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and a comparative performance study thereof in PSCAD/EMTDC Environment.
Sujit Datta, Tanushree Deb M.Tech 4th Semester Student Department of EE Tripura University Email: datta_sujit2003@ Yahoo.com Mobile: 09402155240
Champa Nandi Assistant Professor Department of EE Tripura University Email: champanandi@ Yahoo.com Mobile: 09436502334
A.K. Chakraborty Associate Professor Department of EE NIT, Agartala Email: akcalll@ Yahoo.co.in
This thesis investigates on the modelling and simulation of wind power plants in a grid connected system. A wind power plant which is comprised of five wind turbines are connected with self-excited as well as doubly fed induction generator separately and total system is framed with Multimass Torsional Shaft Interface. In both cases, 50% of system power are connected via through AC/DC/AC power converter to utility grid bus and rest of the power are connected directly to the grid. The device 6-pulse bridge converter performs as a rectifier which is connected to a HVDC link and a 6-bridge inverter is connected to another side of the HVDC link. This multi level inverter convert DC power into ac power at desired output and frequency irrespective of load demands with maintaining suitable voltage stability through an inverting transformer. The rectifier and L-limiting reactor are utilized to maintain constant DC link current. The average power is converted partially by the inverter which working as CSI mode, supply currents into the utility grid by regulating the DC link voltage. With only power converters composed of thyristors bridge in power conversion, the system can be scaled up to a very high voltage and high power applications. The total system voltage is maintained in excitation of generators with series-parallel capacitor banks separately. In both cases, the performance improvement of the system by the experiment choosing a 12 MVA,4poles,3-phase,50 hz induction generator. The overall control system is implemented choosing parameters in varied capacity like variable as well as pitch controlling through control of firing angle of power converter and inverter to track the optimum power curve of the wind turbine. Finally, a comparative study is made based on experimental result in order to validate performance of the proposed systems. This project is modelled and simulated with the help of PSCAD/EMTDC software.
Wind power plant, 6-Pulse converter/inverter, Self-excited I.G., D.F.I.G., Firing angle, PSCAD/EMTDC
8. INTRODUCTION Modern wind turbine generator utilizes power electronics devices and drives for real and reactive power controls in wind power plants to have much better steady state and dynamic performance compared to wind power plants of the past.Self-excited induction generator . a fluctuating power supply produced can lead to voltage variations in the grid and resulting of frequency flickering. reduced maintenance. In absence of storage systems. also known as Doubly fed induction generator. it is very important to proper represent steady state and dynamic characteristics in large scale response of positive sequence simulations. 9. which decays over a period due to weakening of the magnets. These problems can make the use of double fed induction generators attractive for wind turbine applications. Permanent magnet generators may also be used for wind energy applications but they suffer from uncontrollable magnetic field. Self-excited induction generators are good member for generating wind electric power especially in remote areas as they do not need external power supply to produce the magnetic field. In this research works. 12. the SEIGs have more advantages such as cost. 4. Wind energy is very promising and effective energy for present and future situations. It is well known that the power delivered by wind turbines directly coupled to grid is not constant as a result of wind variability.1.2. SELF-EXCITED INDUCTION GENERATOR An induction motor works as a generator when sufficient amount of capacitance is connected across the machine terminals to sustain the excitation requirement while the rotor speed is maintained by some mechanical means. and the generated voltage tends to fall steeply with load. The SEIG has a self-protection mechanism because the voltage collapses when there is a short circuit at its terminals. Another disturbance of most induction machines utilized in the wind turbines is that the required reactive power varies with wind speed and time. One of the most significant problems to take up the arrangement for installation of wind turbines in modern wind power plants.1. [3. rugged and simple construction.(2)Doubly fed asynchronous generator. In this research. For reliability and cost effective reasons.[ 1. the two basic WTG(wind turbine generator) configurations that are investigated currently in use :(1)Self-excited induction generator.10] 2. a self-excited induction generator and a doubly fed induction generator are excited and simulated with same set of series-parallel capacitance banks and choosing other related parameters and finally a comparative performance study is made based on simulated experimental results in PSCAD/EMTDC software. brush-less rotor etc. Further. 13] Fig.
2. the control of the rotor voltages and currents enables the induction machine to remain synchronized with the grid while the wind turbine speed varies. Therefore rotor frequency can freely differ from the grid frequency.  Advantages of using induction generator over synchronous generator are: Firstly. The doubly-fed generator rotors are typically wound with from 2 to 3 times the number of turns of the stator. Thirdly. the rest being fed to grid directly from the stator.14] . This has important consequences for power system stability and allows the machine to support the grid during severe voltage disturbances. as the rotor circuit is controlled by a power electronics converter. DOUBLY FED INDUCTION GENERATOR DFIG means Double Fed Induction Generator is widely used in wind power sector. Thus in the typical ± 30 % operational speed range around the synchronous speed the rated current of the converter is accordingly lower leading to a low cost of the converter.3. The efficiency of the DFIG is very good for the same reason. A variable speed wind turbine utilises the available wind resource more efficiently than a fixed speed wind turbine.[6. Secondly. typically 25-30 %. the induction generator is able to both import and export reactive power. Power balance of the doubly-fed induction generator The principle of the DFIG is that rotor windings are connected to the grid via slip rings and back to-back voltage source converter that controls both the rotor and the grid currents. especially during light wind conditions. It is basically an induction generator with a multiphase wound rotor and a multiphase slip ring assembly with brushes for access to the rotor windings. is fed to the grid through the converter. This means that the rotor voltages will be higher and currents respectively lower. The control principle used is either the two-axis current vector control or direct torque control (DTC). Fig. By controlling the rotor currents by the converter it is possible to adjust the active and reactive power fed to the grid from the stator independently of the generators turning speed. the cost of the converter is low when compared with other variable speed solutions because only fraction of the mechanical power. DTC has turned out to have better stability than current vector control especially when high reactive currents are required from the Generator.
SIMULATION AND DESCRIPTION This thesis deals with performance of the Self-excited as well as Doubly Fed Induction Generator type variable speed WT to fabricate the wind power plants.[7. the system behaviour are analyzed in result section. . C) Simulation Diagram of project Model -3 When 50% of generated power of doubly fed induction generator is regulated by connecting via through AC/DC/AC to utility grid and rest of power is connected to utility grid directly as shown in Fig 5 at 10 pitch angle and at variable speed of wind 13-20 m/sec .4. B) Simulation Diagram of project Model -2 When whole generated power is connected via through AC/DC/AC to utility grid directly is shown in Fig. This paper is organized of three project models and simulation results for same set of operating parameters are finally provided and analyzed using the PSCAD/EMTDC code. corresponding to each WT of 2. 3. the system behaviour are analyzed in result section. Six pulse converter works in rectifying mode is used to convert the variable magnitude. For smooth output DC voltage. Machine side converter act as a six pulse rectifier and grid side converter acts as six pulse inverter during the machine working in super synchronous mode.40 MW. DC link reactor acts as stiff voltage/current source and it provides dc isolation between the two converters. SIX PULSE BRIDGE CONVERTER/INVERTER The output of the rotor power is feed to the grid through back to six pulse converters via common DC link. at 10 pitch angle and at variable speed of wind 13-20 mtr/second . 4 at 10 pitch angle and at variable speed of wind 13-20 mtr/second . variable frequency voltage at the induction generator rotor terminals to DC voltage. A specific configuration of this plant consist of 5(five) wind turbines is examined. A) Simulation Diagram of project Model -1: When 50% of generated power is connected via through AC/DC/AC to grid and rest of power is connected directly to the grid is shown in Fig. the system behaviour are analyzed in result section.11] 5. limiting reactor is connected in the DC link.
4.3.PROJECT MODEL-1 Fig.2 Fig.Wind power plant connected with self-excited induction generator when whole generated power is transmitted to utility grid via regulating through AC/DC/AC power converter. PROJECT MODEL. Wind power plant connected with self-excited induction generator when 50% generated power via through AC/DC/AC power converter to utility grid and rest of the power is connected directly to grid. .
The good response characteristics. The DC voltage is also maintained at its rated value. The response in case of stochastic wind speed variations are shown various figures and concerned data tables using a1 to 2s wind speed time series. The change demonstrates the action of the speed controller (maximum power tracking operation). which includes intervals below and above the rated wind speed of the WT. is evident. 6. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The simulation results are presented for an indicative fast wind speed for 13 m/s to 20 m/s.PROJECT MODEL-3 Fig. The active and reactive power balance during the whole operation interval is maintained successfully.5. The smoothing achieved in the electromagnetic torque and output power. compared to the input mechanical power of the turbine. with adequate damping and absence of any over speed or overpower is apparent. . Wind power plant connected with doubly fed induction generator when 50% generated power is regulated by AC/DC/AC power converter and rest of power is connected to the grid or load circuit directly.
(A)Project model-1 Result analysis of wind power plants with self-excited induction generator: when 50% of Generated power of self-excited induction generator is connected via through AC/DC/AC power converter and rest of the power directly connected to ( ) m/s. torque of wind turbine.39 grid at wind speed.99 KV Fig.various characteristics of wind power plant for firing angle is 0˚ for converter and 90˚ for inverter when 50% of generated power is regulated via through AC/DC/AC power converter and rest of power is connected directly to grid.50 KV 4 Idc 3. Qout = reactive power generation Edc = HVDC Link voltage.6. Tm=2.05KVAR 3 Edc 93. results with firing angle 0 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7663.51KW 2 Qout 5079.A. Idc = HVDC Link current Vg = Grid voltage or Load voltage . KN-m. C1=40 : Table-I. series-parallel compensation bank. Pout = real power generation. C2=150 .04 KA 5 Vg 10.
77 KW 2 Qout 5076.04 KA 5 Vg 10.77 KW 2 Qout 5076.A: results with firing angle 60 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7658.99 KV Table-IV.50 KV 4 Idc 3.04 KA 5 Vg 10.50 KV 4 Idc 3.A: results with firing angle 15 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl.41 KVAR 3 Edc 93.41 KVAR 3 Edc 93. Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7657.41 KVAR 3 Edc 93.various characteristics of wind power plants firing angle 60˚ for converter and 90˚ for inverter when 50% generated power is regulated through AC/DC/AC power converter and rest of the power is directly connected to grid in case selfexcited induction generator.04 KA 5 Vg 10.99 KV Table-III.A: results with firing angle 30 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7658.04 KA 5 Vg 10. Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7660.23 KV Table-V.50 KV 4 Idc 3. .Table-II.7.17 KW 2 Qout 5077.50 KV 4 Idc 3.99 KV Fig.A: results with firing angle 45 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl.77 KW 2 Qout 5026.33 KVAR 3 Edc 93.
50 KV 4 Idc 3. results with firing angle 0 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl No Variable Name Generation in Maximum 1 Pout 10005.41KVAR 3 Edc 93.50 KV 4 Idc 3. Tm=2. power dispatch etc and this model may not be appropriated for real purposes.76 KVAR 3 Edc 31. (B) Project model-2 Result analysis of wind power plant with self-excited induction generator: when whole generated power is connected via through AC/DC/AC power converter to ( ) m/s. Moreover.77 KW 2 Qout 5076. There is negligible changes of power dispatch in grid on varying the firing angle delay of power converter and inverter.06 KVAR 3 Edc 93. utility grid at wind speed.39 KN-m. The voltage regulation is also not to be affective due to the same reasons.93 KV .52 KW 2 Qout 6105.99 KV Table-VIII.51 KV 4 Idc 0.41 KVAR 3 Edc 93.99 KV Table-VII.99 KV Table-IX.77 KW 2 Qout 5076.A: results with firing angle 90 for converter & 180 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7658.. no controlling over the power generation by the AC/DC/AC power converter. series-parallel capacitance bank.02 KA 5 Vg 10.02 KA 5 Vg 10..04 KA 5 Vg 10.51 KW 2 Qout 5079. C2=150 .41KVAR 93.77 KW 5075.A: results with firing angle 90 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl No 1 2 3 4 5 Variable Name Pout Qout Edc Idc Vg Generation in Maximum 7658.B.50 KV 3.Table-VI.31 KA 5 Vg 10.A: results with firing angle 60 for converter & 165 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7665.50 KV 4 Idc 3. torque of wind turbine.A: results with firing angle 0 for converter & 105 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 7663..99 KV It is observed from the above results that the direct connection of 50% of generated power by self-excited induction generator to grid bus or load circuit and rest of the power is regulated by power converter.04 KA 10. large amount of DC-link voltage and current is to handle for power regulation. C1=40 : Table-I.
8.27 KA 5 Vg 10.66 KW 2 Qout 5486.32 KVAR 3 Edc 29.various characteristics for firing angle is 0˚ for converter and 90˚ for inverter when whole generated power is regulated via through AC/DC/AC power converter interfaced with directly to the utility grid in case self-excited induction generator Table-II.B.87 KV . results with firing angle 30 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 9885.37 KV 4 Idc 0. results with firing angle 15 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11960.46 KW 2 Qout 6378.87 KV Table-III.00KVAR 3 Edc 11.32 KA 5 Vg 10.97 KV 4 Idc 0.B.Fig.
36 VAR 3 Edc 23. results with firing angle 60 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11.990.B.63 KW 2 Qout 7151.B.87 KV Table-V.various characteristics for firing angle is 60˚ for converter and 90˚ for inverter when whole generated power is regulated via through AC/DC/AC power converter interfaced with directly in case self-excited induction generator Table-VI.34 KVAR 3 Edc 24.9.87 KV Table-VII.970.31KA 5 Vg 10.05 KV .95 KW 2 Qout 8219.59KVAR 3 Edc 12.61KV 4 Idc 0.99 KV Fig.82KW 2 Qout 7704.B.32 KA 5 Vg 10.77 KA 5 Vg 16. results with firing angle 45 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11488.Table-IV.89 KV 4 Idc 1. results with firing angle 90 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11.05 KV 4 Idc 0. results with firing angle 0 for converter & 105 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 8532.60 KV 4 Idc 0.00 KVAR 3 Edc 11.B.31 KA 5 Vg 11.57 KW 2 Qout 5892.
The smooth power generation.90 KA 5 Vg 13. operation and control may be adopted in power generation circuits.75 KV 4 Idc 0.87 KV Table-IX. C1=40 : Table-I. wind turbine. results with firing angle 0 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl No Variable Name 1 2 3 4 5 Pout Qout Edc Idc Vg Generation in Maximum 11553.99 KV 0. harmonics or other charging effects which offers voltage instability. generated torque of the grid directly at wind speed.B..37 KA 10. results with firing angle 60 for converter & 165 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11995.20775 KN-m.21KVAR 32.36 KV 4 Idc 0. This project model may be utilized for regulation and controlling of power in modern power circuits. results with firing angle 90 for converter & 180 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 9228.01 KW 2 Qout 6736. Tm=3.C.07 KVAR 3 Edc 12.09 KV When whole of generated power is regulated through via AC/DC/AC power converter.B. but in some cases the load or grid voltage become higher than predefined values which may be happened due to Ferranti.Table-VIII. series-parallel capacitor bank.Project model-3 Result analysis for wind power plants with doubly fed induction generator: when 50% of generated power of doubly fed induction generator is regulated via through AC/DC/AC power converter to utility grid and whole of the power is connected to ( ) m/s.30 KA 5 Vg 10. there is an effective variation of power generation occurs on varying of firing angle of power converter and inverter.70 KW 2 Qout 6736.94 KV .. (C).07 KVAR 3 Edc 23. C2=150 .22 KW 9498.
10.Fig. various reading for firing angle 0˚ for converter and 90˚ for inverter when whole 50% generated power is regulated via through AC/DC/AC power converter interfaced with the utility grid and whole of power is directly connected to the grid in case D.G.91 KV .C.84 KVAR 3 Edc 32. results with firing angle 30 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 9123.37 KA 5 Vg 10.I.36KW 2 Qout 9402.15 KW 2 Qout 9081.C. results with firing angle 15 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 9764.37 KA 5 Vg 10.75 KVAR 3 Edc 32.99 KV 4 Idc 0. Table-II.94 KV 4 Idc 0.F.95 KV Table-III.
85KVAR 3 Edc 32.96 KV Table-V.36 KA 10. results with firing angle 45 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl No Variable Name Generation in Maximum 1 2 3 4 5 Pout Qout Edc Idc Vg 9383.11.C.I.C.57 KW 2 Qout 9074.94 KV 4 Idc 0.57 KW 8785.37 KA 5 Vg 10.various characteristics for firing angle is 60˚ for converter and 90˚ for inverter when whole 50% generated power is regulated via through AC/DC/AC power converter interfaced with the utility grid and whole of the power is directly connected to the grid in case of D. results with firing angle 60 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11958.F.Table-IV. .03 KVAR 32.94 KV 0.G.99 KV Fig.
Project Model-2 1.94 KV 4 Idc 0. Lower power production with same set of operating sets.Table-VI.22 KW 2 Qout 9498. 2.96 KV It is observed from the results that when 50% of generated power by wind power plant connected with D. 3. results with firing angle 0 for converter & 105 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11553.21 KVAR 3 Edc 32.C.32 KW 2 Qout 9196.27 KVAR 3 Edc 32.I. Severe voltage instability and flicking of frequency occurs in the grid or load circuit. The generation of power. It is not possible to control over the real power and reactive dispatch by the power converter system as negligible changes with variation of firing angle. handling operation of generated power is easier.32 KW 2 Qout 9196.37 KA 5 Vg 10. Higher capability of power electronic circuit is required. it may not be applicable in real cases.37 KA 5 Vg 10.36 KA 5 Vg 10. the power production is better than other two project models. 4. results with firing angle 90 for converter & 180 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11153. Lower size of power electronic devices is required to handle comparatively higher DC-link voltage and current. results with firing angle 90 for converter & 90 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11153. So due to above reasons.92 KV Table-IX.94 KV 4 Idc 0. 7.21 KVAR 3 Edc 32. 5. 2. It is revealed from the results that the requirement of concerned associate power electronics equipments is moderate in nature.C.36 KA 5 Vg 10. regulation.99 KV 4 Idc 0.F.94 KV 4 Idc 0. . Largest HVDC link voltage and current is to handle lower reactive power generation with same set of capacitive excitation.C. controlling..94 KV Table-VII.G.85 KVAR 3 Edc 32.C.49 KW 2 Qout 9074. A COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE STUDY Project Model-1 1.96 KV Table-VII. results with firing angle 60 for converter & 165 for inverter Sl Variable Generation in No Name Maximum 1 Pout 11950. The overall control system is governed by the feedback in nature as 50% of generated power is fed back through the stator circuit to rotor circuit for regulation and controlling of grid power at desired level without hampering the voltage stability.
2. Comparatively production of large amount of electrical power with same operating set. and implemented using PSCAD/EMTDC software.I. University of Tabriz. of .I. Lipo3 ’Controlled Shunt Capacitor Self-Excited Induction Generator’-1Dept. YongDang-Dong.O. iran. of Electrical Engineering College of Engineering Pukyoung National University San 100. Tabriz. Tabriz. Shahnia1 Farhad and Sharifian2 Mohammad B. 3Dept. Less sizes of capacitance bank is required as 50% of generated power is fed back to the rotor circuit for excitation of D. 3. BOX 39525 A1-Nuzha. REFERENCES: 1.F.3.‘PSCAD/EMTDC BASED SIMULATION OF DOUBLE FED INDUCTION GENERATOR FOR WIND TURBINES’--1East Azarbayjan Electric Power Distribution Company. Overall system performance is better than other project models. 4. CONCLUSION In this thesis . University of California. Moderate sizes of power electronic devices are required to handle comparatively lower voltage and current. three dynamic models of wind power plants has been presented for a pitch-controlled and variable speed wind Turbine. PSCAD/EMTDC proved to be a valuable tool in predicting the behaviour of the WT. A. Kuwait 73056. of Electrical Engineering College of Technological Studies P. with/without any stability problems. 5.F. 2. The necessary series-parallel capacitor banks have been included in the power circuits for maintaining voltage stability for reactive power balance. in selecting controller parameters and optimizing in general the control and operation of the machine and a case study has been analyzed and all those models analysis is helpful to select the project model in real situation. 4. Mustafa. Iran. Higher values of capacitor banks is required for production of reactive power. Three models have been framed with self-excited induction generator as well as D. A1-Saffar1. 608-739.G. Eui-Cheol Nho2 Thomas A. Maintaining good voltage stability with fixed frequency grid voltages.2 Dept.G. Tabriz. equipped with self-excited Induction generator as well as a wound-rotor doubly fed induction Generator and static AC/DC/AC power converters with power transformer cascade. Project Model-3 1. 8. NamKuj Pusan. The overall system performance is comparatively good. The simulations performed and analysis of concerned results indicates that the system presents various dynamic characteristics in those three project models. Appendix V Model validation of Wind Turbine Generator.Final Project Report WECC Wind Generator Development.B. Prepared for CIEE By: National Renewable Energy Laboratory. 3. 2 Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering.
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