STEFAN ARTENI

Perspective as Form and Medium and the Interplay of Proportion Systems and Perspective I

SolInvictus Press 2006

The Mark

We think of the "operator" as "doing something" and of the "operands" as things to which something is "done." But the heretofore distinct mathematical concepts of operator and operand are in fact merely different facets of a single fundamental action, the drawing of a distinction. Expressed in the terminology of set theory, a set is of a logically higher type than are its elements; similarly this holds for the relationship between an operator and an operand. The formal description of…a process, in which the system should both reflect the complete situation and alter its own algorithm, a system which learns how it learns, requires an interchange of operator and operand, i.e. what from one viewpoint was an operator becomes an operand during the process of reflection and vice versa. DEAD AND LIVING SYSTEMS Their Relation to Formal Logical Descriptions, E. von Goldammer , J. Paul and C. Kennedy, Institut für Kybernetik & Systemtheorie - ICS Harpener Hellweg 532, D-44388 Dortmund Fakultät für Informatik, TU Dresden

The mark is both operator and operand at the same time, a self-referential operator which works upon itself and becomes part of itself, an operator (the mark) which becomes an operand (the mark).

…it does make sense to define the two types of recognition because both psychological and biological studies reveal the initial step of human vision to be a position-independent parallel process that recognizes elementary features such as color, texture, orientation, and size... This fast process precedes a slower position-dependent object-recognition process which requires the elementary features making up a perceptual object to be combined. The fast parallel process is called preattentive, because it does not require spatial attentional selection (i.e., it is spatially independent), the slow process is referred to as attentive because it does require spatial attentional selection… One relatively novel way of assessing the texture of an image is by measuring the fractal dimension of an image. The use of concepts from chaos theory is now widespread in image processing... In preattentive image recognition, the concept of fractal dimension can be applied in, for instance, segmentation tasks ... Fractal dimension is a measure of the self-similarity of (a part of) an image across a range of scales... Discovering the visual signature of painters1 H.Jaap van den Herik and Eric O. Postma IKAT / Computer Science Department Universiteit Maastricht, The Netherlands

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Giorgio Morandi

Giorgio Morandi

Giorgio Morandi

Giorgio Morandi

Giorgio Morandi

Giorgio Morandi

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Piero Marussig

Raoul Dufy

Roman mosaic

Roman wall paintings

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

Jacopo Bassano (Giacomo dal Ponte)

Jacopo Bassano (Giacomo dal Ponte)

Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy

Jacques Villon

Nicolas de Staël

Amedeo Modigliani

Amedeo Modigliani

Lorenzo Monaco

Lorenzo Monaco

Byzantine Icon

Spanish Romanesque wall painting

Spanish Romanesque wall painting

Sucevita, Byzantine wall painting

Probota, Byzantine wall painting

Cetatuia Monastery, Moldavian Byzantine wall painting: Duca, prince of Moldavia and hetman of Ukraine

Göreme Museum, Basil Chapel, Cappadocia (Photo Dick Osseman)

Göreme Museum, Yilanli or Snake Church, Cappadocia (Photo Dick Osseman)

Pskov, wall painting

Romanesque wall painting

Göreme Museum, Karanlik Church, Cappadocia (Photo Dick Osseman)

Theodor Pallady

SELF-REFERENCE OF FORM

Forms convince by implicit self-reference. They propose themselves. They…resist further decomposition…In this sense they have a ritualistic quality… Ambiguity of forms comes about, if the problem of form is reconstructed as a problem of the relation between form and context…However ambivalent, the paradox of form is the paradox of organizing context by self-reference. Niklas Luhmann

Anonymous Romanesque master

Anonymous Romanesque master

Romanesque wall painting

Altarpiece of San Cristobal

Arnau Bassa

Psalter of Saint Louis

Anonymous Gothic master

Lorenzo Veneziano

Giovanni di Francesco

Workshop of Marco del Buono Giamberti, Appolonio di Giovanni

Master of Panels of the Argonauts

Filippo Lippi

Filippino Lippi

Jaime Huguet

Luca d'Egidio di Ventura (Luca Signorelli)

Jacopo Negretti (Palma il Vecchio)

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Paolo Caliari Veronese

Anonymous Venetian master

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Rossi)

Rosso Fiorentino (Giovanni Battista di Jacopo di Rossi)

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos)

Annibale Carracci

Nicolas Poussin

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

André Derain

Edgar Degas

Georges Rouault

Georges Rouault

Paul Klee

The Play Of Form

Aya Sofya mosaic

Sveta Gora Byzantine wall painting

Ohrid Byzantine wall painting

Studenitza Byzantine wall painting

Decani Byzantine wall painting

Giovanni di Paolo

Paolo Veneziano

Romanesque wall painting

Henri Matisse

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

Fausto Pirandello

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot

Raoul Dufy

Peter Paul Rubens

Peter Paul Rubens

André Derain

André Derain André Lhote

Roman wall painting

André Derain, two figures from La Grande Bacchanale Noire

Anonymous Milanese master Domenico Ghirlandaio

Vittore Carpaccio

Raffaello Sanzio

Attributed to Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Domenico Ghirlandaio

Pinturicchio (Bernardino di Betto)

Lorenzo di Credi

Bartolomeo Veneto

Bartolomeo Veneto

Bartolomeo Veneto

Bartolomeo Veneto

Bartolomeo Veneto

Piero di Cosimo (Piero di Lorenzo)

Michele Tosini Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci)

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci)

Agnolo di Cosimo di Mariano Tori (Bronzino)

Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres

Roman funerary portrait

André Derain

Arturo Martini

Arturo Martini

Willem Kalf

Willem Kalf

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

André Derain

Peter Paul Rubens

André Derain

André Derain

Raoul Dufy

Raoul Dufy

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

Pierre Bonnard

André Derain

Massimo Campigli

Bruno Saetti

Bruno Saetti

Georges Braque

Georges Braque

Georges Braque

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Gino Severini

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Barisano da Trani

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Mario Sironi

Projection Systems

Systems used to depict recession in space [from www.uic.edu]

Bayeux tapestry, overlapping

Byzantine mosaic, overlapping

Ottonian miniature, diagonal perspective and overlapping

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos), overlapping, vertical and diagonal perspective

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos), overlapping and diminution

Persian miniature, vertical perspective

Byzantine miniatures, diagonal perspective and overlapping

The most common paraline or parallel projections (diagrams by Bruce MacEvoy)

Egyptian wall painting

Egyptian wall paintings

Beatus de Liebana, Commentary on the Revelation of St.John, about 945

Byzantine illumination

Gothic illumination

Persian miniature

Persian miniature

Persian miniature

Villard de Honnecourt

Anonymous Japanese master Russian Icon

Russian Icon

Fresco, Christ Healing the Possessed, 1080, Lambach Abbey Church, Upper Austria

Fresco, The Magi, around 1431, Church of St. Peter am Kammersberg, Styria

Ohrid Icon, mixed perspective system (parallel projection and reverse perspective: diverging oblique edges may give an effect of reverse perspective)

The Modern Era

Gino Severini

The Modern Era

Gris uses a mixed system of projections [diagrams by Fred Dubery and John Willats]

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez)

Byzantine illumination
Reverse perspective, also called inverse perspective or Byzantine perspective, is a technique of perspective drawing where the lines diverge against the horizon, rather than converge. Technically, the vanishing points are placed outside the painting with the illusion that they are "in front of" the painting. A common interpretation is that the point of perspective is on the viewer, hence The Almighty looks upon him, rather than the viewer looks upon The Almighty. It displays the spiritual rather than the physical reality.

Russian Icon

The Modern Era

Juan Gris (Jose Victoriano Gonzalez) and the use of reverse perspective

Perspective effects

Pompeiian mural of the pageant of Orestes, 2nd century AD, inspired by theatrical scenery (scaenographia) containing both central convergence (black lines) and ‘fishbone’ parallel convergence for the peripheral features such as the roof rafters (white lines) [diagram by Christopher W. Tyler]

3D simulation of Roman wall painting [University of Warwick's e-lab]

Perspective effects

Roman wall paintings

Perspective effects

Roman wall paintings

Perspective effects

Roman wall painting

Perspective effects

Roman wall paintings

Perspective effects

Roman mosaic (reverse perspective)

Multiple systems used in the same altarpiece [1]
Ugolino da Siena 41,4 x 58,1 cm From the predella of an altarpiece for the Basilica Santa Croce, Florence, 1325/26 overlapping

Ugolino da Siena 40,4 x 58,8 cm From the predella of an altarpiece for the Basilica Santa Croce, Florence, 1325/26 reverse perspective

Multiple systems used in the same altarpiece [2]

Ugolino da Siena 40,1 x 58 cm From the predella of an altarpiece for the Basilica Santa Croce, Florence, 1325/26 [perspective diagram by Stefan Arteni]

Duccio di Buoninsegna

Duccio di Buoninsegna
[perspective diagram by M.X. Benedict]

Giovanni di Paolo di Grazia Dieric Bouts

Giotto (Ambrogio Bondone) [diagram by Christopher W. Tyler]

Leon Battista Alberti

renaissance method for constructing central perspective
from the instructions in Alberti's De pictura (1435)

[diagram by Bruce MacEvoy]

the perspective gradient

[diagram by Bruce MacEvoy]

Franz Fischnaller's reconstruction of the relationship between the real architecture of the refectory and the painted architecture in Leonardo da Vinci’s Last Supper, www.fabricat.com/ultim_cen.html [From the online book Psychology of Perspective and Renaissance Art (WebExhibits) by Michael Kubovy and Christopher Tyler]

Leonardo da Vinci’s perspective diagram for the Adoration of the Magi

Leonardo da Vinci, Adoration of the Magi

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello)

Fra Angelico (Guido di Pietro da Mugello), diagram by Stefan Arteni

Rafaello Sanzio [perspective diagram by Christopher W. Tyler]

Raffaello Sanzio: superimposed perspective and proportion schemata [Michael Holzapfel]

… progressions can be used to generate perspective grids. In the accompanying drawings on the geometric and harmonic progressions, we can see how a linear perspective grid system can be developed from either approach. The geometric progression used in Figure 1 is 1, 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, …

[From Mark Reynolds, Geometric and Harmonic Means and Progressions, Nexus Network Journal, vol. 3, no. 4 (Autumn 2001), http://www.nexusjournal.com/GA-v3n4.htm]

"One-point" (parallel) perspective grid using harmonic and geometric progressions.

The harmonic progression used in Figure 2 is 1, 1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5,….

"Two-point" (angular) perspective grid using geometric and harmonic progressions.

This paper focuses on an aspect of perspective that we cannot experience directly, a division of space that is independent of our perspective or point of view. Mathematicians call this division the cross ratio. As presented in this paper, the cross ratio is a ratio of ratios: •May be computed using collinear segments •May be computed using concurrent angles •Is independent of the position of the observer •Is invariant under projective transformations •Is the basis for the paper strip technique used by cartographers •Is an important mathematical basis for 3-D computer graphics

[from David A.Thomas The Mathematics of perspective: An Introduction to the Cross Ratio ON-Math Winter 2003/Volume 2, Number 2]

Andrea Mantegna felt that he needed to compensate for the distortion introduced by linear perspective, since he both reduced the size of the feet and enlarged the head. . Creatively "adjusting" perspective distortion has been one of the subtleties of painting. .

Marginal Distortions [from Michael Kubovy and Christopher Tyler, webexhibits.org/arrowintheeye/ marginal3.html]

The Game of Magnitude (‘Perspective’ of Importance)

Size of figures related to their respective importance

Palermo, Sicily: mosaic from the Capella Palatina

Rome: mosaic from the Basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore

Size of figures related to their respective importance

Mosaics, Monastery of Hosios Lukas

Size of figures related to their respective importance

Russian Icon

Bicci di Lorenzo
Gentile da Fabriano (Gentile di Niccolò di Giovanni Massi)

Proportion Systems

Leon Battista Alberti’s musical ratios which could be traced back to Pythagoras [graphic interpretation by Michel Gardes]

Leon Battista Alberti’s musical consonances or ratios [graphic interpretation by Angela Pintore]
Square area [Area quadrata…La più corta di tutte è l'area quadrata, i cui lati sono tutti eguali tra loro in lunghezza, e i cui angoli sono tutti egualmente retti.]

Sesquialtera [Area sesquialtera…A questa segue immediatamente l'area detta sesquialtera ('una e mezza')...]

Sesquitertia [Area sesquitertia... e dopo questa - sempre tra le aree corte - si annovera quella sesquitertia ('una e un terzo').]

Angela Pintore, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Pintore06.html

Leon Battista Alberti’s musical consonances or ratios [graphic interpretation by Angela Pintore]

Double [Doppia…Pure tre si attagliano alle aree medie. La migliore delle quali è quella doppia...]

Sesquialtera doubled [... ad essa fa seguito un'area che si ottiene raddoppiando la sesquialtera, e si costruisce nel modo seguente. Una volta tracciata la dimensione minore dell'area, ad esempio lunga quattro, si costruisce una prima sesquialtera, di lunghezza sei; a questa si aggiunge un'altra area lunga metà della precedente, sicché la lunghezza complessiva risulterà di nove. Quindi la dimensione maggiore, in questo tipo d'area, supererà la misura più piccola del doppio più il tonus del doppio.] Sesquitertia doubled [Area due volte sesquitertia…Pure tra le aree medie si annovera quella che si ottiene costruendo due volte la sesquitertia secondo lo stesso sistema testé illustrato. Quindi, con questo tipo di costruzione, la dimensione minore dell'area sta alla maggiore come nove sta a sedici; per conseguenza quest'ultima viene superata dal doppio dell'altra per meno di un tonus.]

Angela Pintore, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Pintore06.html

Leon Battista Alberti’s musical consonances or ratios [graphic interpretation by Angela Pintore]

Triple [Tripla…Nella costruzione delle aree lunghe ci si regola come segue. O si unisce una doppia a una sesquialtera, ottenendo una tripla...]

Double plus sesquitertia [Area doppia più sesquitertia ... ovvero una doppia a una sesquitertia, e allora le dimensioni saranno proporzionali a tre e otto...]

Angela Pintore, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Pintore06.html

Leon Battista Alberti’s musical consonances or ratios [graphic interpretation by Angela Pintore]

Quadruple [Area quadrupla ... o ancora si costruisce l'area in maniera che una dimensione riesca quadrupla dell'altra.] Angela Pintore, http://www.nexusjournal.com/Pintore06.html

Leon Battista Alberti’s musical consonances or ratios [graphic interpretation by John Boyd-Brent, with Boyd-Brent’s spelling, www.aboutscotland.com/harmony/ prop2.html]

Massacio’s use of musical ratios [diagram by Charles Bouleau]

Botticelli’s use of the double diatessaron, 9/12/16 [diagrams by Charles Bouleau]

Raffaello Sanzio: composition on the musical ratio coinciding with
perspective construct [diagram by Charles Bouleau]

A Unified Theory of Proportion Jay Kappraff and Gary W. Adamson www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/kappraff1 With the aid of Pascal’s triangle, the golden mean and Fibonacci sequences were generalized to a family of silver means. The Lucas sequence was then generalized with the aid of a close variant of the Pascal’s triangle. These generalized golden means and generalized F- and L-sequences were shown to form a tightly knit family with many properties of number. Perhaps it is for this reason that they occur in many dynamical systems. The numerical properties of the silver mean constants are the result of their self-referential properties which, in turn, derive from their relationship to the imaginary number i. We have shown that all systems of proportion are related to a set of polynomials derived from Pascal’s triangle. These systems are related to both the edges of various species of regular star polygon and the diagonals of regular n-gons, and they share many of the additive properties of the golden mean. designs of ancient sacred geometry use a small vocabulary of proportions such as √2, √3, the golden mean τ = (1+√5)/2 and the silver mean θ= 1 + √2.

The n-gons for n = 3,4,5,6,7,8,10,12 with edge equal to 1 unit showing their diagonals.

Jay Hambidge and dynamic symmetry

The root-2 Rectangle and Golden Rectangle compared.

The dynamic rectangles are the root-2, the root-3, the root-4, and the root-5.

[Diagrams by Thomas Detrie]

[Diagram by Charles Bouleau]

The Golden Ratio, diagrams by Michel Gardes

Leonardo da Vinci and the Golden Triangle

Hypothetical Golden Ratio diagram of Botticelli’s painting

Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden

Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden, a subtle composition based on pentagons and the golden number [diagram by Charles Bouleau]

Rogier de la Pasture van der Weyden [detailed diagrams by Charles Bouleau]

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto’s dynamic composition based on the Golden Section [diagram by André Lhote]

Armature of the surface [diagrams by Charles Bouleau]

On the left of the image above, the vertical division of the half rectangle into two, on the right into three

Peter Paul Rubens, construction based on the armature of the frame [diagram by Charles Bouleau]

Botticelli’s tondo

Botticelli’s tondo, the composition establishes the architecture and perspective [diagram by Charles Bouleau]

Geometry of the Root 3 System

Jay Kappraff
www.mi.sanu.ac.yu/vismath/kappraff/kap7.htm

An hexagonal grid illustrating the root 3 system.

Perhaps the most fundamental place that the √3 makes its appearance is in a figure referred to in sacred geometry as the Vesica Pisces. Draw a circle. Place a point on the circumference and draw a second circle of the same radius as the first.

Medieval miniature

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio,
composition on the circles [diagram by Charles Bouleau]

Diagram of Raffaello Sanzio’s painting by Gino Severini

Rabatment of the shorter sides [diagrams by Chales Bouleau]

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio

Raffaello Sanzio, rabatment of the shorter sides [diagram by Chales Bouleau]

The algebraic properties of the Roman system can be made palpable by considering the equivalent geometric properties based on the interrelation of the proportions: 1, √ 2, and θ.

THE ROMAN SYSTEM OF PROPORTIONS Jay Kappraff, "The Arithmetic of Nicomachus of Gerasa and its Applications to Systems of Proportion", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 2, no. 4 (October 2000), http://www.nexusjournal.com/Kappraff.html

The system of proportions based on x = θ where θ = 1 + √ 2 is of particular interest. An integer version of this system was used in ancient Roman architecture and was written about by Theon of Smyrna, a second century A.D. mathematician and Platonist philosopher All the tones of the Pythagorean scale are based on the ratio of string lengths in which the numerator and denominator are divisible by primes 2 and 3, e.g., the musical fifth, fourth, and octave: 2/3, ¾, and ½. The SR rectangle [square root of two rectangle] is particularly suited for creating the musical proportions of the Pythagorean scale, since it has a natural bisecting and trisecting property.

The dynamic symmetry proportional system is found in some Byzantine and Russian icons of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries

Diagrams by Karyl M. Knee http://web.ukonline.co.uk/pbrooke/a&r/knee

The dynamic symmetry proportional system is found in some Byzantine and Russian icons of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries

"Root" rectangles obtained from inside a square [diagram by Karyl M. Knee, http://web.ukonline.co.uk/pbrooke/a&r/knee]

The dynamic symmetry proportional system is found in some Byzantine and Russian icons of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries

Russian Icon - root three rectangle [diagrams by Karyl M. Knee, http://web.ukonline.co.uk/pbrooke/a&r/knee]

The dynamic symmetry proportional system is found in some Byzantine and Russian icons of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries In the analysis of the icon, Baptism of Christ, dating from the end of the fourteenth century, at the Greek Patriarchate, Jerusalem, there are two vertical "root-eight" rectangles which form its design composition. It can be seen that the central figure of Christ is in the "root-three" rectangle portion vertically and that the mountain tops are contained in the four upper dynamic symmetry sections of "rootfive" through ''root-eight" rectangles. The central Heavenly Ray comes down the center of the composition. The diagonal line of the right leg of St. John the Baptist falls along a design line beginning at the lower center of the composition…At the lower level, the River Jordan's edges fall within the triangle shape from the lower corners of the icon to the center at about Christ's hip. [diagrams and commentary by Karyl M. Knee, http://web.ukonline.co.uk/pbrooke/a&r/ knee]

The dynamic symmetry proportional system is found in some Byzantine and Russian icons of the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries

In the icon, Simeon Stylites, sixteenth century, Early Stroganov School, Moscow, in the Tretyakov Gallery, the analysis shows that it is constructed within two "rootfive" vertical rectangles. The design is typical of Palaeologian art. [diagrams by Karyl M. Knee, http://web.ukonline. co.uk/pbrooke/a&r/knee]

THE PERSPECTIVE GRID WITHIN THE GOLDEN SECTION RECTANGLE

THE PERSPECTIVE GRID WITHIN THE SQUARE ROOT OF PHI RECTANGLE

√φ = 1.272...

Diagrams from Mark A. Reynolds, "Perspectiva Geometrica", Nexus Network Journal, vol. 5 no. 1(Spring 2003), http://www.nexusjournal.com/GA-v5n1.html

Jan Vermeer. Perspective inserted within proportion construct [golden section diagram by Charles Bouleau; perspective diagram, in yellow, by Stefan Arteni]

The Modern Era

The Modulor by Le Corbusier [diagram from the site conceived by the students of the Lycée Jean Monnet, Aurillac, France]

Serge Poliakoff [from Carolle Gagnon-Marier, Serge Poliakoff et le Nombre d’Or, Vie des Arts, XXV 102, 1981]

The Modern Era

Jacques Villon

The Modern Era

Jacques Villon

Stefan Arteni The Modern Era
[interplay of projection and proportion systems within the φ rectangle]

The Modern Era

Stefan Arteni
[proportion system within the √φ rectangle]

The Modern Era

Stefan Arteni

[interplay of projection and proportion systems within the √φ rectangle]

Module, Geometry, Human Proportion

The Development of the Egyptian Grid System [John Legon]

Doryphoros, 450 BC. Polykleitos created this statue in order to support his published theoretical work "Canon" = "Rule", in which he was stating in mathematical terms the relationship of parts of the body with the whole, e.g. the proportion of finger with the palm, palm with wrist, wrist with elbow, elbow with arm. The proportion of the head with the body is one seventh (1/7). [Ellen Papakyriakou-Anagnostou]

.

This athletic weight shift pose is called a Contrapposto, and in the art world scholars have noted what they call the chiastic principle in the composition of the figures such as the Doryphoros [by Polykleitos]. The term is derived from the Greek letter chi X which is formed by two lines crossing obliquely, but the stroke descending right to left is straight while the other is, like a reversed S, curved at both ends. Thus the upper curve on the left corresponds to a mirror-image curve on the lower right and two straight halves face each other across the sinuous divide. The illustration imposes the letter chi onto the figure of the Doryphoros. [Dave Lightbody]

Doryphoros and the Golden Ratio
Dr. Ruben Stelzner, Der goldene Schnitt – Das Mysterium der Schönheit, in Zusammenarbeit mit Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Schad, Karl-Schweisfurth-Institut, Universität Witten/Hedecke und dem Studium Fundamentale der Universität Witten/Herdecke

Doryphoros [diagram by Gyorgy Doczi]

The Byzantine canon expressed in face units: on the left, a figure of 9; on the right, the Paleologan canon of 9⅔ units Hjalmar Torp, The Integrating System of Proportion in Byzantine Art, Acta Ad Archeaologiam Et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Volume 4, Giorgio Bretschneider 1984 [Diagram by Hjalmar Torp]

Hjalmar Torp, The Integrating System of Proportion in Byzantine Art, Acta Ad Archeaologiam Et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Volume 4, Giorgio Bretschneider 1984 [Diagram by Hjalmar Torp]

Hjalmar Torp, The Integrating System of Proportion in Byzantine Art, Acta Ad Archeaologiam Et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Volume 4, Giorgio Bretschneider 1984 [Diagram by Hjalmar Torp]

Hjalmar Torp, The Integrating System of Proportion in Byzantine Art, Acta Ad Archeaologiam Et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Volume 4, Giorgio Bretschneider 1984 [Diagrams by Hjalmar Torp]

Hjalmar Torp, The Integrating System of Proportion in Byzantine Art, Acta Ad Archeaologiam Et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Volume 4, Giorgio Bretschneider 1984 [Diagram by Hjalmar Torp]

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos) and the hypothetical use of the Paleologan canon [diagram by Stefan Arteni]

St.Prokulus, Naturns about 800?

St.Prokulus, Naturns oldest paint layer; about 800 ?

Hjalmar Torp, The Integrating System of Proportion in Byzantine Art, Acta Ad Archeaologiam Et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Volume 4, Giorgio Bretschneider 1984 [Diagrams by Hjalmar Torp]

Salzburg, Nonnberg Convent, detail of wall painting, about 1150

Early Romanesque wall painting, Johanneskapelle, Pürgg, about 1160

St.Paul, about 1260

St.Helena am Wieserberg, about 1250

Cividale, Tempietto Longobardo, Hjalmar Torp, The Integrating System of Proportion in Byzantine Art, Acta Ad Archeaologiam Et Artium Historiam Pertinentia, Volume 4, Giorgio Bretschneider 1984 [Diagram by Hjalmar Torp]

Giovanni Rusconi. Ideal Proportions Based on the Human Body, from "Della Architettura", Published 1590

Woodcut by Peter Flotner from 'Vitruvius Teutsch', the first German translation of 'De architectura' (Of architecture) by the Roman architect and engineer Vitruvius Pollio (1st century BC), published in Nuremberg in 1548.

Willem Goeree, Natuurlyk en Schilderkonstig Ontwerp der menschkunde Leerende niet allen de kennis van de gestalte, proportie... [Konsten att återge människans gestalt och dess proportioner]. Amsterdam 1682. The head is one-eighth of the body height.

El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos), Epimetheus and Pandora

Sandro Botticelli’s workshop

Hans Baldung Grien

Lyssipus, Hercules. Roman copy

Athanasius Kircher, 17th century

The Lyssipian proportion of the head with the body is one eighth (1/8).

Hypothetical use of the Lyssipian canon: El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos) Saint John the Baptist 1597-160. Oil on canvas.105 x 64 cm. Private collection.

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci)

Grids [I]

Leonardo da Vinci, proportion grid and other studies

Image transformations: image (a) is distorted by making the four corners (blue dots) move to the new positions marked by the four red circles. [www.xiberpix.com/index.html]

In perspective, anamorphosis perspective is used for distortion

curve envelope distortion: first a drawing is made on an ordinary rectangular grid and then the artist transfers the drawing point by point to the distorted grid.

Dr. Michael Brook [www.math.udel.edu/~mbrook/brookart/brook.html]

Albrecht Dürer

[from John Sharp, www.mathsyear2000.org]

Hieronymus Bosch

Greek vase painting, orthogonal projection

Greek vase painting

Horizontal oblique projection
[from Fred Dubery and John Willats, Perspective and Other Drawing Systems,1983]

Computer generated head in strict horizontal oblique projection [from Fred Dubery and John Willats, Perspective and Other Drawing Systems,1983]

Greek vase painting, horizontal oblique projection

Greek vase painting

An attempt to show side and front views of the body at once

Roman mosaics, head extended in an attempt to show side and front views at once

Greek vase painting

Roman mosaics

Byzantine Icon

Byzantine Icon, 11th century, gold cloisonne

Villard de Honnecourt, head extended in an attempt to show side and front views at once

Villard de Honnecourt

Villard de Honnecourt

Lucas Cranach, head extended in an attempt to show side and front views at once

Lucas Cranach, head extended in an attempt to show side and front views at once

Gino Severini

The Modern Era
an attempt to show side and front views at once

Georges Braque

Georges Braque

Grids[II]

Tiziano Vecellio, squared up drawing

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci), squared up drawing

Pontormo (Jacopo Carucci)

Jacques Villon

Squared up drawing, charcoal on tracing paper

Top right: study attempting to show different views at once. Bottom right: one of the final versions (Composition jaune et bleu or Galop.)

Jacques Villon

Jacques Villon

Distance point D

The ‘perspective cube’: the grid can be warped by moving the vanishing point (the method of grid-warp serves to manipulate the image by adjusting the grid)

[John Sharp, www.mathsyear2000.org/explorer/gridwarping/perspective-grids]

Planimetric reconstruction of Piero Della Francesca’s Flagellation
A.Dabusti - M.Lagomarsini www.istitutomaserati.it/prospettiva/Immagini/francesca1.jpg

Piero Della Francesca

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti), diagram by Stefan Arteni

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti), diagram by Stefan Arteni

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti), diagram by Stefan Arteni

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti)

Tintoretto (Jacopo Robusti), diagram by Stefan Arteni

Pieter Hendricksz de Hooch

Pieter Hendricksz de Hooch, diagram by Stefan Arteni

Pieter Hendricksz de Hooch

Pieter Hendricksz de Hooch, diagram by Stefan Arteni

Color Systems

THE MUSICAL INTERVALS AND HARMONIES OF THE SPHERES.

Pythagoras ~550BC

[from www.colorsystem.com]

Roman mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaics

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Byzantine mosaic

Robert Grosseteste, De colore “Color est lux.”

[from www.colorsystem.com]

Westminster Abbey, wall painting

Leon Battista Alberti

[from www.colorsystem.com]

Leonardo da Vinci included black and white next to yellow, red, blue and green as primary colors. [from www.colorsystem.com]

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio

Tiziano Vecellio Tiziano Vecellio (restored)

Il Guercino (restored)

Perino del Vaga (Pietro Buonaccorsi)

Aron Sigfrid Forsius,1611 [from www.colorsystem.com]

OPTICORUM LIBRI SEX BY FRANCISCUS AGUILONIUS (1567-1617) Aguilonius's system was the first attempt at defining all colors and was based on his observations of the changing color of the sky from dawn to dusk
Secondo Aguilonius la scala cromatica è formata da cinque colori semplici (bianco, giallo, rosso, azzurro, nero) e da tre colori composti (arancio, verde, porpora). Il giallo è il colore più vicino al bianco, perchè è il più luminoso, per la ragione opposta l'azzurro è il più vicino al nero. L'arancio, il verde e il porpora sono colori composti perchè vengono formati dalla mescolanza di due colori: Arancio = Giallo + Rosso Verde = Giallo + Azzurro Porpora = Rosso + Azzurro [According to Aguilonius, the chromatic scale is formed by five simple colors (white, yellow, red, blue, black) and three composite colors (orange, green, purple). Yelow is the color closest to white, because the most luminous, blue is the closest to black for the opposite reason. Orange, green and purple are composite colors because formed by mixing two colors: Orange = Yellow + Red Green = Yellow + Blue Purple = Red + Blue]
http://pctidifi.mi.infn.it/lucevisione/pittura/copernico.htm

1613 - Aguilonius
The color system described in the book of optics by Franciscus Aguilonius (1613) and illustrated by Peter Paul Rubens may be translated into a three dimensional system by means of topological transformation.

http://www.uni-mainz.de/FB/Biologie/Zoologie/abt3/html/body_aguilonius.html

Rubens and color

The use of color dots to form images on television or computer screens is referred to as partitive mixing. Partitive mixing relies on the eye’s inability to resolve closely spaced objects. Paint…particles are suspended in a clear medium (e.g. linseed oil). As light passes through that clear medium, it is transmitted selectively by the colour particles. The wavelengths that are reflected back to the eye (i.e., not absorbed) determine the colour seen. Thus, mixing paints of different colour is completely analogous to placing several filters of different colour in a sequence. Brian Thomas Wagner and Donald Kline University of Calgary

françois d'aguilon's [Aguilonius] color mixing theory (1613)

Bruce MacEvoy http://www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/color6.html

P.P. Rubens depicts Hera-Juno at the moment when she already applied some of Argus' eyes on the tail of her birds. Argus lies decapitated at her feet. The woman left of her, holding Argus' head, might be Athena-Minerva.
http://www.ubique.org/Webfans/pfau/Juno.htm http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/jmac/sj/scientists/aguilon.htm

P.P. Rubens chose the Juno-Argus mythology for a frontispice to an optical tractate by jesuit François de Aguilon, 1613: In the center Juno, behind her the peacocks, left Hermes-Merkur with Argus' head, right Athena-Minerva with the head of Medusa on her shield. Unfortunately, Rubens’ own treatise on color has been lost.

Peter Paul Rubens (restored)

Peter Paul Rubens

Athanasius Kircher (1602-1680)
[from www.colorsystem.com]

Astrological connections

Cubicle-type camera obscura illustrated by Athanasius Kircher in Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae, Rome, 1646

Athanasius Kircher, Ars magna lucis et umbrae, Amsterdam, Janossius, 1671: Laterna magica

Athanasius Kircher developed a system of correspondences between musical intervals and colors [home.comcast.net/~sean.day/art-history.htm]:

Kircher also developed a set of correspondences between voice types and colors [home.comcast.net/~sean.day/ art-history.htm]:

octave seventh major sixth minor sixth augmented fifth fifth diminished fifth fourth major third minor third major wholetone minor second minor wholetone

green blue-violet fire red red-violet dark brown gold blue brown-yellow bright red gold black white Grey high, soft and broken soft and quiet deep and unclear high and tense first deep, then high strong and deep white yellow fire-red scarlet blue black

Gino Severini, correspondence between music and color

Gino Severini, a golden rectangle composed of 16 golden rectangles whose colors are associated to musical notes (after Georges Vantongerloo) -1919

Gino Severini, correspondence between music and color (after Georges Vantongerloo) -1919