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COVENT GARDEN. . HENRIETTA STREET. SOUTH FREDERICK STREET. EDINBURGH. U.niTiPTIAN 3^ GRAMMAR WITH TABLE OF SIGNS. EXERCISES FOR READING AND GLOSSARY BY ADOLF ERMAN. BIBLIOGRAPHY. 1894. LONDON AND 20. WILLIAMS AND NOEGATE. TRANSLATED BY JAMES HENRY BREASTED.

Authorized Translation. .

AUTHOR'S PREFACE. As the outgrowth of practical academic instruction. is the simultaneous acquisition of One who not familiar with this. Coptic. For those who are familiar with the peculiar situation of Egyptian philology. viz. for the beginner. and is also intended for those who in must dispense with the assistance of a teacher the study. the only phase of the Egyptian language which we really understand. and which must guide us in the interpretation of texts. that something else the study of Egyptian necessary to to be at all grammar if it is a fruitful study. I need not premise is with the remark. the acquisition of the Egyptian lan- guage and writing. It further aims to afford him as correct a picture as possible of the general structure of the Egyptian language. It aims to acquaint the learner with those grammatical phenomena which are well established. this book is designed to facilitate as far as possible. will never properly comprehend it in its older .

is The material in the chrestomathy also taken from texts of this character in order that the beginner may accustom himself to their linguistic usage and especially to their consistent orthography. and those with what of the popular language of the middle empire on the other. most ever attain more than a superI capacity for reading Egyptian texts by rote. I have tried . The paragraphs therefore deal the classic language. to note also the in both. constant cross references The material selection offered and limitation of the grammatical especial difficulty. nor. would therefore request the student of my book to work through Steindorff's Coptic Grammar —a book parallel with this — and especially.IV periods. with which the idiom later employed as the learned and official language is practically identical. These difficulties have been surmoun- ted by relegating to certain paragraphs (A and B) the peculiarities of the ancient religious literature and the inscriptions of the old empire on the one hand. The Egyptian and language as we find presents quite different stages of development. fifteen hundred still years of the history of the language remain to be dealt with. the may be caUed language of the inscriptions and poems of the middle empire. it. at the ficial acthor's preface. and even leaving Late Egyptian still later idioms out of account.

Adolf Erman. 3 893. at all important to do so. he will then be sufficiently advanced to take hold of the second part of the chrestomathy. that in this book. August IQth. that we could not our "intellectual property" even if we deemed and Sethe. where as a rule he must recognize the grammatical forms for himself. much which not so designated undoubtedly belongs to Steindorff cussed these things separate it But we have so often disamong ourselves. . doing this he not only looks tries to up the paragraphs indicated. In the use of the book the beginner should first it has seemed to me that familiarize himself with the most important paragraphs. in order to understand Egyptian inscriptions correctly. SiJDENDE. clear print and explanatory remarks.author's preface. and should then work through the If in first part of the Chrestomathy. It further behoves is me to state. designated by an asterisk. to facilitate the understanding of the chrestomathy by division into sentences. The appendix to the chrestomathy contains the most important of the formularies from the list which must now be mastered. but also a connected idea of the sections of the form grammar thus referred to.

on p. Prof. Le Page Renouf. But this * venerable scholar. C &c. ed. 50 the In of the tn-form of the verb stated to be inse- parable from the subject and separable from the verb. that the "vowels were very commonly omitted". classified under a list of vowels! and the statement added. render a word of explanation necessary. Ex. On p. and this about a system of orthography exclusively is consonantal (with the exception of one or two doubtful endings).TRANSLATOR'S PREFACE. the Nestor of English Egyptologists. gr. The peculiar lator. has not followed the modern development in Egyptian grammar. 1 jou will find the Egyptian consonants «.* that the The above statement may seem strange to one who knows grammar of Le Page Renouf was reedited in 1889 ("An Elementary Grammar of the Ancient Egyptian Language" by P. and due to a confusion with . His book is therefore entirely obsolete. 2nd. difficulties experienced by the trans- in transferring into English the results of the grammatical investigations of his honored teacher. as it has been created by the German grammatical school in the last fifteen years. London. to the unique charac- ter of the language investigated.). i". difficulties These were due firstly. an assertion in direct contradiction of the facts. Bagster & Sons. and secondly to the fact that the new science of Egyptian Grammar. Erman. does not yet exist in English.

3 f. Victor Loret here translated. between st.translator's preface. the parallel would be complete and it could be stated with impunity that the Latin article was il and that the Italian nouns were comprised in five terminationally inflected declensions. and all the plurals are wanting. But to enumerate forms and phenomena unknown to absolute pronouns.. the latter being called an "independent personal pronoun".. enti- rely foreign to English for and the peculiar phenomena which a the flexile felicitous compound was always ready in German were sometimes the despair of the the particle In. as the recent "Manuel de la Langue egyptienne" of Further. The entire treatise is therefore as reasonable as would be a grammar. Le Page Renouf has stated in his "Concluding Observations" that the Egyptian language suffered many changes during its enormously long history. 2 f. s. sn and s. s. which. i. The ready with which the German lends itself to the is expression of compound ideas in one word. should present the forms of Latin and its offspring Italian in heterogeneous combination from the Augustan age down to the present day. s. without any distinction of time. In the same chapter one searches in vain for any paradigm of the old Those of the 1 c. and 3 m.. this grammar would be to repeat a large portion of the work though Mr. s. 18 in the classic language st is always used absolutely. Or turn called a suffix. VII There were therefore no termini technici of Egyptian grammar ready facility at hand in English. are incidentally mentioned. may testify. no hint of these changes appears in the treatment of grammatical forms and syntax. e. for to p. If the end of the period thus included were two thousand years removed from us. . the author being misled orthographic in late where the absolute pronoun sHs by the confusion purely and corrupt texts. In France the new science is equally disregarded. but the 2 m. separably.

Nov. it is. It only remains to be hoped that the results. "substantivized". Berlin. being simply the transferred "substantivirte". translator. that such terms have intelligible to the been made at least English reading is student and the indulgence of the reader craved wherever felicitous English has been sacrificed for the sake of clearness. from the to man whom they are almost solely due. is it The term "pseudoparticiple" word both for in conjugation another di- rectly transferred which nothing better could be found. which render the grammatical structure of the ancient Egyptian tolerably intelligible. however. One word has been With the coined. German the translation "uninflected passive" for the German "endungsloses Passiv" consultation writer was not at all satisfied. very similar to the Assyrian "permansive". 1893.VIII translator's preface. achieved within the last fifteen years. and which are herewith presented for the first time in English. but could find nothing better stands. . may be as interesting and in- structive to the English and American student as they lips of the have been to the translator. but to have used this term would have been a liberty not justified in translating. viz. James Henky Breasted. 11th. and after with the author. It is hoped. and meaning.

PRONOUNS. Personal suffixes 73 — 79 84 85 Old Absolute Pronoun Later Absolute Pronoun Expression for "self 80—83 d. 3. GRAMMAR. a. c. In general Phonetic Signs. Unusual Styles of Orthography Rules for Transliteration f. 2. Personal Pronoun. —31 —35 36 —44 28 32 45 — 52 — 6^ — 71 ^ 5. h.CONTENTS. 4. a. 4— 12 The Alphabet Special Points in Phonetics Syllabic Signs 13—27 c. &. §§ INTRODUCTION 1—3 ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. . e. —68 69 72 Words 70 G. 1. h. In general 53 54 Orthography of the Ideograms Purely phonetic Orthography Abbreviations Inversion of the Order of —5^ 59 63 d. Ideograms Determinatives Orthographj'. c. a. 1.

a. The a. t- 86—90 91 — 94 NOUNS. . Numerals. 162 163—169 170 2. a. pForms with n- i. h. a. . e. Dual Use of the Singular. The Article The Absolute Substantive Apposition and Coordination 104—106 107—109 110—112 113—116 117 — 118 — 121 — 124 f. h. The Genetive. yS. 1. c. Usual Classes Rare Classes and Irregular Verbs 148—154 155 — 160 161 The Causative . r?. Imy. a. . h. . a. a.2. h. y. Substantives. In general — 171 . Adjectives a. Plural /?. Expression of Gender 95 99 Forms of the Substantive — 98 — 103 Expression of Number. 1. Dual. c. ns) 138 — 139 — 145 3. Adjectives without Ending Adjectives in ? — 137 Appendix {ir'i. Direct Genetive 122 Genetive with n 125—127 128— 131 132 2. In general. Plural. 119 g. Classes of the Verb. c. Voice Expression of the Subject (Inflection). ^. Forms with m. . Usual Inflection. y. b. Demonstrative Pronoun. Beal Numerals Appendix to the Numeral 140 146—147 VERBS. a.

a. As a Subjunctive E.CONTENTS. Its /8. . . "it is". 224—227 icntnf sdmf. Its Formation Use 194 196—199 200 d. In the Conditional sentence D. /3. 6. Dependent upon Verbs E.Intransitive 5. Its of the First Group.) 204—205 206—207 3. Its h. C. 228 229 . e. . (Pseudoparticiple. Dependent y. In a Final Clause F. The Uninflected Passive Old Inflection. —203 The /^r-Form sdmhrf. a. of the Usual Inflection. The <»-Form sdminf. 189 190 191 upon Prepositions Appendix — 193 — 195 The M-Form sdmnf. a. — 173 — 176 177 — 178 179 — 180 172 174 181 As an Optative The Forms of the Second Group. In Conditional Clauses 184—186 188 D. 208—215 a. . In the Passive. XI §§ The Formation sdmf. ^. Its Formation B. The Forms tcnf sdmf and The Form Jjrf sdmf. The Forms iw sdmf and tw sdmnf. Its 4. Formation Use. Introduced hy a. 220 With Double a. The Forms A. b. Form Form 216 217 —219 — 222 223 Compounds with Forms a. Formation as Indicative Use C. y. iwfsdmf. /3. . Use as an Indicative 182 — 183 187 A. With the Auxiliary Verb wn Subject. c. In the Active-Transitive ^. B.

Infinitive. 238—239 Compounds with the Pseudoparticiple a. CONTENTS. To Denote a Person or an Object. With the Auxiliary Verb Iw With the Auxiliary Verb wn Infinitive 8. prn and Iw 230—234 235—236 237 (I. In general 282 y. With ChCn and ChC With In. . Compounds with "make" or Infinitive. 253 —252 —264 255—257 of the Verb. §§ With a Verb a. 283—288 288—292 Verbal Adjective 293—295 296—299 ii. 10. Use Substantivized Forms. 7. Adverbs 300 2. 1. /3. a. To Denote the Action Itself. .XII c. 301 —305j Z14 306 Compound Prepositions 315—3171 . 9. /3. a. In general. Introduced by Auxiliary Verbs. c. The Form sdmf piv ir 6. a. a. Participles b. d. Appendix to the Verb: the Object PARTICLES. Compounds with r and the The Imperative The Nominal Forms a. Its /3. Prepositions. . /3. Simple Prepositions . Its c. Without the Auxiliary Verb (Improper Nominal Sentence) 240—245 246—249 250 b. of Motion. 258—261 262—268 269—271 272—281 Formation Substantive Nature Its y. b.

. r and in Ellipses —346 347 —350 344 The 351—355 3. The Order Emphasis. c. tm-. In general Enclitic Conjunctions 318 319 Non-enclitic Conjunctions —322 323 —326 — 331 —333 —335 THE SENTENCE. C. 1. b. With the Substantivized Verb With the Passive Participle With the Adjective nt'i — 393 —399 400 401 —404 392 394 Page I7i TABLE OF SIGNS BIBLIOGEAPHY i94 . e. Interrogative Sentence 356 —363 — 372 Negative Sentence. XIII §§ Conjunctions. . Without Connective y. a. 373—377 378—380 381 d. The Simple Nominal Sentence 327 The Nominal Sentence Introduced hy iw and wn. With n and nn The Circumlocutions with The Negative Adjective 364 im-. . 8. a. 3. c. . Kinds of Sentence. y. b. of 2. b. a. a. Words 336—342 343 In geneial y. /3. c. 6. Without Introduction With ir. 384 386 — 385 — 391 — 383 f. Ir-. . /3. Clauses. The Nominal Sentence. Dependent and Substantivized Temporal Clauses Conditional Clauses Relative Clauses. The Parts a. )3. m. a. 332 The Nominal Sentence with pw 334 of the Sentence. a.CONTENTS.

FIRST PART. Pace EXP]RCISES FOR READING. 28* 1. A Writing of Thutmosis' I. 2. 1. 4* 6* Medicinal Receipts Cosmetics and Domestic Receipts 8* 11* From the Proverbs of Ptah-hotep SECOND PART. 40* 42* GLOSSARY . Examples of the Royal Titularies Examples of Grave Formulae. From the Address of Thutmosis' to the Priests of Abydos 3. . to the Authorities of El- phantine. 37* 39* . From the From the APPENDIX. Story of Sinuhe Story of the Eloquent Peasant 17* 2. 4. 1.XIV CONTENTS. Canalizing of the First Cataract 3* I. 0. 3. 2.

LD. M. Inscriptions of Siut (Bibliography Bd).: Late Egyptian. Feminine. Coptic Grammar. Gr. Una: Inschrift des Westc.: Mariette Abydos (Bibliography Bd). 17*).ABBREVIATIONS. fiir agyptische Sprache (Bibliography C. L. Die agyptische Gi aberwelt. Pyramid Texts (Bibliography Bf). Brugsch. Papyrus Prisse (Bibliography Be). Peasant Story of the Eloquent Peasant (Exercises for Reading p. Hdb. Eouge. Pyramid of Pepy I. Auswahl (Bibliography Ba).: Totenbuch. Mastabas (Bibliography Bd). Math. Pyr.) W. RIH. : : .: Papyrus Ebers (Bibliography Be). 3in. or Prisse: : Pepy I. Br. Steindorff. Leps. Eb. : Copt. Denkmaler (Bibliography Ba). Brugsch.: Sinuhe (Exercises for Beading p. 28*). : Butler: Papyrus Butler (Exercises for Heading p.: New Empire. Old Empire. LE. : Wb. Lepsius. Cat. Inscriptions hi§roglyphiques (Bibliography Ba). Bf). Isq. Mariette. Handbuch (Bibliography Be). Ausw. Totb. Mast. Mar.: Lepsius.: Zeitschrift Br. : Wni Papyrus Westcar (Bibliography Be). NaviUe (Bibliography (AZ. (Bibliography Bf). : : Siut: Griffith. n. masculine. 1882. Mar. Catalogue des monuments (Bibliography Bd). C. 28*).). Mar. m. Worterbuch (Bibliography Ab). .: Eisenlohr. m. ed. or Merenre': Pyi-amid of Merenre' (BibUography : Bf). AZ. Ab. Leipzig 1868. : Coptic. Mathemat.: Mariette. e. e.: Middle Empire. d'Ab. : : P.

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the employment of which as the learned.). the po- )ular language of the new empire the most important livergences found in this period are noted in the reErman. Seto 1. \ . Pe- form (found in the so-called "pyramid texts") are noted in the remarks "A" under [the different paragraphs. as far back as the fourth millennium B. the language: The Old-Egyptian^ the oldest language treated in this book. gramm. [of the middle empire and the Late-Egyptian . Arabic. The language of oldest monuments belongs C. and did not entirely die out until three centuries ago. Egypt. literary language continued into culiarities of its oldest Roman times. The Middle-Egyptian^ the popular language . Somali and others). Galla. and to the Berber languages of Northits Africa. 2. mitic languages (Hebrew. Aramaic the East-African languages (Bischari. 3. We 1.INTRODUCTION. The Egyptian language is related to the &c. distinguish the following chief periods of 2.

3. animals. Hieroglyphic writing consists of pictures of men. by Steindorff. Since the idioms cited. is very large.2 INTRODUCTION. (cf. Neuagyptische Grammatik (Leipzig ^. Brugsch (Berthe language of — of course obsolete. 2. "Grammaire demotique". though only about 500 are in frequent use. It is more fully treated in: Erman Sprache des Papyrus Westcar (Gottingen 1889) and Erman. parallel with this book. Christian the Coptic Egyptians written with Greek letters. 1. § 14) the Coptic affords the only possibility of understanding the structure of the Egyp- i tian language. IN GENERAL. 3. their number 13. grammar. — Only one who is already proficient in Old-Egyptian and Coptic should venture into Late-Egyptian or Demotic. lin 1855) 5. are all written without vowels. even for the- beginner. ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. *4. Coptic^ The the Cf. written in a peculiar ortho- graphy. plants. from 1 — 4. It is therefore necessary. and the determinatives of § 47 are sufficient at the start for . marks "B". 1880). to acquire a knowledge of Coptic. Cf. &c. The alphabetic and syllabic signs of §i5 33 — -35. which I hereafter cite as "C".. last The Demotic^ the popular language of the pre-Christian centuries.

1. A Ci "great" and ^^-^ or } § 47).ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. for it reasons of convenience we always write direction. guous signs should together form an approximate rectangle. The writing properly runs from right rative purposes) to left. the other signs he will best learn through usage. inscription is is to be read from the right or the easily determined figures. almost the only ones used in both positions are the especially 'requent signs <«=> or 'cf. 5 — 7. by the heads of the animal and face human which always toward the beginning. in the latter Whether an left. nevertheless. could V only be written as follows 1 t "^ l arrangements like )e <:::> barbarous. The frequent abbreviation ^:=^ | mBC-hrw or ] "justified" is preferably written |. and 5. smr tvQ'i and d /?s "praise". the beginner. — At . would the present day we do not always A* ilosely follow this caligraphic law but to the Egyptian .pf--rr . The signs stand in part vertically as M j H^' ^• in part horizontally _. only exceptionally (when employed for certain deco- from left to right.f_ <cz> 'wwvv ^^. IN GENERATi. Caligraphy demanded that a number of conti- 7. Hence the words "nearest friend" rpCfi "hereditary prince".

was so important. for they have no other points of distinction letters. \ J o i^&c. 1. IN GENERAL. when written upon Egyptian paper. The beginner should take as his pattern practically the writing in Brugsch's Dictionary. 4 it ORTHOGRAPHY AND PHONETICS. hCh "to play" and rmt_ "man" \shc. It is customary to sketch the hieroglyphs exactly. only in large ornamental inscriptions. — were unpleasing. than are presented by our printed and written . *8. he wrote for P sCJi "prince". For example.^ .^=_ hft. in most cases it is regarded as sufficient to outline them in a con- ventional manner with a few strokes. Similarly ^^ often written for the rvt more correct but unpleasing and for 5^. 9. that out of respect in almost all cases for it. he sometimes departed from the correct orthography. and should especially familiarize thimself with the abbreviations for the different birds there employed. because the correct writings ° L " K'X- Jl' is "^—-^ ^<. This is however correct. From the earliest times the individual signs were very much shortened and rounded off. 9. rate writing We have accustomed ourselves to contrast these abbreviated hieroglyphs as a sepa- — the so-called "hieratic" — with the in- writing of the monuments. 8. ^ r^.

4) finally grew. but are also very often employed for another the word having same consonants 3. 5 A knowledge of the Hieratic is not an immediate necessity for the beginner. which are alphabetic or syllabic. for ori- ginal determinatives pass over into ideograms original ideograms into syllabic signs. which often contracts an entire word into one ligature. 12. The two hieratic writing is subdivided further into 10. Phonetic signs. PHONETIC SIGNS. its e. a more angular uncial. PHONETIC SIGNS. THE ALPHABET. and a more rapid cursive. Ideograms. to indicate meaning in a general way. So-called determinatives. em) is as follows: . as the first. and 2. It was this cursive writing.2. in which the individual signs remain for the most part separated. THE ALPHABET. signs placed after a word. a. which represent a certain word. § 2. -2. 10 — 13. fall into three classes ac- 11*. i. out of which the Demotic (cf. a. arrangement of which is The alphabet (the mod- 13*. The hieroglyphic signs cording to their meaning: 1. As may be seen from the table of signs these classes are often not to be sharply defined. varieties.

: 2. i II (Eagle) © 1 t (Reedleaf) ('Ajin) ^— j^ __fl c -^ J ^f AAAftAA UP A k ^==^ k n O t h "1"" to be To these are further signs (j(]y added two secondary « (s is • B. 14*. 14. «. but by means of the Coptic (cf. Our transliteration of these signs must be regarded only as an approximate equivalent of the respective sounds. PHONETIC SIGNS. THE ALPHABET. / for and %/ for n. C. § 15) and . Since the tw »ew empire also written for w.

§ (cf. g. 6. written ra ^^ ^^^ ®- *^"J^ ^^pt. §§ 15 on W ^ cf. an established fact that all signs represent consonants. and Egyptian words in Semitic. (1 e. — In certain endings was used in the oldest orthography to indicate an i. i probably corresponds approximately to 15** But in many words n^ early became i. just as in Semitic writing. or (J imn copt. dicated. [1 I etymologically corresponds to i. are not in- — For the — 16. The vowels. «. the later syllabic writing 70) is also used for indication of a vowel. .2. 15. C§ ^^v 15 2). cf. ii. ^ — In ^^ "husband" (*ha^). 18. § 27). 7 the manner in which Semitic words are transcribed it is in Egyptian. since the ^^V ^' n. THE ALPHABET. hoTT (from *ierp). g Al (cf. ^^ irp and Rem.g- often indicated by the addition of uU m a. i and in many 16*. 16. words always remained a EICDT. e. 1 AMOyN "Amon" (from *^mon.) "wine". ciation. (1 Cf. But with most words it was early lost. (1^ It "father". a pronuny. C§ 15 a. copt. § 27. PHONETIC SIGNS. ^. exceptional use of some few con- sonants for the indication of certain vocalic endings cf. which the later orthography indicates by "^ (cf. copt.

*17. czszi] s corresponds to it our sh. C§ / 12bc. P h and • O h differ like arab. cf. In certain words n also was probably pronounced an /. h. 19. C§ 15 Rem. ciation was very long preserved but in Coptic it has disappeared. 2i\^=>- /about corresponded to our English /". <=^ like r^ represented aaaaaa C§ 8. as well as r. for interchanges with s. standing very near to merged into one sound that one and the same sign '22. w corresponds to Semitic Copt. in the syllabic orthography (Cf. C§ 8a. 18. Qj? to the Semitic 20. 1.8 2. (something like cli M) and (something like German in ach)\ nevertheless in many words © h it appears to have also possessed a softer sound.— Cf. 2j^ ru h is Heb. . 2. ffl. arab. 17 — 22. oy. § 70) and in a few endings. ^ is also used to indicate a vowel (something like u). PHONETIC SIGNS. Cf. C§ 13. ~~*^~ ^^^ ' were likewise originally different sounds. n. ». — Cf. Cf. S. but they were also so early merged into one sound that we transliterate them both with the same sign s. - — \:> a c corresponds to Semitic y and this pronun. C§ 14. — ^-=> was originally a special sound. ® but both were so early we transliterate them with . THE ALPHARET.

sounded about period ints ^. 9 z] k corresponds to p. only. in most words already passed over C§ 11a. with y. e.C§ <^ t 10. PHONETIC SIGNS. at the .2. In the it period <:=^> becomes t. e. Ill (In ms^Y (something like *mesioi "I bear". i.27*. had. S^ is a sound 23. WiUy msis it is i. 'W^ a special modification of the same sound.24. however. 23 27. which must have sounded something like But in most words 'W^ very early passed into latest c=^3. is a sign used since the m. very near to but not to be defined more closely. g. From the m. p. at. d corresponds for the most part to Semitic i? is 25. 4. quently recurring grammatical ending it cannot stand at the beginning or in the middle of a word. corresponds to Semitic of the like f\ . cf. Cf. s= But / is a special 24» modification same sound. e. end of word stems and it in certain endings N\ i' we then transliterate e. 2. {1(1 still the indication of two (I's in the oldest 26*. e. e^i^i t3 : o in the at a very early s=5 Cf. ^C3^ ^ to d. down 1. § 16). which must have n. is Cf. so that coincides with ^ in Copt. Concerning its origin cf. THE ALPHABET. texts. U. for the fre. written for in so far as this has remained (cf. § 108. C§ 11a. *mesios "she bears"). . (j.

according to § 40 have become I . is 28. t also. ^^ it i produces In many words stands. for which a sign wanting. g. Ami tvh:^ "co- lumn" and columns" &c. ssp. phenomena appear sometimes with 30. SYLLABIC SIGNS. many words i was also early lost. (I — Similar and s^i "wise". which interchanges with <^^^^(1. [1 many i and is written (1 and further the combination a- and for initial 29. 32. C. cf. some- times as second. syllabic signs were also used which. k:$m and rv^hi "hall of km^ "create". wh^h with wh^ "seek". The weakness of the breathing peculiar phenomena. Remarkable is the writing of [{'=' it "father" (copt. Along with the simple consonants. 28 —32. ss and ss9 also hs sh. sm^m In with sm9 "kill". and and hsm "holy of 31. e. SPECIAL POINTS IN PHONETICS. Such is a kind of <^:> r occurring as the final letter of words.10 2. b. ssp and §p "receive". EIODT) which since the oldest times appears also as c. holies". Certain sounds. t^m and mi "pleasant". A shtn further interchange is ss. sometimes as third consonant. are expressed by a combination of several. PHONETICS. Along with these occur forms like km:$m with "create". s. PHONETIC SIGNS. SYLLABIC SINGS. very § 157. b.

mnli "wax" etc. The syllabic signs in . i^ y mS #^i tB ^ &i LToTsi r^^tS Of these kB and occur also in syllabic writing all (^C3:^^^^5^^^^) occasionally also hB\ with others the syllabic sign must be used. whose second consonant is 33*. syllabic signs. 34. the The rare ex- ceptions (like jn^ in s&i "door" and dhB "restore") phonetic conditions in probably indicate peculiar these words. wrs "spend time". 11 pure phonetic signs from original ideograms. w are almost as frequent as 34*. Thus •^^. the alphabetic writing may also be used: . . i^^^^. list of hieroglyphs. C. i. To be noted are: --« {] TV^ l^vs I *^ sB U« O t^ J. 33. SYLLABIC SIGNS. appears as a syllabic sign in swri "drink". for such for syllables the most part must be written with these signs. PHONETIC SIGNS. are of importance for the beginner. really an ideogram for wr ''great". appears as syllabic sign in hsmn "natron". really an ideogram for mn "rethe main". however. writ „anoint" &c. The ^^. the above for these. For further examples cf.2.

&c. concrete objects in some way suggestive of them are used Scepter I as ideograms for them: is the ideogram for Mi "reign". rm 1 Note further the \ syllabic signs: (J perhaps IS^ il or sometimes also ^ (l- probably ri. § 43). ^ . (cf.12 3. ^^^ ' ^^^' ^v ' ^^^^ ^^^' § ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ early used in many words as initial . v^^^ M wood.w (cf. lir © nt city. § 133). ^^ Iw If^ *35. (like the sign for i) or %. IDEOGRAMS. tQi ^ face. 37^ Since abstract conceptions and the like cannot be sketched. originally *36. § 102). 35 — 37. . O K sun. the sign of the ending fiw for fi. incorrectly also 3. frv nrv hw sw g7\ li sw and Sw JB^. tb heart. The ideograms denoted the objects which they represent: tiTD pr house. IDEOGRAMS. 1^ m&c soldier. (cf.

e. Although. as _y£^ ')^'^nn "this" is sm^rvt'i "the uniter (of Egypt)" etc. © all not only for nt "city" but also for the plural as well as the adjective [ ntvt nt'l "urban" and forms. only 40*. The ideogram therefore denotes only the consonants forming the stem. Sacred falcon for Hr Target for st "God Horus". also for all forms derived from it. words belonging to the same stem written with the may properly be same ideogram. . used as the arms of upper Egypt for rs "south". g. 38 — 40. In a few cases more than one sign are found united form one ideogram. without belonging to the same stem.3. ^. nevertheless the Egyptians from the oldest times transferred signs to such words as accidentally contained the many same consonants. 38. An ideogram word but "cities". its used not only for one specific 39*. ^ to "shoot". IDEOGRAMS. 13 § Staff of *i* Plant office for hrp "lead". according to the above remarks. is used for all forms of the verb Mi "reign" and the substantivs Mi "ruler" Mif way "ruler" (fem. and not in any a special vocalization of it.). likewise.

to pr "go out". mia "flute" •>i n mic^ "truth". the original con- crete meaning in the case of many such ideograms was therefore nearly forgotten. flute. wr "dove" 91 wr "great". e. thus 41. A e. &c. g. many cases however where a double value it apparently occurs has been caused by the subse- quent merging together of two originally different signs. [3Z: pr "house" transferred r-^i-. IDEOGRAMS. Thus. ^^^ rvr "great" 1^ pB "fly" &c. occur much more frequently than words like "lute. hpr "beetle" si "goose" • ?: H hpr "become". 42. n 55 55 si "son". beetle. htp "offering" transferred to htp T 1 nfr "lute" transferred to nfr "good". so ^ which In is employed for tpt "head" and dBdB "head". son. — Many of these signs were further transferred to so many words that they eventually became purely phonetic syllabic signs. become.: 14 3. In this manner ideograms for stract all sorts of ab- conceptions were obtained. great" &c. Cf. 42. in the merging together of the signs . g. dove" &c. truth. "rest"'. § 32seq. goose. Thus e. few ideograms really have double values. Since words like "good. 41. g.

rnp "bloom". '^^^ &s "bring in". The following frequently recurring ideograms are differently formed from "go". rnj)t -^ kmC | tr "south". A similar confusion of different signs occurs so 43. it is frequently. in which one sign of going separated into different Similarly ideograms by the addition of consonants. [^ sm s^^ is il "come". /H hr "below. with both meanings found &c. 43. 44. ~7T" sh "walk through".. IDEOQRAJIS. kd "build" &c. 2\ nst "throne". "rob". which are regularly confused in the inscriptions. "I j "year".3. differentiated are: l\ In "bring". | mdw "speak" ^^and^/)>. . [j all others: J\ Irv i "go". j4j rs "south".. mine the correct form of a difference in: * Note especially the S I I 5^. 44. 15 () and Y? 0116 of which meant hrp "lead" and the other () shm "mighty". hrtv "voice".^and^n^. one sign its origin. "time". i ist "troop". that o/ten no longer possible to detersign.

which their word denotes g. animal. 45 — 47.16 4. ^ still. bird. g. ^ "^ ^people. the writing. which far more numerous indicate only in general the (I meaning of their word. § 47) comes *46. "in" &c. they are not used. are intended to facilitate the reading. DETERMINATIVES. which every one recognizes of himself. in this case the more general (of. But those determinatives are and important. B. Note especially: P» goddess. insect. Irt "do". revered person. ^ man. DETERMINATIVES. the determinative of heaven and of crocodile in the words ^p^„heaven" and *47. later period there is an inclination to attach several determinatives to a word . The determinatives are At a far rarer in the pyramid texts than later."tobe". A ject few determinatives represent exactly the obe. (l^/^w. latest part of the Egyptian 45 The determinatives. ^^px 's:s==' nish "crocodile". woman. m A. like that of the tree in l<zz>0 hr "tamarisk". . 4. after the more special. ^^ Tvr "great". e. with very frequent words. plant.

:

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

48. 49.

17

Q
s;
AAAAAA AAAAAA

tree,

o

o

dust,
fluid,

(late

V)

land,

S

water,
foreign

J\

go,
see.

r\^^^ desert,

.^^

and,

^
city.
1

what

is

done with

©
1

the mouth,

house,

^
"^

(late

;

n)

that

barbarian,

which demands strength,
little,

9

(late e) flesh,
fire.

bad,

1

.-^•^ abstract.

O

time,

When

a determinative

is difficult

to write, espe- 48,
is

cially in manuscripts,
St "Isis"

an abbreviation \

used,

e. g.

i
m.

for

jj

^ ^•
still

Exact scribes, especially those at the end of the 49*
e.

distinguish

closer difi'erences

in

deter-

mination. They
to render its

mark a determinative with
e. g.
^

m, in order

meaning general,

L^™9 B^r "roast" but (1^ /w/ 2^0\^ pnw "mouse" but "l^"^ Cwt "cattle"
"flesh"

'^T /«rr# "flower" but (1

^

"^

1

Brman,

_^o "^^'iAr^'onionY?).
III

^

Egypt, gramm.

:

18 50.

4.

DETERMINATIVES.

50. 51.

These scribes further add the sign
minative, in order to restrict
its

I

to a detere. g.:

meaning,
1^

""^^^O rk "period of time", but
^
'

%^®
Ji
I

hrw "day",

''°\ ' ^"^s/Wi^^e "northern", but "~^il[l'^ mry? "dyke".
B.

-^nn^
e.

In the

n. e. these

additional

signs

1

1

1

and

I

are often

incorrectly employed.

—To the m,
^
.).

belongs the rare practice of

occasionally furnishing the determinatives

@ and fw^ with the

feminine ending
"city',,

t

(^'

as if they

were the substantives nt

smt "land".

*51.

The stroke must be regarded
determinative which
are written with
determinative,
is

as a special kind of

added to substantives, which

only one sign and have no other

e. g.

^^ dw
°

"mountain",

"^^

ri (?) "mouth",
si "son",

c "arm",

'^'

or (with the feminine ending
dt "hand",

i):

smt "desert" etc.

Nevertheless the usage varies

much here and two

ex-

ceptions to the law here given are found in all texts:
J^

hr

1.

"face", 2.

"upon" with

|

even when the

word

is ~~^

^

a preposition, not a substantive.
s

"man" with

|

notwithstanding the other]

determinative which follows.

cf.

also § 58.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

tt.

IN GENERAL.

52. 53.

19

A

determinative

is

frequently transferred from 52*

one word to others, which have the same consonants,
even when
it

does not suit their meaning.
is

Thus,

e. g.

the syllable kd

written

:

\

^

or

I

because of
Ih "to thirst"

kd

"circle"
(1

and kd "make pottery";

written:
written:
A.

\^^^ because oilh

"'calf";

^^"eternity"
etc.

^1

because of dt "landed property",
is

Especially to be noted in the old texts

the writing
flesh

O

twf "he

is"

which has taken on the determinative of

from hcf

"flesh".

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.
a.

IN GENEEAL.
trans- 53.

The orthography, which experienced great
often arbitrary

formations in the course of time, determines in an

manner how

far phonetic signs, ideo-

grams, and determinatives must be employed in writing
different words.

The most widely spread and import-

ant system of orthography which
as classic,
is

may be

designated

found

in the greatest purity in the
e.
;

manu-

scripts of the

m.

with this system the beginner

should seek to make himself as familiar as possible,
before he approaches texts in another orthography.

B*

:

20

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY,

b.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.
of the p3ramid texts
is

54. 55.

A.
able,

The orthography

exceedingly varidifficult

and renders the understanding of them very
it is

indeed;

but for us

of importance, because

it

often

—even though not
classic
o. e.

consistently

— distinguishes

grammatical forms which the

orthography leaves undistinguished.
seeks the greatest possible brevity.

—The orthography of the

b.

OETHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGEAMS.
of

54«

The majority
gram, to which
is

words are written with an ideoits

added an indication of

pronun-

ciation in alphabetic signs.

Whether

all

the conson-

ants of the

word are

to be written, or only a part;

whether they are to stand before or after or on both
sides of the ideogram, is decided

by usage for each

separate word.
the usage
(cf.

The following paragraphs present

of the classic orthography.

— Caligraphy
is

§ 7) is

moreover often the motive

for the selection

of a given writing.
*55.

Usually
added.
is

it

is

only the final consonant which

To

biliteral
e.

ideograms the

final

consonant

subjoined,

g.:

^^J\ pr
r\\ms

"go out",

^^yv,
t

^h "go in",

"to bear",

'^
^1

M "white",
e,

to triliterals the final consonant,

g.

^
f

tipr

"become",
"stand",

^7\^

^-'^

T | ^^^ "lay", '^ rvSd "green", I

:

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY.

5.

ORTHOGRAPHY OF THE IDEOGRAMS.
last

56. 57.

21

or also
e. g.:
/->

— but more rarely — the
Cn?i "live"
n "1

two consonants,

AAAAAA

-¥-

n l<zi> rvsr "strong".

T

nfr "good".

More
§

rarely all the consonants are written,
hi)

e.

g.

:

56*.

\'^ZE^

"feast",

"times" (germ. Mai), (^ ^^

and

still

more

rarely only the initial consonants^ as in:

^ ^
n^ J
A.
frequent,

llgrg "sieze possession",

s&i "star".
AAAAAA a^^^ AAAAAA

In the oldest orthography writings of just this kind are

H
nfr "good",
o

Q

cf. e. g.

:

t

and

t

^

a

ChC

"stand"',

^

a

n 9

M
§t

AAAAAA

ChC "palace",
'

"Lord'' instead of the

classic writings T

v

n

'

m

'

^—^

Mt^.

Finally in some isolated cases the initial conson-

57.

ant of the ideogram or
placed after
it,

its

entire phonetic writing

is

e, g.

W'
J
A.

^(J "to

command",

^^

dmd

"unite",
"'^^ sick",

jj[ ur-3 Cr "storehouse", ?

^^^^^''

mA
This

'"^
is

"pyramid".
remnant of the oldest orthography;
in the

also a

pyramids such writings are frequent.

'^^nir ^ mh nb "lord". PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. which also occur occasionally later. &c. ' nb "every". "god". Only a few especially frequent ideograms the abbreviations of § 67 netic addition. e. mrvt "mother". healthy". These are in part very frequently recurring words. as: — except — are left without any pho- ^ I hr "face". and the feminines ^ I c. ^ Jmt "woman". Note the rare cases v\ | for v\ h ^^ - wd:$ "sound.: 22 *58. 58. V ^^'^ (] l\ "^^^"' »^^^ "lion". C. like: (1^ ^^^ tw "to be". etc. ^ ^ ^ ht "house". PUBBLY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. In the oldest orthography the purely phonetic writing very frequent. . without ideograms. n^^(l^ A. "fill". § '^^ ^ for "^^ ^ i/jf "field". Jl^ ^ %. ^ rn "name". 59. All words for which the orthography possesses no ideogram are written with purely phonetic signs — i. ^ ss (?) "scribe". is STvrl "drink". pr "house". 59. iM m 2i \\\ msC "armv". 5. °'=s. OETHOaEAPHY. St "Isis".

g. those derived from sub- stantives then receive a stroke according to § 51. final consonant which mr. As a rare writing note that of the syllabic sign is ^— ^ w'^ • Y>. . Note the writing of the words mln and si^ : [1 62. the pronunciation is is added to them in the is same way. g. according to § 40. PURELY PHONETIC ORTHOGRAPHY. in which the subjoined i be inserted within the syllabic sign. C. thus 6i. e. LJ ^j>^ [q] 5J>^ O ^^ . and is to 'Ij— p^^O f^n-l. employed without phonetic addition. in which the phonetic value indicated by means of another frequently recurring sign for nw. g. A few syllabic signs moreover are often also 61*. cf. were. rvn. mn^ ^^ &c. originally ideograms. '^ hr. 23 Since the syllabic signs employed in these writings 60*. e. sS-i. But in many cases the initial consonant also is written (and such syllabic signs are thereby dist- inguished from the real ideograms. It mostly the ms.: : 5. 60 — 62. § 56) e. OKTHOGRAPHY.* * according to Sethe. written. ^ tirv.

° ^ for ptr "see". "woman" written J) i (that is without indication of the tv). Almost all grammatical changes left is therefore which take place within a word are hmrvt plur. ^ « ^ Jl ^^^ ^^- "°^^"''5 oQ j] for htm "to seal". ^ for sm^ "land". for iht "thing". mr "stone".24 6. d. the Egyptians omitted much as dispensable. where will perceive it is supposed that the reader himself n. 63. ^^^ ^ for hrd "child". But further. the grammatical endings are also often omitted. v^ s^ for f^sr "desolate". . Note especi- ally the frequently used words: S ^ ^_^ for llf h ^ "father". 64. which seemed to them self-evident. . d. g. Since the Egyptian writing was naturally intended only for such as were familiar with the language. ABBREVIATIONS. ORTHOGRAPHY. them from the connection: Hi for the plural sr{w) "princes". °|| for c^i "correct". 63. n for sms "follow". of J) Jimt unindicated. woman" is &c. for for hCp "Nile". Further with many phonetically written words a consonant regularly or often omitted. ABBREVIATIONS. e. 3 ^^37 for hmt «&[^] "every 64.

d. "offering". titles In frequently used arbitrary "prince". like: ^^^ tvp rv^rvt "opener of ways" (a divine name). hale.. 1 0| for nhh "eternity". (a "o" I for I ^^^ oD I ^^^ "to reign". which 67. tr'i "be- longing to"..5. <^II> for (J . 65 — 67. like: still more hCfi 66. jf triliteral ideogram in violation e. the bene- diction nr for Cnh wdB snb "living. ^^^ for d |l I for rpCtt "hereditary prince". 25 '^ for dfS "food".sr "strong". Belonging to the earliest period. consonant is added to a of § 55. g. ® n T. ^^'^ '^"^^ for l<=r>«.: I for stn "king of upper Egypt". ABBREVIATIONS. and formulae.. n &c. ORTHOOKAPHY. I () for shmt "name of a goddess". . abbreviations occur. the old divine names.^ for shsh "walk. Here belong also the cases where only its second 65. healthy". are: c^ for Iao^ tt "father". A. are written with only an ideogram are abbreviations. but sometimes occurring later also. Further. &c. run". also \\ "^^ for \\ \\ "^^ iwf "flesh". titles &c.

In titles. priest"./. nht "strong". 1 "^^ sB I stn "son of the king". e. e. i oQ /. trvi "statue" &c. is very often so abbreviated that only its deter- minative s Q is inserted. words which desig- *69. the syllabic signs . Since the m. D e. which nevertheless was only used for the writing of foreign words. nate the king or a god are inserted in the writing before the others belonging thereto. names &c. formulae. Finally. the correct order must of course be restored. Toq"^] 68. a syllabic orthography. mi RC "like ReC". | for s"^"^!! cf. for O ^ ^"^^^^^ is hCwf-RC «his diadems are those of ReC" (royal name) &c. 70. INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS. in reading. a word which obvious from the connec- tion. y '^ hn-ntr "servant of the god. UNUSUAL STYLES. (For the most important cases the table of signs). g. for ^^— ^ for l I S>j kBt "labor". e.: 26 e.^ It consists of proper names &c. I Sci 1 5 J}n-ntr Hkt "priest of the goddess Hkf". g. UNUSUAL STYLES OF ORTHOGRAPHY. INVERSION OF THE ORDER OF WORDS. 68 — 70. there developed along with the usual writing.

The f_TV-pB-'irB for )'r^(i) the Hebrew nsb "scribe" &c. e. imate indication of the vowels e. 72. 6. syllables in i and The sounds i and evidently serve as the approxof. s=> ^ A^ ^. determinatives and un- precedented signs are used as ideograms. RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION. — 35 and of other rv . er and en. seem to correspond to and j'TT ^ employed therein. syllables ^. e. wherein 2j) as determina- tive of m5 "child" represents this syllable. Lauttvert (Leipzig Verzeichniss der Hieroglyphen mit RULES FOR TRANSLITERATION. 71. of these signs may be found inBru^sch. 27 treated in §§ 33 TV. in which ideograms serve as simple consonants. —A summary 1872). UNUSUAL STYLES. ^C^^ \\ for HI msdmt „cosmetic". 71. Sportive methods of writing. that a transliteration free from some arbitrariness is impossible. mt. \\ mrvt "mother" first the syllable — But this wanton method attains importance from the fact that such an orthography gradually superceded the old hieroglyphs in the Greek period. 72. One should accustom himself to the following rules . g. c^:^ drv "moun- tain^ represents d. The orthography so often leaves the phonetic form of the words uncertain. 6. g.: /. cf. are found as early as the m.

1. '^-=^ and I and d only employed when s=> and are actually written out. j j| w^r but | <zr> nirt} In the case of omitted consonants (§§ 64. when in doubt. '1 v^ R(^-ms-sw PRONOUNS. 30) Words in which the order of consonants changes should be written. 25 had. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 73. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. 65) (§ 63). the prepositions and the verb. Hence first mi andj only i^m 4. in which they oftenest occur. (§ 29. restored. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. suffixes. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. only those and grammatical endings should be supplied which occur in parallel cases really written out. with the form r) . to express poa .28 PRONOUNS. in and and d should always be transliterated in cases of doubt. in the m. Hence nk ^\ according to § 133 but 3. e. 1. a. Hence 2. when this reading is phonetically written outj In compound words the component parts should fn be separated by a hyphen: "Ramses". e. a. Since most s=>'s and '^"^'s according to §§ 24. and rather too little than too much should be imi. 1. already become n. *73. e. The personal which are subjoined to tl noun. t -^li and ci^^i. texts of the ra.

falls After consonants the suffix later cf. g. pATK) "thy foot". c. ®' g- ^^ ^ or ^^Ji is ^^ "^^ Ji left according s^l as a man. f. word to which they are subjoined. ^^ f (--) . f. r:z::y(> 2. is according to the Coptic an i 74. in the o. ^-'^^'^tn ' ' ' jaa^aaa j I I . tt. read Nevertheless it "my son". n ( 2 m. Sing. according to the classic orthography are: c. sdm-k "thou hearest"). 74. c. pAT "fuy foot" C 5). g. a woman or a god speaks. hr-k "upon thee".1. glj ^^^z::^ The (e. e.77. The pyramids aways write as and this writing occurs an exception B. later also.= P V/WWVA /^~^ 5«[/wsAAA» 1/ (O) n A/\AAAA •* 3 m. § also. e. A. \ I 3. 1 ^ ^^ (^'^) k t Plur. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. lovest". away (e. c. g. 29 session or the subject (e. 1 sg. g. sometimes unindicated here (cf. from the m. it is always left l^mt\l\ unindicated. . e. 1. g. S'^"^ mr/t "thou rdk (copt. XODI "my head"). especially in the «-form of the verb it (I. down it mostly indicated by determinatives. 194). pr-k "thy house". I They are written after the determinative of the e. is To "my office". copt. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. suff.

f. ImitTV-sni o^'''^ be found. e.g. g. al^ In the m. though it is not always written out. Cw?/'«"his two arms". sg. and 2 ready passes over into o nevertheless £= and jlJ . f. []' snl. 'V ^^i'C^^^ second". e. B. "^1 hrs "on account the 3 f. THE PERSONAL PEONOUN. The 3 m. 3 plur. 2 du. when they are subjoined to a noun in the dual or having the dual meaning. 1.. f. often used for the neuter of it" . f^AA^^f^tnt. PERSONAL SUFFIXES. g. sg. — are often written later also. is sometimes and the 3 "it". sptw'iki\ "thy two lips". The pyramids write such a *^- — [l fc. were early superceded where we would expect the 77. occurs even for more than one person. 75 — 79. are d 3\ and in Copt. cf C§ 50. The pyramids have 3 du. t . These suffixes are not used as object. . 76. . very strangely take the dual ending i. s= t of the 2 sg. ^ v::. 7. suffix TvCrftfi ""his two| snnrv/'i "his A 79*. legs". attached to infinitives (e. tt. The suffixes of the dual by those of the plural. pi. 78. 5. Nevertheless] as possessive suffixes * Todth. nevertheless "ir^.* 30 75.j . this suffix has lost the (-E). Late writings of the t 2 sg.* "between them both" **«*« ] is still to ] A. e. On the other hand the suffixes of the singular.

b. AftAAAA tn aaaaaa I 1 1 {1m or Inl) 3m f. b. the copt.i::^^tw f.\\c^ They are still employed (cf. on the other hand regularly as object. are already tw and tn. with the suffixes in the plural. 328. Since the forms of. c. 369. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. "at thy drawing") they represent the object to our grammatical sense and the Egyptians themselves later conceived them as such. THE OLD ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. .1. '^^ ?v2 Plur. e. verb are infinitive. even when the ^ not written. Its forms. B. of course always to be read «. ^^J n III tn 2m. ^. C§ 174). C. and the 2 m. which externally at least are identical 80*. as subject. is pi. e. 1 c. THE PERSONAL PROHOUN. The 2 m. The 1 sg.t=>^tTv. SW 3. 80. are: Sing. almost only in a certain few cases § § 166. 81. I I ' /WWVA^^ III III W St SI Neutr. c. mostly made with the these suffixes have therefore become real ob(cf. 1. 3 c. ject suffixes in Copt. trv 81. is is fji written in the in the o. -The 3 f. 31 ° ^[j^l"" /?r Ithk "when they draw thee" lit. '^-^^^ 2. 383).

m. 3 still to 1 sg. the pyramids have also further forms of these pronouns which they employ with special emphasis. Plur. I ntsn ^ nts . oi ntk ntt {latter ntt) 2 AAAAAA g ) ^wvaaa c. tm and The form \\^ the 3 the f. c. refer to § 76). These forms are only employed as emphatic sub- and correspond to the emphasizing of the sub- stantive Sing. nttn o '^^ -^ (later n^^w)| Zm. time of the m. 82 — 84. 2 m. and for the *82.32 1. . For the tn. Of these. from e. ? 2 m. e. ntf 1 3 c. LATER ABSOLUTE PEONOUN. st perhaps originally belonged to but it is nevertheless regularly used. f. "it") about". 83. They are: c. v\ 2 (1. by means of Inwk AAAAA^ In (cf. for neutr. fwt. only e. 1 c. down. 3. ject. 2 f. f. 2 m. 3 f. i ^^ swt is be found in the m. pi. *84. A. sTvt. § 350). f. Cnnsn "they turned themselves (lit. g. a. they have two forms tw and kw. the pron. stt. THE PERSONAL PRONOUN. Along with the above. LATER ABSOLUTE PRONOUN. like pnt. It is used with decided preference and a number of persons (cf. sn is almost entirely superceded St by it. The pyramids write the 1 sg. "it". C. wll. may even Cf. 1.

^(3i(Xi' descends C§ 52). The word with the suff. Erman. The most common demonstrative "this". for "self"*. Eg^pl. this expression. d. from which the copt. already ob- and are replaced by nn after § 91). AAAAAA is: 86. in the (cf. (i Iptn (ptn) The plural forms solete. dsk "thyself". J LD 1 1 1 ht in AAA^/W "this castle". 66. pronouns have descended. later becomes more frequent. C§ 51.. — In cere- Sin. In the pyramids they are is rare. e. g. FORMS WITH MASC. m. still A. a. . THE EXPRESSION FOR p| ds- "SELF". AA/SAAA Plur. J9-FEM. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. (cf. (J later an inclination to write the M^i.2. the and the possessive B. 103) the others consisting of a little syllable nt. t-. occurs rarely The word hC "body" with or -without suff.(cf. e. 33 As may be seen. § suffixes. "himself etc. 2. is an exceptional form. There 1 sg. 85. t-. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. — It always stands the substantive: I pr AAAA/VN j9n "this house". WITH p-. means "self. C. m. 86. Ipn (pn) f. Sing. ^5/" B. are.. (hi "myself". m. Prom these forms the copt.* pn [1 ^ f. granim. cf. 1 sg.

! 34 2. prv. trvy In the archaic language m. 334. lJX\i\ also (1 pwy. In n. O. m. it is almost entirely The weaker word prv^ occurs 1. In the later language it is entirely lost. "this prince"). 239. § 93. it with especial emphasis before the m pn gs "on this side". ipw f. it A. ceremonial address : Ppy prv "o Pepy" prv n Tnrv ^'Cmwi- in apposition. A. (properly p/?? //i?). B. especially in direct address. 88. is replaced by w/i. DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. WITH p-. 87 90. t-. cf. hhB n-Sl. (lit.pi). pf. which also later written *^-=--. the prince of Tnw" Iptw. is m. 1^ \\ ^h^ P^f'i- It follows the substan- tive and often adds an implication of despicableness. pw (also p. B. *87. o^ (J (1 occur. it still survives: sing. A. The pyramids have also the plural ipf and also place § 86 A) before the substantive. 2. (^mw'i-n-sl. In the pyramids f. f. and are properly perhaps identical with the old 89. . m. monious language it also follows proper names of persons. f. The old word i/" for "that" is sing. tw . The pyramids use substantive also. is "90. The usual later demonstrative sing. m. e. — (like The pn plur. in 3. for "this" (following its noun) almost only in this one form and then only in the cases in §§ 237. lost. plur.

this combi(cf. b.* I ddnf nn "he said this"^ — But |j^[j|j it is for the most part connected by the genetive n with a following singular or plural: I I aaaaaa ^ nn n sht'i "these peasants"^ (lit. t^i which. . &. the plural is ^^ ^ cf. 35 pS. pB does not occur. 92. Later the genetive § 86). DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS. it Sin. — also used as a substantive (jai pw Wslr Q/^^ "this Osiris") and then has also a plural. | 4-4.* . as a substantive > \\) nn> it is used precisely like 92. A. § 113. § 94. in ^ nw n 12. differing from the others. ^^^^ "these n falls away: nn (4-4-) and AA/\A/W I I are AA/v^A^ I I incorrect writings for nn. 2 Bauer Westc. "this". f. nation replaces the plural of j9« B. In the pyramids B. . developed from p^. i- — cf.^^ I ^^ properly a substantive. "this": 91. C* . o^. The article is later c. 5. is always placed before the substantive: ^^^^ D/>^^^ It is is v"^ pi* S/drv "thi&_book". D v\ (older nn. the later demonstrative also pB'i TTAl (C§ 68) is descended from pB. 32. FORMATIONS WITH U: 91. FORMATIONS WITH n-. "this of peasant"). Usually replaced by ni. means 75.2.

EXPRESSION OF GENDER. 2. B. "this". It more archaic I I than nn. a. "V ''^'^ /'^wT III wi n gmhrvt "these wicks" ^ A. e. SUBSTANTIVES. B. 2 Eb. 108. w/j? n c^wt "those swellings (?)"^.. % K^ the «i "this" is a substantive. it in the combination wi n with following plural. the naturally feminine. 2. 5. which are conceived as feminine. various inanimate objects.36 NOUNS. e. and denotes -t 95. like nst "throne". The masculine and feminine are distinguished. serves § 90. hence cf. 113). e. a. also *94. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. The feminine has the ending 1. 297. 1. in the n. t Eb. as the plural of . Here also the genetive n article is falls away wi. SUBSTANTIVES. In ^^' it is lost. § 87): is o WW n LA ntrw^ "These gods". g. AAA/SA^ for the most part ''K^ § 113 B. . 3 Siut I. To the pyramids nB is still unknown.?i (cf. replaces J| I I the plural of prv (cf. AA/ViAA 95. wCrt "leg". g. NOUNS. 1. 20. ^^^^ plural ^^^ ^^ '^^ same way replaces the of/?/".

258.5 hnw CTZ] hnw "interior". Hnmrv Chnum. also §§ 282. also those with n like ''-' Fioop). is still A.: [I vx^^wpw Anubis. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. It is nevertheless only rarely with divine names etc. like Cs^t "multitude". 395. 37 3. which 96. U. and the 5. ?]\. In the pyramids this ending B. Abstract conceptions. rhyt ''huma- nity". Collectives. s. with various substantives like c. the ending was probably already -^. . ^^^^£=3% Mntw Month. with substantives which denote a person and Q are derived from an adjective or verb: M+i hrvrrv ^^^^^^ "pauper" (from Q^^""^^^ ny J\ /?wr "poor"). ^ V^ 3. 96. In the n. 2. The masculine originally had an ending was denoted by written. D%>. like. 4. like ntt "that which". more frequent. (] ^ ^^O^ lost. The ending of the feminine. e. rv. 97. SUBSTANTIVES.«sw "follower" (from sms "follow") cf. is always written. especially "jar". u. JmtC^) "evil". 292. Expressions in the neuter. 97. chiefly 1.1. Itrw "stream" (pronounce *jotru. like stnyt "kingdom".

the feminine ending loses e its t. E. Hence often omitted in the n. . probably because smt "foreign land" b. 99. noun C§ 63 possess- ed various definite formations seq. e. 6. down. which seems to have super- ceded the plural of ^ "^ rmf "man". FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. — The collective — It rmtt "humanity". e. 98. ^rn = *ran (oAN) "name". but these are not to be recognized in hieroglyphic ortho- graphy. that the (cf. EXPRESSION OF GENDER. O K = (1 *reC (oh) "sun". (HOn) "wine". We perceive from the Copt. ^ sm = *sm (cim) "herb". I ^. at S=rr> I I is written almost without exception B.). C§ 61). 1 From the n. like ^:z:^ v\ J^^s "Ethiopia" are treated as feminines. ?^^ dnh = *denli . or added in the wrong 98. and feminine substantives end in the fem. ending is or a long vowel (cf. :^ lrp=*ierp (TNg) "wing". because they are for the most part distinguished only by different vocalization. FOEMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. is understood with them. place- The names of foreign lands. g. and only disregarded |n^ g in abbreviations (like | J for ht ntr "house of god"). although they do not have the feminine ending.99.s 38 a.

QUI fl in most \v III sC'i "sand" (0)0)). ^%^ I trvt == *?«. wt (pronounce e. is found later only in proper names. e. So g.: ningstar" II ^ "^ ^ Im^hw mrrvt (1 . ""^ .^(1 fl ^ Im^Jiy "revered" l\l\ci mryl "love". SUBSTAKT1VE8. h. yt^ the question seems rather one of an i belonging to the stem. Hr "Horus". f. f. like ^w^ u flri "the one belonging to Horus" In (German "der Horische") from ^^. yt. <*. ai. f. w. most cases these words have taken on a peculiar form in their orthography: in the o.. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE. in the m. A ical large number of substantives l\ this others by the ending ending is probably ident- with the adjectival ending of § 132. they end in m. in the is older period the ending of the masculine cases not written: °. loi. with the numerous substan- m. figure". '^^'^^ ^-^^ spr = *spir (cnip) "rib". On tives in the other hand. ui^ uit'^). derived from 100. 39 yC^ ^^^ "" *^orA (^(Dps) "night". ?/. 100. /'^^ snf = is *snof (CNOq) "blood".5^ (TOYa)T) "statue. . than of an ending. The old writing of this ending. 101. . 1. in m. e.

. is true"). The prefix tl "belonging to" title A I is entirely obsolete. v\ tt-sio "the one belonging e. i. for abstract ideas {bw nfr e. FORMS OF THE SUBSTANTIVE.) to express the nature it is or practice of that to which prefixed {nt-hsb "Rechnungswesen") J . n probably: "it tive "truth". by means of a prefixed m. . it is nevertheless found in the to him". \ b. SUBSTANTIVES. .40 1. nt-^ Note further the prefix (like the which is used German ". 102. Those in rv'i like ^ i=^ Mwi' "darkness". A^/^A^A J n \\ nhs'i "negro" ? f] iJ U ^ nJjsyt "negress". follower of the king. this prefix written preferably with the syllabic sign . "place". Since the m. A number is of substantives is derived from verbs e. wesen". made with ^ in^ i. i 103. aaaaaa r\ r\ 102. are perhaps old duals.=^^ m (of. which is used like a substan- A. and the expressions. 103. §35): I ^ All \ "ihst "scales" (from h^ "measure"). "good is place" "the good"). — A remarkable form ) the frequently recurring -^^ ^^ AAAAAA - wn m^c L (properly. msdmt "eye cosmetic" &c.

df^to" victuals". . they (1 put o o o after purely phonetic writings: v° in ° ° ^^^^ "®^" cellent" (pi. "princes" (obsolete). «. III. l<rz>^|^ ^ "princes" (abbreviation A. C. • www mnw 000 "monument".). (more rarely ° °°).1. There is often found in the pyramids also the threefold e. ntrrv "gods". is Apart from the ending. 1 Mw "mil- 1 ntrrv "gods" (abbreviation of III. 2. prw but still ^P nwt "cities" (archaic. EXPKES8I0IT OF NUMBEB. 4. retained with some words). (j. by a threefold writing of words written with | | j an ideogram: "houses". by means of i. Such writings also occur sporadically later. 104.). also X X U . which follows the ideogram standing alone: !^i lions". PLURAL.). The plural of the masculine ends ^ tv (about 105" . 1. which follows the deter5r/y minative: of 2. a. 41 c. SUBSTANTIVES. the plural cally indicated: 1. by means of i. 105.104*. by threefold hCt'iw writing of the determinative: =^wiM^wi 3. repetition of phonetic signs. hkSw "charm". PLURAL. ^^ ^^ ^^ . orthographi. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER.

^i. v'^ sww "herbs". e. Eb. hrrv plural of hrw ''day". a. e. e. not written with signs. B. C§ 109 seq. § it 133) take plural ending. cf. On the plural of ""^^^ ^ cf. there are also plurals in (J (J y. 61). end ''-' 2. . § 97. 106. j | [^^^ Miw "rulers". PLURAL.). firv (cf. The plural of the feminine ends in ^ rvt {*wetj C§ 1 109. ^ The adjectives in fi (cf. so words which contain no phonetic "heads". C. 4. Note especially: 1. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER. that of the adjectives in ti ends later in ^\ (I lA ^W- "106. 116 seq. probably because the word already ends i in the sing.42 like 1. for the most part. § 133 those in write with the sign and 43. the of the plural not written out: ^^ 3. 12. In the n. '^^. which g. that ofl (1 (1 stn "king of upper Egypt" has the form 1 I ^ jv in stnyrv. g. The w is. With words which rv in the singular already is in V^. '^|J^^w^&wr'necks"i 58. | ^ i dSd^w ntrtv ''gods".). SUBSTANTIVES. is consistently written in good manuscripts. ^w cf.

43 (horn nhbt). ill. g. 107* The dual 1. 19. 108. (from ^ In '^ Cj^tvt "swellings (?)^ ^ c^t) &c. by the with words t^w'i written with only an ideogram: "the two lands" -ending 2. being usually written for Ijmrvt 3 i "women" &c. With other words the determinative is repeated: thnwi "the two obelisks". classic orthography these endings are nevertheless rather seldom written. in the plural. 108. by which the threefold writing of the ideogram or determinative is avoided. is Just as there a determinative. EXPRESSION OF NUMBER.1. CI P. — In this case the not written. 107. DUAL. is mrfi{l) "the two eyes". \\ 1 Grave in Assuan. C. i i was a corresponding or \^. . DUAL. - Eb. |3. SUBSTANTIVES. '^V'||i ^^P^^ "years"' (pMnooyp. wwva^^^ mnti "the two ending is legs". 108. which is still e. from rnpt pOMNF). is orthographically indicated: repetition of the sign. so also in the dual there sign. — The written for the most part. nn III tit ^ ®'^'^\y ^^-^ % Cfi "the two members". 5 used or as a determinative in the oldest texts.

all Differently from our conception of is it. \>v is forgotten and the value of a vocalic sign for the dual ending which "109. where we expect the is plural. this But since the has i. . subjoined to the substantive. in the m. the plural used: 1. "600 men ed) from ^^ the brave". especially where e. DUAL. is The dual ending masculine is properly an i which. ^^^::^ nb "every" (selecti. e. is then also employed for every similar ending?. e. the feminine to the feminine ending ings of these endings are m. S^ | it gmhrvTi "the two door jambs". 110.. kn nb "every brave one"\ e. is 110.44 Y- USE OF THE SINGULAR. e. they are written ^ rv'l f. DUAL. on. in joined to the masculine ending t. "from 111. g. m^^^ ^ h^f» 1 LU II 122 b. with abstract nouns. m. The older or writ^' ^Ol] V^ tvli^ I1h ov c^ tl\ from the m. PLURAL. W ^(] v:^ U (j CrvU "the two arms". meaning of I I. 111. PLURAL. USE OP THE SINGULAR. (for ~^). The singular often employed collectively. g.

g. the plural denotes separate pieces of the material. instead of "^ n^ with following sq. SUBSTANTIVES. 2. begins to employ the demonstrative pi § 90) as an article. THE ARTICLE. 112. e. in the singular. this But plurals of singulars also (e. d. like names of the metals. The older language has no expression known us for the stantive. Since the m. to 113. The dual pairs. first and the popular language of the m. are used nb "gold". cf. 'Tk AAAAftA ^^ e. aaaaaa mw "water". g. with names of material e. definiteness or indefiniteness of a sube.. AAAAAA B. It early became d. — With words of material. C§ 112 . C§ THE ARTICLE. plural is written nB n. t^' '^"^ nB n ("the of ') with following singular or plural. which. ^"Ix^nil tSw «heat". m.^^—^fkBrv "reward" &c. 113. (cf. n \\ =0==D==D= Irpw "wine" &c. Sing. ^^ . — cf. f. "^^^^. or things in 121. sort are early treated as mntv "monument". 45 "time". hrw "height". The forms are: i>^. g. . mw the "water"). is only used of persons extinct. nbw "gold nuggets".1. Plur.

re- gularly omits the article with certain words. in all cases. . further. e. C§ 54). In the later language.) - tions .^(1(1j^^^ for pSyfpr (really "the his house") ^^ prf "his house". . a^^. cult the expressions of the and the kingdom. this (cf. "one of . the combina(masc. n " . The feminine is tByf^ the plural nByf n B. f 115. originates from the combination of the article with the possessive suffixes. 3. "any' The indefinite article wC copt. e. \\ 'ww^ I rvCro "one of. In the n. does not yet exist in the popular '^'^'^ tongue of the m. d. . TSq-. the expression pByf "his" "the his") copt. e. The later "indefinite" article also. (lit. e. g.. THE ARTICLE. NEq- C§ 55).". 46 114. would be used. relation and replaces the possessive where the article § 73) e. This popular language of the m. is the HEq-. . the plural is nByf. in Copt. SUBSTANTIVES. AAAftAA Jl fit — I o^^i wCt B.. are 1. 114 — 116.) still mean (cf. 4. Before a substantive it denotes the possessive suffixes (cf. These the names of all parts of the body. (fem. 2. nCDq (cf. 1. . . a few words occurring with especial frequence. "possessive article" 116. many designations of localities. OY C§ 122) grew out of this wCw n in the n. .

belong the numerous cases where a 118. 1 1 9. g.^ 2. it specifies material: n ^ j 1^ i. O n "at the time of". ^ rC nh "every day" (lit. : in expressions with sp "time" %» 1 1 1 spw 4 1 "four times". '^"'"^ The substantive stands absolutely: r\ very often tr 117. it specifies locality : -^ ^ Jc^%\@ Tm{7) ' Sin. phagus of white stone . 2 Una 5. ikr shrw "excellent in plans". 1. In an the substantive explaining 119.e. ^^ Inr a sarco- hd. THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. a sarcophagus". COORDINATION. apposition. stands after the one explained. 3. e. THE ABSOLUTE SUBSTANTIVE. for designation of place in expressions like <^ hnt "in front". °^ mht "northern". 47 e. krs "white stone. "every sun"). APPOSITION A. 117. r j for designation of iime^ e. . Here also. substantive follows an adjective in order to specify that to which the quality of the adjective refers: "^ ^ ^ /. 49. 3. The following peculiar cases are important: 1. (dIIII fnpt 4 „in the fourth year"./. APPOSITION AND COORDINATION.

e. 3 LD H. to be closely connected [dC hr hrvyf "storm and wind") are joined by the preposition n sition ft ^ while the prepo- AAAAAA hnC permits each of the connected words to stand forth individually {Itf hnC mrvtf "his father. 22 jars of beer^. ^\^^^^ number 120. The pyramids cooi'dinate also by means of the particle * which comes after the words to be connected. Leps. 11. In a series of coordinated words. 122 "^ a. it specifies number and measure: i. Prisse 9. Abydos'V i. Jj i they are usually left unconnected: hmtvt t^yw ^^"^^ U U \>i^=fi> ^ "women and men". rmt 600 "number. 14. m hnms r-prv "as lord or as brother or as is friend"". a consisting of 600 men. 1 AZ 29. Abydos situated nomos 3. Ausw. 120. 121. of Thinis. 8 d. 9 S^ ) [It] ^^^hkt my 22 "Beer. 293.48 /. In rare cases r-prv repeated after every] word. The expression for "or" dv^v r-jow (older to be separated D^) m nb. comes after the words by "or": m sn. . in the Bhdrv "Thinis. 132^ 5 Westc. 600 men". A. Jisb.^ e. 120 — 121. 6 2 glut I. « Sm. as well as his mother"^). tsf.^ — Things which are /?r. i. e. APPOSITION AND COORDINATION. 9. 22 jars".

in other cases the two words 123*. in the combination cannot be separated. This last case persisted the Coptic forms suffered down C§ 140). 49 g. ed only by the position of the two substantives. direct genetive is especially preferred: 124.2 B. that they words is for the e. 2 Sin. . and are treat- On the other hand.-^-^ [l I may be ihrvt Is separated. After general designations of locality: ^^. 122 — 124.. THE GENETIVE." The connection between the two loose. "="^ » Siut I. DIRECT GENETIVE.. most part so . THE GENETIVE. DIRECT GENETIVE. a. E^ypt. n «=^ ^ n pw pr-hCfi "but they are not things of the prince's house" ^ where the genetive Ihrvt pr-hCfi is divided by is pw.^ overseer of peasinto the Copt.-n-^. in which the governing word stands before the governed til It mil i-\ pr imn "House of Amon. is This older kind of genetive apparently express- 122*. e. the ans^logous form of the Semitic "status constructus". The 1.: g. ^1 mr-shi'irv mnh "an excellent ants". (cf. ed as a compound word. D . Erman. ^ JlM^ M. 288. g. 244. show that the former of the words as in so joined shortening. a. ^ramni. g.

§ 140. INDIEECT GENETIVE WITH n. ^^^ "overseer of si "son": ^^\ nT) ^^ the works". in Copt. After certain frequently recurring words. which. according to classic orthography. only the cases of § 123 are preserved. . 125. 78. Where 1 '^ s/.^ m m hrdwf "at the head of his children". g. The direct genetive was gradually superceded by the j later indirect. After general designations of time : ^\ O y m 3.z "king" and | «?r "god" are the T AAAAAA I governed words : I hmt stn "wife of the king". its forms. are: 1 Sin. cf. according to § 135 means something like "belonging to". "the priest belonging to of Amon" for "the priest Amon". On the written order of these words B. 1 ] p. like mr "overseer". ^"^cz^^^^ '§1 ^jS k. This adjective agreed in gender and it num- ber with the noun to which belonged. cf. § 69.— 50 |3. INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH W. ^^37 nb "lord".^ 2. rk hnf "at the time of his majesty". It is formed by means of an adjective *m. e. *125. 4. pr "house".

the plural. D . ^ I ^^^^ 111 5 ^^^ 3000 "an army of 3000. The 1. sg. to designate material I hip CB ni sst AAAAAA C^ "a great offering tablet of alabaster."^ S v^ ^"^^ ni Kht'irv "the city of Coptos. nt {*nii). LD II. f. cf. C. 2 5 Slut I. m. and Since the LE.) lost the dual. 149 d. v\. /wwv^ n {*ni) Plur. 122 b.j^ smmf "the first of his harvest.^..: p.' s ni mSQ "a man of truth". § 141. like Copt. e. § 106). then (already in the popular language of the m. fj. cf. to subjoin that which will more nearly define the noun." 2. Ab. it first e. m. mv'i. 126. 51 Sing. ^ 1 * LD LD IT. where we would ^'^ often employ an adjective: c^:?. also the feminine. indirect genetive ?nust be used: 126. 138 d. once 1 pi. INDIRECT GENETIVE WITH tl. 310. aa^w\a n became an unchange- able particle. In the older period there was further a dual m. '^ nw. This word early lost its inflection."^ 3. m. II. B. nt {*nijvt. 3 Una 6 43. m. ^P^ ^^ to designate a part: "' ^ •'" . A nt (in the m. 24. f. A. /WNAA/v nw {*niw). II. Mar. The old writings are: also ).

ADJECTIVES. 3. ADJECTIVES. a. 1 Eb. note especially. Cf. C§ 146 sq. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING.52 127."^ ^. I . to designate the possessor M ^"^^^ W. g. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. 75. t '^^^ . 2. 127. a. These adjectives. ^^ wr "great" *mer (-oyHp). ^^zz7 rib "every" *m& (nIM).^ 2. that preferred: : | 1. § 99) e. Ci "large" *Coi (-0). 128. 2 Una 46. 2. J| ht ntr ni Wnn-nfr "the temple of 2. 13. perhaps derived from verbal stems. | J [I ^^J)ln "^nodm "bad" Holn (bodcdn).: common to substan- nfr "good' *wa/r (NOyqE). had various forms also tives (cf. to express the idea of appurtaining to or hav- ing source in a place: ni ^^ aaaaaa jQ X ^ | Snd WSw^t "Acacia wood from Nubia". ^v ndm "sweet" (NOyTM). 128. On the further optional use of the indirect geneit is tive.

15. the ending of the sing.^ %" ^ ^'5^^ ^^^^ 5ww?(?) "all bad things". is often wanting. 53 it They follow in their substantive and agree with i29*. Of ^^ y nh "every" only the fem. always. LD II. forms one word with the substantive: c\^H^ tB-M-sn "their white bread".* Nevertheless most texts are not exact in the writing of these endings. The possessive suffix of the noun repeated with the adjective: son". J LD ni. number and gender: § ^ 8 1^ ^ ^^kt ndmt "sweet beer'V III £1^1 <$=lv V ^^^^ ^^^^ [v^ "many ten thousands". C§121. 124. U|l 2. being replaced by the plur. I. ADJECTIVES. masc. I i i also. a. 1 "^^ """^ rh 2^^^=^ sSfrvrf "his great 6 Eb.^ J ^^^ AAAAV YV C 3 iCIi \\ bhnt'i wrt'i ^ "two great towers". fem. is 1. ADJECTIVES WITHOUT ENDING. Rarer combinations of the adjective are: 1. fem. 2 5 Una Siut 14. 3 6 Eb. that of the plur. 11. was first lost. Most adjectives later become unchangeable (of. 30. survives. 225. the plur. C§ 147). self evident of course to the Egyptian reader.— 2.^ Cf. 24 d. it 130. 130. and for the most part the sign B. 15. 129. . 54. fem.

written with i and in Coptic has the sound of if the adjec- tive is derived syllable.r "the great one". from a feminine. — On its the employment of the adjective as predicate and § 331. ending ^^ cf. m. "133. „ „ i « (tiwt). 300. (irv) „ „ „ ^ ^^ ^ g (ii) (tit) (?w.54 131. 132. cf. § tv'i cf. it This ending i is only written. 131 — 133. C§ 93.. e. be seen from the Copt. ADJECTIVES IN ?. and such writings are often found in later texts also. there arises a final from the junction of the feminine ending of the adjective. masc. 61. „ „ „ o (it) Plur. b. In the the was left unindicated even in the sing. — Thus: . and the 'i — As may cf. It is employed also as a g. which ^ . substantive^ e. § 43. ADJECTIVES IN ?. m. masc: Sing.) o (iwt) 0. derived from fem. is where really forms the end of the word. \\ (i).^ f. 1). f. TIT nfrw "beauty" (Plu- ral according to § 111. that only in the sing. ^^^ «. this ending was accented. They are positions by all derived from substantives or preis means of an ending. On the employment of the adverb b. -t ti.

55 Iri "existent at" hnti "existent before" AAAAAA Sing. and ni'i "two cities"). (j Plur. and ^| V\ l\l\. ntr A few such writings occur "the note: |^ nt'i urban (i. such duals. . native) god". for V^. m. V\ m. B. ADJECTIVES IN ?. b. fl^^^"^ A. n. 134. stantives were identical in form with the dual of these substantives (e. masc. in the oldest orthography. m." ^^^ Jlr Iht'ii^) "Horus dwelling in the . . e. . and V\ vX and ^^. from nt "city" . corresponding adjectives: later also are often written for the ^ |l[|w^^ "urban".134. since they were pronounced about alike according to § 97 B.()'^. I i for «. is also written . also. In the v\ already occurs incorrectly for the sing. e. g. The Pyramids write ^^. Since the adjectives derived from feminine sub. e. M fl for fi. (according to § 104 a). nt'i "urban". A confusion between and begrins in the n. e. the plur.. m the [\l\. ^^^ or horizon.

likewise a few others. . "^ imt Ibf-'the one (fem. "being like". (from m).) existent in his heart". C§ 89).^ ir'i Q "belonging to the house". 2 Louvre C 172. AT-. (^^^(rffi^i^) /wwvA ni (cf. from which they are derived). ^^^ "existent under" (from hr). tp'i ^ ij^ IJ "existent upon" (from tp). like: ^ Irvii "not being" (Copt. like: ~[F^^^"[1"^' (J'^(y^) ^"11") ^"*^ "existent in" at" (from r). ADJECTIVES IN 'i. m "existent y ' ^ "^ \ ^''^ "existent upon" (from /ir). 125) "belonging to" (from w). cf. =^ e. mit'i o\\ ss. Those adjectives which are derived from a preposition.^ 1 LD ni. b.mht'i "north of" &c. V . § hnti "existent before" (from hnt). 135. very often govern a following substantive or personal suffix (like the prepositions etc.56 135. g. 24 d.

b.^ is All that stated in §§ 129. In this manner many new substantives ti\ originat- ed.^ Very frequently they are employed stantive. ^ \>. 130 concerning the 136* is adjectives without ending. /^ . 1 Mar.^ \ n dirt "the interior of an onion Vo mit'iwk "one like thee"^ (with masc. 57 -H ^. ^^. 5 2 lD 6. the Bedouins). Una 8 Eb. 137. e.' . o jgv I I oo I ^ smwt III mhfirvt "northern lands'V f=^ gssn hr'i "their hri-sn upper side likewise ^ gs "their upper-side". "over") secrets"/ y mlt'if "resembling him". 4. 24d. 2).. Ab. 6 149 e. Eb. i the sand" lira III (i. II. 70. valid also for the adjecru of. < LD 9 III.^^ ^^ hft'i "enemy" I.¥\^^/wvaaa (?)". g. I like a sub. II. 13. g. 24. 3 Siut 7 311. 72. tives in i. Sin.137. 36.Q Arjfws^ "those existent upon <=» JK 000' e. hr'isst^ "one supervising (lit. lb. 16. Imirv h^rvsn "the priests serving in their times''^ "existent in their times"). Prisse . 136. ADJECTIVES IN ?. substantive end- ing according to § 96. especially those in e.^ f ^ ^ / M I ^ rn i ^^^^^ -^i(lit.

139. .^ 2.58 c. g. 11. 138. in proper condition". the oldest of them". e. l\ ^A\i\ ^f suffix. APPENDIX (iri. 11. as reward therefor'V ^v r \\ St Iri "in the corresponding place. the other hand the word is «s. (1 m m isw'i Iri "as corresponding reward. On and e. 9. Iwtt "nothing" &c. imy. from smt Imntt "western land"). imy. correiri) in sponding to" (properly probably the adjective expressions like ^\ J^gj^.^ 139. 24 d. m). The following remarkable unchangeable expressions are probably descended from adjectives: 1. 2 prisse 13. ((^Aqx). ns). g. I I'^y "belonging to him ' with changeable ra^AAAAAA ^^<S^ ^^ ^^^ ''^y "^^® oldest one belonging to them. (J Iri [1 ir'iw (?) "belonging to. ft Imntt "the west" (emnT. 138. which we also often translate "belonging to". in the old really an old verb] language is still construed as suchj 1 LD III. c. APPENDIX {iri. 3 Westc.

59 ^i zon" (I V [I ^^ ^^ f'h^O) "belonging to the hori- (lit. \ T^"^ irv ns St mr wC "they are from one stone" "one stone possesses them")^. 141. 140*. tens of thousands. the numerals run thus: \ wC hmt 2 4 fdrv 5 drv^ 2 sn 3 1 6 sis Mar. T I thousands. lD III. REAL NUMERALS. In so far as they are known. "the house-overseer possesses it") »\3 3. ns s'imr-pr "it belongs to the house- P overseer" (lit. NUMERALS. 999. . a. REAL NUMERALS. Cat. "^^^^ § hundreds. "the horizon possesses him")'/ \sm (lit. n tens. NUMERALS. hundreds of thousands. 24 d.3. d'Abyd. IZ &c. 140. — In dates the units are indi( cated by horizontal strokes — .635. The numeral I figures are: units. less: The greater number precedes the ITT 12. 3 Peasant 16.) 141. a.

"these his four. >J>ii 1 1 wl:^ 2 "two ships" 2. \ This construc- tion has been preserved in the expression ^— i. 30 is mCb^. '^^^''^ The numeral wC "one". "these his 4 gods''. XUMERALS. 143. for the others the plural Cf. the ones upon the year". five. j rnpf iiO "110 years' ^^|||| inh 4 "4 ell8^ A. 60 3. also with the numeral two." ^S V^'HI On the other hand the noun 1 ^ stands in the singular 1. does the old construction remain. which is for the I most connected by C§ 162 143. e. The numeral follows the noun and the for the latter is most part in the plural: stnyjv 8 "three kings. sq. 142. accounts. v\ 5 hriw rnpt "the days. C§ 157. the gods"). REAL NUMERALS. a. n\ only in the specifications of an account and Cf. in specifications of measure and time. of the units was used. the 5 intercalary B. also in . In LE the numeral precedes the noun. which is mostly writ . - 7 sfh 100 §^C 1000 h^ 8 hmn 9jos(^ 10000 ^&<: h/'n 10 m^ 100000 Of the tens. and suhjoin to the numbered word as an apposition: fdwf ipiv ntrto (lit.: ~ . 142. The pyramids it treat the numeral as a substantive. with the numeral 2.

u (] ky. They are all used A. \ 61 ten out. § 135). they ( — Ml" hi m ii "thousand of bread". B. agrees with its noun in gender: SI- rnpt wCf "one year". also C§ APPENDIX TO THE NUMERAL. 146. — On tvCrv n cf. snnw "the second". They are early supplanted by a circumlocution with "fill mh 165. which. kt (for ktl) "the other" is construed like the numerals in the 1 pyramids 47.144 — 146. Kzzy(> The probably dual word: m." also The numerals are used as substantives: 144. The ordinal numerals are formed by the ending 145*. In the pyramids the ordinal numbers are entirely written out: in like manner U \\Ml^ snntv "the second" is later. § 142 A) Una . APPENDIX TO THE NUMERALS. up" (the third" b. I nw. "first" is supplanted by ^ tp'i (cf. still found. = "that which fills up three"). Aw/«w "the third" &c. cf. its — By placing is rvC before an adjectiye or verb. as an ad- jective always follows its noun.^ : b.: may precede or follow their noun. (cf. as substantives also. § 116.^ the other numerals perhaps did the same. f. lative: " tvC meaning rendered super- Ikr "the only excellent.

26. a. means "every". e. i. 13. 147. 148. others. a. "number of their revolts"). USUAL CLASSES.62 THE VERB. o. pirv The substantive plural or singular l/vww\ tfiff) "number". Una 28. USUAL CLASSES. 2 and how considerable these 3 Eb. into various classes. The verbs are divided cording to the number and character of their consonants. These classes differ in manner of 1 inflection. 1 . is more i frequently a circumlocution kt-ht "another used for it ^ o II I hody" and Ill kt-lht "another thing". THE CLASSES OF THE VERB. ^^(jlj^^^^ ^ ky gsw ^ "^£55 "another salve"/ ktyf ruBt "his other way". the so-called "radicals". o ] M[sn "every one of their revolts"^ (lit. Butler IG. with following cf. ac-J '148. 147.- The first real plural of the word is \^ ar A-wj' (the W is the old determinative of the dual). IN GENERAL. 1. THE VERB.

e. -*^^^\ V\ in^^ "see". signation of these classes is C§ 185 sq. qa Hj' mr "love". The most common verbs (abbrev. ^~~^ J\ j9r"goout". ^^ their mh "fill". .: II lit.>>^ yy^ icals fall together where they are not separated by a full vowel. The de- that common to Semitic grammar.— They retain all consonants in forms unchanged. fflfl ms "bear". g.THE VERB. as ^^unmr rvn "to open". km &c).) class is that of the bi-literal 149*. i The very numerous verbs inf. But as these similar rad<s>. 149 151. 63 may still be seen from the forms of cf. the verb preserved in Copt. C§ 199.) are properly triliteral verbs having the last two radicals alike e. in most forms they resemble the biliterals {mn. USUAL CLASSES. C§ 186 sq.) have as third radical an or ""j which neverthe(1(1. less is visible only in certain forms: in most cases they show only the wr. ^nlX WVV ^ WS> kmm "become black". ^^terdae infirmae" (Illae 151*. -differences were. gem. also the second: — e. g. |\) kbb "become cool". The verbs '''secundae {radicalis) geminatae'' (II ae 150*. Cf. Jd^^^rp M"build"&c. a. g. Cf. first \>- two radicals or double mrr. " zl ^^rvnn AAAAAA 1 "to be".

which as a rule became i or \ lit. their consonants remain unchanged. C§ 213. Cf. a.) correspond to the II and III lit. They . on the other hand the form irr is written A. 153. The triliteral verbs (I'll lit. IV ae Cf. 152 — 154. 152. V lit. re- j^ hS "descend". and like these. C§ 227.<2=^ and <2>-(l[l.— The frequently curring verb Ir "make" writes the forms Ir and Iry: . The and quadriliteral and quinqueliteral verbs (IV lit. geminatae" (Illae gem. as a rule are not to be distinguishin certain forms ffflfl^ . With a part of these verbs the third radical was originally a M or m. inf. lit.) like the II (§ 149) Cnh "live . 'Cv ^ nhm "rescue". USUAL CLASSES. Cf. ^ © ^ ' Stp "load". Both double the third radical A j (I 5p<? "prepare": Hc^ii ii spdd\ h^l ' "be revered": ppl > 1) spss)\ only isolated examples ips'i). C§ 200 sq. and the verbs '''•quartae infirmae" (IV ae inf. which The verbs '"''tertiae correspond to the II gem.64 THE VERB.) which correspond to the Illae ed. (§ 150).). can be safely classed with the 154. in which an i is written out { ^y inf. (§ 151).

Illae i). second radical. Cf. and */?w). 226). cannot be certainty. The verbs uUimae i Erman . which. have apparently early Occasionally it lost the i. the IV seem to have had the same form (cf. § 29. as also 157. y distinguished with e. like Hi'^. | ^°1 rvM "become green". within the exist. T '^^ is smB "unite" along withT'^^. According to the Copt.: Rj^:^ ^ hmhm nhmhm (from and V lit. jfiamni. \j\ hBb "send". 155. smaller groups. points III which distinguish them from lit. nhni). RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS.p. BARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. roar' (from ^^1^ lit. further subdivisions by reason of the special phonetic character of one of the radicals. 65 are mostly derived from II lit. The verbs mediae i. Beside these ordinary classes there are apparently other. however. above contrived classes. C§ 224. 155 157. g. the frequently "strike" recurring verbs dd "say" and ^ ndr present other II many lit. E . p. appears — at least orthographically — as the third radical: H] IH^ A&i for Ai&. "low. Egypt. (Ilae i. sBm. for the ise. which have an ^^. III r— lit. and — Moreover.

. had various peculiarities (cf. The verbs primae like %> n rvsh "be far" are. because to e. especially § 161. in part. in i. rv — The verbs and in mediae write the it. the probable form ris (according pOFlC "wake") The verbs is always written "l rs. C§ 192) and often "^^ of ^ ^ ) rrvd "grow". by many texts without their in certain forms. RARE CLASSES AND IRREGULAR VERBS. is only retained out of preference customary orthography. that (according a few verbs Illae 9 (mostly those in -mS) repeat the second radical after the i.. wU\ . 159. 158. g. Note especially. also written w. — The existence verbs mediae I may only be conjectured from the Copt. to § 29) 208). part is probably early lost hence ^. r^ ^t "die" al- ways written for <rz=> for mrvt (cf.66 p. in certain forms kmB "create" These forms are possibly to be read k^m and rvSh and the syllabic sign for the 158. C§ 221.. cf. 222. «. evident from the Copt. as a rule make the form^s^^ 7vss^ insdead oipH. 159. like ps "divide". Ilae gem. rv only rarely.

Entirely irregular are: In "bring" (properly Illae inf. IRREGULAR VERBS. another verb with causative meaning. g. 160. cf. — D dl and A A. "give". nfr "be beautiful": snfr "make beautiful". 67 cf. Y. f. — On the other 1 hand ° [ 11 \\ ps (older fs) "cook" has \\ pfs and —m— psf. THE CAUSATIVE. 161.p.f. from every verb. "go" sometimes \\J\ Ui^\ sometimes \\ « H. THE CAUSATIVE.a A. § 30. 0. sometimes 7^^ li ^w. e. 160*. e. sometimes I y\^ ^w. E. more rarely with transitives (i. These causatives do not remain in the class to which their stem verb belongs thus the causatives of most biliterals have feminine infinitives {hr "fall": shrt "to fell". rh "know": srh "cause know" (i. Iw "go". and especially rdl rdl. ^ ° dldl{J)\ the last corresponds to the reduplicated forms. which has the form <ir> A . °. with intransitives lir "fall": sTir "cause to fall". inform against). I By means of the prefix s there may be formed 161*.) A AAAAAA in^ sometimes written TT jj sometimes A int. Cm "swallow": s^^m "cause to to swallow" "wash down"). C§ 231). and .

which reminds one of the Semitic perfect. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (iNFLKCTION). 163. It is certain that the transitive verb distinguish- ed an active and a passive. away. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). § 208). 162. intransitive verb was analogously cf. The § 73. e. all details are as yet obscure. divided incipient. C. 164. c. 182. and not improbable that the (1. VOICE.s§«befar. the causative of the last mn (infin. 242.68 b. Nevertheless. without being able to understand their systematic connection more exactly. consonant in certain forms (smnn triliterals C§ 232). are treated as quadriliterals TV. 162. later method uses the personal sdm "hear": suffixes of Cf. § 241. 164. g. 2. classic 163. still employed in the language only within cf. and the beginner ize himself must be satisfied to familiar- with the forms thus far known to us. %P n. a few of these writings occur later also. falls according to the old orthography. 6. There are two methods of inflecting the verb. — the The causatives of the (cf. C§ 171. The is earlier. e. broad": Hfl® ssh "broaden". g. . restricted limits (as pseudoparticiple. — With verbs primae w. VOICE. C§ 238). continuous condition). smnt) furthermore doubles cf.

employed thus as subject: hpr m hsbt "it changes into worms" (for hprs). ^^.* ed and the substantive follows the noun unconnected: hears thy voice". Apart from the uninflected passive inflection § 206 A). f. 1 c. and V lit.^ If the subject is a substantive. no suffix is employ- 165. ^^^\ f. On the writing of each sn ffix A. si 166.v/ ^^^^ PI 2 c.C. in the pyramids B. (cf. ^ ^^^ V V S()^^~^ sdmtw I hrrvk "thy voice is heard". EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). An also absolute pronoun (cf. also. pronoun. this was first lost with IV lit. Dual forms occiii- § 74. ^ . 165 167. § 80) is. When the subject is a substantive or an absolute 167. 2 m. 2^-^ sdmf ^^\ I sdms cf. by exception. . the verb frequently receives an ending ^ 1 According to Sethe. ^v^^^ *^^^ A^)^ 'V'^^^^sdmtn ^^\ g=> sdmt g) rvAAAAAA 3 m. 75. 69 Sg.

169. sin. Sin. 216. hprhr ($r-form. This impersonal subject is furthermore. 168. 49. designation of the — On the omission of the subject in animated § 353. A second actor. 5 2 Sin. ' 25. Sin. often a respectful king. § 204) "that amounts — The passives are employed with especial preference. is (logical) subject. 55. 41. 26. shdw srv t^Tv'i r itn "he illuminates the earth better than the sun"/ 168. 169. amounts to"^. 1 narrative cf. Abyd.70 C. subject). indefinite subject (Germ. 263. y dd I a o\> ^^^ntw "one stands" . "man". to express the ) French "on"): o y\ rhtrv "it is known"^. II. The impersonal use of the verb (without occurring in especially: § 194) "that cf. (w-form. Math. 43. Hdb. m to"^. 225. . done by means of the particles In and hr: \ * 8 Mar. 243. "it is said"^. rdlln "they caused"^ is probably also to be explained thus. irn AAAAAA Note cf. 6 3 " LD III 24 d. (1^ 1 Jl ^w "it is"^. is frequently met with. EXPRESSION OF THE SUBJECT (INFLECTION). all forms. Hdb. Math. to indicate the real often added to a passive or intransitive verb This is which already has a grammatical subject.

2 Ppy. A. 3 Br. on the part of the artificer"^. of forms. . 170.2. therefore not attempted in the following. a. hr s "some (of the fruit) is chewed by the man"^ 3™^ ^ O ^^P ^^ t'^ ^^ " ''by arm is siezed &y Re^"^. The later inflection of the verb falls into a series 170*.>^ ^w: L making ^ [1 'wwvA ^^ ^j>^ ifi hmti "working (lit. . The most important aid for the recognition of the verbal 1 Eh. fall. In the same to infinitives manner the logical subject is added and participles by means of ^. IN GENERAL. so that it is difficult for us to distinguish them correctly. work). which are in part indicated by endings attached to the stem (like sdmnf. USUAL INFLECTION. Gr. in the case of most verbs. I. These latter forms have orthographically. W. . 139. IN GENERAL. a. sdmlnf)^ but in part also. 47. 19. USUAL INFLECTION. 97. are distinguished by the vocalisation only. essentially the same external appearance (sdm/"). 71 nM . and only the two great groups into which they are distinguished. 2. is Any exact separation of these various forms.

ITS FORMATION. are no longer to be determined. e. 172. THE FOEMATJON sdmf.72 h. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. but It is precedes the suffix: sdmtwf^ sdmntrvf. [] for the indication of the prosthetic vowel to the fornas beginning with two consonants: ''Smok. for the expression of an impersonal subject (Germ. — The ending in written. write the ending B. a. The Copt. b. It apparently includes three or four frequent in forms. sdmintrvf. The pyr. and the n. is afforded by the pyramids. THE FORMATION Sdmf. then also impersonally with intransitives. always A. A. forms. "man". e. has lost this passive. or tw in the m.. on the other hand the manuscripts it new empire again indicate by means of [I ^7\. follows Its most important classes are as . a. THK FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. the differences which. 172.) t live". t (tl. 11 tl or c:^ t. pronounced something like unindicated by the classic This prosthetic vowel Q J( ' left orthography of the *171. which often prefix a e. The passive of the which is later inflection ends in attached at the end of the word. trv). French "on"): Tis ' ^ irv. V ^^§^^ "they (impers. first made with transitives and causatives. V\ ). (I' /( ' V\ is .

sq. § verb dependent upon rdl "cause 6 179) an {'Mof. with the other forms nothing cf. 173. In classic orthography only written in the 1 l^M^ this rn'rl^i. ^^^-^^-5 III ae inf. III lit. with irregular /\ a verbs: in "bring" sometimes has § 180).. cf. «.^^ wnnf "he K. do not: -^^ wnf § 180). THE FORMATION Sdwf. That this group really includes different forms. § 178). sometimes Ifvif both forms: "go" varies between 7^^ . (cf. ). The position of the vowel. 'kdy «he builds" : i c^> FM '^^_. <^ Int/' (cf. gem. s'dmf "he hears": ^^^. Furthermore. m'rlo/'.=^ is" (cf. sometimes Itv l\ Inf (cf.) . only occasionally written by the pyra- mids ( ( 0''^^=—) and by the manuscripts of the it is n. m'rr/' "he loves": the I is nevertheless. n (1 ^^ sg. but in others. C§ 234 it. 73 II lit. THE FORMS OF THE FIRST GROUP. known about (Concerning TTPXACl C§ 247). s'dmof. denoted by " . § 26. e. § 178). indicated is in § 170 A.b. which in certain cases separate their like radicals: -^^^. in the case of the II ae 173. vowel was in one case (with the that''.=^. may be seen e. cf. g. is cf.

makes no This is especially the case at the close of a short paragraph: Tvnln mr-pr . sdmf is retained in more descriptive senessential pro- tences. ("he is justly punish- ed &c". THE FORMATION Sdmf. 174. § rdif{% 174) and ^ — ° 178. is the usual form for the chief events in ordinary narrative: nt smr "His majesty established friend"'. In the old language sdrnf of the group. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. B. B. which prefers other (cf. I. X TT YiP 3 I Jr/ I I I n wsof n nn n /\AA<V\A \\ r i srn>.74 b. between ^^/ (cf. hr srht "the house overseer complained of (the peasant) ddlnsn nf they said. in which the action gress. § 222.) gr-prv irn mr-pr the house overseer was there- upon silent. . Una 2. *174. 180). rdl "give". . wshf n 1 sht'i pn "He did not answer the princes. me in the rank of a In the later language. forms and constructions for narration 230. ITS USE AS INDICATIVE. an d _A^2^-=^ Irvf. 239).

which introduces direct discourse. 3 g. are doubled *if in this case {Ir I\ . 18. C§ 230b. E. 75 (but) answered this peasant''^ (The last two clauses simply enlarge upon the fact of the silence already stated. ^^Z3?6 gmk . 179. used where a fact is expressed. <=^ Ir ."^. 16. (1 <^:>^'i>^ .. it I rrvds hr hts grows upon its creeps)"^. IN THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. you see"). 1^^ you .C. It is further ddf "he 175. 179*. used in conditional clauses introduc(1 It is further 177. €d by the particle Ick . assertions and the like: it "The plant snwtt "^ belly (i. D. The Ilae gem. then say . * Eb. descriptions. the form -D. m^^k rdl 178. &c. ddhrk "If find it . 177. a combination which led to the formation of a new causative > in Copt.: Bauer 50. Eb. cause that". m THE CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. (cf. . § 389): st . 51. ^ .^^ said". In ^ "bring" has the form °. "he says". 37. in 176. AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. It is very frequently dependent upon rdi "give. cf. . ^ e. C.) Here belongs also the formal ^^^. E . AS A SUBJUNCTIVE. ^give".

75. C§ 234 sq. are not doubled. vowel was here an 6. qA *182. IN A FINAL CLAUSE.76 E. according to the Copt. F. Prisse 10. 12. 5 Eb. * Sin. "bring" has the form A rdl "give" .): -^^^-^^^^^^ 3 i^ mBSk "see"^ 1 Sin. E. AS AN OPTATIVE. 182. stands without introduction to : "You might allow your servant come to me. ' " Vff^ ^ ^ rdlnf stpl nl "he caused that I choose for myself (of his land)"^ 180. Irvt "come" j'^^ .. AS AN OPTATIVE. is This very frequent form probably identical It with that of the subjunctive and optative. 181. Ih: It is often introduced by means of the particle (] ^ ^^^ ^ Ih dds nl "let her say to me"^ or by means of a preceding Ir "do" (impv. 79. . IN A FINAL CLAUSE. 172. In this case the II gem. I ra^ Jj^W _ 1^ therefore send ^ \\hMnk sw hrs that may E. 2 Peasant 38. — The cf. In . Probably identical with the preceding: ^^zi:^ Jj ^^zi:^ mrk hmtk "Love thy wife"^. him to you^. 9. *181.

^. . There are also found forms of this group in y. only with those verbs which are marked by the doubling of the § 185.— ^^ v\ f. In. g. tmi mdicf ni "let him speak with me'' cause that he speak with me)."!' like) m?. ^^ lo and (J [J Rj^^v V. for "behold" undoubtedly belongs to 183. (J V\ ^^\ tml (imperative is of rdl "cause that". is 185. The word the optative: Sg. e. ^^^^ "thou but probably ?& comest down". (and the like) mtn. Since the n.m. rnk (mik^ cf. ^^ (I [I -^~^ ddyk "thou t only with verbs which have a or (according to § 151 A) a as the last radical'. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. 77 B. In. 184. ITS FORMATION. A.-—« saj'est". A. f. THE FORMS OF THE SECOND GROUP. p.p. for it : cf. (and the Plur. certainty. this The forms of group may be recognised with 184*. § 256) with following verb often substituted (lit. 185. According to Sethe. ITS FORMATION. The form with the * final consonant doubled. 1. last consonant according to In the case of most verbs they are not to be recognised from the orthography. e. § 35). especially in old texts. A.

: <^=><. With the it. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. rdl e.. threats.-priest" come out for)^ divide"-. 2 Siut I. 289. USE AS AN INDICATIVE. 22. -H— X ^^ nn pssf "he shall not drop in"^. ITS FOllMATION.. in the case of the frequently re- curring verb Illae indicated by 186. as well as the Illae inf. . Illae gem. Ir "make". 296. the irregular A A. to be noted that. inf.^>0'" n sndt'i '^^^^ ^ ^°^ gL prr grt will hrrv 3 pn nb ''These three days (rations) (lit. the form Irr is In place of the form with final consonant doubled. be delivered to every s. 1 Siut I. {di) "give" has (cf. of 187. significance the form is apparently with reference to the future it is used very often. found in the case of the Ilae gem. directions. the form didl(i) § 160). 311. B. 7. B. questions &c. 3 Eb. The emphasis . and IVae inf. 186.78 A. 187. \ or ^ verb i. in promises. last two it is especially easy to recognise for they are It is not doubled except in the case of § 259.

IN CONDITIONAL CLAUSES. § the particle 389) does not js immediately precede : /^-^^ f\ .DEP. * Weste.CL. where 188. "command" and v\ I the like: n. 189. It is govern a sentence after the manner of our conjunctions the usage seems to vary. 24 d. 1 Eb. 2 LD II. QO^' E. _ } It further follows the rh "know". 36. Y wdnnnfprri that I go to this r sw? ^w "His majesty commanded mountain"^. DEP. Ir (cf. . 190. 15. nirrf "My majesty knows that he ^°^(jO^^^^^==^ is a god"^. ^^ ^ <cz> snd "fear". which 190. 188. 149 e.UPON VERBS. ddhrk "If you find that his body . | "^ . It is further used in conditional clauses. . 9. Z'^^O) (lit. 79 C. "I desire that you say"*.INCONDIT. mr "wish" "love"). then say &c. ^ _ ^°^ . 189. gmfnk fitf . g. likewise '^'^v tvd ^^ ^^ ff"^ "find". D. ONPBEPS. DEPENDENT UPON verbs "see". dependent upon various prepositions.C. D. E... E. VERBS. 8."'. 3 LD IH. DEPENDENT UPON PREPOSITIONS.

80 Y. In the is valid also for the passive in § 171). 193. § 396. dltwf. the for- mation sdmf is found elsewhere. rdl\ ||| \i^\ 1 Eb. 3 LD lU. H 0%^*^-:^ msiwf. first group the II : lit. — On the substantivized forms cf. so especially in cf. 191—193. in contrast with The form sdmf. "let the patient drink this "till <:z^%'^^ '"'^ r wssf he urinates"^ '^ I \^ \^ \> ^ hr mB^f ml "because he sees me"^. 1^=^^^^ ml hccfm in the region of light"^''Be hft IBhti^) "as he shines not haughty toward him is ^^^^ hssf when he wretched"*. All that is stated in §§ 172 — 191. : may be seen. on the relative forms § 394. APPENDIX. the Illae inf. 6.. make the form 'kd^twf. sdmnf (§ 197). § 282 sq. 191. APPENDIX. rel ie sometimes present in meaning. 117. 2 Sin. as far as t (cf. 24d. Y. Beside the cases cited in §§ 172—190. tive sentences. where it is not possible to state anything definitely concerning the forms employed. 15. * Prisse . 192.

is written after the determinative: It Q7\ mrnf "he loves". ITS FORMATION. THE w-FORM sdmnf. form began with a simple consonant (that cf. (cf. In this form the stem receives an ending w.^ ^^ 2. the verb rdl "give" ( § 160) nearly . mrnf\ -<2>- "make" has the form A^AAA^ § 151. <iz>/\ most The M-form had. contract their consonants: 1. and that: the II ae gem. Ag-ypt. e. THE n-FOKM sdmnf. has the form B. always j. its formation. 195. . 170 A). . already lost its n in the n.c. belongs inseparably to the stem. a. Granim. § without the prosthetic vowel. c. may it: be seen from §338sq. inf. '^^ ' Qf^ntws "she found". 194. 81 in the second group however rdl has the form A D ^ "^"^ dldltrv/'. J" Ermaa. that the is to say. Note further. show only the second consonant: Ir ^\ according to 3. 195. mBnf "he the Illae sees . as . the passive ending follows is /*-n\ ^. for the part. a. which 194*.

e. had overthrown them). Oo >«CZI> g > ^^ know 197. siut 310. in an entirely 1 manner. adds to Una 22. 196—198. e." (in ceremonious style). ITS USE. ly) will ra . which otherwise usually employs sdmf for narrative. which iginally in is only used independently. in contrast . "His majesty came in peace ^ ® S^ « ^"'"^ ©^ f^ /R (i. This form."^ Thence further also. 3 his enemies"* e^ after he *198. 2 Eb. I. it cut to pieces the land of the Bedouins.- shrnf hft'iwf "he had overthrown the «-form different 17. ITS USE. It often indicates the past.rUv not grow (again)". orwith animation. served to narrate events an old text. 1221 . ^gg e. ye. in asseveration. but occurs elsewhere also with a preceding verb: n I (cf. g. 283) . especially in relative clauses (cf. p. explanation and the like.a .^. § 396). that etc. * LD H. /www rnin rnntn "behold. 63. g. the events of war are recalled with ^^'^^^ liveliness by means of the n-form: f^ ^^ Mt^ /i Hr'irv-sC "This army came. used for the mc it part. is Since the m.82 p. § 220. : "Lay this " ^ upon the place of the nrrvdnf^ii (certain- extracted hair.

9. „ ^vwwv ^ jiL^_ n skdn dpi hrf and no ship sailed upon it (longer)". Pepy ]. that T nfr "be good" 199. 3 Bauer 34.p. in a stylistic is pushed into the background manner only. A. It is a remarkable fact. overagainst the preceding important event (he went). the As may be seen question is no longer one respecting an unimportant accompanying circumstance. F* . Prisse 10._jv^ c::^:> V^ ^ ^''' ^ fndrvnf ''The mouth silent and he does not speak". is well". 4. 83 preceding word or sentence. an accompanying remark more particularly explaining it (circumstantial clause). ITS USE. 170.^ 1 J Prisse 4.^ And likewise in narratives /^^-O) : "Then * this peasant went to implore him ^^ V A gmnf srv lir prt and found him as he came out &c".' ^^a_^ Iv "He found the canal obstructed >j2i£:. 199.^ in the case of the last clause.. i69. but the second occurrence (he found). So in descriptions: '^ ^ is . The pyramids already employ the above also. seemingly always takes the w-form: place is nfrn drv "The good'V nfrn Ppy "P. 2 » Inscription of Sehel.

But many texts of the m. g. 195 valid also for the formation of the In-iorm: 201.84 d THE iw-FOEM sdmlnf.h V ^ M irlnk ns then make e. (I a/wwv y /jn/ "the king occasioned"^ (sentences of the context with other forms). 1^^ AAAAAA ^ [I ^j. 204. fore especially preferred where the subject to is there- is a person rdlln whom respect is due. Eb.. 2 Eb. wn^irf 3 w3d mi wnn 56. g.^ or in "when water comes out of <3>. "Let the it. 202.^. d. . e. That which is stated in §§ 194. also employ it else- in narrative. IJ sdmlnf it Originally this form was ceremonial. tp 1 Sin.^ v8j I srvrlln s man 1 drink". 9. It is employed in descriptions: -^^ _ [1 1 ^^ A/V _ . e. where e. e. ^^. 21. 32. in "bring". 200 sdminf. the /ir-roRM sdmhrf. 243. <2>]\ A/VWAA J\\^ "go" and 203. THE (n-FOEM 200. is — 204. especially in the case of the Ir "do". often [I used in directions. It is further. for it (the receipt) &c". its This rare form also corresponds to the w-form in formation. comItv mon words: ^°^ dd "speak".^ THE ^r-FORM sdmhrf.

(as far as inflection involves pronominal endings) that it was 1 uninflected. 2 Eb. 20. 4. and as this passive can with certainty be found only with nominal subject. . the passive ending viz. probably belong the formulae ^ It Jiprhrf "that is"^ (as result of a £^ com- putation) and ^ ^°^ <rz> 1 (Ellipse for ddhrttv rs "they say to her") "her name is". 5. m-form to her"/ Kzi:^<zi>Uddhrk rs "say '^ ® o %^ 3.^ also. e. ddhrirv "let there be said". Westc. like the active. for the practical purposes of grammar. 36. 86 is ^i "He was green Here 'i^-^^ (i. which when written. with nominal subject. Math. 16. 11. 205. leaves exactly 206*. 6 3 Eb. e. 2. throve) like one who upon earth". it may be stated with the greatest probability. one in doubt whether should It is be classified with the earlier or later inflection. g.^ THE UNINFLECTED* PASSIVE. Hdb. It certainly is so. is it This formation.. transl. THE UNINFLECTED PASSIVE. "endungslos" as distinguished from but "endungslos" has absolutely no equivalent in Eng. g. AAAAAA \ S) ^^ in tw. * Eb. 5 41. 206. i4.^ occurs more frequently in directions (like the 205. Eb. § 203). only to be found with certainty. 3.^ * The word "uninflected" does not adequately translate the term used by the author.3. e. 9. 1 1 1 ms «yt hrdw 3 "Three child- ren are born to thee".

OLD INFLECTION (PSEUDOPARTICIPLE). impersonal verbs of § 168 also. are probably to be explained in part as uninflected passives. the formation of which. g. in the m. Ol f. 201. participle. like was buried". the passive in must always be used. It is found in only one form. cannot be used in dependent clauses. OLD INFLECTION (pseudoparticiple).86 4. (cf. 207. 1 c. There are a few obsolete passive forms with hrss "she suffixes. for example after rdi. . so that. a. 208. It often takes the place of the passive in especi- ally where the latter would be in the «-form. A. — The e. and occurs with unchangeable stem. *208. a. ac- cording to the usual orthography 1*^"^ is as follows: Sing. in one form only. ITS FOEMATION. t^ 207. mntl mntl AAAAAA 13 AAAAAA 3 m. 4. On t the other hand. The uninflected passive would then belong to the later inflection. in a cir- cumstantial clause ChCn (cf. AAy>^A^ mn ^u^ \\\ f. ^ and these may also belong here. Mast. the so called pseudoe. ITS formt'n. mntl 1 Mar. § 198) or the combination with it § 230). mnkrvlijnnkwTj "I remain" \v\ AAA/V\A 2 m.

has supplanted all the others and only a few sg. sg. In the n. are sr=D -t. f. 209 — 211. OLD INFLECTION (pSEDDOPARTICIPLe). The original forms of the 3 of the dual (m.). 3 f. customary.^ originally had the ending "(^® .. 3 c. more 211. AA/V\AA I mnwin 1 I 2c. is also written ^zi::^^ 209. it was pronounced In the case of the endings ti. 87 w AAAAAA Plur. caixed" in the case of the Illae inf. "^Q ^ V • -^^^^ "(^^ inf. in Copt.4. the ending was at that time. and IVae the g. ITS FORMT'N. In the n. e. | . (cf. t and c^ v\ tio. B. '^ '^ mnt'iwm w mn. 212) and the forms lost. : sg. Vulgar writings of the n. the writing o:. B. a. are preserved with them. tnnivy. (I . e. ^ M ^^? jQ ^^) ^^^'' ^^) anointed". 1 The ending of the sg. e. e. >t ^ C)ther writings are -^ziiPt (o. . with the final ^ becomes (1(1 Details according to Sethe. mnty) were early other forms also begin to drop out. •v^:^ v\ and rarely -Ic. C§ 181) the 3 m. r\\T\. (cf. pi. especially in the manuscripts of the m. § A. mntyiv. e. 1 c. already spoken The rarely 3 m. to use this and many texts seem regularly certain verbs ( form with )• -^^ . ^-i: B. is 210.

it thus restored.. In the m. OLD INFLECTION (pseudopahticiple). mente ("remaining") II gem. m. (lY m. in v\ JL . mene. an active-transitive and a passive-intransitive. m. the ending of most verbs was lost. and -te: lit.: 0^ Ifv "they come". e. sodme. ITS formt'n. sepdode ("prepared") lit. 212 — 214. hemhome. the endings being added according to the later pronunciation. e. those in ^ not rare. hemJiomte ("roaring"). f. 214. probably already ^^^- ^^ 1 I I may *' also be written for 3 m. kebe ("cool") (III inf. the writings in [1 (1 are frequent. m. ^sdomte ("heard") gem. in the pas- which are retained in the Copt. mosje ("born") llll (III lit. The vocalisation can be restored only sive-intransitive forms. first lost. f. m. but those in > (1 have disappeared.88 4. a. in the most important cases runs about as follows. m. . originally The pseudoparticiple apparently had But the was very early two forms. as -e j II ^. v\ and a 3 f but both were already lost at a very remote period and only the 3 m. f. n(l(l msil "(he is) born". I \ the'^e \ was originally in the plural a in AiJ ^^. ^213. occasionally occurs in the m.

and preferably at the close of a short paragraph. although transitive. ITS USE. 89 was \ A. form %:v dldlrv. the transitive verb I . the irregular verbs. it is — Only the (cf. p. the forms is |T| l^and 215. verb rh "know". p. PASS.-TRASS. of the intransitives The pseudoparticiple sives. 0()(l7]\5 b. only in the sg. seemingly. has preservits ed a living pseudoparticiple. pronounced something In the case of the Illae inf. employ as a narrative form. FORM. a. occur side by side. from which it draws a conclusion. lit. as well as that of and pasrh 217. a.-INTRANS. IN THE ACTIVE-TRANSITIVE FOEM. 215 — 217. use corresponds ex- actly with that of the passive-intransitive form § 217sq. The pseudoparticiple of the transitive of the II like erJj'w ("knowing"). ITS USE. o^ dlw and otherwise I "go" makes the 3 m.. ACT. rdl "give" has the rdlrv. the pseudoparticiple. texts. The few old which still it make this form of 2J6. fu ^^ y^ shikrvl "and caused to descend". s^till oc1 curs.: I Irkwl "and I did". 241). but the latter frequent.. also .b. 1 It. IN THE PASSIVE-INTRANSITIVE FORM. the more — Of Vs> .

. g. it is hot)".. 36. In Copt.) and the like. 3 Sin.. 199. 402.^ B. On the use of the pseudoparticiple as apparent cf. 246 sq. 7. "know" (cf.'' STV slsy "Look at him stretched Cf. and they are satisfied" 2 It is (8 m. ^ I hskrvl hrs still "and I was therefore praised". sJitpf vtrwi''. E. 348. 3. 6 Pepy I. e. g. 219. 234. 182. hfpwci "he satisfies the two gods. 122 a. g. C§ 181.90 p. his htf khti "If you find his (lit. predicate 1 §§ 240 sq.. 233. re command came <iz>^ me. IN THE PASSIVE-IKTRAKSITIVE FOKM. 2 LD II. "This ChCktvi tribe)". sole hot and body cool" "if you find his sole. out". The pyr. Eb. 37. almost only in the | l90''^^~-^ V ^ *218. we would. more frequently employed pronoun a closer for the in order to annex where to a substantive or limitation. ^ Eb. is still used as an independent 1 sg. (as) I A midst of fl to stood (in the my O I lyAAA^AA hugmmk drwfsm. e. § 216). 219. have. the remains of the pseudoparticiple have entirely gone over into participles. verb. du.^ most part. employ a participle.^ A. 218.

in a single independent remark: "This plant is used so and so ^ fl^ ^ ^n^^^~^(j. § 115). ^dmnf clauses introduced by § 246. the hair of a woman is made said. o'^'tl:!. only the passive in run: irv t. 8.\ 5. 19 (cf.221. . INTEODUCED BY "IT THE FORMS Itv sdmf AND a. (had) heard" (past. there are made two forms. both passives occur with the second. sdmnf. itv a. With nominal irv subject. "The prince came % ' to the king I and (I ^A hither". Westc. — In contrast with the simple forms sdmf and these have a certain independence (like other irv cf. tiie impersonal auxiliary verb ^ irv "it 220*. irv sdm7if"-\s. 47. is It is therefore used.'^ irv inni Ddi have brought Ddi 2 Eb. COMP. (1 With is". the forms sdm ntr "the god hears". 91 COMPOUNDS WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. With the first. 332). to grow by means of its fruit''. 221. IS". /wwva^ st J) N^ irv grt srrvdtrv sn n m tSyfprt "further. WITH FORMS OF THE USUAL INFLECTION. 5. 8. -ed where a fact to be express. sdmn ntr "the god heard". § 197). which as a rule are distinguished in usage as follows: irv sdmf "he hears (heard)". 220. .Q cf.

"." ^ (Beginning of the narrative). a^. 222 — 225. re- It is used (similarly. The corresponding use of the auxiliary verb -^^ Tvn "it is". WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB 223.. AUXILIARY fEKB tVU. It. the forms of § 221) in 149 e. Iwf 225. W\S- ^^ ^ ^>^ ^ ^v '^^^ sdmnf "he heard" and a -^^ "he heard". is used especially at the beginning of a narra- tive or of one of its paragraphs: (1 ^ fU^^ me vm. THE FORM iwf sdmf. nominal subject irv runs as follows: is ^ ] J|^ ntr sdmf "The god used with the accustomed to hear". » LD II. WITH DOUBLE SUBJECT.92 222. he hears"). a. is first of them only. p. is far more rare and probably archai There are found -^^ AftAAAA ^ ^\ tvn sdmf "he hears ^. means "he accustomed to hear". ha. 224. This form [1 ^ it ^ ^^ is ^^^ srfw/ (lit. (1 With ^n. "When a number of verbs in this form follow one another. 1 ^ • ^w Ai&« w^ w&^ "My lord sent out &c. '^w^w sd'w/' &. "he is. . THE FORM iwf Sclmf.

18.- sdmf * is very 228. — 249) in descriptions and des- V^...^ also But on the other hand the forms in §§ 246 criptive narratives: y \n lb employed (like 226.p.. 51. 15 B. ing to § 249. 51.^ fl ^^'^^ /vwvAA (I W ?^ ^^ iTvl dll mrv "I gave water to the thirsty". its fruit is accustomed to be laid upon bread". rvnf The form » ^ V\ 6. 96. 2 Totb. 5^^=. he knows f^ V m K^m it is "^ ^ ^^ Irvf ckf irvf all rhf hprrvt nf nbt goes in and out . 3 Sin. Eb. I . that happens to him".'* p. 226 — 228.^ It is especially preferred in the case correspond- 227. THE FORMS wnf sdmf AND -^'^^ ^^==_ wrdnf sdmf. for the continuation of a relative clause ior the like: ~^ A/vwwv'v\ 8 J o "^^^^ ^7 s^^ "^ nhbtf. 20. Eb.^ this "He who has book (j%>^^^_-^ ^^^ '--' / prf .. q°\^ 93 marks. THE FORMS lonf sdntif AND wtiinf sdmf. Irvf mnf Cfi n nhbtf "A man on whose neck there is a swelling and "who has pain in the two organs of his neck"... in which a fact A is stated: U y> 1 DO V^ l^S Irv grt prts dlttvs hr tB "Further.

it is weakened to the usual is form for narrative ("he heard"). 44.94 bf. THE FORM is 229.^ o\ ^ 1^ l[] ^^^ §f* s? 5^55 d^dSs Im "Let the woman hrtw anoint her head with diirv it". a. CJiCn The very frequent combination y ^^ sdmnf ("he arose and heard"?). forms the subject: -^" AAA/VV\ (1 I majesty sent to me'V Y- is explained by § 346. another. 174. 230. e. 3. 21. This rare formation evidently related to sdmh?f.229. rvninf sdmf. as significant (some? thing like 'then he heard"). 47. THE FORM hrf sdnif. and ^ i^-^^^^. with chon> and OlC. originally markc an occurrence in the narrative. In the popular language of the m.. ten archaically ^ "' v A also writ- AAAAAA dv \ ¥ 'A . Aa « 1 Sin. 48. 3. .^ o %> A c^ \\ "Let there be given". ^:zi>« and like it. 3 Eb. 7^ . however. 2 Eb. WITH cAc« AND chC- *230. which only occurs where one of the words for king. Eb. is used in directions Y fi i '^cn^ =^ hrk ^ roBhk dtk "lay your hand". rare.^ c. en. hrf sdmf. WITH A VERB OF MOTION..

No example of the passive in-^ occurs. 8.^ in § 240sq. 6. 4. The nominal sentence described the pseudoparticiple. § 207): f—^nn ° Hi^ V^^ is freely used after QiCn ''^^'"' (cf.CO. employed with "His majesty went in peace". transitive verbs: whose in- 233*. 2 ib."* a ^ fm^' Cj/^^^^^^^^H^^^'' intktvi. there Westc. this 95 still A. . o. ''P^ ^^ sspt ''The house was (-hCn fitted out'V Y verb is in rdl "they (impers.^ If the subject is a pronoun. WITH chCn AND C^O 231—234. Q^w 231*. also used the 234.232*. In the language of the to be wanting. 3 LD LD 11.^ Other than in narrative. 3.. the unin.) occasioned". 8. 5 ceased". M—^n » ^ ^lA chCns grtl "She is 3. e. however. Westc. U. 122 b.. ^ <^=^^ A ^^^^ ^ ^^^ "=^ ^'^^'^ ^^^ "The prince said". compound seems In the case of the active of the transitives. is fleeted passive. it is attached to CJiCn as suffix: "I sailed f up". always has the w-form following: ChCn rdlnf "he gave". 122 a.

in the first instance. 7. 20. 51. cf. but like meaning.^ "flra'^']|(l^ falls ^^^^^« fi^i^ ^^r ^ "then she immediately". ^ Eb. 2^^- in construction and original ^ V ^^ $ °^ "^°" ^^ ^^^^ employed like I Qf.^ cf.^ THE FORM sdm/ pw. § 87 on prv)'^ further appears to denote also a condition a^ tained: "When you find this or that in is him 1 jj ^ 1 siibf pw then he well". The forms derived from ^ Q -^ In and ^ . Eb.^ /J. 36. 18. while low in the pseudoparticiple: nbt "then he discharges all worms''. 2 § 184 sq. 237. just as with ChCn. fol- form sdmf. 235. Hdb. 235—237. which are "come" and pr "go out".96 p. y\ -t=::p5 V\ Vv?» ^^^ mhkrvl "then d. prn and iiv. The verb has thi form of the second group. 1^ . am full". WITH in. The form sdmf pw. form Y A ^^^. 3 Math. prn AND '~~' iw. Eb. 37. which transitive verbs follow in the intransitives. d- the form sdmf pio. 35. WITH (1 in. something like but it means "it is he who hears" (cf. are far rarer it than QiCn.

WITH Ir. later with all verbs C§ 249). with pseddoparticiple or infinitive. WITHOUT THE AUXILIARY VERB (IMPROPER NOMINAL SENTENCE). D V^ prv Irnf ("it sdm is 239*.238. 97 ir 6. -<2>- ^ Irhrk rv^- dSdi "you multiply"^. granim. The combination of nitive is "make. E. Often with verbs of going: <2>-^'^=i ^v =?s= « irt smt "I went"^ 2. vs\ AAAA/v^ much more frequent. is as a form of narrative. (cf. IV lit. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPAETICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. a. Ill lit. especially with verbs of going. This combination first supercedes the inflection. 240. * According to Sethe. was hearing which he did"?) which e.*. The model of the nominal sentence § 327 sq. used since the m. B. while the parallel verbs are expressed by means of sdminf or ChCn sdmnf. 3 Math. 238. used: 1.) 240*. With compound verbs ^^zz^^ 9 ) Ov^ Irni dr-tS "I journeyed"^. do" with an dependent upon as object ("he does hearing"). infi.6. was early transferred to sentences with verbal predi1 Sin. because pr is a verb of going. \ . with the (of. prt pw irnf "he went out". COMPOUNDS WITH Ir it "MAKE". 41. 2 Una 30. g. Gr Erman. Hdb. 7. and cans. 7. 19. The strange combination ^^N. Egypt.

. f 242.). m^ "see" &c. § 216). when they denote the {m^rv "recommence". 2. ftv mr "be "be broad" &c. ssp "receive". verbs of condition. hr "fall"). (qCOTM) and twfhr sdm (qCCJOTM).). 241. / 3. exactly. but also hpr "to be" even where 4. More participle: 1. the following are in the pseudo- the passives (ph^ "divided". however. even with following object. the is verb following. hrp "lead". ik "diminish". the verbs of condition when they denote full". shr "overlaid" the verbs of going etc. Cf. the subject (a noun or pronoun) preceding. {rdl "give". This kind of sentence was the origin of the late Egyptian forms twfsdm 241. 242. it means "become". (Ai "descend".). in the case of transitives. following. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. the verb in the pseudo- participle in the case of intransitives and passives. entrance upon the condition. the continuation of the condition (mh "be sick". cate. are in the infinitive the transitive verbs with or without an object following. Iw "go". rh "know" (cf. and in the infinitive with the preposition ^ Jjr. 3. B. hpr "happen"). "go". C§253sq. In general. The with hr: 1.98 7.

136h. In the oldest language the infinitive with to does not yet have been usage here. weakness(?) recommences"^ AAAAAA G( iLDII. 243. and especially after mk "behold" (§ 183) where the old absolute pronouns (§ 80) are used: S^-nht iw m c^m "Behold (thou woman). therefore in asserI I n a <::::> o tn rl "No contradiction comes out of my mouth'".-\\t^m-^. Ihw hr m^rv "Old age comes . 2— 3. \i. It is further used in descriptions and in the des- 244. .). 12. « Prisse 4. was Its made with all verbs use corresponds to that of the real nominal (cf. I come "3 "*. 8. criptive parts of a narrative ^\ on ..).7. It is used. verbs of crying and weeping {nml "roar. still for at that time the pseudoparti(§ 213). . 244. . 3 Westc. COMPOUNDS WITH THE PSEUDOPARTICIPLE OR INFINITIVE. ) iBw h^rv . 99 3. Sinuhe comes as an Asiatic"^. 2 Sin. low". G* 1 . &c. V ^ ^ V^tI a"^^^^^ Y>^^'^^^^^'^^^"B6hold. sentence 328 n sq. lir rmy "weep" seem ciple A. § 243. 265.

according to hCfi rib mBh about: "Day broke and now for came the people of Tnrv. 2 10. ^^ § 98) Itl. 246. t^. ^§««^« • • hnbntsn Sbhw m hrt whose summits reach heavenV or expresses a subordinate circumstance in connection with which an action took place: >ca&. iJl ^ hdn nl. Iw 3. Just as the forms sdmf and sdmnf are introduc ed by the auxiliary verb 1 fi^ Westc. relative clause: ^'^ J . WITH THE VERB iw. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB iw. . Such a description conjunction the (1 is often introduced by the ls=s Isf (§ 323). while every heart burned me'" (not narrative but description). . J • J ^Afl'^? ijs^x^v "two obelisks . INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. 24 ^ Inscription of Sehel. o. «. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. belongs use of ^^ ^ it j\ fn- M "after" in temporal clauses: V\ A -^^ _23^'v\'Tr^ ^ m hi mlrrv hpr "After 245. §§ 3 220—222) Sin. — Here also. h. 129—131. Wfrv "He sailed down his heart being glad"*.100 b. had become evening"^. . i 246. ^'^--^^(f^\ ¥^f M^ upon it. ft fl . is A sentence of this kind often also used as a . LD IH. Tnrv (fern. (cf.

247. (j^^^^^ e. are already sq. 262 sq. They are {iwf preserved in Copt.fe.^y\ V but therefore to corresponds ^^^^. the forms twf and twfhr sdm. Indwtf its m rv^sm "My statue silver- was overlaid with gold and gold. . it is a suffix: (1^^^ to . supplanting the nominal sentences of §§ 240 sdm later becomes still more extended.WITHTHE VEBB (w. ^^-A^sdm the use of twf E. independent remark § 221): "Say concerning 1(1 Irv ^ i-=c ^ '^'^-^ ° "^ ^ 248. 307. — If the subject is a pronoun. expresses Eb. § 222): ^\ o Iw twtl shr m nb. as FqCOTM (cwf sdm) and PqCCDTM hr sdm). . is used where a fact (cf.248. The modifiexpressed by cation introduced by this Iw^ is both cases the same. In the popular language of the m. 36 17. It is Cf. a. INTRODUCED BY AUXILIARY VERBS. it. 2 Sin. in the case of a pronominal subject. 101 SO the nominal sentence with verbal predicate just treated. is also often introduced by in irv. (j expressed in a single 247. C§ 251."^ apron with Even when the sentence « in question. J mrstfi?) ph^tl his liver (?) is is divided" ^ It further employed at the beginning of a its narrative or of one of paragraphs (cf. especially.

§ are joined to one noun Irv (cf. p. 149 c.IARY VERB WH. only an accompanying subordinate circumstance.c^^ '-==^-'" l-jic^^ ^ ^ ^\ rvnf hr sdm: l^vz^ rvnfhrdrvBntrw nb "He worshipped all gods "3 1 LD II. whose body there- fore stiff and who is diseased in his stomach (?)"^.<2>- J^ . . WITH THE AUXU. WITH THE AUXILIAEY VEEB wn. Irvf hr mn r-lbf "If is you see any one with a swelling . it. all but the first are introduced by 1 § 227): . 4. § 245) "^ .^===^ N^ \\ ms^ pw Irns hrf^ Irv msC pn n stn hr mii "she bore upon looked on"^ 249.^^ AA/\AAA '^^ ^ nn mnf sdm (the verb is pseudoparticiple) and -^"^^.. 3 Hr-hwf II a.. 2 Eb. 245).:^^^ Ir mBBk hri-stt . 26. -^^=^1.^- <CZr> l) OaaaaaaIII v. . this form is used like that without Irv (cf. 250..102 p. 250. Here belong the forms. while this army of the king When a number of relative nominal sentences (cf. nht hif hrs.. distinguished according to § 241—242. 14. .

in which the auxiliary also in the pseudoparticiple. 187). 3 Westc. Sin. The forms distinguished according to § 241 A AAAAAA /^N. 252. 149 c. gave them book and said I to n them M I &c. t . I New paragraph: | AAAAAA I I i I 1 1 I S O 2 _^ i: I ^ AAAAAA \^?s^^ M AAAAAA I | ml AWWVI 1 LD II. 1.". at the close of a para- graph: "This or that was done to cheer the king ^^ AAAAAA j] 1 AAAAAA O I AAAAAA U | -£^ A A \-J. A verb remarkable formation. and the heart of his majesty was (on that account) I f\ ^^^^^ '^ \\v) "^''^^ hJ\/\f^f\/\ WTlln It tl llUf Jib cheered (lit. which represent an action or a condi- tion as the result or conclusion of that previously narrated. WITH THE AUXILIARY VERB Wn. 6. 251. 103 -^ AAAAAA *^^=a — ^ 1 ® wnn/' Cnh '-He will live"^ (§ 184. 252.p. then connect the latter with that which precedes "The wise man had the children the called. — 242 252* CT ^^y ^^^ A AAAAAA ra ^ ¥^ are ^^7 w«fw/ sdm and -^^^(1 ^^ roninf hr sdm. But they are further employed where they ^ at the beginning of a paragraph also. They are therefore employed for the most part. more frequent. cool)"^. is found in -^^ AAAAAA -^^ J\ '^^zi^^ VQi jvnkl drvnkrvl "I threw myself down(?)"^. is I 251.

In Copt. 253. Toward the end of the temporarily the most becomes so frequent. . Itv/" 253. that it is common form 8. the basis of the construction g- r . 1 Prisse 2. 254. . 3 . this bellies and they read B.. Irv #254. - . it is preserved as EqBCCDTM Bauer 11. (cf. wninsn their hr sdt "And they threw themselves upon &c. "he will be a friend"^). . will hear". indicates the future -. COMPOUNDS WITH V AND THE INFINITIVE. 5.^ -^. with following 1 infinitive. form in the popular language of the m.„ mk r nhm c^k "Behold. r AND THE INFINITIVE.. ''^f ^ has already nearly superceded the simple e. ^^k. B.) and the ^^^ "^i® form thus originating. (1^ (1^ was early prefixed to this kind of sentence also (as in § 246 sq. 280. of narrative. I I I I I c::^ St o rvninsn it hr rdlt st Jir htvtsn. COMPOUNDS WITH On be something" is for (e.104 8. "to". e. 2 sin. . Tvi ^. in which (cf. r smr "he a friend"."^ n. § 240) the preposition <^:^ r. The auxiliary verb I will take thy ass"^. C§ 269). "he will fl%^Pf ^^|^^ «V i. there developed a kind of nominal sentence. e.

IMPERATIVE. older ^^\ .9. e. A: pM. e. imi incorrectly in the n. ihr (something like %ro. in The imperative had no ending the singular: 255*. n Ma. 105 9. °^ mh "fill" ^ (something like or 'mho)'. In classic orthography. A. later .i^^ (1^ and Mar. . are doubled. 256. 255. of "make. B. the signs and h n are the deter- minatives of giving). and the plural of the imperative is indicated only by the left determinative i. the third radical is and the ending l. In the pyr. and the like. Ab 3i. however. Since the n. in the plural it ended in w {'mhorv). the Copt. still possesses but few imperatives of the C§ 305. the II sing. i shBw "remember" or entirely unindicated. these endings are almost never written. IMPERATIVE. ^v • ml^ more rarely \J\i II. i. In detail note further: impv. (Copt. e. cause". (1 . the The plural of the Illae inf. old formation. the infinitive also used instead of the imperative. cf. (J ^\ ^^ . is used as imperative of cf. rrf^"give. in the "fall" Ilae gem. 256. in the t pyramids ends in [J(J. C§ 305. according to § 170 indicate the prosthetic vowel. ni^\ QA lit. do".

27. imt loses its original meaning "give". e. -^^^^sij n<zi>^/vwsA ji. r- and Ir-^ employed with suffixes for 348). contracted ^S\ ^-^^^r^ ). mi "give" for the most part (J . (Copt..106 9. ed. \\ -'^ /wvwv rud^rv tn "go (ye)''^ The words emphasis (cf. IMPERATIVE. they have further a real imperative of which is written A dt.^Q-J\c^^s f[ "hasten (thou)". ^^v 1 (I '^'^'^•^ sdmw Irf in "hear ye"^. A. I. cf. f. AMOy. as imperative of the verbs of coming. The imperative solute is often followed by the old ab- pronoun (cf. 2 Totb. 24 d. LD HI. 3 Sin. LE. often follow it also ^^^^'^r^"gehe".. 257. but is not indicated in the ortho- graphy. 282. Nav. was probably existent in the old language also. AMH. § 80): trv . forms just cited. . (with the sign ^ -write d).a -0 inu rdi. The pyr. The distinction in gender observable in the two Copt. imt ditw "cause that to (J there be given" (in the replaces it. § 182 B. V\ From w\ "give" in clauses expressing a wish. 257. frequent usage since the m. (I B. On the employment of cf. C§ 305). m.ri i^rtn "open ye". the like.

of which. m. ^%\ sdm Pl. 122 a. stands alone as a substantive. had a vocalic ending m. m. a. :getter"\ j> e. 2 LD 11. •sometimes contracted consonants: -^^ wnn AAAAAA "being" *^ or -^^ rvn. 107 10.^ Note 1. 3 According to fiethe. part. THE NOMINAL FORMS OF THE VERB. and those of the past seem to have been distinguished. Tvttw "be- — ^ V' ^^/'^ "chosen one" The participles occur in active and passive forms. in detail: II ae The gem. The follows participles. those of the present and future. Ab. PARTICIPLES. ^^v for the ^^^^ f- ^^v pi. PARTICIPLES.m. 25. ^^[j[j^l and I. conjectured from the often TV The sing.10a. may have. have sometimes AAAAA^ separated. as may be ending most has 96). 258. . II. » ^ Mar. furthermore. ' sdmywt(l) ^. 259. which as a rule are written as 258* Sg. the masculine substantive it (cf. 259. § especially where g.

prr "going out". PARTICIPLES. The irregular verb rdi "give" has the M^. . 13.) but gmmt "being found" is — In the case of and A§^^ •<2>- "make. 260.108 2. participle is active lorm 260. but "having born" (fern. liwwt{l) iryrvt rf "the hr liQl "the kings who were before me"^.). J\ pr "having gone out. sometimes double the second radical (present). 1. A p. ^^y^ "found" (fern. and sometimes do not (past): <cz>^ mrrw (T| 1 "loving". try. others in which the third radical i (cf. The either used attributively like an adjective: £v^t^^^. written for irr^ <2>-(](| for according to § 151. § f^^nK %J\\^ do". 3. The Illae inf. 2 RiH 19 sq. in the active.) (present) there occur in the passive. — Beside the forms with doubling 151) is visible (past): (fern. aiat.^g>-(j(]^^^^ wrong done against him"'. "giving". lOa. or like a substantive: » Eb.

19. ^^ K^. often its added to a subject 261. substantive or a suffix participle. to indicate logical the one. 26. ' Bauer 25.). (lit. 16."^ A remedy v\ •^ '^^'ww III . 6 Merenre' 465. especially \\ K.^ by him". '^ ^^ "^^^^ Ss mr n iryt rf "pain about that done to him.10a. retained. from whom iBrvi the action in question proceeds): (1 (1 mry [1 ]\ "beloved by the two lands". . A (i. passive e.Ms^<z:> o is »j I irrwt n ht oi that which is made for the body"*. 11. 109 ftiP'^^'^^^'W^ has born a boy"^ ^^^ -^^ "^^^ (fern.-^ sSf mryf "his son beloved The grammatical subject of a verb may also be cf. like ifi : §400 and examples AAAAAA y (1 . f actus malum contra eum a I Eb. PARTICIPLES. 14. when it is put in the passive participle. 261. the whole according to Sethe.<2>(J (] T ^^^ ifii ffij-f rf gjif "He to whom injury is done by his brother" fratre)^. 2 Prisse 5. who ^^v T (l(]'v\ if ^^''^^ ^^fc-^ sdmytv "the listeners"^. « Eb.

like ^ is f'^O) wH "urinate". ^^. CoAcA. are also to be vocalised thus. The vowel ending II infinitive has different forms in the different classes it verbal classes. (for *isor) dsr II TOGO) "become red" and .>>^ i also of the ae gem. uncertain. AAAAAA n "begotten pro- bably passive participles also. wn "open" OYODN (with suffixes OYON=) III lit. ITS FORMATION. 262. With the following first after the consonant. «. An III lit. II ae Whether the infinitives of the other gem. 263. of like meaning. is found after the second consonant of some like <z: which denote a quality. ^^.. ITS FOKMATION. with suffixes cAccdA*).^ kmom "become black".. The old expressions f'^^''^^^ /www tr ^yiy jj "beloved of" are of".110 b. and no special lit. V lit. sdm "hear" CCOTM (with ^'^^^ suffixes COTM=). THE INFINITIVE. like ^^\ ^. THE INFINITIVE. 263. . A. a. IV and "IT^ A li^^t (cf. b. has the *262. I ms n "born of"..

h.

THE INFINITIVE,

a. ITS

FORMATION. 264

— 268.

Ill

The Illae

i>,

according to the Copt, have for the 264.
after the second
i

most part an a
infinitive:

consonant in the
['

^

I

"^^

wdB "be healthy" oyxAl,

U
\\

%^

sk5 "plow" CKAl.

Certain infinitives, like ? ?

a

hM

"seek",

265.

^ '^
I

"^''^^

"land"

(i.

e.

die,

MOONE),

in careful

orthography, end in

i.

The

III ae

inf.

have
i

infinitives
^:

with feminine 266*.

ending and the vowel
n.

or

H 1^
nppF,

mst "bear"
trt

MICF

prt "go out" TTipe,

"make,

do", FlpF, rn

V\
lit.

A h^t '-descend" gF &c.
have likewise feminine
"^^^''

A
like

few III

infinitives, 267.

^dh

^^^^

^-

C^HCl,

as well as the
o

irregular verbs
"give".

Q

fl

/\

iit{^)

"come" und

rdit

The causatives of the

II lit.

have likewise femi1

268.

nine infinitives (according to § 161):

j^ ^^

shrt

"overthrow"

(from

hr

"fall").

e^
AAAAAA
Hi

smnt

"establish" from

mn MOyN "remain") CMINF.-— Among
inf.

the causatives of the Illae

are found
sh^yt

W
"cause

smsi to

"unbind", but also

^^'^(1(1^

112
descend",

p. ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE. 269

— 271.
lit,

— The causatives of the
lit.

III
1

are classified
/\

with the IV
up", Copt.

in the infinitive,

^

sCJiC

"get

COOgF
p.

(from

*soC}i'C).

ITS

SUBSTANTIVE NATURE.
was originally a substantive with and governs no ob-

269.

The
no

infinitive

the general meaning of the verb. It therefore belongs
to definite voice of the verb

ject; "to kill

him"

is

rendered in possessive form by

hdbf "his killing"

(cf. § 79),

and

Mh

hffi "to kill the

enemy" was originally undoubtedly a genetive, "the
killing of the enemy",
270.
(cf.

173.)

Of

itself,

hdbf "his killing" may also have the
killing,

meaning "the

which he does", as
wsrfr nds

in fnl

^

^"^ r^^^^^
hearing
is
is

sdmf "an ear whose

is

small"

^

(i.

e.

a deaf ear), but such usage

practically rare (the substantivised form of § 283

preferred in this case) and a possessive suffix on
is

the infinitive

always

first to

be translated as the

object of the latter.
271.

The substantive character

of

the infinitive
is

is

evidenced also by the fact that a plural
it.

made from

In contrast with the singular

it is

best rendered

by a substantive:
1

Eb. 91,

2.

/. ITS

USE. 272.

113
Plural

Singular

msrvt "birth"'/

""^^o wr^ "to

love"

"^^^"^mrw^
I

"love";^

|-^ ChC "to
\

stand"

^

-^
;^

QiCrv

"standing

place"

^^^ Mr "to hunger"

Q
"

V^^
4 ger ^

likrrv

"hun-

With many verbs however,
and of rejoicing) the plural
the singular.
Y-

(e. g.

those of going

infinitive is also

used like

ITS USE.

It stands, precisely like

a substantive, as the sub-

272,

ject of a sentence:

Irt

nf

St

"My
cf. §

wish was to make
335),

it

for him"^ (Irt

is

subject,

or as part of the genetive relation

"The day of the lamp-lighting

in the temple",*^

L Intr^
1 «

^
fj

^

n

i U=/]
2

St

krs "place of burying",'
H, 122 a.
« 3 I,

Westc,
II,

10, 8.
5

LD

LD

122 b.

LD

IH, 24 d.

Siut

291.

"

Westc. 6, 13, Westc. 7, 8.
j[

Erman,

Egpypt gramm.

114

Y.

ITS USE.

273—275.

or for the qualification of an adjective
T
<:=^:3

(cf.

§ 118):

I

^ Wj

w/r

mdw

"excellent in speak-

mg
273.

"

1

Further, as object after verbs of willing, like
rvd

"command",

mr

"desire",

^i^

q7\

snd

"fear", as well as

^^^^=^^^8A
(cf.

^-^

"think" and

rh "know, be able"

C§ 314):

rf&i St "It

was commanded him

to

pay

it".^
is

Beside

the above, the construction in § 189

also in use

with these verbs.
274.

The
position
;

infinitive

with the

may be dependent upon any premore common prepositions these

combinations have in part taken on special meanings,

which are noted below:
275.

The

infinitive with

^^^

m

"in",

denotes for the

most part time,

"They were astonished
came",^

p^mUt when

theyj

but nevertheless occurs with other meanings,
V

e.

g.l

V ^v
sin
1
.

^1

^^
2

^^

^ ^^^ ^^^"^

"free

from do-

mg

Peasant

75.

Peasant 48.

3

Prisse

2, 4.

*

Mar. Ab.

11,

24^

Y-

ITS USE. 276. 277.

115

With
pose (as

<;:::>

r "to", it

almost always indicates pur- 276*
cf.

still

in Copt, with e

C§ 315):

hntf r shrt 'hfUrvf
his enemies'V

(cf. § 7)

"He

sailed

up

to

overthrow

"He went <=:>

^

/wwv.

^^^

ra r spr n mr-

pr-wr to beseech the chief house-overseer".^
In the

common

expression <=i>

^) r ^<? ''in order

n^

to say" the idea of
in the

purpose had already disappeared
it,

m.

e.,

so that

(like its derivative 2£P,

370), only indicates the beginning of direct discourse,
AAAAAA

a

"I wandered through the

camp
nhm
r dd: irtrv nn mi

^=^ TV.

1 1 A ^ X J^ y U ^

Q
J^f'

m.^,

while I cried,

'How

is this

done?'".^
')*,

With

^

hr

it

denotes simultaneousness ("while
^-'^

277*.

•JUjOiv^in
ing him",^

hu

hr smsf^'I went, follow-

^'^^^l^tS^^'^^'^^^ ^ri?r^"He
found him going out"
(''as

he was going out").^

On
*
1

the use of this combination as a substitute

Best rendered in English by the present participle, teansl.

LD

II,

122a,

2

Bauer

33.

3

sin. 202.

*

LD
H*

II,

122a.

Bauer

34.

^ 280. for the pseudoparticiple § 240.. 8. . '278—280. cause: "I lived.^ This method of continuation is especially prefer- red with imperative and optative expressions: /"S "CH^ ^ O "^^''^^^^ «dl> AftAAAA ° Irhrk -<2>^d^^ ' X -y • • • rf ..* 2 '9TinC "with" connects the infinitive with a it preceding verb whose meaning now adopts: (I /wvAAA Q7\ ^ g (g iwf hr mm tS 500 . and give him the remedy". An absolute infinitive is subjoined to a sentence for the addition of an explanation: 2 1 Prisse 19. TinC rdlt nf phrt "Make for it . and drinks 100 jars of beer".=^Vi ^ ^^ /wwvA I j\ mC irt mSCt n stn because I wrought truth for the king".116 Y- ITS USE.. 7. I . of. honored by the king \ . . with transitive verbs. The prepositions scripts) /wvwv n (the —•— of good manudenote and ^v mP.. with the infinitive. 8. /m^ sTvrl hkt ds 100 "He eats 500 loaves . 3.. 40. 278. . Westc. 242. 3 Eb.. .

. i . a.C. . and that they go out . . O *^^=i^ (Li dJl ^^^ made ^rws m mnrvs n as her Imn^ Irt nf thnrvi wrwi "She for her father (it) monument Amon. 42._n_^ <: AAAAAA AAAAAA AAAAAA (var.t\N\/^ r\ Q a \ ^<=>J\ . (especially for the sake of intelligibility) in this case In^ a nominal subject is introduced by the prepositin is but a pronominal subject expressed by means of ra the later absolute pronouns of § 84: "Agreement made with so and n AAAA^\A I I <CZI^ so AAA/W\ ^^\ i A^ IN A AAAA/\A r~\ h. o. 24 d.2 in water. and that the priest give .. . (| d (it) ^C^ \\\\\^''^^=^pshrmTV^ ijb nn rdit Sfryf "Cook seethe (?)". 7."^ . later formation (cf. TvCh "that (they) give him . SUBSTANTIVIZED FORMS. X . 281. § 170) 282*. IN GENERAL. c. hnC rdit In . The verbal forms of the s^w/and sdmnf^ can be converted 1 into masculine 3 and LD in. IN GENERAL. . . ^"^h^\ . 282. AAAAAA . 307. a. . glut I. without letting The logical subject may be added to . . .^. 2 Eb. 117 •ODD ^^^ itfs ' I AAAAAA Vj. m rdlt nf hnC prt ntsn . an infinitive 281. SUBSTANTIVIZED POEMS. 'y having made two great obelisks for him"^ sQ}C "having set up").".

. to their stem.118 |3. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. therefore -^^^ prtf. do" rdltf. like). In the n. '^'^'^ sdmtnf "the fact that he heard" (with cf. e. to which the action has reference (he who hears. 283. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. with Ir o ^^i. The "substantivized" itself (the forms thus made. denote in part the action fact that he hears).. that which he hears and the B. ^^zz:^ n rvnntk "the time when you will be"^ "the time of the fact that you will be"). \ The formation sdmf is of the first group § 172) used in this case with the it is form sdmtf with the II ae inf. » I'risse JO. p. "283.^^ mntf^ with thelllae . ^^-^^ with tdl "give" Only in the case of a future meaning do forms of the second group seem tr to be employed here. in part a person or an object. \ ^ -^^ (lit. (cf. 10. w. feminine substantives by adding the substantive endings m. gem. f. t. § the meaning of a perfect. itself. Jiv^^=_ "make. Irtf. the substantivized forms have disappeared. 197). The forms which denote the action especially: are sdmtf "the fact that he hears".

dmlnl inbw hkB 3 Eb. Sw'} "on mI P V'^ ^* ^^^^ ^^ "when she bore New-years-day <zi> A c^ [331 '^'^^^ hft rdlt p}. I. 119 284. Siut I. it adds to it an explanatory limitation: "Agreement. 276. it". tivized form. 274. tion with a dependent clause. further.^ nhf when the house gives (presents) to They gave him /wsAAA this piece rum <iz> A o to l/wwvA hnt rdltnf nsn before he had given tiiem". * Siut I.p.. I J^±5^ ^^^'^ siut 289. c:^::^ 1 IJJEL 4 1/vwvvA ^W ' I^Jl 2 ^^^ ^ rdwil.285. If it follows a sentence.^ however.^ Note. that they give him a loaf AAAAAA I <=> A o AAAAAA I v dltfif HSH Jivs hc. it contains 286. ^v. 95. g. TO DENOTE THE ACTION ITSELF. 284 — 286. . after prepositions. for If. These substantivized forms are treated precisely like substantives and are used with special frequency where we would expect a conjuncE. the absolute use of this substan.n its lord". a temporal qualification: o ^ 8.. it precedes the sentence. havlug givcu i.hem .

15. n I in J ^-^ czsiD n ^^ X X lO ^ n MM o rst^. that which he hears etc. TO DENOTE A PERSON OK AN OBJECT." 288. whereas the substantivized form ''They were astonished is otherwise chosen. identical with that of the infinitive. As may be most seen. In general they are distinguished as follows: the infinitive is used where its (logical) subject is identical with the subject of the preceding sentence. e. rnpt 18 Irt hnf tBS as: This is probably to he understood "In the year 18 (oc- curred) the cirumstance. "his maj. Y- TO DENOTE A PEESON OR AN OBJECT. m I i ! ItSH. e. the person The substantivized forms which denote ence (he or thing to which the action of the verb has refer- who hears. I to the wall of the prince"/ It sometimes stands independently at the hee. ginning of a text after a date. made the southern boundary. 2 LD II. i. when ^^^ m lit. (i. . "When came 287. fled). but "/ was astonished when they came" A 289. the use of this form is for the part. 1 had given the way to my feet. \\\\ r. 287 — 289. they came" Thus.) are theoretically as follows: 1 Sin.120 f. that his majesty made the southern boundary". g. 136h.

or after a preposition.Y- TO DENOTE A PERSON OR AN OBJECT. sdmtnf with the meanings "that which he hears" and "that which he heard" are the most frequent: I ^ is ^ ^/^ ^^^^^ ^^ "That which I do thee good". sdmtf is sdmtnf in which the n-form again used for the past. •- mr Innt hCp '^Oxerseer oHha. sdmrvf f. it is with the form of with the Illae ir therefore Irrif with ^^ mtrtf with "make. in the genetive. § the use of these forms in relative sentences 290.t » Sin.* A ^ZXZ H Q ^^^ vhich the Nile brings'. rdi "give' —In the case of the II lit. Certain of them are furthermore employed with definite meaning. . as well as with all verbs in the w-form. 2 LD II. 121 m. 291. 149 c. as object. sdmrvnf f. On cf. (in contrast inf. these substantivized forms are not to be distinguished from those of the first kind. is — The formation of the second group (§ 184) used for the forms sdmrvf and sdmtf § 283). precisely after the manner of real substantives as subject. 290. do" dlditf. The forms ^ ^\ sdmtf and ^ ^^^ '^""'^ 291*. 77. 394. m. and III lit.

sdmt'isi. 136h. is noteworthy. f.^ make this boundary "as something brilliant (i. PI.« LD II. m. after the lands VERBAL ADJECTIVE. 8. useful) for him who will hear 1 it". VERBAL ADJECTIVE. whose fear comes d. *293. The archaic forms Sg. is The form sdmrvf denotes persons and almost only with nominal subject: used ifr^^ hssm nbf^^he ^'v^^- whom his lord lovesV I "K ^^5^ Vh^ J\ tvnnw " 4 sndf ht smwt "he. e. 34 d. ^ ing).122 d. 2 c gin. 5. 293. < Sin. 5 LD II. 113f. who will hear" and are employed both as adjectives and substantives: J^ s^l ^^ tSi 3 rib srrvdt'if'i S _^^ Xcm /wwv^ <CZ> Ul iCi "^ W pn "every son of mine who shall increase". 137. ^'^'^'^(j^^ §A ddtnfim it"^ "according to that still liv- which he had said about (while he was I — The not infrequent masculine fl dldisn I I 1 "that which they give"^ 292. 292. sdmttsn almost always mean "he (she). 3 lD n. 44 prisse . sdmtif'i.

If it is ed only by the order of words. o l\«v or o 1 Willi n or ^n till \ f. . the endings are for the 294. d'Aby. p^'i. ..297. PI. 75.296. its mina absoluia. f. however. THE OBJECT. the in. 11. 123 In classic orthography. APPENDIX TO THE VERB. APPENDIX TO THE VERB. m. it is could not originally govern an object. 294 — 297. direct object (accusative) cf. rdi "give" has <=> A rdldfi. the Illae inf. 2 » Mar. a pronoun it § 337 sq. always expressed by the old prono§ 30. Cat. is cf. •^^ I W rvnnt'isi. 2<. always double the second radical. THE OBJECT. 807. to be noted. in the singular. in part take w for the ending of the stem.11. In respect of the formation.=:^h^rvt'ift (ct § 151 A). rn do" has ^^ ^ ^ . that it is the II ae gem. The is to be recognis. 295.::=_ or . most part written: Sg. sin. K\^ also occur. On account finitive of substantive character. <r "make.

according to § 269. St "in order to love Transitive 298. A special adverbial formation Beside the prepositions stantives (cf. Irt iht "to do (something")'. § 306). Note ^ i. does not exist. are often followed by the word iht "thing" as a general object. The indirect object (dative) ^^aaaa expressed by means of the preposition n (cf. r mrt it" ("them).for the god. 2 glut I. is 299. ADVERBS.. thus: 1 Siut I.^ e. i. the adjectives are used as ad- verbs.124 therefore. "in l'^ order to love him". (cf. which by good manuscripts. r mrtf "for his loving". St "it" (cf. e. 1. r^ iht ''the one knowing (something)". 1. 271. 298 300. PAETICLES. before substantives. especially not to be translated by us. the wise man. 300. ADVERBS. PARTICLES. possessive suffixes. is written — :_. to make offering. verbs which have no special object. e. Only the neuter pronoun § 82) can also follow the infinitive. § 303) and absolute sub- § 117). . 223. combined with the i.

or more rarely. PREPOSITIONS. in the masculine. "upon him" "his face"). 3 Eb. With the preposition r. 37. .i'wwr^ very sorely". 66. 18.^ Alone.^ "He wept ^"^'^'^•[1^^^ <. they are com{lirf bined with the possessive suffixes lit. "hehind"). IN GENERAL. in the feminine (especially "very") with the intensifying wrt vomits often".' ^ 2. a. 20. in part compound {m e. 1 Eb. to say. sB "in the hack". < Peasant 25. 302. 302. 37. verbs may be dependent upon them. 17.2. They are that is in part employed like conjunctions also. PREPOSITIONS. 301. Since they were originally suhstantives. a. i. hnC 301.^ 2. 125 1. as is still clear in the case of many. Cf. § 190 and for details § 306 sq. m GENERAL. The prepositions are "with"). r mnh "excellently". in part simple {m "in". in the masculine or feminine AAAAAA ^ . '2 Eb. r CBt "very".

i. brv "place" : smnf im "he had gone into" the preposition and imf "into it"). Una U. manuscripts dating from the end of the m. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. e. with suffixes *na- of the n. "the entire sides". The prepositional phrase like a substantive also. according e. C§ 349). where we would employ a or an adjective. gsw'i 1/vwvAA ml kdsn "the two sides i. they should properly have. like AAAAAA n is pronounced before nouns. 6. is sometimes treated i I ^ QA 1 hswt nf hr stn "the rewards of the with-the-king".^ i. which. g. the rewards on the part of the king. . gin. (i. according to their extent". 303 — 306. and the beginning *'^n.^^_ t^ pn r drf "this land up to its boundary"/ y V e. e. 306. g. something (cf. e.^ 305. They are very often used with the suppression of the as adverbs also. 1 e. e.126 303. distinguish each as 7. 310. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. a. "entire" (cf. b. b. The prepositional phrase the word dependent it) is frequently subjoined to a relative clause substantive. to the connection. ll referring to ("into" for 304. 2 —:— 3 ('^n) and Priase 2. Note especially the expressions for C§ 152): <z:> ^ i. e. suffix. "this entire land".

is "within". existent m. belonging something. after the verbs "to be" or "to make (into) some- . in particular 1. itisused 1. to among a number. made out o/ something. — The original meaning of place. provid- ed with something. C§ 350). written ^^ Im- (cf. in 6. in the capacity of. to 3. empty of something 4. «s. a command. in the to manner of. a condition. without any in particular: accompanying idea of direction. is pronounced before nouns something (1 like 307*. into something. like\ according 5. infinitive (cf. on the day and the like. of time. "because of". then means: something for some one. 127 (na-). 2. to bring or give something (dative). 3. to say something to some one come to some one (only with persons). before suffixes ^emo-. 307.b. out of something (inexact for "«r) 2. some one. in the year. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. in As a conjunction and before the it means "because". § 278) 4. — The to do to original meaning it is "for the advantage of any one". con- sisting o/ something. ^^^ m **»?. a period of time. because of a thing.

1. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. gin. thereout. 1. ''per day". *308 ally ^^ ^'^ "*^^ servant there" ^ (humbly <=> (*<^r. e. 4) occasionally for the introduction of direct disit course. ^^ *erof. to speak to some one 4. by means of a tool. . C§ 348) origin- meant "at" or "by" something. «^ ^s^s. C§ 350. 5. 175. adverb it has the form ^v and means "therein (there). 2. it is also joined to a substantive. (j^^^. into something (inexact for m) as far as . thither to something (the most frequent mean. b. thereinto. four days" and the like 6. panying idea of direction. therewith (by means of)" . without any accomusual meanings are: existent at or by something.^^^'^n^^^ ^ iw/'m nds "He is a citizen" 7. As a conAs an means "when" and "if (1 (§ 391). ing) . where 8. § 275. with suff. hostile toward some one (in contrast with «). '•''every distributively of time. On m junction it before the infinitive cf. for "I"). remains untranslated. 2 where we | » Westc.128 things". Its cf. g. therefrom. 3. 308. especially after adjectives ''more than\ 7. (cf.

' and means existent upon something (the most frequent meaning).-^-^ would employ our comparative. with suffixes is written ^ es- 309*. In the pyr.6. because of something (frequent). distributively. at the time of and the like. 129 <=:> . A. Egypt. 6. to deviate from some- thing. SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. upon each one. also in inexact specifications of place and time. "because". pecially: 1. 5. Cf. and the like. it is also written (I <zz> . on hr with the it § 277. gramm. the suffix. "face"). use in the co-ordination of substantives infinitive cf. anoint. cf.53. and "so that". Westc. § 2. . in addition to something to pass by something. in the north and the like.in correct orthography (C§ 351). 4. As a con- junction 1 means 12.^ As a conjunction on its it means "until" cf. hr. also use before the infinitive § 276. with something. Erman. T nfr r tht nbt "more beautiful than everything". cook &c. 309. 8. its 7. 2. down upon something. and the like. pleasant for the heart. with or without ^ hr (lit. 3. On § 120.

312. and the is like. hr. take something from some one. ^^^ means 1. mC (perhaps arising from mc «in the arm") in the possession of. existent rvith some one and the it is like. rescue from some one. — As an adverb means conjunction^ "when". means ^carrying or posses- Cf. § cf. because of a thing. receive from one. 311. simultam "in front". 4.). SIMPLE PREPOSITIONS. 2. b. is also used of being laden (because the bearer under the burden) and therefore often sing something".130 310. is ^ hr. as ously with. the most part employed for^ to it according corresponding and also for. 278. cf. originally. "under" (also of direction). ®o 313. lit. Note further the simple prepositions: . something done by some one. hft (on orthography is for § 7) originally meant "m front of\ but to. also. obsolete and still used almost only in specifications of reigns (under King X. some 3. 310 — 313. C§ 352. On mC with the infinitive cf. to receive something /rom some one. — On its use in the passive § 169.

rCU "opposite".— Cf. with the passive and the infinitive. ^ dr "when. compounded with a subof a part of the body). AAAAAA In only for the expression of the subject Cf. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. 131 "between. 314. ^'^ O 9 AAAAAA JiB (lit. nose) "before" (rest or motion) as an adverb. hnC "together with". ir ^v^'^ in the (1 V ^^^^^ (^^ *^® Py^'.C. 315. it is obsolete. occiput). if" (cf. 314. § 279. "as. 315. often y <:i=> mr) "like". § 169. head or the like) "upon" . "behind". since" c. . hniw "before". COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS. with the infin. also § 120. 1) (1 mi (in the pyr. Many prepositions are stantive (usually the name Note especially: ^iv.^ P*^^ VI ^ )) ^^^ ^^^ compensation). Cm\ hnt (lit. "as re- ward for". As a conjunction. § 391).i'^'f^ii)} midst of". tp (lit.

"formerly". m ht "behind. as (cf. "before m h^h („in the fore(also as some one" an ad- verb). also /wwvA ^ I n si. cf. C§ 356). As an adverb "afterward". as a conjunction. V J\ ^ ^^^ "^^ ^^® inside of" (cf. m. ^^(=Qidr hBh as an adverb. "afterward". § 244. an adverb. persons". -^ m m m "among n mrrvt^ in the m. 1= C§ 359). (cf. "at the summit". . "formerly".^^ hr s9 "behind. r si. after".385). "in order that". 315 J skin". ^-^ fir JiQ. after". often as a conjunction. hr-lb: "in the midst of". s9 ("in the back") <=> ^ r sS. hr hQ^ as an adverb. "^ hft hr "in front X m y^ C§ 357). ^-^ mhCt ^^^ of". r si. hr sB are used. e^ /ww\a iju^ (for love). '^ mhr "in front of. "after" ^^ m "after". is also used as a conjunction. COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS.132 C.

it. frequent (C§ 359. something". COMPOUND PEEPOSmOSS. very rare. Finally. 316. as an (j adverb according to § 307 ^ ^ tp Im "formerly". in the m. there are such peculiar formations as: '=^^:. cf. v. there prefixed to the preposition. "between" 1 (cf. "upon" is cf. s. ^ Tir vK. 317. <=> far as". and the old ^ wprv r "except". ^ <^^> nfryt r ^^ "as far as". 316. others. 133 ^ midst ^ J^ wrf^' ^ ^^^ ^"^^ *^® entrails'y "in the of". r gs ("at the side"). a word more exactly qualifying thus in: X ^^ Tvprv hr "except" (also for "but" con- junction). "as ^^ With dMB ("upon the head"). "^ Jir gs: "be- ^^^ in the "together with".C. e. 354). LE. ^^ ^ "before some one. <zi> side". . C§ 361. r drw ("up to the boundary"). y C§ Wb.5. ^ ^^X^<cz> \\\\\ hrrv r "apart from". Suppl. 338). 317. Brugsch. A ^ *'^^ ("i° order to separate").

"from" (cf. . IN GENERAL. in part enclitically joined 318. nf . coNjuNCTioxs. (^ 319. s^c m ("in order to begin C§ r 355). serves for the most part (like our "namely") to introduce an explanatory addition: C/T • • • 4.. The conjunctions are to the first its word of the sentence. enclitic conj. stn is . LM with"). "I made 1 it for him . ^s § 363. On those prepositions which are § 302. others which are treated elsewhere. h. and D §347. . 348. mn m} ("in order to remain with"). M ' • • • '^^^ . cf.134 3. 124. CONJUNCTIONS. 35. . (I) the king LD II.^ . 318. a. I ^§121.. thus § 257.. used as conjunctions. 349. 306 sq. a. 3.". . 319. 24(1. b. in gen. ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. 2 LD lU. "as far as". — Apart from there are the conjunctions noted in the following. in part appear at beginning also.

18. on the is of the 1 ^ C^ srvt and ^ ^^ rmtt &c. joins an explanation or a continuation. 320. 135 On the other hand . ^ ^ its is f. then Ir grt . <=:> grt^ also properly means "but". . ^^ IU% fruit is laid I Z\ grt prts ditws hr tB but &c. 225. its upon bread laid 1 upon Siut I. who &c. eye bleeds. 51. 66. In the pyr. 321. ENCLITIC CONJUNCTIONS. water comes out of it &c. g. this later language cf.^ 1}^ (like our "but") ex. (cf. "If the 321. A. is is very frequent."). (1 . e. as a restricting adjunct. 3 Eb. (1 Vi. i)^=>."^ (or "Further. Ir srvt § 97) nht but all men (who preserve who But this contrast is sometimes so weak that these conjunctions really serve for the attachment of the clause only. b. 8.320.h.)". .''^ As a of "but": however. § 323 B.^^ HJ if it "^ ^^^^ ^H use hB mrv Ims but rule.:^a_^(1 I n is means "but not". 2 Eb. press the opposite of that which precedes: "All men who \\\ O:^ injure the tomb. like "further" or our weaker "This plant is employed so and ifv so. (1 <ci:> I V^ Jl g —>^ it.

C. 3 Bauer 71.. 349): pn "this peasant said (this) however. e. 2. 322. Since the m. . 323. when I was j. § 348.). CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC. this twC^. 2 jb.^ 1 Una 5. rdl rvi hnf m smr "I was judge .136 322. especially with following r/ (cf. e. .. 8. made me made me f. ist^ is especially used. c. designates that which has been stated as something self-evident or well known. mnQ() »*s in direct discourse. 45. . . Rarer conjunctions of 1. kind are The archaic ^\ which seems to intro- duce the sentence as the result or consequence of that which has been previously narrated. it is employed for the introduc- tion of parenthetical or incidental remarks.. . at the time of king Nb-kr. (1P^= (IP^ (older H s=5 is() specifies the circumstances under which anything happens wi m si& . then his his majesty maj. where these circumstances are to be emphasized as remarkable. i^h 323. friend"- (i.

17. tstio\ 137 A. ElC-> seems to have arisen from n I '^^n^ Isk (older I ^=^:=:^ Isk) mostly designates 324. use B. § 120 A. Mast. I will which is stated: ^^ Sh ^ 2 ^'^''^ k^rduhprmTv"S\LTe- cause water to be". it duced a substantiating clause Then.325. 3 ib. in order to strengthen that "^""^ ly. with much weakened significance. threats and 326. 200.C.^ 1 Mar. 12. The pyr. also intro- duces new paragraphs of a narrative and precedes especially temporal clauses: hrw this. or the time at which something occurs: "He erected this tomb for his son child". directions. then &c. []^^^ thr originally intro. cf. . enclitically also. after the days had passed by varied meanings. Westc. CONJUNCTIONS NOT ENCLITIC 324 — 326. Is also.^ l^z::^ 1^ ^v % sk stv m hrd when he was a older ® ^. 9. with is many ^i used in promises. 9. In LA hr 7\ is very frequent. sjv^ hr nn ^^No?v."2 B. (like for or because). Copt. In ist LE it is written the late Egyptian Ist. (like the more frequent 1st) the circumstances under which.

In the oldest language kS is ^^^ ^^^^ "'^^^^ ^^^^^ also used enclitically.^ 1 Westc. 3. § 80 are then where the old pronouns of as subject: employed m hShk "Behold I (am) before thee".* and is especially frequent after rnk "behold" (§ 183). It is used in assertions: ^^^^^^^ inwk nb ImSt "I am the lord of graciousness". Occasionally it receives the suffix of the 2 m. "^^^^ ^ ^^1 ^'v^ "^^^ throw". 3.^ A. a. The sub- ject precedes the predicate. '> rnk nfr "Thy name is beautiful". THE SENTENCE. 328. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE. while its subject is a noun or absolute pronoun.138 la. 2 Louvre C 172. adjective or prepositional phrase. . understood a is *327. 14. whose predicate then a substantive. 328. By the (pure) nominal sentence sentence without a verb.^ ^=^T AAAAAA <. 327. 3 Prisse 5. * Sin. is THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. 263. 1.

Thus in expressions with rn "name". » 2 Sin. THE SIMPLE NOMINAL SENTENCE. <:^> fruits are ^ ^ I ^^^ ^ ""^ ' ' </A:r nb hr htwf «A11 upon its trees''. 83. 330. further.^ ^^^ MO I. LD II. 1. are under the place of thy It is. 136 h. 6 st rmtt ni ift). 15. 19. » Eb. often used in descriptions: ' 329. 51. the predi. when the subject is a demonstrative or an ab- solute pronoun: ^ qA ^^ {^ 1 I dpt mrvt nn "This is the taste of death".^ and often also as a relative clause (cf. are under thy charge"* face). 139 n ihrvt .^ Occasionally. . » Sin. * Eb. . 23. 51. 329. hr St hrk "Behold these things (lit. like 1^ ^\ whose 1 D v\ is "^ QA I sm^ snwtt rns "an herb name 2.330. . cate precedes the subject. the predicate is thereby emphasized. . in violation of the rule. Snwtf ^ (for: rns S7iwtt). .a. I ^^'^\\o^ n rmtj : Is nt m St "They are not people of strength'"" (for n Siat 269. § 393): man on whose neck are swellings". .

sometimes introduced byj "to the auxiliary verb (1 Vi^ iw be" (cf. . In the pyr. the popular language of the m. This inverted order the predicate 1 is especially frequent. h. the pronouns where they would stand as the subject of a nominal sentence are superceded by the forms of this verb : (1 v\ ^^ for Inwk &c. especially when the predicate tional phrase: is mrv "His one B. a preposi-j 246 sq. 332. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY iw AND The nominal sentence is wn.). 332. 1 Bauer 3. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE INTRODUCED BY llV AND IVn.. §§ 220 sq. 331. where is an adjective: c^ I ^ }^ ^"^ Vwi nfr mint "My way is { good".140 *331. this ending is written v\ or h. 2 Butler 16.^ e. In way was under water".* j In this case the adjective often receives an ending ^ rv'i^ which perhaps lends it a special emphasis: is I face!" ^ nfrrv'i hrk "How beautiful thy A.

THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH 'pW.C. ^^ n rvn (cf. 75. § 103). yw is already superceded by the demonstrative pB'i. "she". 250 sq. prv — If the predicate is it: may be PJi^t inserted within D v\ ^^ ^^ truth" ^ • P^ ^f rvn-m^c «It is a remedy of (cf.) as in ^^ \ \^^^ for '^v' 1 rvnin nfr st hr ibsn "It cf. the similar word TTE. the demonstrative prv "this". B. This construction is then used to emphasize the 335. i . "it" or "they". 333 — 335. Sentences like ^^^'^d\\ BC pw "-^^ '^ «It is ReC". expression. II. TF. 6. 2). 141 More rarely it is introduced by the auxiliary verb 333. 2 . 5 Eb. This tS'i. § 223. e. in order to render 1 Prisse 2. but this pw is now a long ° weakened an unchangeable word having the mean- ing "he". 136h. 2 Mar. wnm precedes. was good where their heart"/ (for st nfr § 330. 3 ib. 12. c. nS'i in the LE. ^o^° D ^ ^ to ^^'*^ ^"^ ^^^*"'' i ^ ^ ^^ ^ which follows fiwrw prv "They are paupers". * LD II.^ properly have as subject. g. THE NOMINAL SENTENCE WITH ptv. the predicate according to § 330.' 334. predicate of a nominal sentence. 25. NE probably arose from this. Ab.

it is The order of words often the case. direct and in- and one following. *338. Ipt tht is emphatic the word is is "Karnak the horizon". 1 LD III. subject. g. pw ipt "It is is the horizon. THE ORDER OF WORDS. But E. subject. e. In the preceding part of the sentence the order] in principle: 1. containing the verb. THE PARTS OP THE SENTENCE. THE ORDER OF WORDS. divided into two parts: one pre ceding. is The sentence direct object.142 2 a. a. 24d. and Ipt then follows as apposition to Iht prv "it": ^ n'^(l° jl'^© Karnak'V i. that is to he especially noted. verb. direct object| indirect object (cf. the pronouns precede the substai tives.:^^ rdln stn nb AA/W\A O O O bkf "The king gave his servant gold". "The horizon Karnak". 2. viz. E. 336 iht "horizon" in — 339. containing specifi-^ cations of time and place and the like. § 299). is it 336. 3. the sentence tht prv "It first the horizon" made. 2. . if parts 2 —4 are partly substantives an< partly pronouns. g. 339. to be analysed. for alone indicates how a sen-]] tence 337. is 4. -^ (^ FS^ M^^.

^^ AAAAAA it to his servant". ^Cda ^ r<?«'. 136. 341. 340 342. .C. Q AftAAAA 1 1 ^ /T I /www AAAAAA I (^^ _/ J. in the part which precedes: QiSrvf "1 caused that his weapons pass by me"^ (for swB ChBrvf hrl). If both objects are pronouns. under certain circumstances. it to me". may be inserted by exception. Except for the sake of emphasis § 343 sq.) the above laws are inviolable. however. 340*. v^ Sr rdlnf nl O O O rib "He gave me gold". an expression which belongs in the latter part of the sentence. the indirect precedes is. CZIZI^^ AAAA/V\ AAAAAA O I . A vocative stands as a rule at the end of the 342. 143 a \Si S!l 1 T AAAAAA O O O rdm ni stn nb „The king gave AAAAAA me gold". sentence » Sin. THE ORDER OF WORDS. that the pronominal suffix precedes the absolute pronoun: a AAAAAA v^ 1 <^ T V4 T 11 '"'^^^ AAAAAA ^^ ^^ *^^ "The king gave it to me". for stylistic purposes. the direct.i s/y sifw w hkf "The king gave 0^^.C\ vgi v\ rdinf nl srv "He gave (cf.

WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. also § 330. I have found". WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. 344."^ If it be placed at the beginning of the address. thus. h. ^ f'=Ti) 1. p. it is ^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ "^^ it is t^ lord.:. like ru q7\ K\ hS and the like. — Cf. because he devours &c. [1 then often introduced by an interjection. IN GENERAL. EMPHASIS. the word 'king' is often em- phasized without reason. 331. method of emphasis leaves the eme. The original phasized word without further introduction. g. Emphasis consists a word to which it is desired to attract attention. 343. c^k. 2 Bauer 74. sht'i. hold. . e. IN GENERAL. 1 Bauer 11. it and as a rule resuming ence. 335. hr wmf "Be- away thy peasant. in placing before the sentence. 343. p. It is by a pronoun in the sent- very frequently used and often contrary to our sense. J) as in '^^:z7 ^ (] "^ A^7\ ^k.144 6 a. g. a. I will take mk rvi r nhm ass.^ somewhat ceremonial. 344.

had done it to him"- (for Irni kBtnf r\ I £^1 -Zl J\ 2i 1 1 _Zl AAAAAA cl CI^I^ vR to [1 ^\ I smt nbt rrvtnl rs. 345. is irni hd m smt nbt. 346. 145 ""^ § ? it V§^ D § _SS)fl ° ^ ^s^* i>/*« J3^ "My praise.^ LD II. . I Irt st ri rf). I t!?^ • • • U f^ (^h<^n hn n sin . 2 Sin. 8. 101. gramm. 122a. rrvini The resumptive pronoun especially in poetry: occasionally omitted. . Erman. irv irni hd ims "Every land (for irv which I went. 233. WITHOUT INTRODUCTION. m Itrm swrif mrk "The water in the stream. minnf "The majesty of the king of upper and . Egypt.^a k^tnf irt st ri irni st rf "That which he had thought to do it to me. he drinks (it) if thou wishest".* If the sentence has one of the compound verbal it. Yi . stands before the emphasized word: T bit'i . I '^. * Sin. 3 gin. . 346. 144. 345. ?risse 2. lower Egypt 1 expired".p. reached heaven" ^ (for j97« As^*' pt). forms as its verb. the auxiliary verb with which is formed. I was a hero(?) therein"^ rs). I r i AAAAAA cii.

The emphatic particle H used with every . AND Ir is in. 1 Westc. hear it"^ tr firw is t\<=> ^ /wwvA 1 III (3(3(3 nnn _zr r 360 pn> n rnpi "A temple-day. ir-. e. r- and in. 347.146 Y- WITH ir. r-. 347. Y. the resumption of the emphasized word by means of a pronoun sentence^ is only occasionally suppressed. sdm St "All that is written. also § 228. also. but in the n. 9. kind of sentence.^ "The heart of his majesty was sad concerning AAAAAA LJ V^ l\f\f\f\J\f\ ^ I U rvn Iht nbt. it m. in the case of the subject of a nominal e. B. 3 prisse 2. superceded all the] other methods of emphasizing. an auxiliary verb is still is treated according This construction i-egarded as ceremonious in thel e. (often in legal style).' commanded me. Tvdt nl linf^ rvn hprnl ml kd "All that his majesty completed". I entirely Cf. ^ 1 wnln hnf tbf rvS r hrvt(?) hrs it". 4.^ Here to § 346. 30C . ir-. (that) I '^[]''^~^^^^n\>^'^^{^ 1 i nhtntr. * Siut I. • V360 o^ ^^^ year". 2 Una 42. g. 12. WITH \r.

(like that of § 349). '5 K* . Peasant 52. In the pyr.^ A. 348 — 350. this tr takes the suffix corresponding to the subject of the sentence: r/. rf.349. in many texts 348. This r. 248. 147 The emphatic word [1 <>/. 24 d. it in the last case (cf. (J sdmrv irf tn "hear ye". § 356) and with imperatives and optatives. irk. b--. Irs. r- and in. Irf. 3 7. * Sin.^ ^ That dik rk ni "give me".had originallj' irvin rf shti pn changeable suffixes also. which is added to the verb (espe. Peasant 29. often still has the archaic form rk "''''''^ A): ^ ^.Y- WITH ir. 2 LD III. which.^ It is often used in interrogative sentences (cf. often emphasized by 350. is written follows the word to be emphasized JiT^ (1 dsk irf "thou thy- self".^ A. cially those of going) at the beginning of short sec- tions seems to be different T from irf rf tS rf\ ^ AAAAA/v Mn "The earth became light'/ A\\ "This peasant came". 8. Irt. is The subject of a sentence 1 Westc.

351. THE ELLIPSE. 24 d. one or more indentical words are suppressed: 5^" AAAAAA I I I I AAAAAA I III I I I yr III 3 AAAAAA I I I 1 Sin. 308. standing of the text very first They are found in poetry. In LE this In is written: ^^\ (i. *n according to late pronunciation). THE ELLIPSE. 289. Siut I. are substituted for in § 84: and the pronoun according to ntf ssm wi "It is he who leads me". where. of all in the parallel members in the second member. 351.148 C.^ B. ntf &c. (i. e. the pronouns ntk. e. * Sethe . means of tive \ AAA/SAA In (old writing is (1 1 ^^ J in) . the resumpself ^ pronoun for the most part omitted as evident: I A\'w\A y it in hnf rdi irtf "His majesty - Q' caused that be made"' (for in hnf rdif irtf). 2 LD III. The frequent tive ellipses the omission of effec- words as dispensable) often render the underdifficult.^ AAAAAA r\ I I n N\fy/\y^ '^ -<2>-| I AAAAAA ntsn irsn ni "It is they who do it for me". 4 c. If the subject to be emphasized is a pronoun.

thus in animated narrative: > Mar. where it is 352. mine) like (the heart of) the prince of any land". (turning) the back of (his) head (to) those lies". same subfirst 353.^ ^ f ^^ ^ tms hrf r dd m^Q. my memory with your children". THE EIXIPSE. 352. the latter sometimes written with the only. .C. found in the second compared member: AAAftAA sfwf (lit. 31.- who speak Similar is the ellipse in comparisons. 176. 3 gin. lb n bk im ml hkB n. 149 iml mi m r n linrvtn sh^l hr msTvtn "Establish (Establish) my name in the mouth of your servants. II. mkhS ddrv grg "Turning his countenance to him who speaks truth.^ several successive verbs have the is When ject.smt nbt "He re- joices (i. 353. Ab. 2 Louvre C 26. broadens) the heart of the servant there e.

it An is object may likewise remain unexpressed. rdl sdt Im "I captured their women. pr r hnmrvtsn^ hrv kBrvsn^ rvhB I led its?i. he drove (him). e. C THE ELLIPSE.^ "She takes Egypt like the god <::^ ''Ir-s?i lO r to rvtj lift ^^-=^ V ^ ^'^^-^ shprnf (for shprnf si) /I ffwf he created (her) to wear his diadem 355. ntrrv Jw dd. < . with accompanying ellipse of the subject) into his village". slew their steers. 5 Stele from Kuban. where clear from that which precedes. * Eb. 3 lD III. ( « Thus.150 inni hrrvsn. g. ddinsn. away their people. up)". (]/wwv^ Maaaaaa /^^^^ "they say". later written for Inf. (I fiir is QA II. "He "^^ s^^k for sCk sw. (lit. » LD 136h. 9. 20.^ 354. set fire thereon".^ Another form pressions like: is the ellipse of |) dd "say" in ex- <^^% §r^w [] "it is said"."* /wvAAA Q ^'. cut down their barley.2 jRC "saith Re". 24 d. ]'^ I I ntrm lir "the gods say"^ ddhrtrv. 354. 355. These stand B. stole his ass. 2 Peasant 24. went to their wells.

^ n /www [1 ^' °^^-^ v^ In irv m^Ct piv "Is it truth?" 2 B. 3. is characteristic of the inter- rogative sentence. INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE. end of inter- 358*. as a rule externally marked. introduced by means of in or [Jaaaaaa [1 v^ 1 Q 1 Jm o tf Ji ^ I 2^-=^ _M^ ^n upon his Crvitrvl rf m v^ .3fl. . The most common mii^ rogative pronoun ing. § 34) "what?. 8. INTEREOGATIVE SENTENCE. (Jaaaaaa 357*. 151 3. a. on the read- who?": nn hr m? /y ^J^J^^-^f phnk "Why (on ac- count of what) have you reached this (place) ?''^ "^^^ irtw nn mi m ? "Like what 2 (1 % 1 1 ^^ 18. in iw is perhaps preserved in PNE. cf. KINDS OF SENTENCE. 356 — 358. 35. 3 Peasant sin. 2 is this » done?"'' Westc. 202. "Shall be robbed land(?)?". . C§ 394. Fre- quent emphasizing whether of the verb or of the interrogative particle. 356. If the sentence contains it is no special interrogative. < ib. the sentence C§ is 392). v\ ml cf. it is The indication of the question by the accent alone is very rare. As a rule. the interrogatives stand at the (cf.

C§ m is already superceded by Ih A(l) "what?". m is already written aaaaaa \^\ 3^ at the end LE there has arisen from in m. 4. This in of the m. n'im "who" MIM (cf. a. a new word jQ w 360.). I . 2 Irt r tn? "Whither goest 2 f. 359 — 361. Hdb. as subject with the meaning "who?". Hdb. The interrogative for "where?" is ^ AAAAAA V^^=^tn. O^O is {l)-nw "When?"'' "What 361.Qi.i//.^^5. '^.: I ^ I'VI'^^^ (with emphasis). Math. Sin. Other old expressions for "who?. 3 sg.^ijij|«^sy(?). 46. g. AAAAAA PI e. 10. 35. Cf. "~^^ 60.. "Toward where makest thou". is (Igp^^D^ -75-(l(j Isstpfv "What is it? who it?"^ |d^ /sy(?) pw of the time?"). what?" e. 7 ib. 58. § 350): is usually emphasized by in A A^AA^A (cf. in irf inf sw ? brings it?"^ (with doub e emphasis). 2). (lit. 12. 8ib. Math. (T^ '|W£5£f>*V/^w?"Wherei8it?"' ^^^^<=> thou?"^ 1 ^ \%& q^ 35. " 6 Totb. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCE. LE. 15. 359. 30. 126. 9. ^— ^ "^ 1 "^ ^^.152 In cf. 6 Westc.y?«Whosaysit?''^ m m "Who B. 14. C§ 60. "Who is it?"^ Here belongs also TO" (lit. Schlr. are (jg[l^^ m^and^. 9. (I B. Eb.

Their pronun3 Math. 49. In the pyr. 31. 2. (1] The common word. Eb. pif-i hut generally -I QA pi'i^ is pro- bably not an interrogative. TCDN. the beginning of the sentence It always stands at ° field?" ^ (^'^§'^1'^-- Pt'i ^W "What is his ° f^^^^l^ P^'^ ^f ^^ "What is it?" 2 (with emphasis). Copt. whence?" B. ed. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. As a characteristic of the interrogative sentence. note further the particle trw^ which follows the first 363. 362 — 364. WITH « AND ««.^n_„ and '^'^. tn. Hdb. NEGATIVE SENTENCES. tnl. o. which are usually distinguished in good orthography: 1 . ^ ptfi. archaically written 1 Q7\. . B. 362. 2 Totb. tmc.b. and in LE. "WITH n AND nn. 3. Nav. it is written trc. In the pyr. C§ 364. 17. Cf. and even without a pre- position. "show" or the like. A. \) The usual negation in v^ii-^ (more rarely / appears 354* two different forms. b. means "whither?. 153 it is written. but something like an imperative. a. In LE. word shJnk "Didst thou remember?"^ A.

B. always has (Cf. (cf. In the pyr. nn rdit hr gs "Judgside"* (i. .0^. ^. § 280) AAAAAA i& Especially frequent in this case is onn rdit "without giving. 114. and always with the w-form mw "Lay (] n rhi srv "I know him not".' this upon the snake's it hole. it however. 0. . without being partisan). 365. 1 Sin. the negation is preserved N-.^-A-^ is used with the verbal form sdmf. has the meaning of a future (that cf.^n^ J\ ^v n prnf im then will not come out". A. 3 Siut I. 19.. . ing. WITH n AND nU. without causing": -J- a— ^^2 ^/^^ rvdC. * LD II.154 ciation 6. 97. both forms are written c^JU^. NEGATIVES SENTENCES. belongs to the second group. in so far as it is not future in meaning. was perhaps approximately n and nn or similar. 365 — 367. Before the absolute infinitive used.. is used with the form sdmf^ when is.^ 366.): -^ nn pssf "He shall (will) not di- M- 367. without putting upon one e. AA^/^AA § 184sq. U9e. C§ 389). 311. 2 Eb. as LE. in Copt.

^ 2 c^ n grt "however not" (weaker than the former): 1 Eb. g.^ -^-^^^ however. . 43. the later ab§ 84): . 13. and in 368. < Eb. D ^^ is ^^lo \ n ntf pw m msCt "It \ not really he".^ n wsht. 69. solute pronouns are used . 5 Sin.^a_^(1 I n Is "but 370. lowing noun or old absolute pronoun does not exist". 368 370. WITH H AND mi. 155 "Set it where it is cool ^^"^^3^ '^ "^ P B ^O see nn rdit m^^s srv without permitting the sun to it".^ In this combination. 272. this case when the subject is a pronoun.^ ^n®^-^^^N. (cf. Siat I. a. the same meaning: AA/VAAA AAAAAA § 80) for "it -^^^ nn wn also appears with 1 _iir^ AAA/W\ /T >^\ \ _/J^^ Im "There is no water there. 6. 17.b.^ not" and s^-a.^n-^ is c:^ (cf. o^A^ stands before the nominal sentence. rdit has sometimes lost causative meaning. and only means "without" its (e. 3 sin. I am not there". which has no rudder". NEGATIVE SENTENCES.369. 267. nn hms «A ship Note further the combinations . very frequently used with a fol. nn rdit pssf st^ "without his dividing it").

l^^o : rvrt but not much".^ nfr n irt mitt "Never was the like THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-. the subject of such a sentence often emirt phasized by means of the demonstrative fB. . 104.^-n-^[j it was not wide"J n is "His skin grows. but v. ^ Una 31 5 Gr6baut. 371 — 373. and replaced by circumlocution^ Butler 15. 149 e. probably obsolete in the classic language. is |1 found in w/r "^^^^I v^-f^ ^^ %\ in nfr n rvnn niCtii "If it is done". tm-. tm-. Mast. n wsh Is prv "It was narrow. since the time of the god". with im-. § 378). p. . mitt f. A strengthening of the negative. 2 Eb.^ is A. the circujil. Mar. pi. m.156 a. V\ Jl D ® n: _ hot sp with an old negative iwt also occurs 372. In old texts. m. 1 not in your possession". pBt: n sp pBt "The like was never done". 18. certaii 373.^^JU^. 8. 3 LD 6 II. 4 (of. The usual negatives are avoided with forms of the verb. musee Egyptien.^ 371. WITH n AND nn. ^^^jT_^ n ^ ® n sp means "never" yc^£^£i -^^r^fc^ra^y hS mUif hr smt tn ^ Q\nsp dr rk ntr "One like him never came down in this land.*^ Jy p. 390.

^ The imperative of the old verb. 157 fol- witli the obsolete verbs Im- and tm-. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH im-. 8.^ imk I I I ir iht rs "Do not do anything for it". plural it is mtrw "Do not stand against me as a witness". the Illae inf. * Totb. ^^ ^^ Vi^Q^ when the verb to be denied is 374. 2 Eb.^^ be proud". 91.^ written SI ^\. In the pyr. 375. 30 A 2. 6. are doubled. are not doubled and rdl "give" has the form H ^s. 110. B 3. in which the II ae gem. tm-. These are lowed by a (participial?) form of the verb.^ m CB ibk "Let not thy heart A A. . optative or final in meaning and has a pronominal subject: "Treat it with cold fi |\ ^"^C30 l\ l\ Q mf smm that it may not become hot".^i. ed. 3. m. 374. Nav. Prisse 5. which is written 375. serves for the negation of imperatives and optatives with a nominal subject: . 3 m ChC rim . they have also a 1 Eb. M.

in sentence \\ <==> cvjr^ l:^^ ^ ^^ it". this com- bination is also construed as such: is "The boundary 1 erected 6. 376.^ (cf. MTfp. imtf'i QiB lirf "He who unlooses it". The circumlocution according to ^^^ the above means "not since tm ^^imr tm rdl. from which arose the Copt. 377. THE CIRCUMLOCUTIONS WITH Instead of im-. very often employed to substantivize a negative clause of intention . m the language of the n. M AND e. . cr "do not". ^iezil ^^^^ tm-^ the use of which is more extended. ^"^i Eb.^ it (the boun- dary) and does not contend for further as an optative in final and interrogative clauses.' ''^Tifl ^ ir tmf wU St "If he does not discharge in the form sdmhrf (cf. § 204) hsbt "If it does not become worms" . tm-. the conditional found. p. 377. 2 Eb.158 B. C§ 305. which is to cause that". <=z>^^ii=n: ^^^^ 136 h. 7. 3 LD II. 26. emplo3's the cir- cumlocution ^^^^ m 7. 376. among other uses. is then an infinitive. and in the verbal adjective § 293): fhtf'i stv. 25. is Cf.

11. write it [I v\ old. meant something like "not having". Eb. 378. 3. In such combinations has also been preserved in the AT-. 98. 5. which has not writing. 136i.Y- THE NEGATIVK ADJECTIVE. 159 >) _-Zl A/vvv\A /N ^^ Q I <^ iinr ^^~~^ ^ ^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^ order that no negro at all should overstep it" ^ (lit. did not see thee". 8. 2 LD n. .^ The pyr. 3 Westc. g. as 1 2ti also seems to be B. e. C§ 89. may not steal". In the popular language of the n. e. a remedy) in order that the vulture weakened meaning. tm rdl occurs with tiv tm rdi mBni "that I Y. ^^^^ Itvtt^ The adjective which belongs to the 378. and gative irvt is derived from the ne- of § 371 A. 7. its writing". a book without ^ Tk "^^^v A. the rare writing W Copt.^ i. 30. "to cause that not any negro should overstep it"). THE NEGATIVE ADJECTIVE. rlj ^^^=^ itvt'imrvtf^ihe motherless one". B. A iwU. Cf. •» Eb.^ e. * Peasant 64. originally e. it vj-O-t. for simple negation. formations of § 132 sq. rdi hnp drrvyt prv "It is something (i.

DEPEND. 5. the usual case of the dependent clause. 17. c.) and like the latter attaches clauses of all kinds "^ I 1 ^5*^ twy nt i^hrv(?). everything). 149. irvtt skdrvt hrs "This place(?) is of the spirits. 380. On a verb dependent upon rdl "to cause" cf. St m o -^ v\ I I :=^^ ® v\ J Jl ^ W is -^ o I 1 ¥\ _M^ iTVt'irv rh bw nt'i "Those whose place is not known". (clause: rh hrv "The place known"). and that which e. 1 Totb. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. It C.160 379. where dition it (cf. stands in the feminine entirely without ad95. 4). As is observable from the examples cited. DEPENDENT AND SUBSTANTIVIZED CLAUSES. it means "that which is is not": is not""* "that which (i. ed. Nav. on which there no navigation" ^ (with junction of the nominal sentence skdrvt hrs "Navigation is upon it"). 149 c. 3 LD II. . where is 381. this is "^^^ often employed as a substantive also. . § 401 sq. used in is a remarkable fact that this irvt'i is the old language as a negative companion to the relative adjective ntl (of. 379 — 381. 2 ib. CLAUSES. 79.

Erman. Eg^pt. 72. § a sentence of the kind treated in 246 ( ^ by 383. DEPEND. but by means of jibe old absolute pronouns of § 80: i<=>oJi^®U cause of the fact that I '- Jimknow" I. place of a great part of the dependent clauses of our own language. Nav. cf. § — On clauses dependent upon other verbs 189. A I WAAA A A I "" hr ntt rdlsn tB-hd pn "Because they If give this white bread". 382. e. by prefixing ntt^ parallel with these. take the 382. LD m. The substantivized forms of § 282 sq. 302. 2 siut 311. AND SUBSTANTIVIZ. — On the dependence upon conjunctions § 190. "because I know"). gramm. is another method viz. % iwl means of rhkrvL) be substantivized this ntt^ the subject is not expressed by the auxiliary verb. of substantivizing used in the same manner.C. 383. L . 5. ed. 161 cf. every sentence may be converted into verbs or pre- a substantive and positions: made dependent upon Iwl rhkrvl ntt tht prv ipt "I know that Karnak is a region of light". 24d. § 179. (i. CLAUSES. 3 Totb.

^ More rarely follows the principal clause Irvf hr mdrvt hint "Be not silent. they laid their heads upon the earth". d. 385. 14. 5 LD 122 a. If no conjunction used for the introduction of the temporal clause. can be recognized as such only by means of the connection. "at work") a wicked speech". hft "when. 298. ld II.162 d.^ '^""'^ ^.^ 3 Sinuhe II. 20. lord as he sailed up". is it 384. Prisse 5. * Siut I. ^^''^^ J\mht "after". as a rule. follow the principal clause: nhi hft hntf » "I followed 2 my 149 f. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. I came to Ptn". e. <=:>^ r 5i* "after". . sdm those St nt'iw m in t^-Mrl^ w^hsn d^dBrvsn m tB "When who are it Egypt heard it. g. TEMPORAL CLAUSES. As a rule it pre- "As the earth became light. cedes the principal clause. when he is at (? as we say 385. 384. cf.^ The temporal clauses which are introduced by the conjunctions (really prepositions) as".

. then I am it If the conditional clause contains the form sdmf^ 388.387. can likewise be left without a particle. L* . 188): s ^® X • ^AAAAA Eb. . e.e. § at beginning of paragraphs. 36. 163 On the other hand the clauses with after' so J\ hr mht "now common (of. the verbal form then (of. introduced by means of a particle and but may also stand without such in- troduction. always precede 325. 244). 35. may be ml.^ me (added) to me. like ir It principal 386. tains any other verbal form than sdmf (frequently sdmhrf ci. THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. Hdb. the The conditional clause precedes clause. . 36.". § 204) or is a nominal sentence: rvhmhrk mi .^ (lit. . when it con. It is always left without a particle. THE CONDITIOKAL SENTENCE. 386 — 388. 2 Math. 15. repeat the examining) then say hrl^ imi mhkrvi "A third of full". ddhrk . "If you examine again &c. always belongs to the "second group" § 184.

. The introduction of the conditional clause by means of 1 I] (1 mi or ^v m. .". 10— 11. 390. mn ri-ibf. Eb. 300. ddhrk his sto. 40. . . however. . a conditional sentence conis taining the form sdm/". A. is. then say &c. is employed only with the to § 388: first. . 286. a (I tr gmk dUsw . in "first form always belongs to the group" ^ thou findest a wise (out of reverence). hprt prv now 389. . THE CONDITIONAL SENTENCE. m r 360 "If psstn art Iht nbt .3 391. the construction with Ir as a rule. while the second treated according q<==^„v^i '^^ (abbreviation) s T ^ hr . » is far more rare: 3 Siut I.. . . this case the verbal introduced by (J'==^^^^^^ tr. 389 — 391. ye divide all . . . him Crvik "If - man then bend thy arms" awaaa In is used instead of Ir. and you find it upon his back . In the pyr.164 e. "If you examine a man who is diseased in mach (?). 5. it (the result) is i/seo"-^ As a rule. . If a number of conditional clauses are connected. Prisse 5. gmmk st hr psdf.

v\ . doubtless obsolete. 49. ./. 245. .- m mrrtn Inprv . |3. a. . CLAU8. 711. d'Ab. 159. . A CON. in this manner. 392. noun 227. The peculiar verbal forms of the usual clause. Cat. Hdb. WITHOUT A CONNECTIVE. They are co-ordinated with the noun as an apposition. EELATIVE CLAUSES. 249 and p. (Jdtn "If ye love Anubis /. . its field). (Tl ' is rare and is The j)seudoparticiple thus used in H illll v^ ^ "^^^ Jr Vh^ ^ ^1_M5j CT) [| ^^ t^ msktvl imf "The land in which I was born". WITH SUBST. pti Bhtf "If there be said to you: 'A square of field of 10 measures by 2 measures'. VERBS. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. a. REL. WITH. 2 Mar. <=::> ^'wvAA ^^ . . at the same time agreeing 1 Math. 330. 165 . 3 Sin. are identical with the substantivized forms treated in § 289 sq. cf.— II fl tk »»« s^ s I n hi o\\ lit I ^ V\ K I *^-^=^— dd nk: ifd n 3ht n 10 r 2. §§ 329. however. what is its content?"^ (lit. The custom of joining one of the usual verbal forms as a relative.^ are frequently joined 393. relative 394. . 392/4. ^1 say". Nominal to a clauses. directly to a noun.

g. not every- where uniformly inserted A. when written). whom I love". sdmtl belong to the second group (§ 184) of the form sdmf\ in the case of the Ilae gem. also. Cnhwsn tmf "that 396. stands quite within the word.166 j3. is it is the mas- culine ending w in the form sdmrvf not usually written out (most frequently with a nominal subject. In those sentences in which the subject of the relative clause tive to would be indentical with the substanis which the relative clause is. hence.. e. is here never written out. 397. just as in other cases. In the pyr. (cf. ^^_ rdi "give" rvnntf. an at- tributive participle 1 as a rule. 395 397. ^^^ dldttfko. . the one but "the brother mrrrvi. the ic is § 96). 395. 197. with love" it in gender . for "the woman whom I love" I is said hmt mrrti "the woman. connected. Corresponding to the statement in § the forms derived from the «-form have here always the meaning of the past. frequently written. it is therefore prrtf. — Furthermore. ht piv n Cnh. tree of life. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VERBS. nearly The masculine ending w. from which they Uve"'. used in its stead Merenre' 616. Illae inf. which in the «-form. must be written sn As was remarked in § 289. the forms sdmrvi.

is the ills(?). 4. 167 (cf. 398. II . LD II. « Una 108. WITH SUBSTANTIVIZED VEUBS. to be sure. the pronoun 6 is. 399. which are laden with incense". There are. position. a relative clause seems to be used. 25. 40. in which. 1/vwvvs ^'^\ govern"/ ww# hkStsn "the villages.) made". is almost always the object of the relative clause*: rvhi w<'"this white bread. examples.^ t^s pn irn lyni "this boundary whicb my majesty hath made". § 260). 136 h.^ thn hr psdf ''W. dependent upon a pre- 399. expressed: I. omitted: "300 asses. is joined. whose pronominal subject is. most 3 part. they 9 _L©S' XC13 Vl/W\A y A^ft/v\A . Siut 276. Mar. Abyd. if it is refers to the substantive to 398. ye give me"^ (for diditvtn nisw). for the 6.(3. even in this case. 2 Eb.^ if it is On the other hand.^ struction which he (lit. which have invaded his back"^ (for thnsn). The pronoun which which the relative clause wanting. II. Hr-hwf » C. however.

treated in § 132 was originally used in purely if nominal relative clauses without a verb.. WITH THE ADJECT. 3 sinuhe 309. "by means of often wanting: "the place in which my heart tarries'. 0. especially the subject of the relative clause was identical with the noun to which it was joined: 1 Sin. 401. rwtni rs "every land to which I journeyed Only with the preposition &c.168 Y- WITH A PASS. ticipial construction treated in § 261. try nfmltt "There is is no humble one. parvus factus 0. ^ I ^ <^^^ \> Jl JA A ^ ^ '^^^^^\\ 1 smt '. The adjective nti "which". g. WITH THE ADJECTIVE nti. tltl. Ace. PARTIC. WITH A PASSIVE PARTICIPLE.^ 7ibt. which belongs to those sq. .^ Y. it is m "in". 401. 2 Sin. attributive participle for also 400. The substitution of an a relative clause is extended is (in violation of § 397) to clauses whose subject different . to Sethe. from the substantive to which they are joined this is the pare. 101. 168. idem). 400. to ei whom the like done"^ (properly.

10.' ^ » I T ^s. 8 Eb. made after the analogy 402.^ iri-Cf nb.' Hot Jit/' t\ =^^^ ddft nbty ntt m "all worms which l—'%2r are in his body". Avritten for AAAAv\A «ft'.1 1 1 1 IJ l| "a man who suffers with heat". 3.'^ W> they P^fl ^^ &w is nt'i St im "the place where are""* (with a different subject). 35. Another archaic writing B. 8. it first loses the plural palace" 6 (e. ^ Eb. 21. 2 Eb. 402. WITH THE ADJECTIVE AAAAAA ntt.6. msw nt'i m § ChCf "the children who are in his instead of nt'ito). « » Westc. nt'i hrf "every officer who was with him". A. 495 = P. gin. 32. . L 262. later also the feminine. M. 303. their verb is always in the pseudoparticiple or the infinitive i with hr: /\/WJV^ ^ H ^ . ^i^^ s nt'i mr "a man who is ill. g.^ o ^) M ^ I W ^ 1^ m I ^ <c:=> f^^^ mrw-k^t I «f?w /?r //r? "the overseers of the works. 3 Sin. of the'pure nominal sentence. In the pyramids 1^v ^ forniw. The sentences of 240 sq. 9. may also be so joined. 169 |]<::z>' °V\5iKz::7 '^ a . 20. ' for JiiVw? is ^^ ^ I I • inXi early becomes an unchangeable particle. » Louvre C 172. 176. who are upon the mountain".

404. » 2 siut I.'' 1 18.^ <. and which have given you". I m htf "Let him drink in whose body there are Eb. 403. but it occurs elsewhere also. . where a misif understanding might be apprehended there were no express connection A. 2. ills". nt'i 0.170 403.AAAAA -rr- /-^ ^-- -^ nt'i n mrf "who is not sick". this is always the case .^ itt (^ ^ nbt m ss "all that was in ^1:1 writing" (i. as a substan(f.fv ^~^ i\ A n ^ Li A iCi <ZZ> _Z1 Sti. which the I officials deliver to me. 25. written). 3 Mar. e. 14. 6. 4. II. WITH THE ADJECTIVE Tltl. * Prisse Eb. _crN^ aawaa -ad III /^ \\ Si AAAAAA T _ZI knbt. Ab.Z> AA'^A A swrlln nt'i mrwt I I 2-1' /WAAAA C^ \\ I <!II> I I I —CT^ lO (it). nt'i rdini ntn sjv "this bread and beer. 295. rela- tive clauses also with negative clauses.i "1^ tk 6/ /TH ^/~V _ac^ C_Zj UJ 9^5? •<2>. tive "he who" ntt "that which''): nt'iw ^1^ 1 ^^^^^ ml ^ m smsf "those who are m his following". nti is also often used independently. was then further used to connect verbal .^ 404. 47.

. 171 also used AA/^A^A with the meaning "that which is" is alone. § 379. especially in the idiom cited in § 380. S 382. WITH THE ADJECTIVE uU. ^ ^^^ w cf. — On On the use of ntt to substantivize clauses the relative use of cf.0. 404.

The phonetic values are given as exactly as possible (distinguishing between t. the order and with the numbering current in the of Thein- probably incorrect. The abbreviations signify: Prop. supplicate. hn 10^^ Phon. it was not the intention to enumerate all the homophonous words for which each sign can be used. Abb. value as a determinative (§§ 45 — 47). the Ort.. Jj'^ Bm 7 adoration.TABLE OF The more important hardt even where this d. but there are many details here which are still uncertain. to praise. sTDet. Com. Abb.. Abb. meaning as an ideogram (§§ 36 39).. the proper Trfd. Det.. The feminine ending is separated from the stem. rejoice. or the syllable which the determinative always accompanies (§ 52). is SIGNS. — Phon. MEN. in list signs and meanings are taken up.. in. that the determinative occurs at the abbreviation of a word (§ 68). ^Det. indicates the origin of the sign by the combination of two others.. rejoice. d. most frequent transferred meaning (§ 40). orthographic compound. A. . /i high. high. sign (§ 32-35). the phonetic value as a sjllabic sign or as an alphabetic Det. t). f/wi supplicate.

toload.173 15 19 jj Det. old. barbarian. 85 Det. /i" ^rd child. ks bow down. ^ Det. (originated from 48. 92 93 47"^ the (sir) prince. 82 hft'i enemy. Tfrd. carry. demands strength. my t=:±3 . TvCb pure. man. child. Phon.build. Det. Abb. ^ Prop. ^ Prop. Abb. statue. 100 Prop. 105 y^ Det. captive. § 74). death. kd build. 70 l| As. Abb. Det. ^ws build. </wi supplicate. ^i/> conceal Phon. hh great number. Abb. msC(^) soldier. king. 71 t(y king.i^w. ^tp to load. Abb. conceal. 27 Det. . mum91 sing. 106 work. 89 Abb. soldier. Prop.) Det. ^ 1 Det. i:^w old. Prop. Abb. ^w^statue. hn to praise. k:$-t Abb. (cf. TvCb priest. to bow down. 1. done with mouth. Det. imn conceal. ps. dance. sr 29 TO Prop. Tvr great. Det. 101 /^ Prop. that which is Det. rest. 79 -^i Det. Det. Det. Det. Det. 94 that which 95 ^ Det. enemy. mummy.

Det. 31 Qo Det. Det. &A-i A 89). Det. Abb. 5i shepherd. Det. (masc). WOMEN. Abb.. revered dead (masc).woman (corresponds to pregnant.7mw Amon. 15 pregnant. GODS. *V(?) Osiris. 133^ Det. Abb. revered per- M Det. Det. revered dead (fern. 119 Det. B. and Abb. Pth Ptah. 55 Det. si break. Abb. Det. St Set.174 110 B. bear. B/pvt'i 4 11 Det. son to (corresponds 131 89). si watch over. fall. GODS. 9 Det. Abb m^C-t mi(^-^ goddess M. Abb. sps glorious or sim. 128 Pro p. frJf C. 14 }f ^ Det. . Abb. Abb. 7 WOMEN. C.). 12 Trfd. Abb. truth. 129 113 Det. hr fall. JVs- Det. ms bear. A ^ Trfd. revered dead Trfd. king. Thoth. existent at. 27 RC Re.

39 Abb. 33/^ Det. m:^{f). Prop. upon. 5 Abb. 29<==>Prop. embrace. htit F5 ^ J iibtr. Phon. nose. happen. I . destroyed. 40 ) Prop. mdw speak. 42 A Variant of D 47.Prop. BODY. hair. up. rS{'^). eye cosmetic. Trfd. Cn. Det. Abb. Trfd.s/?^ lip. fnd nose. 35 37 \ that which 14^^ Det. divine Abb. divine jvd^-t i^-t back. rm weep. 28 (/p| Prop. cut Phon. (cf. Phon.si?r Confusion rib. nurse. see. eye. hr. Abb."n^Prop. mS see.si?r with Trfd. 10 -cs:. ?}nt in front. ^r face. mnC-t nurse. Det. >^ Det. breath dMB head 3 Trfd. 175 D. Abb. Phon. nose. head. 1 MEMBERS OP THE tp-t . weep. Phon. 15 flows from the body. 13:^>=Det. head. ip T 26 and F 4). Trfd. N28/'=^Prop. 31 r^(-^. eye. N 30. eye. ^ Det. In hair. MEMBERS OF THE BODY. ir. jo^i. ^ ( Det. ir pupil (of the eye) . color. 17 Det. wsr ^. arrive at.wlr destroyed.D. Trfd. do. breast. slm Prop. Det. s$« embrace. Trfd. hr upon.) mouth. ^ ^ Prop. r. 12-^^ Det. the back. wr-?(?) eye. Ir Ir. Cn beautiful.

76 c:^^ Prop. (= D 62 63). mtr . that which or sim. 65-0 —oProp. c/ii com- 82 ti) Det. that which is done with the arm. 63 a nProp. w^ ell. C. ^ Prop.000. di give. that ii:Tfrd. Prop. ^&c finger (cf. Q/^ Prop. im grasp.</«'give. 10. correct. 93 "fl^ Incorrect for T 20. dbc rect. Det. Phon. Phon. I . culine Abb. Abb.176 D. n irvt'i not. hrp to lead. ai. > 90 ('==0) Prop. Det.rfsr splendid 69L=/]Det.<^arm. negation. nht strong. MEMBERS OF THE BODY. T 1). hnk to pre- Det. mas-. row. which strength demands Det.). kind of k^.^imas . Prop. 58 hr^ Prop. mi give not having. middle. w^r middle. spirit . Phon. d-t hand. $w reign. 84 ^ ] Abb. arm. /—^ Prop. n (nn) oProp. 46 U Prop. (impv. 72 to ^^ 51^ Prop. sent. fist. corc/cS (=D69). 59^^ DProp. mc give (imp\>. rmn arm Conrmn fuscarry. Det. Phon. Abk. to demands strength. ion with culine. 66 Q . grasp bat. mt. A'i. 49 \=^ I Trfd. Trfd. hn Phon. kS steer H 17. 52 hn. Q 12. (tin) 47 _/u.). witness. b:^h phallus Phon.

M is H^-«P-r on the isthmus of Suez. a „by means of" or sim. learns the death of his king. Published poem 12 of the middle empire in the archaic language. seeks flight to o.). TW^ S^-nht). ^ IP^^.P ] (I T © passed by the red mountain.) h ^^ ^1z!iOM. 2100 B. 17* Second From the Story of Sinuhe (Epic ( Part. c Name of a fortification hk^ is written defectively in this old name. b the peculiar ending explained by the coming together of the dual ending and the 1 suffix sg. D. L.) 34. a man «J. Eg^pt. Erraan. r I ^ 3J AA/WA/» I A^AAA^-| X 1 I L N. gramm. VI. 104 seq. I. — so Sinuhe. this news.) I. Amen-em-he't reasons. Bb . of high position at the court of while on a campaign against the Libyans. is wanting. for terrifies unknown him that he immediately Palestine. (c.From the Story of Sinuhe. (11.

CSI ^?.?Q^ ilSl.l. .^ a poetic for „I concealed myself".^?P 1"^ ^^AAAAAA cy ^ r^^^ r\^''v/1 (At the Km-wr I fell down for thirst. strued as if it — & the sentries. e conguard**.2 286 ^ d I « ' ' « t 1 1 1 1 1 1 t AAAAAA [ /VWAAA /VWAAA ^ ^kl-¥Pfl.?.^. I were fem. in apposition with mtn. referring to a collective „the d e like our vulgar „pull one's self together".18* From the Story of Sinube. self". or „gather one's p^ like a noun. AA/W\A P^ HI AAAAftA VS\ l^f^ > A/VV\AA AA/VWA AA/VAAA J] '^^^a ^:.) D 330.

(II.) Sinuhe. heaped with benefits by the prince of Tntc. .From the Story of Sinuhe. AAAAA/V a perhaps to be corrected „he cooked for me".330. I I I W f J p"j^| AAAAAA 1 O 78 f\rAfiAf\ . /" 125 B. d „a half year"? „a year and e a half"? probably „thou art prosperous with me". 19=^ . b read whwt. 80.^ 1 C^ A^^AAA 1 I I I I -H AA/\AAA A r^^^ AAAAAA \\ I rv^^^ A W AA/^AA^ Q f^^^^^ /-^ 1^ ^ o i:=^¥ 27. lives manj' years with him. — 94. '\m c cancel r in irtnsn according to 151.

c The determinatives of d^b can not be read with certainty in the hieratic.^1- « I I t I I I t I 11 I '5^ (He also made me prince of a tribe.® ro\ X 31 AAA/W\ £1^ ilii A/w^A^ I I S \J I ^^-^J ^1 ^K\^ I I I I I :=> III o 1^^^ (C^ 1 I O O O Awv\^ . [J ^ ^? lYI^fl n a I \\ I # tk -n- IfV^ I a the determinative applies to tvnt refers to tlie entire expression. . 6 125B J the land.M:^# n=^-=>-i I 1 O III ID la. I D ^^=i=.20* From the Story of Sinuhe.) f^^^r^^ -2x jf\ -fv I 1 .

^-^ -'"~ O Jj iljL /VSAAAA JL ' ^^^ A/NAAAA — n^^ B AAAAAA n AAAAA^ _ / C> n AA/\AAA ^ — O "fV ^^ AA/\AAA AAAAA/\ ^ (I accepted the challenge and prepared AA/VW\ my weapons. Tmv.) Sinuhe defeats a hero in single combat.<T:r>. cf.) 210 s: I °^]^--]^^^ b ^J: sell. deal. 109 — 145. —Zi. (11.) 21=* (By means of the hunt I also gained a great . Jq^r. .NA ^W\ '::^l fl C^ AAAAAA ifLL I I ^^K I III AAAAAA @ I I I 111^ <zz 1"^^^I1M?!4 III.f\ . 98. c the land of a the word is Avanting in the manuscript. 351.From the Story of Sinuhe. AAAA.

c inexact s cf. fell to] the ground useless". . 397. 22. Q V (J AA/\AAA J^ D^ I I I 3X I OO R5 e A^/v\AA n n /^ Ann iO A^^^AA ^ AA/'AA^ ^ a (I stepped upon his neck.) ^ . 161. e m lit probably as an adverb „thered a verb is probablj' wanting: „[they he shoots him therefore from behind.22* From the Storj' of Sinuhe. b after". /W^AAA I I olio I ! 78 242. 1 I a (He seized his weapons and the combat began.) 1 I a like a relative.3 -0.

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

23"

y^^
)

^ Vfii

O

[]

&
Q

^\

AAAAAA AAAAAA
AA/VNAA

ifLL AA/VV>A

WV^

\^
AAAAAA

I

\\

0"^ f~"l
AA^NAAA

©
^AAAAA r
i
I I

-^
1

JJ
I

r
AAA/v^A
1'

n
zd

f

I

r*

I

I t I I I I

t

I

I

-^ /^

^

AA^SAAA A^\^>A

2^^=^

iC:^

A/VWAA

/^>

AAAAAA AAAAAA
a

"^

^o

JF.

(Z. 241

—257,)

As an

old

man

Sinuhe-receives from King

TT^i

tsn

I.

the permission to return

home and

goes to Egypt.

A

i^

AAAAAA Cli.

I

_C

Ml
168

Mm%.
Ji
fl QaaaJ.

AAAAAA

O

®

U

AAAAAA

[13

^

I

1

2lM

I

I

^

o

7\

m

A

a^

a the people of the dead man.

b emphasis, 344.

24*
305

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

a

h

I

I

I

/J AAAAAA

TV

(9

r\

(He goes further to the city of the king.)

AAAAAA

H—

4 lira

/^v

>Ti^^
(I

trod the palace.)

in
crzD
1

I

1

u
I

D
Ci

J]
£1^

2ti

IJ^fJ,
261

,^^
I

f^miT]
III

MkJ^^i^-1
a „Tvho had followed me, while they led me", b he presents c Impersonal; one expects r l^§. d indicates the action of the people who lead him forth, e Nominal sentence, f old writing according to 109. f the order of words is free according to 341.
them,

I

From

the Story of Sinuho.

25*

(then terror seized me)

^±!^^ ^-rk^^-^PflT'^l
I

I

1

Zl-'W QkM<
—269.)
The king
presents Sinuhe to the queen,
-a

V. (Z. 263

a

^

AAAAAA

ra

J\

\
X
6

A

IHf'^l,^, ^
^^ o
c^O
I

Jl^
<-^
I

"I
I

1

I

I

I

I

I

AA/WW

o
AA/WW

\

AAAAAA
AAAAAA

o

D
I I
I

f^^"^
I I

AAAAAA

;p
I
I

1

I

I

I

b
(I

a Perhaps relative sentence: „as an Cim whom the S. made". sign of unknown meaning. c i. e. „altogether". for they had hrought them with them, e „m their hands"?
hieratic
312. 76.

cf.

Bb*

26*
YI. {Z. 279

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

—310.)
A

At the

intercession of the queen, Sinuhe

is

pardoned and concludes

his life at the court in great prosperity.

t-=^^

"1
\

^ AAAAAA

f?^^t&-"&^P-^l>,
h

9
-• -*
I
I I

A/VWVv
I I
I

"

^
,

sic

Jl

w
I I

286

r

^

I

X
I

o

fl

AAAAAA

A A/WV\A

o
W

\^
\

I

I

i

I

1

I

W
.C\

\\

mrrA
CTT]
[Z-ZJ

j^

t\N\N\f\

A

(and there were other good things therein)

^
^liin

I

Ollll^ AAAAAA^

l^^^_^ffi.¥.

X
c^

r-^
111

%^]
mm
315. h passive, c read
e

a for

<=>
Cxc'i,

?

d 329

as

accom„P.

panying circumstance, whom the king loves"?

read «t and

f read mrrf?

g „they caused" (impersonal

„they".)

From

the Story of Sinuhe.

27*

^'-%^r"i^ I'm
^51

1-35-1 o

—»_~»3

ji

±1°
111

n

^

-^
A/^WAA AAAAAA

Tl^jr
(and there was built for
e

me my own

house)

IS

-Pk

n

A^AftAA AAAAAA

-<T1

n

ii_a^t^cr=i
ra

tko

f

a „they gave"; the sense
to

is,

„the dirt etc. I
c

now

resigned
I

the

desert",

b

i.

e.

the coarse ones,

upon which

had
tptl;

hitherto slept, in contrast with hnkyt.

d

in contrast

with

read nt.

e passive,

f read hw8.

Archaeol. c one expects the plural. was furnished with the best) ^^r J] AAAA/Vv . 1892.) Content: a Peasant who complains of an injustice done him. e read <--^-> A m .) An inferior official meets the peasant as he desires to journeys toward Herakleopolis. Published LD VI 108 seq. only the speeches of the peasant are poetic. so charms the latter by his eloquence. Bibl. and rob him of his ass. Proc. (Prose text of the middle empire in language not so markedly archaic.F^^ '^^^ AAAAAA A (^ /n I I 1 >A ra if^^ From the Story of the Eloquent Peasant. (Butler 2 — 13. that. I.28* (it Prom the Story of Sinuhe. f l^-\ I o\\ s ^ f ^^ead a which he needs for his grave. passive. before Mrwitns'i a prince of Herakleopolis. with the King's assent he prolongs the peasant's affair in order thus to prompt him to further discourse.. h the statue. the beginning by Griffith. Soc. <? 50 B.

. AAA/V\A I VS D AAAAAA ^i— MC I I I I I AAAAAA f AAAAAA ^ 0V>.. on the other..Story of the Eloquent Peasant. d temporal clause. or sim. one of the peasantry. c i. (Butler 13 .VWVA I q? S I I ^\f]\ man e is . JJ. 29* J\ AAAAA/" 't3. probably „one edge of the road". i. f here he hegins elliptical direct discourse.) I plans a stratagem for him. L^ J I 2^^=>_ I W ii ^ A. h „his one way" e. e. . . < ^jos^^ The official ° [It'] — 19. 5 the name of the wanting. the asses which pleased him . upper side a field. The following is probably an for oath: may every excellent image [of a god] me I" g The situation must be: a narrow road. on one side water. i..^ ^ n ^li <: m '"i J AAAAAA AAAA^W I > AAAAAA a a hieratic sign of unknown meaning.%5 ^X32_ .

) HI.1 D AAAA/^A <II> L _£!>*V^ J AAAAAA I is wanting. d „[Take care] my fruit is on (<=>) the road". b the middle of the road. . 1—24. a passive. The peasant is D ^ D I I I O .r^ \ AAAAAA njkT D 1. I JJ r\N\/-Af\ i-LL Id—a "7:\ I I >^.30* Story of the Eloquent Peasant. Berliner Papyrus Z.) robbed and derided. (Butler 22—23. A^A^A^ I I III \\ I (and spreads out the clothes in the way.^ w AAAA^^ I A/V/VAAA I 1 /^ . w D AV\A/^A 3 ^ AAA^A^ c_J.^ AAAAAA (T^ I I I y^\ I \\i Y\ A^^AA^ Ci I ^^ r . c „have a care" or sim.

xn2_ C > _iir^ AAAAAA I 1 1 o I X AA/\AAA JL AAAA/' J ^^1 a [The lower part of the road is] under water. I will go along its [upper] edge.Storj' of the Eloquent Peasant. 31* ^. I I I X '=^ I 1 1 ^ I AAAftAA r '- i i^^v) IW-^ZK w r'=^ L AA^^AA ^q h X ^. Q I M+i a n (I ® AAAAAA 35 /I "ft \oJ ra AAAAAA ^^'^T[ ^^ I I I I M <__^-> Till I ' ^ AA/^A^^ ^ ^5=^ I I I JIT. b „Wil] you not let us pass by then!" e meaning something like: since one [lower path] is obstructed. d read mhM I .

Z. d the tamarisk was not dry rf is probably corrupt. h probably a proverb: instead of the poor man one makes mention of his lord. _ AAAAAA AAAAAA A\ a relative belonging to Jin.32* I—H1 Story of the Eloquent Peasant. (ib. n-form. c meaning: though you should address me.^^ . 24 — 32. you think first of my lord. ^ AAAAAA TTT /vvvvv> W Ci OW n ^^' [TZ] W AAAAAA D AAAAAA '^' . e peculiar infinitive. e read the .t AAAAAA A I AAA/VNA AAAAAA AAAAAA ^^q-^' sio 353 AAAAAA ra C 354 I 1<^ ^^=11) tl * I I JF.) The peasant implores the f official in vain. .^^5>^/ Jl AAAAVV O I I I lO V> /' ^V S1fc.

the meaning of the sentence is not clear. (ib. Qq f against the injustice. c perhaps an invocation.=:>Jrilll AAAAAA v^A^ lo f relates to F. e probably error for O or O. to be connected with the following.<E>- ra Ik o \ @ I Mil • .l\\ s jr n 3\\ /^AAAA^ ^1 1 I < .- flf ^fl AAAAAA Q^ A AAA/V\A /I I I 1 ^ 2^ A/V\AAA f^ (^ I I I J] . b in the place of the god make noise. 3 V^ y^' AAAAA> [3III a „yoa are to" for „you go of the dead one must not to". Z. Egfypt gpramm. " . The peasant goes to the prince and him his matter. 33* ^^ D c:. 32—42). Erman.story of the Eloquent Peasant. d 182.

Z. (ib.34* story of the Eloquent Peasant kZ^^! Ol A. h' >j^i^ ra^^_y^<=>^^^ A\ I AAAAAA a W) AA^^^A . AA/^/yA^ AAAA^^ /\A/v/\AA /CilW AA/NAAA [J I 1 P^^^. £^ I I \V\AA I U O ^ SAj AAAAAA FJ.^ away the peasant would not probably a peasant suhject to /WW\A AAAAAA I I 5*L=_ o As the prince detain him.) The prince questions his counsellors. 6 desires to sail it is they mean: him. 42—51. . who unlawfully desired to deliver his taxdues to another.

^. ^^ Ezm —ill AA/^AA^ I C—J. . 35* AAAAAA III D . A/WAAA 52—71. (with which the asses were loaded)? b His reply is not given.story of the Eloquent Peasant. he must pay this as a fine. (ib.-^-^ ^ I I 1 I ^p I 1 1 <2>- A AA/^AA^ H ^ AAAAAA '5ffY^^^i2i AAAA/> I ra a ra P--J X D w FIT. he should be punished because of the natron etc. or.(i:t: j^\ ^ I I I AAAAAA O ^ a /-X . Z.) The first complaint of the peasant. r-"^^ \ a Sense probably.

I . e imperative. 6 treat me so justly that I shall prefer thy name is to aU laws.36* Story of the Eloquent Peasant. g sense probably. is d imperative.X in I " J) 9 AAAAA\ 6 D S A/VVV\A i: AAA^w I wvV 77 -^ -" icl I _Z1 WxS I J] I '0\ m. prove. (Thou wilt be fortunate in everj-thing) (==11) 1 ^^^== — CLL AA/^^^^ V . I f '^ wanting. c imperative. g ^ sic kA/WvAA ra o read nif. how much have to bear.

Published Aeg.) I. Supplement. (The king writes to you) © 0^ o 78 mn^i. 71 — 77. b sense optative.Storj' of the Eloquent Peasant. to the Authorities in Elephantine. it 37* to the King. AAAAAA The titulary of the n Q ^ w I I I ® Jx U^ c:^ M a passive. 117 from a copy of Heinrich Brugscb. (ib. A writing of Thutmosis I.-M A AAAftAA ^^^^¥--1 ioV\ /' I I I fl V. Announcement of the coronation. YIII. .) The prince announces W sic . Z. 29. (Stone in the Cairo Museum.7^' -<2=- W ^ w ^.-m^i new ruler AAAAAA O ^^^^ 1 -J1 AA^/^A^ AA^w^ /T O UL >\ II. Ztsch.

^AW^filw in /O ^^ n AAAAAA f d h MP f\ AAAAAA F. H o I I Jfffp^^-^ 1 III. 1 c±f=]^ — Ji — a I o n I I 1 mnm mi^i J 11 e MPhih^fip IV. f likewise further that etc. J . Concluding formula. „cause that one cause that the oath c 259. What name is to be used in taking oath. 2 passive. communicated.^ A writing of Thutmosis I. 5 lit. e d formula of that which is correspondence for „this writing purposes". What name - is to be used in the cult. defectively written. remain". f £^ £Ii T AAAAAA a read Q.

(Written in abbreviations throughout. (Lepsius. Konigbucla 177). Date.) I.k Examples of the Royal Titularies.Examples of the Eoj^al VI. IL Thutmosis HI. for explanation compare titulary fully written out in the preceding letter. Titularies. the Wsrtsn I. 39* onni ^^^'i'—^O® s \rT. 11 n f5SS^ Q ^ Iaaaaaa (ib. 349) o "^^^l V a n 0| I = s III O -3 >d2 1% ^ TTmrr ^ o .

(ib. o \ r — I M o 4 III o o III ffl Examples of Grave-formulae. and often in barbarous orthography) The sacrificial formula. b optative. llLi \M^U'^ f^A v-i^_-^ ^Al>i3^' AlH^ilfJe AP-oTs^^ ^£7 Di I z2i T :::ii ^Jrj. Ramses 11. (Filled with abbreviations throughout. lU. The same another form.l^k -^f^l in jr. c relative clause. 420).f. (Gravestone in Florence). I. (Gravestone in Alnwick Castle).40* Examples of QTave-formulae. a unintelligible formula. .

O AAAAAA AAAAAA JJ 'Vir:- — «3=a 7ZZ. passive defectively written. Impv. The same. b 259. the pronouncing of this formula procures the deceased nourishment. 2. c Cc* I . A D /WWV\ AAAAAA -CaS.Examples of Grave-formulae. in different form (RIH 16). Invocation to the visitors to the grave (LD II. d. — 391 fl 1 A^AAAA 1 1 V. 291 41* 1} _ 291 ' Q 291 AAAAAA Q _ ^AAAAAA £Ii AAAAAA —^U — M I f) ^l^f^^ / I a —^fliri'^Pjl in Turin). 122). plural. _Cr^'^~~—-* AAAA^V* I AAAAAA W c^> \ AAAAAA JS _Hr^ "^ ^ C^ Dill a 259. The same. 2 active. shorter (Gravestone IV.

name of a a woman. n. n. denotes the f. m. as archaic. 9b-dw u^ T 1 Abydos. cease. or sim. The endings are separated by -. pr. . that of a man. for ^) goose (abbr. n. n. or sim. only does not entirely correspond to that of the simple stem. roast. §§ 63 — 68. refer to the — The §§ I. construction of the verb has been added by CO. PREFATORY NOTES.GLOSSARY. 1. hour. place. The correct orthography occupies the first place. and are not taken into considera- tion in the alphabetic arrangement. that of ^Q \ (§ 48. To a considerable extent determined. n. such tcords. to the meanings can be only approximately has been added. where it The — cited grammar. 1. Compound words are to be found under the first part of the compound. With proper names pr. i6- Ele- fj f^^^ phantine. The meaning of the causative has been subjoined. abbr. designates a writing as an abbreviation in accordance with arch.

l. by anyone). Amon. t^ (§ 378. n) call. tfd I] chest. cc.43* Sd angry? perish. w \\ -\\-W (arch. D count. 0! Ibdw --c?^ (abbr.ij- -§135) existent in.^^. ^^^^(§380) nothing.) give. (Ill ae gem. to outrage? be (abbr. 379) he § 100) honored (cc. ^mn ih \\ M (abbr. 246. 220. hr: who twt-t ' has not.n) walk.) month. (cc. III orsim. § 307 orsim.) to load. ||) V" heart. Ay^ /ij? (§ 160) come. tmBm ^'^ "^ ^^^1. 182 B. '') 224. (§29. iw iwt-i /\'t^(§ 160. ImBh fl (abbr. . branch. (§ 168. 253 venerableness. cause. f. 2^^^ ^n. 157) tent.) im-i grow old. (§ set.) to be. iSr-t —^^ c^ \ frait. 1 ilV J someone. come t^ to anyone. 64A) meat.

) wall. any one. ih in Jj (§ 160) bring on thither. § 314. § 135) belonging to. et f. n. bring lead away. that which ih-tO) brilliant. 357. § 319. aux. 239. § 151) . verb: § 238. 350. ed land. beget spend time to be. I inwk inb (abbr. (i.(Illae. I'W hnti tmnt'iw "he who at make. cellent or sim. inf.<2>. ^§64^ thing. ins-t 1 AAAAAA I J> Sim. deaf.1= inundatI WAAA — AAAAAA intf 1 '^ m. pr. . irt-t 1 I oo 1 1 1 V Oi 1 iC^i y Imr-w in AAAAAA or ih milk. "^^ (abbr. is his duty. irt ! . existent in the west. is ex- inr n nnni stone. ih-w IX Jl ^^mentalin- in-t AA/V\AA I kind of fish. sim. ih-t I I I or near. the '0 . firmity or sim. pr. e.) ox cf. ihf HAAAAAA ^^. Sim. be ex- celleut or sim.44* that which pertains to imn-y tmn'fi If^^Nl n. ihil) shine. '1 Tamarisk. (§ 100). . Ari. ft m. the head of the dwellers in the west. or sim. 348. dead)". 389 yr'i IT ~]T' J\ hasten. 1 (§ 137) D III /CiO Imn-tt s the west. Ir :> § 347.

large.46* 100) pr. (Dual -fl'tkw ) rj a "Sn- — ^ strike or _M^ sim. tpiw Cw'i ancestors. arm. Itn O sun. uninjured.f. ^^ ^^.^^. small Ar) to please? c^ \ Bedouin C-t or on house sim.m. pr. issl (I 1 I %(•) itf J1 king or sim. cf. (^-t Q. H refractory ckr \ It ^^ barley. sim. chamber. M7i It spend (time)."^{Icabbr. °'^*> °^ Thutmosis' I.pr. (I n. or c^ § 323. or sim CS-hpr- ^t^ k g ca -fl /I 1 V\2i ^ *^^ sim. itl Ifi °-jj-'rn take away. o o o J be excellent. excellent or aim. member. Ar-C. hr-Cw'i immediaass. ntr kind of priest.«_^ up I J^comb? braid? . CCb n. tely. (as part of j3r). Ci.fei. (§ 31) father.»H) toward. o=>) great. it. m ctn-w tstw 1 DY\^^(CC.

Cw-t Y "Kv animals. pr.) or sim. pa- CwB CU ) rob. al tablet. 5^ d'^'II AAAAAA _Z1 U snb : sound. (pi. ChC-w fly. (§ 70). I numerous. ChC ChC Chn-wtl p) ^^1 nru a kind of ship. stand. —J a Cb9 Cff JA^ Y sacrifici- J\ ChCn Tk 230 ff. or sim. :^=i Cm-mw'inn-Si AAA/VNA ChC-w 1 I quan- tity. many. X healthy" (as adjunct to royal name). § deceitfulness. Cnh wd^ "living. Q£l^ to contend. a combat.: food. enter.*46 GLOSSARY. n abbr. Crr-1/t <=^[ll lace or sim. m. V-^ ear. ® Cnh Cnttw oath. A^^AAA HI p) AA/\AAA or Sim. O CZD Ck-w I I 1 Plur. or sim.number. or sim. CwB f[ Ch9 Q^^ [Kx . or sim. Cwn Cwn. Cr goat. plunder. live (cc. . Cnh T -?-( • '"''' T'^ palace.lb Ch^-w ChC arrow. A myrrh. n. § 109 ) AA/WV Ol U royal chamber. _MAAAAAA Si J] ber. Q 1 time. m on anything).

f] ^ ^ I I I (abbr. wB <^^ Pf]^4^ <C _ (abbr. %^^ _zr ^:^) name god of the dead. Jl L__J or sim. cook. or sim.). Er wCb abbr . § 223. clean.) to be aux. *^®^°" ^^ ^^^ late. ' wn green cosmetic. 250 sq. nrz2 in the palace.. servant. 47* w I \ § 80. |) f) caus. wp-w^wtX/^:^ J^=^ (abbr. of a w^s-t wf^ flm wBd w^dic o ^""^' ) praise. =5= ) I wC (§ 143) way.CHiOeSART. . III applause. ) 5 I household sw^h U'^h-'i to visit. caus. wC abbr. or aim. road. \>=/l or sim. one (as adj.). tvS-t (§ 116) one (as subst. cc. w^-wt- wCb I I I pure. wp-tvt message. or sim. (sic. fl chamber 1 i. ^^ AftAA/V\ (Ilae gem. wCf to increase. I (^ to bend.. green. verb. contrary to § S51) districtjOrsim. hr pass by something. or sim. to praise.)n.

heart concerning something. Osiris. weakness.) >o lord wd (§57 Illae command. magnate.) name II.gold wdB wdC-t go.m. or . (abbr. or sim. of Bamses n. (abbr. or sim. I) cHj _ _ _ be well. W^J X sim. ton) e^t. o 1 1 1 alloy. wrh anoint. wsr p.) X throw. some- wsm wsr F«^ 1 I silver. priesthood. twiw-f -^^ S lay w§C dSSU. t^nn-nfr^l"^^ AAA'VSA name wih of Osiris. or sim. indolence. inf. polite phrase for communicating thing. (also of emission of a cry). in titles also !^) great.-^" mXt-BC wsrtsn m p (abbr. \> bite. di AAAAAA lontc-f "jlc <0 i<: wsh broad. (niae inf.) strong. also of itching. be fortunate. ^^^^^ to answer. wdB _ 8wd^ § lb hr to rejoice the 100) Bedouin w8-ir IrO) jj tribe. or the Jl /wvAAAvli or Sim. ^_fC=3a tvrS wdn spend day. sim. a°i forsaken one?? I . 41-^ -^^^ AAAAAA (for -f hour. to rest.48* QLOSSABT. ^^' pr.

pn ° D AAftAAA § Erman. ^^ prominent?? Eg:ypt.). | htn ^j^ cf. Dd I . inf. bk(bikl)'^^ °"- servant." king of lower '^ l^"^^"^^ iO o o o I spelt (kind of wheat). J^ l| I I place (§ 103). Egypt. bhs dr bsh § 315. (abbr.GLOSSARY. J bi-t 70| I < honey. P'>'-H CTID ? house" imi i. ) p D pr ^^• ( I 1 j house. orsim. ^ pry ^^^A go out. "silver e. &c. § also for possessions. pt D t ^ heaven. treasury. cm servant ID bt-ti there" bd-t e. gramm.J^ % U t] "^ § 87. thicket. 1% bk calf. (§ 28) date. 6/ ^^^ jj^ Sim. P^ PU) . bnrt hBh btiTi date wine. "the i. | ) in m JiA. hw hole. "I..) Py M> flea. (Illae depart (from the way. 49* J h^-t J (^^^ or W VC\ branch.

or sim. -^^ (abb'^. ""^"'-^ psJi for the dead. Negation § 375. pr.^T D finest j I linen. caus. broad. . arrive at. or sim. /fi n. bite.) fruits. ^^>o '^\J/'\\\ winter (one of D phr-t <= I the three seasons). go fur- fb fd _j\ ther. fruit" fruit. >lll V _MI1I| /> "hair Mil p7ir-t(l) I g I 1 troop.*3^) ptn ^ (\/\ri n. dual: strength. pk-t l. m. attain to. spliB ht purge. Ph^ m. or sim. pth-Mp divide is satisfied" n. 1. pr1. pr. n. I I pr4 vrt-Snw ^ (abbr. pull out. belong. D m § 307. of the heart "be fnd loosen. O) remedy. as name of a ps <»"'"••* n 3 f™(?) ph ph-U T d| ^'4 Q (§ 159) to cook ctpfst. 1^^ sents. . large. / /«' ^^ glad".50* pr't GLOSSART. L&> I (abbr.

wwvv (§ 111) water. ^^%6 obj. of. m^C-t A (abbr. die. justice. . appellation of the dead. miChrw A (abbr. § 312.^^) truth. voice" i.^1 recur. ^ 137). or sim. m^Ct ^ for \ . III etc. true. 51* § 183 behold. mc-w rdcmSC cc. P|§48(abbr. declared mn mn i'^^*^ (i^^^ remain. mnt. ) "true of m m >'*°m^ §315.) /~^ 0)§314 mn-t diseased AAA/v\A ^tt^ place. mi/t 'f\ bum. with something. o AAAAAA daily (food). Yl truth. \P^\ one ^ like (§ 135. Dd* . up something.) just. e.GLOSSARY. new. see.: ' ' suffer (cc.) mttt "likewise". (I^ renew ml-tt ^^|^(§137)thatwhich is like (something). mt-tw mi mSw ^ self.) goddess of '1 trnvt mother. mi mBC ^'^ ^^ offer in m ^e gem. v ml ^l^inhhr. obj. abbr.

A excellent. north (§ 137). to mni (mini) a^^ /wvAAA land mr kind of (euphemistic for die) mnl4 (mlnfi) /w^A^^ ^^^l\^^ ^11 ? abbr. sill ? be sad. mni {mini) '' ' AAAAAA qi (§ (cc. 01 mry-t mrh-t "^^[JH^dyke. mnh sim.. <CZ> -21 I AA/\AAA I 1 CU. give mr birth to. 62) mr-tO) ' marry. priestly title. sim. ms inf. inf. desire. mr mr mr I — . suffering. m. mr^ ntr ntn-w i^^^ (§ 104 A) plur. mnmn-t ^r^^^^lher*!' mrc mrw'itnsi ''^^(If© Egypt. «x=>^ mh-tt northern.^ (Ulae love. m Thou (belongs per- haps to an other word of mas. oil. or ex- caus.) bear. anyone). "'^^^^ or mh fill.52* ' GLOSSARY. or sim. n. . (mlnWi)DOD monuments. mntw 1. mr K^ii^) overseer. be sick.1 c^ 1^ jju god war. be full. "beloved of god". gen. OW (Illae --^ mr ^^fe^ mourning. canal. Vft C people. grease.). make cellent. pr.) to musical instrument.

GLOSSABY.

53*

ms-io

mtn
AAAAAA
i

(T"^

I

I

I

way, road.
J

ren.
I

o
ms-yt
ipijlj

I

I

I

1^

mtn
I

kind

of

)|

sheikh of the Bedouins,
or sim.

food which was eaten

on stated (?) evenings.
*"*^

^^ ~^ J\
instrument).

mtr
bring

give

testi-

mony

(cc,

obj.

about

on or near; play (an

anyone).

m tB
msdm-t
II

V

eye
cosmetic.

^

to

challenge?? to insult??

msdd

Ulllaegem.)
il

mdw
md-t
{mdw-tl)l}

speak.

to hate.

speech,

mk
mt
a

(§ 13

B) pro-

c^
affair.

tect.

matter,

o

organ (of body.)

mdni-t

\

^
^^
'^
'(?)
III

^^^^
(]

j^

©

n.

1.

n
n'i

/wwv\
AAAAAA

(

)

§ 306.

nCC

of.

nd.

of the gen. § 125.
(Xdi;^) § 364
ff.

^
n-tCi)

-^
^ §
AAAAAA

nCffwl

abbr. powder, or
r^
'-' Ill

O
H

Sim.
1

AAAAAA

city.

ny-t
Ij

kernel, grain,

1

or Sim.

n-fi

§ 134 urban.

nB

1K

§ 94.

)

lord, master.

64*
nh-kBwT}^ BC

GLOSSARY.

^ O ^

^ ^ ^^^^^^

\
I

i
I I

III
unknown
everj', all.

name
king.

w7«m

-Dtakeaway,

^

-S'^

or sim.

of an

nb nb
nb-p

^^—^

nhh
gold.

f^^^^^^iii

V j eternity.
nh-tvt

FS^
t

[J (J

goldsmith.

^
X
)
I I I

com-

Hi' plaint ?
(/vwvvN n

nfr

"^^^
(t abbr. § 199).

nhb-t

®
titulary. alary.

J

good, beautiful, be good.
AAAAAA

nmi

cry out,
(

^^\

(1

to

low.

nht
be strong,

(^>=/l abbr.)
stifif.

AAAAAA

_— ° [=^^
^
.Oil
I

1

(cf.

sC)

name

of

nht
nht

^-^fc/^M5ihero.

the Bedouins.

W=^
i:2i

abbr.
victory.

might,

***^^

I ^v I f^
AAA/WA
/OS

»^orphan.
nht
ns
strength,
nsr-t

AAA/\AA

"^^^^ n, pr. m.

nn
AAA/WA'

nr
<c=:>

^
O

•'^

(§ 139) possess.

_

n

manhood, or

[^ flame (as

sim.

nh
nh-w

AAAAAA
(iJ

name
lack, mis-

of the royal ser-

"^^111 something.

pent, the

symbol of the

royal rank).

ra
or sim. nh-t

fortune,

ngS-w
n.

^^ ^ ^^
1.

[—

I

a U sycomore.
nti
nt-t

AAA/v^A

§ 401

flf,

§ 382. 401. 404.

55*
ICpH

nt-pr-hd

103)

nd

triturate
1

t

that which belongs to
the treasury
i.

)\nd snCC rub
fine (on

e.

costly

furnishing, or sim.

the palette).
sweet.

ntf

o
c^
AAAAA^

§ 84.

ndm
ndm
ndnd

nts

aaaaaap^ sprinkle?

be well.
AAAAA^ AAAAAA
I

ntk

^

§ 84.

to counsel, or
AAAAAA
r\

ntr

1(10 god.
^t|lj^
littleness,

sire

nds

be small.

"#-«

<=>
<:Z>

§ 308.

rC-msof

particle

em-

sw
rw-t

jlP^n.pr.m. Bamses.
exterior,

phasis
ri'(?)
.

(§ 348. 349).

mouth, opening.
ri"

or sim.

rwt'i

writ part

In

n Ktnt

affairs??

of the palace.

language??

In

rS n

wBt
rC

=

<=>'^(|j^
rwd

(irreg.)

?

O

sun, sungod.

(most

grow; caus

proper

names

made
srivd

with rC are to be found

under the second word
in the name).

and

srd:

make

grow, restore.

66*

GLOSSARY.

rpC.n

^
sim.
bility).

(^
(title

abbr.)
\

^p-t ['^
year.

([o,

[,

[g)

hereditary

prince,

or

of the no-

rh

know, be learned.

^
121.

cans,

de-

r-pw
r-pn-t
I

0\\%
AA/^A^^S
I

^li nounce.

rh

^^^~>

scholar, wise

>r man.

unknown
local

name.

D

south,
o

cf. tp-rs.

r-pr
I
I

4>

v

Oj
rs-wt
(niaeinf.)

Sill

southern grain, ^

i. e.

barley.

temple.

v\

lov.

•weep.

f/c

,o
^
^
a

time of anything,
epoch.
<? legs, feet.

rmt

'^^^jD

64.

97)
»-<i

o

I

1

I

people.

rit
/SAAft/\AC_l!

^
aJ

cf. di.

\a/VAAAA XA/VAAAAy

\l^

h ra
h^
HJ

^\ j\

descend, (also
1

of going on board ship)
enter.

^
1-5^
to

band.

hb
'vN""^^^
pi.

rn

plow?

h^'W

rU^X
rU^^.

time

hp

^^ law,
'

or place of a thing.

hnw

^ O V\ earthen vessel.
/T
I

^b

La J

send, send

AAAAAA

as messenger.

hrw

^

^^

(Oabbr.)day.

57*

h
h-t

\
I

I

large house, castle.

hb

Jffi
A
-idJ

feast cf.Ar-A6.

lit

ntr temple.
particle
(?)

Ai

1i/^'fex^d()

/]
'

mourn for?

of wishing: "if only", or
aim.

^5s

iJP N

*o clothe.

increase, addition.

I I

I

)

garment.
embrace.

h^k
AC
"

\

^
a
I

take
booty.

as

^_
Q

body.

nut

serpent.

hC

(?)

^J) cc.m: begin here
(as superscription).

Am
hm-t

^t\ N,

^

X

rudder.

hC-t

^
o^
I

beginning;

m

woman,

wife.

hCt

and hr hCt

§ 315.

hCfi
hCp
hCti

^
fl

hm^-t
!

salt.

abbr. prince, (as title

of the nobility).
n AAAAAA

obstruct,
/\ AAAAAA

or

^
o\\

sim.
(cir-

AAAAAA Nile.

hn
heart.

=^ !^
strike.

y

I

majesty or sim.

cumlocution for king),

'-n\^'i
hivr-w
pauper.

(m

hn
AAAAAA

slave, servant.

hnC

^
Q

§ 314. 120. 279.

hnw

\^ O^'^'^^^

things,

!0 to pi-aise. (III ae inf. hr-dSd^'^^ hri-dBdS "^ § 315 j hsmn AAAAAA vii/ I I I ^ chief vilo Q Vvy/ III overlord. reckoning. kr-w tp-hsb. or sim. iv^-wt.58* Ci yC. \ a> beer. I ^J AA/\AAA J-1 '^ n. A/W\AA hnn-stn J. 5 hr hr-nb title Horus. to offer. hr hr-t ^ I § 309. hns n narrow. O) w . ^ natron. or sim. ruler.l. AAAAA^ L^ ^^ lizard. sign of favor. name goddess. [hr-w^wt] hs cf. above upper part. title of tbe hkS of the king. GLOSSARY. of a hr-yt ^ •n-i I hk-t terror. cf. ^1 hntSsw "=5=1^^ bed? hsst praise. ) superior m-t § 316. 1 praised. abbr. ^ i^ w g existent hs _/j approach. M) .) (Heracleopolis). hsb . abbr. hstf "do according to AAWV\ his wish". hst n I hnk AAAAW C present. prince. Y ^iii Qj\ ) approbair tion. king. I ^11! abbr.

(for offering T I lessen. coronation. 111 ness. bright- hfn ^^ (§ 7) enemy.OLOSSABT. thousand. hr) D '( I 1 I Vo D htp the hd hd Y TTj) become light.) become. I § 7. o o ntr D. create.p^ pi^v ) (for A—n cf. gods). dow. h h-t m and hw8 .) shine. hm Ignorant one. h^w hpr dsf begetting caus. iht. feiJVi arrive at?? (cc. hCte S e ons. hpr ^ be. build. shpr arms) hprt h^r-t wi- (^ Or? 1 ^^ that 1 which ^ happens. . o Mp-t htp be satisfied. c^ pi. (^ abbr. 59* hJcn^ A AAAAAA o"^ ^praise. or sim let (the himself. hSm ®T % droop. abbr. n hdbl oflfering. or sim. weap- hm not to know. or sim. /T yW htm cans. \ offering.-«(?)C^'^ ^ I the bad. (S I abbr. Au. destroy. 313.

e. hnt hrw J . (§ 52. to fall. bow. n hrt thf favorite ser- upon. hn hn-w AT> AAAAA^ A (cc. a hntt tmntiw J\ hms fl Imnti. vant. - hnt-i flee? — . nn vK ^A apparent- hnd d^ ^ ^ (on anything).a [\ existent in front. attack? hnt bend. intend or - journeyup-stream. cf. that which has the day). km limC 'M C^=^ — c>. court of the king. statue. be hot. hnmw hnms Q^ j| AAAAAA VJ <:zr> god Chnum. hr-t-hrio /i\ e I <=> I 1 ra <=: is o (lit. embrace? having something. DV^ CnH interior. or sim. hn-Cl - interior Qt i. hr hr-t ® § 311. or sim. hn n mdivt mdwt. the arms. or sim. one trusted. of hr hr-'i ^ /I\ § 310. hnt'i for simple that belonging to something. _Zl hr hr ® ® interior of a house . § 325.60* GLOSSARY. ney toward the south. Step ly a pleonastic addition with words of speaking. friend.. J^ ^^ . _Cr^ that which I daily . m) meet. §msio hit ^W figure. jour- sim. 141). hnty-t harem. hmt think.

(cc. n) punish anyone. wood. hd inf. J § 315 . m. n of J s-t-Hr fl the throne. ^^ pulse.) to re- offer. . sacrifice. . or sim. journey be wretched. toward north. of 1 ) kind of priest. obg. to neck. and fl [st-ir] [j-<S5- cf.^ children. or sim. afterward.pr. sB-t l|^^^=f_^1 name in. m sB % 315 son. son of the sycomore. (for hr-hb X ^ ksm holy holies in the temple. (cc. Bpd). m st si '5 back.61* hrp lb be first. Ws-tr.) journey ^^ (niae down stream. ^v *^^^* I *^^ goose (cf. ra^y^ daughter. hrd hf hh hs Ill ©if I aP^ abbr. correct. 8-t i Ir'i seat. ht tree. place . sB-nht A«Xn. hrp possessed of a good dis- understanding and position. s-t-C i kind of s-t-wrt Imiiw st-C priest. future.

be repeated in reading. n) request ill I anyone. m) s6i ^ ^\ r train ^ to teach. . defend one's self against. spr s6 -TT- 1^ lead. (trans. to shB land. inspection. 8^i cf. sp ] swnl swrt §80. . 1. . cc. y\ cry out. designation of anything bad. rive at. door. S^k together. J^ I I lice ? ? 8f o yesterday. pw for the intro- duction of a courteous n. sign that the is sip-n ll(J"\\i ]iz^ preceding word to U or aim. StJ? draw sbh m ^ II (§ 62) recognize. spr I I ^ (cc.62* si (cc. as. an opportunity to to drink. proposal ("here is ."). or sim.) sbS-w ^^'^^ '^ i=£=3 teach- ing. su 2. arrive at. (substantive?) sbB-yt teach- mg. sti.

m. J AAAAAA (1 n. (desig- nation of an officer of n AAAAAA _/Ji to trespass. or sim. 63* bro- sfisf^?)^ sm-t ^'^^^ <£) be mild. swi-fi i land". to unknown warm. smB-id'i ^^ of uniter. desert. lit. fill sntr AAAAAA < smwn -*—^\ /\ pro. pr. p7'|(|la6br. upper and lower AAAAAA Pi M r» Egypt. rank). companion c^ I land. snd ^^q7\ to fear. . sniB to slaught^. rt^^^^ smi D AAAAAA cream. e.)b. or designation. >| 1 I in- bably an expression of deprecation (like. . second shw HWi unite. ? at court I AAAA/V\ cans. cf. or sim.sy snbw snf |1 J ^n. i.pr. cook. ^^^^-^ ion. prince. "Per- mit me") or of doubt (like. smr ) snd a rank abbr. sntr cense.GLOSSARY. 1^ —— •* (I P' ) ther. lord snbt healthy. or foreign sn ^11 sim. r\ Cnh. sn-nw 10 the (§ 145). "uniting of local snwh AAAAAA 1®^ sim. m. "perhaps"). -i^^^oj^ blood. ssn ) £s breathe.

hear. 1 {!> — I s abbr. is-t n^ sical a musd ~*^ f^ijp ^ instrument of the (sistrumi). y^mA iA J bring c overlay with. memory. to sleep. remember anything. metic apply to.) I Bedouins. women skm sdm sdm ^^^. 8t-lW (cc. sdr St . cos- ing grey (noun). ) king of upper 8sm-w leader. shm shr y W=/l mighty. clothe. open. or sim. J . or sim. St^ tO swelling. St 1^ 1 § 82.64* aLOSBABT. be at night. stp nd. (medically) or sim. "*^ ^ a shoot. 8tny-t luOo c-"=^^ 1 kingdom. stwh to treat I v^ I A cf. \ AAAAAA Ci abbr. stn lead.abbr. I AAAAAAVJ. sh-Vi W \ peasant. obj. king. scribe.) select. Egypt.

of mythic time. i. m) free (nae gem. itch.) 1 I go anyone. ss con.65* s I w 1 c^^p"^ swine. or sim. I I Erman. locality Sfto-t the "margin" or sim. sw p^°d. go away. Egrypt..o ^\a'^{^\'§) servant.. inf. KV or sim. humSnw-tS I ble one (not of highest IC\. (one of the three seasons). gianim. to i^ sr *^^^-) *P^o°- Smw I \\ I AAAAAA summer -^^ be small. or e. hair. Ss^ U I I fine linen. X r^. I rank)? hair" that which I I In nil name of "groundfruit M\ is I i^v-i S gn^nv X courtiers. Sndyt 9 AAAAAA e^y^'Tf' I Sm ^^ (IHae go. revolve about. food. as designation of food r-vr furnished by the king. §ms-Er follower of Horus. \\ I §nC of I'-^-O designation like. or sim. people ^W=^ sand. £e . cnn"^^^^M^i Sn-w ^ A/SA/SAA ^\\ ) ) ( ^ abbr. from. or sim. I splendid. =^ Mil' sC Ill dig. sim. Sms.) ho -^^^ (cc.

jiL skm.) black cf.tl D form. ^ u I 1. of a god.11 create. or sim. fei ai human "Ht?T> steer. figure cleverness.. C^^ (lit. A \\ kd J^ AAAAAft AA^/V\A circle. . 1 I k^ij-t U Vtx ' I dun<:. or sim.66* GLOSSARY. A (CO. obj. or sini. kt-iht I 1 others. or sim. rrri I^\M:'. I or sim. or sim). another. Ofl § 315. f. pv. k A A abbr. personality. kdm sP^^n. \ . kn X AAAAAA be strong. ^^^1 pi. km think (of something). perhaps "bath"? cooling.. ssp §§ \\ I D Jcsiv n. or sim. %. boat. kbb Cans. kl bad. (nnR east?) k-y im. I r^^- receive. /c^ A j^ spirit kind of ^q. skd to sail. crouch. f.

67* km-t r I ks-to ^^z::^U^rh incli- o ^ Egypt. lack. come upon. Kaus. s X^ grg furnish establish pr a household. (ttch) stwh. land. cf. tp m Be* . half. § . § 315. s: I twt DmxADx s) boundary. J § 321. perhaps. ffrg ^ ill "«• ffs side. earth. mo Z5 (1 %^ find. g g^-U (3 S g*' Q -'^K. ( ) bread. gmv "-^ O S AAAAAA —»^ anoint. name of Osiris. tp ^ upon § 316. statue.. of something injurious. t V —H - — uy of a bird ^ tiv § 80. nation of the body. sgr to silence. designation s nb-sgr be silent. r gs catch sight of. abbr. cf. need.GLOSSARY. logB. name of a plant.314.

or sim. time. r or sim. or sim. the-first. § tti [1 7^ proach n. 376. difV 1T^ constrain. d^b figs. -? (vizier. man. or AA/SAAA Jl sim. tp-tt ( kind ^°?^)ki I o th close up. tsm i:^ hound.68* tp ^ tp rs southern pro- tn § 86. or sim.). r^^^ c^ \\ \ll/ month. /~\ tm tm tkn (cc. compel. tnt tp'iwCtv'i A 1 i^ I old age. tr tp-t CI q9 of oil. ancestors. pr. male child. highest official. tp hsb correct computation. JO . J dress hair. ts ZI ^^^"^^^ I raise. i . tm m. tsw e officer. head. first tn AA^AA^ § I I 80 I correctness. rcll § t ^ Q take. l— <^^ to AAAAAA trespass. m) aji- ^\ Negation 377. tp-'i ^ D /^\ tniv n. vince. n fg^^ \\ i=«>=3-f\ / proverbs. or sim. lift up. "^^"-^^v"^^^ or ^11 "• sim. 1. vertebra of the spinal column.

permit that. pr. orsim. r rdtt in order that. ^ ^ ^^ A/^\AAA A spread out. o w^ of ship. l^iiid dpt didlw n. dwS-t i< meet with. o a fruit. c-'=^ 1/ (J n — fl touch. or sim. or deliver over . aim. dgS s dt o^ M eternity. income. or sim. D m. name of III . (a D._^ ™v. fl) (also dbB-i dldi § 160): give. give back express. Chnwfi dwJt the palace. dm I r\A praise. dbS restore. didt dpt Do ^"^^ \ V ^/ £\A taste. dtvS i< O morning. fruit." stop up. . 69* dl A rdi. lay let?. pay. dion dml dr (cc. set down. peasantj wise man. hr) expell from. dkr ^=^> A d?= see.GLOSSARY. X sail across. payment. cause that. \\ city. I ry. do horn. down. or part of sim. 1 dBls-io ''^"^ (l-t a^wj 1 coll. dm make mention. ' vanquish. ^^. to name.

name of a musicalclothing.kind of under L official. ^|] (Wabbr. t^-dsr necropolis. magnificent. kind of cry. LEIPZIG. as far as ® ^ n. kind of d\o . UNKNOWN READING. in village. hSh. or sim. drw boundary. ./K J yy . PRINTED BY W. ""^ n. UNKNOff'N PHONETIC VALUE. sdsr beautify. dr dlmti- ^ 314 cf. end. speak. n^. or sim. ddw (I (^ r drf end) § i. Caus. pr. . ^(^_^ Thutmosis. self. say. (Busiris). dhS dfB cf. e. ^^ as 1 1_ _Q occurring to "as- ms m. name of the food. dsr J wind. Caus. vessel.70* ds- ^^ § 85. dr its (Id r-=^ \ to talk. all. ddb 1. rfZ/i.) or sim. 1 I parallel semble". '"'-=*. or sim. instrument. whole. DKUGOLIN. or O the day (only sim dates).

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t. Adolf Egyptian grammar with table of signs. Breasted \^i^^^ .DO NOT REMOVE CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET PLEASE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY Erman...