j2i:,

^vwwv

jiL^_

n skdn dpi hrf and no ship sailed

upon

it

(longer)".^

And

likewise in narratives
/^^-O)

"Then
*

this

peasant

went to implore him

^^

gmnf

srv lir

prt and found him as he came out &c".^


in the case of the last clause, the

As may be seen
question
is

no longer one respecting an unimportant

accompanying circumstance, but the second occurrence (he found), overagainst the preceding important event (he went),
in a stylistic
is

pushed into the background

manner

only.

A. The pyramids already employ the above also.


It is

a remarkable

fact,

that T

nfr "be good" 199.

seemingly always takes the w-form:


place
is

nfrn

drv

"The

good'V nfrn Ppy "P.


4,
9,

is well".^

1 J

Prisse

4.

Inscription of Sehel.

Bauer

34.

Prisse

10.

Pepy

].

i69. 170.

F*

84 d THE

iw-FOEM sdmlnf.
d.

e.

the /ir-roRM sdmhrf. 200


sdminf.
is

204.

THE (n-FOEM

200.

That which

is

stated in 194, 195

valid also

for the formation of the In-iorm:


201.

^^.

IJ

sdmlnf
it

Originally this form was ceremonial;


fore especially preferred where the subject
to

is

there-

is

a person
rdlln

whom

respect

is

due,

e. g.

(I

a/wwv

/jn/ "the

king occasioned"^ (sentences of the context

with other forms).


202.

But many texts of the m.


where

e.

also

employ

it else-

in narrative, especially in the case of the


Ir "do",

comItv

mon

words: ^^ dd "speak", <2>]\


A/VWAA

J\\^

"go" and
203.

in "bring".

It is further, often
[I

used in directions, "Let the


it,

e. g.

1^^

AAAAAA

[I

^j.^,,^

v8j
I

srvrlln s

man
1

drink",^

or in

"when water comes out of

<3>- h
V

irlnk ns then

make
e.

for

it

(the receipt) &c".^

THE ^r-FORM

sdmhrf.

204.
its

This rare form also corresponds to the w-form in


formation.
It is

employed in descriptions: -^^


_

[1
1

^^
A/V

wn^irf
3

w3d mi wnn
56, 9.

tp

Sin. 243.

Eb. 32, 21.

Eb.

3.

THE UNINFLECTED PASSIVE. 205.

206.

86
is

^i

"He was green


Here
'i^-^^

(i.

e,

throve) like one

who

upon

earth".^

also,

probably belong the formulae

^
It

Jiprhrf "that is"^ (as result of a


^

com-

putation) and

^
^^

<rz>

(Ellipse for ddhrttv rs

"they say to her") "her

name

is".^

occurs more frequently in directions (like the 205.


203), e. g.

m-form
to her"/

Kzi:^<zi>Uddhrk rs "say

'^ o %^
3.

ddhrirv "let there be said".^

THE UNINFLECTED*

PASSIVE.
is
it

This formation, which when written,


like the active, leaves

exactly 206*.

one in doubt whether

should
It is

be

classified

with the earlier or later inflection.

only to be found with certainty, with nominal subject, e. g.


AAAAAA

S)

^^
in tw;

1 1 1

ms

yt

hrdw 3 "Three

child-

ren are born to thee",^


*

The word

"uninflected" does not adequately

translate the

term used by the author,


the passive ending

viz. "endungslos" as distinguished

from

but "endungslos" has absolutely no equivalent in Eng., and as this passive can with certainty be found only with nominal subject, it may be stated with the greatest
probability, (as far as inflection involves pronominal endings) that

it

was
1

uninflected.

It

certainly

is so,

for the practical purposes

of grammar,

transl.
4.
2

Eb.

2,

Math. Hdb.
5

41.
6

Eb.

9,

20.

Eb. 36. i4.

Eb.

16, 3.

Westc.

11, 5.

86

4.

OLD INFLECTION (pseudoparticiple).

a. ITS

formt'n. 207. 208.

and occurs with unchangeable stem,

in one

form only.

The
e. g,

impersonal verbs of

168 also,

are probably

to be explained in part as uninflected passives.


A. There are a few obsolete passive forms with
hrss "she
suffixes, like

was buried", ^ and these may

also belong here.

The

uninflected passive

would then belong

to the later inflection.


t^

207.

It often takes the

place of the passive in

especi-

ally

where the

latter

would be

in the -form, in a cir-

cumstantial clause
ChCn
(cf.

(cf.

198) or the combination with


it

230).

On
t

the other hand,

cannot be

used in dependent clauses, so that, for example after


rdi, the passive in

must always be used.

4.

OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE).


a.

ITS

FOEMATION.

*208.

It is

found in only one form, the so called pseudoe.

participle, the formation of which, in the m.

ac-

cording to the usual orthography


1*^"^

is

as follows:

Sing.

1 c.

mnkrvlijnnkwTj "I remain"


\v\
AAA/V\A

2 m.
Ol
f.

mntl

mntl
AAAAAA
13

AAAAAA

3 m.
AAy>^A^

mn
^u^
\\\

f.

mntl

Mar. Mast. 201.

4.

OLD INFLECTION (pSEDDOPARTICIPLe).

a. ITS

FORMT'N. 209

211.

87

AAAAAA

Plur.

c.
AA/V\AA
I

mnwin
1
I

2c.
3
c.

'^ '^

mnt'iwm
w

mn.
pi. (cf.

A. The original forms of the 3


of the dual (m. tnnivy,
B. In the n.
(cf.
e.,
f.

212) and the forms


lost.

mntyiv, mnty) were early

other forms also begin to drop out; in Copt,


sg.

C 181) the 3 m.
3
f.

has supplanted

all

the others and only a

few

sg.

are preserved with them.


1

The ending of the

sg. is

also written ^zi::^^ 209.


to use this

and many texts seem regularly


certain verbs
(

form with
)

-^^
,

r\\T\,

>t

C)ther

writings are

-^ziiPt

(o. e.), v^:^

v\ and rarely
-Ic.

^-i:

B, In the n.

e. it

was pronounced

In the case of the endings

ti,

the writing

o:,

is 210.
e.

customary, especially in the manuscripts of the m.


B. Vulgar writings of the n.
e.

are sr=D
-t.

and c^

v\

tio;

the ending was at that time, already spoken

The
rarely

m.
:

sg.^ originally

had the ending


"(^
;

(I

more

211.

^
M

^^? jQ
^^)

^^^''

^^)

anointed",

"^Q

-^^^^ "(^^
inf.

caixed"

in the case of the Illae

inf.

and IVae

the g, with the final ^

becomes (1(1

Details according to Sethe.

88

4.

OLD INFLECTION (pseudopahticiple).

a. ITS

formt'n. 212

214.

n(l(l msil

"(he

is)

born".

In the m.

e.

the writings in

[1 (1

are frequent, those in

not rare, but those in


>

(1

have disappeared; the ending of most verbs was


lost.

probably already
^^^-

^^
1
I I

may
*'

also be written for


3 m, in

v\ JL

;
I
\

the'^e

was originally in the plural a


in
AiJ ^^;

v\ and a

3 f

but both were already lost at a very remote

period and only the 3 m. occasionally occurs in the

m.
^213.

e.:

0^

Ifv

"they come".
originally

The pseudoparticiple apparently had


But the
was very early

two forms, an active-transitive and a passive-intransitive.


214. first

lost.

The vocalisation can be restored only


sive-intransitive forms,

in the pas-

which are retained in the Copt.;


it

thus restored, in the most important cases

runs

about as follows, the endings being added according


to the later pronunciation, as -e
j II
^,

and

-te:

lit.

m. mene,

f.

mente ("remaining")

II gem.

m. kebe ("cool")

(III inf.

m. mosje ("born")

llll
(III

lit.

m. sodme,

f.

^sdomte ("heard")

gem. m. sepdode ("prepared")


lit.

(lY

m. hemhome,

f.

hemJiomte ("roaring").

b.

ITS USE. a. ACT.-TRASS.

p.

PASS.-INTRANS. FORM. 215

217.
lit.

89
was

A. The pseudoparticiple of the transitive of the II


like erJj'w ("knowing").

pronounced something

In the case of the Illae

inf.,

the forms
is

|T|

l^and

215.

occur side by side, but the latter


frequent.

the more

Of
Vs>
,

the irregular verbs, rdl "give" has the


rdlrv, also
.

form
%:v dldlrv;

o^

dlw and
otherwise

"go" makes the 3 m.

0()(l7]\5

b.

ITS USE.

a.

IN

THE ACTIVE-TRANSITIVE FOEM.


texts,

The few old

which

still
it

make

this

form of

2J6.

the pseudoparticiple, employ

as a narrative form,

and preferably at the close of a short paragraph, from


which
it

draws a conclusion.
1

It,

seemingly,

s^till

oc1

curs, only in the

sg.:
I

Irkwl "and I did",

fu

^^ y^

shikrvl

"and

caused to descend".
it is

Only the
(cf.

verb rh "know", although

transitive, has preservits

ed a living pseudoparticiple;

use corresponds ex-

actly with that of the passive-intransitive form


217sq., 241).

p.

IN

THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM.


of the intransitives

The pseudoparticiple
sives, as well as that of

and pasrh

217.

the transitive verb

90

p.

IN

THE PASSIVE-IKTRAKSITIVE FOKM.

218. 219.

"know"

(cf.

216), is still used as an independent


1 sg., e. g.

verb, almost only in the

l90''^^~-^

^
*218.

hskrvl hrs
still

"and

was therefore

praised".^

A. The pyr.

have,

e. g. sJitpf vtrwi'',

hfpwci "he satisfies

the two gods, and they are satisfied" 2


It is

(8

m.

du.)

and the

like.

more frequently employed


pronoun a closer
for the

in order to

annex where

to a substantive or

limitation,

we would,
"This
ChCktvi
tribe)".^

most part, employ a

participle. E. g.
re

command came <iz>^


me,
(as)
I

A
midst of
fl

to

stood (in the

my

lyAAA^AA

hugmmk drwfsm,
his

htf khti "If you find his


(lit.

sole hot

and

body cool"

"if

you find his

sole,

it is hot)".''

STV slsy

"Look

at

him stretched
Cf.

out".^

B. In Copt, the remains of the pseudoparticiple have entirely

gone over into

participles.

C 181.

182.

219.

On

the use of the pseudoparticiple as apparent


cf.

predicate
1

240 sq., 246 sq., 233, 234, 402.


2

LD

II,

122 a.
3.
6

Pepy

I,

348.

Sin.

199.

Eb. 37,

Eb. 36,

7.

\
5.

5.

COMP. WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. 220. 221.

91

COMPOUNDS WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL


INFLECTION.
INTEODUCED BY "IT THE FORMS Itv sdmf AND
a.

IS".
itv

a.

sdmnf.
(1

With
is",

tiie

impersonal auxiliary verb

irv

"it 220*.

there are

made two

forms, which as a rule are

distinguished in usage as follows:


irv

sdmf "he hears (heard)",


(had) heard" (past,
;

irv sdm7if"-\s.Q

cf.

197).

With the first, both passives occur with the second,


only the passive in
run:
irv
t.

With nominal
irv

subject, the forms

sdm ntr "the god hears",

sdmn ntr "the god

heard".

In contrast with the simple forms sdmf and


these have a certain independence (like other
irv cf.

^dmnf

clauses introduced by

246, 332).
is

It is therefore used,
-ed

where a fact

to be express- 221.

in

a single independent remark:

"This plant

is

used so and so
^

fl^

^n^^^~^(j; o'^'tl:!, /wwva^


st

J)

N^

irv

grt srrvdtrv sn n

tSyfprt

"further, the hair of a

woman

is

made
said,

to

grow by

means of

its fruit'',

"The prince came


%
'

to the king
I

and

(I

^A
hither".'^

irv

inni

Ddi

have brought Ddi


2

Eb. 47, 19

(cf.

115).

Westc.

8,

8.

92
222.

a^. AUXILIARY

fEKB

tVU.

ha..

THE FORM iwf

Sclmf.

222

225.

It,

is

used especially at the beginning of a narra-

tive or of

one of

its

paragraphs:

(1

^ fU^^
me
vm.

^w Ai& w^ w&^

"My

lord sent

out &c."

(Beginning of the narrative).

p.

WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB

223.

The corresponding use of the auxiliary verb -^^


Tvn "it is",
is

far

more rare and probably archai

There are found -^^


AftAAAA

^\

tvn

sdmf "he hears


^.

",

W\S-

^^ ^ ^>^
^ ^v

'^^^

sdmnf "he heard" and a -^^


"he heard".

'^w^w sd'w/'

&.

WITH DOUBLE SUBJECT,


a.

THE FORM

iwf sdmf.

224.

This form

[1

^
it

^ ^^
is

^^^ srfw/

(lit.

"he

is,

he hears"), means "he

accustomed to hear".
(1

With
^n.

nominal subject
irv

runs as follows:
is

J|^

ntr

sdmf "The god


used with the

accustomed to hear".

"When

a number of verbs in this form follow one another,

Iwf
225.

is

first

of

them

only.
re-

It is

used (similarly, the forms of 221) in


149 e.

LD

II,

p.

THE FORMS lonf

sdntif

AND wtiinf sdmf. 226

228.
q\^

93

marks, in which a fact


A

is

stated: U

y>

DO V^ l^S

Irv

grt prts dlttvs hr tB "Further,

its fruit is

accustomed to be laid upon bread".^


this

"He who has

book (j%>^^^_-^

^^^

'--'

/
prf .... he knows

f^

K^m
it is

"^

^^

Irvf

ckf

irvf
all

rhf hprrvt nf nbt goes in and out ....


that happens to him".^
also

But on the other hand


the forms in 246
criptive narratives:
y
\n lb

employed

(like 226.

249)

in descriptions

and des-

V^- ^
fl

^^'^^ /vwvAA

(I

?^ ^^

iTvl dll

mrv

"I gave water to the thirsty".^


It is especially preferred in the case

correspond-

227.

ing to 249, for the continuation of a relative clause


ior the like:

~^ A/vwwv'v\

"^^^^ ^7 s^^ "^ nhbtf, Irvf

mnf Cfi

nhbtf

"A man on whose neck

there

is

a swelling and

"who has pain in the two organs of his neck".'*


p.

THE FORMS wnf sdmf AND


-^'^^ ^^==_

wrdnf sdmf.
rvnf

The form

^ V\
6.

5^^=.-

sdmf
*

is

very 228.

Eb.

51, 18.

Totb. 15 B,

Sin. 96.

Eb. 51, 20.

94

bf.

THE FORM hrf

sdnif.

en.,

with chon> and OlC- 229. 230.

rare; another, rvninf sdmf, which only occurs where

one of the words for king, forms the subject:

-^"
AAA/VV\

(1
I

majesty sent to me'V


Y-

is

explained by 346.
hrf sdmf.

THE FORM
is

229.

This rare formation

evidently related to sdmh?f.


^:zi>

and

like

it,

is

used in directions

fi

'^cn^

=^ hrk
^

roBhk dtk "lay your hand",^


o\

1^

l[]

^^^

f* s? 5^55

d^dSs Im "Let the

woman
hrtw

anoint her head with


diirv

it",^

o %> A

c^

\\

"Let there be given".^


c.

WITH A VERB OF MOTION. a. WITH cAc AND chC-

*230.
CJiCn

The very frequent combination y

^^

sdmnf ("he arose and heard"?), originally markc

an occurrence in the narrative, as significant (some?


thing like 'then he heard"). In the popular language
of the m.
e.,

however,

it

is

weakened

to the usual
is

form for narrative ("he heard"),


ten archaically ^
"'

v
A

also writ-

AAAAAA

dv
\

'A
,

7^

and ^ i^-^^^^.

Aa

Sin. 174.

Eb.

48, 3.

Eb. 47,

21.

Eb.

44,

3.

CO..

WITH chCn AND C^O 231234.


o. e. this

95
still

A. In the language of the


to be wanting.

compound

seems

In the case of the active of the transitives,

Q^w

231*.

always has the w-form following:


ChCn rdlnf "he gave",

<^=^^

A
^^^^

^^^ "=^

^'^^'^

^^^

"The prince

said".

No example

of the passive in-^ occurs; the unin- 232*.


is

fleeted passive, however,


207):

f^nn

Hi^

V^^
is

freely used after QiCn


''^^'"'

(cf.

''P^

^^

sspt ''The

house was
(-hCn

fitted out'V

Y
verb
is in

rdl "they (impers.) occasioned".^


in 240sq.,

The nominal sentence described


the pseudoparticiple,
transitive verbs:

whose
in-

233*.

employed with

"His majesty went in peace".^


If the subject is a

pronoun,

it is

attached to

CJiCn

as suffix: "I sailed

f
up"."*

^ fm^'

Cj/^^^^^^^^H^^^''

intktvi,

M^n

^ ^lA chCns grtl "She


is
3, 8.
2 ib.
5

ceased".^

Other than in narrative, there


Westc.
8, 4.
6,
3.

also used the 234.


U, 122 a.

LD

LD

11.

122

b.

Westc.

96

p.

WITH

in,

prn and

iiv.

d-

the form sdmf

pio.

235237.

form

^^^,

which transitive verbs follow in the


intransitives, just as with ChCn, fol-

form sdmf, while


low

in the pseudoparticiple:

nbt "then he discharges all worms''.^

"flra'^']|(l^
falls

^^^^^ fi^i^ ^^r ^

"then she

immediately".^
/J.

WITH
(1

in,

prn

AND
'~~'

iw.

235.

The forms
derived from
^

-^

In

and

which

are

"come" and pr "go out", are far rarer


it

than QiCn, but like meaning.


2^^-

in construction

and original

V ^^ $ ^

"^"

^^

^^^^

employed

like
I

Qf,

cf.

y\

-t=::p5

V\ Vv? ^^^ mhkrvl "then


d.

am

full".^

THE FORM sdm/ pw.


in the first instance,

237.

The form sdmf pw,


something like
but
it

means

"it is

he

who hears"

(cf.

87

on prv)'^

further appears to denote also a condition a^

tained:

"When you

find this or that in


is

him

jj

^
1

siibf

pw

then he

well".^
cf.

The verb has

thi

form of the second group,


Eb.
20, 7.
2

184 sq.
35, 36.
^

Eb. 51,

18.

Math. Hdb.

Eb. 37,

1^

6.

WITH

Ir.

238.

7.

with pseddoparticiple or infinitive. 240. 97


ir

6.

COMPOUNDS WITH
Ir
it

"MAKE".
infi- 238.

The combination of
nitive
is

"make, do" with an

dependent upon

as object ("he does hearing"),

used:
1.

Often with verbs of going:

<2>-^'^=i ^v
=?s=

irt

smt "I went"^


2.

With compound verbs


^^zz^^
9
)

Ov^

Irni

dr-tS "I journeyed"^, -<2>-

Irhrk rv^-

dSdi "you multiply"^.


B, This combination
first

supercedes the inflection, with the


(of.

IV

lit.

and cans.

Ill

lit,*,

later with all verbs

C 249).

The strange combination ^^N. D V^


prv Irnf ("it

sdm
is

239*.

was hearing which he did"?) which


e.

used since the m.

especially with verbs of going.


is

as a form of narrative,
vs\ AAAA/v^

much more

frequent.

E.

g.

prt

pw

irnf "he went out", because

pr

is

a verb of going, while the parallel verbs are

expressed by means of sdminf or ChCn sdmnf.


7.

COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPAETICIPLE OR INFINITIVE.


a.

WITHOUT THE AUXILIARY VERB (IMPROPER NOMINAL SENTENCE).


(cf.

The model of the nominal sentence

327 sq.)

240*.

was early transferred to sentences with verbal predi1

Sin. 19.

Una

30.

Math. Hdb.

41.

According to Sethe.
Gr

Erman,

Egypt, granim.

98

7.

COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE.

241. 242.

cate; the subject (a

noun or pronoun) preceding, the


is

verb following. In general, the verb

in the pseudo-

participle in the case of intransitives

and passives;

and

in the infinitive with the preposition

Jjr,

in

the case of transitives.


B. This kind of sentence was the origin of the late Egyptian

forms twfsdm
241.

(qCOTM) and twfhr sdm (qCCJOTM).

Cf.

C253sq.

More
participle:
1.

exactly,

the following are in the pseudo-

the passives (ph^ "divided", shr "overlaid"


the verbs of going

etc.).
/

3.

(Ai "descend", Iw "go",

"go", hr "fall"),
3.

the verbs of condition

when they denote


full",

the

continuation of the condition (mh "be


sick", ftv

mr "be

"be broad" &c.); but also hpr "to be" even

where
4.

it

means "become".
rh "know"
(cf. 216),

even with following

object.
f

242.

The
with hr:
1.

following,

however, are

in

the

infinitive

the transitive verbs with or without an object

following, {rdl "give", ssp "receive", hrp "lead",

m^

"see" &c.),
2.

verbs

of

condition,

when they denote the


{m^rv "recommence",

entrance upon the condition,

ik "diminish", hpr "happen").

7.

COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. 243. 244. 99

3.

verbs of crying and weeping {nml "roar, low",


&c.).
lir

rmy "weep"
seem
ciple

A. In the oldest language the infinitive with


to

does not yet

have been usage here,


still

for at that time the pseudoparti( 213).

was
Its

made with

all

verbs

use corresponds to that of the real nominal


(cf.

243.

sentence

328
n

sq.).

It is used, therefore in asserI


I

<::::>

tn

rl

"No

contradiction comes out of

my

mouth'",

and especially after mk "behold"

( 183)

where the

old absolute pronouns ( 80) are used:

S^-nht iw

m c^m

"Behold (thou woman), Sinuhe comes

as an Asiatic"^.
V

V^tI

a"^^^^^

Y>^^'^^^^^'^^^"B6hold,

come

"3 "*.

It is further

used in descriptions and in the des-

244.

criptive parts of a narrative

^\
on
.

iBw h^rv

Ihw hr m^rv "Old age comes

.,

weakness(?) recommences"^
AAAAAA

G(
iLDII, 136h.

\i.-\\t^m-^.
2

Sin. 265.

Westc.

8, 12.

Prisse

4,

2 3.

G*

100

b.

INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS.

WITH THE VERB

iw. 246.

^^
98)
Itl,

iJl

hdn
nl,

t^,

Tnrv (fern,

according to

hCfi rib

mBh

about: "Day broke and

now
for

came the people

of Tnrv, while every heart

burned

me'" (not narrative but description).

Such a description
conjunction
the
(1

is

often introduced by the

ls=s

Isf ( 323).

Here

also,

belongs

use

of

^^ ^
it

j\

fn-

"after" in temporal

clauses:

V\

A -^^

_23^'v\'Tr^

hi

mlrrv hpr "After


245.

had become evening"^.


is

sentence of this kind

often also used as a


.

relative clause:

^'^
J
. .

ft

fl

J ^Afl'^?

ijs^x^v
"two obelisks
.

^^

hnbntsn Sbhw

hrt

whose summits reach heavenV

or expresses a subordinate circumstance in connection with which an action took place:


>ca&;

^'^--^^(f^\ ^f M^
upon
it,
h.

Wfrv "He

sailed

down

his heart being glad"*.

o.

INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS, WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB iw.


i

246.

Just as the forms sdmf and sdmnf are introduc

ed by the auxiliary verb


1

fi^
Westc.

Iw
3,

(cf.

220222)

Sin.

129131.

10.

LD

IH, 24

Inscription of Sehel.

fe.

INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. a.WITHTHE VEBB (w. 247.248.

101

SO the nominal

sentence with verbal predicate just

treated, is also often introduced

by
in

irv.

The modifiexpressed by

cation introduced by this Iw^

is

both cases the

same.

If the subject is a

pronoun,

it is

a suffix: (1^^^
to

,^y\ V
but

therefore
to

corresponds

^^^^,
especially,

(j^^^^^
e.

^^-A^sdm
the use of twf

E. In the popular language of the m.

the forms twf

and twfhr sdm,

in the case of a

pronominal subject, are already


sq.
;

supplanting the nominal sentences of 240

sdm

later

becomes

still

more extended.

They are
{iwf

preserved in Copt, as

FqCOTM

(cwf sdm) and

PqCCDTM

hr sdm).
It is

Cf.

C 251, 262 sq.


is

used where a fact


(cf.
it,
(j

expressed in a single

247.

independent remark

221):

"Say concerning
1(1
Irv

i-=c

^ '^'^-^

"^

^
248.

mrstfi?) ph^tl his liver (?)


is

is

divided" ^

It

further

employed at the beginning of a


its

narrative or of one of

paragraphs

(cf.

222):

^\

Iw twtl shr

nb,

Indwtf
its

rv^sm

"My

statue
silver-

was overlaid with gold and


gold."^

apron with

Even when the sentence

in

question,

expresses

Eb. 36

17.

Sin. 307.

102

p.

WITH THE AUXU.IARY VERB WH. 250.

only an accompanying subordinate circumstance, this

form

is

used like that without

Irv (cf.

245)

"^ .^===^

N^ \\

ms^

pw

Irns hrf^

Irv

msC pn n

stn

hr mii

"she bore upon


looked on"^
249.

it,

while

this

army

of the

king

When

number

of relative nominal sentences


(cf.

are joined to one

noun
Irv (cf.

245),

all

but the

first

are introduced by
1

227):

.<2>-

J^
.

.^-

<CZr>

l)

OaaaaaaIII

v,.:^^^

Ir

mBBk

hri-stt

nht hif hrs, Irvf hr

mn

r-lbf "If
is

you

see any one with a swelling .... whose body

there-

fore

stiff

and who

is

diseased in his stomach (?)"^.

p.

WITH THE AUXILIAEY VEEB

wn.

250.

Here belong the forms, distinguished according


to

241242, -^^=^1.^^
AA/\AAA
'^^

^
nn

mnf sdm

(the verb is

pseudoparticiple) and -^"^^.c^^


'-==^-'" l-jic^^

^\

rvnf hr sdm:

l^vz^ rvnfhrdrvBntrw

nb "He worshipped

all

gods "3

LD

II,

149

c.

Eb. 26,

4.

Hr-hwf

II a, 14.

p.

WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB Wn. 251. 252.

103

-^
AAAAAA *^^=a

^
1

wnn/' Cnh '-He will live"^ ( 184,

187).

A
verb

remarkable formation, in which the auxiliary


also in the pseudoparticiple, is
I

251.

is

found in

-^^
AAAAAA

-^^ J\

'^^zi^^ VQi jvnkl drvnkrvl "I threw

myself down(?)"^.

The forms distinguished according

to 241
A AAAAAA
/^N,

242 252*
CT

^^y

^^^

A AAAAAA

ra

^ ^
are

^^7

wfw/ sdm and

-^^^(1

^^

roninf hr sdm, which represent an action or a condi-

tion as the result or conclusion of that previously

narrated,

more

frequent.

They

are therefore

employed

for the

most part,

at the close of a para-

graph: "This or that was done to cheer the king

^^
AAAAAA

j]
1

AAAAAA

O
I

AAAAAA

U
|

-^ A A \-J. and the heart of his majesty was (on that account)
I

f\ ^^^^^ '^ \\v) "^''^^


hJ\/\f^f\/\

WTlln It

tl

llUf Jib

cheered

(lit.

cool)"^.

But they are further employed


where they

at the beginning of a paragraph also,

then connect the latter with that which precedes

"The wise man had the children


the

called, gave

them

book and said


I

to
n

them
M
I

&c.".
I

New paragraph:
|

AAAAAA
I I

i
I 1 1 I

O
2

_^

i:
I

AAAAAA

\^?s^^

M AAAAAA
I

ml

AWWVI

LD

II,

149

c.

Sin. 252.

Westc.

6,

1.

104

8.

COMPOUNDS WITH V AND THE INFINITIVE. 253. 254.

c::^
St

o rvninsn
it

hr rdlt

st Jir htvtsn,

wninsn
their

hr sdt

"And they threw themselves upon


&c."^
n. e. this

bellies and they read


B.

Toward the end of the


temporarily the most

becomes so frequent,
of narrative.

that

it is

common form

8.

COMPOUNDS WITH
On
be something"
is for
(e.

AND THE

INFINITIVE.
Itv/"

253.

the basis of the construction


g-

"he

will

fl%^Pf ^^|^^ V
i. e.

smr "he

a friend",

"he will be a friend"^),

there developed a kind of nominal sentence, in which


(cf.

240) the preposition <^:^ r, "to", with following

infinitive, indicates the future

-,
Tvi

^,,

,,^

-^,

mk

nhm c^k "Behold,


The auxiliary verb

I will

take thy ass"^.


Irv

#254.

(1^ (1^

was early prefixed

to this kind of sentence also (as in 246 sq.)

and the
^^^
"^i

form thus originating,


will hear",

^^k.

''^f ^

has already nearly superceded the simple


e.
(cf.

form in the popular language of the m.


B. In Copt,
it is

preserved as

EqBCCDTM
Bauer
11.

269).

Prisse

2,

5.

sin. 280.

9.

IMPERATIVE. 255. 256.

105

9.

IMPERATIVE.
in

The imperative had no ending

the singular: 255*.

^ mh

"fill"
^

(something like
or

'mho)', in the plural it

ended in

{'mhorv).

In classic orthography,

however, these endings are almost never written, and


the plural of the imperative
is

indicated only by the


left

determinative

i;

ni^\ QA
lit.

shBw "remember" or

entirely unindicated.
A. In the pyr. the II
sing, according to 170

indicate the prosthetic vowel, in the


"fall"

Ilae gem. are doubled,

A: pM.
e.

ihr

(something like %ro; the

The

plural of the Illae inf. in the


t

pyramids ends

in [J(J,

i.

the third radical


is

and the ending

l.

B. Since the n.

e.

the infinitive

also used instead of the

imperative; the Copt,


old formation,
cf.

still

possesses but few imperatives of the

C 305.
256.

In detail note further:

impv. of

"make, do",
imi incorrectly in the
n. e.
(1

(J

^\

^^

older

^^\

and the

like,

is

used as imperative of
cf.

rrf^"give, cause". (Copt.


n

Ma,

C 305; the signs

and

are the deter-

minatives of giving).

^v

ml^

more rarely \J\i


II,

later .i^^

(1^

and

Mar.

Ab

3i;

106

9.

IMPERATIVE. 257.

the like, as imperative of the verbs of coming, (Copt,

m. AMOy,

f.

AMH,

cf.

305).

The

distinction in gender observable in the two

Copt, forms just cited, was probably existent in the


old language also, but
is

not indicated in the ortho-

graphy.
A. The pyr.
(with the sign ^
-write
d);

mi

"give" for the most part

(J .a

-0

inu
rdi,

they have further a real imperative of

which

is

written

dt.
(I

B.

On

the employment of
cf.

V\
From

w\

"give" in clauses

expressing a wish,

182 B.

frequent usage since the

m.

e.,

imt loses

its

original

meaning "give"; imt ditw "cause that


to
(J

there be given" (in the


replaces
it.

LE. contracted

^S\

^-^^^r^

),

257.

The imperative
solute

is

often followed by the old ab-

pronoun

(cf.

80):
trv

..^Q-J\c^^s
f[

"hasten (thou)",

\\

-'^

/wvwv rud^rv tn

"go

(ye)''^

The words
emphasis
(cf.

r-

and

Ir-^

employed with

suffixes for

348), often follow it also

^^^^'^r^"gehe",
-^^^^sij

n<zi>^/vwsA

ji;ri

i^rtn

"open

ye",

^^v
1

(I

'^'^'^^

sdmw

Irf

in

"hear ye"^.
27.
3

Sin. 282.

Totb. ed. Nav.

I,

LD

HI, 24

d.

10a. PARTICIPLES. 258. 259.

107

10.

THE NOMINAL FORMS OF THE VERB.


a.

PARTICIPLES.

The
follows

participles,

which as a rule are written as 258*

Sg. m.

^%\

sdm

Pl.m.

^^[j[j^l

and

I.

^^v
for the

^^^^

f-

^^v
pi.

'

sdmywt(l)
^,

may have, as may be


ending

most
has
96),

part,

had a vocalic ending


m.

conjectured from the


often
TV

The

sing.

m.

furthermore,

the

masculine substantive
it

(cf.

especially where
g.

stands

alone as a substantive,
:getter"\
j>

e.

Tvttw "be-

V'

^^/'^

"chosen one"

The

participles occur in active

and passive forms,

259.

of which, those of the present and future, and those


of the past seem to have been distinguished.^

Note
1.

in detail:
II ae

The

gem.

have

sometimes
AAAAA^

separated,

sometimes contracted consonants:

-^^ wnn AAAAAA

"being" *^

or -^^

rvn.

Mar. Ab.

II,

25.

LD

11,

122

a.

According to

fiethe.

108
2.

lOa. PARTICIPLES. 260.

The Illae

inf. in

the active, sometimes double

the second radical (present), and sometimes do not


(past):

<cz>^ mrrw
(T|
1

"loving",

A
p.

prr

"going out", but

"having born"

(fern.),

J\

pr "having gone

out.

Beside the forms with doubling


151) is visible (past):
(fern.)

(present) there occur in the passive, others in which

the third radical

i (cf.

f^^nK

%J\\^
do",

^^y^ "found"
(fern.)

but

gmmt "being found"


is

In the case of
and

A^^
<2>-

"make,
try,

written for

irr^

<2>-(](|

for

according to 151.
3.

The irregular verb rdi "give" has the


M^,
participle
is

active

lorm
260.

aiat,

"giving".

The

either used attributively like an

adjective:

v^t^^^.^g>-(j(]^^^^
wrong done against him"'.

liwwt{l) iryrvt rf "the

hr liQl "the kings

who were

before me"^,

or like a substantive:

Eb.

1,

13.

RiH

19 sq.

10a. PARTICIPLES. 261.

109

ftiP'^^'^^^'W^
has born a boy"^

^^^ -^^ "^^^

(fern.),

who

^^v
T

(l(]'v\ if
^^''^^
^^fc-^

sdmytv "the listeners"^.


'^

^^

"^^^^

Ss

mr n

iryt rf "pain

about that done to him."^

A remedy v\
^

'^^'ww
III

.Ms^<z:>

o
is

j
I

irrwt n ht oi

that which

is

made

for the body"*.

A
(i.

substantive or a suffix
participle,

often
its

added to a
subject

261.

passive
e.

to

indicate

logical

the one, from

whom
iBrvi

the

action in question

proceeds):
(1

(1

mry
[1 ]\

"beloved by the two lands".

^^ K^.^
by him".
retained,
especially
\\

K.-^ sSf

mryf

"his

son beloved

The grammatical subject of a verb may

also be
cf.

when

it is

put in the passive participle,


like
ifi
:

400 and examples


AAAAAA
y

(1

.<2>(J

(]

T ^^^

ifii

ffij-f

rf

gjif

"He

to

whom

injury

is

done by his brother"


fratre)^.

(lit.

f actus

malum

contra

eum a

Eb.

26, 16.

Prisse

5,

14.

'

Bauer

25.

Eb.

19, 11.

Merenre' 465; the whole according to Sethe.

110

b.

THE INFINITIVE.

. ITS

FOKMATION. 262. 263.

A. The old expressions


f'^^''^^^

/www
tr

^yiy

jj

"beloved
of" are

of",

ms n "born

of",
AAAAAA

n "begotten

pro-

bably passive participles

also.

b.

THE INFINITIVE,
a.

ITS

FORMATION.
has the

*262.

The
vowel
ending
II

infinitive

has different forms in the different


classes
it

verbal classes.

With the following


first

after the

consonant,

and no special

lit.,

^^. ^^.
V
lit.,

wn "open" OYODN

(with suffixes

OYON=)
III
lit.,

sdm "hear" CCOTM (with


^'^^^

suffixes

COTM=);

IV and

"IT^

li^^t (cf.

CoAcA, with

suffixes cAccdA*).
263.

An
III
lit.

is

found after the second consonant of some


like
<z:

which denote a quality,


(for *isor)

dsr
II

TOGO)

"become red" and


.>>^
i

also of the

ae gem. of like meaning, like

^^\

^.^ kmom

"become black".
II ae

Whether the

infinitives of the other

gem.

like

^
is

f'^O)

wH

"urinate",

are also

to be vocalised thus,

uncertain.

h.

THE INFINITIVE,

a. ITS

FORMATION. 264

268.

Ill

The Illae

i>,

according to the Copt, have for the 264.


after the second
i

most part an a
infinitive:

consonant in the
['

"^^

wdB "be healthy" oyxAl,

U
\\

%^

sk5 "plow" CKAl.

Certain infinitives, like ? ?

hM

"seek",

265.

^ '^
I

"^''^^

"land"

(i.

e.

die,

MOONE),

in careful

orthography, end in

i.

The

III ae

inf.

have
i

infinitives
^:

with feminine 266*.

ending and the vowel


n.

or

H 1^
nppF,

mst "bear"
trt

MICF

prt "go out" TTipe,

"make,

do", FlpF, rn

V\
lit.

A h^t '-descend" gF &c.


have likewise feminine
"^^^''

A
like

few III

infinitives, 267.

^dh

^^^^

^-

C^HCl,

as well as the
o

irregular verbs
"give".

fl

/\

iit{^)

"come" und

rdit

The causatives of the

II lit.

have likewise femi1

268.

nine infinitives (according to 161):

j^ ^^

shrt

"overthrow"

(from

hr

"fall").

e^
AAAAAA
Hi

smnt

"establish" from

mn MOyN "remain") CMINF.- Among


inf.

the causatives of the Illae

are found
sh^yt

W
"cause

smsi to

"unbind", but also

^^'^(1(1^

112
descend",

p. ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE. 269

271.
lit,

The causatives of the


lit.

III
1

are classified
/\

with the IV
up", Copt.

in the infinitive,

sCJiC

"get

COOgF
p.

(from

*soC}i'C).

ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE.
was originally a substantive with and governs no ob-

269.

The
no

infinitive

the general meaning of the verb. It therefore belongs


to definite voice of the verb

ject; "to kill

him"

is

rendered in possessive form by

hdbf "his killing"

(cf. 79),

and

Mh

hffi "to kill the

enemy" was originally undoubtedly a genetive, "the


killing of the enemy",
270.
(cf.

173.)

Of

itself,

hdbf "his killing" may also have the


killing,

meaning "the

which he does", as
wsrfr nds

in fnl

^"^ r^^^^^
hearing
is
is

sdmf "an ear whose

is

small"

(i.

e.

a deaf ear), but such usage

practically rare (the substantivised form of 283

preferred in this case) and a possessive suffix on


is

the infinitive

always

first to

be translated as the

object of the latter.


271.

The substantive character

of

the infinitive
is

is

evidenced also by the fact that a plural


it.

made from

In contrast with the singular

it is

best rendered

by a substantive:
1

Eb. 91,

2.

/. ITS

USE. 272.

113
Plural

Singular

msrvt "birth"'/

""^^o wr^ "to

love"

"^^^"^mrw^
I

"love";^

|-^ ChC "to


\

stand"

-^
;^

QiCrv

"standing

place"

^^^ Mr "to hunger"

Q
"

V^^
4 ger ^

likrrv

"hun-

With many verbs however,


and of rejoicing) the plural
the singular.
Y-

(e. g.

those of going

infinitive is also

used like

ITS USE.

It stands, precisely like

a substantive, as the sub-

272,

ject of a sentence:

Irt

nf

St

"My
cf.

wish was to make


335),

it

for him"^ (Irt

is

subject,

or as part of the genetive relation

"The day of the lamp-lighting

in the temple",*^

L Intr^
1

^
fj

i U=/]
2

St

krs "place of burying",'


H, 122 a.
3 I,

Westc,
II,

10, 8.
5

LD

LD

122 b.

LD

IH, 24 d.

Siut

291.

"

Westc. 6, 13, Westc. 7, 8.


j[

Erman,

Egpypt gramm.

114

Y.

ITS USE.

273275.

or for the qualification of an adjective


T
<:=^:3

(cf.

118):

^ Wj

w/r

mdw

"excellent in speak-

mg
273.

"

Further, as object after verbs of willing, like


rvd

"command",

mr

"desire",

^i^

q7\

snd

"fear", as well as

^^^^=^^^8A
(cf.

^-^

"think" and

rh "know, be able"

C 314):

rf&i St "It

was commanded him

to

pay

it".^
is

Beside

the above, the construction in 189

also in use

with these verbs.


274.

The
position
;

infinitive

with the

may be dependent upon any premore common prepositions these

combinations have in part taken on special meanings,

which are noted below:


275.

The

infinitive with

^^^

"in",

denotes for the

most part time,

"They were astonished


came",^

p^mUt when

theyj

but nevertheless occurs with other meanings,


V

e.

g.l

V ^v
sin
1
.

^1

^^
2

^^

^ ^^^ ^^^"^

"free

from do-

mg

Peasant

75.

Peasant 48.

Prisse

2, 4.

Mar. Ab.

11,

24^

Y-

ITS USE. 276. 277.

115

With
pose (as

<;:::>

r "to", it

almost always indicates pur- 276*


cf.

still

in Copt, with e

C 315):

hntf r shrt 'hfUrvf


his enemies'V

(cf. 7)

"He

sailed

up

to

overthrow

"He went <=:>

/wwv.

^^^

ra r spr n mr-

pr-wr to beseech the chief house-overseer".^


In the

common

expression <=i>

^) r ^<? ''in order


C
n^

to say" the idea of


in the

purpose had already disappeared


it,

m.

e.,

so that

(like its derivative 2P,

370), only indicates the beginning of direct discourse,


AAAAAA

"I wandered through the

camp
nhm
r dd: irtrv nn mi

^=^ TV.

1 1 A ^ X J^ y U ^

Q
J^f'

m.^,

while I cried,

'How

is this

done?'".^
')*,

With

hr

it

denotes simultaneousness ("while


^-'^

277*.

JUjOiv^in
ing him",^

hu

hr smsf^'I went, follow-

^'^^^l^tS^^'^^'^^^ ^ri?r^"He
found him going out"
(''as

he was going out").^

On
*
1

the use of this combination as a substitute

Best rendered in English by the present participle, teansl.

LD

II,

122a,

Bauer

33.

sin. 202.

LD
H*

II,

122a.

Bauer

34.

116

Y-

ITS USE.

'278280.

for the pseudoparticiple


240. 242.
278.

with transitive verbs,

of.

The prepositions
scripts)

/wvwv

n (the

of good

manudenote

and ^v

mP, with the infinitive,

cause:
"I lived, honored by the king
\

.=^Vi

^^

/wwvA

j\ mC irt mSCt n stn because I wrought

truth for the king".*


2 '9TinC

"with" connects the infinitive with a


it

preceding verb whose meaning

now

adopts:

(I

/wvAAA

Q7\

(g

iwf hr

mm

tS

500 .... /m^

sTvrl

hkt ds 100

"He

eats 500 loaves ....

and drinks

100 jars of beer".^

This method of continuation

is

especially prefer-

red with imperative and optative expressions: /"S "CH^ ^ O "^^''^^^^ dl> AftAAAA Irhrk -<2>^d^^ ' X
-y

rf

TinC rdlt

nf phrt "Make for

it

and

give

him

the remedy".^
280.

An

absolute infinitive

is

subjoined to a sentence

for the addition of

an explanation:
2

Prisse 19,

8.

Westc.

7,

3.

Eb. 40,

8.

C.

SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS,

a.

IN GENERAL. 281. 282.

117

ODD

^^^
itfs
'

AAAAAA Vj.

*^^=i^

(Li

dJl

^^^ made

^rws

mnrvs n
as her

Imn^ Irt nf thnrvi wrwi "She


for her father

(it)

monument

Amon,
'y

having made two great obelisks for him"^


sQ}C "having set up").
AAAAAA ,^,_n_^ <: AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA

(var.

,.

(|

d
(it)

^C^

\\\\\^''^^=^pshrmTV^
ijb

nn rdit Sfryf "Cook


seethe
(?)".2

in water, without letting

The

logical subject

may be added

to
;

an

infinitive 281.

(especially for the sake of intelligibility)

in this case
In^

a nominal subject

is

introduced by the prepositin


is

but a pronominal subject

expressed by means of
ra

the later absolute pronouns of 84:

"Agreement made with so and


n
AAAA^\A
I
I

<CZI^

so
AAA/W\

^^\
i

A^
IN

AAAA/\A

r~\ h.t\N\/^ r\

^<=>J\
. .

o.

X
.

i
.
.

^"^h^\
.

rdlt

nf

hnC prt ntsn


.

hnC rdit In
.

TvCh "that (they) give

him
.

and that they go out

and that

the priest give

."."^
.

c.

SUBSTANTIVIZED POEMS. a. IN GENERAL.


later formation (cf. 170) 282*.

The verbal forms of the

s^w/and sdmnf^ can be converted


1

into masculine
3

and

LD

in, 24 d.

Eb. 42,

7.

glut

I,

307.

118

|3.

TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 283.

feminine substantives by adding the substantive endings m. w,


f.
t,

to their stem.

The "substantivized"
itself (the

forms thus made, denote in part the action


fact that

he hears), in part a person or an object, to

which the action has reference (he who hears, that


which he hears and the
B. In the n.
e.

like).

the substantivized forms have disappeared.

p.

TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF.


itself,

"283.

The forms which denote the action


especially:

are

sdmtf "the fact that he hears",


'^'^'^

sdmtnf "the fact that he heard" (with


cf.

the meaning of a perfect,

197).
(cf.
\

The formation sdmf


is

of the first group

172)

used

in this case with the


it is

form sdmtf

with the

II ae
inf.
Irtf,

gem.

therefore -^^^
prtf, with Ir
o ^^i.^^

mntf^ with thelllae

,,

Jiv^^=_

"make, do"
rdltf.

^^-^^

with tdl "give"

Only

in the case

of a future meaning do forms of the second group

seem
tr

to be

employed here,

-^^
(lit.

^^zz:^

n rvnntk "the time

when you

will be"^

"the

time of the fact that you will be").

I'risse JO,

10.

p.

TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 284

286,

119
284.

These substantivized forms are treated precisely


like substantives

and are used with special frequency


where we would expect a conjuncE. g.

after prepositions,

tion with a dependent clause.

^v. Sw'}
"on

mI

V'^

^*

^^^^

^^ "when

she bore

New-years-day

<zi> A c^ [331

'^'^^^

hft rdlt p}- n


its lord".^

nhf when the house gives (presents) to

They gave him


/wsAAA

this piece

rum

<iz>

o
to

l/wwvA

hnt rdltnf nsn before he

had given

tiiem".^

Note, further, the absolute use of this substan- 285.


tivized form.
If it follows a sentence, it

adds to

it

an explanatory limitation:
"Agreement, that they give him a loaf
AAAAAA
I

<=> A

AAAAAA

v dltfif HSH Jivs hc,

havlug givcu

i;hem ... for


If,

it".^

however,

it

precedes the sentence,

it

contains 286.

a temporal qualification:

^
8.

J^5^
^^^'^
siut
289.

c:^::^ 1

IJJEL

1/vwvvA

^W
'

I^Jl
2

^^^ ^ rdwil, dmlnl inbw hkB


3

Eb. 95,

I,

Siut

I,

276.

Siut

I,

274.

120

f.

TO DENOTE A PERSON OK AN OBJECT. 287

289.
(i.

"When
came
287.

had given the way

to

my

feet,

e. fled), I

to the wall of the prince"/

It

sometimes stands independently at the hee. g.

ginning of a text after a date,


n
I

in

^-^ czsiD n ^^ X X

lO

^ n MM o
rst^.

rnpt 18 Irt hnf tBS


as:

This

is

probably to he understood

"In the year 18 (oc-

curred) the cirumstance, that his majesty

made the

southern boundary",

i.

e.

"his maj.

made

the southern

boundary."
288.

As may be most

seen, the use of this

form

is

for the

part, identical with that of the infinitive.

In

general they are distinguished as follows: the infinitive is

used where

its

(logical) subject is identical

with the subject of the preceding sentence, whereas


the substantivized form
''They were astonished
is

otherwise chosen.
they came"

Thus,
\\\\
r.

when

^^^

lit,

but "/ was astonished when they came"

A
289.

m
I
i !

ItSH.

Y-

TO DENOTE A PEESON OR AN OBJECT.


the person

The substantivized forms which denote


ence (he

or thing to which the action of the verb has refer-

who

hears, that

which he hears

etc.)

are

theoretically as follows:
1

Sin.

15.

LD

II,

136h.

Y-

TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. 290. 291.

121

m. sdmrvf
f.

m. sdmrvnf
f.

sdmtf
is

sdmtnf

in which the n-form

again used for the past.


is

The

formation of the second group ( 184)

used for the

forms sdmrvf and sdmtf


283);

(in contrast
inf.
it
is

with the form of

with the Illae


ir

therefore
Irrif with

^^

mtrtf with

"make, do"
dlditf.

rdi "give'

In

the case of the II

lit.

and

III

lit.

as well as with all verbs in the w-form,

these substantivized forms are not to be distinguished

from those of the

first

kind.

On
cf.

the use of these forms in relative sentences 290.

394.

Certain of them are furthermore employed

with definite meaning, precisely after the manner of


real substantives as subject, as object, in the genetive,

or after a preposition.

The forms

^\

sdmtf and

^^^

'^""'^

291*.

sdmtnf with the meanings "that which he hears" and


"that which he heard" are the most frequent:
I

^
is

^/^ ^^^^^ ^^ "That which I do

thee

good".*

A ^ZXZ H Q ^^^ vhich the Nile brings'.


-

mr

Innt hCp '^Oxerseer oHha,t

Sin. 77.

LD

II,

149 c.

122

d.

VERBAL ADJECTIVE.

292. 293.

^
ing).

^'^'^'^(j^^

A ddtnfim
it"^

"according to that
still liv-

which he had said about

(while he was
I

The not infrequent masculine


fl

dldisn
I

"that which they give"^


292.

is

noteworthy.
is

The form sdmrvf denotes persons and


almost only with nominal subject:

used

ifr^^

hssm nbf^^he
^'v^^-

whom his lord lovesV


I

"K ^^5^ Vh^

J\

tvnnw
"
4

sndf ht

smwt "he, whose fear comes


d.

after the lands

VERBAL ADJECTIVE.
f.

*293.

The archaic forms


Sg. m. sdmtif'i,
PI.
sdmt'isi,

sdmttsn

almost always mean "he (she), who will hear" and are

employed both as adjectives and substantives:

J^
s^l

^^
tSi
3

rib srrvdt'if'i

S _^^ Xcm /wwv^ <CZ> Ul iCi "^ W pn "every son of mine who shall
increase".^

make

this

boundary

"as something brilliant

(i.

e.

useful) for

him who

will

hear
1

it".

LD
II,

LD

II, 34 d. 136h.

2 c

gin.

137,
5, 8.

lD

n, 113f.

<

Sin.

44

prisse

11.

APPENDIX TO THE VERB; THE OBJECT. 294

297.

123

In classic orthography, the endings are for the 294.

most part written:


Sg. m.
PI.
2<..::=_

or

f.

l\v

or

Willi

or

^n

till
\
f.
,

in the singular, however,

K\^ also occur.


to be noted, 295.

In respect of the formation,


that

it is

the II ae gem. always double the second radical,

^^

rvnnt'isi,

the Illae

inf. in

part take

for the ending of the

stem, rn

do" has

^^ ^

^
;

p^'i.=:^h^rvt'ift

(ct 151 A); <r "make,

rdi "give" has

<=> A

rdldfi.

11.

APPENDIX TO THE VERB; THE OBJECT.


direct object (accusative)
cf.

The

is

to be recognis- 296. If it is

ed only by the order of words,


a pronoun
it

337 sq.

is
cf.

always expressed by the old prono 30.


its

mina absoluia,

On account
finitive

of

substantive character, the in- 297.


it
is

could not originally govern an object;


2

Mar. Cat. d'Aby. 807.

sin. 75.

124
therefore,

PARTICLES.

1.

ADVERBS. 298

300.

according to 269, combined with the


i,

possessive suffixes, r mrtf "for his loving",

e.

"in
l'^

order to love him".


St "it" (cf.

Only the neuter pronoun

82) can

also follow the infinitive, r mrt


it" ("them).

St

"in order to love


Transitive

298.

verbs which have no special object,

are often followed by the

word

iht

"thing" as a

general object,
especially

not to be translated by us.

Note

^
i.

r^ iht ''the one knowing (something)",^

e.

the wise man,


Irt iht "to

do (something")'- for the god,

i.

e.

to

make

offering.
is

299.

The

indirect object (dative)


^^aaaa

expressed by means

of the preposition

(cf.

306),

which by good

manuscripts,

is

written

:_,

before substantives.

PAETICLES.
1.

ADVERBS.
does not
exist.;
(cf.

300.

special

adverbial formation

Beside the prepositions


stantives
(cf.

303) and absolute sub-

117), the adjectives are used as ad-

verbs, thus:
1

Siut

I,

223.

glut

I,

271.

2.

PREPOSITIONS,

a. IN

GENERAL. 301. 302.

125

1.

With the preposition

r,

in

the masculine or

feminine
AAAAAA

mnh

"excellently",'

^
2.

r CBt "very".^

Alone, in the masculine;

or

more

rarely, in

the feminine (especially


"very")

with the intensifying wrt

vomits often".^

"He wept ^"^'^'^[1^^^

<;i'wwr^ very sorely".^

2.

PREPOSITIONS.
a.

m GENERAL.
in part simple {m "in", hnC 301. sB "in the hack",
i.

The prepositions are


"with"), in part

compound {m

e.

"hehind").

Since they were originally suhstantives,

as is still clear in the case of

many, they are com{lirf

bined with the possessive suffixes


lit.

"upon him"

"his face").

They are
that
is

in part

employed

like conjunctions also, 302.

to say, verbs

may be dependent upon them.

Cf. 190

and

for details 306 sq.

Eb.

66, 18.

'2 Eb.

37, 20.

Eb.

37, 17.

<

Peasant

25.

126
303.

b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 303

306.
i.

They are very often used


with the suppression of the

as adverbs also,

e.

suffix,

which, according
e.

to the connection, they should properly have,

g.
ll

referring to
("into" for
304.

brv

"place"

smnf im "he had gone into"


the preposition and

imf "into

it").
(i. e.

The prepositional phrase


the

word dependent

it)

is

frequently subjoined to a
relative clause

substantive, where

we would employ a

or an adjective.
"entire"
(cf.

Note especially the expressions for

C 152):
<z:>

^
i.

a;^^_

t^

pn

r drf "this land

up

to its

boundary"/
y
V

e.

"this entire land".


gsw'i

1/vwvAA

ml kdsn "the two sides


i.

according to their extent",^


305.

e.

"the entire sides".

The prepositional phrase


like a substantive also,
6. g.

is

sometimes treated
i

^ QA

hswt nf hr stn "the rewards of the with-the-king",^


i.

e.

the rewards on the part of the king.


b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS,

306.
like

AAAAAA

is

pronounced before nouns, something


(cf.

C 349); manuscripts dating from the end of the m. e. and the beginning
*'^n,

with suffixes *na-

of the n.
1

e.

distinguish each as
7.
2

:
3

('^n)

and

Priase

2,

Una U.

gin. 310.

b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 307.

127

(na-).

The
to do
to

original

meaning
it

is

"for the advantage

of any one"; in particular


1.

then means:

something for some one, to bring or give

something
(dative),
2. to
3.

some one,

to say something to

some one

come

to

some one (only with

persons),

because of a thing,
a period of time.
infinitive (cf. 278)

4. in

As a conjunction and before the


it

means "because", "because

of".

^^^ m
**?,

is

pronounced before nouns something


(1

like 307*.

before suffixes ^emo-, written

^^

Im-

(cf.

350).

The original meaning


of place; existent m,

is

"within", without any


in particular:

accompanying idea of direction; itisused


1.

into

something, out of

something (inexact for "r)


2. of time, in the year,
3.

on the day and the like;


to

among a number, belonging

something, con-

sisting o/ something,

made

out o/ something; provid-

ed with something, empty of something


4.

in the capacity of, s; in the


to

manner

of,

like\

according
5. in
6.

command;

a condition;

after the verbs "to be" or "to

make

(into)

some-

128
things",

b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 308.

(j^^^.^^^'^n^^^
^

iw/'m nds "He

is

a citizen"
7.

(cf.

350, 4)

occasionally for the introduction of direct disit

course, where
8.

remains untranslated;

by means of a tool.

On m
junction
it

before the infinitive

cf.

275.

As a conAs an

means "when" and "if


(1

( 391).

adverb

it

has the form

^v

and means "therein

(there), thereinto, thereout, therefrom, therewith (by

means

of)"

it

is

also joined to a substantive, e. g.

^ ^s^s.
for "I").
*308 ally

^^

^'^

"*^^ servant there" ^ (humbly

<=>

(*<^r,

with

suff.

^^ *erof,
Its

cf.

C 348)

origin-

meant "at" or "by" something, without any accomusual meanings are:


existent at or by something;

panying idea of direction.


1.

2. thither to

something (the most frequent mean;

ing)

into

something (inexact for m)

as far as

3.

to speak to

some one

4. 5.

hostile toward

some one

(in contrast

with );
'''every

distributively of time, ''per day",

four

days" and the like


6.

especially after adjectives ''more than\


7,
1. 2

where we

Westc.

gin. 175.

6.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 309.

129
<=:> .-^-^

would employ our comparative,

nfr r tht nbt "more beautiful than everything".^

As a conjunction
on
its

it

means

"until"
cf.

and

"so that";
Cf. also

use before the infinitive

276.

2.53. A. In the pyr. the suffix.


it is

also written

(I

<zz>

with or without

hr

(lit.

"face"),

with suffixes

is

written

^
es-

309*.

hr- in correct orthography (C 351),


pecially:
1.'

and means

existent upon

something (the most frequent

meaning); also in inexact specifications of place and


time, in the north

and the

like,

at the time of

and

the like;
2.
3.

down upon something,


and the
like;

in addition to

something

to pass by something, to deviate

from some-

thing,

4. distributively,
5.
6.

upon each one;

anoint, cook &c. with something;

pleasant for the heart, and the like;


because of something (frequent).
its

7.

On
120;

use in the co-ordination of substantives


infinitive
cf.

cf.

on hr with the
it

277.

As a con-

junction
1

means
12, 8,

"because".

Westc.

Erman,

Egypt, gramm.

130
310.

b.

SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 310

313.
is

hr,

lit.

"under" (also of direction),


is

also

used of being laden (because the bearer

under the

burden) and therefore often


sing something".
311.

means ^carrying or posses-

Cf.

C 352.

hr, originally, existent rvith

some one and the


it is

like; also, to receive

something /rom some one;

obsolete

and

still

used almost only in specifications

of reigns (under King X.).


cf.

On

its

use in the passive

169.

312.

^^^
means
1.

mC (perhaps

arising from

mc

in the arm")

in the possession of;

2.

take something from some one, receive from


one,

some
3.

and the
is

like; rescue

from some one;

something

done by some one;

4.

because of a thing.

On mC

with the infinitive

cf.
cf.

278.

o
313.

hft (on

orthography
is for

7) originally

meant

"m

front of\ but


to,

the most part employed for^


to
it

according

corresponding

and

also for, simultam


"in front", as

ously with.

As

an adverb

means

conjunction^ "when".

Note further the simple prepositions:

C.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.

314. 315.

131
"between, 314.

ir ^v^'^
in the
(1

^^^^^ (^^ *^

Py^'- i'^'f^ii)}

midst

of".

AAAAAA

In only for the expression of the subject


Cf. 169.

with the passive and the infinitive.


1)
(1

mi

(in the pyr. often

y <:i=>

mr)

"like".

As

a conjunction, "as, if"

(cf. 391).

^'^
O
9
AAAAAA

JiB

(lit.

occiput), "behind".

hnC "together with". Cf. also 120; with

the infin. 279.

Cm\

hnt

(lit.

nose) "before" (rest or motion)

as an adverb, hniw "before".


tp (lit.

head or the

like)

"upon"

it is

obsolete.

dr "when, since"

c.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.
compounded with a subof a part of the body).
315.

Many

prepositions are

stantive (usually the

name

Note especially:
^iv.^

P*^^ VI ^
))

^^^ ^^^ compensation), "as re-

ward

for".

rCU

"opposite".

132

C.

COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 315

J
skin",
cf.

1=
C
359), "before

h^h (in the fore(also as

some one"

an ad-

verb).

^^(=Qidr

hBh as an adverb, "formerly".


m.
-^

m m "among
n mrrvt^ in the m.

persons".

e^ /ww\a

iju^

(for love), often as a conjunction, "in order that".

^-^ mhCt
^^^
of".

(cf.

C 356),

^-^

fir

JiQ,

"at

the summit"; hr hQ^ as an adverb, "formerly".


'^

mhr

"in front

of,

"^ hft hr "in front

X m
y^
C
357),

hr-lb: "in the midst of".

V
J\

^ ^^^

"^^ ^^ inside of"

(cf.

ht "behind, after"; as
(cf.

an adverb,
244,385).

"afterward"; as a conjunction, "after"

^^ m
"after".

s9 ("in the back")

<=> ^

sS,^^

hr

s9 "behind, after"; r si, is also used as a conjunction,

As an adverb "afterward",

r si, hr sB are

used, also /wwvA

^
I

si.

C.

COMPOUND PEEPOSmOSS.

316. 317.

133

^
midst

^ J^
wrf^'

^^^ ^"^^ *^ entrails'y "in the

of".

<zi>
side".

r gs ("at the side"),

"^

Jir

gs: "be-

^^^
in the

"together with"; in the m.


cf.

e.

very rare,

LE. frequent

(C 359. 338).

<=>
far as".

^
Tir

vK. r

drw ("up to the boundary"), "as

^^
With

dMB

("upon the head"), "upon"


is

cf.

361.

others, there

prefixed to the preposition, 316.


it;

a word more exactly qualifying

thus in:

^^

Tvprv

hr "except" (also for "but" con-

junction),

and the old

wprv r "except".

^ ^^X^<cz>
\\\\\

hrrv r "apart from".

^ <^^> nfryt r
^^

"as far as".

^^

"before

some

one, something"; as an
(j

adverb according to 307

tp

Im "formerly".
317.

Finally, there are such peculiar formations as:

'=^^:;5;

y
C
Wb.

^ *'^^ ("i order to separate"),

"between"
1

(cf.

354).
Suppl.
s.

Brugsch,

v.

134

3.

coNjuNCTioxs. a. in gen.

h.

enclitic conj. 318. 319.

LM
with"), "from" (cf.

s^c

("in

order to begin

C
r

355).

mn

m} ("in order to remain with"),

"as far as".

3.

CONJUNCTIONS.
a.

IN GENERAL.
in part enclitically joined

318.

The conjunctions are


to the first
its

word of the

sentence, in part appear at

beginning also.

On

those prepositions which are


302. 306 sq.

used as conjunctions,

cf.

Apart from
there are

the conjunctions noted

in

the following,

others which are treated elsewhere, thus


257. 348. 349,

and
D

347,
I

^121,

(^
319.
^s

363.

b.

ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS.

serves for the most part (like our "namely")

to introduce an explanatory addition:


C/T

4;

'

'^^^
. .

nf
.".^

..

stn is

"I

made
1

it

for

him

... (I) the king

LD

II,

124, 35.

LD

lU,

24(1.

h.

ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS.

320. 321.

135

On

the other hand

.:^a_^(1

is

means "but not",

as a restricting adjunct.
A. In the pyr. this
later language cf. 323 B.
is
is

very frequent; on the

is

of the

^
C^

srvt

and

^^
rmtt
&c.)".^

1}^ (like

our "but") ex- 320.

press the opposite of that which precedes:


"All

men who
\\\
O:^

injure the tomb,


(cf.

who

&c.

(1

<ci:>

V^
Jl

>^
it,

Ir srvt

97) nht

but

all

men

(who preserve

who

But

this contrast is

sometimes so weak that these

conjunctions really serve for the attachment of the


clause only.

<=:> grt^ also properly means "but",


eye bleeds, then
Ir grt
.
.

e. g.

"If the 321.


(1

i)^=>,^^ HJ
if
it

"^ ^^^^

^H
use

hB mrv Ims but


rule,

water comes out of

it &c.''^

As a
of "but":

however,

joins an explanation or

a continuation,

like "further"

or our weaker

"This plant

is

employed so and
ifv

so,

(1

Vi.

^ ^
its
is
f.

^^ IU%
fruit is laid

Z\

grt prts ditws hr tB but


&c."^ (or "Further, its

upon bread

laid
1

upon
Siut
I,

b.").
225.
2

Eb. 66,

8.

Eb. 51,

18.

136
322.

C.

CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. 322. 323.

Rarer conjunctions of
1.

this
twC^,

kind are

The archaic ^\

which seems to intro-

duce the sentence as the result or consequence of


that which has been previously narrated;
2.

mnQ()

*s

in direct discourse; designates that

which has been stated as something self-evident or


well known.
c.

CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC.


i^h

323.

(1P^=

(IP^ (older H s=5

is()

specifies

the

circumstances under which anything happens

wi

si&

.,

rdl

rvi

hnf

smr

"I

was judge

.,

then
his

his majesty

maj.

made me made me f.).

friend"-

(i. e.

when

was j.,

ist^ is

especially used, where these circumstances

are to be emphasized as remarkable. Since the m.


e.
it

is

employed for the introduc-

tion of parenthetical or incidental remarks, especially

with following r/

(cf.

348, 349):

pn

"this

peasant said (this) however, at the time of

king Nb-kr.^
1

Una

5. 45.

2 jb. 8.

Bauer

71.

C.

CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC 324 326.


enclitically also, cf. 120 A.
tstio\

137

A. The pyr. use


B. In

ist

LE

it is

written

the late Egyptian


Ist.

Is also,

Copt.

ElC-> seems to have arisen from


n
I

'^^n^ Isk

(older

^=^:=:^

Isk)

mostly

designates 324.

(like the

more frequent

1st)

the circumstances under

which, or the time at which something occurs:

"He erected

this

tomb

for his son


child".^

l^z::^

1^ ^v

% sk

stv

hrd when he was a


older

^,

[]^^^

thr originally intro- 325.


(like for or because).
it

duced a substantiating clause

Then, with much weakened significance,

also intro-

duces new paragraphs of a narrative and precedes


especially temporal clauses:

hrw
this,

sjv^

hr nn

^^No?v,

after the days

had passed by
varied meanings.

then &c."2
B. In

LA

hr
7\

is

very frequent, with


is

many

^i

used in promises, threats and 326.

directions, in order to strengthen that


"^""^
ly, I will

which

is

stated:

^^ Sh

^
2

^'^''^

k^rduhprmTv"S\LTe-

cause water to be".^

Mar. Mast. 200.

Westc.

12, 9.

ib.

9,

17.

138

la.

THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE.

327. 328.

Occasionally

it

receives the suffix of the 2 m.

"^^^^ ^ ^^1 ^'v^ "^^^


throw".^
A. In the oldest language kS
is

^^^ ^^^^ "'^^^^ ^^^^^

also used enclitically.

THE SENTENCE.
1.
a.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE.


is

THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE.


understood a
is

*327.

By

the (pure) nominal sentence

sentence without a verb, whose predicate

then a

substantive, adjective or prepositional phrase, while


its

subject

is

a noun or absolute pronoun.

The sub-

ject precedes the predicate.


328. It is

used in assertions:

^^^^^^^

inwk nb

ImSt

"I

am

the lord of graciousness";^

^=^T
AAAAAA
<.
'>

rnk nfr "Thy name

is

beautiful";*

and

is

especially frequent after rnk "behold" ( 183),


80 are then

where the old pronouns of


as subject:

employed

hShk "Behold I (am) before thee";^

Westc.

3.

3.

Louvre C

172.

Prisse

5, 14.

* Sin.

263.

a.

THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 329. 330.

139

n ihrvt

hr

St

hrk "Behold these things


(lit.

are

under thy charge"*


face).

are under the place of thy

It is, further, often

used in descriptions:
'

329.

<:^>
fruits are

^^^ ^ ""^

'

'

</A:r

nb hr htwf A11

upon

its trees'',^

and often also as a

relative clause (cf. 393):

man on whose neck

are swellings".^

Occasionally, in violation of the rule, the predi- 330.


cate precedes the subject; the predicate
is

thereby

emphasized.
1.

Thus

in expressions with rn "name", like

1^ ^\
whose

D v\
is

"^

QA

sm^ snwtt rns "an herb

name
2.

Snwtf ^

(for: rns S7iwtt);

when the

subject

is

a demonstrative or an ab-

solute pronoun:

qA ^^

{^

dpt mrvt nn

"This

is

the taste of death".^

^^^

MO
I,

^^'^\\o^

n rmtj
:

Is

nt

St

"They are not people of strength'"" (for n


Siat
269.
6

st

rmtt ni

ift).

Sin. 83.

Eb. 51,

19.

Eb. 51,

15.

Sin. 23.

LD

II,

136 h.

140
*331.

h.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY

llV

AND

IVn. 331. 332.

This inverted order


the predicate
1

is

especially frequent, where

is

an adjective:
c^
I

}^ ^"^ Vwi

nfr mint

"My way

is

good".*
j

In this case the adjective often receives an ending

rv'i^

which perhaps lends

it

a special emphasis:
is

I
face!"

nfrrv'i

hrk "How beautiful

thy

A. In the pyr. this ending

is

written

v\

or

h.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY iw AND


The nominal sentence
is

wn.

332.

sometimes introduced byj


"to

the auxiliary verb

(1

Vi^

iw

be"

(cf.

220 sq.
a preposi-j

246 sq.), especially when the predicate


tional phrase:

is

mrv "His one


B. In

way was under

water".^
e.,

the popular language of the m.

the pronouns

where they would stand as the subject of a nominal sentence


are superceded

by the forms

of this verb

(1

v\ ^^

for

Inwk &c.
1

Bauer

3.

Butler 16.

C.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH

'pW.

333

335.

141

More

rarely

it is

introduced by the auxiliary verb 333.


e. g.

^^
n

rvn (cf. 223,

250 sq.) as

in

^^

\^^^
for

'^v'

rvnin nfr st hr ibsn "It


cf.

was good
where

their heart"/ (for st nfr

330, 2),

wnm

precedes.
c.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH

ptv.

Sentences like

^^^'^d\\ BC pw
"-^^ '^

It is ReC",' 334.

^o^
D

^
to

^^'*^ ^"^

^^^*"''

^ ^ ^^ ^
which follows

fiwrw prv "They are paupers",^ properly have as

subject, the demonstrative prv "this",

the predicate according to 330, 2

but this

pw is now
a long

weakened

an unchangeable word

having the mean-

ing "he", "she", "it" or "they".


expression, prv

If the predicate is
it:

may be
PJi^t

inserted within

D v\

^^ ^^
truth"
^

P^

^f rvn-m^c It is a

remedy of

(cf.

103).

B. This
tS'i,

yw

is

already superceded by the demonstrative pB'i,

nS'i in

the LE; the similar word TTE,

TF,

NE

probably

arose from this.

This construction

is

then used to emphasize the 335.

predicate of a nominal sentence; in order to render


1

Prisse

2, 6.

Mar. Ab.

II,

25.

3 ib.

LD

II,

136h.

Eb. 75, 12.

142

2 a.

THE ORDER OF WORDS. 336


iht "horizon" in

339.
Ipt tht
is

emphatic the word


is is

"Karnak

the horizon", the sentence tht prv "It


first

the horizon"

made, and

Ipt

then follows as apposition to


Iht

prv "it":

^ n'^(l jl'^
Karnak'V
i.

pw

ipt

"It
is

is

the

horizon, viz.

e.

"The horizon

Karnak".

2.

THE PARTS OP THE SENTENCE.


a.

THE ORDER OF WORDS.


is it

336.
it is

The order of words


often the case, that
is

to he especially noted, for

alone indicates

how a

sen-]]

tence
337.

to be analysed.
is

The sentence
direct object;

divided into two parts: one pre

ceding, containing the verb, subject, direct and in-

and one following, containing

specifi-^

cations of time and place and the like.


*338.
is 4.

In the preceding part of the sentence the order]


in principle: 1. verb,
2.

subject,

3.

direct object|

indirect object

(cf.

299).

E.

g.

-^

(^

FS^

M^^.:^^

rdln stn nb

AA/W\A O O O

bkf "The king gave his servant gold".

339.

But
E.

if

parts 2

are partly substantives an<

partly pronouns, the pronouns precede the substai


tives.
g.

LD

III,

24d.

C.

THE ORDER OF WORDS. 340

342.

143

\Si
S!l

1
T
AAAAAA O O O

rdm

ni stn nb The king gave

AAAAAA

me

gold".
Q
AftAAAA

1
1

^
/T

/www
AAAAAA

(^^ _/
J.

^Cda

r<?';i

s/y sifw

w hkf

"The king gave


0^^.^^
AAAAAA

it

to his servant".

v^ Sr

rdlnf nl
O O O

rib

"He gave me gold".


340*.

If

both objects are pronouns, the indirect precedes


is,

the direct, that

the pronominal suffix precedes the

absolute pronoun:
a AAAAAA

v^ 1 <^
T

V4 T
11

'"'^^^
AAAAAA

^^ ^^ *^^ "The king gave

it

to me".
CZIZI^^ AAAA/V\ AAAAAA

O
I

.C\

vgi

v\ rdinf nl

srv

"He gave
(cf.

it

to me".
341.

Except for the sake of emphasis

343 sq.) the

above laws are inviolable; under certain circumstances,


however, for
stylistic purposes,

an expression which

belongs in the latter part of the sentence,

may be

inserted by exception, in the part which precedes:

QiSrvf "1 caused that his

weapons pass by me"^

(for

swB ChBrvf

hrl).

vocative stands as a rule at the end

of the 342.

sentence

Sin. 136.

144

6 a. IN GENERAL.

p.

WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 343. 344.

f'=Ti)

1,
hold, I will take

mk

rvi r

nhm
ass,

c^k,

sht'i,

hr

wmf

"Be-

away thy

peasant, because he

devours &c."^
If it

be placed at the beginning of the address,


J)

as in

'^^:z7

(]

"^ A^7\ ^k.


it is

^^^ ^^ ^^^^ "^^


it is
t^

lord, I

have found",^

somewhat ceremonial;
[1

then often introduced by an interjection, like


ru

q7\

K\

hS and the

like.

h.

EMPHASIS,
IN GENERAL.
in placing before the sentence,

a.

343.

Emphasis consists
a word to which
it

is

desired to attract attention,


it

and as a rule resuming


ence.
It is

by a pronoun

in the sent-

very frequently used and often contrary

to our sense; thus, e. g. the

word

'king' is often

em-

phasized without reason.

Cf. also 330. 331. 335.

p.

WITHOUT INTRODUCTION.
method of emphasis
leaves the eme.

344.

The

original

phasized word without further introduction,

g.:;

Bauer

11.

Bauer

74.

p.

WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 345. 346.

145

""^
?
it

V^

D _SS)fl

^s^* i>/* J3^

"My

praise,

reached heaven" ^ (for

j97

As^*' pt).

AAAAAA cii.

'^.^a

k^tnf irt

st

ri irni st rf "That which he

had thought

to do it to me, I
Irt st ri rf).

had done

it

to

him"-

(for Irni kBtnf

r\

^1

-Zl

J\

2i

_Zl

AAAAAA

cl

CI^I^

vR
to

[1

^\

smt nbt rrvtnl

rs, irv irni

hd ims "Every land


(for
irv

which

I went, I

was a hero(?) therein"^


rs).
is

irni hd

smt nbt, rrvini

The resumptive pronoun


especially in poetry:

occasionally omitted, 345.

Itrm swrif

mrk "The water

in the stream,

he drinks

(it) if

thou

wishest".*

If the sentence has

one of the compound verbal


it.

346.

forms as

its verb,

the auxiliary verb with which

is

formed, stands before the emphasized word:

T
bit'i
.

t!?^

f^

(^h<^n

hn n sin

minnf "The majesty of the king of upper and


.
. .

lower Egypt
1

expired".^

LD

II,

122a.

Sin. 144.

gin. 101.

Sin. 233.

?risse 2, 8.

Erman,

Egypt, gramm.

Yi

146

Y-

WITH

ir,

ir-,

r-

and

in.

347.

wnln hnf tbf

rvS r hrvt(?) hrs


it".^

"The heart of his

majesty was sad concerning

AAAAAA LJ

V^

l\f\f\f\J\f\

rvn

Iht nbt, Tvdt nl linf^ rvn

hprnl ml kd "All that his majesty


completed".'

commanded me,

I entirely

Cf. also 228.


Y.

WITH

\r,

ir-,

r-,

AND
Ir is

in.

347.

The emphatic

particle

used with every


;

kind of sentence; the resumption of the emphasized

word by means of a pronoun


sentence^

is

only occasionally

suppressed, in the case of the subject of a nominal


e.

g.

sdm

St "All

that

is

written, hear it"^


tr firw
is

t\<=>

/wwvA 1 III (3(3(3 nnn _zr r 360 pn> n rnpi "A temple-day, (that)
I

'^[]''^~^^^^n\>^'^^{^
1
i

nhtntr,

V360

o^ ^^^

year".^

Here
to 346.
B.

also,

an auxiliary verb
is still

is

treated according

This construction

i-egarded as ceremonious in thel


e. it

m.

e.

(often in legal style);

but in the n.

superceded

all

the]

other methods of emphasizing.


1

Westc.

9,

12.

Una

42.

prisse

2,

4.

Siut

I,

30C

Y-

WITH

ir,

b--,

r-

and

in.

348

350.

147

The emphatic word

[1

<>/,

which, in many texts 348.


rf,

(like that of 349), is written

follows

the

word

to

be emphasized JiT^

(1

dsk irf "thou thy-

self".^

It is often

used in interrogative sentences

(cf.

356)

and with imperatives and optatives;


it

in the last case


(cf.

often

still

has the archaic form rk


"''''''^

A):

^ ^.

(J

sdmrv irf tn "hear ye",^

^
That

dik rk ni "give me".^

A. In the pyr. this tr takes the suffix corresponding to the


subject of the sentence:
r/,
Irt, irk, Irf, Irs.

which

is

added

to the verb (espe- 349.

cially those of going)

at the beginning of short sec-

tions seems to be different


T

from irf
rf
tS

rf\

AAAAA/v

Mn

"The earth became

light'/

A\\
"This peasant came".^
A. This r- had
originallj'

irvin

rf

shti

pn

changeable suffixes also.


is

The subject of a sentence


1 Westc. Peasant 52.

often emphasized by 350.


3

7,

8.

LD

III.

24 d.

Peasant 29.

Sin. 248.

'5

K*

148

C.

THE ELLIPSE. 351.

means of
tive

\
AAA/SAA

In (old writing
is

(1
1

^^
J

in)

the resumpself

pronoun

for the

most part omitted as

evident:
I

A\'w\A

y
it

in

hnf rdi

irtf "His

majesty

Q'

caused that

be made"' (for in hnf rdif

irtf).

If the subject to be

emphasized

is

a pronoun, the

pronouns

ntk, ntf &c. are substituted for in 84:

and the

pronoun according to

ntf ssm

wi

"It

is

he who

leads me",^
AAAAAA
r\
I I

n
N\fy/\y^

'^

-<2>-|

AAAAAA

ntsn irsn ni "It

is

they

who do

it

for me".^

B. In

LE

this In is written: ^^\

(i.

e.

*n according to late

pronunciation). 4
c.

THE ELLIPSE.
(i. e.

351.

The frequent
tive

ellipses

the omission of effec-

words as dispensable) often render the underdifficult.

standing of the text very


first

They are found


in poetry, where,

of all in the parallel

members

in the

second member, one or more

indentical words

are suppressed:
5^" AAAAAA
I I I
I

AAAAAA
I

III

yr
III
3

AAAAAA
I

Sin. 308.

LD

III,

24 d.

Siut

I,

289.

Sethe

C.

THE EIXIPSE. 352. 353.

149

iml

mi m

r n linrvtn

sh^l hr msTvtn

"Establish
(Establish)

my name in the mouth of your servants, my memory with your children".^

^ f ^^ ^

tms hrf r

dd m^Q, mkhS

ddrv

grg

"Turning his countenance to him who speaks truth,


(turning) the back of (his) head (to) those
lies".-

who speak

Similar

is

the ellipse in comparisons, where

it is 352.

found in the second compared member:

AAAftAA

sfwf
(lit.

lb n

bk im ml hkB n.smt nbt "He re-

joices
(i.

broadens) the heart of the servant there

e.

mine) like (the heart of) the prince of any land".^


several successive verbs have the
is

When
ject,

same subfirst

353.

the latter

sometimes written with the

only; thus in animated narrative:

>

Mar. Ab.

II,

31.

Louvre C

26.

gin. 176.

150
inni hrrvsn,

THE ELLIPSE. 354. 355.

pr

r hnmrvtsn^ hrv kBrvsn^ rvhB


I led

its?i,

rdl sdt

Im

"I

captured their women,

away

their people,

went

to their wells, slew their steers, cut

down

their

barley, set fire thereon".^


354.
it

An
is

object

may

likewise remain unexpressed, where

clear from that which precedes.


stole his ass, he drove (him),
(

Thus,

e.

g.

"He

"^^

s^^k

for

sCk sw, with accompanying ellipse of the subject) into


his village".^

"She takes Egypt like the god


<::^

''Ir-s?i

lO
r to
rvtj
lift

^^-=^

^'^^-^

shprnf (for shprnf

si)

/I

ffwf

he created (her) to wear his diadem


355.

(lit.

up)".^

Another form
pressions like:

is

the ellipse of

|)

dd "say" in ex-

<^^% r^w
[]

"it is said"."*

/wvAAA

^',2

jRC "saith Re",

(]/wwv^ Maaaaaa /^^^^

"they

say",
]'^
I
I

ntrm

lir

"the gods say"^


ddhrtrv, ddinsn, ntrrv Jw dd.

These stand
B.
(I

fiir
is

QA
II,

later written for Inf.

LD

136h.

Peasant

24.

lD

III,

24 d.

Eb.

9. 20.

Stele from

Kuban.

<

3fl.

INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE. 356

358.

151

3.
a.

KINDS OF SENTENCE.
356.

INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE.
it is

The indication of the question by the accent alone


is

very rare; as a rule

externally marked.

Fre-

quent emphasizing whether of the verb or of the


interrogative particle,
is

characteristic of the inter-

rogative sentence.
If the sentence contains
it is

no special interrogative,
(Jaaaaaa

357*.

introduced by means of

in or

[Jaaaaaa

[1

v^

Jm o
tf

Ji

^
I

2^-=^

_M^

^n
upon
his

Crvitrvl

rf

m
v^

"Shall

be

robbed

land(?)?".^
n /www
[1

^'

^^-^

v^

In

irv

m^Ct piv

"Is it

truth?"

B. in iw

is

perhaps preserved in

PNE,

cf.

C 394.

As a

rule, the interrogatives stand at the


(cf.

end of
inter-

358*.

the sentence

C
is

392).

The most common


mii^

rogative pronoun
ing, 34) "what?,

v\

ml

cf.

on the read-

who?":
nn hr m?

/y

^J^J^^-^f phnk

"Why

(on ac-

count of what) have you reached this (place) ?''^ "^^^ irtw nn mi m ? "Like what 2 (1

% 1 1 ^^
18.
2

is this

done?"''
Westc.
8,
3.
3

Peasant

sin. 35.

<

ib. 202.

152
In
cf.

a.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE. 359

361.
(I

B.

LE.
C

is

already

superceded by

Ih

A(l)

"what?";

"~^^
60.

359.

'^.

as subject with

the meaning "who?",


350):

is

usually emphasized by in
A
A^AA^A

(cf.

"^ 1

"^

^^;i//,^^5;y?Whosaysit?''^

m m
"Who
B. This in
of the m.
AAAAAA PI
e.; in

irf inf sw

brings it?"^ (with doub e emphasis).

is

already written

aaaaaa

\^\

3^

at the end

LE

there has arisen from in m, a

new word

jQ

w
360.

n'im

"who"

MIM

(cf,

60, 2),

Other old expressions for "who?,

what?"
e.

are

(jg[l^^ m^and^;^ijij|^sy(?).

Cf.

g.
is

(Igp^^D^
-75-(l(j

Isstpfv

"What

is it?

who

it?"^

|d^ /sy(?) pw
of the time?").

"Who

is

it?"^

Here belongs also TO"


(lit.

O^O

is

{l)-nw "When?"''

"What

361.

The interrogative for "where?" is

^
AAAAAA

V^^=^tn.Qi.:
I

^
I'VI'^^^
(with emphasis).

(T^

'|W5f>*V/^w?"Wherei8it?"'

^^^^<=>
thou?"^
1

^ \%& q^
35.
2

Irt r

tn?

"Whither goest
2
f.

(lit.

"Toward where makest thou";


Eb. 58,
10.
9, 15.
3

sg.).
Sin. 35.

Math. Hdb.

Math. Hdb.
7 ib. 9, 4.

30.

"

Totb. 126, Schlr. 46.

Westc.

8ib, 12, 14.

b.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES.
A. In the pyr.

a.

WITH AND . 362

364.

153

it is

written, tnl, tn, and even without a pre-

position,

means "whither?, whence?"

B. In LE. tmc, Copt.

TCDN.

Cf.

C 364.
(1]

The common word, archaically written


1

Q7\, 362.

ptfi, pif-i

hut generally

-I

QA

pi'i^ is

pro-

bably not an interrogative, but something like an


imperative, "show" or the like.
the beginning of the sentence
It

always stands at

field?"
^

(^'^'^1'^--

Pt'i

^W

"What

is

his

f^^^^l^

P^'^

^f ^^ "What

is it?" 2

(with

emphasis).

As a characteristic of the interrogative sentence,


note further the particle trw^ which follows the
first

363,

word

shJnk "Didst thou remember?"^


A. B. In the pyr. and in LE.
b.

it is

written

trc.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES.
o.

"WITH n

AND

nn.
\)

The usual negation


in

v^ii-^

(more rarely /

appears 354*

two different forms, which are usually distinguished

in

good orthography:
1

.^n_

and

'^'^.

Their pronun3

Math. Hdb.

49.

Totb. ed. Nav. 17, 31.

Eb.

2,

3.

154
ciation

6.

NEGATIVES SENTENCES.

0..

WITH n AND nU. 365

367.

was perhaps

approximately

and nn or

similar,
A. In the pyr. both forms are written c^JU^.
B.
as

LE. always has


(Cf.

^;;0^; in Copt, the negation

is

preserved

N-.

C 389).

365.

,^-A-^ is

used with the verbal form sdmf, in so far

as

it is

not future in meaning, and always with the

w-form

mw
"Lay
(]

n rhi

srv "I

know him

not".'

this

upon the snake's


it

hole, .^n^

J\

^v

n prnf im then

will

not come out".^

366.
it

however,

is

used with the form sdmf^ when


is,

has the meaning of a future (that


cf.

belongs to the

second group,
AA^/^AA

184sq.):
-^

nn pssf "He shall

(will)

not di-

M-

367.

Before the absolute infinitive


used.

(cf.

280)
AAAAAA

i&

Especially frequent in this case

is

onn

rdit "without giving, without causing":


-J-

^^2 ^/^^

rvdC,

nn rdit hr gs "Judgside"*
(i.

ing, without putting

upon one

e.

without

being partisan).
1

Sin.

114.

Eb.

97,

19.

Siut

I,

311.

LD

II,

U9e.

b.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

a.

WITH H AND mi. 368

370.

155

"Set

it

where

it is

cool

^^"^^3^ '^ "^

P B

^O
see

nn rdit m^^s

srv

without permitting the sun to

it".^

In this combination, rdit has sometimes lost


causative meaning, and only means "without"

its

(e. g.

nn rdit pssf

st^

"without his dividing

it").

o^A^ stands before the nominal sentence, and in 368.


this case

when the

subject

is

a pronoun, the later ab 84):


.

solute pronouns are used


,^n-^
is
c:^

(cf.

^^
is

^^lo

n ntf pw

msCt "It

not really he".^ -^-^^^ however,

very frequently used with a fol- 369.


(cf.

lowing noun or old absolute pronoun


does not exist".
the same meaning:
AA/VAAA AAAAAA

80) for "it

-^^^ nn

wn

also appears with

_iir^ AAA/W\

/T >^\

_/J^^

Im "There

is

no water there,

am

not there".^

^n^-^^^N.
which has no rudder".^
not" and
s^-a.^

n wsht, nn hms A ship

Note further the combinations

,^a_^(1

Is

"but 370.

^
2

c^

n grt "however not" (weaker

than the former):


1

Eb. 43,

17.

Siat

I,

272.

sin. 267.

<

Eb.

69, 6.

Sin. 13.

156

a.

WITH n AND nn.

p.

the

circujil.

with im-. m, tm-. 371

373.

n wsh

Is

prv "It

was narrow, but


v;^-n-^[j

it

was not wide"J


n
is

"His skin grows,

l^^o
:

rvrt

but not

much".^
371.
^^^jT_^

n sp means "never"
yc^^i

-^^r^fc^ra^y
hS mUif hr smt
tn

Q\nsp

dr rk ntr "One like him never came

down

in this land, since the time of the god".^


is

A. In old texts, the subject of such a sentence

often emirt

phasized by means of the demonstrative fB,


mitt

f.

pBt: n sp pBt

"The

like

was never done". 4


(of.

.^^JU^,

V\
Jl

n:

hot sp

with

an old negative iwt also occurs


372.

378).

strengthening of the negative, probably obsolete

in the classic language, is


|1

found in w/r

"^^^^I

v^-f^

^^ %\

in nfr n rvnn

niCtii

"If it is

done".*^

Jy
p.
1

not in your possession".^


nfr n irt mitt "Never was the like

THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH

im-,

m, tm-.
certaii

373.

The usual negatives are avoided with

forms of the verb, and replaced by circumlocution^


Butler 15.
2

Eb. 104,
pi.

8.

LD
6

II,

149 e.

Una

31

Gr6baut, musee Egyptien,

18.

Mar. Mast. 390.

^i.

THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH

im-,

M, tm-. 374. 375.

157
fol-

witli the obsolete verbs Im-

and

tm-.

These are

lowed by a (participial?) form of the verb, in which


the II ae gem.
are doubled, the Illae
inf.

are not

doubled and rdl "give" has the form


H

^s.

^^

^^

Vi^Q^

when the verb

to be denied is 374.

optative or final in meaning and has a pronominal


subject:

"Treat

it

with cold

fi

|\ ^"^C30 l\ l\

Q mf

smm

that

it

may

not become hot".^

imk
I I I

ir iht rs

"Do not do

anything for

it".^

The imperative

of the old verb, which

is

written 375.

m, serves for the negation of imperatives and

optatives with a nominal subject:

.^^
be proud".^

m CB

ibk "Let not thy heart

A
A. In the pyr.
plural
it is

mtrw "Do not stand against me as a witness".^


written

SI
^\.
3.
3

m ChC rim

they

have

also

Eb.

91, 6.

Eb. 110,

Prisse

5,

8.

Totb.

ed.

Nav. 30

2.

3.

158
B.

p.

THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH


Instead of

im-,

AND
e.

tm-. 376. 377.

the language of the n.

emplo3's the

cir-

cumlocution ^^^^

m
7.

cr

"do not", from which arose the Copt,

MTfp.
376.
is

Cf.

C 305,

^iezil

^^^^ tm-^ the use of which

is

more extended,
the
conditional

found,

among

other

uses,

in

sentence
\\

<==> cvjr^

l:^^

^ ^^
it";'

''^Tifl

^ ir

tmf

wU

St "If

he does not discharge


in the

form sdmhrf

(cf.

204)

hsbt "If

it

does not become worms" ;^


(cf.

and

in the verbal adjective

293):

fhtf'i stv, imtf'i

QiB lirf "He

who unlooses
it";^

it

(the boun-

dary) and does not contend for

further as an optative in final and interrogative clauses.


377.

The circumlocution
according to

^^^ the above means "not


since tm

^^imr

tm rdl,

which
is

to cause that",

very often employed to substantivize a negative clause


of intention
;

is

then an

infinitive, this

com-

bination

is

also construed as such:


is

"The boundary
1

erected
6.

<=z>^^ii=n:

^^^^
136 h.

^"^i

Eb.

26, 7.

Eb. 25,

LD

II,

Y-

THE NEGATIVK ADJECTIVE. 378.

159

>)
_-Zl

A/vvv\A /N

^^

<^ iinr

^^~~^

^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ order

that no negro at

all

should overstep

it"

(lit.

"to cause

that not any negro should overstep

it").

rdi hnp drrvyt prv "It

is

something

(i,

e.

a remedy) in

order that the vulture


weakened meaning,
did not see thee".
3.

may

not

steal".^
e.

B. In the popular language of the n.


for simple negation;

tm rdl occurs with


tiv

tm rdi mBni

"that I

Y.

THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE.


^^^^
Itvtt^

The

adjective

which belongs to the

378.

formations of 132 sq. and


gative
irvt

is

derived from the ne-

of 371 A, originally
e. g.

meant something

like

"not having",

which has not


writing.

its

writing",^

i.

e.

a book without

^ Tk "^^^v
A.

rlj

^^^=^ itvt'imrvtf^ihe

motherless one".^

The

pyr. write it

[I

v\
old.
it

vj-O-t,

iwU; the rare writing

W
Copt, as
1

2ti also

seems to be

B. In such combinations

has also been preserved in the

AT-.

Cf.

89.
2

LD

n, 136i.

Eb.

98, 5.

Westc.

8, 11.

Eb. 30,

7.

Peasant 64.

160
379.
It

C.

DEPEND. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. CLAUSES. 379

381.
used in

is

a remarkable fact that this

irvt'i is

the old language as a negative companion to the relative adjective ntl


(of.

401 sq.) and like the latter

attaches clauses of

all

kinds

"^
I

^5*^

twy nt i^hrv(?),

irvtt

skdrvt hrs "This place(?)


is

of the spirits, on which there

no navigation"

(with

junction of the nominal sentence skdrvt hrs "Navigation


is

upon

it").

St

o -^

v\

:=^^

v\ J Jl ^

W
is
-^

\ _M^

iTVt'irv

rh bw

nt'i

"Those whose place


is

not known", (clause: rh

hrv

"The place

known").

380.

As

is

observable from the examples cited, this


is

"^^^

often

employed as a substantive

also;

where
dition

it (cf.

stands in the feminine entirely without ad95, 4), it

means "that which


is

is

not":
is not""*

"that which
(i.

and that which

e.

everything).

c.

DEPENDENT AND SUBSTANTIVIZED CLAUSES.


the usual case of the dependent clause, where
is

381.

On
a verb

dependent upon

rdl

"to

cause"

cf.

Totb. ed. Nav. 149

c,

17.

2 ib.

79, 5.

LD

II,

149.

C.

DEPEND. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. CLAUSES. 382. 383.

161
cf. cf.

179.

On

clauses dependent

upon other verbs

189.

On

the dependence

upon conjunctions

190. 302.

The substantivized forms of

282 sq. take the 382.

place of a great part of the dependent clauses of our

own language;
by prefixing
ntt^

parallel with these,


is

another method
viz.

of substantivizing

used in the same manner,

every sentence

may

be converted into
verbs or pre-

a substantive and
positions:

made dependent upon

Iwl rhkrvl ntt

tht prv ipt "I

know

that

Karnak

is

region of light".

WAAA

A
I

""

hr ntt rdlsn tB-hd

pn "Because they
If

give this white bread".

a sentence of the kind treated in

246

^
by

383.

% iwl
means of

rhkrvL) be substantivized

this ntt^ the subject is not expressed

by the

auxiliary verb, but by

means of

jibe

old absolute

pronouns of

80:

i<=>oJi^U
cause of the fact that
I
'-

Jimknow"
I,

(i. e.

"because

know"),

LD m,

24d.

siut

311.

Totb. ed. Nav. 72,

5.

Erman,

Eg^pt. gramm.

162

d.

TEMPORAL CLAUSES.
d.

384. 385.

TEMPORAL CLAUSES.
is
it

384.

If

no conjunction

used for the introduction of

the temporal clause,

can

be recognized as such

only by means of the connection.


cedes the principal clause,
cf. e. g.

As a rule

it

pre-

"As the earth became

light, I

came

to Ptn".^

'^""'^

^,

sdm
those

St nt'iw

m
in

t^-Mrl^ w^hsn d^dBrvsn

tB

"When

who are
it

Egypt heard

it,

they laid

their heads

upon the

earth".^

More

rarely

follows the principal clause

Irvf hr mdrvt hint

"Be not

silent,

when he

is

at (? as

we say
385,

"at work") a

wicked speech".^

The temporal clauses which are introduced by


the conjunctions (really prepositions)
as",

hft "when,

^^''^^ J\mht

"after",

<=:>^

r 5i* "after", as

a rule, follow the principal clause:

nhi hft hntf

"I

followed
2

my
149 f.

lord as he sailed up".^


3

Sinuhe
II,

20.

ld

II,

Prisse

5, 14.

Siut

I,

298.

LD

122 a.

e.

THE CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. 386

388.

163

On

the other hand the clauses with


after' so

J\ hr mht "now

common
(of.

at beginning of

paragraphs, always precede

325; 244).

e.

THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE.


the

The conditional clause precedes


clause.
like ir
It

principal 386.

may be
ml,

introduced by means of a particle

and

but

may

also stand without such in-

troduction.
It is

always

left

without a particle, when

it

con- 387.

tains any other verbal

form than sdmf (frequently

sdmhrf

ci.

204) or is a

nominal sentence:

rvhmhrk mi

ddhrk
. . .

"If

you examine again


&c.".^

(lit.

repeat

the examining)

then say

hrl^

imi mhkrvi "A third of


full".^

me

(added) to me, then

am
it

If the conditional clause contains the

form sdmf^

388.

can likewise be

left

without a particle; the verbal

form then
(of.

always belongs to the "second group"

184. 188):

s ^
X

^AAAAA

Eb. 36,

15,

Math. Hdb.

35. 36.

L*

164

e.

THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. 389

391.
m
r 360
"If

psstn art Iht nbt

hprt prv

now
389.

ye divide all

.,

it

(the result) is

i/seo"-^

As a

rule,

however, a conditional sentence conis

taining the form sdm/",


this case the verbal

introduced by

(J'==^^^^^^

tr; in
"first

form always belongs to the

group"

^
thou findest a wise
(out of reverence).
A. In the pyr. a
(I

tr

gmk dUsw
. .
.

him

Crvik "If
-

man

then bend thy arms"

awaaa In

is

used instead of

Ir.

390.

If a

number

of conditional clauses are connected,


is,

the construction with Ir

as a rule,
is

employed only

with the
to 388:

first,

while the second

treated according

q<==^v^i
'^^
(abbreviation)
s

^
hr
.

mn ri-ibf, gmmk st hr psdf. "If you examine a man who is diseased in mach (?), and you find it upon his back
.

ddhrk

his sto. .

then

say &c.".3
391.

The introduction of the conditional clause by

means of
1

I] (1

mi or ^v m,

is

far

more

rare:
3

Siut

I,

286. 300.

Prisse 5,

10 11.

Eb. 40,

5.

/. REL. CLAU8.

a.

WITH. A CON.

|3.

WITH SUBST. VERBS.

392/4.

165

.
II

fl

tk

s^
s
I

n
hi

o\\
lit

^ V\

*^-^=^

dd nk: ifd n 3ht n

10 r

2, pti

Bhtf "If there be said to you: 'A square

of field of 10 measures by 2 measures',

what

is its

content?"^

(lit. its field).

v\
.

<=::> ^'wvAA

^^

^1
say".-

m mrrtn

Inprv

(Jdtn "If

ye love Anubis
/.
a.

EELATIVE CLAUSES,

WITHOUT A CONNECTIVE.
392.

The custom of joining one of the usual verbal


forms as a relative, directly to a noun,
doubtless
obsolete.
(Tl
'

is

rare and
is

The j)seudoparticiple

thus

used in

illll

v^ ^ "^^^ Jr Vh^ ^ ^1_M5j


CT)
[|

^^

t^

msktvl imf

"The land in which

was born".^
are frequently joined 393.

Nominal
to a

clauses, however,

noun
227.

in this

manner;

cf.

329. 330. 245. 249

and

p.

WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS.


relative 394.

The peculiar verbal forms of the usual


clause,

are identical with the substantivized forms

treated in 289 sq.

They are co-ordinated with the

noun as an apposition, at the same time agreeing


1

Math. Hdb,

49.

Mar. Cat. d'Ab. 711.

Sin. 159.

166

j3.

WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. 395

397.

with
love"

it

in gender

hence, for "the

woman whom
I love"

is

said hmt mrrti "the

woman, the one

but "the brother


mrrrvi.
395.

whom

I love",

must be written

sn

As was remarked

in

289,

the forms sdmrvi,

sdmtl belong to the second group ( 184) of the form


sdmf\
in the case of the Ilae

gem.

it

is

therefore
prrtf,

^^_
rdi "give"

rvnntf, Illae

inf.

^^^

dldttfko,.

Furthermore,
is it is

the mas-

culine ending

in

the form sdmrvf

not usually

written out (most frequently with a nominal subject,

when

written), just as in other cases,


(cf.

not every-

where uniformly inserted


A. In the pyr. the
ic is

96).
e. g.

frequently written,

ht piv

n Cnh,

Cnhwsn tmf "that


396.

tree of life,

from which they Uve"'.


197,

Corresponding to

the statement in

the

forms derived from the -form have here


always the meaning of the past.

also, nearly

The masculine

ending w, which in the -form, stands quite within


the word,
397.
is

here never written out.

In those sentences in which the subject of the


relative clause
tive to

would be indentical with the substanis

which the relative clause


is,

connected, an at-

tributive participle
1

as a rule, used in its stead

Merenre' 616.

(3.

WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VEUBS. 398. 399.

167

(cf.

260).

There

are,

however, examples, in which,

even in this case, a relative clause seems to be used,

whose pronominal subject

is,

to be sure, omitted:

"300 asses, which are laden with incense".^

thn hr

psdf

''W, is

the

ills(?),

which have invaded his

back"^ (for thnsn).

The pronoun which


which the relative clause
wanting,
if it is

refers to the substantive to 398.


is

joined,

is

almost always

the object of the relative clause*:

rvhi w<'"this

white bread, ye give me"^ (for diditvtn nisw).


1/vwvvs

^'^\
govern"/

ww# hkStsn

"the

villages,

they

_LS'

XC13

Vl/W\A

y
A^ft/v\A

,^

t^s

pn

irn

lyni

"this

boundary whicb

my

majesty hath made".^

struction which he

(lit.)

made".^
if it is

On

the other hand,

dependent upon a pre-

399.

position, the

pronoun
6

is,

for the
6.

most
3

part, expressed:
I,

Hr-hwf

C. 4.

LD

II,

136 h.

2 Eb. 40, Mar. Abyd.

Siut

276.

Una

108.

II, 25.

II

168

Y-

WITH

A PASS. PARTIC.

0.

WITH THE ADJECT,

tltl.

400. 401.

<^^^ \> Jl

JA

^ ^

'^^^^^\\
1

smt
'.^

7ibt.

rwtni rs

"every land to which I journeyed

Only with the preposition


&c.
it is

"in",

"by means of

often wanting:

"the place in which

my

heart tarries'.^

Y.

WITH A PASSIVE PARTICIPLE.


attributive participle for
also

400.

The substitution of an
a relative clause
is

extended
is

(in violation

of

397) to clauses whose subject

different
;

from the

substantive to which they are joined

this is the pare. g.

ticipial construction treated in 261,

try nfmltt "There


is

is

no humble one, to
ei

whom

the like

done"^ (properly, parvus factus


0.

idem).

WITH THE ADJECTIVE

nti.

401.

The

adjective nti "which", which belongs to those


sq.,

treated in 132

was originally used

in purely
if

nominal relative clauses without a verb, especially


the subject of the relative clause

was identical with

the noun to which

it

was joined:

Sin. 101.

Sin. 168.

sinuhe 309.

Ace. to Sethe.

6.

WITH THE ADJECTIVE


AAAAAA

ntt. 402.

169

|]<::z>'

V\5iKz::7

'^

;^

iri-Cf

nb,

nt'i

hrf

"every officer

who was with

him".'

Hot
Jit/'

t\

=^^^ ddft nbty ntt

"all

worms which
l'%2r

are in his body".^

^) M ^
I

^ 1^ m
I

^
<c:=>

f^^^ mrw-k^t

f?w

/?r //r?

"the overseers of the works,

who

are

upon

the mountain".'^

W>
they

P^fl

^^ &w
is

nt'i

St

im "the place where

are""* (with

a different subject).
Avritten for
AAAAv\A
ft',

A. In the pyramids

1^v

forniw.

Another archaic writing


B.
'

for

JiiVw? is

^^

inXi

early becomes an unchangeable particle;


g.

it first

loses

the plural
palace"
6

(e.

msw

nt'i

ChCf "the children who are

in his

instead of

nt'ito),

later also the feminine.

The sentences of

240 sq. made after the analogy

402.

of the'pure nominal sentence,

may

also be so joined;

their verb is always in the pseudoparticiple or the infinitive


i

with hr:
/\/WJV^

,1

1 1 1

IJ l|

"a

man who

suffers with heat",'

^s. ^i^^ s

nt'i

mr

"a

man who

is ill.

Louvre C 172. M. 495 = P. L 262.

Westc. 9, 3. 2 Eb. 20, 8. 3 Sin. 303. ^ Eb. 32, 21. 8 Eb. 35, 10. gin. 176.

170
403.
nt'i

0.

WITH THE ADJECTIVE

Tltl.

403. 404.

was then further used to connect verbal


;

rela-

tive clauses also

with negative clauses, this

is

always

the case

but

it

occurs elsewhere also, where a misif

understanding might be apprehended

there were

no express connection
A.AAAAA
-rr-

/-^

^--

-^

nt'i

mrf "who

is

not

sick".i

"1^ tk
6/

/TH

^/~V _ac^ C_Zj


UJ

9^5? <2>- fv ^~^

i\

^
Li

iCi

<ZZ>

_Z1

Sti.

_crN^ aawaa -ad

III

/^

\\

Si

AAAAAA

_ZI

knbt,

nt'i

rdini ntn

sjv "this

bread and beer, which the


I

officials deliver to

me, and which

have given you".^

404.

nti is also

often used independently, as a substan(f.

tive "he who"

ntt "that which''):


nt'iw

^1^

^^^^^

ml ^

smsf "those who are

his following".^
itt

(^

nbt

ss

"all

that was in

^1:1

writing"

(i.

e.

written).^

<;Z> AA'^A A swrlln nt'i mrwt


I I

2-1' /WAAAA

C^

\\

<!II>

CT^ lO
(it),

htf "Let

him drink

in

whose

body there are


Eb. 47,
2, 4.

ills".''

18.

siut

I,

295.

Mar. Ab.

II,

25.

Prisse

Eb.

14, 6.

0.

WITH THE ADJECTIVE uU. 404.

171
also used

AA/^A^A

with the meaning "that which is"

is

alone, especially in the idiom cited in 380.

On
On

the use of ntt to substantivize clauses


the relative use of

cf.

S 382.

^^^
w

cf.

379.

TABLE OF
The more important
hardt even where this
d, d,
is

SIGNS.
in
list

signs

and meanings are taken up,

the order and with the numbering current in the

of Thein-

probably incorrect.

The phonetic

values are given as exactly as possible (distinguishing between


t, t), but there are many details here which are still uncertain. The feminine ending is separated from the stem. The abbreviations signify:

Prop., the proper


Trfd., the

Ort.

meaning as an ideogram ( 36 39); most frequent transferred meaning ( 40); it was not the intention to enumerate all the homophonous words for which each sign can be used. Com., orthographic compound; indicates the origin of the sign by the combination of two others.
sign ( 32-35);

Phon., the phonetic value as a sjllabic sign or as an alphabetic


Det., value as a determinative ( 45

47), or the syllable

which

the determinative always accompanies ( 52). Abb., that the determinative occurs at the abbreviation of a

word

( 68).

A.
Det. supplicate;

MEN.
sTDet.
Abb.
high,
rejoice;

Abb. f/wi supplicate,

/i

high,

Jj'^

Bm
7

adoration.
to praise.

rejoice.

^Det. hn

10^^ Phon.

in.

173
15 19

jj Det. dance.

85

Det. captive, barbarian.

^
1

Det, to

bow down;
89

Abb. ks bow down.


27
Det. statue,

Det. man,

1.

ps.

mum91

sing. (cf. 74).

my
t=:3

Abb. ^w^statue.

Det. that which

is

Det.

mummy.
Tvr great, sr

29 TO

Prop.

done with mouth.


92
93
47"^

the

(sir) prince.

Det. rest.
Det. hn to praise.

Det. old;

Abb.
Det.

i:^w old.

94

that

which
95

Det. </wi supplicate.

demands

strength.

Det. conceal;

Prop, ^ws build.

Abb. imn conceal.


100

Prop, kd build.

Prop.

^i/>

conceal

Phon.
70 l|

As.

(originated from
48.)

Det. king;

101

/^ Prop. TvCb priest;


Tfrd. TvCb pure.

Abb.
71

t(y king.

Det.

child;

Abb.

105

y^ Det.toload,build;
Abb. ^tp to load,
/i"

^rd child; Phon.i^w.


79 -^i Det. enemy, death;

carry,

k:$-t

Abb.
82

hft'i

enemy.
106

work.

Prop. msC(^) soldier; Det. soldier.

Prop,

hh

great

number.

174
110

B.

WOMEN.

C.

GODS.

Det. revered dead

Trfd.

si

watch

over, si break.

(masc).
129
113
Det. revered per-

M Det. revered dead


(masc).

son
to

(corresponds
131
89).

Trfd. sps glorious


or sim.

119

Det. king.

133^ Det. fall;


Abb. hr
fall.

128

Pro p. 5i shepherd;

B.
7

WOMEN.
14
}f ^ Det.

Det.woman (corresponds to

pregnant;
&A-i

89).

Abb.
15

pregnant.

Det. revered dead


(fern.).

Det. bear;

Abb. ms bear.
existent at.

12

Trfd.

frJf

C.

GODS.
31 Qo Det. Abb. St Set.

Det. and Abb.


*V(?) Osiris.

JVs-

Det.

Abb.

B/pvt'i

4
11

Det. Abb. Pth Ptah. Det, Abb.7mw Amon.


Det. Abb.

Thoth.
55
Det.

Abb

m^C-t
mi(^-^

goddess M.,
27

RC Re.

truth.

D.

MEMBERS OF THE BODY.

175

D.
1

MEMBERS OP THE
tp-t
;

BODY.
Det. nose,
(cf.

^
^

Prop,

head,

breath

dMB head
3

Trfd. ip

26 and

4);

upon; Det. head.


Prop, ^r face; Trfd.
hr upon; Phon. hr.
5

Abb. fnd nose.


29<==>Prop.
Phon.
31
r^(-^.)

mouth;

rS{'^), r.

Det. hair, color, wsr

^."n^Prop.s/?^
lip;

destroyed; Abb. In

hair,wlr destroyed.
10 -cs:- Prop. wr-?(?) eye, mS
see;

N28/'=^Prop.si?r Confusion
rib;
Trfd.si?r

with

Trfd. Ir
Ir, m:^{f).

do;

30.

Phon.

arrive
at.

12-^^ Det.

eye, see.

13:^>=Det. eye cosmetic.

33/^ Det.
35
37
\

that

which

14^^ Det.
15

flows from the body.

weep;
Trfd.

Abb. rm weep.
Trfd. Cn beautiful;

mdw

speak.

>^

Det. the back, cut

Phon.
17
Det.

Cn.

up;

Abb.
divine
jvd^-t

i^-t back.

eye;

39

Abb.
eye.

^
(

Det. breast, nurse;

divine

Abb. mnC-t nurse.


40
)

Prop. s$ embrace;
Trfd. slm

Prop, ir pupil (of


the eye)
;

Phon.
nose;

happen;

ir.

28 (/p| Prop,

Det. embrace, jo^i.

htit

F5 ^

iibtr. ?}nt in front;

42

Variant of

47.

176

D.

MEMBERS OF THE BODY.

46

Prop.
spirit
;

A'i,

kind of
k^.

63

nProp. di give, mc
give (imp\>.).

Phon.
(tin)

47 _/u. Prop, n
irvt'i

not,

65-0

oProp.
(impv.).
sent.

mi

give

not

having;
66 Q
;

Phon. n (nn)

oProp. hnk to pre-

Det. negation.

49 \=^
I

Trfd.rfsr splendid

69L=/]Det.

that

which

or sim.
to

demands strength;
Abb. nht strong.
row;
72
to
^^

51^ Prop, hn
Phon.
52
hn.

Prop, hrp to lead.

76 c:^^ Prop, d-t hand;

Q/^ Prop,

c/ii

com-

82

ti)

Det.

fist,

grasp

bat; Phon.

ai.
84 ^
]

Abb. im grasp.
Prop. ^&c finger
(cf.

58 hr^ Prop. $w reign.


59^^

DProp.<^arm,</'give;

1);

Phon.

C;

Det. that

ii:Tfrd. dbc
rect,

10,000.

which
strength

demands

Det. middle,

corc/cS

(=D69),

mtr

Abk.

(= D
62

63).

correct, w^r middle,

/^ Prop, w^ ell,
Trfd.

witness.

rmn arm Conrmn fuscarry; Det.


>

90

('==0)

Prop.

b:^h

phallus

Phon. mt; Det. mas-,


culine Abb.^imas
;

arm, that which is done with the arm.

ion

with

culine, kS steer

17.

93 "fl^ Incorrect for

20,

12.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

17*

Second
From the Story of Sinuhe
(Epic
(

Part.

TW^

S^-nht).
Published

poem
12

of the middle empire in the archaic language, L. D. VI, 104 seq.)


34.)

I.

(11.

so

Sinuhe, a

man
J.),

Amen-em-he't
reasons,

I. (c.

2100 B.

of high position at the court of while on a campaign against the

Libyans, learns the death of his king; this news, for


terrifies

unknown

him that he immediately


Palestine.

seeks flight to

o.

^
IP^^,
r

3J
AA/WA/
I

A^AAA^-|

N.P
]
(I

passed by the red mountain.)


h

^^

^1z!iOM,M
is

H^-P-r
on the isthmus of Suez.

a by means of" or sim. is wanting, b the peculiar ending explained by the coming together of the dual ending and the
1

suffix

sg.

Name

of a fortification

hk^

is

written defectively in this old name.

Erraan, Eg^pt. gramm.

Bb

18*

From

the Story of Sinube.

CSI

^?.?,?Q^ ilSl.^?P
1"^
^^AAAAAA

cy

^ r^^^
r\^''v/1

(At the

Km-wr

I fell

down

for thirst.)

D
330,2 286

'

'

1 1 1 1 1 1

AAAAAA

/VWAAA /VWAAA

^kl-Pfl.l,^,
AA/W\A

P^
HI
AAAAftA

VS\

l^f^
> A/VV\AA AA/VWA AA/VAAA
J] '^^^a

^:.^
a poetic for I concealed myself".
strued as
if it

& the sentries,

e conguard**.
self".

were fem. referring

to a collective the

d
e

like

our vulgar pull one's

self together", or

gather one's

p^

like a

noun, in apposition with mtn.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

19=^

.^
1

C^

A^^AAA

-H

AA/\AAA

A
r^^^
AAAAAA \\
I

rv^^^

AA/^AA^

f^^^^^

/-^

1^

^
o
i:=^
27.
I
I

W
f

p"j^| AAAAAA
1

O
78

f\rAfiAf\

(II.

94.)

Sinuhe, heaped with benefits by the prince of


Tntc, lives manj' years with him.

'\m
c cancel r in irtnsn according to 151.

AAAAA/V

a perhaps to be corrected he cooked for me", b read whwt. d a half year"? a year and
e

a half"?

probably thou art prosperous with me"; 80.330.

/"

125 B.

20*

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

D ^^=i=.

ro\
X
31
AAA/W\
1^
ilii

A/w^A^
I

\J
I

^^-^J
^1

^K\^
I

:=>

III

1^^^

(C^
1
I

O O O

Awv\^

.^1-

t I

t I

11

'5^
(He also made

me

prince of a tribe.)

f^^^r^^

-2x

jf\
-fv

.M:^#
n=^-=>-i
I

III

ID
la.

[J

^ ^? lYI^fl

\\

# tk

-n-

IfV^
I

a the determinative applies to


tvnt refers to

tlie

entire expression. 6

125B

the land,

The determinatives

of d^b can not be

read with certainty in the hieratic.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.


deal.)

21=*

(By means of the hunt I also gained a great


.f\

.<T:r>. AAAA.NA

^W\
'::^l

fl

C^

AAAAAA ifLL

^^K
I

III

AAAAAA

@
I
I I

111^ <zz

1"^^^I1M?!4
III.
(11.

109

145.)

Sinuhe defeats a hero in single combat.

Zi.

^-^

-'"~

Jj

iljL

/VSAAAA

JL

'

^^^
A/NAAAA

n^^ B
AAAAAA

AAAAA^ _

C>

AA/\AAA

"fV

^^

AA/\AAA AAAAA/\

^
(I

accepted the challenge and prepared


AA/VW\

my

weapons.)

210

s:

^]^--]^^^
b

^J:
sell. Jq^r,

c the land of

a the word is Avanting in the manuscript, Tmv, cf. 98.

351.

22*

From

the Storj' of Sinuhe.

/W^AAA
I

olio
I !

78

242,3

-0.

(He seized his weapons and the combat began.)

^
.

Q
V
(J

AA/\AAA

J^

D^
I I
I

3X

OO

R5

e A^/v\AA

n /^

Ann

iO

A^^^AA

AA/'AA^

^
a
(I

stepped upon his neck.)

I
a like a relative, 397.
b

after". c inexact s cf. 22. 161.


fell to]

the ground useless",

m lit probably as an adverb thered a verb is probablj' wanting: [they he shoots him therefore from behind.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

23"

y^^
)

^ Vfii

[]

&
Q

^\

AAAAAA AAAAAA
AA/VNAA

ifLL AA/VV>A

WV^

\^
AAAAAA

\\

0"^ f~"l
AA^NAAA

^AAAAA r
i
I I

-^
1

JJ
I

r
AAA/v^A
1'

n
zd

r*

I t I I I I

-^ /^

AA^SAAA A^\^>A

2^^=^

iC:^

A/VWAA

/^>

AAAAAA AAAAAA
a

"^

^o

JF.

(Z. 241

257,)

As an

old

man

Sinuhe-receives from King

TT^i

tsn

I.

the permission to return

home and

goes to Egypt.

i^

AAAAAA Cli.

_C

Ml
168

Mm%.
Ji
fl QaaaJ.

AAAAAA

AAAAAA

[13

2lM

7\

a^

a the people of the dead man.

b emphasis, 344.

24*
305

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

/J AAAAAA

TV

(9

r\

(He goes further to the city of the king.)

AAAAAA

4 lira

/^v

>Ti^^
(I

trod the palace.)

in
crzD
1

u
I

D
Ci

J]
1^

2ti

IJ^fJ,
261

,^^
I

f^miT]
III

MkJ^^i^-1
a Tvho had followed me, while they led me", b he presents c Impersonal; one expects r l^. d indicates the action of the people who lead him forth, e Nominal sentence, f old writing according to 109. f the order of words is free according to 341.
them,

From

the Story of Sinuho.

25*

(then terror seized me)

^!^^ ^-rk^^-^PflT'^l
I

Zl-'W QkM<
269.)
The king
presents Sinuhe to the queen,
-a

V. (Z. 263

AAAAAA

ra

J\

\
X
6

IHf'^l,^, ^
^^ o
c^O
I

Jl^
<-^
I

"I
I

AA/WW

o
AA/WW

AAAAAA
AAAAAA

D
I I
I

f^^"^
I I

AAAAAA

;p
I
I

b
(I

a Perhaps relative sentence: as an Cim whom the S. made". sign of unknown meaning. c i. e. altogether". for they had hrought them with them, e m their hands"?
hieratic
312. 76.

cf.

Bb*

26*
YI. {Z. 279

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

310.)
A

At the

intercession of the queen, Sinuhe

is

pardoned and concludes

his life at the court in great prosperity.

t-=^^

"1
\

^ AAAAAA

f?^^t&-"&^P-^l>,
h

9
- -*
I
I I

A/VWVv
I I
I

"

^
,

sic

Jl

w
I I

286

X
I

fl

AAAAAA

A A/WV\A

o
W

\^
\

W
.C\

\\

mrrA
CTT]
[Z-ZJ

j^

t\N\N\f\

(and there were other good things therein)

^
^liin

Ollll^ AAAAAA^

l^^^_^ffi..

X
c^

r-^
111

%^]
mm
315. h passive, c read
e

a for

<=>
Cxc'i,

d 329

as

accomP.

panying circumstance, whom the king loves"?

read t and

f read mrrf?

g they caused" (impersonal

they".)

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

27*

^'-%^r"i^ I'm
^51

1-35-1 o

_~3

ji

1
111

-^
A/^WAA AAAAAA

Tl^jr
(and there was built for
e

me my own

house)

IS

-Pk

A^AftAA AAAAAA

-<T1

ii_a^t^cr=i
ra

tko

a they gave"; the sense


to

is,

the dirt etc. I


c

now

resigned
I

the

desert",

i.

e.

the coarse ones,

upon which

had
tptl;

hitherto slept, in contrast with hnkyt.

in contrast

with

read nt.

e passive,

f read hw8.

28*
(it

Prom

the Story of Sinuhe.

was furnished with the

best)

^^r
J]
AAAA/Vv

.F^^

'^^^
AAAAAA

A (^
/n
I I

>A

ra

if^^

From the Story of the Eloquent Peasant.


(Prose text of the middle empire in language not so markedly archaic; only the speeches of the peasant are poetic. Published LD VI 108 seq.; the beginning by Griffith, Proc. Soc. Bibl. Archaeol. 1892.) Content: a Peasant who complains of an injustice done him, before Mrwitns'i a prince of Herakleopolis, so charms the latter by his eloquence, that, with the King's assent he prolongs the peasant's affair in order thus to prompt him to further discourse.
I.

(Butler 2

13.)

An

inferior official

meets the peasant as he


desires to

journeys

toward

Herakleopolis,

and

rob

him

of

his ass.

l^-\
I

o\\

^
f
^^ead

a which he needs for his grave, h the statue; passive, c one


expects the plural.
<?

50 B.

read <--^->

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

29*

J\
AAAAA/"

't3.
i.

AAA/V\A

VS

D
AAAAAA

^i MC
I I I
I I

AAAAAA

AAAAAA

^
0V>, ,,
JJ. (Butler 13

<

^jos^^
The
official

[It']

19.)
I

plans a stratagem for him.

L^ J

2^^=>_

ii

A.VWVA

q?

^\f]\
man
e
is

,%5

^X32_
.^

^ n

^li
<:

m
'"i
J

AAAAAA AAAA^W

>

AAAAAA

a a hieratic sign of unknown meaning. 5 the name of the wanting, c i. e. one of the peasantry, d temporal clause.

the asses which pleased

him
....
i.

or sim.

f here he hegins
elliptical

direct

discourse.

The following

is

probably an
for

oath:

may

every

excellent image [of a god]

me I" g The

situation

must

be: a narrow road; on one side water, on the other, upper side

field,

h his one way"

e.

probably one edge of the road".

30*

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

w
D
AV\A/^A

3 ^
AAA^A^
c_J.
I

JJ

r\N\/-Af\

i-LL

Ida
"7:\

>^.
A^A^A^
I

III

\\

(and spreads out the clothes in the way.)

HI. (Butler 2223; Berliner Papyrus Z. 124.) robbed and derided.

The peasant

is

^
D

.r^

AAAAAA

njkT
D

1.^

w
AAAA^^
I

A/V/VAAA

/^

.^

AAAAAA

(T^

y^\

\\i
Y\

A^^AA^

Ci

^^
r
.1

D
AAAA/^A

<II> L _!>*V^

J AAAAAA

is

wanting,

a passive, b the middle of the road, c have a care" or sim. d [Take care] my fruit is on (<=>) the road".

Storj' of the

Eloquent Peasant.

31*

^. Q
I

M+i

a n
(I

AAAAAA

35
/I

"ft

\oJ

ra

AAAAAA

^^'^T[

^^
I
I I

M
<__^->

Till
I

'

AA/^A^^

^5=^

JIT.
I

'=^
I 1
1

AAAftAA

'-

i^^v)

IW-^ZK
w
r'=^
L AA^^AA

^q

h
X
^.xn2_

> _iir^

AAAAAA

X
AA/\AAA

JL

AAAA/'

J
^^1
a [The lower part of the road is] under water, b Wil] you not let us pass by then!" e meaning something like: since

one [lower path]

is

obstructed, I will go along

its

[upper] edge.

d read

mhM

32*
IH1

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

^
AAAAAA
TTT

/vvvvv>

W Ci

OW

n ^^'

[TZ]

AAAAAA

D
AAAAAA

'^'

.^^
.^^5>^/

Jl
AAAAVV

lO V>
/'

^V

S1fc,t

AAAAAA

AAA/VNA AAAAAA

AAAAAA

^^q-^'
sio

353
AAAAAA ra

C
354
I

1<^

^^=11)

tl
*

JF.

(ib.

Z. 24

32.)

The peasant implores the


f

official in vain.

AAAAAA AAAAAA

A\

a relative belonging to Jin. h probably a proverb: instead of the poor man one makes mention of his lord, c meaning: though you should address me, you think first of my lord. d the tamarisk was not dry rf is probably corrupt, e read the
;

n-form.

e peculiar infinitive.

story of the Eloquent Peasant.

33*

^^
D

c:.l\\

s
jr
n
3\\
/^AAAA^

^1

<

.-

flf

^fl
AAAAAA Q^

A AAA/V\A

/I

2^

A/V\AAA

f^ (^
I I I

J]

.<E>-

ra

Ik

o
\

@
I

Mil

;=:>Jrilll
AAAAAA

v^A^

lo

f
relates to

F.

(ib.

Z. 3242).

The peasant goes to the prince and him his matter.

V^ y^' AAAAA>

[3III

a yoa are to" for you go


of the dead one must not

to",

b in the place of the

god

make

noise,

c perhaps an invocation,

to be connected with the following,

182, the

meaning of the

sentence

is

not clear,

probably error for

O or O.
Qq

against

the injustice.

Erman,

Egfypt gpramm.

"

34*

story of the Eloquent Peasant

kZ^^!
Ol

A.

h'
>j^i^

ra^^_y^<=>^^^
A\

AAAAAA

W)
AA^^^A

^
I I

\V\AA

^
SAj
AAAAAA

FJ.

(ib.

Z. 4251.)

The

prince questions his counsellors.

AA/^/yA^

AAAA^^

/\A/v/\AA

/CilW
AA/NAAA
[J
I
1

P^^^,^
away the peasant would not
probably a peasant suhject to

/WW\A AAAAAA
I
I

5*L=_

o As the prince
detain him.
6

desires to sail
it is

they mean:

him,

who

unlawfully desired to deliver his taxdues to another.

story of the Eloquent Peasant.

35*

AAAAAA

III

,^,(i:t:

j^\

^
I
I I

AAAAAA

O
^
a
/-X

.-^-^

^
I I 1 I

^p
I

<2>-

AA/^AA^

^
AAAAAA '5ffY^^^i2i

AAAA/>

ra

ra

P--J
X

w
FIT.
(ib. Z.

A/WAAA

5271.)

The

first

complaint of the peasant.

^^
Ezm
ill

AA/^AA^

CJ.

r-"^^ \

a Sense probably, he must pay this as a fine; or, he should be punished because of the natron etc. (with which the asses were loaded)? b His reply is not given.

36*

Story of the Eloquent Peasant.

(Thou

wilt be fortunate in everj-thing)


(==11)

1 ^^^==

CLL

AA/^^^^

.X
in
I

"

J)

9
AAAAA\ 6

A/VVV\A

i:
AAA^w

wvV

77 -^ -"

icl

_Z1

WxS

J]

'0\

m.
g

^ sic

kA/WvAA
ra
o read
nif.

6 treat

me

so justly that I shall prefer thy

name
is

to

aU

laws, c imperative,
is

d imperative,

imperative,
I

f '^

wanting, g sense

probably, prove,

how much

have to bear.

Storj' of the

Eloquent Peasant.
it

37*
to the King,

YIII.

(ib. Z.

71

77.)

The prince announces

W
sic

.7^'
-<2=-

^- -M
A
AAAftAA

^^^^--1
ioV\
/'
I I I

fl

V.

Supplement.
A
writing of Thutmosis
I.

to the Authorities in Elephantine.

(Stone in the Cairo Museum. Published Aeg. Ztsch. 29, 117 from a copy of Heinrich Brugscb.)
I.

Announcement

of the coronation.

(The king writes to you)

0^

o
78

mn^i.-m^i
new
ruler
AAAAAA

O
^^^^

-J1

AA^/^A^ AA^w^

/T O UL

>\

II.
AAAAAA

The

titulary of the

w
I I
I

Jx

U^

c:^

a passive,

b sense optative.

writing of Thutmosis

I.

o
I I

Jfffp^^-^
1

III.

What name
-

is

to be used in the cult.

cf=]^

Ji

mnm
mi^i
J 11
e

MPhih^fip
IV. What name
is

to be used in taking oath.

^AW^filw in
/O

^^ n

AAAAAA

f
d

h MP
f\

AAAAAA

F. Concluding formula,
f

Ii

AAAAAA

a read Q.
remain",

lit.

cause that one cause that the oath

c 259, 2 passive, defectively written,


e

d formula of
that which
is

correspondence for this writing purposes",

communicated,

likewise further that etc.

Examples of the Eoj^al


VI. Date.

Titularies.

39*

onni

^^^'i'^O

\rT,k
Examples of the Royal Titularies.
(Written
in abbreviations throughout; for explanation compare titulary fully written out in the preceding letter.)
I.

the

Wsrtsn

I.

(Lepsius, Konigbucla 177).

11

f5SS^

Q ^
Iaaaaaa
(ib.

IL Thutmosis HI.

349)

o
"^^^l
V

n
0|
I
=

III

-3
>d2

1% ^
TTmrr

40*

Examples of QTave-formulae.
lU. Ramses
11. (ib. 420).

4
III

III

ffl
Examples of Grave-formulae.
(Filled with abbreviations throughout,
I.

and often in barbarous orthography)

The

sacrificial

formula.

(Gravestone in Alnwick Castle).

llLi

\M^U'^ f^A v-i^_-^ ^Al>i3^'


AlH^ilfJe AP-oTs^^ ^7
Di
I

z2i

:::ii

^Jrj.f.l^k -^f^l
in

jr.

The same

another form.

(Gravestone in Florence).

a unintelligible formula,

b optative,

c relative clause.

Examples of Grave-formulae.
291

41*
1}

291
'

291 AAAAAA Q _ ^AAAAAA


Ii

AAAAAA

^U
M
I

f)

^l^f^^
/
I

^fliri'^Pjl
in Turin).

A D

/WWV\
AAAAAA

-CaS- O AAAAAA
AAAAAA

JJ

'Vir:-

3=a

7ZZ.

The same, shorter (Gravestone

IV. Invocation to the

visitors to the

grave (LD

II, 122).

391

fl

A^AAAA

V.

The same,

in different

form (RIH

16).

_Cr^'^~~-*

AAAA^V*

AAAAAA

c^> \

AAAAAA JS

_Hr^

"^

^ C^ Dill

a 259, 2, passive defectively written, b 259, 2 active, plural. Impv. d. the pronouncing of this formula procures the deceased nourishment.
c

Cc*

GLOSSARY.
PREFATORY NOTES.
The correct orthography occupies
the first place; abbr. designates

a writing as an abbreviation in accordance with arch, as archaic.

63

68;

Compound words are

to be found under the first part of the compound. The endings are separated by -, and are not taken into considera-

tion in the alphabetic arrangement.

To a considerable extent
determined;
to

the

meanings can be only approximately


has been added.

such tcords, or sim.

The meaning of

the causative has been subjoined, only

does not entirely correspond to that of the simple stem.

construction of the verb has been added by CO.


refer to the

The
I.

where it The

cited

grammar.

name of a a woman.

place, n.

With proper names pr. m. that of a man,

n.

denotes the
f.

n. pr.

that of

^Q
\

( 48, for

^)

goose (abbr.

hour.
cease, or sim.
n.
1.

i6-

Ele-

fj

f^^^ phantine.
n.
1.

9b-dw

u^
T
1

Abydos,

roast.

43*
Sd
angry?

perish,

to

outrage?

be

(abbr,) to load.

0!

Ibdw

--c?^ (abbr.) month.

count.

Ay^
/ij?

160) come,

2^^^

^n.l.
branch,

tfd

I]

chest.

307

orsim.
(Ill ae gem.)

im-i

grow

old.

w
\\

-\\-W

(arch.ij-

-135)

existent in.

iSr-t

^^
c^
\

frait,
III

orsim.
n) call.

tmBm

^'^
"^

^^^1;^^;

(29.

(cc.

157) tent.

1
ilV

someone,
( 168. 220.
f.)

to be.

ImBh

fl

(abbr.

'')

224. 246. 253

venerableness.

iw
iwt-i

/\'t^( 160; cc.n) walk,

come
t^

to anyone.

t^

( 378. 379)

he

100)

honored

(cc.

hr:

who
twt-t
'

has not.

by anyone).

^^^^(380) nothing.
182 B.) give,
(
set, cause.

64A) meat.

^mn
ih

\\

(abbr.

||)

V" heart.

Amon.

44*
that which pertains to

imn-y
tmn'fi

If^^Nl n. pr.
ft

m. ( 100).

any one,
existent in the west;
is

his duty.
inf.

.<2>- (Illae.
;

151)
;

I'W
hnti tmnt'iw "he who
at

make, beget spend time


to be.
239.

aux. verb: 238.

the head of the dwellers


in the west,
(i.

e.

the

'0

dead)".

1
( 137)

III

/CiO
Imn-tt

the west.
deaf,

irt-t
1

oo

V Oi
1

iC^i

Imr-w
in
AAAAAA

or
ih

milk.

Sim. sim.
314. 350. 357.

"^^

(abbr.)

ox

cf. Ari.

ih-w

IX

Jl ^^mentalin-

in-t
AA/V\AA
I

kind of
fish.

firmity or sim.
ih

in

Jj

( 160)

bring on
thither,
ih-t
I I I

or near; bring
lead away.

^64^
thing.
I

inwk
inb
(abbr.) wall.

ihil)

shine,

be ex-

celleut or sim.

that which
ih-tO)
brilliant,

is

ex-

inr

nnni

stone.

cellent or sim.

ins-t
1

AAAAAA

J> Sim.
n. pr.

ihf

HAAAAAA
^^.1=

inundatI

WAAA

AAAAAA

intf

'^

m.

ed land, or sim.
et
f.

319.

Ir

:> 347. 348. 389

yr'i

IT

~]T' J\ hasten.
'1

Tamarisk.

135) belonging to; irt

46*
100)

pr.m.
issl
(I
1 I

%()
itf

J1 king or sim.
cf. it.

(I

n. pr.

ctn-w
tstw

DY\^^(CC.H)
toward,
or

c^ 323.
excellent or aim;

H
refractory

ckr

\
It

^^ barley. o
o o

be excellent.

sim.
itl Ifi -jj-'rn

take

away;

M7i
It

spend (time).
( 31) father;

ntr kind of priest.

Itn

O sun.

(Dual
-fl'tkw
)

rj
a

"Sn-

strike

or

_M^

sim.

arm.

Ar-C,
tely;

hr-Cw'i

immediaass.

tpiw Cw'i ancestors.


(^-t

Q.

member.
chamber,
small

Ar) to please?

c^ \

Bedouin
C-t

or

on house

sim.

(as part of j3r).

^^

^^."^{Icabbr.^^, o=>) great, large.

uninjured, or sim

CS-hpr-

^t^

ca
-fl

/I 1

V\2i

*^^
sim.

'^*>

Thutmosis'

I.

CCb
n.pr.f.

Ci.fei._^

up I

J^comb?

braid?

*46

GLOSSARY.

Cw-t

Y
"Kv

animals.

Crr-1/t

<=^[ll
lace or sim.

pa-

CwB

CU
) rob, plunder.

Ql^

to contend.

CwB
f[

Ch9

Q^^
[Kx
.

a combat.

_MAAAAAA

Si
J]

ber.

Cwn

Cwn- lb

Ch^-w
ChC

arrow, or
sim. stand.

deceitfulness, or sim.

J
a

Cb9
Cff

JA^
Y

sacrifici-

J\ ChCn
Tk

230

ff.

al tablet.

ChC-w
fly,

Q
1

time, or sim.
(pi.)

or sim.
:^=i

Cm-mw'inn-Si
AAA/VNA

ChC-w
1
I

quan-

tity,number.

A^^AAA

HI
p)
AA/\AAA

or Sim.

n. pr. ( 70).

m.

ChC ChC
Chn-wtl

p)

^^1
nru
a

kind of ship.

Cnh

T
-?-(

'"'''

T'^

palace.

live (cc.

m on anything).

n abbr. Cnh wd^


"living,

5^ d'^'II
AAAAAA

_Z1

snb

sound,

X
healthy" (as adjunct to
royal name).
109
)

AA/WV Ol U

royal chamber.

Cnh
Cnttw

oath.
I

numerous,

many.

V-^

ear.

A
myrrh,

enter.

CZD
Ck-w
I I 1

Plur.:
food.

Cr

goat, or sim.

CHiOeSART.

47*

w
I

\
80.

(sic,

contrary to

S51) districtjOrsim,

wB

<^^

Pf]^4^
<C
_

(abbr.

wC
abbr.
|)

f) caus. cc. hr pass by something.


tvS-t

( 116)

one

(as

subst.).

f] ^
^
I
I I

(abbr.
=5=
)
I

wC
( 143)

way, road.

one

(as adj.).

w^-wt-

wCb
I I I

pure, clean.

Er

wCb
abbr .)n.,.

wCf
to increase;
caus.

(^

to bend,

\>=/l or sim.
)

household

sw^h
U'^h-'i

to visit, or aim.

servant, cook.

fl
chamber
1
i,

nrz2
in the palace.
*^^" ^^ ^^^ late, or sim.

wp-tvt

message.

wp-w^wtX/^:^

J^=^

(abbr.

%^^
_zr

^:^) name
god of the dead.

of a

w^s-t

wf^

flm
wBd
w^dic
o

^""^'

praise,

III

applause, or sim.

to praise, or sim.

green.

Jl L__J

or sim.
'

wn
green cosmetic.

^^
AftAA/V\

(Ilae gem.) to be

aux. verb. 223. 250 sq.

48*

QLOSSABT.

41-^
-^^^
AAAAAA

(for

-f
hour.

wsr

p.-^"

mXt-BC
wsrtsn

(abbr.)

name
II.

of

Bamses
n.

ton) e^t.

^^'

pr.m.

di

AAAAAA

lontc-f

"jlc

<0
i<:

wsh

broad.

twiw-f

-^^

lay

wC

dSSU. \>

bite, or sim.

priesthood, or sim.
also of itching.

t^nn-nfr^l"^^
AAA'VSA

name
wih

of Osiris.

W^J X
sim.
^^^^^

to

answer.

magnate.
weakness, indolence, or
,

in titles

also

!^) great.

(niae

inf.)

X
throw, (also of emission
of a cry).

wrh
anoint.

^_fC=3a
tvrS

wdn
spend
day.
to rest, or

the

Jl

/wvAAAvli

or Sim.
inf.)

>o
lord

wd

(57 Illae

command.
(abbr. I) cHj _ _ _ be well, be fortunate;

sim.

wdB

8wd^

lb

hr to rejoice the

100)

Bedouin
w8-ir IrO)
jj

tribe.
Osiris.

heart concerning something, polite phrase for

communicating
thing.

some-

wsm
wsr

F^
1
I

silver- gold

wdB
wdC-t

go.

alloy.

(abbr.) strong, or sim.

ai

forsaken

one??

GLOSSARY.

49*

J
h^-t

J (^^^ or
W

VC\

branch,
|

htn
^j^
cf. 6/ ^^^ jj^

Sim., thicket, orsim.

hw
hole.

J^
l|
I I

place ( 103).
( 28) date.

bnrt

hBh
btiTi

date wine.

(abbr.

in

JiA,

bhs

dr bsh

315.

J
bi-t

70|
I

<
honey. Egypt.

1%
bk

calf.

bk(bikl)'^^
"-

servant;
"the
i.

cm

servant

ID
bt-ti

there"
bd-t

e.

"I."

king of lower

'^

l^"^^"^^ iO o o o
I

spelt (kind

of wheat).

pt

D
t

^
heaven,
)

p D
pr
^^
(
I

house,

P^
PU)

;J^

%
U
t]

"^
87.

also for possessions.

P'>'-H

CTID ?
house"

imi
i.

"silver

e.

treasury.
inf.)

Py

M>

flea.

^
pry

^^^A
go
out,

(Illae

depart (from

the way, &c.).

pn

D
AAftAAA

Erman,

^^

prominent??

Eg:ypt.

gramm.

Dd

50*
pr't

GLOSSART.

^^>o
'^\J/'\\\

winter (one of

D
phr-t

<=
I

the three seasons).

pr4
vrt-Snw ^

(abbr.) fruits.
L&>
I

(abbr.

O) remedy.
>lll

V _MI1I|
/>

"hair
Mil

p7ir-t(l)
I

g
I 1

troop, or

sim.

fruit"
fruit.

as

name

of

ps
<"'"*

n 3

f(?)
ph
ph-U

T
d|

^'4

( 159) to

cook

ctpfst.
bite.

""^"'-^
psJi

for the dead.

arrive at, attain to.

pk-t

l.^T
D

finest
j
I

linen.

-^^

(abb'^- *3^)

ptn

(\/\ri n.

1.

dual: strength.

pth-Mp
divide
is satisfied" n. pr.

Ph^

m.

caus. spliB ht purge.

/
/'

^^
glad".

n. pr.

belong, large,
/fi n.

m. ; pr1.

broad; of the heart "be

fnd
loosen; go fur-

fb
fd

_j\ ther, or sim.


pull out.
1^^

sents, or sim.

m
307.

Negation

375.

GLOSSARY.

51*

183 behold.

mt-tw

mi mSw

^
self,

new.

\P^\ one

like

( 135.

^ 137).

.^1
recur.
(I^

renew

ml-tt

^^|^(137)thatwhich
is

like (something);

mi
mBC

^'^
^^
offer
in

^e

gem.)

mttt "likewise".

see.

mc-w

rdcmSC cc. obj.

up something.

o
AAAAAA

daily (food).
III

etc. of.

mnt.

true.

312.

m^Ct

for

;wwvv ( 111) water.

P|48(abbr.^^)
truth, justice.

m^C-t

(abbr.)

goddess of

'1
trnvt

mother,

Yl truth.

miChrw

(abbr.

die.

"true of

m m
>'*m^

315.

voice"

i.

e.

declared

mn mn

i'^^*^

(i^^^
remain.

abbr.)

just, appellation of the

dead.

mi/t

'f\

bum, or
sim.

^^%6
obj,:
'
'

suffer

(cc.

v
ml
^l^inhhr.

with something.)
/~^

0)314

mn-t

diseased

AAA/v\A

^tt^ place.

Dd*

52*
'

GLOSSARY.

mni
{mini)

''

'

AAAAAA

qi

(
(cc.

62)

mr-tO)
'

marry, or sim.
anyone).

Thou (belongs per-

haps to an other word


of mas. gen.).
to

mni
(mini)

a^^
/wvAAA

land

mr
kind
of

(euphemistic for die)

mnl4
(mlnfi)

/w^A^^

^^^l\^^ ^11
?

abbr.^ (Ulae
love,

inf.)

to

musical instrument.

desire;

mr^

ntr

ntn-w

i^^^

104 A)

plur.

"beloved of god", priestly


title.

(mlnWi)DOD monuments.
mnmn-t
^r^^^^lher*!'

mrc
mrw'itnsi

''^^(If

Egypt.

mnh
sim.;

excellent,

or
ex-

caus.

make

cellent.

<CZ>

-21

AA/\AAA

CU.

mntw

1.1
c^

1^

jju

god
war.

n. pr.

m.

01

mry-t
mrh-t

"^^[JH^dyke.

mr

K^ii^)
overseer.

grease, oil.

mr mr mr

canal.
Vft

people, sim.
"'^^^^

or

mh
fill,

sill
?
be sad.

be

full.

be

sick,

x=>^

mh-tt

northern, north
( 137).

OW
(Illae

--^

mr
^^fe^

mourning,
suffering.

ms
inf.)

bear, give

mr

birth to.

GLOSSABY.

53*

ms-io

mtn
AAAAAA
i

(T"^

way, road.
J

ren.
I

o
ms-yt
ipijlj

1^

mtn
I

kind

of

)|

sheikh of the Bedouins,


or sim.

food which was eaten

on stated (?) evenings.


*"*^

^^ ~^ J\
instrument).

mtr
bring

give

testi-

mony

(cc,

obj.

about

on or near; play (an

anyone).

m tB
msdm-t
II

eye
cosmetic.

to

challenge?? to insult??

msdd

Ulllaegem.)
il

mdw
md-t
{mdw-tl)l}

speak.

to hate.

speech,

mk
mt
a

( 13

B) pro-

c^
affair.

tect.

matter,

organ (of body.)

mdni-t

^
^^
'^
'(?)
III

^^^^
(]

j^

n.

1.

n
n'i

/wwv\
AAAAAA

306.

nCC

of.

nd.

of the gen. 125.


(Xdi;^) 364
ff.

^
n-tCi)

-^
^
AAAAAA

nCffwl

abbr. powder, or
r^
'-' Ill

O
H

Sim.
1

AAAAAA

city.

ny-t
Ij

kernel, grain,

or Sim.

n-fi

134 urban.

nB

1K

94.

lord, master.

64*
nh-kBwT}^ BC

GLOSSARY.

^ O ^

^ ^ ^^^^^^

\
I

i
I I

III
unknown
everj', all.

name
king.

w7m

-Dtakeaway,

-S'^

or sim.

of an

nb nb
nb-p

^^^

nhh
gold.

f^^^^^^iii

V j eternity.
nh-tvt

FS^
t

[J (J

goldsmith.

^
X
)
I I I

com-

Hi' plaint ?
(/vwvvN n

nfr

"^^^
(t abbr. 199).

nhb-t

titulary. alary.

good, beautiful, be good.


AAAAAA

nmi

cry out,
(

^^\

(1

to

low.

nht
be strong,

(^>=/l abbr.)
stifif.

AAAAAA

_ [=^^
^
.Oil
I

(cf.

sC)

name

of

nht
nht

^-^fc/^M5ihero.

the Bedouins.

W=^
i:2i

abbr.
victory.

might,

***^^

I ^v I f^
AAA/WA
/OS

^orphan.
nht
ns
strength,
nsr-t

AAA/\AA

"^^^^ n, pr. m.

nn
AAA/WA'

nr
<c=:>

^
O

'^

( 139) possess.

manhood, or

[^ flame (as

sim.

nh
nh-w

AAAAAA
(iJ

name
lack, mis-

of the royal ser-

"^^111 something.

pent, the

symbol of the

royal rank).

ra
or sim. nh-t

fortune,

ngS-w
n.

^^ ^ ^^
1.

a U sycomore.
nti
nt-t

AAA/v^A

401

flf,

382. 401. 404.

55*
ICpH

nt-pr-hd

103)

nd

triturate
1

that which belongs to


the treasury
i.

)\nd snCC rub


fine (on

e.

costly

furnishing, or sim.

the palette).
sweet.

ntf

o
c^
AAAAA^

84.

ndm
ndm
ndnd

nts

aaaaaap^ sprinkle?

be well.
AAAAA^ AAAAAA
I

ntk

84.

to counsel, or
AAAAAA
r\

ntr

1(10 god.
^t|lj^
littleness,

sire

nds

be small.

"#-

<=>
<:Z>

308.

rC-msof

particle

em-

sw
rw-t

jlP^n.pr.m. Bamses.
exterior,

phasis
ri'(?)
.

( 348. 349).

mouth, opening.
ri"

or sim.

rwt'i

writ part

In

n Ktnt

affairs??

of the palace.

language??

In

rS n

wBt
rC

<=>'^(|j^
rwd

(irreg.)

sun, sungod.

(most

grow; caus

proper

names

made
srivd

with rC are to be found

under the second word


in the name).

and

srd:

make

grow, restore.

66*

GLOSSARY.

rpC.n

^
sim.
bility).

(^
(title

abbr.)
\

^p-t ['^
year.

([o,

[,

[g)

hereditary

prince,

or

of the no-

rh

know, be learned.

^
121.

cans,

de-

r-pw
r-pn-t
I

0\\%
AA/^A^^S
I

^li nounce.

rh

^^^~>

scholar, wise

>r man.

unknown
local

name.

south,
o

cf. tp-rs.

r-pr
I
I

4>

Oj
rs-wt
(niaeinf.)

Sill

southern grain, ^

i. e.

barley.

temple.

v\

lov.

weep.

f/c

,o
^
^
a

time of anything,
epoch.
<? legs, feet.

rmt

'^^^jD

64.

97)
-<i

people.

rit
/SAAft/\AC_l!

^
aJ

cf. di.

\a/VAAAA XA/VAAAAy

\l^

h ra
h^
HJ

^\ j\

descend, (also
1

of going on board ship)


enter.

^
1-5^
to

band.

hb
'vN""^^^
pi.

rn

plow?

h^'W

rU^X
rU^^.

time

hp

^^ law,
'

or place of a thing.

hnw

^ O V\ earthen vessel.
/T
I

^b

La J

send, send

AAAAAA

as messenger.

hrw

^^

(Oabbr.)day.

57*

h
h-t

\
I

large house, castle.

hb

Jffi
A
-idJ

feast cf.Ar-A6.

lit

ntr temple.
particle
(?)

Ai

1i/^'fex^d()

/]
'

mourn for?

of wishing: "if only", or


aim.

^5s

iJP N

*o clothe.

increase, addition.

I I

garment.
embrace.

h^k
AC
"

^
a
I

take
booty.

as

^_
Q

body.

nut

serpent.

hC

(?)

^J) cc.m: begin here


(as superscription).

Am
hm-t

^t\ N,

rudder.

hC-t

^
o^
I

beginning;

woman,

wife.

hCt

and hr hCt

315.

hCfi
hCp
hCti

^
fl

hm^-t
!

salt.

abbr. prince, (as title

of the nobility).
n AAAAAA

obstruct,
/\ AAAAAA

or

^
o\\

sim.
(cir-

AAAAAA Nile.

hn
heart.

=^ !^
strike.

majesty or sim.

cumlocution for king),

'-n\^'i
hivr-w
pauper.

(m

hn
AAAAAA

slave, servant.

hnC

^
Q

314. 120. 279.

hnw

\^ O^'^'^^^

things,

58*
Ci
yC.

GLOSSARY.
A/W\AA

hnn-stn

J.
I

^J
AA/\AAA
J-1

'^

n.l.

[hr-w^wt]
hs

cf.

iv^-wt.
(III

ae

inf.)

(Heracleopolis). !0

to pi-aise.

hns

narrow.
to
offer,

hst

n
I

hnk
AAAAW C
present.

^iii

Qj\

approbair

tion, sign of favor.

hstf "do according to


AAWV\
his wish".

^1
hntSsw
"=5=1^^

bed?
hsst

praise,

AAAAA^ L^

^^
lizard.

or sim.

1
praised.

hr
hr-t

^
I

309.

^
i^

w
g

existent

hs
_/j

approach, or
sim.

above
upper
part.

hsb
,

O)
w
.

abbr.
cf.

reckoning,

kr-w

tp-hsb.

hr-dSd^'^^
hri-dBdS "^

315
j

hsmn
AAAAAA
vii/
I I I

^ chief

vilo Q
Vvy/

III

overlord.

abbr.

natron.

)
superior

m-t
316.

name
goddess.

of a

hr-yt

^
n-i
I

hk-t
terror,
I

^11!
abbr.
\

a>
beer.
ruler, prince.

hr
hr-nb
title

Horus,
king.

title

of tbe

hkS

of the king.

M)

OLOSSABT.

59*

hJcn^

A AAAAAA

o"^ ^praise.
/T

yW

htm
cans, destroy, or sim.

o
Mp-t
htp

be

satisfied,

n
hdbl
oflfering.

o
o
ntr

D,

feiJVi
arrive at??

(cc.

hr)

'(
I 1 I

Vo

D
htp
the

hd
hd

Y TTj) become light.

abbr.

offering;
(for

offering

lessen, or sim.

gods).

h
h-t

m and
hw8

,p^
pi^v
)

(for

An

cf. iht.

build.

thousand.

hpr

^
be;

(^

abbr.) become,

h^w

hpr dsf begetting


caus.

hSm T %
droop, or sim

let (the

himself;
create.

shpr

arms)
hprt

h^r-t

wi-

(^
Or?
1

^^

that
1

which

happens.

hCte

S e
ons.

dow.

(S I

abbr.) shine.
I

7. 313.

c^

pi.

111
ness; coronation;

bright-

hfn

^^

( 7)

enemy,

weap-

hm

not to know.

Au;-(?)C^'^

the bad.

hm

Ignorant one.

60*

GLOSSARY.

km
limC

'M
C^=^
c>,

be hot.
-

hnt-i
flee?

,a

[\

existent in front,
cf.

hntt tmntiw

J\
hms
fl

Imnti.

attack?

hnt
bend,
hnty-t

harem.

bow, or sim.

hmt

think, intend or

journeyup-stream, jour-

sim. ( 52. 141).

ney toward the south.

nn

vK ^A

apparent-

hnd

d^ ^ ^
(on anything).

Step

ly a pleonastic addition

with words of speaking;

hr
hr-t

311.

hn n mdivt
mdwt.
hnt'i

for

simple
that belonging to something, msio
hit

^W

figure, statue.

hn
hn-w AT>
AAAAA^

(cc.

m) meet,

n hrt

thf favorite ser-

upon, or sim.

vant, one trusted,

DV^ CnH interior,


_Zl

hr
hr

interior of a house ; court

of the king.

J^ ^^
..

to fall.

325.

hn-Cl
-

interior
Qt
i.

of

hr
hr-'i

^
/I\

310.

the arms,

e.

embrace?

having something.

hnmw
hnms

Q^ j|
AAAAAA VJ

<:zr>

god Chnum.
hr-t-hrio
/i\

e
I

<=>

ra <=:
is

o
(lit.

_Cr^

that which
I

daily ;

friend, or sim.

that which has the day).

hnt

hrw

61*
hrp
lb

be

first;

hrp

possessed of a good
dis-

understanding and
position, or sim.
sacrifice.
;

^^
pulse;

(cc.

obg.)

to re-

offer,

(cc.

n)

punish

anyone, or sim.
(for

hr-hb
X

ksm

holy
holies in the temple,

of

kind of priest.
ht
tree,

wood.

hrd
hf

hh
hs

Ill if
I

aP^

abbr.^ children.

315

afterward, future.
to

neck.

hd
inf.)

journey

^^ (niae

down

stream, journey

be wretched.

toward north.

and

fl

[st-ir]

[j-<S5-

cf.

Ws-tr.

8-t

i
Ir'i

seat, place

m st
si

'5 back;

sB % 315
son.

correct,

s-t-C

i
kind of
s-t-wrt

Imiiw st-C
priest.

sB-nht

AXn.pr.

ra^y^
daughter.

m.

son of the sycomore.


sB-t

l|^^^=f_^1 name

in.

of
J

s-t-Hr
fl

the
throne.

^v

*^^^*

*^^

goose

(cf.

Bpd).

62*

si

(cc.

m)

s6i

^ ^\
r train

to teach; cc.

defend one's self against.


8^i
cf. sti.

as. (trans.)

sbS-w

^^'^^
'^
i==3

teach-

ing. (substantive?)

sbB-yt

teach-

mg.
door.

designation of anything

bad.
to

shB

land, arrive at.

y\ cry out.

S^k
together, or sim.
StJ?

draw
sbh

m
^
II

( 62)

recognize.
inspection,

su

2, sign

that the
is

sip-n

ll(J"\\i
]iz^

preceding

word

to

or aim.

be repeated in reading;
sp

]
swnl
swrt

80.

pw

for

the intro-

duction of a courteous
n.
1.

proposal ("here

is
.

an

opportunity to
to drink.

.").

spr
s6

-TT-

1^

lead.

rive at.

spr
I I

^ (cc. n) request
ill

anyone.

J^

lice ? ?

8f

yesterday.

GLOSSARY.

63*
bro-

sfisf^?)^
sm-t

^'^^^
<)

be mild, or
foreign

sn

^11 sim.
desert,

1^

(I
P'

ther;

^^^^-^

ion. companion

c^

land.
lit.

swi-fi

i
land";

"uniting of
local

snwh

AAAAAA

1^
sim.
cf.

to

unknown

warm, cook, or

designation.

p7'|(|la6br.)b,
i.

smB-id'i

^^
of

uniter,

e.

lord
snbt

healthy,
r\

Cnh.

upper

and

lower

AAAAAA
Pi

M
r

Egypt.
sniB
to slaught^.

J
AAAAAA

(1

n. pr.

m.

.sy

snbw
snf

|1

^n.pr.m.
rt^^^^

smi

AAAAAA

cream, or sim.
-i^^^oj^

blood.

fill
sntr
AAAAAA <

smwn

-*^\

/\

pro.

>|

in-

bably an expression of
deprecation
(like,

sntr

cense.

"Per-

mit me") or of doubt


(like,

snd

^^q7\

to fear.

"perhaps").

smr
)

snd

a rank
abbr,

?
at court
I

AAAA/V\

cans, ssn

breathe.

prince,

or sim. (desig-

nation of an officer of

n
AAAAAA
_/Ji

to trespass.

rank).

sn-nw

10

the
( 145).

second

shw

HWi

unite.

64*

aLOSBABT.

sh-Vi

W
\

peasant.

8t-lW

(cc. obj.)

Bedouins.

remember anything.
memory.
St^

tO

swelling.

shm
shr

y W=/l mighty,

or sim.

y^mA iA
J

bring

overlay
with.

stwh

to treat

v^

A
cf.

open.

(medically) or sim.
stp

nd.

{!>

abbr.)

select.

scribe.

stn
lead.
I

AAAAAAVJ.

AAAAAA

Ci

abbr.

king of upper

8sm-w
leader.

Egypt, king.
8tny-t

luOo
c-"=^^
1

kingdom.
clothe,

is-t

n^
sical

musd

~*^ f^ijp
^

instrument of the
(sistrumi).

or sim.
hear.

women
skm

sdm sdm

^^^.
metic

apply
to.

cos-

ing grey (noun).


St

1^
1

82.

sdr
St

,abbr. be at night;

"*^ ^

shoot.

to sleep.

65*
s

c^^p"^ swine.

Sms.o

^\a'^{^\')
servant.

KV
or sim.

food,

ms-Er

follower
of Horus,
i.

=^

Mil'
sC
Ill

dig, or

e.

people

^W=^
sand.

sim.

of mythic time.

X r^.
m)
free

(nae gem.)

ho

-^^^

(cc.

revolve about, or sim.

from.

sw

p^d,..
cnn"^^^^M^i

Sn-w

^
A/SA/SAA

^\\
)
)

abbr.

hair.

humSnw-tS
I

ble one (not of highest

IC\,
I

rank)?

hair"
that which
I
I

In nil name of

"groundfruit

M\
is
I

i^v-i

S gn^nv X
courtiers.

ss

con.

splendid, or sim. as

designation

of

food

r-vr

furnished by the king.


\\
I

nC
of

I'-^-O

designation
like,

locality

Sfto-t

the

"margin" or sim.
itch, or sim.

Sndyt

9
AAAAAA

e^y^'Tf'
I

Sm

^^

(IHae
go,

inf.)

go anyone, go away.

to

i^
sr

*^^^-) *P^o-

Smw

\\

AAAAAA

summer

-^^

be small.

(one

of

the three seasons).

Ss^

U
I
I

fine linen.
I I

Erman,

Egrypt. gianim.

66*

GLOSSARY.

rrri

I^\M:'- tl
D

form,

figure

cleverness, or sini.

of a god, or sim.
I

r^^-

receive; ssp

\\

D
Jcsiv

n. pv.

f.

crouch, or sim.

A
A
abbr.
\

.11
create.

Ofl

315.

kn

X
AAAAAA

be strong.

%,
boat, or sim.
kl

bad, or sim.

A
\\

kd
J^ AAAAAft
AA^/V\A

circle; personality.

kbb

Cans, skd to

sail.

C^^
(lit.

perhaps "bath"?

cooling, or sim).

kdm

sP^^n.

^
u
I

1.

(nnR

east?)

k-y

im.,

f.,

/c^

j^
spirit

kind

of

^q.
^^^1 pi. another,
fei

ai human

"Ht?T> steer.

kt-iht
I 1

others.
1
I

k^ij-t

U
Vtx

'

dun<:.

or sim.

(CO. obj.)

black
cf.

km
think (of something).

jiL

skm.

GLOSSARY.

67*

km-t

ks-to

^^z::^U^rh

incli-

o
^
Egypt.

nation of the body.

g
g^-U
(3

S
g*'

Q -'^K,.

designation

s
nb-sgr

be

silent,

of something injurious,

Kaus. sgr to

silence.

perhaps, need, lack,


cf.

name

of Osiris.

logB,

mo

Z5

(1

%^
find,
J

321.

name

of

a plant.

s X^
grg

furnish
establish

pr

household.
abbr.

come upon.

ffrg

ill

"

ffs

side,

half,

r gs

catch sight

of.

315.

gmv

"-^

AAAAAA

^
anoint.
t

V H

uy

of a bird

^
tiv

80.
cf.

bread.
earth, land.
(ttch)

stwh.
statue.

s:

twt

DmxADx s)
boundary.

tp

upon
316.

.314;

tp

Be*

68*

tp

tp rs southern pro-

tn

86.

vince,

or sim.

tp hsb

correct

computation,
the-first, first

tn

AA^AA^
I I

80

correctness.
tp-'i

^
D

/^\

tniv n.
1.

r^^^
c^

\\ \ll/ month.
tnt

tp'iwCtv'i

A
1

i^
I

old age. or

AA/SAAA

Jl sim.

ancestors.
tr
tp-t

CI

q9
of
oil.

head.
time.

tp-tt

kind ^?^)ki
I

th close up,

<^^ to
AAAAAA

trespass.

/~\

tm
tm

tkn

(cc.

"^^"-^^v"^^^ or
^11
"

sim.

tti
[1

7^
proach
n. pr.

m)

aji-

^\

Negation
377.

376,

tm

m.

rcll

t ^

take.

ts

ZI
^^^"^^^
I

raise, lift

up.

J dress hair,
or sim.
highest
official,
i

vertebra of the
spinal column.

fg^^

\\
i=>=3-f\
/

proverbs.
-?

(vizier, or sim.).

tsw

officer,

r or sim.

man, male

child.

tsm

i:^ hound.

difV

1T^
constrain, compel, or sim.

d^b
figs.

JO

GLOSSARY.

69*

dl

A
rdi,

(a

D,

fl)

(also

dbB-i

dldi

160):

give;

payment,
aim.

income,

or

deliver over ; give

back

express; set down, lay

let?,"
stop up.

down; cause that; permit


that,

rdtt

in

order that.
didt

dpt

Do
^"^^

^/

\A taste.
l^iiid

dpt
didlw
n. pr.

D
m.

w^

of

ship.

dm
make mention,
to name.

dtvS

i<

O morning.
dm I
r\A
praise;

c-'=^

1/

(J

fl

touch,

dwS-t

i<

meet with, or
part
of

sim.

Chnwfi dwJt
the palace.
dion

dml
dr
(cc.

\\

city.

^^
A/^\AAA

spread
out.

hr)

expell

from,

do

horn.
'

vanquish, or sim.

dkr

^=^>

A d?=
see.

fruit.

dbS
restore, pay.

dgS

dt

o^

eternity.
1

dBls-io

''^"^
(l-t

a^wj
1

coll.

peasantj

wise man, or sim.


^^._^

v.

ry,

orsim.

X
sail across.

o
a
fruit.

name of
III

70*

ds-

^^

85.

self.

kind of
d\o
,/K J yy
.

vessel.

dsr
J

wind.

^|]

(Wabbr.)
or
sim.

magnificent,

dhS
dfB

cf. rfZ/i.

Caus. sdsr beautify, or sim. t^-dsr


necropolis.

name

of the

food.
'"'-=*.

speak, say.

Caus.

drw
boundary, end, or sim.
dr
its

(Id

r-=^ \ to talk.

ddw
(I

(^ r drf
end)

i.

as far as

^ n.
ddb

1.

(Busiris).

e. all,

whole.

dr
dlmti-

314

cf.

hSh.
pr.

^^
as

1_

_Q

occurring
to
"as-

ms

m. ^(^_^ Thutmosis. ""^


n.
1
I

parallel

semble".

UNKNOff'N PHONETIC VALUE.


name
of a musicalclothing,

instrument.

or sim.
in
village, or

the

day

(only

sim

dates).

UNKNOWN READING.
kind of
cry.

n^.

.kind of under
L

official.

PRINTED BY W. DKUGOLIN, LEIPZIG.

DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET


PLEASE

UNIVERSITY OF

TORONTO LIBRARY

Erman, Adolf Egyptian grammar with table of signs.., t. Breasted

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