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Vehicle Service Info
The following publishers have manuals containing diagnostic information for electronic engine control and ignition systems. Contact the publishers for availability and pricing, specifying the make, model and year of your vehicle. Some manuals may be available at auto parts stores or your local public library.

Vehicle Service Manuals
Chilton Book Company Chilton Way Radnor, PA 19089 Cordura Publications Mitchell Manuals, Inc. Post Office Box 26260 San Diego, CA 92126 Haynes Publications 861 Lawrence Drive Newbury Park, CA 91320 Motor’s Auto Repair Manual Hearst Company 250 W. 55th Street New York, NY 10019

Suitable manuals have titles such as: “Electronic Engine Controls” “Fuel Injection and Feedback Carburetors” “Fuel Injection and Electronic Engine Controls” “Emissions Control Manual” ... or similar titles.

Vehicle Service Manuals from General Motors Corporation
Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GEO, GMC, Oldsmobile & Pontiac Helm Incorporated Post Office Box 07130 Detroit, MI 48207 Saturn Adistra Corporation c/o Saturn Publications 101 Union Street

Vehicle Service Manuals from Ford Motor Company (Ford, Lincoln, Mercury)
Ford Publication Dept. Helm Incorporated Post Office Box 07150 Detroit, MI 48207

Vehicle Service Manuals from Toyota, Honda, Nissan
Toyota Motor Corporation Toyota Service Publications 750 W. Victoria Street Compton, CA 90220-5538 Honda Motor Co., Ltd. Helm Incorporated Post Office Box 07280 Detroit, MI 48207 Nissan North America, Inc. Dyment Distribution Service c/o Nissan 20770 Westwood Drive Strongsville, OH 44136

Vehicle Service Manuals from Chrysler Corporation
Chrysler Corporation Dyment Distribution Service Post Office Box 360450 Strongsville, OH 44136

Post Office Box 1000 Plymouth, MI 48170

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Index

Section

Vehicle Service Information ...................... Inside front cover Safety Precautions ............................................................... ii

1 2

Tester Basics ............................................. 1-1 Testing Sensors .......................................... 2-1
• Troubleshooting Tips .......................................... 2-1 • Engine Coolant Temperature .............................. 2-2 • Inlet Air Temperature .......................................... 2-3 • Throttle Position (TP) .......................................... 2-6 • EGR Valve Position (EVP) ................................ 2-14 • Oxygen .............................................................. 2-18 • Engine Knock .................................................... 2-26 • Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP/BARO) ....... 2-28 • Mass Air Flow (MAF) ........................................ 2-34 • Vane Air Flow .................................................... 2-40 • Crankshaft/Camshaft Position .......................... 2-46 Magnetic Reluctance Type ......................... 2-49 Hall Effect or Optical Type .......................... 2-51

3 4

Testing Ignition Modules ............................3-1 More Uses for the Sensor Probe ............... 4-1
• "Circuit Tester" Voltage Check ........................... 4-1 • Continuity Checks ............................................... 4-2 • Diode Check ........................................................ 4-4

i
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Safety First
General Safety Guidelines to Follow When Working on Vehicles
• Always wear approved eye protection • Always operate the vehicle in a well-ventilated area. Do not inhale exhaust gases – they are very poisonous! • Always keep yourself, tools, and test equipment away from all moving or hot engine parts. • Always make sure the vehicle is in Park (automatic transmission) or Neutral (manual transmission) and that the parking brake is firmly set. Block the drive wheels. • Never lay tools on vehicle battery. You may short the terminals together, causing harm to yourself, the tools, or the battery. • Never smoke or have open flames near vehicle. Vapors from fuel or charging batteries are highly flammable and explosive. • Never leave vehicle unattended while running tests. • Always keep a fire extinguisher suitable for all types of fires handy. • Always turn ignition key OFF when connecting or disconnecting electrical components, unless otherwise instructed. • Use shop rags to cover fuel line fittings when connecting or disconnecting fuel lines. Avoid contact with fuel. Dispose of all rags properly. • Clean up all fuel spills immediately. • Keep away from engine cooling fan. On some vehicles, the fan may start up unexpectedly. • You must follow vehicle service manual cautions when working around the air bag system. If the cautions are not followed, the air bag may open unexpectedly, resulting in personal injury. Note that the air bag can still open up several minutes after the ignition key is turned OFF (or even if the battery is disconnected) because of a special energy reserve module. • Always follow vehicle manufacturer’s warnings, cautions, and service procedures.

ii
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6-3

This function is used to test most sensors. Voltage from 9 volt battery supplied to RED test lead. resistance or frequency.com manuals search engine .Measures resistance. 2 FUNCTION Switch Selects the type of signal being measured (for conducting sensor and ignition module tests). 1-1 Downloaded from www. • POWER OFF .Manualslib.Measures voltages. resistance or frequency.Tester powered up for use. RANGE Switch Controls power to the Tester and selects measurement range sensitivity (as required by various sensor tests). • FREQUENCY .Measures frequency signals. Also used for checking continuity and testing diodes (see section 4). • OHMS . Different kinds of signals are used by various sensors.Tester powered up for use. (Peak signal voltage must be at least 3 volts to register. • VOLTS . Selects range for measuring low levels of voltage. • HIGH . Selects range for measuring higher levels of voltage.) Some MAP and MAF sensors send a frequency signal. Mostly used for testing temperature sensors. Voltage from 9 volt battery supplied to RED test lead.Section 1 1 Tester Basics — Description of Controls and Accessories — Installing and Checking the 9 Volt Battery Note: Detailed procedures for testing sensors and ignition modules are located in Section 2 (sensors) and Section 3 (ignition modules). This function is also used to test ignition modules.No power supplied to either the tester or RED test lead. • LOW .

Green . The RICH/LEAN lights work along with the TEST lights and are helpful when testing oxygen sensors. Used when testing ignition modules.Section 1 3 TEST Lights A single TEST light turns on to show the level of a measured signal (voltage. Note that the motion of the light is more important than its actual position. Yellow .The TRIGGER lead. This lead is always used.com manuals search engine . When signal values are low. resistance or frequency). Ignition modules and some sensors require this power for testing. Sensor tests involve working the sensor and watching the TEST light move up. Usually connected to a sensor or ignition module output circuit during testing. Red .Manualslib.this is normal.59 volts. • RICH (red): ON for voltages above 0. The RICH/LEAN lights may be ignored when testing other sensors using the LOW VOLTS range. • LEAN (green): ON for voltages between 0. Black . Signals probed by this lead cause the TEST lights to react. 1-2 Downloaded from www.The COMMON lead. This lead is connected to the 9 volt battery inside the tester whenever the RANGE switch is in the LOW or HIGH positions.1 and 0. Used as a circuit ground or signal reference point for all tests and checks.6 volts. Sends a signal to “fire” the module.The 9V power lead. Usually connected to the module crankshaft/camshaft input circuit.The SIGNAL lead. These lights are active when the tester switches are set to LOW VOLTS only. 4 PULSE Light 5 RICH/ LEAN Lights Used when testing ignition modules. the TEST light is off or near the bottom of the column. The TEST light moves higher up the column as the signal level increases. down or flash. 6 Test Leads Two or more of these are used for the various tests and checks. The PULSE light will flash if the module is good. Note that the PULSE light will also be on (or flash) whenever frequency signals are being measured .

3) DISCONNECT ALL LEADS. • Slide the “scooped” end of adapter next to circuit wire entering rear of connector. 8 9 7 Backprobe Adapter To Sensor Allows test lead to probe sensor circuits when the sensor is connected to vehicle wiring harness. (Slightly twisting adapter while pushing may ease entry) • Grasp open end of adapter with test lead clip.com manuals search engine . • Continue pushing adapter until it touches terminal inside connector. WEAK IF ANOTHER LIGHT IS ON.Manualslib.K. 2) SET FUNCTION TO OHMS.Tester Basics 6 IGNITION MODULE & ENGINE SENSOR TESTER TEST 3 HIGH 1 2 4 SIGNAL LOW POWER OFF RICH Select LOW. To Computer 1-3 Downloaded from www. IF TOPMOST TEST LIGHT IS ON. VOLTS RANGE 5 LEAN VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION PULSE 7 COMMON TRIGGER POWER 9V 9V BATTERY TEST: 1) SET RANGE TO HIGH. Keep pushing on adapter to maintain circuit contact. O. Caution: The “scooped” end of the adapter will break if you bend it.

This is safe to do even if the tester is connected to a circuit. Installing the Battery 1. Attach battery to connector and install inside compartment. If any light below the top TEST light is ON. Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS. 1-4 Downloaded from www.com manuals search engine . Slide the battery compartment door away from the tester to remove. Makes extra connections as required for testing. 2.Section 1 8 Jumper Lead 9 Connector Pin Adapters Tester Basics Used when checking some ignition modules. Sensor Tester Power A 9-volt transistor radio battery must be installed to power the unit. Slide door inwards until it snaps closed. the battery is too weak for reliable testing and should be replaced. firmly press downwards and outwards on the battery compartment door at the bottom of the tester. TIP: To extend battery life. 4. always switch to POWER OFF when not making a measurement.Manualslib. 4. 3. 5. Set RANGE switch to HIGH. Battery is good if the top TEST light is ON. Make sure none of the test leads are connected together or touching anything. Use an alkaline battery (conventional batteries are too weak for ignition module testing). Used for easier attachment of test leads to certain sensor or wiring connector pins. 3. RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 9V HIGH LOW Checking the Battery TEST POWER OFF 1. • Push one end of the adapter onto the desired connector pin. Hold the tester face down with both hands. • Grasp the other end with the test lead clip. 2. Using both thumbs. Replace battery door.

or Vehicle Emission Control Information (VECI) decal located in the engine compartment. – Pinched. cuts or breaks. such as exhaust manifolds. • Inspect the air cleaner and ductwork for defects. • Check electrical connectors for: – Corrosion on pins. – Splits. • Inspect wiring for: – Contact with sharp edges (this happens often). 12RAC8 5 C AA 28 Downloaded from www. Refer to vehicle service manual.S. • Check sensors and actuators for damage. – Bent or damaged pins.com manuals search engine 6D L C2 4 – Contact with hot surfaces. burned or chafed insulation. EM EGR VAC REG FRONT OF CAR – Correct routing. – Bad wire crimps to terminals. or not at all.Manualslib. You can often find the cause of many problems by just looking.A. • Don’t take shortcuts. • Has the vehicle been serviced recently? Sometimes things get reconnected in the wrong place. – Contacts not properly seated in housing. Troubleshooting Tips YST CE BOOSTER HVAC CRUISE • Inspect all vacuum hoses for: BRAKE BOOSTER TO TRANS MODE G GAP U. – Pinches and kinks. 2-1 . EGR VAC REG FUEL PRESS REG.Section 2 Section 2 Testing Sensors Save yourself time! Always begin with a thorough visual and “hands-on” inspection. Inspect hoses and wiring which may be difficult to see due to location. – Proper routing and connections.

This is a 2-wire sensor. Leakage into sensor housing. rough idle. stumble. stalling. fan. knocking (pinging). spark advance. Location The sensor is usually threaded into the engine block. water pump. surging. Poor connections at sensor or computer. The thermistor is mounted inside the tip of a threaded metal housing.a resister whose resistance changes with temperature. and emission device operation (such as an EGR valve). or cylinder head to provide direct contact with coolant. What to Inspect 2-2 Downloaded from www. (Exception: some Chrysler engines have a dual sensor with three wires. Engine running too hot (problems with antifreeze. When to Test • Related trouble codes sent by computer.com manuals search engine Sensor operation (see test on page 2-4).Section 2 Engine TEMPERATURE HIGH SENSOR RESISTANCE LOW Cold Hot Typical Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor TEMPERATURE What is It? The engine temperature sensor is a thermistor . Heavy deposits on sensor tip which can cause poor response. . hesitation. • Driveability problems such as hard starting. thermostat. belts. The hotter the sensor gets. or black exhaust smoke. the lower the resistance becomes.) How is It Used? The computer needs to know engine temperature so it can modify air/fuel ratios. poor fuel economy. lower intake manifold. low engine oil).Manualslib. Faulty sensor wiring (open or short circuits). idle speed.

Heavy deposits on sensor tip which can cause poor response.Manualslib. poor fuel economy. Location The sensor is threaded into the intake manifold. throttle body. The thermistor is mounted inside the tip of a threaded metal housing. Sometimes this sensor is built into a vane airflow meter or mass airflow sensor assembly.Air TEMPERATURE HIGH SENSOR RESISTANCE LOW Cold Hot Typical Air Temperature Sensor TEMPERATURE What is It? The air temperature sensor is a thermistor . belts. rear of air cleaner assembly or elsewhere along the path of air entering the engine.a resister whose resistance changes with temperature. rough idle.com manuals search engine . the computer can provide the proper air/fuel mixture for the desired operating condition. Faulty sensor wiring (open or short circuits). fan. When to Test What to Inspect Sensor operation (see test on page 2-4). water pump. One connector handles both the air flow and temperature sensor circuits. the lower the resistance becomes. Poor connections at sensor or computer. or black exhaust smoke. 2-3 Downloaded from www. How is It Used? The computer needs to know air temperature to calculate the amount of air entering the engine. thermostat. Then. hesitation. stumble. low engine oil). This is a 2-wire sensor. • Driveability problems such as hard starting. Restricted or blocked air passageways. The hotter the sensor gets. surging. • Related trouble codes sent by computer. stalling. Engine running too hot (problems with antifreeze.

Be careful of coolant spillage from mounting hole if removing engine temperature sensor. • YELLOW to either sensor pin. Nissan and Ford engines using vane airflow sensors have the air temperature sensor built into the vane airflow assembly. Refer to page 2-34 for testing.Manualslib. • GM 1988 2.Inspect for damage.Section 2 Testing Sensors Temperature Sensor Test Procedure Use this procedure for testing all engine coolant or inlet air temperature sensors. Yellow Black 2-4 Downloaded from www. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor.com manuals search engine . 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. Allow engine to cool to outside temperature before testing. Use same test procedure as for vane airflow temperature sensor. Exceptions: • Certain Toyota. Work in well ventilated area. 5) Connect test leads. 4) Off-Car testing only: Remove sensor. Observe all safety precautions (see page ii). Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. Warning: On-car testing involves running engine.8L Mass Airflow Sensor (5 pin only) also has a built-in air temperature sensor. • BLACK to remaining sensor pin. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor . Refer to page 2-40 for testing. Sensor may be tested on or off vehicle.

Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. 13) Observe TEST light position for test results.. HIGH LOW Make sure red and green test clips are not touching anything. – (plastic sensor housing) Heat tip with hair dryer.this is OK. • Good Sensor . On-Car test: Start engine and idle at 2000 RPM until upper radiator hose is hot. 9) Note TEST light position on tester..com manuals search engine . Disconnect vehicle wiring harness from sensor and reconnect test leads as before. 8) Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS. 12) On-Car test only: Turn ignition key OFF. 7) Set RANGE switch to HIGH.TEST light position did not change during test. Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type and temperature change.Engine Air TEMPERATURE 6) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other. If the sensor is good.TEST light moved downwards below original position. (TEST light may go off if sensor is very hot . POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 2-5 Downloaded from www.Manualslib. 10) On-Car test only: Disconnect test leads and reconnect sensor to vehicle wiring harness.) The TEST light will move upwards as the sensor cools off.. 14) Testing is complete. 11) Heat sensor tip thoroughly. OR. Off-Car test: – Dip sensor tip into boiling water.. the light will move downwards as the sensor heats up. • Bad Sensor . – (metal sensor housing) Heat tip with flame from candle or cigarette lighter OR.

Manualslib. the element is linked to the throttle so they move together.some with MIN. The voltage signal increases when the throttle opens and operates the sensor element.Section 2 Testing Sensors TYPICAL THROTTLE POSITION SENSORS HIGH What is It? Throttle Position Sensor The throttle position sensor is a VOLTAGE potentiometer . The sensor sends a voltage signal back to the computer indicating element (and thus throttle) position. • The idle position switch is closed (or open . The computer usually supplies an ground connection to one side of each switch. These sensors come LOW in a wide variety of styles . When the sensor is mounted on the engine. The switch operates when the throttle is opened (by any amount) and no longer in the idle position. The computer supplies power and ground to the sensor. MAX.a type of variable resistor (similar to a dashboard dimmer control). Movement of the throttle linkage operates the throttle switches. SIGNAL Throttle Position Switch This is one or two switches usually built into a single housing (often resembling a throttle position sensor). 2-6 Downloaded from www. The sensor has an element which is turned (rotary type) or pushed (linear type).depends upon vehicle) when the throttle is resting.com manuals search engine . Throttle position sensors on Asian vehicles may also include one or two throttle position switches. The switches are wired to the computer. ROTATION connectors at the end of a short wire “pigtail”.

Location Fuel injected engines: Rotary type sensor . or hard acceleration (wide open throttle). backfiring. • Driveability problems such as hard starting. surging. This switch is normally open (or closed . Faulty sensor wiring (open or short circuits). poor fuel economy.depends upon vehicle) when the throttle is at idle or just partially open.) How it is used? The computer uses throttle position to determine engine operating condition: idle (closed throttle).usually mounted inside carburetor (GM) or outside carburetor (Ford). choke.usually mounted to outside of throttle body and linked to throttle shaft. Binding throttle shaft or linkage. rough idle.com manuals search engine . knocking (pinging). idle speed control motor. and lock-up torque converters. 2-7 Downloaded from www. Poor connections at sensor or computer.THROTTLE POSITION Sensor/Switch • Sometimes a second switch is used to signal a wide open throttle condition. When to Test • Related trouble codes sent by computer. The computer can then properly control air/fuel mixtures. What to Inspect Sensor operation (see test on page 2-10) or switch operation (see test on page 2-12). cruise (part throttle). vacuum hose connected to throttle positioner. or cam systems affecting throttle position. spark advance. If used: “Cruise Control” linkage problems. stalling. stumble. The switch operates when the throttle is opened beyond a certain point. idle speed. hesitation. Sensor position adjustment. Computer controlled carburetor engines: Linear (sliding) type .Manualslib. (The amount of throttle opening required to operate the switch varies with vehicle. no torque converter lock-up.

Hook up as follows: • Red test lead to sensor power pin • Yellow test lead to sensor signal pin 2-8 • Black test lead to sensor ground pin Downloaded from www. page 2-12 Note: If the Red and Black test lead hook-ups are reversed.Section 2 Testing Sensors Throttle Position Sensor Connectors A B = Test A.Manualslib. = Test B. the TEST light will move in the opposite direction during Test A. page 2-10 Some sensors require more than one test. GM Red Yellow Black Black FORD A Yellow Red A GM. This does not affect the accuracy of the test or harm the sensor.com manuals search engine . CHRYSLER. FORD. HONDA Black Yellow Red FORD Yellow A Red Black A HONDA Yellow HONDA HONDA A Black Red Black Yellow A Red Black Yellow A Red Refer to vehicle service manual for connectors not shown.

2-9 Downloaded from www. B Not used on some vehicles.THROTTLE POSITION Sensor/Switch TOYOTA TOYOTA/NISSAN A Red Yellow Black B Yellow Black B Yellow Black B Not used on some vehicles. Perform this test only if vehicle mating connector has 3 wires.com manuals search engine . Testing is identical. A Red Yellow Black Yellow Black Yellow Black B Some sensors have cable attached here.Manualslib. Perform this test only if vehicle Black Yellow mating connector has 3 wires.

Section 2 Testing Sensors TEST A . 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4.Throttle Position Sensor Important: If more than one hook-up is shown. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. Make sure unused clips are not touching anything.Manualslib.sensor permanently attached to throttle body. Refer to vehicle service manual for adjustment procedure.) Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor . 4) Off-Car testing only: Remove sensor. Connect TEST leads according to diagram A in the component drawing. Do all tests shown for your sensor. The letter next to the hook-up refers to the test procedure. it means more than one test is required to check all parts of the sensor.Inspect for damage. Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. IMPORTANT: Many throttle position sensors require special adjustment when reinstalled. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. 5) Connect test leads. 6) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other. 2-10 Downloaded from www. (Exception: On-car test only for most Honda . 1) Verify ignition key is OFF.com manuals search engine . Sensor may be tested on or off vehicle. A good sensor will not perform properly if incorrectly adjusted.

2-11 Downloaded from www. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. (Note: TEST light may be on or off before sensor is operated. It is used to control cold engine fast idle and throttle closure speed so engine will not stall. Hg to the dashpot diaphragm using a hand vacuum pump.com manuals search engine . Off-Car test: Slowly rotate sensor element back and forth from end to end. HIGH LOW POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION • Good Sensor . • Bad Sensor .TEST light smoothly moves up or down as sensor is operated.THROTTLE POSITION Sensor/Switch 7) Honda only: 1988-92 Civic and CRX – Remove vacuum hose from dashpot diaphragm. showing a sudden jump or dip during smooth sensor operation.TEST light position does not change during test OR light movement is erratic.K.Watch TEST light for results.Manualslib. – The dashpot diaphragm is part of the throttle body assembly. (The TEST light may go off if it moves to the bottom of the column . 10) Operate sensor . – Apply 20 in.) On-Car test: Slowly move throttle linkage back and forth from idle to wide open position. 9) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS.this is O. 11) Testing is complete. 8) Set RANGE switch to HIGH.) Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type and vehicle mounting.

Inspect for damage. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from switch . 2-12 Downloaded from www. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. 6) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other.Manualslib. IMPORTANT: Many throttle position switches require special adjustment when reinstalled. it means more than one test is required to check all parts of the switch. A good switch will not perform properly if incorrectly adjusted. 4) Off-Car testing only: Remove switch.Section 2 Testing Sensors TEST B .Throttle Position Switch Important: If more than one hook-up is shown. Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. 5) Connect test leads. Refer to vehicle service manual for adjustment procedure. Switch may be tested on or off vehicle. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. Do all tests shown for your switch. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to switch. The letter next to the hook-up refers to the test procedure. Connect TEST leads according to diagram B in the component drawing.com manuals search engine . Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle.

TEST light always ON at top of column or always OFF. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. 10) Testing is complete. 9) Operate sensor . On-Car test: Slowly move throttle linkage back and forth from idle to wide open position.Watch TEST light for results. Off-Car test: Slowly rotate sensor element back and forth from end to end. RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION TEST TEST • Good Switch .TEST light switches between being ON at top of column and OFF • Bad Switch . 2-13 Downloaded from www.THROTTLE POSITION Sensor/Switch HIGH LOW POWER OFF 7) Set RANGE switch to HIGH.com manuals search engine . 8) Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS.Manualslib.

• Driveability problems such as hesitation. Then the computer can modify the EGR valve opening as required. Location When to Test Attached to the top of the EGR valve. vacuum connectors. What to Inspect 2-14 Downloaded from www. Problems with control solenoids supplying operating vacuum to open EGR valve. the sensor has a shaft which is pushed. poor fuel economy. knocking (pinging). When the sensor is mounted on the EGR valve. MAX. erratic acceleration.Section 2 Testing Sensors FORD EGR Valve HONDA EGR Valve What is it? HIGH SENSOR VOLTAGE LOW MIN. Damaged vacuum reservoir.a type of variable resistor (similar to a dashboard light dimmer control). This sensor is a potentiometer . The computer supplies power and ground to the sensor. and hard acceleration operating conditions. canister. surging. .Manualslib. Worn or broken vacuum hoses.com manuals search engine Sensor operation (see page 2-15). The sensor sends out a voltage signal indicating the amount of valve opening (“lift”). no torque converter lock-up. stumble. cruise. The voltage signal gets larger the more the valve is opened. The computer uses the sensor signal to calculate actual EGR flow. Damaged or sticking EGR valve. Poor connections at the sensor or computer. • Related trouble codes sent by computer. VALVE OPENING How it is used? The computer is programmed to provide optimum EGR flow during idle. the shaft gets pushed as the valve opens.

5) Connect test leads according to diagram. Note: Some sensors are permanently attached to the EGR valve and cannot be removed. – Gradually apply vacuum to slowly open valve.Manualslib.com manuals search engine . 7) Set RANGE switch to HIGH. 4) Off-Car testing only: Remove sensor. Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. 9) Operate sensor .Watch TEST light for results.EGR Valve Position/Lift Sensors EGR Valve Position Sensor Test Procedure Sensor may be tested on or off vehicle. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 2-15 Downloaded from www. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor .) On-Car test: – Remove vacuum control hose from EGR valve. 8) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS.Inspect for damage. – Connect hand vacuum pump to EGR valve. 6) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other. (Note: TEST light may be on or off before sensor is operated. HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle.

showing a sudden jump or dip during smooth sensor operation.) Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type and vehicle mounting.K.TEST light position does not change during test OR light movement is erratic. • Bad Sensor . 10) Testing is complete.com manuals search engine .Manualslib.Section 2 Testing Sensors Off-Car test: Slowly push sensor element back and forth from end to end. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads.TEST light smoothly moves up or down as sensor is operated. (The TEST light may go off if it moves to the bottom of the column . 2-16 Downloaded from www.this is O. • Good Sensor .

Manualslib. retest using hook-up #2 before judging sensor. the TEST light will move in the opposite direction during the test. Refer to vehicle service manual for connectors not shown. Black FORD Yellow Red HONDA – #1 HONDA – #2 Black Yellow Red Yellow Black Red Honda uses two sensor types. If good test results are not obtained. Hook up as follows: • Red test lead to sensor power pin • Yellow test lead to sensor signal pin • Black test lead to sensor ground pin 2-17 Downloaded from www.com manuals search engine .EGR Valve Position/Lift Sensors Sensor Connectors Note: If the Red and Black test lead hook-ups are reversed. This does not affect the accuracy of the test or harm the sensor. Try hook-up #1 first.

Downloaded from www. 2-18 Location The sensor is threaded into the exhaust manifold to give it direct contact with the exhaust gases. The tip is perforated to protect the sensing element but still allow exhaust gases to pass through.com manuals search engine . it will increase fuel delivery. The sensor produces a voltage signal based on the amount of oxygen it contacts. NOTE: Some vehicles use more than one oxygen sensor.Section 2 Testing Sensors Typical Oxygen Sensor What is It? The oxygen sensor is a zirconium dioxide ceramic mounted in the tip of a threaded metal housing.Manualslib. Many have 2-wire heating elements builtin to quicken the warm-up time. The sensor must be very hot to operate: 349(C (660(F). How it is used? The computer uses this sensor to calculate optimum air/fuel mixture for low emissions and good fuel economy. If the computer receives a lean signal (too much oxygen because of too little fuel). If the sensor indicates a rich exhaust (not enough oxygen because of too much fuel). A low voltage indicates a lean exhaust (too much oxygen). the computer will compensate by reducing fuel delivery. A higher voltage signals a rich exhaust (not enough oxygen).

air injection system).com manuals search engine . hesitation. This sensor often fails because of contamination from fuel. IMPORTANT: Some engines (usually off-road applications) use a titania-type oxygen sensor. stumble. manifold leaks. EGR valve. wires). This sensor resembles the common zirconium type. Inspection Sensor operation (see page 2-21). poor performance. spark plugs.Manualslib. poor fuel economy. emission devices (carbon canister. The titania sensor changes resistance when it operates. Poor connections at the sensor or computer. Factors which can make a rich running engine include: ignition system problems (coil. fuel pressure and engine not at normal operating temperature. rotor. This tester is not designed to test the titania type sensor. fuel contaminated by engine oil. oil additives. distributor cap. • Driveability problems such as rough running. PCV valve. air filter. but has an open-ended tip. gasket sealer or an overly rich running engine.OXYGEN HIGH SENSOR VOLTAGE LOW Lean OPTIMUM Rich AIR FUEL MIXTURE When to Test • Related trouble codes sent by computer. black exhaust smoke. 2-19 Downloaded from www.

2-Wire: One wire goes to sensor SIGNAL. (Signal wire is often black.) 2-20 Downloaded from www.com manuals search engine . 4-Wire: Two wires (often the same color) go to the sensor heating element. Refer to vehicle service manual for wire identification. Second wire goes to sensor GROUND.Section 2 Testing Sensors Sensor Types 1-Wire: Single wire goes to sensor SIGNAL. (Sensor wire is often black. Refer to vehicle service manual for wire identification. Third wire (different color from the others) goes to sensor SIGNAL.) 3-Wire: Two wires (often the same color) go to the sensor heating element. Sensor housing is connected to sensor GROUND.Manualslib. Third wire goes to sensor SIGNAL. Sensor housing is connected to sensor GROUND. Fourth wire goes to sensor GROUND.

POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION TEST • Good Heater: TEST light OFF (low resistance). Go directly to On-Car Test (page 2-22). • Bad Heater: TEST light ON in any position (resistance too high. 7) Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. • If sensor has 1 or 2 wire connector. 8) Observe TEST light for test results. 9) Heating Element test is complete. Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. 6) Set RANGE switch to HIGH. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. 2-21 Downloaded from www. 4) Connect test leads. or open circuit). 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. • YELLOW to either sensor HEATER pin. • Go to On-Car Test. Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor . Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done.Manualslib.OXYGEN Heating Element Test • Do this test if sensor has a heating element (3 or 4 wire connector). do not do this test.com manuals search engine .Inspect for damage. Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. HIGH LOW 5) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other. • BLACK to remaining sensor HEATER pin. • Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads.

Refer to Vehicle Service Manual. • BLACK to good vehicle GROUND. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. Ignore or erase the code after testing. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. disconnect sensor connector and connect YELLOW test lead directly to sensor SIGNAL pin.Section 2 Testing Sensors On-Car Test Important: Reliable testing of the oxygen sensor while on-vehicle is very difficult because test conditions cannot be well controlled. 7) Start engine . HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. • YELLOW to sensor SIGNAL circuit.com manuals search engine . 5) Set RANGE switch to LOW. remove it and perform the off-car test before deciding whether or not the sensor is bad. 3) Connect test leads. If the sensor does not seem to respond when tested on-car. 4) Verify test clips make good contact. Observe all safety precautions (see page ii).Idle until hot.Manualslib. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. 6) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS. Run engine until upper radiator hose is hot and pressurized. Warning: This test involves running the engine. – If you cannot use backprobe. – Keep sensor connected to vehicle wiring and use backprobe adapter to contact sensor SIGNAL circuit if possible. then it is probably good and no other testing is necessary. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 2-22 Downloaded from www. If the sensor responds during on-car testing. Note: Most computer systems will store a trouble code in memory (and turn on the “Check Engine” light) if engine is run with sensor disconnected. Work in well-ventilated area.

.. (This attempts to create a momentary rich or lean engine operating condition. – IF it takes longer than 3 seconds for the RICH/LEAN lights to switch back and forth.) Repeat this throttle action several times while observing the RICH/LEAN lights. in steps 8 or 9. • The TEST light column also indicates sensor voltage.Turn ignition key OFF. Go to step 10. • Quickly move throttle from idle to partially open (2000 RPM) position then back to idle.. THEN go to step 10. THEN the sensor may be degraded. THEN go to step 9. Go to step 10.Manualslib... LEAN LEAN 2-23 Downloaded from www....) • Maintain throttle partially open (2000 RPM idle). but it is easier to check operation by watching the RICH/ LEAN lights. • If the RICH / LEAN lights did not flash. Do the Off-Car test on page 2-24.com manuals search engine . or flashed too slowly.. 10) On-Car test is complete .. Go to step 10.. then do the Off-Car test on page 2-24 – IF the RICH/LEAN lights do not flash back and forth. THEN the sensor is good and no further testing is necessary. Do the Off-Car test on page 2-24 – IF the RICH/LEAN lights do not flash back and forth. 9) Observe RICH / LEAN lights during throttle changes. then do the Off-Car test on page 2-24. – IF the RICH/LEAN lights flash back and forth every 3 seconds or less. • Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. THEN the sensor is good and no further testing is necessary.OXYGEN 8) Observe RICH/LEAN lights during fast idle. Go to step 10.. RICH RICH – IF the RICH/LEAN lights switch within 3 seconds of the throttle action. – IF it takes longer than 3 seconds for the RICH/LEAN lights to switch. THEN the sensor may be degraded.

Observe RICH/ LEAN lights. 4) Remove sensor. • BLACK to sensor GROUND. 660(F) POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 2-24 Downloaded from www. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. 8) Set RANGE switch to LOW. HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. 6) Connect test leads • YELLOW to sensor SIGNAL pin. 5) Firmly grasp sensor with a pair of locking pliers. Observe all safety precautions for torch operation. • The sensor tip must be very hot to operate! (349(C. 1. • Thoroughly heat sensor tip until tip is as hot as possible. 7) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other.Heat sensor tip . Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor . If both lights are off. but not “glowing”. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. See Fig. the sensor is defective.Inspect for damage.Section 2 Testing Sensors Off-Car Test Warning: This test involves use of an open flame from a propane torch. 10) Light torch . . Do not use near flammable material or gases.Manualslib. 9) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS.com manuals search engine • The LEAN or RICH light should be ON.

1. Refer to vehicle service manual for proper type. • After sensor tip is hot. 1 Fig. set RANGE switch to POWER OFF. 13) Testing is complete. or does not turn on at all. Extinguish flame. let sensor cool and remove test leads. – Bad Sensor: LEAN light takes longer than 3 seconds to turn on. 2. See Fig. – Good Sensor: RICH light turns ON within 3 seconds indicating a “rich” (low oxygen) condition. – Good Sensor: LEAN light turns ON within 3 seconds indicating a “lean” (high oxygen) condition. • Move flame so oxygen can reach sensor tip. RICH RICH LEAN LEAN Fig.com manuals search engine . This keeps oxygen away from the tip. 2 2-25 Downloaded from www. (Keep sensor tip hot with flame.OXYGEN 11) Observe RICH/LEAN lights while operating sensor.Manualslib. – Bad Sensor: RICH light takes longer than 3 seconds to turn on. 12) Repeat step 11 a few times to verify results. move the flame until the sensor tip is completely surrounded by the flame.) See Fig. or does not turn on at all. IMPORTANT: Special anti-seize compound must be applied to sensor housing threads before reinstallation.

intake manifold or exhaust manifold.com manuals search engine Sensor operation (see test on page 2-27). Spark timing. Faulty sensor wiring (open or short circuits). When to Test • Related trouble codes sent by computer. The sensor acts like a microphone . . Often near the cylinder heads.it changes vibrations into a small AC voltage signal. Poor connections at sensor or computer.Section 2 Testing Sensors Yellow Yellow Black Black What is It? The knock sensor is a piece of piezoelectric material mounted in a metal housing. The sensor usually has a one wire or two wire connector. spark timing is retarded to eliminate the damaging knock condition Location Usually threaded into (or bolted on) the engine block. How it is used? The computer (or other spark timing controller) is designed to recognize sensor signals caused by engine knock vibrations.Manualslib. • Knocking during cruise or hard acceleration (not enough spark retard). Bad fuel quality. What to Inspect 2-26 Downloaded from www. hesitation. poor performance and fuel economy (excess spark retard). Then.

Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle.) On-car test: Lightly tap surface near sensor using a socket extension (or similar tool) and a light hammer. 7) Operate sensor . One-wire connector: • YELLOW test lead to signal pin (top of sensor). Gently tap sensor tip with a light hammer.K.Engine KNOCK Knock Sensor Test Procedure Sensor may be tested on or off vehicle. 6) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS. 5) Set RANGE switch to LOW. – Bad sensor: TEST lights do not flash during a tap. 4) Connect test leads to sensor.) Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type and tapping force. • BLACK test lead to body of sensor (off-car) or nearby ground (on-car). (Note: Ignore any RICH/LEAN light flashes. (Only a few lights may flash.com manuals search engine . 2-27 Downloaded from www. This is O.Inspect for damage. – Good sensor: TEST lights flash upward from the bottom of the TEST light column during a tap. Do not tap directly on sensor! POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION TEST Off-car test: Grasp sensor firmly. 8) Testing is complete.Manualslib. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor . • BLACK test lead to remaining sensor pin. 2) Check Tester battery (refer to page 1-4). Two-wire connector: HIGH LOW • YELLOW test lead to either sensor pin.Watch TEST light for results.

How it is used? 2-28 Downloaded from www. More pressure (less vacuum) makes the sensor signal increase (higher voltage or frequency).com manuals search engine . The computer needs to know air pressure both outside and inside the manifold to properly adjust the air/fuel mixture and ignition timing for varying engine load and altitude conditions. the signal may be a dc voltage or a frequency. The computer supplies power and ground to the sensor.Manualslib. On turbocharged engines. Depending upon sensor type. the computer also uses the sensor to monitor boost pressure and operate the wastegate accordingly.Section 2 Testing Sensors FORD GM/CHRYSLER TOYOTA/HONDA Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Barometric Pressure (BARO) Sens What is It? This sensor is an electronic module which sends a signal to the computer indicating atmospheric pressure and/or engine vacuum.

Manifold Absolute Pressure MAP/BARO

Location

The sensor is mounted either on the bulkhead, air cleaner, throttle body or elsewhere in the engine compartment. A vacuum hose connects the sensor to a strong source of manifold vacuum. (Some new MAP sensor types may be directly mounted to the manifold, eliminating the vacuum hose connection.) The BARO sensors are vented to the atmosphere there is no vacuum hose attached. Some Honda engines locate the MAP sensor inside a control box containing several vacuum hoses and solenoids.

When to Test

• Related trouble codes sent by computer. • No start, hard starting, stalling, rough idle, hesitation, stumble, surging, poor fuel economy, black exhaust smoke, knocking, backfiring, catalytic converter overheating or no torque converter lock-up.

Vehicle Harness Connectors for MAP Sensor
(Mating side of connector shown.)

GM/CHRYSLER
Power MAP Signal

FORD
Power MAP Signal Ground Ground

HONDA

TOYOTA

Ground Signal

Power Ground Signal

Power

Ground Signal

Power

Refer to vehicle service manual for connectors not shown.

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Section 2 Testing Sensors
Manifold Absolute Pressure (MAP) Sensor Test Procedure
Testing is done on-vehicle.

Warning: This test involves running the engine. Observe all safety precautions (see page ii). Work in well-ventilated area.

1) Verify ignition key is OFF. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. 3) Connect test leads.
Yellow

Keep sensor connected to vehicle wiring.
• YELLOW to sensor SIGNAL circuit. Use backprobe adapter. • BLACK to good vehicle GROUND.

Backprobe

4) Verify test clips make good contact. Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. 5) Set switches: • RANGE on HIGH. • FUNCTION on VOLTS.

Exception: Ford vehicles with frequency type sensor (see diagram).
– RANGE on LOW. – FUNCTION on FREQUENCY. 6) Turn ignition key ON but DO NOT START ENGINE. 7) Note TEST light position on tester.

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• If the sensor is good, the light will move downwards when vacuum is applied.

Manifold Absolute Pressure MAP/BARO

• Note: If the TEST light is OFF a problem exists. Go to step 9 and continue testing to find cause. 8) Operate sensor - Watch TEST light for results. (Note: Ignore any PULSE light action.) Non-Turbo Engines only: Start engine and let idle. Turbo Engines only: Attach hand vacuum pump to sensor vacuum port. Apply 18 in. vacuum. (More than 25 in. vacuum may damage sensor.)

Good Sensor
– TEST light moves downward during engine idle or when vacuum applied. (The TEST light may go off if it moves to the bottom of the column this is O.K.) – Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type and applied vacuum. – Note: if test results are O.K. but a computer trouble code indicates a bad sensor signal, the wire between the sensor signal pin and the computer may be open. – Testing is complete.

Problem exists (Bad sensor or wiring)
– TEST light position does not change during test. – Go to step 9 and continue testing to find cause. Do all steps to avoid replacing a good sensor! 9) Ignition key OFF.
YST
CE BOOSTER

HVAC CRUISE

10) Check MAP sensor vacuum hose for...
BRAKE BOOSTER

G GAP U.S.A.

EGR VAC REG
FUEL PRESS REG.

• Correct hook-up. • Pinches, kinks or collapsed sides. • Splits, cuts, breaks or clogs

TO TRANS MODE

EM

EGR VAC REG

FRONT OF CAR

12RAC8

Repair as necessary, then retest. If no trouble found, go to next step.

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Section 2 Testing Sensors
11) Check MAP sensor power circuit.

Keep sensor connected to vehicle wiring.
HIGH LOW

• YELLOW test lead to sensor POWER circuit. Use backprobe adapter. • BLACK test lead to good vehicle GROUND. • RANGE on HIGH. • FUNCTION on VOLTS. • Ignition key ON.

POWER OFF

RANGE
VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY

FUNCTION
TEST

Good power circuit: Top (or next to top) TEST light ON. Go to next step. Bad power circuit: TEST light OFF or not in top (or next to top) position. Repair open or short in power circuit wiring, then retest.
12) Check MAP sensor ground circuit. • Same set-up as previous step, but move YELLOW test lead to sensor GROUND circuit. (Use backprobe adapter.)

Good ground circuit: TEST light OFF. Go to next step. Bad ground circuit: Any TEST light ON. Repair open in ground circuit wiring, then retest.
13) Check for connector problems. • Ignition key OFF. • Disconnect wiring harness from MAP sensor. (Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness.) • Check terminals for damage, corrosion, bad wire crimps or improper seating in connector.

Repair as necessary, then retest. If no trouble found, go to next step.

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If steps 10 through 14 are all good (but step 8 showed a problem) then the sensor is bad and needs to be replaced.Manifold Absolute Pressure MAP/BARO 14) Check MAP signal wire for short to ground. 15) Testing is complete. • YELLOW test lead to MAP signal pin on vehicle harness connector.Manualslib. then retest. 2-33 Downloaded from www. Go to next step. HIGH LOW •Verify ignition key OFF and MAP sensor wiring harness disconnected. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION Good circuit (no short): TEST light ON in any position. Repair short in signal circuit wiring. Verify ignition key OFF. Bad circuit (shorted): TEST light OFF. • FUNCTION on OHMS. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads.com manuals search engine . • BLACK test lead to good vehicle GROUND. • RANGE on LOW.

backfiring. How it is used? Location The computer needs to know incoming air flow to properly adjust air/fuel mixture and ignition timing for varying engine load and operating conditions.Section 2 Testing Sensors FLOW Typical MAF Sensor Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensors What is It? This sensor is an electronic module which sends a signal to the computer indicating the amount of air entering the engine. When to Test • Related trouble codes sent by computer. stumble. Within the sensor is a heated wire located in the path of incoming air. the signal may be a dc voltage or a frequency. surging. hesitation. catalytic converter overheating or no torque converter lock-up. Depending upon sensor type. rough idle. • Driveability problems such as hard starting. poor fuel economy. The module determines air flow by measuring the temperature drop of the heated wire as air passes around it.com manuals search engine -F+ . The signal level increases (higher voltage or frequency) as the air flow increases. stalling.Manualslib. black exhaust smoke. 2-34 Downloaded from www. The sensor is mounted in the engine incoming air ducts—typically just behind the air cleaner assembly or near the throttle body. knocking (pinging).

8L only RANGE on LOW FUNCTION on FREQUENCY POWER GROUND MAF SIGNAL 1989 and Newer RANGE on HIGH FUNCTION on FREQUENCY GROUND MAF RETURN MAF SIGNAL BURN-OFF SIGNAL POWER All 5-Pin except 1988 2.com manuals search engine .) GM POWER MAF SIGNAL GROUND 1988 and Older RANGE on LOW FUNCTION on FREQUENCY MAT SIGNAL MAT RTN POWER GROUND MAF SIGNAL 1988 2.Mass Air Flow MAF Vehicle Harness Connectors for MAF Sensor (Mating side of connector shown.Manualslib. 2-35 Downloaded from www. MAF SIGNAL MAF RETURN GROUND POWER RANGE on HIGH FUNCTION on VOLTS Refer to vehicle service manual for connectors not shown.8L RANGE on HIGH FUNCTION on VOLTS Ford NOTE: MAF RETURN is not connected to vehicle GROUND.

Manualslib.) Nissan MAF Signal Ground Power Power Ground MAF Signal MAF Signal Ground Power Pulsar NX SE All except 1987-88 1987-88 Pulsar NX SE only MAF Signal Ground Power Ground Power MAF Return MAF Signal 1985-86 Maxima 1985-86 300ZX 1985-86 300ZX Turbo 1987 Pulsar NX 1987 Sentra (E16i) 1988 Pulsar NX XE 1988 Sentra Power Ground MAF Signal MAF Signal Ground Power 1987-88 Maxima 1987-88 200SX SE 1987-89 300ZX 1989-90 Sentra 1990 Pulsar NX MAF Signal Ground MAF Return Power Power Ground MAF Signal 1989 and Up Maxima 1990 and Up 300ZX All Nissan: RANGE on HIGH FUNCTION on VOLTS MAF Signal Power MAF Ground Return* *May not be used = May not be used 2-36 Refer to vehicle service manual for connectors not shown.com manuals search engine . Downloaded from www.Section 2 Testing Sensors Vehicle Harness Connectors for MAF Sensor (Mating side of connector shown.

the TEST light will be off. 4) Verify test clips make good contact. 8) Start engine and let idle . • If the sensor is good.Watch TEST light for results. Use backprobe adapter.refer to hook-up diagram.com manuals search engine .) Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type and engine speed. 5) Set switches . • Ignore any PULSE light action. Keep sensor connected to vehicle wiring. Good Sensor: – TEST light moves upward after engine starts. Observe all safety precautions (see page ii). 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. 6) Turn ignition key ON but DO NOT START ENGINE. 7) Note TEST light position on tester. • BLACK to good vehicle GROUND. 2-37 Downloaded from www. TEST light moves up even further if engine RPM is momentarily increased.Mass Air Flow MAF Mass Air Flow (MAF) Sensor Test Procedure Testing is done on-vehicle. Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. at the bottom of the column or blinking. (Move throttle to check. 3) Connect test leads . Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done.refer to hook-up diagram. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. Warning: This test involves running the engine.Manualslib. Work in well-ventilated area. • YELLOW to sensor SIGNAL circuit. the light will move upwards during engine run. • Typically.

• Air leaks . – Testing is complete. • Obstructions in air duct. • FUNCTION on VOLTS. • RANGE on HIGH.com manuals search engine . RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION TEST Good power circuit: Top (or next to top) TEST light ON. 11) Check MAF sensor power circuit. Keep sensor connected to vehicle wiring. 10) Check for air intake problems. but a computer trouble code indicates a bad sensor signal. HIGH LOW POWER OFF • YELLOW test lead to sensor POWER circuit. 2-38 Downloaded from www. – Go to step 9 and continue testing to find cause. • Ignition key ON.Manualslib. ductwork or throttle body.around MAF sensor. then retest. Do all steps to avoid replacing a good sensor! – Note: Sensor is defective if TEST light jumps erratically when sensor GENTLY tapped with lightweight tool.Section 2 Testing Sensors – Note: If test results are O. • Clogged air filter. Problem exists (Bad sensor or wiring): – TEST light position does not change during test.K. 9) Ignition key OFF. then retest. Repair as necessary. the wire between the sensor signal pin and the computer may be open. • BLACK test lead to good vehicle GROUND. If no trouble found. Bad power circuit: TEST light OFF or not in top (or next to top) position. go to next step. Go to next step. Repair open or short in power circuit wiring. Use backprobe adapter.

Repair short in signal circuit wiring. go to next step. 2-39 Downloaded from www. Use backprobe adapter. • Ignition key OFF. 14) Check MAF signal wire for short to ground. Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness.com manuals search engine .Mass Air Flow MAF 12) Check MAF sensor ground circuit. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. Repair as necessary. then retest. • Disconnect wiring harness from MAF sensor. • Same set-up as previous step. Good ground circuit: TEST light OFF. Go to next step. corrosion. • FUNCTION on OHMS. 13) Check for connector problems. HIGH LOW • Verify ignition key OFF and MAF sensor wiring harness disconnected. Go to next step. Do not probe MAF RETURN pin. Bad circuit (shorted): TEST light OFF. Repair open in ground circuit wiring. If steps 10 through 14 are all good (but step 8 showed a problem) then the sensor is bad and needs to be replaced. Bad ground circuit: Any TEST light ON. • BLACK test lead to good vehicle GROUND. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION Good circuit (no short): TEST light ON in any position.) • Check terminals for damage. (Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. • RANGE on LOW.Manualslib. Verify ignition key OFF. 15) Testing is complete. then retest. • YELLOW test lead to MAF signal pin on vehicle harness connector. bad wire crimps or improper seating in connector. then retest. but move YELLOW test lead to sensor GROUND circuit. If no trouble found.

• Related trouble codes sent by computer.Manualslib. Sensor operation (see tests on pages 2-43 through 2-44).com manuals search engine . Poor connections at sensor or computer. catalytic converter overheating or no torque converter lock-up. Some sensor assemblies also contain an air temperature sensor or a vane position switch (or both). The sensor is mounted in the engine incoming air duct between the air cleaner and the throttle body. How it is used? Location When to Test What to Inspect 2-40 Downloaded from www. The computer needs to know incoming air flow to properly adjust air/fuel mixture and ignition timing for varying engine load and operating conditions. The sensor assembly has a pivoting door (“vane”) which is opened by incoming air. poor fuel economy. • Driveability problems such as hard starting. surging. black exhaust smoke. The vane is connected to a potentiometer (a variable resistor . rough idle. Air leaks around sensor or throttle body. Binding pivot on vane “door”. Airflow obstructions in ductwork or clogged air filter.Section 2 Testing Sensors Typical VAF Sensor AIR FLOW Referred to as Vane Air Flow (VAF) sensor or Air Flow Meter Vane Air Flow Sensors What is It? This sensor sends a dc voltage signal to the computer indicating the amount of air entering the engine. Faulty sensor wiring (open or short circuits). knocking (pinging). backfiring. stumble. hesitation.like a dashboard dimmer control) which generates the voltage signal. The voltage signal increases as the air flow increases. stalling.

If good test results are not obtained.Vane Air Flow VAF Sensor Connectors Toyota 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 *Toyota uses two sensor types.com manuals search engine . Hook up as follows: Red lead to sensor power pin. Yellow lead to sensor signal pin. retest using hook-up #2 before judging sensor.Manualslib. Try hook-up #1 first. A* #2 Black Yellow Red = NOT USED Yellow Black A Red B B Black Yellow Yellow Black Ford A Black Red Yellow Black Yellow B Refer to vehicle service manual for connectors not shown. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Red Black Yellow A* Black Yellow B #1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Black Red Yellow A* Yellow Black C #2 Nissan A* #1 Black Red Yellow *Nissan uses two sensor types. Try hook-up #1 first. If good test results are not obtained. 2-41 Downloaded from www. Black lead to sensor ground pin. retest using hook-up #2 before judging sensor.

Manualslib. but have different internal connections. • Each hook-up should test O.Air Flow Meter Sensor (page 2-43) • Test B . This is so you can operate the sensor element for testing.Inspect for damage. 4) Disconnect ductwork from sensor air intake. Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. 5) Off-Car testing only: Remove sensor.Section 2 Testing Sensors TEST PREPARATION: All Air Flow Meter Sensor Tests IMPORTANT: • Test all hook-ups shown for the sensor. • The letter next to the hook-up refers to the test procedure for that hook-up. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. This is necessary because some sensors look alike. Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. • Test A .Air Flow Meter Position Switch (page 2-45) Downloaded from www. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. Do tests referenced in hook-up diagrams. Refer to vehicle service manual for disassembly procedure.Air Temperature Sensor (page 2-44) 2-42 • Test C . 6) Test Preparation is complete.K. Exception: If two hook-ups are marked with an asterisk (*) only one of the two hook-ups has to test O.com manuals search engine . Sensor may be tested on or off vehicle.K. 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor .

• Connect TEST leads according to diagram A in the component drawing.) Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type.TEST light position does not change during test OR light movement is erratic.K.Manualslib. (The TEST light may go off if it moves to the bottom of the column . This is necessary because some sensors look alike. 2-43 Downloaded from www. 7) Test A is complete. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. 5) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS.Air Flow Meter Sensor Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION Good Sensor .Mass Air Flow MAF TEST A . to push on the “door”.com manuals search engine . HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. • Important: If two hook-ups are marked with an asterisk (*) only one of the two hook-ups has to test O. 6) Operate sensor . or similar object. Use a pencil. 1) Do all Test Preparation steps. 3) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other.this is O. 4) Set RANGE switch to HIGH. 2) Connect test leads.TEST light smoothly moves up or down as sensor is operated. Bad Sensor . Slowly move the sensor element (pivoting “door” or sliding cone) back and forth from fully closed to fully open position. but have different internal connections. showing a sudden jump or dip during smooth sensor operation.Watch TEST light for results. Refer to page 2-42.K. This will not harm the sensor. Reconnect sensor to vehicle if all testing is done.

3) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other.Section 2 Testing Sensors TEST B .Air Temperature Sensor Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle. Downloaded from www. 9) Test B is complete. Connect TEST leads according to diagram B in the component drawing. If the sensor is good. Reconnect sensor to vehicle if all testing is done. Bad Sensor .. the light will move downwards as the sensor heats up. – In a small tube extending into the air intake passage in front of the closed vane “door” OR – In its own housing threaded into the side of the air flow meter assembly.com manuals search engine . 4) Set RANGE switch to HIGH. HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. 8) Observe TEST light position for test results. 2-44 Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. • Heat sensor using a hair dryer or similar device.Manualslib.TEST light position did not change during test.. Range of TEST light movement varies with sensor type and temperature change. 6) Note TEST light position on tester.) The TEST light will move upwards as the sensor cools off. 5) Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS. • The air temperature sensor is located either. (TEST light may go off if sensor is very hot . 1) Do all Test Preparation steps. 2) Connect test leads. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION Good Sensor . 7) Heat temperature sensor thoroughly. DO NOT use a match or open flame. Refer to page 2-42.TEST light moved downwards below original position.this is OK.

Slowly move the sensor element (pivoting “door” or sliding cone) back and forth from fully closed to fully open position. 2-45 Downloaded from www. HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. 5) Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS. Reconnect sensor to vehicle if all testing is done.TEST light switches between being ON at top of column and OFF Bad Switch . Use a pencil.com manuals search engine . 6) Operate sensor . Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads.Manualslib. to push on the “door”. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION TEST TEST Good Switch . 1) Do all Test Preparation steps. 2) Connect test leads. 3) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other. Connect TEST leads according to diagram C in the component drawing.Air Flow Meter Position Switch Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle.Watch TEST light for results. Refer to page 2-42. This will not harm the sensor. or similar object. 7) Test C is complete. 4) Set RANGE switch to HIGH.TEST light always ON at top of column or always OFF.Mass Air Flow MAF Test C .

— Similar sensors are used in anti-lock brake and electronically shifted transmission systems. Sometimes an assembly contains more than one sensor. These are described below along with Optical types which are in limited use. TDC and RPM. they pass through the wire coil and generate a small voltage pulse (magnetic induction principle). it attracts the magnetic field lines surrounding the magnet. Downloaded from www. Vehicle Speed and Driveshaft. Whenever a tooth from the ring passes by the sensor. These sensors have names such as: Wheel Speed. Camshaft Position. Cylinder. Flywheel.Manualslib. The sensors have various names such as: Crankshaft Position. — The sensors come many styles using different connectors. The ring is attached to a rotating component such as the crankshaft or camshaft. — The most common sensor types are Magnetic Reluctance and Hall Effect.Section 2 Testing Sensors Wire Coil Magnet To Computer S N Rotation Air Gap Tooth Reluctor Ring Positive Zero ROTATION SENSOR VOLTAGE Negative Reluctance Sensor Operation Typical Sensor Signal Voltage Crankshaft/Camshaft Position sensors What is It and How is It Used? — The computer needs to know rotational speed (or position) of the engine crankshaft/camshaft for controlling ignition and fuel injector systems. Crank Angle. Nearby the sensor is a toothed ring made of iron or steel (sometimes called a “reluctor”). Other versions combine two functions into a single sensor (usually camshaft position and cylinder #1 identification). it also needs to know when cylinder #1 is active. As the field lines move. If the computer is handling a Distributorless (or Direct) ignition system or controlling the operation of individual fuel injectors.com manuals search engine . Distributor Pick-Up. • Magnetic Reluctance 2-46 The basic reluctance sensor consists of a permanent magnet with a coil of wire wrapped around it. Thus a voltage pulse is generated every time a tooth passes by the sensor coil.

Manualslib. they move together. The magnetic field causes the Hall switch to turn on and send out a low voltage signal. As the blades pass through the sensor gap. This interrupting action creates two pulse waveforms that are monitored by the engine computer.) A small air gap separates the sensor and the magnet. The metal strips (blades) are part of a disk or cup attached to a rotating component such as the crankshaft or camshaft.Crankshaft/Camshaft Position HIGH SHUTTER HALL SWITCH MAGNET POWER GROUND SIGNAL SIGNAL VOLTAGE LOW ROTATION Typical Hall Effect Sensor Typical Sensor Signal Voltage The computer determines rotational speed (or position) by measuring how fast (or when) pulses appear. the voltage signal switches high and low creating a series of pulses. This causes the Hall switch to turn off and send a high voltage signal out on the signal wire.com manuals search engine . Values can range from a fraction of a volt (crank RPM) to over a hundred volts (high RPM). 2-47 Downloaded from www. • Optical The optical crank angle sensor consists of a light source. the slits on the disk interrupt a beam or light sent by the light source to the light detector. The computer determines rotational speed (or position) by measuring how fast (or when) pulses appear. which is a slotted disk. The engine computer uses these waveforms and other engine sensors to optimally control ignition timing. it blocks the magnetic field from reaching the Hall device. As the rotor plate rotates. a light detector (photo-electric cell) and a rotor plate. • Hall Effect The basic Hall effect sensor consists of a permanent magnet and a small module containing a transistorized Hall effect switch. If a metal strip (iron or steel) is placed in the gap. Note: The voltage pulses get larger when the teeth pass by more quickly. Since the distributor shaft and/or camshaft are linked to the rotor plate. (Power and ground connections are required for operation.

Cylinder. Camshaft Position. Vehicles without a distributor have the sensor located in various places around the engine where it can be mechanically linked to the crankshaft or camshaft. – Magnetic Reluctance: Too much gap between sensor coil and reluctor ring. Cracked. What to Inspect All Sensor Types: Sensor operation (see tests on page 249 through 2-52). • Problems with. Poor connections at sensor or computer. Note: Some shutter assemblies may normally have irregular blade spacing. The sensor is usually located inside the distributor (if the engine has one). or missing teeth on reluctor ring. Distributor Pick-Up. stalling. Broken or worn teeth on the distributor shaft (if used) or sensor shaft. — Wheel Speed. or missing blades on shutter. Cracked. Note: Some rings may normally have a gap or irregular tooth space. – Hall Effect: Foreign objects in gap between Hall sensor and shutter assembly. or transmission shaft. This gives the computer cylinder identification information. TDC and RPM. – Ignition: No start. drive shaft. broken. Flywheel. Crank Angle. — Driveshaft: Sensor located in transmission housing or near driveshaft.com manuals search engine . Vehicle Speed: Sensors on individual wheels.Section 2 Testing Sensors Where is It? — Crankshaft Position. faulty shifting or slipping. Faulty sensor wiring (open or short circuits). 2-48 Downloaded from www. When to Test • Related trouble codes sent by computer. – Electronic Transmission: No torque converter lock-up.Manualslib.. broken. rough running. – Optical: Dirt in the rotor blade slots or light source/ detector assembly.. This gives the computer cylinder identification information. – ABS system: Faulty or not working.

Inspect for damage.Crankshaft/Camshaft Position Test A . 6) Set RANGE switch to LOW.) – Crankshaft/Camshaft sensor: Crank engine. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. 8) Operate sensor . 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor . Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) when testing sensor on vehicle. HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 2-49 Downloaded from www. Some connectors handle more than one sensor. 5) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other. STAY AWAY from moving engine parts. Refer to vehicle service manual for sensor pin identification. 7) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS. Test all sensors.com manuals search engine . Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness.Magnetic Reluctance Type Sensor Testing is done on-vehicle. (Note: Ignore any RICH / LEAN light flashes. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. 4) Connect test leads. • YELLOW to one end of sensor coil pin. DO NOT test vehicle speed or driveshaft type sensors since they require vehicle motion.Manualslib. 1) Verify ignition key is OFF.Watch TEST light for results. • BLACK to other end of sensor coil pin.

TEST lights OFF during testing.com manuals search engine .engine may start or backfire. Position and range of TEST light activity varies with sensor type. 9) Testing is complete. Use jack stands and observe all safety precautions (see page ii). – Wheel Speed sensor: Raise wheel off ground. Refer to vehicle service manual.Manualslib.Section 2 Testing Sensors Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) . 2-50 Downloaded from www. Note: Some computer systems will store a trouble code in memory (and turn on the “Check Engine” light) if engine is cranked with sensor disconnected. Ignore or erase the code after testing. TEST Good sensor . Bad sensor . Give the wheel a quick spin in either direction to test. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads.TEST lights flicker or stay ON during testing.

Remove this snap ring before disconnecting wiring harness. • RED to sensor power pin.Watch PULSE light for results. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF when done. 2) Check Tester battery Refer to page 1-4. 9) Operate sensor . 3) Disconnect wiring harness from sensor . 1) Verify ignition key is OFF. Refer to vehicle service manual for sensor pin identification. • YELLOW to sensor signal pin. 5) Connect test leads. (Note: Ignore any TEST light action. Test all sensors. Warning: Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) if testing sensor on vehicle.Crankshaft/Camshaft Position Test B . • BLACK to sensor ground pin.com manuals search engine .) POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 2-51 Downloaded from www.Inspect for damage. 7) Set RANGE switch to LOW. 4) Off-Car testing only: Remove sensor.Hall Effect Type or Optical Type Sensor Sensor may be tested on or off vehicle. 6) Verify test clips make good contact and do not touch each other. HIGH LOW Make sure unused clips are not touching anything.Manualslib. 8) Set FUNCTION switch to FREQUENCY. Some vehicles use a metal snap ring to secure wiring harness to sensor. Some connectors handle more than one sensor.

Section 2 Testing Sensors On-Car test: Crank engine. Note: Some computer systems will store a trouble code in memory (and turn on the “Check Engine” light) if engine is cranked with sensor disconnected. TFI-IV Ignition 2-52 Downloaded from www. Ignore or erase the code after testing. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads.Manualslib. Refer to vehicle service manual.PULSE light OFF during cranking. STAY AWAY from moving engine parts. steel ruler or similar. Red Red Yellow Black Chrysler Distributor Hall Effect Yellow Black Ford Distributor Hall Effect (PIP Sensor.) Bad sensor . Observe all safety precautions (see page ii) . (The flash will occur either when the metal enters the slot or when it is removed . Off-Car test: Slide a flat piece of iron or steel in and out of the sensor slot.PULSE light OFF during testing.Single flash on PULSE light whenever metal is moved in and out of slot.engine may start or backfire.depends upon sensor.com manuals search engine . knife blade.PULSE light flashes or stays ON during cranking (varies with sensor type). Use a scrap piece of sheet metal. PULSE Good sensor . Good sensor . Bad sensor . 10) Testing is complete.

• Check electrical connectors for: – Corrosion on pins. – Bent or damaged pins.com manuals search engine 6D L C2 4 • Check crankshaft/camshaft sensors connected to ignition module. 3-1 .) • Many ignition modules require heat transfer grease applied between module and mounting surface. module flanges and chassis for clean contact surfaces and snug attachment. burned or chafed insulation. Poor grounding can cause no-starts! Some modules make ground connections to vehicle chassis. – Proper routing and connections. – Pinched. – Contact with hot surfaces. Troubleshooting Tips 5A 2 AC 8 Downloaded from www. such as exhaust manifolds. Check mounting hardware. Modules can overheat and fail if grease is missing or incorrectly applied. Has the vehicle been serviced recently? Sometimes things get reconnected to the wrong place. or not at all. • Inspect wiring for: – Contact with sharp edges.Manualslib. – Contacts not properly seated in housing. (Refer to page 2-46. – Bad wire crimps to terminals. You can often find the cause of many problems by just looking.Section 2 Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Save yourself time! Always begin with a thorough visual and “hands-on” inspection.

(There may be a short delay before flashing starts. (Light on or flashing during spin means good module. 1) Locate module diagram on proceding pages.Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Ignition Module Test Procedure GM • Ford • Chrysler • Toyota • Honda • Nissan Important: • This test checks for “dead” modules causing a no-start. Follow service manual procedures – Check ignition timing with a timing light when the distributor is reinstalled. 5) Observe PULSE light for test results. 4) Set FUNCTION switch to FREQUENCY. spin the distributor shaft to activate the PULSE light. Begin with the Test 1 hook-up if more than one test is shown. – Module access may require distributor removal. • Flashing light means good module. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION PULSE Note: The bottom TEST lights may also flash.) 3-2 Downloaded from www.Manualslib. This test will not detect intermittent failures due to heat or engine vibration. HIGH LOW Always make sure metal clips make good contact and do not touch each other. removal and installation procedures.) • No flashing means bad module. • Refer to vehicle service manual for module location. This is normal and may be ignored. Exception: When testing “ring” type modules (lower half. 2) Connect test leads as shown. 3) Set RANGE switch to LOW. page 3-11). • Always check the 9 volt battery in the tester (refer to page 1-4).com manuals search engine .

– Observe PULSE light for test results. If PULSE light flashes.) • No flashing means bad module.) – Observe PULSE light for test results. 3-3 Downloaded from www. (Only the Green test lead is moved. module is bad. Ford modules with two test hook-ups: – Reconnect test leads as shown for Test 2. (There may be a short delay before flashing starts.com manuals search engine . – Observe PULSE light.Manualslib. (There may be a short delay before flashing starts. • Flashing light means good module.) • No flashing means bad module.IGNITION MODULES GM 7 & 8 pin modules only: – Reconnect test leads as shown in Test 2 diagram. 6) Testing is complete. Set RANGE switch to POWER OFF and remove all test leads. • Flashing light means good module. It should NOT be flashing. – Short pins E and R together using paper clip (or other metal jumper).

com manuals search engine Green .Manualslib.Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules GM 4 and 5 pin Black * Yellow Red Green * Test clip must touch both base plate and bushing BUSHING BASE PLATE Black * Yellow Red 3-4 Downloaded from www.

com manuals search engine .Manualslib.GM 7 pin Test 1 Black Black * Yellow Green Red Green * Yellow Red Test 2 Black * Test clip must touch both base plate and bushing * BUSHING BASE PLATE Yellow Green Red Blue Jumper Black * Yellow Red Green Blue Jumper 3-5 Downloaded from www.

Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules GM 8 pin Green P N Test 1 +C GBRE SIDE VIEW C G B R E END VIEW Red Yellow Black Green P N Test 2 +C GBRE SIDE VIEW Red C G B R E END VIEW Yellow Black Blue Jumper 3-6 Downloaded from www.Manualslib.com manuals search engine .

com manuals search engine .Manualslib.Ford Dura-Spark Blue Jumper Red Red White Black Black Yellow Green (or Black/Green) MODULE Green Orange Note: Dura-Spark ignition modules come in several versions with different connector types. Make connections based on ignition module wire colors. Ford TFI Blue Jumper Black Green 4 5 6 3 2 1 Red SIDE VIEW END VIEW Yellow 3-7 Downloaded from www. Other module wires not used for testing.

Move Green lead to pin 5. Move Green lead to pin 5.Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Ford TFI-IV Test 1: Black Connect leads as shown.com manuals search engine . Other leads remain in original position Green Test 2: 7 8 9 6 5 4 3 2 1 Red Yellow SIDE VIEW END VIEW Ford TFI-IV Test 1: Test 2: Connect leads as shown.Manualslib. Other leads remain in original position Green Red Yellow SIDE VIEW END VIEW Black 3-8 Downloaded from www.

Chrysler 4 and 5 pin Black 5-pin type shown.com manuals search engine . Red 1 Yellow 2 4 3 5 Green Magetic Reluctance Pick-up Yellow 5 1 4 2 3 Black Green Red Hall Effect Pick-up 3-9 Downloaded from www.Manualslib. 4-pin uses same hook-up.

Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Honda 1 2 3 4 Black Green Red Yellow Red Yellow Green Yellow Red Green 3 4 2 1 4 3 2 1 Black 3-10 Downloaded from www. .Manualslib.com manuals search engine Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting holes or a metal ground inside distributor.

Red Yellow Black E B I Red Yellow Connect BLACK test lead to a good ground inside distributor. Test clip must touch both base plate and bushing Red IMPORTANT 1) Remove distributor from engine before testing. Black E B C I Connect BLACK test lead to a good ground inside distributor. I W Black Not present on some modules. 3-11 Downloaded from www.Honda/Nissan Yellow C B Red Bushing Green Base plate Yellow Black Connect BLACK test lead to a good ground inside distributor.com manuals search engine . 2) Module remains inside distributor during test.Manualslib.

Module is good if either hook-up tests O.K.Manualslib.com manuals search engine . Yellow Green Black * Green Black Yellow OR * Yellow Black Green * 1 2 4 3 Yellow * OR 1 2 4 3 Black 3-12 Green Black Green Yellow Downloaded from www.Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Nissan Test clip must touch both base plate and bushing Bushing Base plate S B I E Black Pick-up pins Yellow Green Red Nissan One-Coil System (Photo pick-up) 1987-1989 300ZX only * Nissan uses two types of connector wiring.

* 1 2 4 3 Yellow * OR 1 2 4 3 Black Green Black Green Yellow Green Yellow Black Not present on some modules.com manuals search engine . Module is good if either hook-up tests O.Manualslib. 3-13 Downloaded from www.Nissan Two-Coil System (Photo pick-up) Yellow Green Black * Nissan uses two types of connector wiring.K.

Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Toyota Yellow Use a paper clip to connect test lead.Manualslib. refer to vehicle service manual and connect as follows: • Red lead to battery pin • Yellow lead to coil pin • Black lead to module ground 3-14 • Green lead to IGT pin Downloaded from www.com manuals search engine . IMPORTANT For Toyota modules not pictured. Red Green Black Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting hole or good vehicle ground.

C Ext B I.com manuals search engine .Manualslib.Toyota Red Green BROWN BLACK Yellow Black Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting hole or good vehicle ground. T F Green Yellow Red 3-15 Downloaded from www.

Green 3-16 Downloaded from www.com manuals search engine .Manualslib.Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Toyota Green Red Yellow Yellow Use a paper clip to connect test lead. Black Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting hole or good vehicle ground.

Yellow Use a paper clip to connect test lead. 3-17 Downloaded from www.Toyota Green Black Red Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting hole or good vehicle ground.Manualslib.com manuals search engine .

Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Toyota Black Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting hole or good vehicle ground. 3-18 Downloaded from www. Green Red Yellow Use a paper clip to connect test leads.com manuals search engine .Manualslib.

com manuals search engine .Toyota Yellow Red Green Green Yellow Red Black Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting hole or good vehicle ground. 3-19 Downloaded from www.Manualslib.

3-20 Downloaded from www.Section 3 Testing Ignition Modules Toyota Yellow Red Green Black Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting hole or good vehicle ground.com manuals search engine .Manualslib.

com manuals search engine + C + SG B SG Yellow Red C B 3-21 . Black Downloaded from www.Toyota Red Red Green Green B C Yellow C Red Green Yellow F T Yellow T F B Green Connect BLACK test lead to igniter mounting holes.Manualslib.

com manuals search engine .Notes 3-22 Downloaded from www.Manualslib.

5 TEST 5) TEST light position indicates measured voltage. • Other TEST lights ON .5 1 . Warning: Do not connect to secondary ignition circuits .5 volts. switches. POWER OFF 1) Set FUNCTION switch to VOLTS.5 volt step along a span of 0.com manuals search engine . or jumping around. 4) Probe with YELLOW test lead.see illustration for voltage level.5 3 2.Section 2 Section 4 HIGH LOW More Uses for the Ignition Module & Engine Sensor Tester Circuit Voltage Checks This function is useful for checking the presence (or absence) of voltages throughout the vehicle electrical system (such as wiring. • More than one TEST light on.5 to 5 volts.5 2 1.5 4 3. or higher.voltage is less than 0.Manualslib. • All TEST lights OFF . will NOT turn on TEST lights.dangerous voltages present! RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION VOLTS over5 4. 3) Connect BLACK test lead to circuit ground. relays. It is safe for probing computer and sensor circuits. means the measured voltage is erratic or rapidly changing.voltage is 5 volts. no matter how large. Important: • Always make sure all connections are good at the contact points. Each light represents a 0. 4-1 Downloaded from www. • Negative voltages. Warning: Observe all safety precautions when working on vehicles (see page ii). • Top TEST light ON . not present or negative polarity. and connectors). 2) Set RANGE switch to HIGH.

HIGH LOW POWER OFF 1) Set RANGE switch to HIGH. or similar. HIGH LOW Low Resistance Checks • RANGE switch on LOW. or higher. All TEST lights OFF .Open Circuit (measured resistance is 7 Kohms. Important: • Do continuity tests on unpowered circuits only. or higher).Short Circuit (measured resistance is 200 ohms. scrape away corrosion. TEST TEST Short circuit Open circuit Other TEST lights ON mean circuit has resistance between 200 ohms and 7 K ohms. turn ignition key OFF and observe all safety precautions (see page ii). Top TEST light ON . switch operation. etc. If necessary. switch or relay contact). Black Yellow Black • All TEST lights OFF . • FUNCTION switch on OHMS. • Top TEST light ON . relay contacts. • Use YELLOW and BLACK test leads.resistance is 30 ohms.Manualslib. or less). 5) TEST light position indicates amount of continuity. ground connections.Section 4 Continuity Checks Test wiring. 2) Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS.resistance is 300 ohms. Warning: If working on-car. at the contact points. RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION Yellow 4) Connect BLACK test lead to other end of wire. paint. POWER OFF RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION 4-2 Downloaded from www. 3) Connect YELLOW test lead to one end of circuit (such as wire. switch or relay. • Always make sure all connections are good.com manuals search engine . or less. Other TEST lights ON mean resistance is between 30 ohms and 300 ohms.

) Yellow Black Yellow Black TEST TEST Switch Closed Switch Open Yellow Black Yellow Black 12V TEST TEST 12V Ground Connection No Ground Connection 4-3 Downloaded from www.More Uses for the Ignition Module/Sensor Tester Continuity Checks (cont.com manuals search engine .Manualslib.

the diode is defective. etc. RANGE VOLTS OHMS FREQUENCY FUNCTION Yellow Black Black Yellow TEST TEST Fig. the diode is defective. paint. at the contact points. ( YELLOW to cathode — BLACK to anode) 6) The top TEST light should be ON. 2) Set FUNCTION switch to OHMS. If a different TEST light is on or all lights are off. HIGH LOW POWER OFF 1) Set RANGE switch to HIGH. 3) Connect TEST leads as shown in Figure 1. 2 4-4 Downloaded from www. 1 Fig.Manualslib. scrape away corrosion.Section 4 Diode Checks Tests diodes and rectifiers for proper operation. 5) Reverse test lead connections as shown in Figure 2. Note: Always make sure all connections are good. If a different TEST light is on or all lights are off. If necessary.com manuals search engine . ( YELLOW to anode — BLACK to cathode) 4) The bottom TEST light should be ON.

Cleveland. nor is any responsibility assumed by Actron Manufacturing Company or anyone connected with it for loss or damages suffered through reliance on any information contained in this manual or misuse of the accompanying product.com manuals search engine . Actron requests that a copy of the original. Ohio 44102-4621 USA Tel: +1-261-651-9200 Fax: +1-216-651-2853 Actron . USA warrants to the user that this unit will be free of defects in materials and workmanship for a period of one (1) year from the date of original purchase. alterations or improper or unreasonable use. Ohio 441024621. All information. Some states do not allow the disclaimer of liability for incidental or consequential damages. 9999 Walford Avenue.Europe 60 Rte de St Gemme 78860 St NOM LA BRETECHE FRANCE Tel: +33-1-30802205 Fax: +33-1 30802182 Product Information & Repair Product Information & Repair Product Information Only Downloaded from www. No warranty (expressed or implied) can be made for its accuracy or completeness. Expendable items.Europe Coppen Road.Manualslib. Customer Service Centers Actron Manufacturing Company 9999 Walford Avenue Cleveland. dated sales receipt be returned with the unit to determine if the warranty period is still in effect. This warranty does not apply to damages caused by accident. fuses. so the above disclaimer may not apply to you. Actron Manufacturing Company disclaims any liability for incidental or consequential damages for breach of any written warranty on the unit. lamp bulbs and flash tubes are also excluded from the scope of this warranty. This warranty gives you specific legal rights and you may also have rights which vary from state to state. Dagenham. Essex RM8 1NU UNITED KINGDOM Tel: +44-(0)181-984-8855 Fax: +44-(0)181-984-8866 Actron . such as batteries. Actron Manufacturing Company reserves the right to make changes at any time to this manual or accompanying product without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes.Warranty (Garantia) FULL ONE (1) YEAR WARRANTY Actron Manufacturing Company. illustrations and specifications contained in this manual are based on the latest information available from industry sources at the time of publication. Any unit that fails within this period will be repaired without charge when returned to an authorized factory repair center.

Actron Manufacturing Company 9999 Walford Avenue Cleveland. 2-221301 Downloaded from www. Ohio 44102-4696 ©1997.S.® Made in the U. Actron Manufacturing Company Part No.com manuals search engine .A.Manualslib.