BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING

1

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING
I. INTRODUCTION A. Classification of Relays B. Philosophy of Protection C. Operating Principles 1. Electromechanical Relays 2. Static and Digital Relays DIFFERENTIAL RELAY PROTECTION A. Transformer Protection B. Bus Protection III. LINE PROTECTION A. Distance Protection B. Ground Protection IV. Breaker Failure Protection V. Auto Reclosing

II.

2

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING
I. INTRODUCTION
Relays are compact analog, digital, and numerical devices that are connected throughout the power system to detect intolerable or unwanted conditions within an assigned area. They are, in effect, a form of active insurance designed to maintain a high degree of service continuity and limit equipment damage. They are “Silent Sentinels”.

3

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING
(I. INTRODUCTION)

A. CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS
1. Protective Relays 2. Monitoring Relays 3. Reclosing Relays 4. Regulating Relays 5. Auxillary Relays 6. Synchronizing Relays

4

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING
(I. INTRODUCTION)

A. CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS
1. PROTECTIVE RELAYS Detect defective lines, defective apparatus, or other dangerous or intolerable conditions. These relays generally trip one or more circuit breakers, but may also be used to sound an alarm 2. VERIFICATION OR MONITORING RELAYS One whose functions is to verify power system conditions with respect to prescribed limits and to initiate or permit automatic functions other than opening a circuit breaker during fault conditions. These relays includes fault detectors, alarm units, channel-monitoring relays, synchronism verification, and network phasing.
5

INTRODUCTION) A. Regulating relays function through supplementary equipment to restore the quantity to the prescribed limits. CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS 3. RECLOSING RELAYS Establish reclosing sequence for a circuit breaker following tripping by protective relays.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. Ex: OFR. UFR 6 . REGULATING RELAYS Are activated when an operating parameter deviates from predetermined limits. 4.

Ex: Synchrocheck relay 7 . 6. SYNCHRONIZING RELAYS Assure that proper conditions exist for interconnecting two sections of a power system.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. sealing units. isolating relays. AUXILLARY RELAYS Operates in response to the opening or closing of the operating circuit to supplement or assist another relay or device. contacts-multiplier relays. INTRODUCTION) A. closing relays and trip relays. lockout relays. CLASSIFICATION OF RELAYS 5. These include timers.

INTRODUCTION) B. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Branch of electric power engineering concerned with the principles of design and operation of equipment (called “relays” or “protective relays”) which detect abnormal power system conditions.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. 8 . and initiate corrective action as quickly as possible in order to return the power system to its normal state.

INTRODUCTION) B.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION A CRUDE ANALOGY   Relays are the Brains of the Fault Clearance System Breakers are the Muscles 9 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING WHAT PROTECTIVE RELAYS DO • • • • Continuously monitor the power system Respond to abnormal conditions Prevents equipment damage Minimizes service interruption 10 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING HI-SPEED CLEARING OF FAULTS • • • MINIMIZES DAMAGE MINIMIZES EFFECT ON SYSTEM OPERATION MAXIMUM POWER TRANSFER 11 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING PURPOSES OF PROTECTIVE RELAY • To prevent of limit damage to apparatus and all other components of a transmission and distribution system. • To isolate the affected part from the remainder of the power system. 12 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING THREE MEMBERS OF PROTECTION • • • SENSOR .Feeds system information to the relay • • Ex: CT. PT Ex: OCR. Distance/Differential/Voltage relays RELAY – makes a decision as to the need for action SWITCHING OR CONTROLLING DEVICE – physically isolates or control the problem • Ex: Circuit Breaker 13 .

PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Fault Clearance System CIRCUIT BREAKER Current transformer PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Voltage transformer Trip Coil Circuit Breaker Mechanism TELECOM DC-system 14 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. INTRODUCTION) B.

INTRODUCTION) B. 5A. i. no signal sent. 15 . PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Functional Diagram of Relaying Decides whether system quantities are normal or abnormal Power System Voltage and Current Transformer Circuit Breaker Relay These devices change electrical quantities to level relay can use. 115V *If quantities are normal. *If quantities are abnormal signal is sent to breaker to open.e.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I.

INTRODUCTION) B.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Electrical Diagram of Relaying Circuit Breaker Current Transformer Protected Device Power System Conductor Trip Coil Relay Operating Coil Station Battery Relay Contacts 16 .

INTRODUCTION) B. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION DESIGN CRITERIA Reliability Security Relays must never misinterpret normal currents and voltages as conditions which require tripping Dependability Relays must detect designated abnormal system conditions on the power system Economy The cost of the relay system should be as low as possible Speed Relay systems should operate as quickly as possible in order to minimize the duration of system disturbances Selectivity Relay systems should only trip as much of the system as necessary to de-energize distressed components It is not possible to build a system which will never fail.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. 17 .

Loss of Dependability  relay R1 does not operate on this fault 2. INTRODUCTION) B.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. Loss of Security  relay R5 operates through breaker B5 for the same fault before breaker B2 clears the fault 18 . PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Reliability of Protection System Example : R3 R1 x R2 R5 B3 B1 F B4 B2 R4 B5 1.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING GENERAL CLASSIFICATION OF RELAY OPERATION • • • • Correct and Desired Correct but undesired Incorrect Tripping Failure to trip 19 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING CAUSES OF INCORRECT RELAY OPERATION • • • • Poor application Incorrect setting Personnel error Equipment malfunction 20 .

INTRODUCTION) B. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION ZONES OF PROTECTION    usually associated with major system components usually delimited by circuit breakers must overlap to prevent any system component from being unprotected 21 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. INTRODUCTION) B. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION ZONES OF PROTECTIONS G Generator Protection Low Voltage Switchgear Protection Power Transformer Protection High Voltage Switchgear Protection Transmission Line Protection High Voltage Switchgear Protection M Motor Protection 22 .

connections and ratios Impedance of the lines and transformers 23 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING INFO NECESSARY FOR RELAY APPLICATION • • • • • • • • • System Configuration Existing system protection and difficulties Degree of protection required Existing preferences. operating procedures and practices Possible future expansion Fault study Maximum load and current transformer ratios Potential transformer locations.

yea.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING MAJOR COMMANDMENTS FOR AN IDEAL RELAY 1. thou shall make thy tripping decisions in terms of a second split into a hundred parts. Thou shall not trip faults outside thy zone of protection except in back-up assistance to a failing brother. 3. 2. 24 . Thou shall not trip under heavy load conditions even though thy coils do carry much current. Thou shall trip these faults at high speed. Thou shall not trip during power swings. 4. denying always the temping surges of current and voltage. Thou shall trip all faults within thy zone of protection irrespective of changes in generation. 5.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Principle of Overlapping Protection around a Circuit Breaker CT for Zone B ZONE A ZONE B CT for Zone A Dead Tank Breaker and Breakers With Separate Current Transformers on Both Sides of Breakers 25 . INTRODUCTION) B.

INTRODUCTION) B. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Principle of Overlapping Protection around a Circuit Breaker ZONE A ZONE B CT for Zone A CT for Zone B Live Tank Breaker and Breakers With Separate Current Transformers on One Side Only 26 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION PRIMARY PROTECTION    A set of protective functions assigned to a zone Optimum speed and sensitivity Main protective function for the zone 27 . INTRODUCTION) B.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. INTRODUCTION) B. PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION BACKUP PROTECTION    A second set of protective functions assigned to a zone Anticipates failure of primary function May sacrifice speed or sensitivity for economy 28 .

29 . PHILOSOPHY OF PROTECTION Remote Backup: Primary relays for zone which also provide backup protection for an adjacent zone. Local Backup: Use of additional relays on a zone to provide backup protection separate considerations for relay and breaker failure. INTRODUCTION) B.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I.

Static Relay Electromagnetic Attraction Electromagnetic Attraction Induction Induction 30 . Induction Cup 5.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. Induction Disk 4. Relay Operating Principles 1. Hinged Armature 3. Plunger 2. INTRODUCTION) C.

Relay Operating Principles DEFINITIONS Operation Pickup Relay output changes state. Relay operating quantities reduced to below magnitude required to cause operation. Relay operating quantities of sufficient magnitude to cause operation. Relay restored to quiescent (at rest) state.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. INTRODUCTION) C. Reset Dropout - 31 .

Relay Operating Principles DEFINITIONS Relay Contact Sense: Normally open "a" Normally close "b" Defined as the state of the contact with the relay de-energized.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. 32 . INTRODUCTION) C.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. Relay Operating Principles Type of Relays SOLENOID COIL FIXED CONTACT MOVING CONTACT ARMATURE Fig. INTRODUCTION) C. 1 PLUNGER CONSTRUCTION 33 .

Relay Operating Principles Type of Relays MOVING ARMATURE CONTACT FIXED CONTACT ELECTROMAGNET HINGE POINT Fig. 2 HINGED ARMATURE CONSTRUCTION 34 . INTRODUCTION) C.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I.

Relay Operating Principles Type of Relays FIXED CONTACT COIL SHAFT MAGNET MOVING CONTACT DISK SHADING RING Fig.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. 3 SHADED POLE INDUCTION DISK 35 . INTRODUCTION) C.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (I. INTRODUCTION) C. Relay Operating Principles Type of Relays MAGNET UPPER COIL DISK LOWER COILS Fig. 4 WATTMETER INDUCTION DISK 36 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING II. The Differential Concept Reliability Economy Security Speed Selectivity • Desensitize for security • Slowdown for security & selectivity • Increase sensitivity for reliability • and other compromises Differential Protection • Profoundly simple • Inherently secure • Highly reliable • Fast • Reasonably economical 37 Most relays system achieve objectives thru: .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) 87 Identify a PROTECTIVE ZONE  Line  Transformer  Generator  Motor  Bus  Provide CT’s at all terminals of the zone  Interconnect the CT’s appropriately  Install a relay to measure the error current 38 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) 87 For an EXTERNAL fault or through load:  CT’s see identical primary current  Produce similar secondary currents  Secondary currents circulate in CT secondary  No current flows through relay 39 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) 87 For an INTERNAL fault:  CT’s see different primary current  Produce different secondary currents  Secondary currents OPPOSE in CT secondary  Current in relay is the sum of secondary currents 40 .

THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) I1 I2 87 i1 i1-i2 i2 Requirements: • CT at each power connection to the connected zone • All CT’s have same rating • Careful attention to CT connection • Note that differential protection provides only PRIMARY protection cannot provide backup protection for adjacent zones. • Operating quantity is i1-i2 • Provides protection on a “per phase” basis – requires three sets of equipment for three phase protection • Prefer identical (similar) current transformer 41 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II.

Transformer Protection Gas Detection and Analysis Rate of Change of Pressure Current Differential Overcurrent Overexcitation      42 . THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) A.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. Transformer Protection 43 . THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) A.

THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) A.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. Transformer Protection Type 900 Fault Pressure Relay 44 .

there is a magnetizing current inrush which will appear only on the source side. specially low order events. Environmental Harmonics. Transformer Protection Differential Considerations Inrush Current When the transformer is first energized. Op R R Typical Inrush Current Typical Fault Current 20 20 0 0 • • • • Inrush current is rich in harmonics. Harmonic restraint provides relay security.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) A. 45 . CT performance.

THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) B. transmission line and or other circuits are connected through circuit breakers. 46 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. Bus Protection A very important part of the power system at various point along the bus.

T. Bus Protection SIMPLE CURRENT DIFFERENTIAL CIRCUIT CONFIGURATION 300A 1 300A 2 300A 3 5 5 5 300A 4 300A 5 5 5 5 5 5 3A OP. COIL 5 5 3A 3A 3A 3A ZERO AMPS 300A 6 5 3A 5 DIFF RELAY ALL C. RATIOS 100/1 47 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) B.

T. Bus Protection FAULT OUTSIDE THE PROTECTED BUS 3000A 1 3000A 2 3000A 3 5 5 15000A 5 3000A 4 18000A 5 5 5 3000A 5 5 5 5 30A OP. COIL 5 30A 150A 3000A 6 5 5 30A 30A ZERO AMPS 30A DIFF RELAY ALL C. THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) B. RATIOS 100/1 48 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II.

THE DIFFERENTIAL CONCEPT) B. COIL 5 5 30A 30A 3000A 6 5 5 30A 30A 180A 30A DIFF RELAY ALL C.BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (II. RATIOS 100/1 49 .T. Bus Protection FAULT INSIDE THE PROTECTED BUS 3000A 1 3000A 2 3000A 3 18000A 5 5 5 3000A 4 3000A 5 5 5 5 5 5 30A OP.

LINE PROTECTION Distance Relays I Z1 Z2 Z3 V Er Fault Zload Normal Conditions: I= V V Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + Zload Er = and Z2 + Z3 + Zload With Fault: I= Er = V and I Zr = Er V Z1 + Z2 Z2 Z1 + Z2 -1 = Z2 50 Z1 + Z2 + Z3 + Zload -1 Zr = I = Z2 + Z3 + Zload Er .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING III.

LINE PROTECTION) Distance Relays X + load with lagging pf R .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (III.load with leading pf The R-X Diagram the language of relay engineering 51 .

LINE PROTECTION) Distance Relays Transmission Line Applications (First Zone) 21 21 • Provide fault detection for middle section of the line with no intentional delay – for speed • Must under reach end of the line – for selectivity (typically set 80-90% of line impedance) 52 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (III.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (III. LINE PROTECTION) Distance Relays Transmission Line Applications (Second Zone) 21 21 • Provide fault detection in the “end zones” • Must over reach the end of the line – for selectivity (typically set 120% of line impedance) • Ideally will not over reach first zone in adjacent line segments • But must be selective with first zone of adjacent lines 53 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING IV. BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION Local Backup Source of Failure: Backup Remote Backup X X X X Breaker Failure Relay Failure Communication Channel Failure Instrument Transformer Failure Battery Failure Breaker Mechanism Failure Breaker Electrical Failure Wiring Failure. Relay Breaker X X X X X 54 .

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (IV. BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION) Local Backup Primary/Secondary Main B Main A Redundant Relaying Systems       Fully functional – both high speed Complementary technology Different manufacturers Separate current transformers Separate breaker trip coils Separate station batteries 55 .

BREAKER FAILURE PROTECTION) Local Backup Breaker Failure Rs Main B FD Rp Main A Fault Detector: • Must detect any fault which the primary/secondary relays can detect • Usually an instantaneous overcurrent relay 56 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (IV.

Automatic Reclosing  Causes of Most Transmission Line Faults:  Lightning induced flashover  Insulator contamination  Trees or brush growing into the line  Animals and birds  Most (80-90%) of Transmission Line Faults are “nonpersistent” if the fault is de-energized promptly  After the Ionized Air in the Vicinity of the Fault Dissipates the line can be re-energized 57 .BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING V.

BASIC PROTECTIVE RELAYING (V. AUTOMATIC RECLOSING) Single Pole Trip and Reclose: • Trip and reclose only the faulted phase • Applied most often on EHV lines • Greater assurance of successful reclose • Maintain power transfer and synchronism through two healthy phases • Require more complex relaying (phase discrimination) • Require more expensive breakers • Deionization time is considerably longer 58 .

59 .