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RHYOLITES AND PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS

RHYOLITES
General Features  Igneous Rock Type: Extrusive volcanic  Related to: Granite, Pumice, Obsidian  Chemistry: typically > 70% SiO2  Acidic Color: White, gray, light black  Texture: Aphanitic (crystals too small to see) to porphyritic (a mixture of crystal sizes)  Origins: Volcanic arcs  Common Minerals: Quartz, Feldspars and Hornblendes  Accessory Minerals: Pyroxenes and Biotites  Uses: Decorative stones, scouring stones and abrasives, ornamental stone Rhyolite is an aphanitic volcanic rock with the equivalent mineralogical composition of granite . Rhyolite contains less than 5% phenocrysts, or mineral grains visible without magnification. The rest of the more than 95% of the rock consists of a ground mass too fine to discern without magnification. This texture is the result of the rapid cooling of extruded lava , which does not allow sufficient time for larger crystals to grow. COMPOSITION The mineralogical composition of rhyolite is defined as containing mostly quartz and feldspar with a total silica content of more than 68%. Quartz in rhyolite may be as low as 10% but is usually present in amounts of 25% to 30%. Feldspars often comprise 50% to 70% of rhyolite, with potassium feldspar present in at least twice the amount of plagioclase feldspar. Ferromagnesian, or dark minerals are rare as phenocrysts, being mostly biotite when present. Trace accessory minerals may also include muscovite, pyroxenes, amphiboles, and oxides. STRUCTURE  Vesicles or amygdules may be present.  May contain spherulites which are spherical bodies, often coalescing, comprising radial aggregates of needles, usually of quartz or feldspar. Spherulites are generally less than 0,5 cm in diameter, but they may reach a meter or more across. They form by very rapid growth in quickly cooling magma, and the crystallization of glass. Eruptions of rhyolite can be highly explosive due to the spontaneous release of large amounts of trapped gases. This accounts for some of the very quickly cooled textural variations of rhyolite. For example, obsidian is a pure volcanic glass of rhyolitic composition and pumice is rhyolite glass that has cooled in the form of gas bubbles TEXTURE Rhyolite often appears very uniform in texture, although lava flow structures may be evident. They range in color from white to gray to pink. Due to the fine grained nature, the differentiation of rhyolite from aphanitic rocks of differing composition is not always conclusive based on color alone, but any light colored volcanic aphanitic rock is likely to be a rhyolite.The high silica content of rhyolite creates a high viscosity lava, or one that is strongly resistant to flow. The viscous lava tends to build up volcanic gases instead of allowing them to escape.
Prepared by: GROUP II Arafag, Arnel Baňez, Russel Dumanas, Agot Fag-ayan, Arthur Songga-ab, Michellene Kaye Suni, Javar Ulep, Jasper Roman

RHYOLITES AND PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS
 Aphanitic ◦ Texture that consists of a mosaic of crystals too small to be seen without magnification; may be cryptocrystalline or microcrystalline. Porphyritic ◦ Inequigranular magmatic texture made of two grain sizes; more or less euhedral larger crystals (phenocrysts), are imbedded in a finer grained or glassy matrix

TYPES 1. Obsidian In general, the slower a magma cools the larger the crystal size. Although crystals in rhyolites are usually hard to see, they are there, but as microscopic crystals often surrounded by a glassy matrix. If the lava fails to form crystals and is essentially all glass, then it is more correctly called an obsidian. Obsidian is usually an extrusive rock - one that solidifies above Earth's surface. However, it can form in a variety of cooling environments: along the edges of a lava flow (extrusive)  around the edges of a sill or a dike (intrusive)  where lava contacs water (extrusive)  where lava cools while airborne (extrusive) 2. Pumice At times some crystals can grow large enough to be seen so the texture is porphyritic. Porphyritic texture means that there are larger crystals surrounded by a fine grained or glassy matrix. Sometimes there are rounded sphericules of quartz or feldspar in the matrix. If the rock contains numerous holes or vesicules, then the rhyolite is called pumice. Huge quantities of silicic pumice have been deposited in intra-oceanic convergent margin settings throughout Earth's history. The association of submarine silicic calderas with thick proximal accumulations of pumice lapilli suggests that these pyroclasts were deposited as a direct result of submarine eruptions. Yet when first erupted, these highly vesicular, gas-filled clasts had densities significantly less than seawater. PETROGENESIS Rhyolite is found in volcanic arcs where crustal rocks have been subducted under continental crust and melted into a lighter magma rich in silica. Rhyolite contains over 70% silica or SiO2. This high silica content gives the rock its general light color, low density and a high viscosity to the lava. Viscosity is a measure of how resistant to flow a liquid is. The higher the viscosity, the slower and more "thick" the lava is. Rhyolitic lavas are often more explosive and slower moving than the less viscous basaltic lavas such as those that erupt on the island of Hawaii. Rhyolite often is found with flow banding "frozen" into the rock.

Prepared by: GROUP II Arafag, Arnel Baňez, Russel Dumanas, Agot Fag-ayan, Arthur Songga-ab, Michellene Kaye Suni, Javar Ulep, Jasper Roman

RHYOLITES AND PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS
PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS

Pyroclastic rocks or deposits are the products of volcanic explosions; that is, they are fragmental pieces of rock, whether they are minerals, crystals, of glass, ejected from the vent. TYPES 1. Pyroclastic Fall Deposits These are deposits which have traveled through air as some kind of projectile during a volcanic eruption. All materials which have traveled through air are collectively referred to as tephra. Tephra is the main product of many volcanoes. Tephra is classified according to size and in some instances, shape. >32mm >4mm>0.32mm <4mm>0.25mm <0.025mm Blocks,bombs Lapilli, pumice,scoria, etc Ash Fine ash, dust

Pyroclastic fall deposits usually have good sorting and cover vast areas.

Prepared by: GROUP II Arafag, Arnel Baňez, Russel Dumanas, Agot Fag-ayan, Arthur Songga-ab, Michellene Kaye Suni, Javar Ulep, Jasper Roman

RHYOLITES AND PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS
2. Pyroclastic Flow Deposits Majority of these deposits form when hot fragmenting material made buoyant by hot gas begins to flow as a fluid. Pyroclastic flow deposits are commonly poorly sorted and sometimes welded.

STRUCTURES 1. Pyroclastic Fall Deposits Structure The deposits of pyroclastic falls follow a well sorted and well bedded trend. They exhibit mantle bedding or the deposits overlie pre-existing topography and maintain a uniform thickness over relatively short distances. Sorting by size is more noticeable than pyroclastic flows. 2. Pyroclastic Flow Deposits Structure The volumes range from a few hundred cubic meters to more than a thousand cubic kilometers. Most pyroclastic flows are around one to ten cubic kilometers and travel for several kilometers. Flows usually consist of two parts: the basal flow, which hugs the ground and contains larger, coarse boulders and rock fragments, while an extremely hot ash plume lofts above it. PETROGENESIS Pyroclastics form by the expansion of gas contained in the parent magma. This may occur when the rising magma comes into contact with ground water. Pyroclastics may also form when lava flows into the sea, or even a lake. On such occasions, the products are usually cross bedded breccias. Submarine eruptions also produce pyroclastics, however, the hydrostatic pressure at extreme depths prevents explosions, limiting the production of pyroclastics to shallow depths. Rocks formed from this type of eruption include pumice and hyaloclastites. EXAMPLES 1. Ignimbrite - Made of very poorly sorted mixture of volcanic ash and pumice lapilli, commonly with scattered lithic fragments. - Ash is composed of glass shards and crystal fragments. - May be a loose and unconsolidated rock, or a lithified (solidified) rock. - May be white, grey, pink, beige, brown, or black depending on their composition and density. - Originates from explosive eruptions caused by vigorous exsolution of magmatic gases.
Prepared by: GROUP II Arafag, Arnel Baňez, Russel Dumanas, Agot Fag-ayan, Arthur Songga-ab, Michellene Kaye Suni, Javar Ulep, Jasper Roman

RHYOLITES AND PYROCLASTIC DEPOSITS
2. Pumice - Consists of highly vesicular volcanic glass, which may or may not contain crystals. - Typically light colored. - Created when super-heated, highly pressurized rock is violently ejected form a volcano. - Alternatively it can be formed when lava and water are mixed. - Floats on water. - Composed of highly microvesicular glass pyroclastic with very thin, translucent bubble walls of extrusive igneous rock. 3. Hyaloclastite - Hydrated tuff-like breccias rich in black volcanic glass. - Formed during volcanic eruptions underwater, under ice, or where sub aerial flows reach the sea or other bodies of water. - Has the appearance of angular flat fragments. - Usually found at subglacial volcanoes.

Prepared by: GROUP II Arafag, Arnel Baňez, Russel Dumanas, Agot Fag-ayan, Arthur Songga-ab, Michellene Kaye Suni, Javar Ulep, Jasper Roman