Remedies for whistle blowers in Zimbabwe are few and far between whistle blowers` hotline named “ tip

offs anonymous” exists and is hosted by Deltoids and Touch. Hotlines carry with them the disadvantage that the issues involved in whistle blowing are kept secret, not withstanding the fact that such issues are in the public interest. Write a critique of whistleblower hotlines and explore the possibility for their wider and use in Zimbabwe of digit able media such as whistle blowers, websites, face books, twitter, web press whistle blower cares. In key whistle blowers cases in Zimbabwe newspapers and national media have general failed whistle blowers in their attempt to bring matter of ethical concern to public matters. As part of your submissions you may wish to create one or two specimen entries for a whistle blower website Zimbabwe.

External whistle blowing occurs when this is done by the organisation to outside party or organisation. to forestall it or prevent its recurrence. The other employees might be defrauding the organisation through malpractices such as thefts of stocks . . So the reports should go to the relevant level such as the executives of the organisation (Asare.. T.. who normally had inform others when a crime has been committed. the issues will barred from reaching the relevant levels. 2004). T. The term whistleblower originated from the practice of English police officers. A person who reveals wrong doing within an organization to the public or to those in positions of authority is refereed as a whistle blower.. 2004). . punish the guilty people or the organisations (Asare. 2004)..assets and overstating the expenses such as transport or travel and subsistence claims or even claiming expenses not due to them(Asare. This type of whistle blowing is referred as internal whistle blowing. Malpractice The malpractice can be perpetrated against the organisation. The whistle would alert other law enforcement officers and the general public of danger. the local community and customers (Asare.. The other organisation might be defrauded by another organisation such as an organisation registered for the purposes of committing fraud (Asare. They should expose all malpractices that may either be illegal or immoral. 2004).Introduction Whistle blowing is regarded as a duty of employees to the business. The exposure of these malpractices should be done to the top level of the organisation so that they will address the issues and stop the corrupt activities.. T. The public might be exposed to hazardous pollution or being sold the unsafe goods. T. . or both. If the issues have been reported to the irrelevant level. The whistle blower is referred as the informer (Asare. 2004). T. T. Employees need to be of utmost good faith to the organisation they work for. The aim of the whistle blower is to correct the anomaly. 2004). permit the affected to be compensated.

. Organizations’ often face significant challenges in their efforts to promote whistle-blowing internally. The disposal will be toxic to the organisms living under water (Asare.. T. which attempts to weigh the disclosure of wrongdoings against the option to remain silent. 2004). . R. received death threats. There is also the dilemma of whistle-blowing. When the malpractice is of an external nature. T. Cultural norms. They could be singled out and considered as threats to the organization (Adam. Whistle-blowing designates employees’ decision to disclose unethical. the hotlines needs to be directed towards the police. can refrain from blowing the whistle for various reasons.. R. Legislations to protect whistle- . transferred to undesirable locations. 2004). media. listed for redundancy. R. . 2004). T. Employees fail to speak out against others in the organization for fear of being perceived as violating confidentiality and loyalty (Adam. may influence employees. and even murdered(Adam. Whistle-blowing has become an increasingly important tool worldwide to combat corruption and corporate misconduct (Asare. They were a public outcry and the ministry of national parks and wild life usually will take a leading role so that they protect the fish in the lake. physically abused. regulatory bodies (Asare.. in particular. resulting in divided employees’ loyalties among family. 2004). authority and the organization.It is mainly to ensure that the event gets attention such as the disposal of raw sewerage in Lake Chivero. . 2004).. media or regulatory bodies). 2004). They could as well face retaliation of being fired. 2004).. immoral or illegal action at work to an authority figure (supervisor. Impediments to Whistle-blowing Employees. T.. for example. (Asare.The hotlines should be directed to the relevant levels.

. the idea of seeking fame and glory may be less commonly believed(Adam. In nearly all organisations fraud represents a significant threat to the organizational coffers. In several cases the whistle blower ends up be liked to the case which now promotes the whistle blowers to remain anonymous. 2005) Hotlines repeatedly have proven their ability to detect and deter illegal behaviour in Zimbabwe. R. costing them an average of US $1. 2004). 2004). R. This prohibits you to go out to the public when there are ethical issues which need to be disclosed. The hotlines for whistle blowing have failed in most organizations because you are made to sign the oath of secrecy when you join the organization (Adam.blowers are essential to encourage reporting of corporate misconduct (Adam. fear of losing their relationships at work and outside work. R. What has remained very complex in Zimbabwe is the rewarding system of the whistle blowers. Some whistle blowers have ended up being locked up because they is no regulation which promotes whistle blowers.. So the issue of hotlines in Zimbabwe always fails to work as long as they are directed to the pertrators. . R. People in Zimbabwe do not use the hotlines greatly for blow the whistle because of fear of retaliation. 2004) Wwhistleblower hotline as a powerful tool to fight against fraud. The police have even given the public the suggestion box or even the hotlines specifically for reporting the frauds in the country.. 2004). In most cases the high ranking people will always try to put the issues under the carpet (Adam.. The employees in Zimbabwean organizations would be forced to follow the internal reporting channels. Nearly half of all companies worldwide have been victims of economic crime in the past two years.7 million (pricewaterhouse. Because the majority of cases are very low-profile and receive little or no media attention and because whistleblowers who do report significant misconduct are usually put in some form of danger or persecution.

fraud losses are reduced by nearly 60 percent when a hotline is present. During the past decade most organisations have been overpricing their goods and services. Promotions of hotlines in Zimbabwe Organizations in Zimbabwe needs to established an all day external telephone hotline. Organisations should consider outsourcing the services and may give whistle blowers a greater sense of security and confidentiality so that he could divulge all the unethical practices that will be happening with the community or the . While only 20 percent would write an anonymous letter. The problem in Zimbabwe is that they are no several options for reporting frauds to accommodate individual preferences. This has seen the wholesalers such as Muhammed Musa being arrested by the policy for hording goods and not banking the cash resources which were scarce. In Zimbabwe internet has become a more used tool to report frauds. telephones and internet was done. according to a 2002 study sponsored by Ernst & Young (LLP) Lower Layer Protocol . making tips the No. fraud is discovered via tips 40 percent of the time. Anonymous reporting One in five American workers possess personal knowledge of workplace fraud. accounting for 24 percent of discoveries. Internal audit procedures. In fact.According to the ACFE's 2004 Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse. 57 percent of respondents stated they would use a telephone hotline to report unethical conduct not conforming to professional ethics. A lot of whistle blowing through suggestion boxes. Telephones has been widely used in Zimbabwe because of their essay access. and just 16 percent would use an anonymous Web site. 1 method of fraud detection. In fact. One possible explanation for the desire to remain anonymous is the fear of retaliation The Ernst & Young survey highlights employees' preference for telephone hotlines as a whistle blowing tool. on the other hand. were the second most common method of fraud detection. and 39 percent are more likely to report fraud if they could remain anonymous.

such as the telephone or Web.organisation. Hotline best practice IN Zimbabwe we need to adopt the recommendations of the American Institute of certified Public Accountants (AICPA) which recommended that all organisations should seriously consider establishing a whistleblower hotline so as to realise the benefits of whistle blowing (www. well-communicated feedback channels. vendors.org). According to 2005 research by The Network Inc. Others operate their own internal hotline. KPMG an auditing firms should ensure that firms in Zimbabwe adopts the recommendations of AICPA( www.org) .aicpa. contractors.aicpa. After the business hours the lines goes to the voice mail which will not be ideal for whistle blowing. .org).. A common example is at Telone Pvt (Ltd) where a member of the society sees a cable for telephone line being stolen at night. a workplace reporting services firm. Use dedicated. Among the AICPA's suggestions are some practical ideas for implementing and maintaining an effective whistleblower hotline program which are : (a) Cultivate a vigorous whistleblower program. to provide a confidential way for employees. and other stakeholders who should report issues from every organization location. It is mainly the whistle blowers should be able to access your hotline at what ever time convenient to them. nearly 50 percent of all hotline calls are made at night or on weekends.aicpa. which is answered by one or more persons during regular or extended business hours. The individual should immediately for the security at Telone on the hotline for the security or the hotline for the police. So in Zimbabwe organisations such as deltoids and touch. and these calls deserve the same treatment as contact made during the day. These stakeholders should speed up the progress reports and the distribution of all cases to the responsible authorities within the hierarchy of the organisation and lastly they need to audit the design and the effectiveness of this internal control on a regular basis (www. Organizations in Zimbabwe that choose to operate an internal hotline during business hours should adopt a hybrid approach and outsource the after-hours component.

2002). such as hotlines and mailboxes Clear communications about the process of voicing concerns. who are trained continuously in creating an opendoor policy regarding employee complaints (Alexander Hamilton Institute. starting with the CEO. newsletters. Top management should make every effort to talk about the commitment to ethical behavior in memos. and speeches to company personnel (Alexander Hamilton Institute.2002). employees can be held accountable not only for meeting their goals and objectives but also for doing so in accordance with the stated values or business standards of the company (Alexander Hamilton Institute. it is important that employees hear about the policy regularly (Alexander Hamilton Institute.2002). Publicly acknowledging and rewarding employees who pinpoint ethical issues is one way to send the message that management is serious about addressing issues before they become endemic(Alexander Hamilton Institute. such as an ombudsman or a human resources professional (Alexander Hamilton Institute. or the identification of a specific person in the organization.2002). Publicize the Organization's Commitment. such as a specific chain of command. Get Endorsement from Top Management Top management.2002) Formal mechanisms for reporting violations. should demonstrate a strong commitment to encouraging whistle blowing through whistle blowing (Alexander Hamilton Institute.2002) Clear communications about bans on retaliation (Alexander Hamilton Institute. a clear connection should exist between an organization's code of ethics and performance measures. For example.(b) Creating a Whistle blowing Culture Create a Policy A policy about reporting illegal or unethical practices should include (Alexander Hamilton Institute.2002) In addition. in the performance review process. Investigate and Follow Up . This message must be communicated by line managers at all levels. To create a culture of openness and honesty.2002).2002).

it can be incomplete or disorganized (Asare T. or caller identification would be recognized.2004). Inaction is the best way to create cynicism about the seriousness of an organization's ethics policy (Alexander Hamilton Institute.2002). The interviewer should have specialized training to help callers remain calm. Some questions are: Do you believe unethical issues are tolerated here? Do you know how to report an ethical issue? (c)Staff the hotline with trained interviewers Internal auditors will receive better information if a trained interviewer is available to ask the right questions any time of day or night. (d) Avoid the use of voice mail In Zimbabwe whistle blowers are concerned of possible retaliation from the managers or perpetrators so to leave their messages on the answering machine will cost their life. 2004) .2002). at IBM. or who might receive that message. cover all aspects of the topic thoroughly. In many cases.2002). A sample of people’s voice to be used for voice recognition or security systems.2002).Managers should be required to investigate all allegations promptly and thoroughly. For example. and report the origins and the results of the investigation to a higher authority (Alexander Hamilton Institute. individuals who call fraud hotlines are anxious maybe even somewhat reluctant to offer details and may provide information in a disjointed manner. Find out employees' opinions about the organization's culture vis-à-vis its commitment to ethics and values (Alexander Hamilton Institute. If a message is left. For example. Assess the Organization's Internal Whistle blowing System. The interviewers should pay attention to detail and ensure that they is a standard way of reporting (Asare T .2002). Sears conducts an annual employee survey related to ethics (Alexander Hamilton Institute. a long-standing open-door policy requires that any complaint received must be investigated within a certain number of hours (Alexander Hamilton Institute.

Face to face conversations or live hotline interviews generate more detailed information than one-way communication. If its internet the email tracking system should not be used as this will violate the whistle blower’s rights. roughly 70 percent of anonymous callers never call back. 2005). The unique number or password enables the person to call back to offer additional information while maintaining anonymity. 2005).Moreover. This gives investigators a chance to review information and come up with additional questions to be asked (Pricewaterhouse-Coopers. . so it's crucial that the initial report be as detailed as possible. according to 2005 research by The Network. Ensure the numbers of the whistle blowers are kept private and confidential. anonymous messages left on voice mail leave investigators without the opportunity to gain additional information from the caller (Asare T. (e) Nurture an ongoing dialogue Assign a unique identification number or password to each anonymous caller and direct individuals to call back within a predetermined time. Unfortunately. It is crucial because many people receive unclear e-mails. (f) Protect confidentiality. If the whistle blower calls back he will provides additional information and this process is helpful as it will clarify grey areas as the wheel unfolds (Pricewaterhouse-Coopers. The organisations need to create venues for interactive communication mostly with the anonymous parties. 2004. The power of a hotline lies in its ability to open the lines of communication. At any time these numbers should be kept private and not to reflect on the telephone handsets or base stations of the called party. those that done quickly to be accurate or confusing and even misleading the organisation.

To improve the quality of information received. 2005). according to the Ethics Resource Centre’s National Business Ethics business ethics. to broader social Survey (NBES NBES Narrow Beam Echo Sounder ) of 2003. But the presence of a hotline in conjunction with a well-communicated.The ability to clarify information becomes critical for the auditors attempting to investigate an allegation The assertion. everyone conducting interviews should use an interview process that is standardized sufficiently to cover key information consistently (Pricewaterhouse-Coopers. The NBES found a strong correlation between reporting misconduct and ethics communication programs. such as a company's obligation to be honest with its customers. ETHICS COMMUNICATION There is no question that the tips received via a hotline can help auditors detect fraud within an organization. declaration. If the allegations in a plaintiff's complaint are insufficient to establish that the person's legal rights have been violated. interviewers also should have supporting technology to assist in tracking the information reported and pointing out any need for clarification. Creating awareness of workplace ethics diminishes fraudulent activity. the study and evaluation of decision making by businesses according to moral concepts and judgments. 2005). The best campaigns discuss the importance of ethical behaviours and use a positive tone to help . the defendant can make a vague or conflicting information received from an anonymous party can lead to frustration for auditors. The hotline process should avoid this situation through a two-pronged approach of getting detailed information from anonymous parties and establishing a mechanism for ongoing dialogue (PricewaterhouseCoopers. setting out what he or she expects to prove (Pricewaterhouse-Coopers. Ideally. visible ethics campaign can also act as a significant fraud deterrent. . narrowly defined issues. Ethical questions range from practical. claim. or statement of a party to an action. 2005).

This communication should be directed toward suppliers as well as employees. because it can help employees take hold of the information quickly. Keeping messages simple is also critical for success. Hotline communication also should discuss the types of behaviours that are expected. Beyond reaching the right people. Constance E.1991). Constance E. just as internal employees report issues like expense report abuse. Another lesson to be learned from advertising is to incorporate multiple media for sending messages about ethical behaviour. This is imperative because. By providing real-world. it is hardly surprising they do not recall what they heard six months ago. and people will not remember the hotline unless they hear about it more than once a year. easily understood examples that illustrate expectations. This point is best illustrated by the world of consumer advertising. Constance E.500 promotional messages daily (Bagley. Repeating hotline information will help keep it fresh in the minds of the intended audience. An ethics program focused on appropriate behaviour also shows employees they are accountable for their actions (Bagley. The purpose and confidential nature of the hotline should always be mentioned. the hotline will work only if people use it. Given the flood of information consumer’s process.employees feel comfortable about reporting unethical behaviour. Like any operational process. doing so with frequency is critical for the success of the hotline as a fraud detection tool(Bagley.1991).1991) The most effective ethics programs plan in advance for both launch and ongoing communication to sustain awareness of ethics and the hotline (Bagley. Constance E. versus those that are not condoned. Constance E.1991). Advertising industry research indicates that consumers are exposed to 1. the employees of vendors have been known to reveal fraud schemes such as deliberate over-billing or requests for kickbacks (Bagley. This will nurture an ethical environment and show honest employees they can help the organization by reporting harmful activities. such as accepting gifts from vendors or awarding business to relatives. . the ethics program will act as a deterrent to unethical or illegal behaviour.1991). such as honesty.

2004). Harvard guidelines. reports of financial irregularities automatically should be sent to internal auditing. Federal Sentencing Guidelines the Federal Sentencing Guidelines are rules that set out a uniform sentencing policy for convicted defendants in the United States federal court system. Report-dissemination procedures should protect employees from retaliation. Ultimately will help internal auditing by generating hotline tips. procedures can be put in place to route reports automatically to multiple recipients immediately upon receipt for prompt analysis and action (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. Cardiac profile guidelines. now recommend that organizations provide ethics training at all levels.S. It's important to ensure that ethics training includes a section on coming forward with information about unethical behaviour. The Guidelines are the product of the United States Sentencing Commission and are part of an overall federal sentencing reform. Dual dissemination simply involves having an appropriate official in addition to the investigative authority receive copies of all hotline reports as a secondary layer of dissemination (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. 2004). 2004). is . as a secondary tier. The U. See Cancer screening guidelines. 2004). which were strengthened in 2004. To ensure tips reach the appropriate individuals timely. 2004). For example. Dissemination procedures Once a tip is received via an anonymous hotline.Employee ethics training can also help strengthen hotline effectiveness. Transfusion guidelines. Complying with this voluntary guideline Medtalk a series of recommendations by a body of experts in a particular discipline. while safeguarding internal auditors from accusations of improper handling of the investigation (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. Dual dissemination practices offer a helpful method for ensuring that complaints don't get overlooked (Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. the audit committee. Gatekeeper guidelines. it must be handled discreetly and in accordance with established procedures ( Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. Sending all reports to an ethics officer. and potentially an external investigator.

Michael. stun: was devastated by the rude remark. When doing so. Michael. W. Robert E. 1995). with fraud prevention in mind as a deliverable.org) Undoubtedly. This ensures every allegation will receive the attention it deserves through review by multiple individuals. To return in thought or discourse. it's important to prioritize To arrange or deal with in order of importance (Hoffman. appropriate officers should be alerted immediately to catch the culprit during the act. such as threats of violence. . 1995). Given the potential for confusion and the risk associated with errors. W. organizations should consider accelerated notification procedures. Getting results Virtually all organizations are vulnerable to fraudulent activity. Key parties should have a shared understanding of how such a situation will be handled. and Frederick. and the losses associated with fraud can be devastating: To overwhelm.org).slovin@theiia. it is a better practice to have multiple individuals look at all reports than try to reroute them on a case-by-case basis( dave. face to face conversations and other interactive methods of collecting feedback are best( Hoffman. Dual dissemination can also act as a protective device in cases where the accused party oversees the review of fraud allegations. confidential reporting mechanism that yields effective results (slovin@theiia. For time-sensitive issues. Fraud likely to occur again within the next 24 hours. confound. and Frederick. The group responsible for implementing the hotline must agree on a list of critical topics that require immediate notification 24 hours a day. Robert E. This safeguard not only helps internal auditing. but also protects the organization from potential criticism that the reporting system is vulnerable to interference from top executives. every organization can implement a robust. . The good news is that there are many steps internal auditors can take to curb these losses. By following best practices.another option. However. some organizations may opt to broaden the whistleblower program to include alternative reporting mechanisms such as Websites.

an employee who does not take the time to choose the right category may submit a report about financial irregularities under "Employee Relations. W." As a result. set up. When examining a Web option as a reporting mechanism. or shape with a view to specific applications or uses: correctly. Because the medium is geared toward brief. and Frederick. 1995). W. In fact.One-way communication below interactive methods to ensure that the organization receives feedback via its preferred methods ( Hoffman. Remember. make sure it such that the web reporting form has sufficient structure to deliver specific results. like location information. If the field is critical for the investigation. and Frederick. Robert E. For example. . This not only wastes the time of those who receive the report. internal auditing and the audit committee may not receive timely notice of an issue related to Sarbanes-Oxley compliance. Michael. basic location information needs to be collected. but also delays the investigation. Another issue to consider is the possibility that the individual reporting a concern will select the wrong category of concern. Michael. 1995). general information about a fraud scheme is useless if you have no idea where or whom to investigate. but also must collect specifics that will help the agency understand and manage the response. Still. Assigning an appropriate category can be more complex than it might seem. Web forms are inherently flawed. This categorization may determine the report recipients. Web forms may offer some benefit if configured well. this can be devastating. To design. Robert E. arrange. instant communication ( Hoffman. given the likelihood that the agency operates facilities in multiple locations. For example. One inherent weakness of Web reporting is the ability to "fool" the system by entering gibberish into a field. A Web form must offer free-form areas for providing a narrative.

1999. (page 7). 2005. New York: McGraw-Hill. R. . (8)Alexander Hamilton Institute.. and Frederick. Jack N. “Enron to Parmalat”. Eds. Whistleblowing: A New Perspective on an Old Issue. 1988. Business Ethics: Readings in Corporate Morality. (6)PricewaterhouseCoopers's (PwC) and Martin-Luther University. Essays on Ethics in Business and the Professions Englewood Cliffs.References (1) Adam. 2004. N. W. (9)Bagley. www. New Jersey. (4) Corporate Fraud policy. (11) Hoffman.. Halle-Wittenberg...J.2004. (7)Pricewaterhouse-Coopers' Global Economic Crime Survey 2005. T. 1995.: Prentice-Hall. “Global Economic Crime Survey”. Paul. “Report to the Nation on Occupational Fraud and Abuse”.acfe. Minn.com ( 5)Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (10) Behrman.: West Publishing Co. 2004. ACCA Ghana Branch Centenary Celebration Symposium (3) Association of Certified Fraud Examiners. Managers and the Legal Environment: Strategies for the 21st Century. Constance E. “Business Ethics and Fraud”. Michael. 2002. International Herald Tribune ( 2) Asare. “Principles of Corporate Governance”. Robert E. St..1991. Germany.

1992.. Whistleblowing at Work: Tough Choices in Exposing Fraud. and Nelson. ed.(12)Miceli. Martin's Press. Albert. New York: Lexington Books. eds. Boulder.: Westview Press.. Colo. Marcia P. and Near. Whistle Blowing: The Report of the Conference on Professional Responsibility. Terance D. New York: Grossman. Peter J. 1981.. Kurtz. Janet P. New York: McGraw-Hill. Linda K. Alan F. and Robbins. (14) Nader. Henry I.slovin@theiia. (17)Westin. Waste and Abuse on the Job. Gerald. New York: John Wiley and Sons. and Blackwell. 1972. Whistleblowing: (18)Loyalty and Dissent in the Corporation. Blowing The Whistle: The Organizational and Legal Implications for Companies and Employees. Kate. (13) Miethe. (19)Lilanthi Ravishankar is a researcher for the Business and Organizational Ethics Partnership( 2003)This report was prepared for the partnership.. Whistleblowing: Subversion or Corporate Citizenship? New York: St.org) . (15)Trevino. (16)Vinten. Petkas. 1999. Katherine A. Managing Business Ethics: Straight Talk About How to Do It Right. 1994. (20) dave. Ralph. 1999.

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