1. Define response time, execution time, throughput, wall clock time, elapsed time.

Response time: Response time is the time between the start and the completion of an event, such as milliseconds for a disk access. Execution time: The time between the start and the completion of an event is referred as Execution time. Throughput: The total amount of work done in a given time. Elapsed time: The latency required completing a task, including disk accesses memory accesses, input/output activities, operating system overhead— everything. 2. What is the relationship between execution time and performance? The relationship between execution time and performance is given by,

3. What is CPU time? How it can be classified, with one example.

CPU time: CPU time is the amount of time for which a central processing unit (CPU) was used for processing instructions of a computer program, as opposed to. For example: Waiting for input/output operations. 4. What is meant by system performance? System performance means the complete behavior of a repository system in response to the conditions, processes, and events that may affect it.
5. Define Workload of CPU.

In computing, the workload of CPU is the amount of processing that the computer has been given to do at a given time. The workload consists of some amount of application programming running in the computer and usually some number of users connected to and interacting with the computer's applications. 6. What is the use of Synthetic benchmarks? Give 2 examples. Synthetic benchmarks certainly have their usefulness since the data and performance is capable of being replicated on several different machines. It is also useful since in the world of reviews the reader very rarely has a system identical to that in the review. Examples are 3DMark Vantage, Sisoft Sandra, CineBench R10, SuperPI 7. Define SPEC. What is the use of it?

12. Define Overall CPI . Server benchmarks to construct a simple throughput benchmark where the processing rate of a multiprocessor can be measured by running multiple copies (usually as many as there are processors) of each SPEC CPU benchmark and converting the CPU time into a rate. is a type of mean or average. CPI= CPU clock cycles/Instruction count. Define desktop benchmarks? What are the types of it? Desktop benchmarks are real programs modified to be portable and to minimize the effect of I/O on performance. Geometric Mean: The geometric mean.The Standard Performance Evaluation Corporation (SPEC) is a non-profit organization that aims to "produce. Define reproducibility. is often abbreviated as CPI. arithmetic mean. geometric mean Reproducibility: Reproducibility is the process to list everything another experiment would need to duplicate the results. 8. establish. 10. The number of clock cycles needed to execute a program. Define IC. Arithmetic Mean: The arithmetic mean. often referred to as simply the mean or average when the context is clear. This leads to a measurement called the SPEC rate. maintain and endorse a standardized set" of performance benchmarks for computers. which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers. is a method to derive the central tendency of a sample space. Define server benchmarks? Server benchmarks are perhaps a processor throughput-oriented processor.CPI. 9. we can also count the number of instructions executed is the instruction path length or instruction count(IC).CPUtime The term ClockCyclesPerInstruction which is the average number of clock cycles each instruction takes to execute. Desktop benchmarks divide into two broad classes: processorintensive benchmarks and graphics-intensive benchmarks. 11. SPEC benchmarks are widely used to evaluate the performance of computer systems. in mathematics.

an accumulator. Circular addressing mode keeps a start register and an end register with every address register. Local optimizations. Immediate. 19. . Memory indirect. What are the major choices of ISA The major choices of ISA are a stack. Register. List out the basic operations in the Instruction set. Auto Decrement. Define Super pipelining. 14. 16. Explain the addressing mode of signal processing. Procedure return. In the bit reverse addressing mode the hardware reverses the lower bits of the address with the number of bits reversed depending on the step of FFT algorithm. Loop optimizations. 13. Procedure Calls. Direct or Absolute. 17. The addressing modes of signal processing are circular addressing mode and bit reverse addressing mode. Scaled. 15. List out the addressing modes. Jumps. Displacement. allowing the auto increment and auto decrement addressing modes to reset when they reach the end of the buffer. Register Indirect. List out the different types of control change. or a set of registers. Indexed. 18. List all types of compiler optimization techniques Peephole optimizations.The relative performance effect of a longer branch penalty depends on the overall CPI of the processor. Interprocedural or whole-program optimization. Auto Increment. The different types of control flow change are Conditional branches.

. each doing less work. A second approach is to buffer the results of an operation until all the operations that were issued earlier are complete. Define Structural. For example. 24. 22. this depends a lot on other design characteristics. A third technique in use is to allow the exceptions to become somewhat imprecise. then we in use in some processors is called delayed branch. Highlight the ways of maintaining precise exceptions The first is to ignore the problem and settle for imprecise exceptions. the main register file is updated from the future file. Branch-Target Buffers. The final technique is a hybrid scheme that allows the instruction issue to continue only if it is certain that all the instructions before the issuing instruction will complete without causing an exception. However. when all earlier instructions have completed. and it isn't true by default that a processor claiming super pipelining is "better" than one that does not. 21. In theory. we will use the latencies and initiation intervals. Exception Precise: Precise exception means that all instructions before the faulting instruction are committed and those after it can be restarted from scratch. Highlight the 4 ways of dealing branches. Return Address Predictors. Repeat Interval or Initiation Interval: The initiation or repeat interval is the number of cycles that must elapse between issuing two operations of a given type. repeat interval and initiation interval.Super pipelining simply refers to pipelining that uses a longer pipeline (with more stages) than "regular" pipelining. Data & Control Hazards. History file: When an exception occurs and the state must be rolled back earlier than some instruction that completed out of order. the original value of the register can be restored from the history file. This technique was heavily used in early RISC processors and works reasonably well in the five-stage pipeline. can be scaled to higher clock frequency. Define delayed branch If the compiler get the opportunities to improve the performance. Future file: It keeps the newer value of a register. 20. a design with more stages. Integrated Instruction Fetch Units and Speculation Support: Register Renaming versus Reorder Buffers 25. Define exception precise and imprecise exceptions. Define History file & Future file. 23. Imprecise Exception: An exception is imprecise if the processor state when an exception is raised does not look exactly as if the instructions were executed sequentially in strict program order. but to keep enough information so that the trap-handling routines can create a precise sequence for the exception.

item of information. Control hazards arise from the pipelining of branches and other instructions that change the PC. Fixed field encoding.Structural hazards arise from resource conflicts when the hardware cannot support all possible combinations of instructions simultaneously in overlapped execution. 26. What are the three classes of instruction of RISC? The three classes of instruction of RISC are ALU operations. This mechanism is used to preserve original data dependencies specified in the sequence of the instructions. Define the time/instruction on the pipeline processor. Load and Store instructions and Branch & jumps. material. This separation is done by introducing pipeline registers between successive stages of the pipeline. 30. First. we must increment and store the PC every clock. 27. Second. Data hazards arise when an instruction depends on the results of a previous instruction in a way that is exposed by the overlapping of instructions in the pipeline. 28. Effective Address: The address that is obtained by applying any specified indexing or indirect addressing rules to the specified address. and this must be done during the IF stage in preparation for the next instruction. Third To start a new instruction every clock. 31. the effective address is then used to . Define Effective Address. different steps are completing different parts of different instructions in parallel. Processor Cycle: The time required between instruction one step down the pipeline is a processor cycle. List out the 5 stages of RISC ACHITECTURE. pipe segment. Define pipeline. Pipeline: An activity. Define pipeline interlock and mention its use. or product. that is between the starting point and the completion point is 'in pipeline. We must also ensure that instructions in different stages of the pipeline do not interfere with one another. 29. the register file is used in the two stages: one for reading in ID and one for writing in WB. processor cycle. which we would typically implement with separate instruction and data caches. we use separate instruction and data memories. Each of these steps is called a pipe stage or a pipe segment. “Pipeline interlock” is a mechanism to detect hazard and resolve it.' Pipe Segment: Like the assembly line.

What is the CPI of processor without structural hazard? 38. for example so that a hazard condition can be resolved or a multicycle operation can occur. & control hazards. The problem solved with a simple hardware technique called forwarding (also called bypassing and sometimes short- . stalls. The major hurdles of pipelining are Pipeline Hazards. Speed up=Average Instruction time unpipelined/Average Instruction time pipelined A stall is where one or more pipeline of the stages are prevented from advancing so that some activity can finish. 37. Average Instruction Execution time= Clock Cycle * Average CPI Speed up from pipelining is defined as the ratio of the average instruction time unpipelined to the average instruction time pipelined. List out major hurdles of Pipelining. we can choose to stall either instruction. the pipeline registers also play the key role of carrying intermediate results from one stage to another where the source and destination may not be directly adjacent.identify the current operand. What is the use of pipeline registers? In the case of a pipelined processor. 33. Often fixed length encoding will have only a single size for all instructions. An alternative scheme is to stall a conflicting instruction when it tries to enter either the MEM or WB stage. called hazards that prevent the next instruction in the instruction stream from executing during its designated clock cycle. There are situations. Define data hazard. Hazards reduce the performance from the ideal speedup gained by pipelining. Define average instruction execution time. Speed up=Average Instruction time unpipelined/Average Instruction time pipelined 36. data hazards. Define Speed up from pipelining. Speed up from pipelining is defined as the ratio of the average instruction time unpipelined to the average instruction time pipelined. What is the alternate to structural hazard? This single register port represents a structural hazard. There are three classes of hazards: Structural hazards. 32. forwarding or bypassing of short-circuiting? Minimizing Data Hazard Stalls by Forwarding. If we wait to stall the conflicting instructions until they want to enter the MEM or WB stage. speedup from pipelining. it works best when there are few addressing modes and operations. 35. 34.

If 30 secs of the execution time of a program that takes 60secs in total can use the enhancement.5<1 .circuiting). Unfortunately. it is difficult to change one parameter in complete isolation from others because the basic technologies involved in changing each characteristic are interdependent: Clock cycle time —Hardware technology and organization _ CPI —Organization and instruction set architecture _ Instruction count —Instruction set architecture and compiler technology 40.5 Fraction enhanced<1 0. Sol: Fraction enhanced=30/60=1/2=0. The key insight in forwarding is that the result is not really needed by the DSUB until after the DADD actually produces it. Data hazards arise when an instruction depends on the results of a previous instruction in a way that is exposed by the overlapping of instructions in the pipeline. 39. CPU time is equally dependent upon what characteristics? Why? CPU time is equally dependent on these three characteristics: A 10% improvement in any one of them leads to a 10% improvement in CPU time. Find the fraction enhancement.

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