Prajnaparamita

Garud Bhagwan
Simhasarthabahu

Compiled by Damodar Pradhan
Monumental Guide

पजा पारिमता
(A short notes on Prajnaparamita)

Bikramshila Mahabihar
Simhakalpanagar
(Bhagwan Bahal, Thamel)

Bikram Era 2068
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Buddha Era

2552

Nepal Era

1132

2012 A.D

The

Sanskrit

word

Prajna1

paramita translated literally signifies this book as the Perfection of Transcendent Wisdom. (Perfect wisdom beyond ordinary limits / (Prajna - पजा wisdom and paramita पारिमता perfect/ perfection) Prajnaparamita is the central concept in Mahayana Buddhism and its
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practice is believed to be the essential elements of the Bodhisattva Path. The practice of Prajnaparamita is described in the Prajnaparamita Sutras, which vary widely in length and written by different scholars. Tara and Prajnaparamita are both referred as mother of all

Buddha, since Buddha is born from wisdom. The Dharma is classified as inferior and superior according to the disciple's grade. In Buddhism the disciples are being classified into four different stage of human being for example ordinary men; the stage of sainthood; Saint and

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bodhisattvas. In Buddhism, Dharma is referred to the teaching of Buddha, the Four Noble Truths, the Eightfold Noble Path, the three Marks of Existence, and other guidelines. The main motif is to achieve the freedom and liberation from suffering and

understand the state of mind to realize the supreme happiness, the natural joy and nirvana. The happiness is classified as Ananda (Joy), Paramanda (Supreme Joy), Virmananda (Absence of Joy), and Sahajanand (Natural Joy). Four Noble Truths is referred to the state of mind Dukkha

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(Suffering), Samudaya (the cause of suffering), Nirodha (free from suffering), Marga (a way to end suffering). The Four Noble Truths are formulated according to the ancient medical model as follows:1) There is an illness

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2) The diagnosis – there is a cause of illness. 3) There is a possibility of a cure for the illness. 4) There is treatment for the illness. (The prescription that can relieves the illness) The First Noble Truth:

Dukkha Dukkha usually is translated as suffering. In life, we have illness, poverty, disease, old age and death. We cannot keep what we like and avoid what we do not like. The happiness we do enjoy is temporary and we do suffer is the universal truth.

The Second Noble Truth: Samudaya The cause of suffering is desire & illusions which is mainly because of ignorance. Wanting life, death, pleasure and things all lead to suffering. The Third Noble Truth: Nirodha There is a state of mind free

from suffering. Suffering can get stopped if we can get rid of the state of mind, desire, cravings or hunger. The Fourth Noble Truth: Marga There is a way to end suffering, we must end our cravings. Eightfold Path is the only noble way to end craving.

The Eightfold Path The eightfold Path is the teachings of the Prajnaparamita Sutra: The Trisatika, Pancasatika, Saptasatika, Astasahasrika, Sardhadvisahasrika, Pancavimsatisahasrika, Astadasasahasrika and Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita

Truth is found through the Middle Way by following Eightfold Noble Path as stated below: 1) Right Viewpoint (samyag-dristi / samma-dristi) Realizing the Four Noble Truths Correct thought by avoiding
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samyak-samkalpa, samma- samkalpa
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Commitment to mental value

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sharp desire - extreme desire to acquire, the wish to harm others and wrong views (thinking as if the actions have no effect or say I have no problem so there is no ways to end suffering etc.) 2) Right Values

or expressing moral approval or moral philosophy correct speech avoid lying, harass speech (while having difference of opinion do not use harsh speech) and idle talk or rumor. 3) Right Speech (Samyag-vac, samma-vacaa) To speak in a truthful way

without harming others and to grow worse with unreasonable or wrong logic.Correct actions: avoid killing, stealing and sexual misconduct 4) Right Actions
samyak-karmanta, samma-kammanta

simple and healthy action, avoid action that would harm others.

Correct livelihood: try to make a living with the above attitude of thought, speech and actions. 5) Right Livelihood Profession does not harm in any way oneself nor others, directly or indirectly to understand and develop
samyag-ajiva, samma-ajiva

genuine wisdom. (The following last three aspects refer mainly to the practice of meditation) 6) Right Effort
samyagvayama vyayama, samma-

to improve the belief. 7) Right Mindfulness

samyak - smriti, samma - smriti

Correct effort, after the first real step we need joyful belief to continue or make an effort

Correct mindfulness: try to be aware of the "here and now", instead of "there and then". Consciousness - Mental ability to see things with clear knowledge or the sense of
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one's personal or collective identity. 8) Right Meditation (samyaksamadhi, samma-samadhi) Correct Concentration: to keep a steady, calm and attentive state of mind where one reaches enlightenment and the ego get disappear universal emptiness or the Natural Joy.
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Prajnaparamita Sutra is believed to be the highest form of Buddhist Teaching and is classified into eight different categories as follows: The Trisatika, Pancasatika, Saptasatika, Astasahasrika, Sardhadvisahasrika,

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Pancavimsatisahasrika, Astadasasahasrika and Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita 1) Trisatika Prajnaparamita Sutra: the Diamond Sutra or Vajracchedika Prajnaparamita Sutra with 300 lines,

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2) Pancasatika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 500 lines 3) Saptasatika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 700 lines, the Bodhisattva Manjushree’s exposition of Prajnaparamita 4) Pardhadvisahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: from

the questions of Bodhisattva Suvikrantavikramin 2500 lines 5) Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 8000 lines 6) Astadasasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 18,000 lines

7) Pancavimsatisahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: 25,000 lines 8) Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra: Maha Prajnaparamita Sutra. According to Joseph Walser Pancavimsatisahasrika (25,000

line) Prajnaparamita Sutra and Satasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra (100,000 lines) have a connection with Dharma Guptaka sect, while Astasahasrika Prajnaparamita Sutra (8000 lines) does not have any sect. ----- Mahayana Buddhism: Williams Paul, the Doctrinal Foundations 2008.
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In addition to these, there are also other Prajnaparamita Sutra such as the Heart Sutra (Prajnaparamita Hridaya), which exists in both 14-line and 25-line versions. Regarding the shorter texts, Edward Conze in his book "The Short Prajnaparamita Texts 1973" writes, according to

merit the Diamond Sutra and the Heart Sutra are renowned throughout the world. Both have been translated into many languages and have often been commented upon. Additionally, Prajnaparamita Sutra teachings are held by some Tibetan Buddhists to have been conferred upon

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Nagarjuna by Nag raja, King of Nagas, who had been guarding them at the bottom of the ocean. Tantric versions of the Prajnaparamita literature were produced from the year 500 CE on. Some of the ancient manuscripts are in the collection of Museums around the world. The following two

collections are very important and authentic, The Heart Sutra (smallest of its kind having only 14 Stanzas in Sanskrit) is in New York Museum and The Perfection of wisdom (Tibetan Script having 8,000 stanza) from the collection of Copenhagen Royal Library. There are more Prajna-

paramita written in other languages found in many South Asian Countries Tibet, China, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Cambodia, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam, Java, Sumatra, Bali, India, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh. Most of the Scholars are of the opium that the oldest and authentic
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manuscript is from Sri Lanka. The oldest Prajnaparamita manuscript (written during the period of Manipaldeva the king of Bengal 1020 AD) from the collection of Cambridge University is written in Ranjana script, highlights the origin of Ranjana Script from India. (From the collection of Indian
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Art Museum, Berlin –Dr. Regmi, Dinesh Chandra, Purlekhana Paricaya VS 2048/ 1991. An introduction to Nepalese Paleography in Nepali Page 102 Conclusion:Prajnaparamita, the Mahayan Buddhist text is best preserved in Nepal. There are many

Vihars in and around Kathmandu Valley where they do have some collections of manuscripts written by different scholars and are displayed during the holy month GUNLA - August / September. There is more Prajnaparamita Manuscript also in the collection of

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National Achieve as well in Asha Saphu Kuthi, (Asha Archives) Kaiser Library and National Library in Kathmandu, Nepal as well as Musiums around the globe. Most of those collections are in small version or are of small volume with less stanza (slokas) but the one in Vikramshila

Mahavihar, Thamel sounds to be more authentic and has more Stanzas (shlokas) and is nicely written with real golden ink (dated 344 NS / 1233 AD). Prajnaparamita Manuscript from Patan, Rudra Varna Mahavihar is dated 216 NS/ 1105 AD and from Hiranya Varna Mahabihar is dated 336

NS / 1225 AD __ (Hem Raj Sakya and T.R. Vaidya, 1970 Medieval Nepal: Colophons and inscriptions, Kathmandu page 6). Vikramshil Mahavihar, Thambahi Vikramshil
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(Bhagwan Bahal, Thamel, Kathmandu)

Mahavihar,Thambahi, Simhakalpanagar is the ancient name of Bhagwan Bahal, Thamel Kathmandu. Mahavihar signifies it to be a higher teaching institute, same as a University; Thambahil signifies it to be the monastery of high significance and pride. Simhakalpanagar denotes it as
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a separate city or town itself. Bahi is the old form of Nepalese monastery usually located in a peaceful place far from the city settlement and are made in a plinth little above the level of the ground and are constructed in a very simple form. Originally Bahis were designed as a place for

training, perching, copying the religious text; as a teaching institute; boarding for the students and shelter for the visiting monks. After the introduction of Vajrayan cult a new kind of monastery known as bahal (with more decoration) were constructed in the city settlement to

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accommodate the married monks living together with their family. (Wolfgang, The Traditional Archecture of Kathmandu Valley, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, Kathmandu). In this short article I am trying my best effort to high light some facts to make understand a common reader

about this ancient temple complex: lots of investigation and research need to be conduct to identify its past glory, as we are left with few documents. Swayambhu Puran is one of the oldest manuscripts narrating the story of the evolution of Kathmandu Valley.

According to the legend, Kathmandu Valley was a titanic lake surrounded by mountains. Kanakmuni Bodhisattwa is believed to have thrown a lotus seed in the lake. A big lotus flower with a thousand leaves blossomed in the center of the lake that attracted visitors from around the globe.
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Manjushree Bodhisttwa is believed to have visited this place and meditated in Phulchowki (Phullichho) and Jamachho (Jatamatroccho). He is believed to have drained the valley by cutting the edge of the hill with his divine sword. (Chobhar being the only exit for all rivers in Kathmandu
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Valley and the black soil found everywhere in Kathmandu Valley does signify it to be a lake earlier). Manjushree is the Bodhisattvas of Divine Wisdom representing the infinite and eternal intellect of Buddha. Manjushree holds a sword in his right hand and a book of perfection (Prajnaparamita) in

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the left hand. The first historical important evidence of Than Bahi is the visit of Pundit Atisha Shrijana (NS 982 - 1054 A.D.) who did spend one year studying the Buddhist philosophy during 1041/42 A.D. He was the head pundit (Principal) of Nalanda

University and was invited by the Tibetan king to visit Tibet to teach and revive Buddhism. On his way to Tibet he spent one year in Nepal (1041 - 42); most of his time was spent in Tham Bahi. He is believed to have studied the Buddhist philosophy and has written books in Sanskrit. (But he did

not mention the name of Prajnaparamita from Tham Bahi in his travel account). The Saharsha Prajnaparamita a rare collection of four volumes of highest Buddhist manuscript in this temple complex has a close relationship with Manjushree. The legendary Caravan to

Lhasa leaded by Simhala Sarth Baha have main historical significance to its establishment. Some of the travel records made by scholars from India, Tibet and China also did mention about the glory of this temple during the 11th and 13th century; still lots of real facts are missing.
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Dharmashri Mitra, a renowned scholar from Vikramshil Vihar, Nalanda, India is believed to visit Nepal for advance study in Buddhism and Sanskrit in the early 13th Century. He did study in Thambahil, which clearly indicates the high importance of Thambhil and the similarity of the name
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Vikramshil indicates the name might have been given by him “Traditional Architecture of Kathmandu Valley" by W Korn, Ratna Pustak Bhandar, 1976 (Text by Purna Harsha Bajracharya). Recent Archeological excavation in Nalanda got a

new light about the existence of Vikramshil Vihar as one of the old teaching institutions for higher study in Buddhism in the early first century B.C. A historical evidence of the restoration of the temple in 408 N.S./1287A .D. by Hari Singh during the resign of King

Parthvendra Malla is being mentioned in the Toran, the semicircular wood archive kept in the main entrance of the temple. (It did have nice carvings of the image of Prajnaparamita which was stolen some 40 years ago; a new Toran is kept now as a replacement). The brick paving

and the restoration of the temple complex in Thambahi was done by Hari Simha during the reign of king Parthivendra Malla is also mentioned in one of the stone inscription kept in National Archiev (The stone inscription no.173- Rajvamsi, Sanker Man 2027 VS in Kantipur Silalekh Suchi

published by HMG National Archive p 125). Almost all Vihars in and around Kathmandu valley are being managed by the community of priest family either by Bajracharya or Sakya (Gristha Bhishu) family but this Vihar is exceptional where the management of the temple is
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being controlled by Pradhan family who are not belonging to the priest family nor a Gristha Bhishu. (A monk staying in the monasteries together with their family, which is accepted by Bajrayana Buddhism introduced after the Tantrayana concept in
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Buddhism.) Simhala Sarthabaha is believed to have established Bhagwan Bahal and the entire daily rituals and activities during the festival are being controlled by the Pradhan family from Thamel, who believe themselves as the descendants of Simhala Sarthabaha.

We see the Gajus on the rooftops of the religious buildings and temples and chaityas in the Buddhist temple. Both the Buddhist as well as the Hindu temple has the Gaju (the pinnacle) and a Kalash (the holy water vase) design but the main shrine of Thambahi has a chaitya and a

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metallic mirror on the spire. A banner of white cloth along with a metallic belt hangs down from the metallic mirror (or chaitya). (Locke, John K., S.J. Karunamaya 1986 page 474) Saharsha Prajnaparamita The four volume of Saharsha

Prajnaparamita manuscript in the collection of Thambahi is dated Nepal Sambat 344 Margasira Pratipada (1223 AD) is believed to have written by Jinashri Jnana and started by Manjushree. Jinashri is supposed to get inspired by Manjushree and found an auspicious moment to start

writing the manuscript, but felt asleep; Manjushree is believed to have started writing the first three pages with his finger. (The first three pages do have big script different than the remaining page). When he woke up, found the auspicious moment already passed and was laminating;

Manjushri came forward and instructed him to start writing without any disturbances as he has already started writing from the auspicious moment. This is a legend but we have no evidence regarding how long it did took to write all the four volume. The date NS 344 (1223 AD) might be the date it
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was completed or the date mentioned by someone else? King Pratap Mall (1641-1674 AD) and Queen Lalmati after visiting this temple wrote three stanzas appreciating the holy manuscript Laksavati Prajnaparamita (NS 780/1658 AD). Pandit Hemraj Sakya in his Nepal Sanskritya Mulukha

1969 (Main entrance of the culture of Nepal) did mentioned this manuscript as Laksavati Prajna-paramita; this clearly indicate to have 100,000 stanza. It is believed that there were in total five volumes of Manuscripts. Tibetans did invade the temple and looted

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one volume which was recovered by the army and was deposited in Hanumandhoka Palace during King Pratap Mall’s period. Some people used to speak to have seen a manuscript having more similarity in script, being used during rituals in Sweat Bhairav temple in

Hanumandhoka. It is very interesting facts about numerology in both Hindu and Buddhist mythology that number nine plays a vital role, this is clearly understood in the layout of the page with three row containing nine lines totaling twenty seven lines, adding two and seven makes

nine so each and every volume also do have the same count ending with nine. This does not happen if we have eight lines with three rows even though nine lines with four rows do fulfill these criteria but the size do not look nice. The size of the page is rectangular nine inches by eighteen inches
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written in real golden ink, which looks like a print rather than a hand written manuscript as the character looks uniform and looking at the nice and bright prints, it is hard to believe it being written long ago. There are 54,864 total lines in the four Volumes, (27 lines in
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one page - nine lines in three rows) four volume containing 2032 page (517 pages in Vol.1, 506 in Vol. II, 512 in Vol. III and 497 in Vol. IV). We have no idea regarding the total number of pages in the missing volume kept in Hanuman Dhoka. If we guess 500 pages in the missing

volume it will add 13,500 lines making total 68,364 lines. During GUNLAA, the Buddhist holy months (ninth months of Lunar Calendar) the four volumes are given to the Bajracharya of four renowned Vihars of Kathmandu to recite from top to bottom and are paid for doing so. During the

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last day of the display of the manuscript the National (Royal) Kumari from Hanumandhoka is being carried on a chariot to Thambhil for viewing the manuscript and the head Priest from Hanuman dhoka used to recite few lines from the first page and the last page in the

presence of Kumari marking the end of reciting of the holy manuscript Prajnaparamita. This used to be the only time when the manuscript is able to be view by public. (Now a day’s one can easily see it on paying fee that is used for the temple expenses). Many devotees from China, Tibet,

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India, Sikkim and Bhutan come visit Thambhi to pay to view and pay respect to this holy manuscript as it is believed to have written by the Devine lord of learning Manjushree. The four volume of Saharsha Prajnaparamita manuscript in the collection dated Nepal

Sambat 344 Margasira Pratipada (1223 A.D.) is believed to have written by Jinashri Jnana and started by Manjushree. Jinashri is supposed to get inspired by Manjushree and found an auspicious moment to start writing the manuscript, but felt asleep. Manjushree is believed
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to have started writing the first three pages with his fingers. (The first three pages do have big scripts different than the remaining pages). When he woke up, found the auspicious moment already passed and was laminating; Manjushri came forward and instructed him to start writing without

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any disturbances as he has already started from the auspicious moment. This is a legend and we have no evidence regarding how long it took to write all the four volumes. The date N.S. 344 (1223 A.D.) might be the date it was completed or the date

mentioned by someone else? King Pratap Malla (1641-1674) and Queen Lalmati after visiting this temple wrote three stanzas appreciating the holy Laksavati Prajnaparamita manuscript (N.S. 780, 1658 A.D.). During GUNLAA, the Buddhist holy month (the ninth month of the Lunar Calendar)

the four volumes are given to the Bajracharyas of four renowned Vihars of Kathmandu to recite from the top to bottom and are paid for doing so. This used to be the only time when the manuscript is able to be view by the general public. (Now a day’s one can easily see it on paying

a certain fee that is used for the temple expenses). During the last day of the display of the manuscript, the National (Royal) Kumari from Hanuman Dhoka is being carried on a chariot to Thambhil for viewing the manuscript and the Head Priest from Hanuman Dhoka used to recite a few lines from
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the first page and the last page in the presence of Kumari marking the end of reciting the holy manuscript Prajnaparamita. Pandit Hem Raj Sakya in his Nepal Sanskritya Mulukha 1969 (Main Entrance of the Culture of Nepal) did mention this manuscript as Laksavati
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Prajnaparamita. This signifies to have 100,000 stanzas. We have no idea regarding the total number of pages in the missing volume kept in Hanuman Dhoka. Tibetans did invade the temple and looted one volume which was recovered by the army and was deposited back in

Hanuman Dhoka Palace during King Pratap Malla's period. Some people used to speak to have seen a manuscript having more similarity in scripts, being used during the rituals in Swet Bhairav Temple in Hanuman Dhoka; but there is no record in Hanuman Dhoka regarding this manuscript.

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There are 54,864 total lines in the Four Volumes, (27 lines in one page - nine lines in three rows) four volumes containing 2,032 pages (517 pages in Vol.1, 506 in Vol. II, 512 in Vol. III and 497 in Vol. IV). If we guess 500 pages in the missing volume it will add

13,500 lines making a total of 68,364 lines. It is a very interesting fact about numerology in both Hindu and Buddhist mythologies that number nine plays a vital role. This is clearly understood in the layout of the page with three rows containing nine lines totaling

twenty-seven lines, adding two and seven makes nine; so each and every volume also does have the same count ending with nine. This does not happen if we have eight lines with three rows even though nine lines with four rows do fulfill these criteria as. The size does not look nice.

The size of the page is rectangular, nine inches by eighteen inches written in real golden ink, which looks like a print rather than a hand written manuscript as the characters look uniform and looking at the nice and bright prints, it is hard to believe being written long ago.
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Manjushree - Legendary and Historical In the first chapter of Kalachakra Tantra, the main religious Text of Mahayan Buddhism, it is mentioned that 600 years after Buddha a great scholar Manjushree will be born to get a new renaissance of Buddhist thoughts, clearly

indicates Manjushree to belong to the First century AD, (Boudha Darshan by Baldev Upaddhaya published by Sharada Mandir Kashi 2003 page 454 – 55. Same quote is also given in Maryada No. 13 pages 69 - 71). The Buddhist text Saddharma Pundarika, is also written by a

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Buddhist Monk named Manjushree during the first century (Legendary History of Kathmandu by John Luck page 412) and Late Bhuvan Lal Pradhan also did mentioned the legendary Manjushree belong to the first century in the article “Manjushree Legendary or historical”

published in Nepali (Gorkhapatra 2048/2/11). The holy Satashasrika Prajnaparamita (100,000 verses 12 volumes in the Tibetan language) has been translated in ninth century by Jianshree Mitra, Subrenbodieg and Tibetan Monk Ye-Se-sde, (Bibliotheca Indica 1902-

1913). This clearly indicates Jianshree to belong to the ninth century signifying his teacher Manjushree also to belong to this period. Edward Conze in his book The Prajnaparamita Literature did mention Jianmitra to have translated this text in Tibetan language during the early 9th
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century. The date mentioned at the end of the manuscript from Bhagwan Bahal (344 NS / 1223 AD), being written by Jianshri indicates another historical Manjushree to belong to the thirteen century (Jianshri was the disciple of Manjushree).
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There is some confusion regarding the legendary and three historical Manjushree: a scholar and Monk from India (1st Century), Teacher of Jianmitra (Jinashri 9th Century), teacher of Jinashri (from Prajnaparamita manuscript written in the 13th Century) and The legendary

Manjushree from Mahachin (China).The date 1223 AD/ 344 NS mentioned at the end of the Prajnaparamita manuscript from Vikramshila Mahavihar indicates another historical Manjushree (a monk from Nalanda University, India) the teacher of Jinashri to belong to the 13th century.

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Jinashri is believed to have inspired from his teacher and found an auspicious moment to start writing the manuscript. He felt asleep by the time and Manjushri is believed to start writing the first three pages with his finger. (The first three pages do have big script different than the remaining

page). When he woke up, found the auspicious moment already passed so was laminating; Manjushri came forward and instructed him to start writing without any disturbances as he has already started writing from the auspicious moment. This is a legend but we have no

evidence regarding how long it did took to write all the four volume. The date 1223 AD / 344 NS mentioned at the end of the manuscript might be the date it was completed or the date mentioned by someone else? King Pratap Mall and Queen Lalmati after visiting this temple (NS 780 / 1658
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AD), during the festival GUNLAA, wrote three stanzas appreciating the holy manuscript Laksavati Prajnaparamita (Literally meaning 100,000 Stanza -- Pundit Hem Raj Sakya, Nepal Sanskritya Mulukha 1969 (Main entrance of the culture of Nepal). The Jataka Tales (Stories of
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the Buddha's Former Births) In Gunakarandavyuha, the story of Avalokiteswara Boddhisttava as a flying white horse (Balaha) help rescue a group of merchant from the captivity of the she-globins (Rakshasis) is narrated. In the story it is mentioned that

Sinhala, son of Sinha, a merchant of the capital of Sinhakalpa was the leader of the group of five hundred merchants. They were rescued by five hundred young and beautiful ladies from Tamradip after they encountered an accident in the ocean. Valahasa Jataka (The story

of the flying horse) At the time, the Bodhisattva had come in to the world as a flying horse able to fly through the air from Himalaya he flew through the air until he come to Ceylon. These he passed over the ponds and tanks of Ceylon, and eat the paddy that grew wild there. As he passed

on, thus he thrice uttered human speech filled with mercy- "Who wants to go home?" The traders heard his saying, and cried - "We are going home, master!" joints their hands, and raising them respectfully to their foreheads. "Then climb up on my back" said the Boddhisttva, Thereat

some of them climbed up, some laid hold of his tail, and some remained standing, with respectful salute. Then the Boddhisattva took up even those who stood still saluting him, and conveyed all of them, even two hundred and fifty, to their own country, and set down each in his own place,
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and then he went back to his place of dwelling. And the sheglobin, when other men come to the place, slew those two hundred and fifty who were left, and devoured them. Jataka (Buddhist Birth Stories Jataka Tales), the story of the previous birth of Buddha is the

oldest, most complete, and most important collection of folklore which contains a record of the everyday life, and everyday thoughts of the people. (The Commentarial Introduction entitled Nidana Katha - The Story of the linage, Translated from Pali text by Prof. V. Fausboll).

The Jatakas so constituted were carried to Ceylon in the Pali language, when Buddhism was first introduced into that island (a date that is not quite certain, but may be taken provisionally as about 250 B.C.); and the whole tales were translated into the

Singhalese language. Mahinda, the son of Asoka (in some text he is called on as the brother of Asoka), is believed to have collected 550 Jataka stories in Pali (the twenty-two Nipitaks) which were composed by the time of the council of Patna (held in about 250 BC). A Jataka Book is also found in

the Anguttara Nikdya and in the Saddharma Pundarika. The memoirs of Fah-hian (Faxian 399-414 AD), the famous Chinese traveler who visited Abhayagiri in Sri Lanka during 412 AD recorded 500 representations of Bodhisattva in successive births. The Jataka Atthavannand (547

tales) belong to the third or fourth century BC is retold into its present form in Ceylon in the fifth century AD in the Pali text is edited by Prof. Fausboll of Copenhagen in 1877-96. This Pali Text is the oldest collection of the Jataka Tales has been translated into English language by Edward
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Cowell (Cambridge 18951907). The 547 Jatakas do not include the Mahagovinda Jataka, which is mentioned in several early texts such as Nidanakatha and the Jatakakatha. Similarly some stories are repeated with the same name or with another, thus, the
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number of Jataka stories could also be more or a little less. In all Jatakas from India, Sri Lanka, Tibet, China, Japan, Vietnam, Indonesia, the story of the rescue of five hundred merchants from the captive of Rakshasi by White Flying Horse, as the Devine Lord Avalokite- swara, is mentioned

and the story ends with the only member, the leader able to get back home safely leaving behind all other members under the captive of the Rakshasi but nothing is mentioned about the Leader of the Legendary Caravan. The story of the flying white horse is illustrated on the bas-

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reliefs of the temple of BoroBoedoer in Java (Leemans, Borro-Boudour, page 389, Leide, 1874) and on one side of a pillar in a Buddhist railing at Mathura, is a flying horse with people clinging to it (Anderson, Catalogue of the Indian Museum, page 189) from The Goblin City

(Valahassa Jataka by Francis & Thomas page 189). The story of the horse Balaha was immortalized in stone at the Angkor monument of Neak Pean during the 12th century CE. (See Khmer Mythology by Vittorio Roveda, p. 65) One painting from Ajanta cave shows the pastimes of Prince

Simhala’s journey to Sri Lanka. He is shipwrecked along with his men on an island on which ogresses appear as beautiful women, but who eat their victims. The princes escape on a flying horse, then later returns to the island and conquer it and established Buddhism. (Behl, Benoy K: The
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Ajanta Caves). Chinese pilgrim Hiuen Tsang visited India in the seventh century A. D. and stayed here for fifteen years (629-645 AD), did not mention about Ajanta cave. In 1819 British officers of the Madras Army made a discovery of this magnificent site. They named it Ajanta after the name of the
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nearest village. After a gap of twenty-five years, James Fergusson presented a paper at the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland in 1843, highlighting its importance in term of Buddhism. This is the first scholarly study of the site which drew the global

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attention. (Jamkhedkar, Ajanta: Monumental Legacy) The Valahassa Jataka Tales (Jataka Story: the Flying White Horse) The Pali Jatakas, Divyavadana (heavenly stories) and the sixteenth-century Sanskrit text

Gunakdrandavyiha narrates the story of Avalokitesvara as The Flying White Horse to help rescue the five hundred merchants from the captivity of the Raksasi the Valahassa Jataka. The horse is represented as an incarnation of the Avalo-kitesvara in the Karandavyuha Sutra. The

flying white horse is called Balaha in Jataka, the stories of Buddha’s previous life. Simhala Sarthabaha is mentioned as one of the previous lives of Buddha in the 16th chapter of Gunakaranda- vyuha. In one of the Jataka Story the name of the leader of the group of merchant is mentioned as

Simhala, who was the only member to get back to the other shore. (The Jataka: Stories of the Buddha's Former Births -The Goblin City page 164/165, edited by E. B. Cowell, vol. 1 3. published in 1895-1907). The Asvaraja story relates the adventures of a caravan of
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merchants shipwrecked on an island of demonizes and rescued by a flying horse, the Ashawaraja, the king of horses. The Simhala story continues this narrative to include the chief merchant, Simhala, being followed home (but the name of the city is not mentioned) by demons, who
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tries to get him back before seducing and eating the king and his family. Simhala is crowned king and invades the island and introduce Buddhism there. The Valahassa Jataka - Some of the different sources related to the legendary story of the Avalokiteswora in the form of

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flying white horse help rescue the five hundred merchants from the man eating Cannibalistic demonsRakshasis, belonging to the Iron City. 1) Valahassa Jataka (From the Japanese Literature) The Valahassa Jataka, as it is

known in Pali, was transmitted across Asia from India to Japan. A Japanese scroll painting belonging to the 13th century illustrating the Valahassa Jataka is in the collection of The Metropolitan Museum of Art, the tale is known as Kannon-kyo (Kannon Sutra) in Japanese literature.

In the tale the name of the island is mentioned as Ceylon and a city of Cannibalistic demon. The name of the country of the five hundred merchant and the name of the leader are not mentioned. In this tale the five hundred merchant are called on as the disciples of Sakyamuni and the

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white flying horse as Bodhisattva. (The Flying White Horse: Transmission of the Valahassa Jataka Imagery from India to Japan by Julia Meech-Pekarik, Published by: Artibus Asiae Publishers Volume 43 n. 1-2 1981, page 111- 128)

2) “The Valahassa Jataka” Avadana Jataka (Indonesian version) Once upon a time, there was on the island of Lanka a goblin town called Sirisavatthu, the home of she-goblins. We find the story of a group of five
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hundred shipwrecked traders being rescued by five hundred she-goblins disguised as pretty nice looking young ladies. The chief of the traders got noticed the ladies as man eater goblins so he did request all member to flee from the city (Ceylon). Two hundred fifty members followed the chief and they

were being helped by the white flying horse to cross the ocean. This is how the Jataka story ends with the rescue help made by the flying white horse Balaha as one of the Buddha’s previous life. The same story is repeated by E J Thomas in his book Jataka Tales (No. 196, The Goblin City

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published by Cambridge University Press in 1916- page 164-166 and in The Illustrated Jataka & Other Stories of the Buddha, Valahassa Jataka-196 by C.B. Varma) 3) The Valahassa Jataka (Tibetan version) In the history of Tibet called

Rgyal-rabs-gsal-vai-me-lon (The mirror illustrating the lineage of the kings) Valahassa Jataka is mentioned in the sixth chapter. This was composed in the early 17th century with the narrative description of the animistic life in Tibet from an ape and a rakshasi and the description of

the linage of the ruling king ending Sronbtsan sgam-po and the further history of the country to the time of the writer. (A Jataka-Tale, from the Tibetan: by H. Wenzel, pp. 503 – 511 published in 1888). Singhala is mentioned as the name of the island and rescue

of a group of five hundred merchants were being rescued from the Rakshasis by the flying horse Balaha an incarnation of Avalokitesvara. 4) Valahassa Jatakaya (The birth story of the Flying Horse from Pali (Ceylon) At Kelanimulla ferry, in 1952 a
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large, very well made dugout boat was found (now in the Colombo Museum) that has been radio carbon dated to 2300BP ± 100, which is 380 – 480 BC: which makes it very close to the time of Vijaya’s arrival (on the date of the Buddha’s paribbana on 543 BC). At this time the sea-levels

had not settled down to today’s level: it was yet fluctuating, as we saw in Part 2. From the location it was found (Kelaniya) and the skill of the maker, one can say that Kalyani was occupied by a technologically advanced people, “black and red ware” pottery were found dating

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back to the early Christian Era. This country has been known for the copper deposits (perhaps that is the origin of Tambapanni) and iron: in fact it has been said that they went straight from the Stone Age to the Iron Age. Hence the reference to an “iron city” is intriguing. In fact, the slag

heaps found in uncountable numbers all over the country is proof of a long-established industry which lasted into the 19th century; if not later it is fascinating to try one’s hands at this type of detective work. But the purpose of this story is to find out who, were the first settlers, how did they come,

and who did they meet here. The stories are there, but they are only stories. But scientific data is also there – and that data is probably more reliable. We can conclude that the first settlers came by sea along the western Indian coast were the merchants who knew about the precious gems, therefore
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called this country Ratnadweepa. They met technically advanced people who knew how to mine and work in iron and copper, had the means of accessing the interior of the country by boat, lived in cities and traded with Indian merchants. The Reality is therefore a long way from
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the fantasy land of the legends. Singhala is also the name given to Sri Lanka and in Sanskrit Sinhala signify bark of a tree probably cinnamomum cassia (S. Cassia) which is native to Sri Lanka. This is also a plant found in southern China and Indo China, its bark

is often used as an substitute for cinnamomum verum (also called cinnamomum zeylanica) It could also have been possible that Cinnamon, in addition to Gems, Copper and Iron was another item that brought the Indian merchants here just as it brought the

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Europeans here two thousand years ago? 5) A Jataka-Tale (Dukanipata: No. 196)
Translated Literature from the Pali

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In the Valahassa Jataka the island Tambannidipa and Sirisavatthu is mentioned as a

Yakkha city peopled by Yakkhinis who used to eat human flesh. Avalokiteswara, the divine lord is believed to have rescue the group of five hundred merchant in the form of a white flying horse. (The Jataka, Vol. II, Book II. translated from Pali. by W.H.D.

Rouse, 1895, No. 196 Valahassa Jataka, Page 90-92). Same story is mentioned in Jataka: The Illustrated Jataka & Other Stories of the Buddha by C.B. Varma and A JatakaTale from the Tibetan by H. Wenzel (The Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland pp. 503--

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511). In all the Jataka stories written by various authors mentioned the same story but with a different version related to the name of the Cannibalistic city and the name of the leader as well as the country he belong to is not clearly mentioned.

6) Goblin City (The Flying White Horse) In the Jataka: Stories of the Buddha's Former Births, Ceylon is mentioned as the Goblin City and the leader of the group of merchant is mentioned as Simhala who was the only member able to get back to the other shore

(The Jataka: Stories of the Buddha's Former Births edited by E. B. Cowell, volumes 1 - 3. First published in 1895-1907 under the title - THE Goblin City page 164/166) 7) Jataka Story from Ajanta Cave (cave no.17 and 19)

The Ajanta caves are dated from the beginning of the Christian era, or earlier to the seventh century. Cave 17 has the largest number of paintings and murals than any of the other caves. The mural paintings in Cave no. 17 of Ajanta Cave mention the story of Bhalaha

horse as a form of Avalokiteswara helping the group of merchants from the Rakshisis. Among the finest are a vast panel depicting Simhala’s shipwreck and encounter with a man-eating ogress (“Simhala Avadana”). (The Cave Temples of India by James Fergusson and James

Burgess 1895, and Ajanta and Ellora: Cave Temples of Ancient India Pushpesh Pant). 8) Hiouen Tsang’s version of Simhala Avadana It relates a story of the colonization of this country which is called “Ratnadweepa”, as it is in Hiouen Tsang’s
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version - by “Sinhala”, the son of Simha, a Merchant Prince who comes with 500 merchants in search of gems. He comes here, and meets a group of beautiful women who live in an iron city called Sirisavatthu. They are, in fact, cannibalistic Yakkhinis who can change their form, and they
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prey on shipwrecked sailors and merchants. Sinhala’s ship is wrecked and he is saved by the Yakkhinis who present themselves as the widows of other merchants who have sailed on trading missions many years ago and are “presumed dead”. Simhala believes the story and ‘marries’

the chief Yakkhini, but finds out who they are and manages to escape with two hundred and fifty of his men who believe him, with the help of a magical flying horse. His ‘wife’ follows him to his kingdom and presents herself, as the woman wronged by his son, to Simha’s father. He believes her

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and gives her shelter. She devours him and his whole household that night and returns to Ratnadweepa, where she kills and eats the 250 men who had not heeded Simha’s call. Simhala succeeds his father as king and invades Ratnadweepa and introduce Buddhism there.

9) Simhalasarthabahu Avadana

Professor Todd Lewis of the college of Holy Cross in Masattuetse, USA also published a paper on the localization of Simhalasartha bahu Avadana did mention Simhasarthabahu as the leader of the five hundred merchants

in Newar-Tibetan Trade and the Domestication of Simhala Sarthabahu Avadana. (Chicago Journal- History of Religion volume 33 no.2, November 1993 page 135-160) In Simhala Avadana, it is mentioned about the birth of a son named Simhala to a wealthy merchant Simhaka,
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during the period of king Simhakesari from Simhakalpa. Simhala was selected as the leader of the group of five hundred merchants who were on a sea-voyage. The abode of rakshas is mentioned as Tamradvipa and Simhala was able to escape from the island on a magic white horse living
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behind all other members under the captive of the Rakshasis. In Popular Buddhist Texts from Nepal: Narratives and Rituals in a Newar Merchant Community (Ph.D. Dissertation, Columbia University:, 1984) Todd Lewis mentions the name of the

leader of the group of the merchant leading to Lhasa as Simhala Sarthabaha, son of the Merchant Simhalasartha Baha from the town of Simhakalpa in Jambudvipa. Professor Todd Lewis in his article published in the Journal of Religion mention about a stupa in Lhasa known as

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Simsharthabahu Chorten and a shrine in Jokhang dedicated to his wife' that newar traders honor as the form of Jatika Ajima (Newar-Tibetan Trade and the Domestication of Simhalasarthabahu Avadan source History of Religions, Vol.33 No. 2, page 150, published by the University of

Chicago Press 1993). The adventure of the Merchant Simhala is also mentioned by Professor Siegfried Lienhard with a description of a long scroll Painting 11.44 meter long and 0.55 meter wide with 80 frames each with the legend / story of Simshartha Bahu (Text in Nepali Script &

the language Newari) from the collection of Museum of Indian Art, Berlin. Professor Siegfried Lienhard also did mention about this Scroll painting in his paper “A Nepalese painted Scroll Illustrating the Simhalavadan” (Nepalica 4 Sankt 49-53 Editors Prof. N. Gulschow & A. Micheals 55

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Sankt. Augustine Wissenschaflaverlage, VGH, p 51-53). Published in the “Heritage of Kathmandu Valley” proceeding of an International Conference in Lubec June 1985). Simhala (Simhala Sarthabaha) was the name of the legendary founder and first king of the

island. (Buddhism in Tibet by Schlagintweit, Emil Leipzig, London, 1863). The Sanskrit version of the Simhala story is mentioned in the Gunakdranda- vyuh as found in Y. Iwamoto, Bukkyo Setsuwa Kenkyu Josetsu (Kyoto: Hozokan, 1967, pp. 247-94, A.K. Ramanujan, "Who

Needs Folklore? The Relevance of Oral Traditions to South Asian Studies: "South Asia Occasional Papers (University of Hawaii Vol.1, 1990). The Legendary Story of the Lhasa Caravan A copy of wall hanging (Poubha, Wilampau, Thangka painting, Scroll painting)

narrating the story of the legendary caravan to Lhasa is being displayed in the main courtyard of Bhagwan Bahal during the festival of the holy month Gunlaa, the ninth months according to the Nepali Lunar Calendar narrates the legendary story of the Lhasa Voyage, being leaded by

Simhala Sarthabaha. Simha Sarthabaha is believed to have established Bhagwan Bahal and the entire daily rituals and activities during the festival are being controlled by the Pradhan family from Thamel, who believe themselves as the descendants of Simhala Sarthabaha.

According to the legend (a non-historical or unverified story), a group of five hundred young businessmen left for a caravan to Lhasa. The group did select Simhala, a merchant with rich knowledge, as their leader. Being selected as the leader of the group of merchant he got the new
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name Simhala Sarthabaha. (The leader of the group of merchant is called Sarthabaha). While crossing Bhramputra, they encountered an accident and were being rescued by five hundred young and exceptionally beautiful ladies. All members of the caravan
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were busy doing business and enjoying with the young ladies as their wife, so they did not thought of returning back home. Simhsarthabahu used to worship the family God Avalokiteshwara (Karunamaya) daily. One day Simha Sartha Baha was given the divine

sight of Lord Avalokiteshwara while in meditation and worship. In the dream Lord Avalokiteshwara told him that they are being under the captive of the she-devils (the man eater) and told him to leave the city as soon as possible as it is a bewitched island. He was instructed to go

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to the northern side of the city to check a big compound surrounded by tall walls like a well, where they used to throw the human skeletons after eating the flesh. Avalokiteshvara also did promise to help them cross the river as a flying white horse. He went there and was able to

climb a tree, and saw lots of human skeletons behind the tall wall, where they were forbidden to visit. He got convinced himself about the dream after visiting the northern side of the city. He made the plan to get an escape from the evil eyes of the damsels whom they

mistakenly thought of their beloved wives. He was able to get convinced his friends about the instruction of the divine Lord and made a plan to live the bewitched land. They left their home in the middle of the night when their wives were fast asleep and came close to the River.
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Simhal Sarthabahu did worship the divine Lord and a flying white horse appeared. The horse instructed all them to get a ride and warned them not to look behind while crossing the river and enchant the holy Triratna Mantra. While they were crossing the river, all ladies woke up and could
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not find the young merchants sleeping next to them. They started flying over the river and laminating and requesting them to return back home. Hearing the kind hearted voice of their wives (the she-devil) all members except Simhala Sarthabaha looked behind and were taken back to the other

side of the river. Simhala Sarthabaha was the only person who did not look behind, so was able to get back home leaving behind all his friends under the captive of the she-devils. Simhala Sarthabaha was the only person who did not look behind, and did not forget to

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enchant the Mantra of Triratna, so was able to get back home leaving behind all his friends under the captive of the wretched women. The chief devil disguised as a young and exceptionally beautiful lady followed Simhsarthabaha and came to the court with a baby on her

lap claiming herself to be the wife of Simhsarthabaha. Simhsarthabaha did try to convince the king about the she-devil and denied to accept them as his wife and son. The king then kept her in the palace as he was attracted with the exceptional beauty of the lady. In the middle of the

night she called all her companions and started killing the members of the Royal family and the staff. Next day the palace door did not open so Simhsarthabaha entered the palace climbing through a ladder. He was no more able to find anybody but the human skeleton scattered all over the
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palace court yard. As all Royal family members were killed and eaten by the she devils, He found the human skeletons scattered around the palace and saw the she devils sleeping around the courtyard. With the Devin sword he is believed to have killed all the Dankinis except his wife who
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did beg pardon for her life. Simhala Sarthabaha was nominated as the leader of the community as all members of the Royal family were killed by the she-devil. This is how he got a new name Garud literally meaning army chief and later on was able to become the king and called Garudjuju.

(Pradhan, Bhuban Lal, 2047, Kathmandu Upatyeka ka Chirka Mirka Page 72). Simhala Sarthabaha donated land and is believed to have established Thambahi in his home town; with the wealth he earned from Lhasa (the traders usually bring Gold from Tibet). He was able to win victory over the

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bewitched island and was also able to introduce Buddhism there. Later on with his intellectual knowledge and spiritual power, he gained popularity as a form of Divine God,Dipankara Garud Bhagwan. The main image of Bhagwan Bahal which is known as Garujuju or Garud

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Bhagwan is believed to be the image of Simhala Sarthabaha. His wife also is honored as a divine god Ajima, the protector Goddess (Jatika Ajima). After being pardoned from her life she is being ordered to make a solemn vow to protect the entire community and in

return she also made a proposal to protect the community least there be no opening in the roof top of the buildings. Even today the Pradhans from the locality do not have open rooftops in their houses. She was then asked which portion of the rice she wants to have- the first,

middle or the last. She spoke to have the first one thinking herself as senior so this is how she got the sticky water (Jati). This is how even today the sticky water (Jati) is being poured to the image of Jatika Ajima, before reaching the rice bowl to Garud Bhagwan. Pradhan from Thambahi being
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descendent of Simhasarthbaha do not visit Lhasa, they are scared of being attracted by the she devils as revenge. Baidyo Boayagu The ninth month of the lunar calendar (it starts from the dark moon night of the Festival of Lights) so called GUNLAA is

being celebrated as the holy month by the Newar Buddhist community in Kathmandu Valley. During this festival antiques, images of Dipankar and different God and Goddess, traditional clothing’s Paubha Painting (Wilampau, scroll painting Thanka painting) are displayed in the

courtyard of Buddhist shrines Baha and Bahi and is called Baidyah Boayagu. During this festival a copy of wall hanging narrating the legendary story of the Voyage to Lhasa, leaded by Simhasarthbahu is displayed in the main court of Thambahi. Professor Siegfried Lenard did

published an article introducing a painting 11.44 meter long and 0.55 meter wide with 80 frames each with legend story text in Nepali script and the language Newari illustrating the Simhalavadan from the collection of The Museum of Indisan Art, Berlin (Heritage of the Kathmandu Valley:

Preceding of an International Conference in Lubek, June 1985 edited by Niels Gutschow and Ayiel Michaels. Nepalica 4 Sankt, 1987 page 49-53) Garuda Bhagwan
(Garudjuju)
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Some of the early texts as well as in the poem from Kalidasa
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in the early 11th century, Sartha Baha is used to identify the leader of the group of merchants. This is how Simhala the leader of the Caravan got a new name Simhala Sartha Baha (also called as Simhsarth Bahu). The main image of Bhagwan Bahal known as Garujuju or Garud
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Bhagwan, is believed to be the image of Simhala Sarthabaha. After all royal family being killed, he became the leader or say chief of the Army so got a new name Garuda (the chief of the Army who is able to handle the war) and once he became the king (Juju) called Garudjuju. (Some notes on the

cultural identity of Kathmandu valley in Nepali Kathmandu Upatyakaka kehi sanskritic chhirka mirka 2047 by Pradhan, Bhuvan Lal - page 72). In Newar Buddhist traditions Ajima is known as child eating carnivorous Rakhishi being converted to Buddhism by Lord

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Buddha and given the duty to take care of the children. Most of the prominent Newar viharas have temples dedicated to her (Ajima). The small shrine outside the Bikramshila Mahavihar, is dedicated to the raksasi wife of Simhala Sarthabaha known as Jatika Ajima. But the story

popular among Pradhan, a Newar Buddhist family from Thambahi is different than the Jataka Tales. The Poubha (Wilampau, Thangka, and Scroll painting) being displayed in the main court of Thamel, during the holy months of Gunlaa narrates the legendary story of the Voyage to Lhasa,

being leaded by Simhala Sartha Baha. The hero of the story is regarded as a bodhisattva and a large gilded image of him is enshrined in one of the Kathmandu's oldest Buddhist temples (Vikramasila Maha vihara), dating back to the eleventh century. (Puma Harsha Bajracarya," Than
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Bahil: An Ancient Centre for Sanskrit Study, Indologica Taurinensia 7, 1979: 62-64). In the 16th chapter of Gunakarandavyaha Simhala Sarthabaha is mentioned as one of the previous life of Buddha. In one of the Bansabali (chronological history) from
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Kaiser Library the story of Lhasa caravan was mentioned during the reign of King Gunakama Deva (NS 107-110/ 987-990 AD) and in some writings it is mentioned as to belong to the period of Singhketu descendent of Gunakamadeva.

Atisa (982-1054 AD) was a renowned scholar from Vikramshila Vihar (India) was invited by the Tibetan King to revive and teach Buddhism in Tibet. He spent a year (1041/42 AD) in Nepal before visiting Tibet and spent most of his time in Thambahi. But he did not mention about

Garud Bhagwan and the holy manuscript Saharshaprajnaparamita (344NS /1223 AD) from Thambahi. In the travel record of Atisa it is mentioned that the white stupa inside Thambahi, and the five stupa in the northern side of Kathmandu valley is being

constructed by him. (Lord Atisha in Nepal - The Thambahi & the five stupas foundations according to the Bromston itenery, Journal of Nepal Research Centre Vol. X 1997 pp 27-54, Atisa's Journey to Tibet by Lopez, Don Jr. (edited) 1997 and Atisha's Arrival in Nepal by Hubert

Decleer). The monastery in Itubahal is believed to have remolded by Bhashkardeva (NS 165-167 / 1045-1047 AD) and later on got renovated by Kesh Chandra brother – in - law of Simhala Sarthabahu (Bhaskar deva sanskarit Kesh Chandra krita parabrata Mahavihar from
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the stone inscription of Itumbahal). We can thus conclude that Simhal Sarthabaha belong to a period after Bhashkar deva (NS 165-167 / 1045-1047 AD) or after Kalidasa (early 11th century) and Atisha Dipankar Sreejana (NS 982 / 1054 A.D.) Simhal Sarthbahu is believed
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to have established Bhagwan Bahal and the entire daily rituals and activities during the festival are being controlled by the Pradhan family from Thambhi, who believe themselves as the descendents of Simhal Sarthbaha. They do not visit Lhasa as they were scared of getting revenge by

the she-devil from Lhasa. Both Simhsarthabaha and his wife are given equal honor as the form of diven God by the Tibetan people. There is a chorten (Temple) in Zhugong near Lhasa called Simhla Sarthbaha Chorten and a shrine of his wife in Jokhang that contain the image of his

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wife. (Newar Tibetain Trade and the Domestication page 152). Tibetan people call him the Jewel Trader Bhagwan -Tsongpon Norbu Sangpo (Chhong Nurbu Saange, Chhong meaning merchant, Tsongpon meaning Leader of Traders; Nurbu meaning Jewel and Saange or Sangpo

meaning Bhagwan). Simhala Avadana
The Story of the Horse-King and the Merchant Simhala in the Buddhist Texts: by Naomi Appleton.

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Once upon a time a wealthy merchant named Simhaka used to live in the capital city

of Simhakalpa ruled by king Simha kesari. When his wife gave birth to a beautiful son, he named him Simhala. After finishing his education, he asked his father for permission to go away on a sea-voyage. Simhaka was afraid of losing his beloved son and was not willing to send him for the

voyage. Simhala left Simhakalpa in the company of five hundred merchants. They all took with them abundant merchandise. After visiting many places they able to sale all their goods and made huge profits. On their way back they reached a place called Tamradvipa. This place was
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the abode of rakshasis. On seeing the merchants, all the rakshasis took beautiful female forms and entertained the merchants. Each rakshasi took one of his friends home, fed him, made love to him and they lived as husband and wife. When all his friends were thus drugged to sleep, the

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rakshasis devoured them. The rakshasi entrusted with the task of devouring Simhala fled when he took out his sword. Simhala then escaped from the island on a magic white horse. From Tamradvipa, Simhala came to Jambudvipa. The rakshasi in the form of a very

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beautiful young lady followed him. She met a merchant from Madhya Desa. She promptly fell at his feet and said I am the daughter of the king of Tamradvipa and was married to Simhala. While crossing the ocean the ship encountered an

accident. He left me as he thought me to be inauspicious. The merchant was impressed by her story and promised to help her. He blamed Simhala for not accepting the innocent girl. Simhala then told him that she was a rakshasi. From

Jambudvipa Simhala returned to Simhakalpa. The rakshasi followed him there also. She came to the house of Simhala with a very handsome child, resembling Simhala. She told Simhala's father the same old story. When Simhala came

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back home, his parents requested him to forgive his wife. Simhala then revealed the true nature of the innocent young girl. After being denied by Simhala, the rakshasi went to the palace claming her as the wife of Simhala and the

child as his son. The king of Simhakalpa, Simhakesari ordered Simhala to accept her as his wife. Simhala told the king who she was and requested him to expel her. But the king was attracted by her beauty and kept her in the

palace. During diner the rakshasi mixed sleeping doses everyone including the king felt asleep. She then invited her rakshasi friends to come and join in the feast. She told them that they should stop claim over Simhala instead of

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giving them one; she was giving them so may. The rakshasis entered the palace and started killing the king and his family. In the morning people saw vulture’s rooming around the place. Simhala entered the palace climbing

through a ladder. Then he searched the entire palace but could not find none of the royal family members as all were killed by the rakshasi. The ministers and the people decided to offer the crown to Simhala. The crown was then

offered to Simhala who accepted it on the condition that the people would obey him without question. After getting coroneted to the throne, he raised a powerful army and invaded Tamradvipa. When king Simhala marched

upon Tamradvipa, the rakshasis surrendered to him and agreed to leave the island. The island was then colonized by Simhala and was then called upon by the new name Simhaladvipa after him. The Romantic legend of
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Sakya Buddha: from the

Chinese Sanscrit by Samuel Beal London 1875 Chapter XLIX (Page 332 to 340)

There were in Jambudwipa five hundred merchant men who wished to undertake a voyage by sea for the purpose of exchanging their goods for others for increasing their

wealth. They selected a wise man as their chief and leader, they came down the sea shore suddenly there arose a fierce storm, which blew their vessel toward the country of the Rakshasis (That is, Ceylon). The Rakshasi transformed themselves into young ladies (They can take any form as

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they like) came help rescue the men and each of them took the 500 merchants to the Iron City planning to devour them at their leisure. All 500 merchants were happily enjoying with the young ladies as husband and wife. They were warned not to visit the southern side of the city but

one night when all ladies were asleep the leader left home to check the south side of the city. He came across a tall wall, and was able to climb a tree to check what is there behind the wall. He saw more than hundred human bodies some half-eaten, and others, scarcely dead and there were

few more men as a prisoner laminating for their faith. They asked him who he is and told him to get a quick escape from the hand of the cannibalistic Rakshasis whom they mistakenly thought of their faithful and beloved wife. They instructed the merchant chief that on the fifteenth day
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of the fourth moon when the Moon, Sun, and Pleiades (Man) are in conjunction (probably the conjunction of the Sun with Ashadha – June/July), a white Horse called Kesi (the hairy one), comes to the seashore, once every year to graze the aromatic flavor grass and cries
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three times, Whoever wishes to cross over the great salt sea, will convey him over. If you would escape from your present danger, this is the only way await the arrival of Kesi, the Horse Raja. (Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, Vol. V, p. I, II, and p. 263). The merchant chief held his

peace and awaited the arrival of the joyous day of the fourth month, and then he began to reveal his plan to his comrade and requested all them to meet in the shore in the middle of the night. When all merchants arrived in the shore, they heard a loud voice of the Horse King Kesi, who

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wish to cross the salty ocean? The Horse King invited them all to mount on his back, then the horse replied to the merchants, be it known that the Eakshasis will certainly pursue you. They will entreat you to return. You will certainly fall off my back and become the prey of those Eakshasis; but if you steel

your hearts against their wiles, and cling closely to my hair, then I will convey you safely across the salt sea to the other shore. Meantime the Eakshasis hearing the thunder voice of the Horse King, suddenly awake up from their sleep could not find their

companions, sleeping next to them. They started flying through the air. This is the story narrated by Lord Buddha to the group of Bhikshu while staying in the forest of Jetabana, calling the five hundred merchant as the followers of Sandjaya; Sariputra the wise chief, and
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himself as the flying white horse Kesi. Conclusion The Jataka Tale definitely speak of the story of the help rescue of the five hundred merchants by Lord Avalokiteshwara in the form of white flying horse but the

name of the Goblin City populated by the man eating ogresses is still not clear – Is it Lhasa or Ceylon (now Sri Lanka)? Gunakarandavyuha, Simhalsarthabaha Avadan and the legendary story narrated in the scroll painting from Thambahi along with the image of Garuda Bhagwan has

a strong support to identify the name of the Goblin City to be Lhasa not Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and the leader as Simhala Sarthabaha.
A garland of Gold to you the listener A garland of flowers to you the story teller

Now may these stories go to the heaven? And when it is time to retell them Comeback immediately again! This is the traditional way of closing the Nepali story telling.

(For further studies)

Kumar ya bakhan Chattopadhyaya, Alka Atisha and Tibet, Motilal Banarasidas, India, 1967 Conze, Edward,
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Anderson, Mary M. The Festival of Nepal Rupa Publication, Delhi, 1971 Bajracharya, Badriratna Buddhism in Nepal 1986 Bhikhu Sudarshan Simshartha Bahu wa Kabir

Reference books

Buddhist Thoughts in India, University of Michigan Press
81

Dass, Sarat Chandra, 1893 Indian Pundits in the land of Snow, Asiatic Society of India David J Kalupahana A History of Buddhist
82

Philosophy University of Hawaii David N Gellner Rebuilding Buddhism: The Theravada Movement in 20th Century 2005 David N Gellner, Niels

Gutschow Bijaya Basukala (Illustrator) The Nepalese Chaitya David Snellgrove, 1987 Indo Tibetan Buddhism
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Deba Priya Barma Atisha Dipankar Srijana:

Eye of Asia Kesar Lal 2007 Legends of Kathmandu Valley Legge, James in association with Max Muller prepared

the Monumental Scared books of the East Series published between 1879 and 1891 (50 volume) Lienhard Snegfried, Nepalese Manuscripts Newari / Sanskrit, 1988

Locke, John K. S. -- Karunamaya: The cult of Avaloketesvara 1980 -- Buddhist Moasteries of Nepal -- A survey of the Baha and Bahis of Kathmandu Valley -- Legendary History of
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Kathmandu Lopez, Don Jr. (edit) Atisha’s Journey to Tibet, 1997 Malalasekera, G P (Editor) Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Ceylon, 1963 Pal, Pratapaditya
84

The Arts of Nepal, 1974 Paul, Williams, Mahayana Buddhism 1989 Preliminary Note on Prajnaparamita Manuscript Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1970 Ram, Dr. Rajendra History of Buddhism in Nepal

Regmi Dilli Raman Inscription of Ancient Nepal Sakya Hem Raj Nepa Sanskritya MulukhaMain Entrance of Nepalese Culture 1969 -- Syambhu Mahachaitya Kathmandu, 1098 N S

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Vajracharya, Ratna B.

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Dr. Shrestha, Uma editor, Newa Vijnana: Journal of Newar Studies University of Calgary Vaidya, Karunakar Buddhist tradition and Culture of Kathmandu Valley, 1986

Vajracharya, Dhana Vajra Lichhavikalin Abhilekh INAS Kathmandu 1973 Vajracharya, Gautam Heritage of Kathmandu Valley 1987

Gurumandalarachana va Prajnaparamita ya artha sahitam (in Nepal Bhasha) Lalitapur 1095 NS Vajracharya, Ratna Kaji, Yen Deya Chaitya Wright, Daniel Editor, Nepal - History of

the Country & People, 1877 Yoshizaki Kasjumi, --- Study of Saddharmamala 1979 --- Kathmandu Valley as a Water Pot, Kurokami Library

A descriptive Catalogue edited by R. Lanceaster, Berkley 1979) Adhyardhasatika Prajnaparamita In the collection of Libraries around the globe (Translated in different languages) Astadasasahasrika

Prajnaparamita edited by Bidya Binoba (8,000 lines Volume 3 - Archeological Survey of India No. 32 & 69), 1927 Astadasasahasrika Prajnaparamita Jogmuni Bajracharya 1082 Nepal Sambat.

(The Korean Buddhist Cannon
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Books related to Prajnaparamita

Astasaharika Prajnaparamita R. Mittras in the Bibliotheca Indicia Vol. 1, 1888 Dasasahasrika Prajnaparamita, S. Konow (Translated from Tibetan) Patashashrik Prajnaparamita

Pancavimsatishasrika Prajnaparamita edited by N Dutta 25,000 lines 1934 Perfect Wisdom- Heart Sutra ( 14 lines ) is the shortest form of Prajnaparamita Text

Perfection of Wisdom Translated by E. Conze from Tibetan script (8,000 lines) Prajnaparamita Bhabanopadesh Ratnakarshanti Teacher of Atisa Dipankar, 1040 Prajnaparamita Rdaya
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Sutra (Heart Sutra) Edited by E. Conze Prajnaparamita Rdaya Sutra ( Heart Sutra ) Edited by Max Muller, 1912 Prajnaparamita Sutra The Perfection of Wisdom Cambridge University,
88

(25,000 lines) Preliminary note on Prajnaparamita Manuscript E. Conze, Journal of Royal Asiatic Society Volume 82, Issue 1-2 page 32-36, 2011 Satashasrika

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Prajnaparamita 100,000 verses translated from Pali in the Tibetan language during 9th century by Subrenbodieg, Tibetan Monk Ye-Se-sde and Jian Shree Mitra - disciple of Manjushree, Bibliotheca Indica 1902-1913.

Hsuan-Tsang (602 664AD) describes about Satashriska Prajnaparamita with 100,000 lines during his visit in India (629 – 645 AD). The Composition of the Asta Sahasrika Prajnaparamita Edward

Conze (Bulletin of The School of Oriental and AfricanStudies, Vol. 14, Issue 2 page 251-262 24 Dec.2008) The Prajnaparamita Literature, E.B. Cowell, 1960 Books related to Jataka

Stories 1) Buddhist Birth Stories; Collection of Jataka Folklore Translated from Pali text by Prof. V. Fausboll edited and Trans. into English by T. W. Rhys Davids, London 1880.
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2) A Jataka Tale from the Chinese translation by Samuel Bell, 1880 3) The Jataka or the stories of the Buddha's former births 6 Volumes by Prof. E Cowell Byles, Pali text Society
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London 1895 4) The Ocean of Stream of Story C. H. Tawney's trans. of Katha Sarit Sagar by Somdev 5) Jataka: A Tale -Tell vision of Buddhism by E. B. Cowell 6) Jatakamala by J. S. Speyer

7) Jataka (six volumes): Translation by Bhadanta Ananda Ausalyayana. 8) Ancient Tales of Wisdom Jataka Tales H. T. Francis, and E. J. Thomas, 1916. 9) Jataka Tales: by E C Babbill
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10) The Jataka: Tales of Anterior Births of Gautam Buddha, Oxford 11) Jataka: The Illustrated Jataka & Other Stories of the Buddha by C.B. Varma 12) Stories of Buddha, 1989 Translated and edited by Caroline A F Rhys Davids

13) The Jataka Story in Japan Anita Khanna, 1999 14) 365 Jataka Tales & other Stories

Books related to Ajanta
(For further study)

1) The Ajanta Caves: Ancient Paintings of Buddhist India by Benoy K. Behl
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2) Ajanta Caves: History and Mystery P.C. Ramakrishna

3) Ajanta, S Vinekar MD, N.Brunswick NJ, Middlesex, Somerset, Mercer counties 4) Ajanta and Ellora: Cave Temples of Ancient India Pushpesh Pant 5) Ajanta Monumental Ligancy A P Jainkhedkar
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6) Guide Paintings

to

the

Ajanta

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Bipin Kapali “Chikanmugal” has been awarded Satya - Hera award for his research work on Simhasarthabahu. Prajnaparamita restoration and rewriting Project: Young artists from Patan are busy getting

the restoration of the century old manuscript and rewriting a new one for the daily rituals, as the old one is badly damaged.

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