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Genetics Bio 206 Section BC HW#1 1.

Testcross- When individual expressing the dominant phenotype (Y-) is crossed with an individual which expresses the recessive phenotype (yy). 2. Backcross- the crossing of a heterozygote and crossing it with one of its parents or one genetically similar to one of its parents. 3. F1- the first generation and the progeny of the P generation. 4. F2- second generation the progeny of the F1 generation. 5. Dominant- Gene that produces the same phenotype in the organism whether or not its allele identical 6. Recessive- the trait that is not expressed in a heterozygote, rather remains hidden through generations 7. Co-dominant- genes of equal dominance and are both expressed in the phenotype of the individual 8. Partially Dominant- the situation in which both alleles of a heterozygote influence the phenotype Q5) Consider the cross between pure lines (i.e. homozygotes) AABB x aabb Write the genotypes of the F1 and the F2 generations The F1 generations will all be AaBb The F2 generation will consist of: AB AB Ab aB ab 6) AABB AABb AaBB AaBb Ab AABb AAbb AaBb Aabb aB AaBB AaBb aaBB aaBb ab AaBb Aabb aaBb Aabb

A rare recessive trait in a pedigree is indicated by which pattern of inheritance? B. horizontal


Sickle cell anemia is a recessive trait in humans. In a cross between a father who has

sickle cell anemia and a mother who is heterozygous for the gene, what is the probability that their first child will have the normal phenotype? -50 percent. (1/2) What is the probability that their second child will have the normal phenotype?

i. 4. the F1 offspring all had the same phenotype. 9) (from text book) 2.e one short tail and one normal tail. (1/2) What is the probability that both children will have the normal phenotype? (1/2)(1/2)= 1/4 8) After a cross between two mice. If the F1 is all Ss the parents must be SS and ss. then the recessive (normal) pigmentation would not occur. The F2 consisted of 91 short tails and 29 normal tails. (a)The piebald spotting trait is dominant because both parents show this condition. i. We can call (S) the allele for short tail and (s) the allele for short tail. This implies that the parents must have had different alleles. short tail.24 or 24%. Identify the phenotypes and genotypes of the two parent mice. (b) The female snake is Aa and the male snake is aa. The phenotypic ratio of the F2 is 91/120=0. 6. . These proportion are very close to 3:1. (b) Both the parents must be a heterozygote genotype.-50 percent. The dominant allele must be the one that determines the phenotype that is found in excess in the F2. the F2 shows two phenotypes. Given that the two parents have different genotypes and that the F1 shows a single phenotype one of the alleles must be dominant to the other. (a) The normal-colored snake phenotype is controlled by the dominant allele. By having child with this skin condition and another child with normal skin it that at least one of the parents also carries the allele for the normal skin pigmentation.76 or 76% and 29/120=0. If parents were not both heterozygote. Answer: The F1 shows only one phenotype. Breeders failed to uncover the principle that traits are governed by discrete units f inheritance because people believed in the idea where one parent contributes to most of the progenies characteristics.e. otherwise the F2 would exhibit only one phenotype. and also the idea of blended inheritance. This is the ratio that is obtained in the F2 from an F1 of the type Ss x Ss ( work out the cross Ss x Ss).

32. (b) The probability that Joe’s first child will develop Huntington disease is 25%. the dominant trait is open flowers. so closed trait can only be passed by a homozygote of the recessive allele. .8. (a) The probability that Joe will also develop Huntington disease is 50%. Since all the F1 progeny were open.