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Dominic Widdows
June 5, 2006
Abstract
QUATERNION ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY
DOMINIC WIDDOWS
St Anne’s College, Oxford
Thesis submitted Hilary Term, 2000, in support
of application to supplicate for the degree of D.Phil.
This thesis is a collection of results about hypercomplex and quaternionic manifolds,
focussing on two main areas. These are exterior forms and double complexes, and the
‘algebraic geometry’ of hypercomplex manifolds. The latter area is strongly inﬂuenced
by techniques from quaternionic algebra.
A new double complex on quaternionic manifolds is presented, a quaternionic version
of the Dolbeault complex on a complex manifold. It arises from the decomposition of
realvalued exterior forms on a quaternionic manifold M into irreducible representations
of Sp(1). This decomposition gives a double complex of diﬀerential forms and operators
as a result of the ClebschGordon formula V
r
⊗V
1
∼
= V
r+1
⊕V
r−1
for Sp(1)representations.
The properties of the double complex are investigated, and it is established that it is
elliptic in most places.
Joyce has created a new theory of quaternionic algebra [J1] by deﬁning a quaternionic
tensor product for AHmodules (Hmodules equipped with a special real subspace). The
theory can be described using sheaves over CP
1
, an interpretation due to Quillen [Q].
AHmodules and their quaternionic tensor products are classiﬁed. Stable AHmodules
are described using Sp(1)representations.
This theory is especially useful for describing hypercomplex manifolds and forming
close analogies with complex geometry. Joyce has deﬁned and investigated qholomorphic
functions on hypercomplex manifolds. There is also a qholomorphic cotangent space
which again arises as a result of the ClebschGordon formula. AHmodule bundles are
deﬁned and their qholomorphic sections explored.
Quaternionvalued diﬀerential forms on hypercomplex manifolds are of special inter
est. Their decomposition is ﬁner than that of real forms, giving a second double complex
with special advantages. The cohomology of these complexes leads to new invariants of
compact quaternionic and hypercomplex manifolds.
Quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds are also studied, and lead to the deﬁnition of quater
nionic Lie algebras. The investigation of ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras
allows the calculation of some simple quaternionic cohomology groups.
Acknowledgements
I would like to express gratitude, appreciation and respect for my supervisor Do
minic Joyce. Without his inspiration as a mathematician this thesis would not have
been conceived; without his patience and friendship it would certainly not have been
completed.
Dedication
To the memory of Dr Peter Rowe, 19381998, who taught me relativity as an
undergraduate in Durham. His determination to teach concepts before examination
techniques introduced me to diﬀerential geometry.
i
Contents
Introduction 1
1 The Quaternions and the Group Sp(1) 4
1.1 The Quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
1.2 The Lie Group Sp(1) and its Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
1.3 Diﬃculties with the Quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
2 Quaternionic Diﬀerential Geometry 17
2.1 Complex, Hypercomplex and Quaternionic Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . 17
2.2 Diﬀerential Forms on Complex Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
2.3 Diﬀerential Forms on Quaternionic Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
3 A Double Complex on Quaternionic Manifolds 25
3.1 Real forms on Complex Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
3.2 Construction of the Double Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
3.3 Ellipticity and the Double Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
3.4 Quaternionvalued forms on Hypercomplex Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4 Developments in Quaternionic Algebra 42
4.1 The Quaternionic Algebra of Joyce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
4.2 Duality in Quaternionic Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
4.3 Real Subspaces of Complex Vector Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
4.4 Kmodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
4.5 The SheafTheoretic approach of Quillen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
5 Quaternionic Algebra and Sp(1)representations 61
5.1 Stable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
5.2 Sp(1)Representations and the Quaternionic Tensor Product . . . . . . . 68
5.3 Semistable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
5.4 Examples and Summary of AHmodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6 Hypercomplex Manifolds 80
6.1 Qholomorphic Functions and Halgebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.2 The Quaternionic Cotangent Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
6.3 AHbundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
6.4 Qholomorphic AHbundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
ii
7 Quaternion Valued Forms and Vector Fields 100
7.1 The Quaternionvalued Double Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
7.2 Vector Fields and Quaternionic Lie Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
7.3 Hypercomplex Lie groups . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
References 117
iii
Introduction
This aim of this thesis is to describe and develop various aspects of quaternionic algebra
and geometry. The approach is based upon two pillars, namely the diﬀerential geometry
of quaternionic manifolds and Joyce’s recent theory of quaternionic algebra. Contribu
tions are made to both ﬁelds of study, enabling these strands to be woven together in
describing the algebraic geometry of hypercomplex manifolds.
A recurrent theme throughout will be representations of the group Sp(1) of unit
quaternions. Our contribution to the theory of quaternionic manifolds relies on decom
posing the Sp(1)action on exterior forms, whilst the main new insight in quaternionic
algebra is that the most important building blocks of Joyce’s theory are best described
and manipulated as Sp(1)representations. The importance of Sp(1)representations to
both areas is chieﬂy responsible for the successful synthesis of methods in the work on
hypercomplex manifolds.
Another frequent source of motivation is the behaviour of the complex numbers.
Many situations in complex algebra and geometry have interesting quaternionic ana
logues. Aspects of complex geometry can often be described using the group U(1) of unit
complex numbers; replacing this with the group Sp(1) can lead directly to quaternionic
versions. The decomposition of exterior forms on quaternionic manifolds is precisely
such an example, as is all the work on qholomorphic functions and forms on hypercom
plex manifolds. On the other hand, Joyce’s quaternionic algebra is such a rich theory
precisely because real subspaces of quaternionic vector spaces behave so diﬀerently from
real subspaces of complex vector spaces.
Much of the original work presented is enticingly simple — indeed, I have often felt
both surprised and privileged that it has not been carried out before. One of the main
explanations for this is the relative unpopularity suﬀered by the quaternions in the 20
th
century. This situation has left various aspects of quaternionic behaviour unexplored.
To help understand the reasons for this omission and the consequent opportunities for
development, the ﬁrst chapter is devoted to a survey of the history of the quaternions
and their applications. Background material also includes an introduction to the group
Sp(1) and its representations. The irreducible representations on complex vector spaces
and their tensor products are described, as are real and quaternionic representations.
Chapter 2 is about quaternionic structures in diﬀerential geometry. The approach
is based on the work of Salamon [S3]. Taking complex manifolds as a model, hyper
complex manifolds (those possessing a torsionfree GL(n, H)structure) are deﬁned, fol
lowed by the broader class of quaternionic manifolds (those possessing a torsionfree
Sp(1)GL(n, H)structure). After reviewing the Dolbeault complex, we consider the
decomposition of diﬀerential forms on quaternionic manifolds, including an important
elliptic complex discovered by Salamon upon which the integrability of the quaternionic
1
structure depends.
This complex is in fact the top row of a hitherto undiscovered double complex on
quaternionic manifolds, which is the subject of Chapter 3. As an Sp(1)representation,
the cotangent space of a quaternionic manifold M
4n
takes the form T
∗
M
∼
= 2nV
1
, where
V
1
is the basic representation of Sp(1) on C
2
. Decomposition of the induced Sp(1)
representation on Λ
k
T
∗
M is a simple process achieved by considering weights. That this
decomposition gives rise to a double complex results from the ClebschGordon formula
V
r
⊗T
∗
M
∼
= V
r
⊗2nV
1
∼
= 2n(V
r+1
⊕V
r−1
). The new double complex is shown to be elliptic
everywhere except along its bottom row, consisting of the basic representations V
1
and
the trivial representations V
0
. This double complex presents us with new quaternionic
cohomology groups.
In the fourth chapter (which is partly a summary of the work of Joyce [J1] and
Quillen [Q]) we move to our other major area of interest, the theory of quaternionic
algebra. The building blocks of this theory are Hmodules equipped with a special real
subspace. Such an object is called an AHmodule. Joyce has discovered a canonical
tensor product operation for AHmodules which is both associative and commutative.
Using ideas from Quillen’s work, we classify AHmodules up to isomorphism. Dual
AHmodules are deﬁned and shown to have interesting properties. Particularly well
behaved is the category of stable AHmodules. In Chapter 5 it is shown that all stable
AHmodules and their duals are conveniently described using Sp(1)representations.
The resulting theory is ideally adapted for describing hypercomplex geometry, a pro
cess begun in Chapter 6. A hypercomplex manifold M has a triple of global anticom
muting complex structures which can be identiﬁed with the imaginary quaternions. This
identiﬁcation enables tensors on hypercomplex manifolds to be treated using the tech
niques of quaternionic algebra. Joyce has already used such an approach to deﬁne and
investigate qholomorphic functions on hypercomplex manifolds, which are seen as the
quaternionic analogue of holomorphic functions. There is a natural product map on
the AHmodule of qholomorphic functions, which gives the qholomorphic functions an
algebraic structure which Joyce calls an Halgebra.
Using the Sp(1)version of quaternionic algebra, we deﬁne a natural splitting of the
quaternionic cotangent space H ⊗ T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕ B, and show that qholomorphic func
tions are precisely those whose diﬀerentials take values in A ⊂ H ⊗ T
∗
M. The bundle
A is hence deﬁned to be the qholomorphic cotangent space of M. These spaces are
examples of AHmodule bundles or AHbundles, which we discuss. Several parallels
with complex geometry arise. There are qholomorphic AHbundles with qholomorphic
sections. Qholomorphic sections are described using the quaternionic tensor product
and the qholomorphic cotangent space, and seen to form an Halgebra module over the
qholomorphic functions.
In the ﬁnal chapter, such methods are applied to quaternionvalued tensors on hy
percomplex manifolds. The double complex of Chapter 3 is revisited and adapted to
quaternionvalued diﬀerential forms. The global complex structures give an extra decom
position which generalises the splitting H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕B, further reﬁning the double
complex. The quaternionvalued double complex has advantages over the realvalued
version, being elliptic in more places. The top row of the quaternionvalued double com
plex is particularly welladapted to quaternionic algebra, which presents close parallels
with the Dolbeault complex and motivates the deﬁnition of qholomorphic kforms.
2
Quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds are also interesting. The quaternionic tangent space
splits as H⊗TM
∼
=
´
A⊕
´
B in the same way as the cotangent space. Vector ﬁelds taking
values in
´
A are closed under the quaternionic tensor product and Lie bracket, a result
which depends upon the integrability of the hypercomplex structure. This is the quater
nionic analogue of the statement that on a complex manifold, the (1, 0) vector ﬁelds are
closed under the Lie bracket. The vector ﬁelds in question therefore form a quaternionic
Lie algebra, a new concept which we introduce. Interesting ﬁnitedimensional quater
nionic Lie algebras are used to calculate some quaternionic cohomology groups on Lie
groups with leftinvariant hypercomplex structures.
3
Chapter 1
The Quaternions and the Group
Sp(1)
1.1 The Quaternions
The quaternions Hare a fourdimensional real algebra generated by the identity element 1
and the symbols i
1
, i
2
and i
3
, so H = ¦r
0
+r
1
i
1
+r
2
i
2
+r
3
i
3
: r
0
, . . . , r
3
∈ R¦. Quaternions
are added together component by component, and quaternion multiplication is given by
the quaternion relations
i
1
i
2
= −i
2
i
1
= i
3
, i
2
i
3
= −i
3
i
2
= i
1
, i
3
i
1
= −i
1
i
3
= i
2
, i
2
1
= i
2
2
= i
2
3
= −1 (1.1)
and the distributive law. The quaternion algebra is not commutative, though it does
obey the associative law. The quaternions are a division algebra (an algebra with the
property that ab = 0 implies that a = 0 or b = 0 ).
• Deﬁne the imaginary quaternions I = ¸i
1
, i
2
, i
3
). The symbol I is not standard,
but we will use it throughout.
• Deﬁne the conjugate ¯ q of q = q
0
+q
1
i
1
+q
2
i
2
+q
3
i
3
by ¯ q = q
0
−q
1
i
1
−q
2
i
2
−q
3
i
3
.
Then (pq) = ¯ q¯ p for all p, q ∈ H.
• Deﬁne the real and imaginary parts of q by Re(q) = q
0
∈ R and Im(q) = q
1
i
1
+
q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
∈ I. As with complex numbers, ¯ q = Re(q) −Im(q).
• We regard the real numbers R as a subﬁeld of H, and the quaternions as a direct
sum H
∼
= R ⊕I.
• Let q = q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
∈ I. Then q
2
= −1 if and only if q
2
1
+ q
2
2
+ q
2
3
= 1, so
the set of ‘quaternionic squareroots of minusone’ is naturally isomorphic to the
2sphere S
2
. We shall often identify these sets, writing ‘q ∈ S
2
’ as a shorthand for
‘q ∈ H : q
2
= −1’.
• If q ∈ S
2
then ¸1, q) is a subﬁeld of H isomorphic to C. We shall call this subﬁeld
C
q
.
4
1.1.1 A History of the Quaternions
The quaternions were discovered by the Irish mathematician and physicist, William
Rowan Hamilton (18051865),
1
whose contributions to mechanics are wellknown and
widely used. By 1835 Hamilton had helped to win acceptance for the system of complex
numbers by showing that calculations with complex numbers are equivalent to calcula
tions with ordered pairs of real numbers, governed by certain rules. At the time, complex
numbers were being applied very eﬀectively to problems in the plane R
2
. To Hamilton,
the next logical step was to seek a similar 3dimensional number system which would
revolutionise calculations in R
3
. For years, he struggled with this problem. In a touching
letter to his son [H1],
2
dated shortly before his death in 1865, Hamilton writes:
Every morning, on my coming down to breakfast, your brother and yourself
used to ask me: “Well, Papa, can you multiply triplets?” Whereto I was
always obliged to reply, with a sad shake of the head, “No, I can only add
and subtract them”.
For several years, Hamilton tried to manipulate the three symbols 1, i and j into an
algebra. He ﬁnally realised that the secret was to introduce a fourth dimension. On 16th
October, 1843, whilst walking with his wife, he had a ﬂash of inspiration. In the same
letter, he writes:
An electric circuit seemed to close, and a spark ﬂashed forth, the herald
(as I foresaw immediately) of many long years to come of deﬁnitely directed
thought and work ... I pulled out on the spot a pocketbook, which still
exists, and made an entry there and then. Nor could I resist the impulse —
unphilosophical as it may have been — to cut with a knife on the stone of
Brougham Bridge, as we passed it, the fundamental formula with the symbols
i, j, k:
i
2
= j
2
= k
2
= ijk = −1,
which contains the solution of the problem, but of course, as an inscription,
has long since mouldered away.
Substituting i
1
, i
2
, i
3
for i, j, k, this gives the quaternion relations (1.1).
Rarely do we possess such a clear account of the genesis of a piece of mathematics.
Most mathematical theories are invented gradually, and only after years of development
can they be presented in a lecture course as a deﬁnitive set of axioms and results. The
quaternions, on the other hand, “started into life, or light, full grown, on the 16th of
Ocober, 1843...”
3
“Less than an hour elapsed” before Hamilton obtained leave of the
Council of the Royal Irish Academy to read a paper on quaternions. The next day,
Hamilton wrote a detailed letter to his friend and fellow mathematician John T. Graves
1
Letters suggest that both Euler and Gauss were aware of the quaternion relations (1.1), though
neither of them published the disovery [EKR, p. 192].
2
Copies of Hamilton’s most signiﬁcant letters and papers concerning quaternions are currently avail
able on the internet at www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/HistMath/People/Hamilton
3
Letter to Professor P.G.Tait, an excerpt of which can be found on the same website as [H1].
5
[H2], giving us a clear account of the train of research which led him to his breakthrough.
The discovery was published within a month on the 13th of November [H3].
The timing of the discovery ampliﬁed its impact upon Hamilton and his followers.
The only other algebras known in 1843 were the real and complex numbers, both of
which can be regarded as subalgebras of the quaternions. (It was not until 1858 that
Cayley introduced matrices, and showed that the quaternion algebra could be realised
as a subalgebra of the complexvalued 2 2 matrices.) As a result, Hamilton became
the ﬁgurehead of a school of ‘quaternionists’, whose fervour for the new numbers far
exceeded their usefulness. Hamilton believed his discovery to be of similar importance
to that of the inﬁnitesimal calculus, and devoted the rest of his career exclusively to its
study. Echos of this zeal could still be heard this century; for example, while Eamon
de Valera was President of Ireland (from 1959 to 1973), he would attend mathematical
meetings whenever their title contained the word ‘quaternions’ !
Such excesses were bound to provoke a reaction, especially as it became clear that
the quaternions are just one example of a number of possible algebras. Lord Kelvin, the
famous Scottish physicist, once remarked that “Quaternions came from Hamilton after
all his really good work had been done; and though beautifully ingenious, have been an
unmixed evil to those who have touched them in any way” [EKR, p.193]. A belief that
quaternions are somehow obsolete is often tacitly accepted to this day.
This is far from the case. The quaternions remain the simplest algebra after the
real and complex numbers. Indeed, the real numbers R, the complex numbers C and
the quaternions H are the only associative division algebras, as was proved by Georg
Frobenius in 1878: and amongst these the quaternions are the most general. The dis
covery of the quaternions provided enormous stimulation to algebraic research and it is
thought that the term ‘associative’ was coined by Hamilton himself [H3, p.5] to describe
quaternionic behaviour. Investigation into the nature of and constraints imposed by
algebraic properties such as associativity and commutativity was greatly accelerated by
the discovery of the quaternions.
The quaternions themselves have been used in various areas of mathematics. Most
recently, quaternions have enjoyed prominence in computer science, because they are the
simplest algebraic tool for describing rotations in three and four dimensions. Certainly,
the numbers have fallen short of the early expectations of the quaternionists. However,
quaternions do shine a light on certain areas of mathematics, and those who become
familiar with them soon come to appreciate an intricacy and beauty which is all their
own.
1.1.2 Quaternions and Matrices
In this section we will make use of the older notation i = i
1
, j = i
2
, k = i
3
. This makes
it easy to interpret i as the standard complex ‘square root of −1’ and j as a ‘structure
map’ on the complex vector space C
2
.
It is wellknown that the quaternions can be written as real or complex matrices,
because there are isomorphisms from H into subalgebras of Mat(4, R) and Mat(2, C).
The former of these is given by the mapping
6
q
0
+ q
1
i + q
2
j + q
3
k →
_
_
_
_
q
0
q
1
q
2
q
3
−q
1
q
0
−q
3
q
2
−q
2
q
3
q
0
−q
1
−q
3
−q
2
q
1
q
0
_
_
_
_
.
More commonly used is the mapping into Mat(2, C). We can write every quaternion
as a pair of complex numbers, using the equation
q
0
+ q
1
i + q
2
j + q
3
k = (q
0
+ q
1
i) + (q
2
+ q
3
i)j. (1.2)
In this way we obtain the expression q = α+βj ∈ H
∼
= C
2
. The map j : α+βj →−
¯
β+¯ αj
is a conjugatelinear involution of C
2
with j
2
= −1. This identiﬁcation H
∼
= C
2
is not
uniquely determined: each q ∈ S
2
determines a similar isomorphism.
Having written this down, it is easy to form the map
ι : H →H ⊂ Mat(2, C) α + βj →
_
α β
−
¯
β ¯ α
_
. (1.3)
The quaternion algebra can thus be realised as a real subalgebra of Mat(2, C), using the
identiﬁcations
1 =
_
1 0
0 1
_
i
1
=
_
i 0
0 −i
_
i
2
=
_
0 1
−1 0
_
i
3
=
_
0 i
i 0
_
. (1.4)
Note that the squared norm q¯ q of a quaternion q is the same as the determinant
of the matrix ι(q) ∈ H. The isomorphism ι gives an easy way to deduce that H is an
associative division algebra; the inverse of any nonzero matrix A ∈ H is also in H, and
the only matrix in H whose determinant is zero is the zero matrix.
1.1.3 Simple Applications of the Quaternions
There are a number of ways in which quaternions can be used to express mathematical
ideas. In many cases, a quaternionic description preﬁgures more modern descriptions.
We will outline two main areas – vector analysis and Euclidean geometry. An excellent
and readable account of most of the following can be found in Chapter 7 of [EKR].
Every quaternion can be uniquely written as the sum of its real and imaginary parts.
If we identify the imaginary quaternions I with the real vector space R
3
, we can consider
each quaternion q = q
0
+q
1
i
1
+q
2
i
2
+q
3
i
3
as the sum of a scalar part q
0
and a vectorial part
(q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) ∈ R
3
(indeed, it is in this context that the term ‘vector’ ﬁrst appears [H4]).
If we multiply together two imaginary quaternions p, q ∈ I, we obtain a quaternionic
version of the scalar product and vector product on R
3
, as follows:
pq = −p q + p ∧ q ∈ R ⊕I
∼
= H. (1.5)
Surprising as it seems nowadays, it was not until the 1880’s that Josiah Willard Gibbs
(18391903), a professor at Yale University, argued that the scalar and vector products
7
had their own meaning, independent from their quaternionic origins. It was he who
introduced the familiar notation p q and p ∧ q — before his time these were written
‘−Spq’ and ‘V pq’, indicating the ‘scalar’ and ‘vector’ parts of the quaternionic product
pq ∈ H.
Another crucial part of vector analysis which originated with Hamilton and the
quaternions is the ‘nabla’ operator ∇ (socalled by Hamilton because the symbol ∇
is similar in shape to the Hebrew musical instrument of that name). The familiar gra
dient operator acting on a real diﬀerentiable function f(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) : R
3
→ R was ﬁrst
written as
∇f :=
∂f
∂x
1
i
1
+
∂f
∂x
2
i
2
+
∂f
∂x
3
i
3
. (1.6)
Hamilton went on to consider applying the operator ∇ to a ‘diﬀerentiable quaternion
ﬁeld’ F(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) = f
1
(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)i
1
+ f
2
(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)i
2
+ f
3
(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)i
3
, obtaining the
equation
∇F = −
_
∂f
1
∂x
1
+
∂f
2
∂x
2
+
∂f
3
∂x
3
_
+
_
∂f
3
∂x
2
−
∂f
2
∂x
3
_
i
1
+
_
∂f
1
∂x
3
−
∂f
3
∂x
1
_
i
2
+
_
∂f
2
∂x
1
−
∂f
1
∂x
2
_
i
3
,
which we recognise in modern terminology as
∇F = −div F + curl F.
Applying the ∇ operator to Equation (1.6) leads to the wellknown Laplacian operator
on R
3
:
∇
2
f = −
_
∂
2
f
∂x
2
1
+
∂
2
f
∂x
2
2
+
∂
2
f
∂x
2
3
_
=: ∆f.
Having obtained the standard scalar product on R
3
, we can obtain the Euclidean
metric on R
4
in a similar fashion by relaxing the restriction in Equation (1.5) that p
and q should be imaginary. For any p, q ∈ H, we have
Re(p¯ q) = p
0
q
0
+ p
1
q
1
+ p
2
q
2
+ p
3
q
3
∈ R,
and so we deﬁne the canonical scalar product on H by
¸p, q) = Re(p¯ q). (1.7)
We deﬁne the norm of a quaternion q ∈ H in the obvious way, putting
[q[ =
√
q¯ q. (1.8)
The norm function is multiplicative, i.e. [pq[ = [p[[q[ for p, q ∈ H. As with complex
numbers, we can combine the norm function with conjugation to obtain the inverse of
q ∈ H ¸ ¦0¦ (it is easily veriﬁed that q
−1
= ¯ q/[q[
2
is the unique quaternion such that
qq
−1
= q
−1
q = 1).
Another quaternionic formula, similar to Equation (1.7), is the identity
Re(pq) = p
0
q
0
−p
1
q
1
−p
2
q
2
−p
3
q
3
∈ R. (1.9)
8
If we regard p and q as fourvectors in spacetime with the ‘timeaxis’ identiﬁed with
R ⊂ H and the ‘spatial part’ identiﬁed with I, this is identical to the Lorentz metric of
special relativity.
Let a and b be quaternions of unit norm, and consider the involution f
a,b
: H →H
given by f
a,b
(q) = aqb. Then [f
a,b
(q)[ = [q[ and the function f
a,b
: R
4
→R
4
is a rotation.
Clearly, f
−a,−b
= f
a,b
, so each of these choices for the pair a, b gives the same rotation.
In 1855, Cayley showed that all rotations of R
4
can be written in this fashion and that
the two possibilities given above are the only two which give the same rotation. Also,
all reﬂections can be obtained by the involutions
¯
f
a,b
(q) = a¯ qb.
One of the beauties of this system is that having obtained all rotations of R
4
, we
obtain the rotations of R
3
simply by putting a = b
−1
, giving the inner automorphism
of H, q → aqa
−1
. (By Cayley’s theorem, all realalgebra automorphisms of H take this
form.) This ﬁxes the real line R and rotates the imaginary quaternions I. Identifying I
with R
3
, the map q → aqa
−1
is a rotation of R
3
. According to Cayley, within a year
of the discovery of the quaternions Hamilton was aware that all rotations of R
3
can be
expressed in this fashion.
These discoveries provided much insight into the classical groups SO(3) and SO(4),
and helped to develop our knowledge of transformation groups in general. There are
interesting questions which arise. Why do the unit quaternions turn out to be so im
portant? In view of the quaternionic version of the Lorentz metric in Equation (1.9),
can we use quaternions to write Lorentz tranformations as elegantly? Are there other
spaces which might lend themselves to quaternionic treatment? These questions are best
addressed using the theory of Lie groups, which the pioneering work of Hamilton and
Cayley helped to develop.
1.2 The Lie Group Sp(1) and its Representations
The unit quaternions form a subgroup of H under multiplication, which we call Sp(1).
Its importance to the quaternions is equivalent to that of the circle group U(1) of unit
complex numbers in complex analysis. As a manifold Sp(1) is the 3sphere S
3
. The
multiplication and inverse maps are smooth, so Sp(1) is a compact Lie group. The
isomorphism ι : H →H ⊂ Mat(2, C) of Equation (1.4) maps Sp(1) isomorphically onto
SU(2).
The Lie algebra sp(1) of Sp(1) is generated by the elements I, J and K, the Lie
bracket being given by the relations [I, J] = 2K, [J, K] = 2I and [K, I] = 2J. We can
write these using the matrices of Equation (1.4):
I =
_
i 0
0 −i
_
J =
_
0 1
−1 0
_
K =
_
0 i
i 0
_
.
The complexiﬁcation of sp(1) is the Lie algebra sl(2, C). This is generated over C by
the elements
H =
_
1 0
0 −1
_
X =
_
0 1
0 0
_
Y =
_
0 0
1 0
_
, (1.10)
and the relations
[H, X] = 2X, [H, Y ] = −2Y and [X, Y ] = H. (1.11)
9
Hence the equations
I = iH, J = X −Y and K = i(X + Y ) (1.12)
give one possible identiﬁcation sp(1) ⊗
R
C
∼
= sl(2, C).
For any Q ∈ sp(1), the normaliser N(Q) of Q is deﬁned to be
N(Q) = ¦P ∈ sp(1) : [P, Q] = 0¦ = ¸Q),
which is a Cartan subalgebra of sp(1). Identifying a unit vector Q = aI+bJ+cK ∈ sp(1)
with the corresponding imaginary quaternion q = ai
2
+ bi
2
+ ci
3
∈ S
2
, the exponential
map exp : sp(1) →Sp(1) maps ¸Q) to the unit circle in C
q
, which we will call U(1)
q
.
In the previous section it was shown that rotations in three and four dimensions can
be written in terms of unit quaternions. This is because there is a commutative diagram
of Lie group homomorphisms
Sp(1)
∼
= Spin(3) → Sp(1) Sp(1)
∼
= Spin(4)
↓ ↓
SO(3) → SO(4).
(1.13)
The horizontal arrows are inclusions, and the vertical arrows are 2 : 1 coverings with
kernels ¦1, −1¦ and ¦(1, 1), (−1, −1)¦ respectively. The applications of these homomor
phisms in Riemannian geometry are described by Salamon in [S1].
From this, we can see clearly why three and fourdimensional Euclidean geometry
ﬁt so well in a quaternionic framework. We can also see why the same is not true for
Lorentzian geometry. Here the important group is the Lorentz group SO(3,1). Whilst
there is a double cover SL(2, C) →SO
0
(3, 1), this does not restrict to a suitably interest
ing real homomorphism Sp(1)→SO
0
(3,1). It is possible to write Lorentz transformations
using quaternions (for a modern example see [dL]), but the author has found no way
which is simple enough to be really eﬀective. There have been attempts to use the bi
quaternions ¦p + iq : p + q ∈ H¦
∼
= H ⊗
R
C to apply quaternions to special relativity
[Sy], but the mental gymnastics involved in using four ‘square roots of −1’ are cum
bersome: the equivalent description of ‘spin transformations’ using the matrices of the
group SL(2,C) are a more familiar and fertile ground.
1.2.1 The Representations of Sp(1)
A representation of a Lie group G on a vector space V is a Lie group homomorphism
ρ : G →GL(V ). We will sometimes refer to V itself as a representation where the map
ρ is understood. The diﬀerential dρ is a Lie algebra representation dρ : g →End(V ).
The representations of Sp(1)
∼
= SU(2) will play an important part in this thesis.
Their theory is wellknown and used in many situations. Good introductions to Sp(1)
representations include [BD, ¸2.5] (which describes the action of the group SU(2)) and
[FH, Lecture 11] (which provides a description in terms of the action of the Lie algebra
sl(2, C)). We recall those points which will be of particular importance.
Because it is a compact group, every representation of Sp(1) on a complex vector
space V can be written as a direct sum of irreducible representations. The multiplicity
10
of each irreducible in such a decomposition is uniquely determined. Moreover, there is a
unique irreducible representation on C
n
for every n > 0. This makes the representations
of Sp(1) particularly easy to describe. Let V
1
be the basic representation of SL(2,C)
on C
2
given by leftaction of matrices upon column vectors. This coincides with the
basic representation of Sp(1) by leftmultiplication on H
∼
= C
2
. The unique irreducible
representation on C
n+1
is then given by the n
th
symmetric power of V
1
, so we deﬁne
V
n
= S
n
(V
1
).
The representation V
n
is irreducible [BD, Proposition 5.1], and every irreducible rep
resentation of Sp(1) is of the form V
n
for some nonnegative n ∈ Z [BD, Proposition
5.3].
Let x and y be a basis for C
2
, so that V
1
= ¸x, y). Then
V
n
= S
n
(V
1
) = ¸x
n
, x
n−1
y, x
n−2
y
2
, . . . , x
2
y
n−2
, xy
n−1
, y
n
).
The action of SL(2,C) on V
n
is given by the induced action on the space of homogeneous
polynomials of degree n in the variables x and y.
Each of the Lie group representations V
n
is a representation of the Lie algebras sl(2, C)
and sp(1). Another very important way to describe the structure of these representations
is obtained by decomposing them into weight spaces (eigenspaces for the action of a
Cartan subalgebra). In terms of H, X and Y , the sl(2, C)action on V
1
is given by
H(x) = x X(x) = 0 Y (x) = y
H(y) = −y X(y) = x Y (y) = 0.
(1.14)
To obtain the induced action of sl(2, C) on V
n
we use the Leibniz rule
4
A(a b) =
A(a) b + a A(b). This gives
H(x
n−k
y
k
) = (n −2k)(x
n−k
y
k
)
X(x
n−k
y
k
) = k(x
n−k+1
y
k−1
) (1.15)
Y (x
n−k
y
k
) = (n −k)(x
n−k−1
y
k+1
).
Each subspace ¸x
n−k
y
k
) ⊂ V
n
is therefore a weight space of the representation V
n
, and
the weights are the integers
¦n, n −2, . . . , n −2k, . . . , 2 −n, −n¦.
Thus V
n
is also characterised by being the unique irreducible representation of sl(2, C)
with highest weight n. We can compute the action of sp(1) on V
n
by substituting I, J
and K for H, X and Y using the relations of (1.12).
Another important operator which acts on an sp(1)representation is the Casimir
operator C = I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
= −(H
2
+ 2XY + 2Y X). It is easy to show that for any
x
n−k
y
k
∈ V
n
,
C(x
n−k
y
k
) = −n(n + 2)x
n−k
y
k
. (1.16)
4
This can be found in [FH, p. 110], which describes the action of Lie groups and Lie algebras on
tensor products.
11
Each irreducible representation V
n
is thus an eigenspace of the Casimir operator with
eigenvalue −n(n + 2).
Let V
m
and V
n
be two Sp(1)representations. Then their tensor product V
m
⊗ V
n
is naturally an Sp(1) Sp(1)representation,
5
and also a representation of the diagonal
Sp(1)subgroup, the action of which is given by
g(u ⊗v) = g(u) ⊗g(v).
The irreducible decomposition of the diagonal Sp(1)representation on V
m
⊗V
n
is given
by the famous ClebschGordon formula,
V
m
⊗V
n
∼
= V
m+n
⊕V
m+n−2
⊕ ⊕V
m−n+2
⊕V
m−n
for m ≥ n. (1.17)
This can be proved using characters [BD, Proposition 5.5] or weights [FH, Exercise
11.11].
Real and quaternionic representations
It is standard practice to work primarily with representations on complex vector spaces.
Representations on real (and quaternionic) vector spaces are obtained using antilinear
structure maps. A thorough guide to this process is in [BD, ¸2.6]. In the case of Sp(1)
representations, we deﬁne the structure map σ
1
: V
1
→V
1
by
σ
1
(z
1
x + z
2
y) = −¯ z
2
x + ¯ z
1
y z
1
, z
2
∈ C.
Then σ
2
1
= −1 , and σ
1
coincides with the map j of Section 1.1.2. Let σ
n
be the map
which σ
1
induces on V
n
, i.e.
σ
n
(z
1
x
n−k
y
k
) = (−1)
k
¯ z
1
x
k
y
n−k
. (1.18)
If n = 2m is even then σ
2
2m
= 1 and σ
2m
is a real structure on V
2m
. Let V
σ
2m
be the set
of ﬁxedpoints of σ
2m
. Then V
σ
2m
∼
= R
2m+1
is preserved by the action of Sp(1), and
V
σ
2m
⊗
R
C
∼
= V
2m
.
Thus V
σ
2m
is a representation of Sp(1) on the real vector space R
2m+1
.
If on the other hand n = 2m− 1 is odd, σ
2
2m−1
= −1. Then Sp(1) acts on the un
derlying real vector space R
4m
. This real vector space comes equipped with the complex
structure i and the structure map σ
2m−1
, in such a way that the subspace
¸v, iv, σ
2m−1
(v), iσ
2m−1
(v))
∼
= R
4
is isomorphic to the quaternions; thus V
2m−1
∼
= H
m
. This is why a complex antilinear
map σ on a complex vector space V such that σ
2
= −1 is called a quaternionic structure.
5
Since Sp(1) Sp(1)
∼
= Spin(4), we can construct all Spin(4) and hence all SO(4) representations in
this fashion — see [S1, ¸3].
12
1.3 Diﬃculties with the Quaternions
Quaternions are far less predictable than their lowerdimensional cousins, due to the great
complicating factor of noncommutativity. Many of the ideas which work beautifully for
real or complex numbers are not suited to quaternions, and attempts to use them often
result in lengthy and cumbersome mathematics — most of which dates from the 19
th
century and is now almost forgotten. However, with modesty and care, quaternions can
be used to recreate many of the structures over the real and complex numbers with which
we are familiar. The purpose of this section is to outline some of the diﬃculties with a
few examples, which highlight the need for caution: but also, it is hoped, point the way
to some of the successes we will encounter.
1.3.1 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra for Quaternions
The single biggest reason for using the complex numbers in preference to any other num
ber ﬁeld is the socalled ‘Fundamental Theorem of Algebra’ — every complex polynomial
of degree n has precisely n zeros, counted with multiplicities. The real numbers are not
so wellbehaved: a real polynomial of degree n can have fewer than n real roots.
Quaternion behaviour is many degrees freer and less predictable. If we multiply
together two ‘linear factors’, we obtain the following expression:
(a
1
X + b
1
)(a
2
X + b
2
) = a
1
Xa
2
X + a
1
Xb
2
+ b
1
a
2
X + b
1
b
2
.
It quickly becomes obvious that noncommutativity is going make any attempt to fac
torise a general polynomial extremely troublesome.
Moreover, there are many polynomials which display extreme behaviour. For ex
ample, the cubic X
2
i
1
Xi
1
+ i
1
X
2
i
1
X − i
1
Xi
1
X
2
− Xi
1
X
2
i
1
takes the value zero for
all X ∈ H. At the other extreme, since i
1
X − Xi
1
∈ I for all X ∈ H, the equation
i
1
X −Xi
1
+ 1 = 0 has no solutions at all!
In order to arrive at any kind of ‘fundamental theorem of algebra’, we need to restrict
our attention considerably. We deﬁne a monomial of degree n to be an expression of the
form
a
0
Xa
1
Xa
2
a
n−1
Xa
n
, a
i
∈ H¸ ¦0¦.
Then there is the following ‘fundamental theorem of algebra for quaternions’:
Theorem 1.3.1 [EKR, p. 205] Let f be a polynomial over H of degree n > 0 of the
form m + g, where m is a monomial of degree n and g is a polynomial of degree < n.
Then the mapping f : H →H is surjective, and in particular f has zeros in H.
This is typical of the diﬃculties we encounter with quaternions. There is a quater
nionic analogue of the theorems for real and complex numbers, but because of non
commutativity the quaternionic version is more complicated, less general and because of
this less useful.
13
1.3.2 Calculus with Quaternions
The monumental successes of complex analysis make it natural to look for a similar
theory for quaternions. Complex analysis can be described as the study of holomorphic
functions. A function f : C → C is holomorphic if it has a welldeﬁned complex
derivative. One of the fundamental results in complex analysis is that every holomorphic
function is analytic i.e. can be written as a convergent power series.
Sadly, neither of these deﬁnitions proves interesting when applied to quaternions —
the former is too restrictive and the latter too general. For a function f : H → H to
have a welldeﬁned derivative
df
dq
= lim
h→0
(f(q + h) −f(q))h
−1
,
it can be shown [Su, ¸3, Theorem 1] that f must take the form f(q) = a +bq for some
a, b ∈ H, so the only functions which are quaterniondiﬀerentiable in this sense are aﬃne
linear.
In contrast to the complex case, the components of a quaternion can be written as
quaternionic polynomials, i.e. for q = q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
,
q
0
=
1
4
(q −i
1
qi
1
−i
2
qi
2
−i
3
qi
3
) q
1
=
1
4i
1
(q −i
1
qi
1
+ i
2
qi
2
+ i
3
qi
3
) etc. (1.19)
This takes us to the other extreme: the study of quaternionic power series is the same
as the theory of realanalytic functions on R
4
. Hamilton and his followers were aware
of this — it was in Hamilton’s work on quaternions that some of the modern ideas in
the theory of functions of several real variables ﬁrst appeared. Despite the beneﬁts of
this work to mathematics as a whole, Hamilton never developed a successful ‘quaternion
calculus’.
It was not until the work of R. Fueter, in 1935, that a suitable deﬁnition of a ‘regular
quaternionic function’ was found, using a quaternionic analogue of the CauchyRiemann
equations. A regular function on H is deﬁned to be a realdiﬀerentiable function f :
H →H which satisﬁes the CauchyRiemannFueter equations:
∂f
∂q
0
+
∂f
∂q
1
i
1
+
∂f
∂q
2
i
2
+
∂f
∂q
3
i
3
= 0. (1.20)
The theory of quaternionic analysis which results is modestly successful, though it is
littleknown. The work of Fueter is described and extended in the papers of Deavours
[D] and Sudbery [Su], which include quaternionic versions of Morera’s theorem, Cauchy’s
theorem and the Cauchy integral formula.
As usual, noncommutativity causes immediate algebraic diﬃculties. If f and g are
regular functions, it is easy to see that their sum f + g must also be regular, as must
the left scalar multiple qf for q ∈ H; but their product fg, the composition f ◦ g and
the right scalar multiple fq need not be. Hence regular functions form a left Hmodule,
but it is diﬃcult to see how to describe any further algebraic structure.
1.3.3 Quaternion Linear Algebra
In the same way as we deﬁne real or complex vector spaces, we can deﬁne quaternionic
vector spaces or Hmodules — a real vector space with an Haction, which we shall call
14
scalar multiplication. There is the added complication that we need to say whether this
multiplication is on the left or the right. We will work with left Hmodules — this choice
is arbitrary and has only notational eﬀects on the resulting theory. A left Hmodule is
thus a real vector space U with an action of H on the left, which we write (q, u) →q u
or just qu, such that p(qu) = (pq)u for all p, q ∈ H and u ∈ U. For example, H
n
is an
Hmodule with the obvious leftmultiplication.
Several of the familiar ideas which work for vector spaces over a commutative ﬁeld
work just as well for Hmodules. For example, we can deﬁne quaternion linear maps
between Hmodules in the obvious way, and so we can deﬁne a dual Hmodule U
×
of
quaternion linear maps α : U →H.
However, if we try to deﬁne quaternion bilinear maps we run into trouble. If A, B and
C are vector spaces over the commutative ﬁeld F, then an Fbilinear map µ : AB →C
satisﬁes µ(f
1
a, b) = f
1
µ(a, b) and µ(a, f
2
b) = f
2
µ(a, b) for all a ∈ A, b ∈ B, f
1
, f
2
∈ F.
This is equivalent to having µ(f
1
a, f
2
b) = f
1
f
2
µ(a, b).
Now suppose that U, V and W are (left) Hmodules. Let q
1
, q
2
∈ H and let u ∈ U,
v ∈ V . If we try to deﬁne a bilinear map µ : U V →W as above, then we need both
µ(q
1
u, q
2
v) = q
1
µ(u, q
2
v) = q
2
q
1
µ(u, v) and µ(q
1
u, q
2
v) = q
2
µ(q
1
u, v) = q
1
q
2
µ(u, v).
Since q
1
q
2
,= q
2
q
1
in general, this cannot work.
Similar diﬃculties arise if we try to deﬁne a tensor product over the quaternions. If
A and B are vector spaces over the commutative ﬁeld F, their tensor product over F is
deﬁned by
A ⊗
F
B =
F(A, B)
R(A, B)
, (1.21)
where F(A, B) is the vector space freely generated (over F) by all elements (a, b) ∈ AB
and R(A, B) is the subspace of F(A, B) generated by all elements of the form
(a
1
+ a
2
, b) −(a
1
, b) −(a
2
, b) (a, b
1
+ b
2
) −(a, b
1
) −(a, b
2
)
f(a, b) −(f(a), b) and f(a, b) −(a, f(b)),
for a, a
j
∈ A, b, b
j
∈ B and f ∈ F. Not surprisingly, this process does not work for
quaternions. Let U and V be left Hmodules. Then if we deﬁne the ideal R(U, V ) in
the same way as above, we discover that R(U, V ) is equal to the whole of F(U, V ), so
U ⊗
F
V = ¦0¦.
One way around both of these diﬃculties is to demand that our Hmodules should
also have an Haction on the right. We can now deﬁne an Hbilinear map to be one which
satisﬁes µ(q
1
u, vq
2
) = q
1
µ(u, v)q
2
, or alternatively µ(q
1
u, q
2
v) = q
1
µ(u, v)¯ q
2
. Similarly,
for our tensor product we can deﬁne a generator uq ⊗v −u ⊗qv (replacing f(u) ⊗v −
u ⊗f(v)) for R. In this (more restricted) case we do obtain a welldeﬁned ‘quaternionic
tensor product’ U⊗
H
V = F(U, V )/R(U, V ) which inherits a left Haction from U and a
right Haction from V .
The drawback with this system is that it does not really provide any new insights.
If we insist on having a left and a right Haction, we restrict ourselves to talking about
Hmodules of the form H
n
= H ⊗
R
R
n
. In this case, we do get the useful relation
H
m
⊗
H
H
n
∼
= H
mn
, but this is only saying that H⊗
R
R
m
⊗
R
R
n
∼
= H⊗
R
R
mn
. In this context,
our ‘quaternionic tensor product’ is merely a real tensor product in a quaternionic setting.
15
1.3.4 Summary
By now we have become familiar with some of the more elementary ups and downs of the
quaternions. In the 20
th
century they have often been viewed as a sort of mathematical
Cinderella, more recent techniques being used to describe phenomena which were ﬁrst
thought to be profoundly quaternionic. However, we have seen that it is possible to
produce quaternionic analogues of some of the most basic algebraic and analytic ideas of
real and complex numbers, often with interesting and useful results. In the next chapter
we will continue to explore this process, turning our attention to quaternionic structures
in diﬀerential geometry.
16
Chapter 2
Quaternionic Diﬀerential Geometry
In this chapter we review some of the ways in which quaternions are used to deﬁne
geometric stuctures on diﬀerentiable manifolds. In the same way that real and complex
manifolds are modelled locally by the vector spaces R
n
and C
n
respectively, there are
manifolds which can be modelled locally by the Hmodule H
n
. These models work by
deﬁning tensors whose action on the tangent spaces to a manifold is the same as the
action of the quaternions on an Hmodule. There are two important classes of manifolds
which we shall consider: those which are called ‘quaternionic manifolds’, and a more
restricted class called ‘hypercomplex manifolds’.
In this chapter we describe these important geometric structures. We also review
the decomposition of exterior forms on complex manifolds, and examine some of the
parallels of this theory which have already been found in quaternionic geometry. Many
of the algebraic and geometric foundations of the material in this chapter are collected
in (or can be inferred from) Fujiki’s comprehensive article [F].
2.1 Complex, Hypercomplex and Quaternionic Man
ifolds
Complex Manifolds
A complex manifold is a 2ndimensional real manifold M which admits an atlas of
complex charts, all of whose transition functions are holomorphic maps from C
n
to
itself. As we saw in Section 1.3, the simplest notions of a ‘quaterniondiﬀerentiable map
from H to itself’ are either very restrictive or too general, and the ‘regular functions’ of
Fueter and Sudbery are not necessarily closed under composition. This makes the notion
of ‘quaterniondiﬀerentiable transition functions’ less interesting that one might hope.
An equivalent way to deﬁne a complex manifold is by the existence of a special
tensor called a complex structure. A complex structure on a real vector space V is an
automorphism I : V → V such that I
2
= −id
V
. (It follows that dimV is even.) The
complex structure I gives an isomorphism V
∼
= C
n
, since the operation ‘multiplication
by i’ deﬁnes a standard complex structure on C
n
. An almost complex structure on a
2ndimensional real manifold M is a smooth tensor I ∈ C
∞
(End(TM)) such that I is a
complex structure on each of the ﬁbres T
x
M.
17
Now, if M is a complex manifold, each tangent space T
x
M is isomorphic to C
n
, so
taking I to be the standard complex structure on each T
x
M deﬁnes an almost complex
structure on M. An almost complex stucture I which arises in this way is called a
complex structure on M, in which case I is said to be integrable. The famous Newlander
Nirenberg theorem states that an almost complex structure I is integrable if and only if
the Nijenhuis tensor of I
N
I
(X, Y ) = [X, Y ] + I[IX, Y ] + I[X, IY ] −[IX, IY ]
vanishes for all X, Y ∈ C
∞
(TM), for all x ∈ M. The Nijenhuis tensor N
I
measures the
(0, 1)component of the Lie bracket of two vector ﬁelds of type (1, 0).
1
On a complex
manifold the Lie bracket of two (1, 0)vector ﬁelds must also be of type (1, 0).
Thus if I is an almost complex structure on M and N
I
≡ 0, then M is a complex
manifold in the sense of the ﬁrst deﬁnition given above. We can talk about the complex
manifold (M, I) if we wish to make the extra geometric structure more explicit —
especially as the manifold M might admit more than one complex structure.
Hypercomplex Manifolds
This way of deﬁning a complex manifold adapts itself well to the quaternions. A hyper
complex structure on a real vector space V is a triple (I, J, K) of complex structures on
V satisfying the equation IJ = K. (It follows that dimV is divisible by 4.) If we iden
tify I, J and K with leftmultiplication by i
1
, i
2
and i
3
, a hypercomplex structure gives
an isomorphism V
∼
= H
n
. Equivalently, a hypercomplex structure is deﬁned by a pair of
complex structures I and J with IJ = −JI. It is easy to see that if (I, J, K) is a hyper
complex structure on V , then each element of the set ¦aI+bJ+cK : a
2
+b
2
+c
2
= 1¦
∼
= S
2
is also a complex structure. We arrive at the following quaternionic version of a complex
manifold:
Deﬁnition 2.1.1 An almost hypercomplex structure on a 4ndimensional manifold M is
a triple (I, J, K) of almost complex structures on M which satisfy the relation IJ = K.
If all of the complex structures are integrable then (I, J, K) is called a hypercomplex
structure on M, and M is a hypercomplex manifold.
A hypercomplex structure on M deﬁnes an isomorphism T
x
M
∼
= H
n
at each point
x ∈ M. As on a vector space, a hypercomplex structure on a manifold M deﬁnes a
2sphere S
2
of complex structures on M.
Some choices are inherent in this standard deﬁnition. A hypercomplex structure as
deﬁned above gives TM the structure of a left Hmodule, since IJ = K. This induces
a right Hmodule structure on T
∗
M, using the standard deﬁnition ¸I(ξ), X) = ¸ξ, I(X))
etc., for all ξ ∈ T
∗
M, X ∈ TM, since on T
∗
M we now have
¸ξ, IJ(X)) = ¸I(ξ), J(X)) = ¸JI(ξ), X).
In this thesis we will make more use of the hypercomplex structure on T
∗
M than that on
TM. Because of this we will usually deﬁne our hypercomplex structures so that IJ = K
on T
∗
M rather than TM. This has only notational eﬀect on the theory, but it does pay to
1
Tensors of type (p, q) are deﬁned in the next section.
18
be aware of how it aﬀects other standard notations. For example, for us the hypercomplex
structure acts trivially on the antiselfdual 2forms ω
−
1
= dx
0
∧ dx
1
− dx
2
∧ dx
3
etc.
This encourages us to think of a connection whose curvature is acted upon trivially by
the hypercomplex structure as antiselfdual rather than selfdual, whereas some authors
use the opposite convention. Such things are largely a matter of taste — we are choosing
to follow the notation of Joyce [J1] for whom regular functions form a left Hmodule,
whereas Sudbery’s regular functions form a right Hmodule.
One important diﬀerence between complex and hypercomplex geometry is the exis
tence of a special connection. A complex manifold generally admits many torsionfree
connections which preserve the complex structure. By contrast, on a hypercomplex
manifold there is a unique torsionfree connection ∇ such that
∇I = ∇J = ∇K = 0.
This was proved by Obata in 1956, and the connection ∇ is called the Obata connection.
Complex and hypercomplex manifolds can be decribed succinctly in terms of G
structures on manifolds. Let P be the principal frame bundle of M, i.e. the GL(n, R)
bundle whose ﬁbre over x ∈ M is the group of isomorphisms T
x
M
∼
= R
4n
. Let G be a
Lie subgroup of GL(n, R). A Gstructure Q on M is a principal subbundle of P with
structure group G.
Suppose M
2n
has an almost complex structure. The group of automorphisms of T
x
M
preserving such a structure is isomorphic to GL(n, C). Thus an almost complex structure
I and a GL(n, C)structure Q on M contain the same information. The bundle Q admits
a torsionfree connection if and only if there is a torsionfree linear connection ∇ on M
with ∇I = 0, in which case it is easy to show that I is integrable. Thus a complex
manifold is precisely a real manifold M
2n
with a GL(n, C)structure Q admitting a
torsionfree connection (in which case Q itself is said to be ‘integrable’).
If M
4n
has an almost hypercomplex structure then the group of automorphisms
preserving this structure is isomorphic to GL(n, H). Following the same line of argument,
a hypercomplex manifold is seen to be a real manifold M with an integrable GL(n, H)
structure Q. The uniqueness of any torsionfree connection on Q follows from analysing
the Lie algebra gl(n, H). This process is described in [S3, ¸6].
Quaternionic Manifolds and the Structure Group GL(1, H)GL(n, H)
Not all of the manifolds which we wish to describe as ‘quaternionic’ admit hypercomplex
structures. For example, the quaternionic projective line HP
1
is diﬀeomorphic to the
4sphere S
4
. It is wellknown that S
4
does not even admit a global almost complex
structure; so HP
1
can certainly not be hypercomplex, despite behaving extremely like
the quaternions locally.
The reason (and the solution) for this diﬃculty is that GL(n, H) is not the largest
subgroup of GL(4n, R) preserving a quaternionic structure. If we think of GL(n, H)
as acting on H
n
by rightmultiplication by n n quaternionic matrices, then the action
of GL(n, H) commutes with that of the left Haction of the group GL(1, H). Thus
the group of symmetries of H
n
is the product GL(1, H)
R
∗
GL(n, H) , which we write
GL(1, H)GL(n, H). We can multiply on the right by any real multiple of the identity
19
(since GL(1, H) and GL(n, H) share the same centre R
∗
), so without loss of gener
ality we can reduce the ﬁrst factor to Sp(1). Thus GL(1, H)GL(n, H) is the same as
Sp(1)GL(n, H) = Sp(1)
Z
2
GL(n, H).
Deﬁnition 2.1.2 [S3, 1.1] A quaternionic manifold is a 4ndimensional real manifold M
(n ≥ 2) with an Sp(1)GL(n, H)structure Q admitting a torsionfree connection.
When n = 1 the situation is diﬀerent, since Sp(1)Sp(1)
∼
= SO(4). In four dimensions
we make the special deﬁnition that a quaternionic manifold is a selfdual conformal
manifold.
In terms of tensors, quaternionic manifolds are a generalisation of hypercomplex
manifolds in the following way. Each tangent space T
x
M still admits a hypercomplex
structure giving an isomorphism T
x
M
∼
= H
n
, but this isomorphism does not necessarily
arise from globally deﬁned complex structures on M. There is still an S
2
bundle of
local almostcomplex structures which satisfy IJ = K, but it is free to ‘rotate’. For a
comprehensive study of quaternionic manifolds see [S3] and Chapter 9 of [S4].
Riemannian Manifolds in Complex and Quaternionic Geometry
Suppose the GL(n, C)structure Q on a complex manifold M admits a further reduc
tion to an integrable U(n)structure Q
. Then M admits a Riemannian metric g with
g(IX, IY ) = g(X, Y ) for all X, Y ∈ T
x
M for all x ∈ M. We also deﬁne the diﬀerentiable
2form ω(X, Y ) = g(IX, Y ). If such a metric arises from an integrable U(n)structure
Q
then ω will be a closed 2form, and M is a symplectic manifold — so M has com
patible complex and symplectic structures. In this case M is called a K¨ahler manifold;
an integrable U(n)structure is called a K¨ahler structure; the metric g is called a K¨ahler
metric and the symplectic form ω is called a K¨ahler form.
The quaternionic analogue of the compact group U(n) is the group Sp(n). A hyper
complex manifold whose GL(n, H)structure Q reduces to an integrable Sp(n)structure
Q
admits a metric g which is simultaneously K¨ahler for each of the complex structures
I, J and K. Such a manifold is called hyperk¨ahler . Using each of the complex structures,
we deﬁne three independent symplectic forms ω
I
, ω
J
and ω
K
. Then the complex 2form
ω
J
+ iω
K
is holomorphic with respect to the complex structure I, and a hyperk¨ahler
manifold has compatible hypercomplex and complexsymplectic structures. Hyperk¨ahler
manifolds are studied in [HKLR], which gives a quotient construction for hyperk¨ ahler
manifolds.
Similarly, if a quaternionic manifold has a metric compatible with the torsionfree
Sp(1)GL(n, H)structure, then the Sp(1)GL(n, H)structure Q reduces to an Sp(1)Sp(n)
structure Q
and M is said to be quaternionic K¨ahler. The group Sp(1)Sp(n) is a
maximal proper subgroup of SO(4n) except when n = 1, where as we know Sp(1)Sp(1) =
SO(4). In four dimensions a manifold is said to be quaternionic K¨ahler if and only if it
is selfdual and Einstein. Quaternionic K¨ahler manifolds are the subject of [S2].
2.2 Diﬀerential Forms on Complex Manifolds
This section consists of background material in complex geometry, especially ideas which
encourage the development of interesting quaternionic versions. More information on this
20
and other aspects of complex geometry can be found in [W] and [GH, ¸0.2].
Let (M, I) be a complex manifold. Then I gives TM and T
∗
M the structure of a
U(1)representation and the complexiﬁcation C⊗
R
TM splits into two weight spaces with
weights ±i. The same is true of C ⊗
R
T
∗
M. There are various ways of writing these
weight spaces; fairly standard is the notation C ⊗
R
T
∗
M = T
∗
1,0
M ⊕T
∗
0,1
M, where these
summands are the +i and −i eigenspaces of I respectively. However, for our purposes
it will be more useful to adopt the notation of [S3], writing
C ⊗
R
T
∗
M = Λ
1,0
M ⊕Λ
0,1
M, (2.1)
so Λ
1,0
M = T
∗
1,0
M and Λ
0,1
M = T
∗
0,1
M. A holomorphic function f ∈ C
∞
(M, C) is
a smooth function whose derivative takes values only in Λ
1,0
M for all m ∈ M, i.e. f
is holomorphic if and only if df ∈ C
∞
(M, Λ
1,0
M). A closely linked statement is that
Λ
1,0
M is a holomorphic vector bundle. Thus Λ
1,0
M is called the holomorphic cotangent
space and Λ
0,1
M is called the antiholomorphic cotangent space of M. If we reverse the
sense of the complex structure (i.e. if we swap I for −I) then we reverse the roles of the
holomorphic and antiholomorphic spaces, which is why a function which is holomorphic
with respect to I is antiholomorphic with respect to −I.
From standard multilinear algebra, the decomposition (2.1) gives rise to a decompo
sition of exterior forms of all powers
C ⊗
R
Λ
k
T
∗
M =
k
p=0
Λ
p
(T
∗
1,0
M) ⊗Λ
k−p
(T
∗
0,1
M).
Deﬁne the bundle
Λ
p,q
M = Λ
p
T
∗
1,0
M ⊗Λ
q
T
∗
0,1
M. (2.2)
With this notation, Equation (2.1) is an example of the more general decomposition into
types
C ⊗
R
Λ
k
T
∗
M =
p+q=k
Λ
p,q
M. (2.3)
A smooth section of the bundle Λ
p,q
M is called a diﬀerential form of type (p, q) or just
a (p, q)form. We write Ω
p,q
(M) for the set of (p, q)forms on M, so
Ω
p,q
(M) = C
∞
(M, Λ
p,q
M) and Ω
k
(M) =
p+q=k
Ω
p,q
(M).
Deﬁne two ﬁrstorder diﬀerential operators,
∂ : Ω
p,q
(M) →Ω
p+1,q
(M)
∂ = π
p+1,q
◦ d
and
∂ : Ω
p,q
(M) →Ω
p,q+1
(M)
∂ = π
p,q+1
◦ d,
(2.4)
where π
p,q
denotes the natural projection from C ⊗ Λ
k
M onto Λ
p,q
M. The operator ∂
is called the Dolbeault operator.
These deﬁnitions rely only on the fact that I is an almost complex structure. A
crucial fact is that if I is integrable, these are the only two components represented in
21
Figure 2.1: The Dolbeault Complex
Ω
0,0
= C
∞
(M, C)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂
∂
Ω
1,0
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂
∂
Ω
0,1
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂
∂
Ω
1,1
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂
∂
Ω
2,0
r
r
r
r
r
rj ∂
. . . . . . etc.
Ω
0,2
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
∂
. . . . . . etc.
the exterior diﬀerential d, i.e. d = ∂ +∂ [WW, Proposition 2.2.2, p.105]. An immediate
consequence of this is that on a complex manifold M,
∂
2
= ∂∂ + ∂∂ = ∂
2
= 0. (2.5)
This gives rise to the Dolbeault complex. Writing ∂
p,q
for the particular map ∂ :
Ω
p,q
→Ω
p,q+1
, we deﬁne the Dolbeault cohomology groups
H
p,q
∂
=
Ker(∂
p,q
)
Im(∂
p,q−1
)
.
A function f ∈ C
∞
(M, C) is holomorphic if and only if ∂f = 0 and for this reason ∂ is
sometimes called the CauchyRiemann operator. Similarly, a (p, 0)form α is said to be
holomorphic if and only if ∂α = 0.
A useful way to think of the Dolbeault complex is as a decomposition of C⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M
into types of U(1)representation. The representations of U(1) on complex vector spaces
are particularly easy to understand. Since U(1) is abelian, the irreducible representations
all are onedimensional. They are parametrised by the integers, taking the form
n
: U(1) →GL(1, C) = C
∗
n
: e
iθ
→e
niθ
for some n ∈ Z. Representations of the Lie algebra u(1) are then of the form d
n
: z →
nz. The Dolbeault complex begins with the representation of the complex structure
¸I)
∼
= u(1) on C ⊗ T
∗
M. This induces a representation on C ⊗ Λ
•
T
∗
M. It is easy
to see that if ω ∈ Λ
p,q
M, I(ω) = i(p − q)ω. In other words, Λ
p,q
M is the bundle of
U(1)representations of the type
p−q
.
22
2.3 Diﬀerential Forms on Quaternionic Manifolds
Any Gstructure on a manifold M induces a representation of G on the exterior algebra
of M. Fujiki’s account of this [F, ¸2] explains many quaternionic analogues of complex
and K¨ahler geometry.
The decomposition of diﬀerential forms on quaternionic K¨ahler manifolds began by
considering the fundamental 4form
Ω = ω
I
∧ ω
I
+ ω
J
∧ ω
J
+ ω
K
∧ ω
K
,
where ω
I
, ω
J
and ω
K
are the local K¨ahler forms associated to local almost complex
structures I, J and K with IJ = K. The fundamental 4form is globally deﬁned and
invariant under the induced action of Sp(1)Sp(n) on Λ
4
T
∗
M. Kraines [Kr] and Bonan
[Bon] used the fundamental 4form to decompose the space Λ
k
T
∗
M in a similar way to
the Lefschetz decomposition of diﬀerential forms on a K¨ahler manifold [GH, p. 122]. A
diﬀerential kform µ is said to be eﬀective if Ω∧∗µ = 0, where ∗ : Λ
k
T
∗
M →Λ
4n−k
T
∗
M
is the Hodge star. This leads to the following theorem:
Theorem 2.3.1 [Kr, Theorem 3.5][Bon, Theorem 2]
For k ≤ 2n + 2, every every kform φ admits a unique decomposition
φ =
0≤j≤k/4
Ω
j
∧ µ
k−4j
,
where the µ
k−4j
are eﬀective (k −4j)forms.
Bonan further reﬁnes this decomposition for quaternionvalued forms, using exterior
multiplication by the globally deﬁned quaternionic 2form Ψ = i
1
ω
I
+i
2
ω
J
+i
3
ω
K
. Note
that Ψ∧ Ψ = −2Ω.
Another way to consider the decomposition of forms on a quaternionic manifold is as
representations of the group Sp(1)GL(n, H). We express the Sp(1)GL(n, H)representation
on H
n
by writing
H
n
∼
= V
1
⊗E, (2.6)
where V
1
is the basic representation of Sp(1) on C
2
and E is the basic representation
of GL(n, H) on C
2n
. (This uses the standard convention of working with complex
representations, which in the presence of suitable structure maps can be thought of as
complexiﬁed real representations. In this case, the structure map is the tensor product
of the quaternionic structures on V
1
and E.)
This representation also describes the (co)tangent bundle of a quaternionic manifold
in the following way. Let P be a principal Gbundle over the diﬀerentiable manifold M
and let W be a Gmodule. We deﬁne the associated bundle
W = P
G
W =
P W
G
,
where g ∈ G acts on (p, w) ∈ P W by (p, w) g = (f g, g
−1
w). Then W is a vector
bundle over M with ﬁbre W. We will usually just write W for W, relying on context
23
to distinguish between the bundle and the representation. Following Salamon [S3, ¸1],
if M
4n
is a quaternionic manifold with Sp(1)GL(n, H)structure Q, then the cotangent
bundle is a vector bundle associated to the principal bundle Q and the representation
V
1
⊗E, so that we write
(T
∗
M)
C
∼
= V
1
⊗E (2.7)
(though we will usually omit the complexiﬁcation sign). This induces an Sp(1)GL(n, H)
action on the bundle of exterior kforms Λ
k
T
∗
M,
Λ
k
T
∗
M
∼
= Λ
k
(V
1
⊗E)
∼
=
[k/2]
j=0
S
k−2j
(V
1
) ⊗L
k
j
∼
=
[k/2]
j=0
V
k−2j
⊗L
k
j
, (2.8)
where L
k
j
is an irreducible representation of GL(n, H). This decomposition is given
by Salamon [S3, ¸4], along with more details concerning the nature of the GL(n, H)
representations L
k
j
. If M is quaternion K¨ahler, Λ
k
T
∗
M can be further decomposed
into representations of the compact group Sp(1)Sp(n). This reﬁnement is performed in
detail by Swann [Sw], and used to demonstrate signiﬁcant results.
If we symmetrise completely on V
1
in Equation (2.8) to obtain V
k
, we must antisym
metrise completely on E. Salamon therefore deﬁnes the irreducible subspace
A
k
∼
= V
k
⊗Λ
k
E. (2.9)
The bundle A
k
can be described using the decomposition into types for the local almost
complex structures on M as follows [S3, Proposition 4.2]:
2
A
k
=
I∈S
2
Λ
k,0
I
M. (2.10)
Letting p denote the natural projection p : Λ
k
T
∗
M → A
k
and setting D = p ◦ d, we
deﬁne a sequence of diﬀerential operators
0 −→C
∞
(A
0
)
D=d
−→C
∞
(A
1
= T
∗
M)
D
−→C
∞
(A
2
)
D
−→. . .
D
−→C
∞
(A
2n
) −→0. (2.11)
This is accomplished using only the fact that M has an Sp(1)GL(n, H)structure; such
a manifold is called ‘almost quaternionic’. The following theorem of Salamon relates the
integrability of such a structure with the sequence of operators in (2.11):
Theorem 2.3.2 [S3, Theorem 4.1] An almost quaternionic manifold is quaternionic if
and only if (2.11) is a complex.
This theorem is analogous to the familiar result in complex geometry that an almost
complex structure on a manifold is integrable if and only if ∂
2
= 0.
2
This is because every Sp(1)representation V
n
is generated by its highest weight spaces taken with
respect to all the diﬀerent linear combinations of I, J and K. We will use such descriptions in detail in
later chapters, and ﬁnd that they play a prominent role in quaternionic algebra.
24
Chapter 3
A Double Complex on Quaternionic
Manifolds
Until now we have been discussing known material. In this chapter we present a discovery
which as far as the author can tell is new — a double complex of exterior forms on
quaternionic manifolds. We argue that this is the best quaternionic analogue of the
Dolbeault complex. The ‘top row’ of this double complex is exactly the complex (2.11)
discovered by Simon Salamon, which plays a similar role to that of the (k, 0)forms on a
complex manifold.
The new double complex is obtained by simplifying the Bonan decomposition of
Equation (2.8). Instead of using the more complicated structure of Λ
k
T
∗
M as an
Sp(1)GL(n, H)module, we consider only the action of the Sp(1)factor and decompose
Λ
k
T
∗
M into irreducible Sp(1)representations — a fairly easy process achieved by con
sidering weights. The resulting decomposition gives rise to a double complex through
the ClebschGordon formula, in particular the isomorphism V
r
⊗V
1
∼
= V
r+1
⊕V
r−1
. This
encourages us to deﬁne two ‘quaternionic Dolbeault’ operators T and T, and leads to
new cohomology groups on quaternionic manifolds.
The main geometric diﬀerence between this double complex and the Dolbeault com
plex is that whilst the Dolbeault complex is a diamond, our double complex forms an
isosceles triangle, as if the diamond is ‘folded in half’. This is more like the decomposition
of realvalued forms on complex manifolds.
Determining where our double complex is elliptic has been far more diﬃcult than for
the de Rham or Dolbeault complexes. The ellipticity properties of our double complex are
more similar to those of a realvalued version of the Dolbeault complex. Because of this
similarity, we shall begin with a discussion of realvalued forms on complex manifolds.
3.1 Real forms on Complex Manifolds
Let M be a complex manifold and let ω ∈ Λ
p,q
= Λ
p,q
M. Then ω ∈ Λ
q,p
, and so ω + ω
is a realvalued exterior form in (Λ
p,q
⊕ Λ
q,p
)
R
, where the subscript R denotes the fact
that we are talking about real forms. The space (Λ
p,q
⊕ Λ
q,p
)
R
is a real vector bundle
associated to the principal GL(n, C)bundle deﬁned by the complex structure. This gives
25
a decomposition of realvalued exterior forms,
1
Λ
k
R
T
∗
M =
p+q=k
p>q
(Λ
p,q
⊕Λ
q,p
)
R
⊕Λ
k
2
,
k
2
R
. (3.1)
The condition p > q ensures that we have no repetition. The bundle Λ
k
2
,
k
2
R
only appears
when k is even. It is its own conjugate and so naturally a real vector bundle associated
to the trivial representation of U(1).
Let ω + ω ∈ (Ω
p,q
⊕ Ω
q,p
)
R
. Then ∂ω + ∂ω ∈ (Ω
p+1,q
⊕ Ω
q,p+1
)
R
. Call this operator
∂ ⊕∂. Then
d(ω + ω) = (∂ ⊕∂)(ω + ω) + (∂ ⊕∂)(ω + ω)
∈ (Ω
p+1,q
⊕Ω
q,p+1
)
R
⊕(Ω
p,q+1
⊕Ω
q+1,p
)
R
.
When p = q, ω = ω, so ∂ ⊕ ∂ = ∂ ⊕ ∂ = d, and there is only one diﬀerential operator
acting on Ω
p,p
. This gives the following double complex (where the real subscripts are
omitted for convenience).
Figure 3.1: The Real Dolbeault Complex
Ω
0,0
= C
∞
(M)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
d
Ω
1,0
⊕Ω
0,1
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂ ⊕∂
∂ ⊕∂
Ω
1,1
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
d
Ω
2,0
⊕Ω
0,2
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂ ⊕∂
∂ ⊕∂
Ω
2,1
⊕Ω
1,2
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂ ⊕∂
∂ ⊕∂
. . . . . . etc.
Ω
3,0
⊕Ω
0,3
r
r
r
r
r
rj
∂ ⊕∂
. . . . . . etc.
Thus there is a double complex of real forms on a complex manifold, obtained by
decomposing Λ
k
x
T
∗
M into subrepresentations of the action of u(1) = ¸I), induced from
the action on T
∗
x
M. This double complex is less wellbehaved than its complexvalued
counterpart; in particular, it is not elliptic everywhere. We shall now show what this
means, and why it is signiﬁcant.
Ellipticity
Whether or not a diﬀerential complex on a manifold is ‘elliptic’ is an important ques
tion, with striking topological, algebraic and physical consequences. Examples of elliptic
1
This decomposition is also given by ReyesCari´on [R, ¸3.1], who calls the bundle (Λ
p,q
⊕ Λ
q,p
)
R
[[Λ
p,q
]].
26
complexes include the de Rham and Dolbeault complexes. A thorough description of
elliptic operators and elliptic complexes can be found in [W, Chapter 5].
Let E and F be vector bundles over M, and let Φ : C
∞
(E) →C
∞
(F) be a diﬀerential
operator. (We will be working with ﬁrstorder operators, and so will only describe this
case.) At every point x ∈ M and for every nonzero ξ ∈ T
∗
x
M, we deﬁne a linear map
σ
Φ
(x, ξ) : E
x
→ F
x
called the principal symbol of Φ, as follows. Let ∈ C
∞
(E) with
(x) = e, and let f ∈ C
∞
(M) with f(x) = 0, df(x) = ξ. Then
σ
Φ
(x, ξ)e = Φ(f)[
x
.
In coordinates, σ is often found by replacing the operator
∂
∂x
j
with exterior multiplication
by a cotangent vector ξ
j
dual to
∂
∂x
j
. For example, for the exterior diﬀerential d :
Ω
k
(M) →Ω
k+1
(M) we have σ
d
(x, ξ)ω = ω ∧ ξ. The operator Φ is said to be elliptic at
x ∈ M if the symbol σ
Φ
(x, ξ) : E
x
→F
x
is an isomorphism for all nonzero ξ ∈ T
∗
x
M.
A complex 0
Φ
0
−→ C
∞
(E
0
)
Φ
1
−→ C
∞
(E
1
)
Φ
2
−→ C
∞
(E
2
)
Φ
3
−→ . . .
Φ
n
−→ C
∞
(E
n
)
Φ
n+1
−→ 0 is
said to be elliptic at E
i
if the symbol sequence E
i−1
σ
Φ
i
−→ E
i
σ
Φ
i+1
−→ E
i+1
is exact for all
ξ ∈ T
∗
x
M and for all x ∈ M. The link between these two forms of ellipticity is as follows.
If we have a metric on each E
i
then we can deﬁne a formal adjoint Φ
∗
i
: E
i
→ E
i−1
.
Linear algebra reveals that the complex is elliptic at E
i
if and only if the Laplacian
Φ
∗
i
Φ
i
+ Φ
i−1
Φ
∗
i−1
is an elliptic operator.
One important implication of this is that an elliptic complex on a compact manifold
has ﬁnitedimensional cohomology groups [W, Theorem 5.2, p. 147]. Whether a complex
yields interesting cohomological information is in this way directly related to whether or
not the complex is elliptic. The following Proposition answers this question for the real
Dolbeault complex.
Proposition 3.1.1 For p > 0, the upward complex
0 −→Ω
p,p
−→Ω
p+1,p
⊕Ω
p,p+1
−→Ω
p+2,p
⊕Ω
p,p+2
−→. . .
is elliptic everywhere except at the ﬁrst two spaces Ω
p,p
and Ω
p+1,p
⊕Ω
p,p+1
.
For p = 0, the ‘leading edge’ complex
0 −→Ω
0,0
−→Ω
1,0
⊕Ω
0,1
−→Ω
2,0
⊕Ω
0,2
−→. . .
is elliptic everywhere except at Ω
1,0
⊕Ω
0,1
= Ω
1
(M).
Proof. When p > q + 1, we have short sequences of the form
Ω
p−1,q
∂
−→ Ω
p,q
∂
−→ Ω
p+1,q
Ω
q,p−1
∂
−→ Ω
q,p
∂
−→ Ω
q,p+1
.
(3.2)
Each such sequence is (a real subspace of) the direct sum of two elliptic sequences, and
so is elliptic. Thus we have ellipticity at Ω
p,q
⊕Ω
q,p
whenever p ≥ q + 2.
27
This leaves us to consider the case when p = q, and the sequence
0 −→ Ω
p,p
∂
¸
¸
∂
Ω
p+1,p
∂
−→ Ω
p+2,2
−→. . . etc.
Ω
p,p+1
∂
−→ Ω
2,p+2
−→. . . etc.
(3.3)
This fails to be elliptic. An easy and instructive way to see this is to consider the simplest
4dimensional example M = C
2
.
Let e
0
, e
1
= I(e
0
), e
2
and e
3
= I(e
2
) form a basis for T
∗
x
C
2
∼
= C
2
, and let e
ab...
denote e
a
∧ e
b
∧ . . . etc. Then I(e
01
) = e
00
−e
11
= 0, so e
01
∈ Λ
1,1
. The map from Λ
1,1
to Λ
2,1
⊕ Λ
1,2
is just the exterior diﬀerential d. Since σ
d
(x, e
0
)(e
01
) = e
01
∧ e
0
= 0 the
symbol map σ
d
: Λ
1,1
→Λ
2,1
⊕Λ
1,2
is not injective, so the symbol sequence is not exact
at Λ
1,1
.
Consider also e
123
∈ Λ
2,1
⊕Λ
1,2
. Then σ
∂⊕∂
(x, e
0
)(e
123
) = 0, since there is no bundle
Λ
3,1
⊕Λ
1,3
. But e
123
has no e
0
factor, so is not the image under σ
d
(x, e
0
) of any form
α ∈ Λ
1,1
. Thus the symbol sequence fails to be exact at Λ
2,1
⊕Λ
1,2
.
It is a simple matter to extend these counterexamples to higher dimensions and higher
exterior powers. For k = 0, the situation is diﬀerent. It is easy to show that the complex
0 −→C
∞
(M)
d
−→Ω
1,0
⊕Ω
0,1
∂⊕∂
−→Ω
2,0
⊕Ω
0,2
−→. . . etc.
is elliptic everywhere except at (Ω
1,0
⊕Ω
0,1
).
This last sequence is given particular attention by ReyesCari´on [R, Lemma 2]. He
shows that, when M is K¨ahler, ellipticity can be regained by adding the space ¸ω) to
the bundle Λ
2,0
⊕Λ
0,2
, where ω is the real K¨ahler (1, 1)form.
The Real Dolbeault complex is thus elliptic except at the bottom of the isosceles
triangle of spaces. Here the projection from d(Ω
p,p
) to Ω
p+1,p
⊕ Ω
p,p+1
is the identity,
and arguments based upon nontrivial projection maps no longer apply. We shall see
that this situation is closely akin to that of diﬀerential forms on quaternionic manifolds,
and that techniques motivated by this example yield similar results.
3.2 Construction of the Double Complex
Let M
4n
be a quaternionic manifold. Then T
∗
x
M
∼
= V
1
⊗ E as an Sp(1)GL(n, H)
representation for all x ∈ M. Suppose we consider just the action of the Sp(1)factor.
Then the (complexiﬁed) cotangent space eﬀectively takes the form V
1
⊗ C
2n
∼
= 2nV
1
.
Thus the Sp(1)action on Λ
k
T
∗
M is given by the representation Λ
k
(2nV
1
).
To work out the irreducible decomposition of this representation we compute the
weight space decomposition of Λ
k
(2nV
1
) from that of 2nV
1
.
2
With respect to the
action of a particular subgroup U(1)
q
⊂ Sp(1), the representation 2nV
1
has weights
+1 and −1, each occuring with multiplicity 2n. The weights of Λ
k
(2nV
1
) are the k
wise distinct sums of these. Each weight r in Λ
k
(2nV
1
) must therefore be a sum of p
occurences of the weight ‘+1’ and p−r occurences of the weight ‘−1’, where 2p−r = k
2
This process for calculating the weights of tensor, symmetric and exterior powers is a standard
technique in representation theory — see for example [FH, ¸11.2].
28
and 0 ≤ p ≤ k (from which it follows immediately that −k ≤ r ≤ k and r ≡ k mod 2).
The number of ways to choose the p ‘+1’ weights is
_
2n
p
_
, and the number of ways
to choose the (p − r) ‘−1’ weights is
_
2n
p−r
_
, so the multiplicity of the weight r in the
representation Λ
k
(2nV
1
) is
Mult(r) =
_
2n
k+r
2
__
2n
k−r
2
_
.
For r ≥ 0, consider the diﬀerence Mult(r)−Mult(r+2). This is the number of weight
spaces of weight r which do not have any corresponding weight space of weight r + 2.
Each such weight space must therefore be the highest weight space in an irreducible
subrepresentation V
r
⊆ Λ
k
T
∗
M, from which it follows that the number of irreducibles
V
r
in Λ
k
(2nV
1
) is equal to Mult(r)−Mult(r + 2). This demonstrates the following
Proposition:
Proposition 3.2.1 Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold. The decomposition into irre
ducibles of the induced representation of Sp(1) on Λ
k
T
∗
M is
Λ
k
T
∗
M
∼
=
k
r=0
__
2n
k+r
2
__
2n
k−r
2
_
−
_
2n
k+r+2
2
__
2n
k−r−2
2
__
V
r
,
where r ≡ k mod 2.
We will not always write the condition r ≡ k mod 2, assuming that
_
p
q
_
= 0 if q ,∈ Z.
Deﬁnition 3.2.2 Let M
4n
be a quaternionic manifold. Deﬁne the coeﬃcient
n
k,r
=
_
2n
k+r
2
__
2n
k−r
2
_
−
_
2n
k+r+2
2
__
2n
k−r−2
2
_
,
and let E
k,r
be the vector bundle associated to the Sp(1)representation
n
k,r
V
r
. With
this notation Proposition 3.2.1 is written
Λ
k
T
∗
M
∼
=
k
r=0
n
k,r
V
r
=
k
r=0
E
k,r
.
Our most important result is that this decomposition gives rise to a double complex
of diﬀerential forms and operators on a quaternionic manifold.
Theorem 3.2.3 The exterior derivative d maps C
∞
(M, E
k,r
) to C
∞
(M, E
k+1,r+1
⊕
E
k+1,r−1
).
Proof. Let ∇ be a torsionfree linear connection on M preserving the quaternionic
structure. Then ∇ : C
∞
(M, E
k,r
) → C
∞
(M, E
k,r
⊗ T
∗
M). As Sp(1)representations,
this is
∇ : C
∞
(M,
n
k,r
V
r
) →C
∞
(M,
n
k,r
V
r
⊗2nV
1
).
29
Using the ClebschGordon formula we have
n
k,r
V
r
⊗2nV
1
∼
= 2n
n
k,r
(V
r+1
⊕V
r−1
). Thus the
image of E
k,r
under ∇ is contained in the V
r+1
and V
r−1
summands of Λ
k
T
∗
M ⊗T
∗
M.
Since ∇ is torsionfree, d = ∧ ◦ ∇, so d maps (sections of) E
k,r
to the V
r+1
and V
r−1
summands of Λ
k+1
T
∗
M. Thus d : C
∞
(M, E
k,r
) →C
∞
(M, E
k+1,r+1
⊕E
k+1,r−1
).
This allows us to split the exterior diﬀerential d into two ‘quaternionic Dolbeault
operators’.
Deﬁnition 3.2.4 Let π
k,r
be the natural projection from Λ
k
T
∗
M onto E
k,r
. Deﬁne the
operators
T : C
∞
(E
k,r
) →C
∞
(E
k+1,r+1
)
T = π
k+1,r+1
◦ d
and
T : C
∞
(E
k,r
) →C
∞
(E
k+1,r−1
)
T = π
k+1,r−1
◦ d.
(3.4)
Theorem 3.2.3 is equivalent to the following:
Proposition 3.2.5 On a quaternionic manifold M, we have d = T +T, and so
T
2
= TT +TT = T
2
= 0.
Proof. The ﬁrst equation is equivalent to Theorem 3.2.3. The rest follows immediately
from decomposing the equation d
2
= 0.
Figure 3.2: The Double Complex
C
∞
(E
0,0
= R)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
T
C
∞
(E
1,1
= T
∗
M)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
T
T
C
∞
(E
2,0
)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
T
C
∞
(E
2,2
)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
T
T
C
∞
(E
3,1
)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
T
T
. . . . . . etc.
C
∞
(E
3,3
)
r
r
r
r
r
rj
T
. . . . . . etc.
Here is our quaternionic analogue of the Dolbeault complex. There are strong sim
ilarities between this and the Real Dolbeault complex (Figure 3.1). Again, instead of
a diamond as in the Dolbeault complex, the quaternionic version only extends upwards
to form an isosceles triangle. This is essentially because there is one irreducible U(1)
representation for each integer, whereas there is one irreducible Sp(1)representation only
for each nonnegative integer. Note that this is a decomposition of real as well as complex
diﬀerential forms; the operators T and T map real forms to real forms.
30
By deﬁnition, the bundle E
k,k
is the bundle A
k
of (2.9) — they are both the subbundle
of Λ
k
T
∗
M which includes all Sp(1)representations of the form V
k
. Thus the leading edge
of the double complex
0 −→C
∞
(E
0,0
)
D
−→C
∞
(E
1,1
)
D
−→C
∞
(E
2,2
)
D
−→. . .
D
−→C
∞
(E
2n,2n
)
D
−→0
is precisely the complex (2.11) discovered by Salamon.
Example 3.2.6 Four Dimensions
This double complex is already very wellknown and understood in four dimensions.
Here there is a splitting only in the middle dimension, Λ
2
T
∗
M
∼
= V
2
⊕ 3V
0
. Let I, J
and K be local almost complex structures at x ∈ M, and let e
0
∈ T
∗
x
M. Let e
1
= I(e
0
),
e
2
= J(e
0
) and e
3
= K(e
0
). In this way we obtain a basis ¦e
0
, . . . , e
3
¦ for T
∗
x
M
∼
= H.
Using the notation e
ijk...
= e
i
∧ e
j
∧ e
k
∧ . . .etc., deﬁne the 2forms
ω
±
1
= e
01
±e
23
, ω
±
2
= e
02
±e
31
, ω
±
3
= e
03
±e
12
. (3.5)
Then I, J and K all act trivially
3
on the ω
−
j
, so E
2,0
= ¸ω
−
1
, ω
−
2
, ω
−
3
). The action of
sp(1) on the ω
+
j
is given by the multiplication table
I(ω
+
1
) = 0
J(ω
+
1
) = −2ω
+
3
K(ω
+
1
) = 2ω
+
2
I(ω
+
2
) = 2ω
+
3
J(ω
+
2
) = 0
K(ω
+
2
) = −2ω
+
1
I(ω
+
3
) = −2ω
+
3
J(ω
+
3
) = 2ω
+
1
K(ω
+
3
) = 0.
(3.6)
These are the relations of the irreducible sp(1)representation V
2
, and we see that E
2,2
=
¸ω
+
1
, ω
+
2
, ω
+
3
).
These bundles will be familiar to most readers: E
2,2
is the bundle of selfdual 2
forms Λ
2
+
and E
2,0
is the bundle of antiselfdual 2forms Λ
2
−
. The celebrated splitting
Λ
2
T
∗
M
∼
= Λ
2
+
⊕Λ
2
−
is an invariant of the conformal class of any Riemannian 4manifold,
and I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
= −4(∗ + 1), where ∗ : Λ
k
T
∗
M →Λ
4−k
T
∗
M is the Hodge star map.
This also serves to illustrate why in four dimensions we make the deﬁnition that
a quaternionic manifold is a selfdual conformal manifold. The relationship between
quaternionic, almost complex and Riemannian structures in four dimensions is described
in more detail in [S4, Chapter 7], a classic reference being [AHS].
Because there is no suitable quaternionic version of holomorphic coordinates, there is
no ‘nice’ coordinate expression for a typical section of C
∞
(E
k,r
). In order to determine
the decomposition of a diﬀerential form, the simplest way the author has found is to use
the Casimir operator ( = I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
. Consider a kform α. Then α ∈ E
k,r
if and
only if (I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)(α) = −r(r + 2)α. This mechanism also allows us to work out
expressions for T and T acting on α.
Lemma 3.2.7 Let α ∈ C
∞
(E
k,r
). Then
Tα = −
1
4
_
(r −1) +
1
r + 1
(I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)
_
dα
3
We are assuming throughout that uppercase operators like I, J and K are acting as elements of a
Lie algebra, not a Lie group. This makes no diﬀerence on T
∗
M but is important on the exterior powers
Λ
k
T
∗
M. In particular, for k ,= 1 we no longer expect I
2
= J
2
= K
2
= −1, and by ‘act trivially’ we
mean ‘annihilate’.
31
and
Tα =
1
4
_
(r + 3) +
1
r + 1
(I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)
_
dα.
Proof. We have dα = Tα +Tα, where Tα ∈ E
k+1,r+1
and Tα ∈ E
k+1,r−1
. Applying the
Casimir operator gives
(I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)(dα) = −(r + 1)(r + 3)Tα −(r + 1)(r −1)Tα.
Rearranging these equations gives Tα and Tα.
Writing T
k,r
for the particular map T : C
∞
(E
k,r
) → C
∞
(E
k+1,r+1
), we deﬁne the
quaternionic cohomology groups
H
k,r
D
(M) =
Ker(T
k,r
)
Im(T
k−1,r−1
)
. (3.7)
3.3 Ellipticity and the Double Complex
In this section we shall determine where our double complex is elliptic and where it is
not. It turns out that we have ellipticity everywhere except on the bottom two rows of
the complex. This is exactly like the real Dolbeault complex of Figure 3.1, and though
it is more diﬃcult to prove for the quaternionic version, the guiding principles which
determine where the two double complexes are elliptic are very much the same in both
cases.
Here is the main result of this section:
Theorem 3.3.1 For 2k ≥ 4, the complex
0 →E
2k,0
D
→E
2k+1,1
D
→E
2k+2,2
D
→. . .
D
→E
2n+k,2n−k
D
→0
is elliptic everywhere except at E
2k,0
and E
2k+1,1
, where it is not elliptic.
For k = 1 the complex is elliptic everywhere except at E
3,1
, where it is not elliptic.
For k = 0 the complex is elliptic everywhere.
The rest of this section provides a proof of this Theorem. Note the strong similarity
between this Theorem and Proposition 3.1.1, the analogous result for the Real Dolbeault
complex. Again, it is the isosceles triangle as opposed to diamond shape which causes
ellipticity to fail for the bottom row, because d = T on E
2k,0
and the projection from
d(C
∞
(E
2k,0
)) to C
∞
(E
2k+1,1
) is the identity.
On a complex manifold M
2n
with holomorphic coordinates z
j
, the exterior forms
dz
a
1
∧ . . . ∧ dz
a
p
∧ d¯ z
b
1
∧ . . . ∧ d¯ z
b
q
span Λ
p,q
. This allows us to decompose any form
ω ∈ Λ
p,q
, making it much easier to write down the kernels and images of maps which
involve exterior multiplication. On a quaternionic manifold M
4n
there is unfortunately no
easy way to write down a local frame for the bundle E
k,r
, because there is no quaternionic
version of ‘holomorphic coordinates’. However, we can decompose E
k,r
just enough to
enable us to prove Theorem 3.3.1.
32
A principal observation is that since ellipticity is a local property, we can work on H
n
without loss of generality. Secondly, since GL(n, H) acts transitively on H
n
¸ ¦0¦, if the
symbol sequence . . .
σ
e
0
−→E
k,r
σ
e
0
−→E
k+1,r+1
σ
e
0
−→. . . is exact for any nonzero e
0
∈ T
∗
H
n
then it is exact for all nonzero ξ ∈ T
∗
H
n
. To prove Theorem 3.3.1, we choose one such
e
0
and analyse the spaces E
k,r
accordingly.
3.3.1 Decomposition of the Spaces E
k,r
Let e
0
∈ T
∗
x
H
n
∼
= H
n
and let (I, J, K) be the standard hypercomplex structure on H
n
. As
in Example 3.2.6, deﬁne e
1
= I(e
0
), e
2
= J(e
0
) and e
3
= K(e
0
), so that ¸e
0
, . . . , e
3
)
∼
= H.
In this way we single out a particular copy of Hwhich we call H
0
, obtaining a (nonnatural)
splitting T
∗
x
H
n
∼
= H
n−1
⊕H
0
which is preserved by action of the hypercomplex structure.
This induces the decomposition Λ
k
H
n
∼
=
4
l=0
Λ
k−l
H
n−1
⊗Λ
l
H
0
, which decomposes each
E
k,r
⊂ Λ
k
H
n
according to how many diﬀerentials in the H
0
direction are present.
Deﬁnition 3.3.2 Deﬁne the space E
l
k,r
to be the subspace of E
k,r
consisting of exterior
forms with precisely l diﬀerentials in the H
0
direction, i.e.
E
l
k,r
≡ E
k,r
∩ (Λ
k−l
H
n−1
⊗Λ
l
H
0
).
Then E
l
k,r
is preserved by the induced action of the hypercomplex structure on Λ
k
H
n
.
Thus we obtain an invariant decomposition E
k,r
= E
0
k,r
⊕E
1
k,r
⊕E
2
k,r
⊕E
3
k,r
⊕E
4
k,r
. Note
that we can identify E
0
k,r
on H
n
with E
k,r
on H
n−1
.
(Throughout the rest of this section, juxtaposition of exterior forms will denote ex
terior multiplication, for example αe
ij
means α ∧ e
ij
.)
We can decompose these summands still further. Consider, for example, the bun
dle E
1
k,r
. An exterior form α ∈ E
1
k,r
is of the form α
0
e
0
+ α
1
e
1
+ α
2
e
2
+ α
3
e
3
, where
α
j
∈ Λ
k−1
H
n−1
. Thus α is an element of Λ
k−1
H
n−1
⊗ 2V
1
, since H
0
∼
= 2V
1
as an sp(1)
representation. Since α is in a copy of the representation V
r
, it follows from the isomor
phism V
r
⊗ V
1
∼
= V
r+1
⊕ V
r−1
that the α
j
must be in a combination of V
r+1
and V
r−1
representations, i.e. α
j
∈ E
0
k−1,r+1
⊕E
0
k−1,r−1
. We write
α = α
+
+ α
−
= (α
+
0
+ α
−
0
)e
0
+ (α
+
1
+ α
−
1
)e
1
+ (α
+
2
+ α
−
2
)e
2
+ (α
+
3
+ α
−
3
)e
3
,
where α
+
j
∈ E
0
k−1,r+1
and α
−
j
∈ E
0
k−1,r−1
.
The following Lemma allows us to consider α
+
and α
−
separately.
Lemma 3.3.3 If α = α
+
+ α
−
∈ E
1
k,r
then both α
+
and α
−
must be in E
1
k,r
.
Proof. In terms of representations, the situation is of the form
(pV
r+1
⊕qV
r−1
) ⊗2V
1
∼
= 2p(V
r+2
⊕V
r
) ⊕2q(V
r
⊕V
r−2
),
where α
+
∈ pV
r+1
and α
−
∈ qV
r−1
. For α to be in the representation 2(p + q)V
r
,
its components in the representations 2pV
r+2
and 2qV
r−2
must both vanish separately.
The component in 2pV
r+2
comes entirely from α
+
, so for this to vanish we must have
33
α
+
∈ 2(p +q)V
r
independently of α
−
. Similarly, for the component in 2qV
r−2
to vanish,
we must have α
−
∈ 2(p + q)V
r
.
Thus we decompose the space E
1
k,r
into two summands, one coming from E
0
k−1,r−1
⊗
2V
1
and one from E
0
k−1,r+1
⊗2V
1
. We extend this decomposition to the cases l = 0, 2, 3, 4,
deﬁning the following notation.
Deﬁnition 3.3.4 Deﬁne the bundle E
l,m
k,r
to be the subbundle of E
l
k,r
arising from
V
m
type representations in Λ
k−l
H
n−1
. In other words,
E
l,m
k,r
≡ (E
0
k−l,m
⊗Λ
l
H
0
) ∩ E
k,r
.
To recapitulate: for the space E
l,m
k,r
, the bottom left index k refers to the exterior
power of the form α ∈ Λ
k
H
n
; the bottom right index r refers to the irreducible Sp(1)
representation in which α lies; the top left index l refers to the number of diﬀerentials in
the H
0
direction and the top right index m refers to the irreducible Sp(1)representation
of the contributions from Λ
k−a
H
n−1
before wedging with forms in the H
0
direction. This
may appear slightly ﬁddly: it becomes rather simpler when we consider the speciﬁc
splittings which Deﬁnition 3.3.4 allows us to write down.
Lemma 3.3.5 Let E
l,m
k,r
be as above. We have the following decompositions:
E
0
k,r
= E
0,r
k,r
E
1
k,r
= E
1,r+1
k,r
⊕E
1,r−1
k,r
E
2
k,r
= E
2,r+2
k,r
⊕E
2,r
k,r
⊕E
2,r−2
k,r
E
3
k,r
= E
3,r+1
k,r
⊕E
3,r−1
k,r
and E
4
k,r
= E
4,r
k,r
.
Proof. The ﬁrst isomorphism is trivial, as is the last (since the hypercomplex structure
acts trivially on Λ
4
H
0
). The second isomorphism is Lemma 3.3.3, and the fourth follows
in exactly the same way since Λ
3
H
0
∼
= 2V
1
also. The middle isomorphism follows a
similar argument.
Recall the selfdual forms and antiselfdual forms in Example 3.2.6. The bundle E
2,r
k,r
splits according to whether its contribution from Λ
2
H
0
is selfdual or antiselfdual. We
will call these summands E
2,r+
k,r
and E
2,r−
k,r
respectively, so E
2,r
k,r
= E
2,r+
k,r
⊕E
2,r−
k,r
.
3.3.2 Lie in conditions
We have analysed the bundle E
k,r
into a number of diﬀerent subbundles. We now
determine when a particular exterior form lies in one of these subbundles. Consider
a form α = α
1
e
s
1
...s
a
+ α
2
e
t
1
...t
a
+ . . . etc. where α
j
∈ E
0
k−a,b
. For α to lie in one of the
spaces E
a,b
k,r
the α
j
will usually have to satisfy some simultaneous equations. Since these
are the conditions for a form to lie in a particular Lie algebra representation, we will
refer to such equations as ‘Lie in conditions’.
To begin with, we mention three trivial Lie in conditions. Let α ∈ E
0
k,r
. That α ∈ E
0,r
k,r
is obvious, as is αe
0123
∈ E
4,r
k,r
, since wedging with e
0123
has no eﬀect on the sp(1)action.
34
Likewise, the sp(1)action on the antiselfdual 2forms ω
−
1
= e
01
− e
23
, ω
−
2
= e
02
− e
31
and ω
−
3
= e
03
−e
12
is trivial, so αω
−
j
∈ E
2,r−
k,r
for all j = 1, 2, 3.
This leaves the following three situations: those arising from taking exterior products
with 1forms, 3forms and the selfdual 2forms ω
+
j
. As usual when we want to know
which representation an exterior form is in, we apply the Casimir operator.
The cases l = 1 and l = 3
Let α
j
∈ E
0
k,r
. Then α = α
0
e
0
+ α
1
e
1
+ α
2
e
2
+ α
3
e
3
∈ E
1,r
k+1,r+1
⊕ E
1,r
k+1,r−1
, and α is
entirely in E
1,r
k+1,r+1
if and only if (I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)α = −(r + 1)(r + 3)α.
By the usual (Leibniz) rule for a Lie algebra action on a tensor product, we have that
I
2
(α
j
e
j
) = I
2
(α
j
)e
j
+ 2I(α
j
)I(e
j
) + α
j
I
2
(e
j
), etc. Thus
(I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)α =
3
j=0
_
(I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)(α
j
)e
j
+ α
j
(I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)(e
j
) +
+ 2
_
I(α
j
)I(e
j
) + J(α
j
)J(e
j
) + K(α
j
)K(e
j
)
__
= −r(r + 2)α −3α + 2
3
j=0
_
I(α
j
)I(e
j
) + J(α
j
)J(e
j
) + K(α
j
)K(e
j
)
_
= (−r
2
−2r −3)α + 2
_
I(α
0
)e
1
−I(α
1
)e
0
+ I(α
2
)e
3
−I(α
3
)e
2
+
+J(α
0
)e
2
−J(α
1
)e
3
−J(α
2
)e
0
+ J(α
3
)e
1
+
+K(α
0
)e
3
+ K(α
1
)e
2
−K(α
2
)e
1
−K(α
3
)e
0
_
.
(3.8)
For α ∈ E
1,r
k+1,r+1
we need this to be equal to −(r + 1)(r + 3)α, which is the case if and
only if
−rα = I(α
0
)e
1
−I(α
1
)e
0
+ I(α
2
)e
3
−I(α
3
)e
2
+ J(α
0
)e
2
−J(α
1
)e
3
−J(α
2
)e
0
+ J(α
3
)e
1
+
+ K(α
0
)e
3
+ K(α
1
)e
2
−K(α
2
)e
1
−K(α
3
)e
0
.
Since the α
j
have no e
j
factors and the action of I, J and K preserves this property,
this equation can only be satisﬁed if it holds for each of the e
j
components separately.
We conclude that α ∈ E
1,r
k+1,r+1
if and only if α
0
, α
1
, α
2
and α
3
satisfy the following Lie
in conditions:
4
rα
0
−I(α
1
) −J(α
2
) −K(α
3
) = 0
rα
1
+ I(α
0
) + J(α
3
) −K(α
2
) = 0
rα
2
−I(α
3
) + J(α
0
) + K(α
1
) = 0
rα
3
+ I(α
2
) −J(α
1
) + K(α
0
) = 0.
(3.9)
Suppose instead that α ∈ E
1,r
k+1,r−1
. Then (I
2
+J
2
+K
2
)α = −(r−1)(r+1)α. Putting
this alternative into Equation (3.8) gives the result that α ∈ E
1,r
k+1,r−1
if and only if
4
Our interest in these conditions arises from a consideration of exterior forms, but the equations
describe sp(1)representations in general: they are the conditions that α ∈ V
r
⊗V
1
must satisfy to be in
the V
r+1
subspace of V
r+1
⊕V
r−1
∼
= V
r
⊗V
1
. The other Lie in conditions have similar interpretations.
35
(r + 2)α
0
+ I(α
1
) + J(α
2
) + K(α
3
) = 0
(r + 2)α
1
−I(α
0
) −J(α
3
) + K(α
2
) = 0
(r + 2)α
2
+ I(α
3
) −J(α
0
) −K(α
1
) = 0
(r + 2)α
3
−I(α
2
) + J(α
1
) −K(α
0
) = 0.
(3.10)
Consider now α = α
0
e
123
+ α
1
e
032
+ α
2
e
013
+ α
3
e
021
∈ E
3,r
k+3,r+1
⊕ E
3,r
k+3,r−1
. Since
Λ
3
H
0
∼
= H
0
, the Lie in conditions are exactly the same: for α to be in E
3,r
k+3,r+1
we need
the α
j
to satisfy Equations (3.9), and for α to be in E
3,r
k+3,r−1
we need the α
j
to satisfy
Equations (3.10).
The case l = 2
We have already noted that wedging a form β ∈ E
0
k,r
with an antiselfdual 2form ω
−
j
has no eﬀect on the sp(1)action, so βω
−
j
∈ E
2,r−
k+2,r
. Thus we only have to consider the
eﬀect of wedging with the selfdual 2forms ¸ω
+
1
, ω
+
2
, ω
+
3
)
∼
= V
2
⊂ Λ
2
H
0
. By the Clebsch
Gordon formula, the decomposition takes the form V
r
⊗ V
2
∼
= V
r+2
⊕ V
r
⊕ V
r−2
. Thus
for β = β
1
ω
+
1
+ β
2
ω
+
2
+ β
3
ω
+
3
we want to establish the Lie in conditions for β to be in
E
2,r
k+2,r+2
, E
2,r+
k+2,r
and E
2,r
k+2,r−2
.
We calculate these Lie in conditions in a similar fashion to the previous cases, by con
sidering the action of the Casimir operator I
2
+J
2
+K
2
on β and using the multiplication
table (3.6). The following Lie in conditions are then easy to deduce:
β ∈ E
2,r
k+2,r+2
⇐⇒
_
_
_
(r + 4)β
1
= J(β
3
) −K(β
2
)
(r + 4)β
2
= K(β
1
) −I(β
3
)
(r + 4)β
3
= I(β
2
) −J(β
1
).
(3.11)
β ∈ E
2,r+
k+2,r
⇐⇒
_
_
_
2β
1
= J(β
3
) −K(β
2
)
2β
2
= K(β
1
) −I(β
3
)
2β
3
= I(β
2
) −J(β
1
).
(3.12)
β ∈ E
2,r
k+2,r−2
⇐⇒
_
_
_
(2 −r)β
1
= J(β
3
) −K(β
2
)
(2 −r)β
2
= K(β
1
) −I(β
3
)
(2 −r)β
3
= I(β
2
) −J(β
1
).
(3.13)
Equation 3.12 is particularly interesting. Since this equation singles out the
V
r
representation in the direct sum V
r+2
⊕ V
r
⊕ V
r+2
, it must have dimV
r
= r + 1
linearly independent solutions. Let β
0
∈ V
r
and let β
1
= I(β
0
), β
2
= J(β
0
), β
3
= K(β
0
).
Using the Lie algebra relations 2I = [J, K] = JK − KJ, it is easy to see that β
1
, β
2
and β
3
satisfy Equation 3.12. Moreover, there are r + 1 linearly independent solutions
of this form (for r ,= 0). We conclude that all the solutions of Equation (3.12) take the
form β
1
= I(β
0
), β
2
= J(β
0
), β
3
= K(β
0
).
3.3.3 The Symbol Sequence and Proof of Theorem 3.3.1
We now describe the principal symbol of T, and examine its behaviour in the context
of the decompositions of Deﬁnition 3.3.2 and Lemma 3.3.5. This leads to a proof of
Theorem 3.3.1. First we obtain the principal symbol from the formula for T in Lemma
3.2.7 by replacing dα with αe
0
.
36
Proposition 3.3.6 Let x ∈ H
n
, e
0
∈ T
∗
x
H
n
and α ∈ E
k,r
. The principal symbol
mapping σ
D
(x, e
0
) : E
k,r
→E
k+1,r+1
is given by
σ
D
(x, e
0
)(α) =
1
2(r + 1)
_
(r + 2)αe
0
−I(α)e
1
−J(α)e
2
−K(α)e
3
_
.
Proof. Replacing dα with αe
0
in the formula for T obtained in Lemma 3.2.7, we have
σ
D
(x, e
0
)(α) = −
1
4
_
(r −1) +
1
r + 1
(I
2
+ J
2
+ K
2
)
_
αe
0
=
−1
4(r + 1)
_
( (r −1)(r + 1) −r(r + 2) −3 ) αe
0
+2
_
I(α)e
1
+ J(α)e
2
+ K(α)e
3
_
_
=
1
2(r + 1)
_
(r + 2)αe
0
−I(α)e
1
−J(α)e
2
−K(α)e
3
_
,
as required.
Corollary 3.3.7 The principal symbol σ
D
(x, e
0
) maps the space E
l,m
k,r
to the space
E
l+1,m
k+1,r+1
.
Proof. We already know that σ
D
: E
k,r
→ E
k+1,r+1
, by deﬁnition. Using Lemma 3.3.6,
we see that σ
D
(x, e
0
) increases the number of diﬀerentials in the H
0
direction by one, so
the index l increases by one. The only action in the other directions is the sp(1)action,
which preserves the irreducible decomposition of the contribution from Λ
k−a
H
n−1
, so the
index m remains the same.
(To save space we shall use σ as an abbreviation for σ
D
(x, e
0
) for the rest of this
section.)
The point of all this work on decomposition now becomes apparent. Since σ : E
l
k,r
→
E
l+1
k+1,r+1
, we can reduce the (somewhat indeﬁnite) symbol sequence
. . .
σ
−→E
k−1,r−1
σ
−→E
k,r
σ
−→E
k+1,r+1
σ
−→. . . etc.
to the 5space sequence
0
σ
−→E
0
k−2,r−2
σ
−→E
1
k−1,r−1
σ
−→E
2
k,r
σ
−→E
3
k+1,r+1
σ
−→E
4
k+2,r+2
σ
−→0. (3.14)
Using Lemma 3.3.5 as well, we can analyse this sequence still further according to the
diﬀerent (top right) mindices, obtaining three short sequences (for k ≥ 2, k ≡ r mod 2)
0 → E
2,r+2
k,r
→ E
3,r+2
k+1,r+1
→ E
4,r+2
k+2,r+2
→ 0
⊕ ⊕
0 → E
1,r
k−1,r−1
→ E
2,r
k,r
→ E
3,r
k+1,r+1
→ 0
⊕ ⊕
0 → E
0,r−2
k−2,r−2
→ E
1,r−2
k−1,r−1
→ E
2,r−2
k,r
→ 0.
(3.15)
37
This reduces the problem of determining where the operator T is elliptic to the problem
of determining when these three sequences are exact.
For a sequence 0 → A → B → C → 0 to be exact, it is necessary that dimA −
dimB + dimC = 0. Given this condition, if the sequence is exact at any two out of A,
B and C it is exact at the third. We shall show that for r ,= 0 this dimension sum does
equal zero.
Lemma 3.3.8 For r > 0, each of the sequences in (3.15) satisﬁes the dimension condi
tion above, i.e. the alternating sum of the dimensions vanishes.
Proof. Let r > 0. We calculate the dimensions of the spaces E
l,m
k,r
for l = 0, . . . , 4. Recall
the notation E
k,r
=
n
k,r
V
r
from Deﬁnition 3.2.2. It is clear that dimE
0
k,r
= (r + 1)
n−1
k,r
,
since E
0
k,r
on H
n
is simply E
k,r
on H
n−1
. Thus dimE
0,r−2
k−2,r−2
= (r − 1)
n−1
k−2,r−2
and
dimE
4,r+2
k+2,r+2
= (r + 3)
n−1
k−2,r+2
.
The cases a = 1 and a = 3 are easy to work out since they are of the form E
0
k,r
⊗2V
1
.
For a = 1, we have dimE
1,r−2
k−1,r−1
= 2r
n−1
k−2,r−2
and dimE
1,r
k−1,r−1
= 2r
n−1
k−2,r
. For a = 3,
dimE
3,r
k+1,r+1
= 2(r + 2)
n−1
k−2,r
and dimE
3,r+2
k+1,r+1
= 2(r + 2)
n−1
k−2,r+2
.
The case a = 2 is slightly more complicated, as we have to take into account exterior
products with the selfdual 2forms V
2
and antiselfdual 2forms 3V
0
in Λ
2
H
0
. The spaces
E
2,r+2
k,r
and E
2,r−2
k,r
receive contributions only from the selfdual part V
2
, from which we
infer that dimE
2,r+2
k,r
= (r + 1)
n−1
k−2,r+2
and dimE
2,r−2
k,r
= (r + 1)
n−1
k−2,r−2
. Finally, the
space E
2,r+
k,r
has dimension (r+1)
n−1
k−2,r
and the space E
2,r−
k,r
has dimension 3(r+1)
n−1
k−2,r
,
giving E
2,r
k,r
a total dimension of 4(r + 1)
n−1
k−2,r
.
It is now a simple matter to verify that for the top sequence of (3.15)
n−1
k−2,r+2
(r + 1 −2(r + 2) + r + 3) = 0,
for the middle sequence
n−1
k−2,r
(2r −4(r + 1) + 2(r + 2)) = 0,
and for the bottom sequence
n−1
k−2,r−2
(r −1 −2r + r + 1) = 0.
The case r = 0 is diﬀerent. Here the bottom sequence of (3.15) disappears altogether,
the top sequence still being exact. Exactness is lost in the middle sequence. Since the
isomorphism
n−1
k−2,0
V
0
⊗V
2
∼
=
n−1
k−2,0
V
2
gives no trivial V
0
representations, there is no space
E
2,0+
k,0
. Thus E
2,0
k,0
is ‘too small’ — we are left with a sequence
0 −→3
n−1
k−2,0
V
0
−→2
n−1
k−2,0
V
1
−→0,
which cannot be exact. (As there is no space E
2
0,0
, this problem does not arise for the
leading edge 0 →E
0,0
→E
1,1
→. . . etc.)
We are ﬁnally in a position to prove Theorem 3.3.1, which now follows from:
38
Proposition 3.3.9 When r ,= 0, the three sequences of (3.15) are exact.
Proof. Consider ﬁrst the top sequence 0
σ
−→ E
2,r+2
k,r
σ
−→ E
3,r+2
k+1,r+1
σ
−→ E
4,r+2
k+2,r+2
−→ 0.
The ClebschGordon formula shows that there are no spaces E
3,r+2
k+1,r−1
or E
4,r+2
k+2,r
. Thus
T = 0 on E
2,r+2
k,r
and E
3,r+2
k+1,r+1
, so T = d for the top sequence. It is easy to check using
the relevant Lie in conditions that the map ∧e
0
: E
2,r+2
k,r
→E
3,r+2
k+1,r+1
is injective and the
map ∧e
0
: E
3,r+2
k+1,r+1
→E
4,r+2
k+2,r+2
is surjective.
To show exactness at E
1
k−1,r−1
, consider α = α
0
e
0
+α
1
e
1
+α
2
e
2
+α
3
e
3
∈ E
1
k−1,r−1
. A
calculation using Proposition 3.3.6 shows that
σ(α) =
1
2r
_
(rα
1
+ I(α
0
))e
10
+ (rα
2
+ J(α
0
))e
20
+ (rα
3
+ K(α
0
))e
30
+ (3.16)
+ (2α
1
−J(α
3
) + K(α
2
))e
32
+ (2α
2
−K(α
1
) + I(α
3
))e
13
+ (2α
3
−I(α
2
) + K(α
1
))e
21
_
.
Since the α
i
have no e
j
components, σ(α) = 0 if and only if all these components
vanish. This occurs if and only if α
1
= −
1
r
I(α
0
), α
2
= −
1
r
J(α
0
), α
3
= −
1
r
K(α
0
) (since
as remarked in Section 3.3.1 these equations also guarantee that 2α
1
−J(α
3
)+K(α
2
) = 0
etc.), in which case it is clear that
σ(α) = 0 ⇐⇒α = σ
_
2(r+1)
r
α
0
_
.
This shows that the sequence E
0
k−2,r−2
→ E
1
k−1,r−1
→ E
2
k,r
is exact. Restricting to
E
1,r
k−1,r−1
and E
1,r−2
k−1,r−1
, we see that exactness holds at these spaces in the middle and
bottom sequences respectively of (3.15).
Consider α ∈ E
0
k−2,r−2
. Then
σ(α) =
1
2(r −1)
_
rαe
0
−I(α)e
1
−J(α)e
2
−K(α)e
3
_
.
Since these are linearly independent, σ(α) = 0 if and only if α = 0, and σ : E
0,r−2
k−2,r−2
→
E
1,r−2
k−1,r−1
is injective. Hence the bottom sequence 0 −→ E
0,r−2
k−2,r−2
σ
−→ E
1,r−2
k−1,r−1
σ
−→
E
2,r−2
k,r
−→0 is exact.
Finally, we show that the middle sequence 0 −→E
1,r
k−1,r−1
σ
−→E
2,r
k,r
σ
−→E
3,r
k+1,r+1
−→
0 is exact at E
2,r
k,r
, which is now suﬃcient to show that the sequence is exact.
Let β = β
1
ω
+
1
+ β
2
ω
+
2
+ β
3
ω
+
3
∈ E
2,r+
k,r
. Recall the Lie in condition (3.12) that β
must take the form β =
1
r
_
I(β
0
)ω
+
1
+ J(β
0
)ω
+
2
+ K(β
0
)ω
+
3
_
for some β
0
∈ E
0
k−2,r
. (The
1
r
factor makes no diﬀerence here and is useful for cancellations.) Thus a general element
of E
2,r
k,r
is of the form
β + γ =
1
r
_
I(β
0
)ω
+
1
+ J(β
0
)ω
+
2
+ K(β
0
)ω
+
3
_
+ γ
1
ω
−
1
+ γ
2
ω
−
2
+ γ
3
ω
−
3
,
for β
0
, γ
j
∈ E
0,r
k−2,r
. A similar calculation to that of (3.16) shows that
σ(β + γ) = 0 ⇐⇒
_
¸
¸
_
¸
¸
_
(r + 2)β
0
+ I(γ
1
) + J(γ
2
) + K(γ
3
) = 0
(r + 2)γ
1
−I(β
0
) −J(γ
3
) + K(γ
2
) = 0
(r + 2)γ
2
+ I(γ
3
) −J(β
0
) −K(γ
1
) = 0
(r + 2)γ
3
−I(γ
2
) + J(γ
1
) −K(β
0
) = 0.
39
But this is exactly the Lie in condition (3.10) which we need for β
0
e
0
+γ
1
e
1
+γ
2
e
2
+γ
3
e
3
to be in E
1,r
k−1,r−1
, in which case we have
β + γ = σ
_
2(β
0
e
0
+ γ
1
e
1
+ γ
2
e
2
+ γ
3
e
3
)
_
.
This demonstrates exactness at E
2,r
k,r
and so the middle sequence is exact.
As a counterexample for the case r = 0 and k ≥ 4, consider α ∈ E
0
k−4,0
. Then
αe
0123
∈ E
4,0
k,0
and σ(αe
0123
) = 0, so σ : E
k,0
→ E
k+1,1
is not injective, which is exactly
the same as saying that the symbol sequence is not exact at E
k,0
. It is easy to see
that this counterexample does not arise when k = 0 or 2, and to show that the maps
σ : E
0,0
→E
1,1
and σ : E
2,0
→E
3,1
are injective.
As a counterexample for the case r = 1 and k ≥ 2, consider α ∈ E
0
k−2,0
. Then
αe
123
∈ E
3,0
k+1,1
and αe
123
∧ e
0
∈ E
4
k+2,0
. Thus σ(αe
123
) = 0. Since αe
123
has no e
0

components at all it is clear that αe
123
,= σ(β) for any β ∈ E
2
k,0
. Thus the symbol
sequence fails to be exact at E
k+1,1
. Again, it is easy to see that this counterexample
does not arise when k = 0, and to show that the sequence E
0,0
σ
−→ E
1,1
σ
−→ E
2,2
is
exact at E
1,1
.
This concludes our proof of Theorem 3.3.1.
3.4 Quaternionvalued forms on Hypercomplex Man
ifolds
Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. Then M has a triple (I, J, K) of complex structures
which we can identify globally with the imaginary quaternions. Thus we have globally
deﬁned operators which generate the sp(1)action on Λ
k
T
∗
M.
Consider also the quaternions themselves. Equation (2.6) describes the
Sp(1)GL(n, H)representation on H
n
as V
1
⊗ E. In the case n = 1 this reduces to
the representation
H
∼
= V
1
⊗V
1
, (3.17)
where we can interpret the lefthand copy of V
1
as the leftaction (p, q) → pq, and the
righthand copy of V
1
as the rightaction (p, q) →qp
−1
, for q ∈ H and p ∈ Sp(1).
We can now use our globally deﬁned hypercomplex structure to combine the Sp(1)
actions on H and Λ
k
T
∗
M. This motivates a thorough investigation of quaternionvalued
forms on hypercomplex manifolds. Consider, for example, quaternionvalued exterior
forms in the bundle E
k,r
=
n
k,r
V
r
. The Sp(1)action on these forms is described by the
representation
H⊗E
k,r
∼
= V
1
⊗V
1
⊗
n
k,r
V
r
.
Leaving the left Haction untouched, we consider the eﬀect of the right Haction and the
hypercomplex structure simultaneously. This amounts to applying the operators
1 : α →I(α) −αi
1
, ¸ : α →J(α) −αi
2
and / : α →K(α) −αi
3
to α ∈ H⊗E
k,r
. Under this diagonal action the tensor product V
1
⊗
n
k,r
V
r
splits, giving
the representation
H⊗E
k,r
∼
= V
1
⊗
n
k,r
(V
r+1
⊕V
r−1
). (3.18)
40
Each of these summands inherits the structure of a left Hmodule from the leftaction
V
1
, which is not aﬀected by our splitting.
This situation mirrors our discussion of real and complex forms on complex mani
folds. There is a decomposition of realvalued forms, which is taken further when we
consider complexvalued forms. In the same way, considering quaternionvalued forms
on a hypercomplex manifold allows us to take our decomposition further.
This point of view turns out to be very fruitful. It will, over the next few chapters,
lead to quaternionic analogues of holomorphic functions and kforms, the holomorphic
tangent and cotangent spaces, and complex Lie groups and Lie algebras.
The algebraic foundation for this geometry lies in considering objects like our left
Hmodules in Equation (3.18). Each of the summands V
1
⊗
n
k,r
V
r±1
is a left Hmodule
which arises as a submodule of H ⊗ E
k,r
∼
= (r + 1)
n
k,r
H
n
. Thus each summand is an
Hlinear submodule of H
n
. In the next chapter we will introduce a new algebraic theory
which is based upon such objects.
41
Chapter 4
Developments in Quaternionic
Algebra
This chapter describes an algebraic theory which will be central to our description of
hypercomplex geometry. The theory is that of my supervisor, Dominic Joyce, and is
presented in [J1]. The basic objects of study are Hsubmodules U of H ⊗ R
n
. Joyce
shows that the inclusion ι
U
: U → H
n
is determined up to isomorphism by the H
module structure of U and the choice of a real vector subspace U
⊂ U satisfying a
certain condition. The pair (U, U
) is an augmented Hmodule, or AHmodule.
The most important discovery in [J1] is a canonical tensor product for AHmodules
with interesting properties. (Recall from Section 1.3 that the most obvious deﬁnitions of
a tensor product over the quaternions are not especially fruitful.) For two AHmodules
U ⊂ H
m
and V ⊂ H
n
, we can deﬁne a unique AHmodule U⊗
H
V ⊂ H
mn
. The
operation ‘ ⊗
H
’ will be called the quaternionic tensor product. It has similar properties
to the tensor product over a commuting ﬁeld; for example it is both associative and
commutative. This allows us to develop the algebra of AHmodules as a parallel to that
of vector spaces over R or C. This analogy is particularly strong for certain wellbehaved
AHmodules which will be called stable AHmodules.
There are other algebraic operations which are equivalent to Joyce’s quaternionic ten
sor product. A sheaftheoretic point of view is presented by Quillen [Q], in which he dis
covers a contravariant equivalence of tensor categories between AHmodules and regular
sheaves on a real form of CP
1
. This allows us to classify all AHmodules and determine
their tensor products. In the next chapter, we will see that the most important classes of
AHmodules are conveniently described and manipulated using Sp(1)representations.
4.1 The Quaternionic Algebra of Joyce
The following is a summary of parts of Joyce’s theory of quaternionic algebra. The
interested reader should consult [J1] for more details and proofs.
4.1.1 AHModules
We begin by deﬁning Hmodules and their dual spaces. A (left) Hmodule is a real vector
space U with an action of H on the left which we write as (q, u) → q u or qu, such
that p(q(u)) = (pq)(u) for p, q ∈ H and u ∈ U. For our purposes, all Hmodules will
42
be left Hmodules. By dimU we will always mean the dimension of U as a real vector
space, even if U is an Hmodule.
We write U
∗
for the dual vector space of U. If U is an Hmodule we also deﬁne the
dual Hmodule U
×
of linear maps α : U → H that satisfy α(qu) = qα(u) for all q ∈ H
and u ∈ U. If q ∈ H and α ∈ U
×
, deﬁne q α by (q α)(u) = α(u)q for u ∈ U. Then
q α ∈ U
×
, and U
×
is a (left) Hmodule. Dual Hmodules behave just like dual vector
spaces.
Deﬁnition 4.1.1 [J1, Deﬁnition 2.2] Let U be an Hmodule. Let U
be a real vector
subspace of U. Deﬁne a real vector subspace U
†
of U
×
by
U
†
= ¦α ∈ U
×
: α(u) ∈ I for all u ∈ U
¦. (4.1)
Conversely, U
†
determines U
(at least for ﬁnitedimensional U) by
U
= ¦u ∈ U : α(u) ∈ I for all α ∈ U
†
¦. (4.2)
An augmented Hmodule, or AHmodule, is a pair (U, U
) such that if u ∈ U and α(u) = 0
for all α ∈ U
†
, then u = 0. We consider H to be an AHmodule, with H
= I. AH
modules should be thought of as the quaternionic analogues of real vector spaces.
Usually we will refer to U itself as an AHmodule, assuming that U
is also given. If we
consider only the real part Re(α(u)) (for u ∈ U and α ∈ U
×
), we can interpret U
×
as
the dual of U as a real vector space, and then U
†
is the annihilator of U
. Thus if U is
ﬁnitedimensional, dimU
+ dimU
†
= dimU = dimU
×
and an isomorphism U
∼
= U
×
determines an isomorphism U/U
∼
= U
†
.
Let U be an AHmodule and let u, v ∈ U such that α(u) = α(v) for all α ∈ U
†
.
Then since α is a linear map we have α(u − v) = 0 for all α ∈ U
†
and it follows from
Deﬁnition 4.1.1 that u = v. Thus U is an AHmodule if and only if each u ∈ U is
uniquely determined by the values of α(u) for α ∈ U
†
. In eﬀect, the deﬁnition of an AH
module demands that U
should not be too large. Deﬁnition 4.1.1 demands for any u ∈ U,
its Hlinear span H u should not be entirely contained in U
, so dim(U
∩ H u) ≤ 3.
If V is an AHmodule, we say that U is an AHsubmodule of V if U is an Hsubmodule
of V and U
= U ∩V
. As U
†
is the restriction of V
†
to U, if α(u) = 0 for all α ∈ U
†
then
u = 0, so U is an AHmodule. Deﬁne W to be the quotient Hmodule V/U and deﬁne
W
to be the real subspace (V
+ U)/U of W. We would like to deﬁne (W, W
) to be
the quotient AHmodule V/U. However, there is a catch: W may not be an AHmodule,
as the condition in Deﬁnition 4.1.1 may not be satisﬁed.
Example 4.1.2 [J1, Deﬁnition 6.1] Let Y ⊂ H
3
be the set Y = ¦(q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) : q
1
i
1
+
q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦. Then Y
∼
= H
2
is a left Hmodule. Deﬁne a real subspace Y
= Y ∩ I
3
;
so Y
= ¦(q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) : q
j
∈ I and q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦. Then dimY = 8 and
dimY
= 5.
Let ν : Y → H, ν(q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) = i
1
q
1
+ i
2
q
2
+ i
3
q
3
. Then im(ν) = I and ker(ν) = Y
.
Since Y/Y
∼
= (Y
†
)
∗
, ν induces an isomorphism (Y
†
)
∗
∼
= I
∼
= V
2
.
Here is the natural concept of linear map between AHmodules:
Deﬁnition 4.1.3 Let U, V be AHmodules and let φ : U → V be Hlinear. We say
that φ is an AHmorphism if φ(U
) ⊂ V
. If φ is also an isomorphism of Hmodules we
say φ is an AHisomorphism.
43
One obvious question is whether we can classify AHmodules up to AHisomorphism.
Real and complex vector spaces are classiﬁed by dimension, but clearly this is not true
for AHmodules, as there are several choices of U
for each Hmodule U
∼
= H
n
. We will
return to this question in some detail later.
We note the following points:
• If φ : U → V and ψ : V → W are AHmorphisms, then ψ ◦ φ : U → W is an
AHmorphism.
• Let U, V be AHmodules and φ : U → V an AHmorphism. Deﬁne an Hlinear
map φ
×
: V
×
→ U
×
by φ
×
(β)(u) = β(φ(u)) for β ∈ V
×
and u ∈ U. Then
φ(U
) ⊂ V
implies that φ
×
(V
†
) ⊂ U
†
.
• Let U be an AHmodule. Then H⊗(U
†
)
∗
is an Hmodule, with Haction p(q⊗x) =
(pq) ⊗ x. Deﬁne a map ι
U
: U → H ⊗ (U
†
)
∗
by ι
U
(u) α = α(u), for u ∈ U and
α ∈ U
†
. Then ι
U
is Hlinear, so that ι
U
(U) is an Hsubmodule of H⊗(U
†
)
∗
.
Suppose u ∈ ker ι
U
. Then α(u) = 0 for all α ∈ U
†
, so that u = 0 as U is an
AHmodule. Thus ι
U
is injective, and ι
U
(U)
∼
= U.
• From Equation (4.2), it follows that ι
U
(U
) = ι
U
(U) ∩ (I ⊗ (U
†
)
∗
). Thus the
AHmodule (U, U
) is determined by the Hsubmodule ι
U
(U).
This shows as promised that every AHmodule is isomorphic to a (left) submodule
of (H ⊗ R
n
, I ⊗ R
n
) for n = dim(U
†
)
∗
. Example 4.1.2 shows how ths works for the
AHmodule Y . As an abstract AHmodule Y is isomorphic to H
2
and (Y
†
)
∗
∼
= V
2
. One
of the easiest and most symmetrical ways to obtain Y is as an 8dimensional subspace
of H
3
= H⊗V
2
. We will ﬁnd this version of events very useful in many situations, as we
shall see immediately.
4.1.2 The Quaternionic Tensor Product
Let U and V be AHmodules. Then they can be regarded as subspaces of H⊗(U
†
)
∗
and
H ⊗ (V
†
)
∗
respectively. Since the Haction on both of these is the same, we can paste
these AHmodules together to get a product AHmodule. Here is the key idea of the
theory:
Deﬁnition 4.1.4 [J1, Deﬁnition 4.2] Let U, V be AHmodules. Then H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
is an Hmodule, with Haction p (q ⊗x ⊗y) = (pq) ⊗x ⊗y. Exchanging the factors of
H and (U
†
)
∗
, we may regard (U
†
)
∗
⊗ ι
V
(V ) as a subspace of H ⊗ (U
†
)
∗
⊗ (V
†
)
∗
. Thus
ι
U
(U) ⊗(V
†
)
∗
and (U
†
)
∗
⊗ι
V
(V ) are AHsubmodules of H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
. We deﬁne
their intersection to be the quaternionic tensor product of U and V ,
U⊗
H
V = (ι
U
(U) ⊗(V
†
)
∗
) ∩ ((U
†
)
∗
⊗ι
V
(V )) ⊂ H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
. (4.3)
The vector subspace (U⊗
H
V )
is then given by (U⊗
H
V )
= (U⊗
H
V )∩(I⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
)
and with this deﬁnition U⊗
H
V is an AHmodule. The operation ⊗
H
will be called the
quaternionic tensor product.
44
A few words of explanation may be useful at this point. At the end of Chapter 1 we
saw that it is possible to deﬁne a sort of tensor product H
m
⊗
H
H
n
∼
= H
mn
, but that this is
not really any diﬀerent from taking tensor products over R. The theory of AHmodules
and the quaternionic tensor product is a way of taking the quaternionic behaviour into
account. How U
behaves in relation to the Haction determines a particular subspace
ι
U
(U) of H ⊗ R
n
. The quaternionic tensor product is the natural way of combining
these choices for AHmodules U ⊆ H ⊗ R
m
and V ⊆ H ⊗ R
n
into an AHmodule
U⊗
H
V ⊆ H⊗R
mn
.
We also deﬁne the tensor product of two AHmorphisms:
Deﬁnition 4.1.5 Let U, V, W, X be AHmodules, and let φ : U → W and ψ : V → X
be AHmorphisms. Then φ
×
(W
†
) ⊂ U
†
and ψ
×
(X
†
) ⊂ V
†
. Taking the duals gives
maps (φ
×
)
∗
: (U
†
)
∗
→ (W
†
)
∗
and (ψ
×
)
∗
: (V
†
)
∗
→ (X
†
)
∗
. Combining these, we have a
map
id ⊗(φ
×
)
∗
⊗(ψ
×
)
∗
: H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
→H⊗(W
†
)
∗
⊗(X
†
)
∗
. (4.4)
Deﬁne φ⊗
H
ψ : U⊗
H
V →W⊗
H
X to be the restriction of id ⊗(φ
×
)
∗
⊗(ψ
×
)
∗
to U⊗
H
V .
Then φ⊗
H
ψ is an AHmorphism from U⊗
H
V to W⊗
H
X . This is the quaternionic
tensor product of φ and ψ.
It can be proved [J1, Lemma 4.3] that there are canonical AHisomorphisms
H⊗
H
U
∼
= U, U⊗
H
V
∼
= V ⊗
H
U and (U⊗
H
V )⊗
H
W
∼
= U⊗
H
(V ⊗
H
W). (4.5)
This tells us that ⊗
H
is commutative and associative, and that the AHmodule H acts
as an identity element for ⊗
H
. Since ⊗
H
is commutative and associative we can deﬁne
symmetric and antisymmetric products of AHmodules:
Deﬁnition 4.1.6 [J1, 4.4] Let U be an AHmodule. Write
k
H
U for the product
U⊗
H
⊗
H
U of k copies of U, with
0
H
U = H. Then the k
th
symmetric group S
k
acts
on
k
H
U by permutation of the U factors in the obvious way. Deﬁne S
k
H
U and Λ
k
H
U
to be the AHsubmodules of
k
H
U which are symmetric and antisymmetric respectively
under the action of S
k
.
Much of the algebra that works over R or C can be adapted to work over H, using
AHmodules and the quaternionic tensor product instead of vector spaces and the real
or complex tensor product. There are, however, many situations where the quaternionic
tensor product behaves diﬀerently from the standard real or complex tensor product.
For example, the dimension of U⊗
H
V can behave strangely. It can vary discontinuously
under smooth variations of U
or V
, and it is possible to have U⊗
H
V = ¦0¦ when
both U and V are nonzero. If φ and ψ are both injective AHmorphisms, it is possible
to prove [J1, Lemma 7.4] that φ⊗
H
ψ is also injective. However, if φ and ψ are both
surjective then φ⊗
H
ψ is not necessarily surjective.
Given u ∈ U and v ∈ V it is not possible in general to deﬁne an element u⊗
H
v ∈
U⊗
H
V . However, we do have the following special case:
Lemma 4.1.7 [J1, 4.6] Let U, V be AHmodules, and let u ∈ U and v ∈ V be nonzero.
Suppose that α(u)β(v) = β(v)α(u) ∈ H for every α ∈ U
†
and β ∈ V
†
. Deﬁne an
45
element u⊗
H
v of H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
by (u⊗
H
v) (α ⊗β) = α(u)β(v) ∈ H. Then u⊗
H
v
is a nonzero element of U⊗
H
V .
It is easy to visualise how this Lemma ‘works’. If α(u)β(v) = β(v)α(u) ∈ H for every
α ∈ U
†
and β ∈ V
†
, then α(u) and β(v) must both be in some commutative subﬁeld
C
q
⊂ H. This is the same as saying that
ι
U
(u) ∈ C
q
⊗(U
†
)
∗
and ι
V
(v) ∈ C
q
⊗(V
†
)
∗
,
and the element u⊗
H
v is just the complex tensor product ι
U
(u) ⊗
C
q
ι
V
(v) ∈ C
q
⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗
(V
†
)
∗
. So Lemma 4.1.7 tells us that on complex subﬁelds of H, the quaternionic tensor
product is the same as the complex tensor product.
4.1.3 Stable and Semistable AHModules
In this section we deﬁne two special sorts of AHmodules, which we shall call semistable
and stable. These AHmodules behave particularly well, and we can exploit their ‘nice’
properties to cement further the analogy between real and quaternionic algebra.
Deﬁnition 4.1.8 [J1, ¸8] Let U be a ﬁnitedimensional AHmodule. We say that U is
semistable if it is generated over H by the subspaces U
∩ qU
for q ∈ S
2
.
We can describe semistable AHmodules by the following property:
Lemma 4.1.9 Suppose that U is semistable, with dimU = 4j and dimU
= 2j + r,
for integers j, r. Then U
+ qU
= U for generic q ∈ S
2
. Thus r ≥ 0.
The next logical step is to require this property for all q ∈ S
2
, motivating the
following deﬁnition:
Deﬁnition 4.1.10 Let U be a ﬁnitedimensional AHmodule. We say that U is stable
if U = U
+ qU
for all q ∈ S
2
.
In eﬀect, our deﬁnitions of stable and semistable AHmodules act as a balance to
Deﬁnition 4.1.1 by demanding that U
should not be too small. Many of the properties
of semistable and stable AHmodules can be characterised by exploring the properties
of a particularly important type of AHmodule:
Deﬁnition 4.1.11 Let q ∈ I ¸ ¦0¦. Deﬁne an AHmodule X
q
by X
q
= H, X
q
= ¦p ∈
H : pq = −qp¦. In other words, X
q
is the subspace of H which is perpendicular to C
q
with respect to the standard scalar product.
We quote the following results, mainly taken from [J1, ¸8]:
• X
q
is semistable, but not stable.
• X
q
= X
λq
for all λ ∈ R ¸ ¦0¦, but for p ,= λq, X
p
and X
q
are not AHisomorphic
to one another. There is thus a distinct AHmodule X
q
given by each pair of
antipodal points ¦q, −q¦ for q ∈ S
2
.
46
• There is a canonical AHisomorphismX
q
⊗
H
X
q
∼
= X
q
, but if p ,= λq then X
p
⊗
H
X
q
=
¦0¦.
• Let χ
q
: X
q
→ H be the identity map on H. Then χ
q
and id ⊗
H
χ
q
: U⊗
H
X
q
→
U⊗
H
H
∼
= U are injective AHmorphisms.
• There is an isomorphism (U⊗
H
X
q
)
∼
= U
∩ qU
∼
= C
n
q
. It follows that U⊗
H
X
q
∼
=
nX
q
.
• Therefore if q ∈ S
2
and U is an AHmodule with dimU = 4j and dimU
= 2j +r,
then U⊗
H
X
q
∼
= nX
q
with n ≥ r .
• If U is semistable then U⊗
H
X
q
∼
= rX
q
for generic q ∈ S
2
, by Lemma 4.1.9.
• An AHmodule U is stable if and only if U⊗
H
X
q
∼
= rX
q
for all q ∈ S
2
.
• It follows that if U and V are stable AHmodules then U⊗
H
V ⊗
H
X
q
∼
= U⊗
H
(sX
q
)
∼
=
rsX
q
for all q ∈ S
2
, so using the associativity of the quaternionic tensor we infer
that U⊗
H
V is a stable AHmodule.
The AHmodule X
q
is an important bridge from quaternionic to complex algebra. In
eﬀect, X
q
= C
q
⊕C
⊥
q
, and the operation ‘⊗
H
X
q
’ converts an AHmodule U into copies
of X
q
, so it turns the AHmodule structure on U which is quaternionic information into
a set of what are eﬀectively complex vector spaces.
It is clear that all stable AHmodules are semistable. There is a sense in which the
X
q
’s are the ‘only’ class of AHmodules which are semistable but not stable, due to the
following Proposition:
Proposition 4.1.12 [J1, 8.8]: Let V be a ﬁnitedimensional AHmodule. Then V is
semistable if and only if V
∼
= U ⊕(
l
i=1
X
q
i
), where U is stable and q
i
∈ S
2
.
Joyce also shows that generic AHmodules with appropriate dimensions are stable or
semistable:
Lemma 4.1.13 [J1, 8.9] Let j, r be integers with 0 ≤ r ≤ j. Let U = H
j
and let U
be a real vector subspace of U with dimU
= 2j + r. For generic subspaces U
, (U, U
)
is a semistable AHmodule. If r > 0 then for generic subspaces U
, (U, U
) is a stable
AHmodule.
The beneﬁts of working with stable and semistable AHmodules become increasingly
apparent as one becomes more familiar with the theory. For now, we will quote the
following theorems:
Theorem 4.1.14 [J1, 9.1] Let U and V be stable AHmodules with
dimU = 4j, dimU
= 2j + r, dimV = 4k and dimV
= 2k + s. (4.6)
Then U⊗
H
V is a stable AHmodule with dim(U⊗
H
V ) = 4l and dim(U⊗
H
V )
= 2l +t,
where l = js + rk −rs and t = rs .
47
Proof.(Sketch of formula for total dimension) The proof works along the following lines.
If dimU = 4j and dimU
= 2j +r, then dim(U
†
)
∗
= 2j −r and similarly dim(V
†
)
∗
=
2k −s. So dim(H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
) = 4(2j −r)(2k −s).
Let A = ι
U
(U) ⊗ (V
†
)
∗
and B = (U
†
)
∗
⊗ ι
V
(V ), so that U⊗
H
V = A ∩ B. Then
dimA = 4j(2k − s) and dimB = 4k(2j − r), and dim(A + B) = dimA + dimB −
dim(A ∩ B). Now, if r, s ≥ 0 then dimA + dimB ≥ dim(H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
), and so if
the subspaces A and B are suitably transverse in H ⊗ (U
†
)
∗
⊗ (V
†
)
∗
we expect that
A + B = H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
, in which case
dim(U⊗
H
V ) = dimA + dimB −dim(H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
)
= 4(js + rk −rs).
The rest of Joyce’s proof consists of showing that if U and V are stable then this
intersection is transverse and ﬁnding (U⊗
H
V )
, from which it is easy to see that U⊗
H
V
is stable.
In fact, these dimension formulae still hold if V is only semistable. Theorem 4.1.14
and Proposition 4.1.12 combine to give the following:
Corollary 4.1.15 [J1, 9.3] Let U, V be semistable AHmodules. Then U⊗
H
V is
semistable.
Thus both stable and semistable AHmodules form subcategories of the tensor cat
egory of AHmodules, closed under direct and tensor products. Let U be a stable
AHmodule, with dimU = 4j and dimU
= 2j + r. We deﬁne r to be the virtual
dimension of U. Then Proposition 4.1.12 shows that the virtual dimension of U⊗
H
V is
the product of the virtual dimensions of U and V . We end this section by quoting the
following result:
Proposition 4.1.16 [J1, 9.6] Let U be a stable AHmodule, with dimU = 4j and
dimU
= 2j + r. Let n be a positive integer. Then S
n
H
U and Λ
n
H
U are stable AH
modules, with dim(S
n
H
U) = 4k, dim(S
n
H
U)
= 2k+s, dim(Λ
n
H
U) = 4l and dim(Λ
n
H
U)
=
2l + t, where
k = (j−r)
_
r+n−1
n −1
_
+
_
r+n−1
n
_
, s =
_
r+n−1
n
_
, l = (j−r)
_
r−1
n−1
_
+
_
r
n
_
, t =
_
r
n
_
.
4.2 Duality in Quaternionic Algebra
The objects which are naturally dual to AHmodules are called SHmodules. Under
certain circumstances an SHmodule can also be regarded as an AHmodule. In this
case we obtain interesting algebraic results which use dual AHmodules to tell us about
AHmorphisms between AHmodules.
48
4.2.1 SHmodules
In this section we will describe the class of objects which are dual to AHmodules. These
will be called strengthened Hmodules, or SHmodules. SHmodules are introduced by
Quillen in [Q], as a link between sheaves and AHmodules. Being very much part of
quaternionic algebra rather than sheaf theory, we discuss them in this section.
Let (U, U
) be an AHmodule. Then u ∈ U is completely determined by the values
of α(u) for α ∈ U
†
, and if u is determined then so is β(u) for all β ∈ U
×
. So for all
β ∈ U, β(u) is determined by the action of U
†
on u. Since the only other structure
present is the Haction, each β ∈ U
×
must be an Hlinear combination of elements
of U
†
, so U
×
is generated over H by U
†
. The converse is clearly true as well — if
every β ∈ U
×
is of the form q α for some α ∈ U
†
, then (U, U
) is an AHmodule by
Deﬁnition 4.1.1. The natural dual to an AHmodule is thus an Hmodule equipped with
a generating real subspace.
Deﬁnition 4.2.1 Let Q be a left Hmodule and Q
†
a real linear subspace of Q. We
say that the pair (Q, Q
†
) is a strengthened Hmodule or SHmodule if Q is generated
over H by Q
†
.
If U = (U, U
) is an AHmodule then (U
×
, U
†
) is an SHmodule, the SHmodule
corresponding to U. Just as we sometimes write U for the AHmodule (U, U
), we will
often write U
×
for the SHmodule (U
×
, U
†
).
A further link between these two ideas is provided by choosing a (hyperhermitian)
metric on the AHmodule (U, U
), giving an Hmodule isomorphism U
∼
= U
×
. This
in turn identiﬁes U
†
with (U
†
)
∗
, and so realises (U
†
)
∗
as a subspace of U which is
perpendicular to U
. We see that choosing a metric gives us a decomposition U
∼
=
U
⊕(U
†
)
∗
, where (U, (U
†
)
∗
) is an SHmodule. Every AHmodule can thus be regarded
as an SHmodule — the point of view depends on whether we think of U
or (U
)
⊥
as the
‘special’ subspace. The simplest example is that of the quaternions themselves: we can
regard them as the AHmodule (H, I) or the SHmodule (H, R), and these deﬁnitions
are exactly equivalent.
We deﬁne morphisms and quaternionic tensor products for SHmodules, by taking
the deﬁnitions from their corresponding AHmodules: the whole theory works in exactly
the same way. For example, if (U, U
) and (V, V
) are AHmodules and φ : U →V is an
AHmorphism, then (U
×
, U
†
) and (V
×
, V
†
) are SHmodules and the dual Hmorphism
φ
×
: V
×
→ U
×
satisﬁes φ
×
(V
†
) ⊆ U
†
, which makes φ
×
an SHmorphism. We write
U
×
⊗
H
V
×
for the quaternionic tensor product of two SHmodules; in other words we
deﬁne
U
×
⊗
H
V
×
= (U⊗
H
V )
×
. (4.7)
Another useful example is given by stable and semistable AHmodules. An AH
module is stable (respectively semistable) if and only if it satisﬁes the identity U =
U
+ qU
for all (respectively for generic) q ∈ I. But
U
+ qU
= U ⇐⇒(U
)
⊥
∩ q(U
)
⊥
= ¦0¦,
where (U
)
⊥
is the subspace orthogonal to U
with respect to a (hyperhermitian) metric
on U. Since there is an SHisomorphism (U, (U
)
⊥
)
∼
= (U
×
, U
†
), we see that
U
+ qU
= U ⇐⇒U
†
∩ qU
†
= ¦0¦.
49
Deﬁnition 4.2.2 An SHmodule is called stable (respectively semistable) if and only if
it has the property that U
†
∩ qU
†
= ¦0¦ for all (respectively for generic) q ∈ I.
This is sometimes easier to demonstrate than the property for the corresponding AH
modules. We shall work happily with either AHmodules or SHmodules according to
the needs of each situation, since their theories are interchangeable.
4.2.2 Dual AHmodules
In this section we take a new step and ask what happens if we consider (U
×
, U
†
) as an
AHmodule — the dual AHmodule of (U, U
). There are immediate attractions to this
approach. If V is a vector space over the commutative ﬁeld F then we deﬁne the dual
space V
∗
to be the space of Flinear maps φ : V → F. In the same way, if U is an
Hmodule we deﬁne U
×
to be the space of Hlinear maps φ : U → H. Once we also
have a real subspace U
⊂ U we deﬁne U
†
to be the set of maps
U
†
= ¦α ∈ U
×
: α(u) ∈ I for all u ∈ U
¦.
But an Hlinear map α : U → H such that α(U
) ⊆ I is precisely an AHmorphism
from U into H. Thus the space (U
×
, U
†
) consists of two sets of maps φ : U → H,
namely the Hlinear maps and AHmorphisms respectively. This suggests that deﬁning
(U
×
, U
†
) to be the dual AHmodule of (U, U
) could be a good quaternionic analogue
of the concept of a dual vector space in real or complex algebra.
There is an obvious possible catch: (U
×
, U
†
) might not even be an AHmodule! Thus
if we are to talk about dual AHmodules, we need to discern which AHmodules have
welldeﬁned duals. We have in fact already done this in Section 4.2.1.
Lemma 4.2.3 The AHmodule (U, U
) has a well deﬁned dual AHmodule (U
×
, U
†
) if
and only if (U, U
) is also an SHmodule.
Proof. In Section 4.2.1 we showed that (U, U
) is an AHmodule if and only if (U
×
, U
†
)
is an SHmodule. We simply reverse this argument: (U
×
, U
†
) is an AHmodule if and
only if the AHmodule (U, U
) is also an SHmodule.
Deﬁnition 4.2.4 Let U be an Hmodule and U
a real subspace of U . We say that
the pair (U, U
) is a strengthened augmented Hmodule, or SAHmodule, if (U, U
) is
both an AHmodule and an SHmodule.
A comprehensive way to sum this up is to say that (U, U
) is an AHmodule if
and only if it has no submodule isomorphic to (H, H) , an SHmodule if and only if it
has no submodule isomorphic to (H, ¦0¦), and an SAHmodule if and only if it has no
submodule isomorphic to either (H, H) or (H, ¦0¦). Unless otherwise stated, when we
refer to properties of an SAHmodule such as stability, we mean this in terms of the
structure of U as an AHmodule.
Example 4.2.5 Any semistable AHmodule U has the property that U = U
+ qU
for generic q ∈ I, so U is also an SHmodule and so an SAHmodule.
50
Deﬁnition 4.2.6 Let U = (U, U
) be an AHmodule which is also an SAHmodule.
Then we deﬁne U
×
= (U
×
, U
†
) to be the dual AHmodule of U.
With this deﬁnition, it is clear that U
×
is also an SAHmodule. For ﬁnite dimensional
U, there are canonical isomorphisms U
∼
= (U
×
)
×
and (U
×
)
†
∼
= U
.
Deﬁnition 4.2.7 Let (U, U
) be an AHmodule. Then U is called antistable if and
only if U
∩ qU
= ¦0¦ for all q ∈ I.
It is clear that antistable AHmodules are almost always dual to stable AHmodules.
The only irreducible exception is the AHmodule (H, ¦0¦), which we regard as an anti
stable AHmodule in spite of the fact that its dual (H, H) is not an AHmodule.
4.2.3 Spaces of AHmorphisms and Duality
The space U
†
is, as we have remarked, the space of AHmorphisms φ : U → H. This
fact is an example of a more general result which makes the theory of dual spaces
in quaternionic algebra particularly useful. Let A and B be (free, ﬁnite dimensional)
modules over the commutative ring R, and let Hom
R
(A, B) denote the space of Rlinear
maps φ : A →B. It is wellknown that there is a canonical isomorphism Hom
R
(A, B)
∼
=
A
∗
⊗
R
B.
There is an analogous result in quaternionic algebra. We start with the following
deﬁnition:
Deﬁnition 4.2.8 Let U and V be AHmodules. Then Hom
AH
(U, V ) denotes the
space of AHmorphisms from U into V .
Here is the main result of this section:
Theorem 4.2.9 Let U be an SAHmodule and V be an AHmodule. Then there is a
canonical isomorphism
Hom
AH
(U, V )
∼
= (U
×
⊗
H
V )
.
Proof. Let φ ∈ (U
×
⊗
H
V )
. Then
φ ∈ (ι
U
×(U
×
) ⊗(V
†
)
∗
) ∩ ((U
)
∗
⊗ι
V
(V )) ∩ (I ⊗(U
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
),
or equivalently
φ ∈ (ι
U
×(U
†
) ⊗(V
†
)
∗
) ∩ ((U
)
∗
⊗ι
V
(V
)).
Consider φ ∈ ι
U
×(U
†
) ⊗ (V
†
)
∗
. The mapping ι
U
× identiﬁes U
†
with ι
U
×(U
†
). Using
this and the canonical isomorphism of real vector spaces Hom(A, B)
∼
= A
∗
⊗ B we see
that φ is exactly equivalent to an real linear map
Φ : (U
†
)
∗
→(V
†
)
∗
,
which in turn is equivalent to an Hlinear map
Φ
H
: H⊗(U
†
)
∗
→H⊗(V
†
)
∗
,
51
which by deﬁnition is an AHmorphism.
Every AHmorphism ψ : U →V is equivalent to an AHmorphism Ψ : H⊗(U
†
)
∗
→
H ⊗ (V
†
)
∗
with the property that Ψ : ι
U
(U) → ι
V
(V ). Using the fact that φ ∈
(U
)
∗
⊗ι
V
(V
) and the natural identiﬁcation U
∼
= ι
U
(U
) we see that
Φ
H
: ι
U
(U
) →ι
V
(V
).
Since U is an SAHmodule, ι
U
(U) is generated over H by ι
U
(U
), from which it follows
that Φ
H
: ι
U
(U) → ι
V
(V ). Thus Φ
H
is equivalent to an AHmorphism from U to
V . Reversing these steps, we can construct an element of (U
×
⊗
H
V )
from each AH
morphism from U to V .
The quaternionic tensor product can be used in this way to tell us about spaces of
AHmorphisms, which is another piece of evidence suggesting that Joyce’s deﬁnition of
the quaternionic tensor product is the right one for AHmodules.
4.3 Real Subspaces of Complex Vector Spaces
We have seen that choosing diﬀerent real subspaces U
of an Hmodule U
∼
= H
n
gives
rise to diﬀerent algebraic properties. As always with the quaternions, it is useful to
compare this situation with that of the complex numbers. As an instructive example
(and a bit of light relief!) we shall give a classiﬁcation of real linear subspaces of complex
vector spaces up to complex linear isomorphism. In other words, we classify the possible
orbits of a subspace R
k
of C
n
under the action of GL(n, C). This is not diﬃcult, though
as far as the author can tell both the problem and its solution are original.
Theorem 4.3.1 Let U
∼
= R
k
be a real linear subspace of C
n
. Then we can choose a
complex basis ¦e
j
: j = 1, . . . , n¦ of C
n
such that
U
= ¸e
1
, . . . , e
p
, ie
1
, . . . , ie
q
)
R
,
where q ≤ p ≤ n, p + q = k.
Proof. Both U
+ iU
and U
∩ iU
are complex subspaces of C
n
. Let U
+ iU
∼
= C
p
and let U
∩ iU
∼
= C
q
. Then dim
R
(U
) = p + q.
Choose a complex basis ¦e
1
, . . . , e
q
¦ for U
∩ iU
. Then ¦e
1
, ie
1
, . . . , e
q
, ie
q
¦ is a
real basis for U
∩ iU
. Extend this to a real basis ¦e
1
, ie
1
, . . . , e
q
, ie
q
, e
q+1
, . . . , e
p
¦ for
U
. Then ¦e
1
, . . . , e
p
¦ spans U
+ iU
∼
= C
p
(over C), and so ¦e
1
, . . . , e
p
¦ is linearly
independent over C. The result follows.
It is easy to see from this theorem that choosing a real subspace of C
n
is always
compatible with the complex structure, in the sense that each basis vector of the real
subspace U
can be chosen to lie in one and only one copy of C. The pair (U, U
)
∼
=
(C
n
, R
k
) can always be completely reduced to a direct sum of copies of C, each of which
contains 0, 1 or 2 basis vectors for U
.
The situation is very diﬀerent for Hmodules. For example, consider the AHmodule
(U, U
) with
U = H
2
and U
= ¸(1, 0)(0, 1), (i
1
, i
2
)).
52
There is no way to decompose U into two separate copies of H, the ﬁrst of which contains
2 basis vectors for U
and the second of which contains the remaining basis vector.
This motivates the following deﬁnition:
Deﬁnition 4.3.2 An AHmodule (U, U
) is irreducible if and only if it cannot be
written as a direct sum of two nontrivial AHmodules, i.e. there are no two nontrivial
AHmodules (U
1
, U
1
), (U
2
, U
2
) such that (U, U
) = (U
1
⊕U
2
, U
1
⊕U
2
).
The classiﬁcation of irreducible AHmodules up to AHisomorphism is a much more
diﬃcult problem than its analogue for complex vector spaces. It will be addressed in the
next section using a class of algebraic objects called Kmodules.
4.4 Kmodules
A Kmodule is an algebraic object based on a pair of complex vector spaces. Real and
quaternionic vector spaces, as so often, occur as complex vector spaces with particular
structure maps.
Deﬁnition 4.4.1 [Q, 4.1] A Kmodule is a pair (W, V ) of (ﬁnite dimensional) complex
vector spaces together with a linear map e : W → H ⊗ V , where H
∼
= C
2
is the basic
representation of GL(2, C).
The reason why Kmodules are important to quaternionic algebra is that in the
presence of suitable structure maps, some Kmodules are equivalent to AHmodules.
This allows us to use the classiﬁcation of irreducible Kmodules, a problem with a known
solution, to write down all irreducible AHmodules very explicitly. This link between
Kmodules and AHmodules was discovered by Quillen [Q]. Quillen is more interested in
an interpretation of quaternionic algebra in terms of sheaves over the Riemann sphere, a
powerful theory which we will review in the next section. We follow a slightly diﬀerent
approach from that in Quillen’s paper to obtain a more immediate link between K
modules and AHmodules.
A Kmodule e : W →H ⊗V is called indecomposable if it cannot be written as the
direct sum of two nontrivial Kmodules. A Kmodule morphism is a map φ : (W
1
e
1
→
H ⊗ V
1
) −→ (W
2
e
2
→ H ⊗ V
2
) which respects the Kmodule structure. A Kmodule
can equivalently be deﬁned as a pair of linear maps e
1
, e
2
: W → V . In this guise, a
Kmodule is a representation of the Kronecker quiver. We recover the ﬁrst deﬁnition by
setting e(w) = h
1
⊗e
1
(w) +h
2
⊗e
2
(w) where ¦h
1
, h
2
¦ is a basis for H. Representations
of the Kronecker quiver are discussed in Benson’s book [Ben, ¸4.3]. The important result
is the following classiﬁcation theorem of Kronecker (which we have summarised slightly),
which shows that every indecomposable Kmodule is isomorphic to one of three basic
types.
Theorem 4.4.2 [Ben, p. 101] Let e
1
, e
2
: W →V be a pair of linear maps constituting
an indecomposable Kmodule. Then one of the following holds:
(i) The vector spaces W and V have the same dimension. In this case, if det e
1
,= 0
53
then e
1
and e
2
can be written in the form
e
1
→id e
2
→
_
_
_
_
_
α 0
1 α
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 1 α
_
_
_
_
_
.
If det e
1
= 0 a modiﬁcation is necessary which in some sense corresponds to the ‘rational
canonical form at inﬁnity’.
(ii) The dimension of W is one larger than the dimension of V , and bases may be chosen
so that e
1
and e
2
are represented by the matrices
e
1
=
_
_
_
1 0 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 1 0
_
_
_
e
2
=
_
_
_
0 1 0
.
.
.
.
.
.
0 0 1
_
_
_
.
(iii) The dimension of W is one smaller than the dimension of V , and bases may be
chosen so that e
1
and e
2
are represented by the transposes of the above matrices.
Deﬁnition 4.4.3 Deﬁne A
n,α
1
to be the indecomposable Kmodule of type (i) with
dimV = n and α on the leading diagonal of e
2
. (We write A
n,∞
1
for the case det e
1
=
0 ). Deﬁne A
n
2
to be the irreducible Kmodule of type (ii) with dimV = n. Deﬁne A
n
3
to be the irreducible Kmodule of type (iii) with dimV = n.
Let σ
H
be the standard quaternionic structure map on H deﬁned by σ
H
(z
1
h
1
+
z
2
h
2
) = −¯ z
2
h
1
+¯ z
1
h
2
. This gives H⊗V the structure of a complex Hmodule. Our aim
is for the Kmodule e : W →H ⊗V to deﬁne a real subspace of a real Hmodule. This
is accomplished by compatible structure maps on W and V .
Deﬁnition 4.4.4 [Q, 11.2] An SKmodule is a Kmodule e : W →H⊗V equipped with
antilinear operators σ
W
and σ
V
of squares 1 and −1 respectively, such that e σ
W
=
(σ
H
⊗σ
V
) e.
Suppose W →H ⊗V is an SKmodule. Then σ
W
is a real structure on W, and its
set of ﬁxed points is the real vector space W
σ
. The map σ
H
⊗σ
V
is also a real structure,
and in the same way we deﬁne the real vector space (H⊗V )
σ
. Then (H⊗V )
σ
is a real
Hmodule, whose Hmodule structure is inherited from that on H, and e(W
σ
) is a real
subspace of this Hmodule. In many circumstances an SKmodule is therefore equivalent
to an AHmodule.
Example 4.4.5 Consider the Kmodule A
2
2
which has dimW = 3 and dimV = 2.
Let ¦w
1
, w
2
, w
3
¦ be a basis for W and let ¦v
1
, v
2
¦ be a basis for V . We have
e(w
1
) = h
1
⊗v
1
, e(w
2
) = h
1
⊗v
2
+ h
2
⊗v
1
, e(w
3
) = h
2
⊗v
2
.
Let σ
V
be the standard quaternionic structure on V , so σ
V
(v
1
) = v
2
and σ
V
(v
2
) = −v
1
.
There is a compatible real structure σ
W
on W given by σ
W
(w
1
) = w
3
, σ(w
3
)
W
= w
1
54
and σ
W
(w
2
) = −w
2
, so that with these structure maps A
2
2
is an SKmodule. We have
real vector spaces
W
σ
= ¸w
1
+ w
3
, iw
2
, i(w
1
−w
3
))
and
(H ⊗V )
σ
=
_
h
1
⊗v
2
−h
2
⊗v
1
i(h
1
⊗v
2
+ h
2
⊗v
1
)
h
1
⊗v
1
+ h
2
⊗v
2
i(h
1
⊗v
1
−h
2
⊗v
2
)
_
.
An Hmodule isomorphism (H⊗V )
σ
∼
= H is obtained by mapping these basis vectors to
1, i
1
, i
2
and i
3
respectively. Under this isomorphism the real subspace e(W
σ
) is mapped
to the imaginary quaternions I. This demonstrates explicitly that the SKmodule A
2
2
is
equivalent to the AHmodule (H, I ) = H.
Every real subspace U
of a quaternionic vector space U can be obtained in this
fashion, so a classiﬁcation of SKmodules gives a classiﬁcation of AHmodules.
Corollary 4.4.6 Every indecomposable SKmodule is isomorphic to one of the following:
(A) The direct sum of a pair of Kmodules of type (i) of the form A
n,α
1
⊕A
n,−¯ α
−1
1
.
(B) An indecomposable Kmodule of type (ii) or (iii) with dimV even; in other words
A
2m
2
or A
2m
3
.
(C) An indecomposable Kmodule of type (ii) or (iii) with dimV odd, tensored with the
basic representation H equipped with its standard structure map σ
H
; in other words
A
2m+1
2
⊗H or A
2m+1
3
⊗H.
Proof. This follows from Theorem 4.4.2 and explicit calculations using standard structure
maps on the vector spaces V .
It remains to check which pairs (U, U
) arising in this fashion are AHmodules. As
noted earlier, a pair (U, U
) fails to be an AHmodule if and only if it has a subspace
of the form (H, H). This pair is given by the SKmodule H ⊗ A
1
3
. The ‘annihilating
Kmodule’ A
0
3
also fails to give an AHmodule. Any SKmodule containing neither of
these indecomposables is equivalent to an AHmodule.
Here are some important facts about irreducible AHmodules which can now be
deduced:
• SKmodules of type (ii) correspond to stable AHmodules and SKmodules of type
(iii) correspond to antistable AHmodules.
• Indecomposable SKmodules of type (i) of the form A
1,α
1
⊕A
1,−¯ α
−1
1
correspond to
the semistable AHmodules X
q
.
• The irreducible stable AHmodule corresponding to A
2m
2
has dimU = 4m and
dimU
= 2m + 1. Thus U
∼
= H
m
and the virtual dimension of U is 1.
• The irreducible stable AHmodule of the form H⊗A
2m+1
2
has dimU = 4(2m+1)
and dimU
= 4(m + 1). Thus U
∼
= H
2m+1
and the virtual dimension of U is 2.
• This shows that there is an irreducible stable AHmodule with virtual dimension
1 in every dimension and an irreducible stable AHmodule with virtual dimension
2 in every odd dimension.
55
• The isomorphism class of an irreducible stable AHmodule is thus uniquely deter
mined by the dimension and virtual dimension of U.
4.5 The SheafTheoretic approach of Quillen
Much of Joyce’s quaternionic algebra can be described using (coherent) sheaves over
the complex projective line CP
1
. This interpretation is due to Daniel Quillen [Q].
Quillen’s paper works by recognising that certain exact sequences of sheaf cohomology
groups are Kmodules. Thus in the presence of certain structure maps, we obtain SH
modules. (Quillen deals primarily with SHmodules rather than AHmodules.) Quillen
uses slightly diﬀerent structure maps from those we used in the previous section to obtain
SKmodules, but the resulting theory is exactly the same.
The most interesting new result in this section is that the equivalence between sheaves
and SHmodules respects tensor products, enabling us to calculate the quaternionic
tensor product of two SHmodules from knowing the tensor products of the corresponding
sheaves. Thus by the end of this section we will have succeeded in classifying all AH
modules and their tensor products.
4.5.1 Sheaves on the Riemann Sphere
We describe the algebraic geometry of (coherent) sheaves over CP
1
.
1
Quillen demon
strates that every coherent sheaf over CP
1
is the direct sum of a holomorphic vector
bundle and a torsion sheaf (one whose support is ﬁnite).
2
These summands factorise
very neatly — every torsion sheaf is the sum of indecomposable sheaves supported at a
single point, and every holomorphic vector bundle is a sum of holomorphic line bundles.
We will describe the vector bundles ﬁrst.
Every holomorphic line bundle over CP
n
is a tensor power of the hyperplane section
bundle L [GH, p. 145]. In the case n = 1, we use the open cover of CP
1
= C ∪ ¦∞¦
consisting of the two open sets U
0
= CP
1
¸¦∞¦ and U
1
= CP
1
¸¦0¦. A holomorphic line
bundle over CP
1
is determined by a holomorphic transition function ψ : U
0
∩U
1
→C
∗
,
so ψ : C
∗
→C
∗
. Two transition functions ψ and ψ
determine the same line bundle if
and only if there exist nonvanishing holomorphic functions f, g : C
∗
→C
∗
such that
ψ
=
f
g
ψ.
Two functions are equivalent under this relation if and only if they have the same winding
number, so each line bundle on CP
1
is given by one of the transition functions g(z) = z
n
,
n ∈ Z. The line bundle given by the transition function z
n
is in fact
n
L. Following
standard notation, we write O(n) for the sheaf of its holomorphic sections. Thus O =
1
Background material can be found in [GH], which introduces sheaves and their cohomology [pp.
3449], coherent sheaves [pp. 678704], holomorphic vector bundles [pp. 6671] and holomorphic line
bundles [pp. 132139]. A more thorough exposition of the diﬀerential geometry of holomorphic vector
bundles, including many of the properties of sheaves used in Quillen’s paper, can be found in Kobayashi’s
book [K].
2
This uses the convention of identifying a holomorphic vector bundle with its sheaf of holomorphic
sections.
56
O(0) is the structure sheaf of CP
1
. It is easy to see (by multiplying the transition
functions together) that L
n
⊗L
m
∼
= L
n+m
, or in sheaftheoretic terms O(n) ⊗
O
O(m)
∼
=
O(n + m).
Every holomorphic vector bundle over CP
1
can be written as a direct sum of these
line bundles, the summands being unique up to order.
3
Thus every holomorphic vector
bundle E is a sum of irreducible line bundles, and can be written E =
∞
−∞
a
n
L
n
,
where the multiplicities a
n
are unique (though the decomposition itself may not be).
This leaves us to consider sheaves which are supported at a ﬁnite set of points, which
are called torsion sheaves. Quillen [Q, ¸2] demonstrates that every coherent sheaf over
CP
1
is the sum of a vector bundle and a torsion sheaf. Torsion sheaves themselves
split into sheaves supported at one point only. Let z ∈ CP
1
be such a point, and let
O
z
be the ring of germs of holomorphic functions at z. Deﬁne m
z
to be the unique
maximal ideal of O
z
consisting of germs of functions whose ﬁrst derivative vanishes at
z. Every torsion sheaf splits into sheaves of the form O
z
/(m
z
)
n
, which we write O/m
n
z
by extending m
z
by O on the complement of z. We have the following Theorem:
Theorem 4.5.1 [Q, 2.3] Any coherent sheaf over CP
1
splits with unique multiplicities
into indecomposable sheaves of the form O(n) for n ∈ Z and O/m
n
z
for n ≥ 1 and
z ∈ CP
1
.
Cohomology Groups and Exact Sequences
There are various ways to calculate the cohomology groups of these sheaves.
4
The
method Quillen outlines uses the properties of exact sequences of sheaves. It is from the
maps in these sequences that we obtain Kmodules and thence SHmodules.
Let H
∼
= C
2
be the basic representation of GL(2, C). Then CP
1
can be identiﬁed
with the set of quotient lines of H and there is a basic exact sequence
0 →Λ
2
H ⊗O(−1) →H ⊗O →O(1) →0. (4.8)
Tensoring (over O) with the sheaf F and choosing an identiﬁcation Λ
2
H
∼
= C yields
the exact sequence
0 →F(−1) →H ⊗F →F(1) →0, (4.9)
where F(n) denotes the sheaf F ⊗
O
O(n).
Example 4.5.2 If we put F = O(n), n ≥ 0, we have the exact sequence
0 →O(n −1) →H ⊗O(n) →O(n + 1) →0. (4.10)
We know that H
0
(O)
∼
= C (global holomorphic functions on CP(1) ) and that
H
0
(O(−1)) = 0. By the exact sequences of (4.10) and induction, it follows that
H
0
(O(n))
∼
= S
n
(H) for n ≥ 0 and zero otherwise, and there is an exact sequence
of cohomology groups given by
0 →S
n−1
H →H ⊗S
n
H →S
n+1
H →0. (4.11)
3
This follows from the HarderNarasimhan ﬁltration of a holomorphic vector bundle E over any
Riemann surface M [K, p. 137]
4
For example [W, p.11], where H
0
(O(n)) is shown to be isomorphic to the (complex) vector space
of homogeneous polynomials of degree n in 2 variables.
57
Torsion sheaves can be dealt with in a similar fashion, using a resolution involving
the sheaf cohomology groups H
0
(F). It is easy to see that H
0
(O/m
n
z
)
∼
= C
n
. We call
the sheaves O(n) where n ≥ 0, torsion sheaves, and sums thereof regular sheaves. For
all regular sheaves F, the ﬁrst cohomology group H
1
(F) is zero.
This leaves the sheaves O(n) where n < 0 and sums thereof, which we call negative
vector bundles. These must be treated slightly diﬀerently, using the ﬁrst cohomology
groups H
1
(F). Since H
0
(O(n)) = 0 for n < 0, we obtain an exact sequence
0 →H
1
(O(n −1)) →H ⊗H
1
(O(n)) →H
1
(O(n + 1)) →0, (4.12)
from which it follows that H
1
(O(n))
∼
= S
−n−2
H for n ≤ −2 and zero otherwise.
Sheaves and Kmodules
Consider the regular sheaf O(n) for n ≥ 0. The exact sequence (4.10) gives rise to
an injection of cohomology groups H
0
(O(n − 1)) → H
0
(H ⊗ O(n)) which takes the
form e : S
n−1
H → H ⊗ S
n
H. This is clearly a Kmodule, the irreducible Kmodule
A
n+1
3
. Similarly for the torsion sheaves O/m
n
x
there is an injection H
0
(O/m
n
x
(−1)) →
H
0
(H ⊗O/m
n
x
). This gives a Kmodule of type (i) and dimW = n. Thus we obtain a
Kmodule from each regular sheaf F which we call ξ
+
F.
Let O(n), n < 0 be a negative vector bundle. The exact sequence (4.12) gives a map
H
1
(O(n − 1)) → H ⊗ H
1
(O(n)) which is equivalent to the indecomposable Kmodule
A
−n−1
3
. Thus for any negative vector bundle G we obtain a Kmodule which we call
ξ
−
G.
Comparing the classiﬁcations of indecomposable sheaves and Kmodules (Theorems
4.4.2 and 4.5.1), it is clear that these categories are equivalent. Quillen proves this in
detail [Q, ¸¸4,5] and uses the tensor product of sheaves F⊗
O
G to construct an equivalent
tensor product operation for Kmodules [Q, ¸6].
The rest of the programme begins to take shape. Some sheaves will correspond to SK
modules, from which we obtain SHmodules. Quillen formulates this slightly diﬀerently
from our treatment in Section 4.4. Let W → H ⊗ V be a Kmodule. Instead of a
real structure on W and a quaternionic structure on V , Quillen uses Kmodules with
a quaternionic structure σ
W
on W and a real structure σ
V
on V , such that the map
e intertwines σ
W
and σ
H
⊗ σ
V
. In this situation, W and H ⊗ V are Hmodules and
e is an Hlinear map. He calls this structure a σKmodule. A σKmodule is not itself
an SHmodule, but the inclusion of the real subspace V
σ
in the cokernel (H ⊗ V )/W
is an SHmodule if the Kmodule has no submodule for which the map e is surjective,
in which case the Kmodule is called reduced.
There is a parallel description in terms of sheaves. Let σ : z → ¯ z
−1
be the antipodal
map on the Riemann sphere. This induces a map of sheaves σ
∗
: F → σ
∗
(F) which
we call the σtransform, and allows us to deﬁne a ‘ σinvariant sheaf’ or just ‘ σsheaf’.
For example, a torsion sheaf F is a σsheaf if it is supported at a ﬁnite set of points
which is preserved by the antipodal map σ — so it must consist of sheaves of the
form O/m
n
z
⊕O/m
n
σ(z)
, where σ
∗
interchanges the two summands. Quillen investigates
σsheaves thoroughly, and discovers that:
58
Proposition 4.5.3 [Q, 10.7] Any σsheaf splits with unique multiplicities into the fol
lowing irreducible σsheaves:
(1) O/(m
z
m
σ(z)
)
n
for any pair ¦z, σ(z)¦ of antipodal points and n ≥ 1.
(2) O(2m) for m ∈ Z.
(3) O(2m + 1) ⊗H for m ∈ Z.
The formal similarity between this result and Corollary 4.4.6 is clear. He also proves
that:
Proposition 4.5.4 [Q, 12.6] The categories of reduced σKmodules and SHmodules are
equivalent.
We can also use σsheaves to obtain SKmodules which lead directly to SHmodules.
Example 4.5.5 Let F be a regular σsheaf. Then we have the exact sequence
0 →H
0
(F) →H ⊗H
0
(F(1)) →H
0
(F(2)) →0, (4.13)
and H
0
(F) →H ⊗H
0
(F(1)) is an SKmodule e : W →H ⊗V . Taking real subspaces
gives an SHmodule which we call η
+
(F).
Example 4.5.6 Let G be a negative σvector bundle with no summand H ⊗ O(−1)
or O(−2). Then we have the exact sequence
0 →H
1
(G) →H ⊗H
1
(G(1)) →H
1
(G(2)) →0, (4.14)
Just as in the previous example, this sequence gives an SKmodule
H
1
(G) →H ⊗H
1
(G(1)). (4.15)
We call this SHmodule η
−
(G). We also deﬁne η
−
(O(−2)) = η
−
(H ⊗O(−1)) = 0.
If we have a σsheaf A = F+G, with F and G as above, then H
0
(G) = H
0
(G(1)) =
0 and H
1
(F) = H
1
(F(1)) = 0 ; so η
+
(G) = η
−
(F) = 0. In theory, we could combine
the functors η
+
and η
−
into a single functor η = η
+
+η
−
, since η(A) = η
+
(F) +η
−
(G)
as required.
4.5.2 Sheaves and the Quaternionic Tensor Product
We have seen how the tensor product of sheaves encourages us to deﬁne a ‘reduced
tensor product’ operation for Kmodules. It turns out that this tensor product agrees
remarkably with the quaternionic tensor product for SHmodules. This is a considerable
bonus from Quillen’s theory — the correspondences between σsheaves, SKmodules and
SHmodules allow us to compute tensor products in each category. The main theorem
is as follows:
Theorem 4.5.7 [Q, 7.1]
5
5
Quillen proves this theorem for the tensor product of Kmodules — the version given here is obtained
by performing the simple translation into SHmodules.
59
Let F
i
be regular σsheaves and G
i
be negative σvector bundles. Then
η
+
F
1
⊗
H
η
+
F
2
= η
+
(F
1
⊗
O
F
2
),
η
+
F
1
⊗
H
η
−
G
1
= η
−
(F
1
⊗
O
G
1
)
and
η
−
G
1
⊗
H
η
−
G
2
= ¦0¦.
Since we will usually work with AHmodules, we will often ﬁnd ourselves using this
theorem for the corresponding AHmodules, which of course take the form (η
+
F)
×
and
(η
−
G)
×
.
Thus if F is a torsion σsheaf and G is a negative σ vector bundle, (η
+
F)
×
⊗
H
(η
−
G)
×
= ¦0¦. If F = O(m) and G = O(n) (possibly tensored with H if m or n is
odd) with m ≥ 0 and n < −2 then
(η
+
F)
×
⊗
H
(η
−
G)
×
=
_
0 m + n ≥ −2
η
−
(F ⊗
O
G)
×
m + n ≤ −3
since η
−
(O(k)) = ¦0¦ for k ≥ −2.
The sheaftheoretic approach is thus a very powerful tool for describing quaternionic
algebra. For example, it is possible to obtain the dimension theorems of Section 4.1.3
by translating known results about the degree and rank of the tensor product of two
sheaves.
60
Chapter 5
Quaternionic Algebra and
Sp(1)representations
The representations of the group Sp(1) occur in so many diﬀerent situations, from K¨ ahler
geometry to particle physics, that they are by far the most ubiquitous Lie group rep
resentations in modern mathematical literature. Given this versatility, it is no surprise
that these representations are a powerful tool in quaternionic algebra, especially since
Sp(1) is just the group of unit quaternions and the Lie algebra sp(1) can be identiﬁed
with I.
In this chapter, we will see how stable and antistable AHmodules can be handled
using Sp(1)representations. We encountered the germ of this idea in Section 3.4, where
we came across the space H ⊗ E
k,r
and its splitting into two Hsubmodules. Because
the Riemann sphere CP
1
can be described as the homogeneous space Sp(1)/U(1), the
holomorphic sections of line bundles over CP
1
are naturally Sp(1)representations. The
structure maps necessary to deﬁne an SKmodule e : W → H ⊗ V of type (ii) or (iii)
arise from Sp(1)representations on W, H and V . Not only do Sp(1)representations
underlie all of these phenomena — they also make the theory of quaternionic algebra
very easy to predict and manipulate.
This point of view turns out to have fruitful applications in hypercomplex geometry,
towards which our exposition is deliberately geared. We use representations to explain
the structure of stable AHmodules and their tensor products. We also investigate the
role of semistable AHmodules and their interaction with the Sp(1)representation struc
ture of stable AHmodules.
5.1 Stable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations
5.1.1 Sp(1)representations on the quaternions
As a motivating example, we review the case of the quaternions themselves, viewed as the
stable AHmodule (H, I). Recall the description of the quaternions as a tensor product
of two Sp(1)representations H
∼
= V
1
⊗V
1
, given in Equation (3.17), where the left hand
61
copy of V
1
gives the left Haction, and the righthand copy gives the right Haction.
1
In other words, we think of H as an Sp(1) Sp(1)representation by deﬁning
(p, q) : r →prq
−1
r ∈ H, p, q ∈ Sp(1) ⊂ H.
Consider now the action of the diagonal Sp(1)subgroup ¦(q, q) : q ∈ Sp(1)¦ ⊂
Sp(1) Sp(1) on V
1
⊗ V
1
. The ClebschGordon formula gives the splitting V
1
⊗ V
1
∼
=
V
2
⊕V
0
(equivalent to the standard isomorphism V ⊗V
∼
= S
2
V ⊕Λ
2
V ). Each of these
summands inherits a real structure from the real structure on V
1
⊗V
1
so we obtain the
splitting
V
1
⊗V
1
∼
= V
2
⊕V
0
(5.1)
into real subspaces of dimensions three and one respectively, just as we would expect.
This is the same as taking the action by conjugation r → qrq
−1
, which as we know
preserves the splitting H
∼
= I ⊕R. For the quaternions, the AHmodule structure H
∼
= I
and (H
†
)
∗
∼
= R is a concept which arises naturally when we take both the Sp(1) actions
into account. It is this account of the AHmodule H which we will generalise to all stable
AHmodules.
This description of the quaternions is very similar to that of Example 4.4.5, where
H
∼
= A
2
2
. In terms of Sp(1)actions, the basic vector space H we used so much in the
previous chapter is simply a copy of the basic representation V
1
.
5.1.2 Notation for Several Sp(1)representations
It will be a sound investment at this point to introduce some notation to help us keep
track of the structure of representations when we have several copies of Sp(1) acting on
a vector space. We have already encountered the action of Sp(1) Sp(1) on V
1
⊗ V
1
.
Here we have two copies of Sp(1) acting, so there is already the possibility of ambiguity
concerning which Sp(1) is acting on which V
1
. We remove this ambiguity by writing
uppercase superscripts with the groups and the representations, to make it clear which
group is acting on which vector space.
For left Hmodules there will always be a left Haction to consider. We will denote
this by V
L
1
, and the copy of Sp(1) which acts on this factor by Sp(1)
L
. Other copies of
Sp(1) and other representations will be labelled with the letters M, N etc. So we would
write the above example as
Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
acting on V
L
1
⊗V
M
1
.
When we decompose such a representation using the ClebschGordon formula, we
are decomposing the action of the diagonal subgroup ¦(q, q)¦ ⊂ Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
. We
will call this subgroup Sp(1)
LM
, thus stating explicitly of which two groups this is the
diagonal subgroup. Similarly, we can combine superscripts for the representations to
write
V
L
1
⊗V
M
1
∼
= V
LM
2
⊕V
LM
0
.
1
We are talking about the representation V
1
⊗ V
1
as a real representation on R
4
, implicitly using
the induced map σ
1
⊗σ
1
as a real structure on V
1
⊗V
1
. For more details, refer to Section 1.2.1.
62
This bookkeeping comes into its own when we come to consider tensor products of
many Sp(1)representations. For example, if we have three copies of Sp(1) acting, we
write this as
Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
Sp(1)
N
acting on V
L
1
⊗V
M
j
⊗V
N
k
.
In this situation there are various diagonal actions we could be interested in, and we
can join the superscripts as above to indicate exactly which one we are considering. For
example, supposing we want to restrict to the diagonal subgroup in the ﬁrst two copies of
Sp(1), i.e. ¦(q, q)¦ Sp(1)
N
. We denote this subgroup Sp(1)
LM
Sp(1)
N
. We combine
superscripts for the representations in the same way, so that we now have
Sp(1)
LM
Sp(1)
N
acting on (V
LM
j+1
⊕V
LM
j−1
) ⊗V
N
k
.
If, however, we considered the diagonal subgroup of the ﬁrst and last copies of Sp(1), we
would write this as
Sp(1)
LN
Sp(1)
M
acting on (V
LN
k+1
⊕V
LN
k−1
) ⊗V
M
j
.
This provides an unambiguous and (it is hoped) easy way to understand tensor prod
ucts of several representations and their decompositions into irreducibles under diﬀerent
diagonal actions.
5.1.3 Irreducible stable AHmodules
We have described the quaternions as an Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
representation. This allows
us to interpret the primed part H
∼
= I as a representation of the diagonal subgroup
of Sp(1)
LM
⊂ Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
. In this section we will demonstrate how this idea can
be adapted to describe more general stable AHmodules. The basic idea is exactly the
same — a stable AHmodule is a (real) Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
representation V
L
1
⊗ W
M
,
where W
M
=
k
1
a
j
V
M
j
. The left Haction is given by the action of the left subgroup
Sp(1)
L
⊂ Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
. The primed part is then a representation of the diagonal
subgroup Sp(1)
LM
⊂ Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
.
Let (U, U
) be an irreducible stable (or antistable) AHmodule. Let M be the group
of AHautomorphisms of U whose (real) determinant is equal to 1. Using Theorem
4.2.9, we see that M = ±1 if the virtual dimension U is 1, and M
∼
= Sp(1) if the
virtual dimension of U is 2.
Consider now the more general group G of real linear isomorphisms φ : U →U such
that:
• φ(U
) = U
,
• The (real) determinant of φ is 1,
• There exists some q ∈ Sp(1) such that φ(pu) = (qpq
−1
)φ(u) for all p ∈ H, u ∈ U.
Then G is a compact Lie group of which M is a normal subgroup. Because of this the
Lie algebra of G splits into two orthogonal ideals
g = sp(1) ⊕m
63
and the exponential map determines a homomorphism ρ : Sp(1) →G. Since the elements
of G map U
to itself, ρ is a representation of Sp(1) on U
.
Since every stable AHmodule is a sum of such irreducibles, there is an action of
Sp(1) on U
for all stable AHmodules U, and the irreducible decomposition of U as
an AHmodule determines the irreducible decomposition of the Sp(1)action on U
, and
vice versa. As we shall see, there is a unique irreducible stable AHmodule for each
irreducible Sp(1)representation.
Let U be a stable AHmodule and suppose that U
is preserved by some diagonal
action of Sp(1). This diagonal action will be the result of the left Haction on V
1
and
some other Sp(1)action on U. Thus our AHmodules will follow the basic form
U = V
L
1
⊗V
M
m
(5.2)
as a representation of the group Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
. The primed part of U is then the
V
LM
n+1
summand in the decomposition
V
L
1
⊗V
M
n
∼
= V
LM
n+1
⊕V
LM
n−1
.
For example, recall the splitting
H⊗E
k,r
∼
= V
1
⊗ε
n
k,r
(V
r+1
⊕V
r−1
)
from Section 3.4. We see that each of these summands is an AHsubmodule of H⊗E
k,r
.
The larger (lefthand) submodule is stable; the smaller one is antistable. Both stable
and antistable AHmodules arise as Sp(1) Sp(1)representations.
This is not necessarily the case for AHmodules which are neither stable nor anti
stable. For example, there is no representation of Sp(1) on X
q
which couples with the
left Haction to give a representation of Sp(1) on X
q
.
AHmodules of the form V
1
⊗V
2m−1
Consider an evendimensional irreducible Sp(1)representation V
2m−1
. Because σ =
σ
1
⊗ σ
2m−1
is a real structure, there is a real representation V
L
1
⊗ V
M
2m−1
∼
= R
4m
with
a left Haction deﬁned by q : a ⊗ b → (qa) ⊗ b. Under the diagonal Sp(1)
LM
action
q : a ⊗b →(qa) ⊗(qb), we have the splitting
V
L
1
⊗V
M
2m−1
∼
= V
LM
2m
⊕V
LM
2m−2
, (5.3)
which is a splitting of real vector spaces (technically we could write (V
L
1
⊗ V
M
2m−1
)
σ
∼
=
(V
LM
2m
)
σ
⊕(V
LM
2m−2
)
σ
).
Proposition 5.1.1 The pair (V
L
1
⊗ V
M
2m−1
, V
LM
2m
) forms a stable AHmodule (U, U
)
with U
∼
= H
m
and U
∼
= R
2m+1
.
Proof. Consider the maximal stable submodule W of U. Since W is an Hsubmodule
it must be invariant under the left Haction. Also, W must depend solely on the
Sp(1) Sp(1)representation structure: in particular W
must be preserved by the
diagonal action. So W
must be an Sp(1)
LM
invariant subspace of U
= V
2m
and
by Schur’s Lemma [FH, p.7] W
= V
2m
or W
= ¦0¦. Since dimU
>
1
2
dimU we must
have W ,= ¦0¦. Hence (W, W
) = (U, U
) and thus U is stable.
64
Lemma 5.1.2 The AHmodule U = V
1
⊗ V
2m−1
is the irreducible stable AHmodule
corresponding to the SKmodule A
2m
2
.
Proof. This follows from Proposition 5.1.1 and the remarks in Section 4.4. The virtual
dimension of U is 1, from which it follows that U must be irreducible. The isomorphism
with A
2m
2
follows because irreducible stable AHmodules are uniquely determined by
their dimensions.
It is instructive to describe the splitting of V
1
⊗V
2m−1
thoroughly in terms of basis
vectors. To make statements less cumbersome, we let n = 2m−1 throughout, bearing
in mind that n is odd.
Let V
1
= ¸x, y) and V
n
= ¸a
n
, a
n−1
b, . . . , ab
n−1
, b
n
) be Sp(1)representations. The
actions of sl(2, C) on V
1
and V
n
are given by Equations (1.14) and (1.16) of Section
(1.2.1). We want to understand the actions on the tensor product
V
1
⊗V
n
=
_
x ⊗a
n
, x ⊗a
n−1
b, . . . , x ⊗ab
n−1
, x ⊗b
n
y ⊗a
n
, y ⊗a
n−1
b, . . . , y ⊗ab
n−1
, y ⊗b
n
_
.
In particular, we would like to ﬁnd out how the left Haction interacts with the splitting
V
1
⊗V
n
∼
= V
n+1
⊕V
n−1
.
Consider the structure of A
2m
2
as a Kmodule e : W →H ⊗V , where H
∼
= V
1
and
V
∼
= V
n
. Using these isomorphisms and Theorem 4.4.2, the image e(W) is spanned by
the vectors
¦x⊗a
n
, x⊗a
n−1
b+y⊗a
n
, . . . , x⊗a
n−k
b
k
+y⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
, . . . , x⊗b
n
+y⊗ab
n−1
, y⊗b
n
¦.
It is easier to observe the sp(1) action on the complementary subspace which we can
identify as the U
†
part of an SHmodule. Given a suitable choice of metric, the perpen
dicular subspace to e(W) is spanned by vectors of the form x⊗a
n−k
b
k
−y⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
.
Calculating the action of the Casimir operator C = H
2
+ 2XY + 2Y X reveals that
C(x ⊗a
n−k
b
k
−y ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
) = (n + 1)(n −1)(x ⊗a
n−k
b
k
−y ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
).
This shows that x ⊗a
n−k
b
k
−y ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
∈ V
n−1
, giving the result that
V
n−1
= Span¦x ⊗a
n−k
b
k
−y ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
: 1 ≤ k ≤ n¦. (5.4)
The subspaces e(W) and e(W)
⊥
of the SKmodule H ⊗ V are thus equivalent to the
subspaces V
n+1
and V
n−1
respectively in the splitting V
1
⊗V
n
∼
= V
n+1
⊕V
n−1
.
The SKmodule structure maps σ
W
and σ
V
are exactly the standard real structure
σ
n−1
and the quaternionic structure σ
n
introduced in Section 1.2.1. The Haction is as
usual determined by the action of sp(1) on x and y using the correspondence
1 ←→x i
1
←→ix i
2
←→y i
3
←→−iy.
This formalism enables us to write out the structure of V
1
⊗V
n
as an Hmodule in the
same fashion as in Example 4.4.5.
65
AHmodules of the form V
1
⊗V
2m
We can also obtain a stable AHmodule from an odddimensional irreducible
Sp(1)representation V
2m
∼
= C
2m+1
. If we take the tensor product V
L
1
⊗ V
M
2m
∼
= C
4m+2
we obtain the splitting V
L
1
⊗V
M
2m
∼
= V
LM
2m+1
⊕V
LM
2m−1
and a left Haction in the same way
as above. However this does not restrict to an Haction on any suitable real vector space
U such that U ⊗
R
C = V
1
⊗V
2m
(this is obviously impossible since R
4m+2
,
∼
= H
k
for any
k ). The reason for this is that the structure map σ
1
⊗σ
2m
has square −1 instead of 1,
and so V
L
1
⊗V
M
2m
is a quaternionic rather than a real representation of Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
.
There are two ways round this diﬃculty. Firstly, we could simply take the underlying
real vector space R
8m+4
∼
= V
1
⊗ V
2m
to be an Hmodule. Secondly, we can tensor with
H
∼
= C
2
equipped with its standard structure map. The vector space H is unaﬀected
by the Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
action; thus we can think of V
L
1
⊗V
M
2m
⊗H as a direct sum of
two copies of V
L
1
⊗V
M
2m
, which we write 2V
L
1
⊗V
M
2m
. This space comes equipped with a
real structure σ = σ
1
⊗σ
2m
⊗σ
H
, and so we have a stable AHmodule
((2V
L
1
⊗V
M
2m
)
σ
, (2V
LM
2m+1
)
σ
). (5.5)
(As usual, once the correct structure maps have been speciﬁed, we will not usually
mention the σsuperscript.) This approach is the equivalent of dealing with SKmodules
of the form A
2m+1
k=2,3
⊗H and the σsheaves O(2m + 1) ⊗H.
Both these approaches give exactly the same AHmodule; both eﬀectively leave the
Sp(1) Sp(1)representation V
1
⊗V
2m
untouched, whilst doubling the dimension of the
real vector space we are considering so that it is divisible by four.
5.1.4 General Stable and Antistable AHmodules
Deﬁnition 5.1.3 Let U
2n
denote the AHmodule (V
L
1
⊗V
M
2n+1
, V
LM
2n+2
).
Let U
2n−1
denote the AHmodule (2V
L
1
⊗V
M
2n
, 2V
LM
2n+1
).
The AHmodule U
2n
corresponds to the SKmodule A
2n+2
2
and the σsheaf O(2n).
The AHmodule U
2n−1
corresponds to the SKmodule A
2n+1
2
⊗H and the σsheaf
O(2n −1) ⊗H.
By analogy with the quaternions themselves, we will refer to the action of the ‘left’
subgroup Sp(1)
L
on V
1
as the left Haction, and the action of the ‘right’ subgroup
Sp(1)
M
on V
n
as the Sp(1)
M
action. (This could also be taken to signify ‘module’
action.) We will often omit the superscripts L and M from expressions like V
L
1
⊗V
M
n
if the context leaves no ambiguity as to which group acts on what. Thus we write
U
n
= aV
1
⊗V
n+1
,
where a = 1 if n is even and a = 2 if n is odd.
This formulation allows us to see the relationship between stable AH and SHmodules
very explicitly. The AHmodule U
n
= aV
1
⊗V
n+1
splits as a(V
n+2
⊕V
n
). We can choose
to regard this as a stable AHmodule by thinking of aV
n+2
as the ‘primed part’, or as a
stable SHmodule by regarding aV
n
as the ‘generating real subspace’.
The classiﬁcation results of Sections 4.4 and 4.5 allow us to state the following theo
rem:
66
Theorem 5.1.4 Every stable AHmodule can be written as a direct sum of the irre
ducibles U
n
with unique multiplicities.
Consider the direct sum U =
n
j=0
a
j
U
j
. We can write U more explicitly in terms
of Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
M
representations, as the sum
U = V
L
1
⊗
_
m
j=1
V
M
2j+1
⊕2
n
k=1
V
M
2k
_
. (5.6)
The left Haction on V
L
1
is common to all the irreducibles. The Sp(1)
M
action can
be much more complicated. However, we know that since Sp(1) is a compact group, any
such representation can be written as a sum of irreducibles with unique multiplicities.
Having done this, it is then easy to separate these representations to form separate AH
modules, provided that each odddimensional representation V
M
2k
appears with even
multiplicity. Thus the following is equivalent to Theorem 5.1.4:
Theorem 5.1.5 To every stable AHmodule (U, U
) can be attached an Sp(1)
M
action
which intertwines with the left Haction in such a way that the diagonal Sp(1)
LM
action
preserves U
.
In the decomposition of Equation (5.6), each irreducible subrepresentation of the
Sp(1)
M
action contributes 1 to the virtual dimension of U. Thus the virtual dimension
of
n
j=0
c
j
U
j
is equal to
j even
c
j
+ 2
j odd
c
j
.
Antistable AHmodules
Let U
n
= aV
1
⊗ V
n+1
be a stable AHmodule. Then its dual AHmodule U
×
n
is an
antistable AHmodule. Just like stable SHmodules, antistable AHmodules are formed
by taking the smaller summand in the splitting aV
1
⊗V
n+1
= a(V
n+2
⊕V
n
). The following
Lemma then follows immediately from Deﬁnition 5.1.3.
Lemma 5.1.6 The antistable AHmodule U
×
2n
takes the form (V
L
1
⊗V
M
2n+1
, V
LM
2n
).
The antistable AHmodule U
×
2n−1
takes the form (2V
L
1
⊗V
M
2n
, 2V
LM
2n−1
).
The AHmodule U
×
2n
corresponds to the SKmodule A
2n+2
3
and the σsheaf O(−2n−
4). The AHmodule U
×
2n−1
corresponds to the SKmodule A
2n+1
3
⊗H and the σsheaf
O(−2n − 3) ⊗ H. There is a ‘unique factorisation theorem’ for antistable AHmodules
which is exactly dual to Theorem 5.1.4.
5.1.5 Line Bundles over CP
1
and Sp(1)representations
There is naturally a link between Sp(1)representations and the cohomology groups of
vector bundles over CP
1
. In Section 4.5.1 we demonstrated that H
0
(O(n))
∼
= S
n
(H),
where H
∼
= C
2
is the basic representation of GL(2,C). From the inclusion SL(2,C) ⊂
GL(2,C), H is also the basic representation V
1
of SL(2,C) and therefore Sp(1). The
67
induced action of Sp(1) on S
n
(H) is by deﬁnition the irreducible representation V
n
.
Thus the cohomology groups of line bundles over CP
1
are Sp(1)representations; we
have
H
0
(O(n))
∼
= V
n
and H
1
(O(−n))
∼
= V
n−2
. (5.7)
The exact sequence (4.11) of Section 4.5.1 is thus the same as the exact sequence
0 −→V
n−1
−→V
1
⊗V
n
∼
= V
n−1
⊕V
n+1
−→V
n+1
−→0. (5.8)
The fact that the cohomology groups of line bundles over CP
1
have the structure
of irreducible Sp(1)representations is already known in the context of the theory of
homogeneous spaces. Let G be a compact Lie group and let T be a maximal toral
subgroup. Then the homogeneous space G/T has a homogeneous complex structure.
(This famous result is due to Borel.) The right action of T on G gives G the structure
of a principal Tbundle over G/T. Let t be the Lie algebra of T, so that t is a
Cartan subalgebra of g. For each dominant weight λ ∈ t
∗
there is a onedimensional
representation C
λ
of T. The holomorphic line bundle associated to the principal bundle
G and the representation λ is then
L
λ
= G
T
C
λ
= (GC
λ
)/¦(g, v) ∼ (gt, t
−1
v), t ∈ T¦.
Since G acts on L
λ
, the cohomology groups of L
λ
are naturally representations of G.
For more information see [FH, p. 382393].
In the case of the group Sp(1), each maximal torus is isomorphic to U(1), and the
homogeneous space Sp(1)/U(1)
∼
= CP
1
is the Hopf ﬁbration S
1
→ S
3
→ S
2
. The line
bundle Sp(1)
U(1)
C
λ
is then L
−λ
, where L is the hyperplane section bundle of CP
1
.
5.2 Sp(1)Representations and the Quaternionic Ten
sor Product
This section describes the quaternionic algebra of stable and antistable AHmodules
using the ideas of the previous section.
5.2.1 The inclusion map ι
U
(U)
We begin by discussing the map ι
U
and its image. Let U
n
be an irreducible stable
AHmodule. Then
U
n
= a(V
L
1
⊗V
M
n+1
), U
n
= aV
LM
n+2
and U
†
n
∼
= (U
†
n
)
∗
= aV
LM
n
.
There is an injective map ι
U
n
: U
n
→H⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
. This map has a natural interpretation
in terms of the Sp(1)representations involved. Writing the quaternions as the stable
AHmodule V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
, we have
H⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗aV
N
n
.
68
This is exactly like the motivating example of H ⊗ E
k,r
in Section 3.4. Leaving the
leftaction untouched and taking the diagonal Sp(1)
RN
action gives the isomorphism
H⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= V
L
1
⊗a(V
RN
n+1
⊕V
RN
n−1
) (5.9)
as an Sp(1) Sp(1)representation. The AHsubmodule ι
U
n
(U
n
) is clearly the V
L
1
⊗
aV
RN
n+1
subrepresentation of H⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
.
Antistable AHmodules behave in a similar fashion. Consider the AHmodule U
×
n
,
so that
U
×
n
= a(V
L
1
⊗V
M
n+1
), (U
×
n
)
= aV
LM
n
and (U
×
n
)
†
∼
= ((U
×
n
)
†
)
∗
= aV
LM
n+2
.
There is a similar splitting
H⊗((U
×
n
)
†
)
∗
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗aV
N
n+2
∼
= V
L
1
⊗a(V
RN
n+3
⊕V
RN
n+1
).
This time, the AHsubmodule ι
U
×
n
(U
×
n
) is the smaller AHsubmodule V
L
1
⊗aV
RN
n+1
. Thus
the splitting
H⊗aV
N
n
∼
= aV
L
1
⊗(V
RN
n+1
⊕V
RN
n−1
) (5.10)
splits H ⊗ aV
n
into the direct sum of a stable AHmodule isomorphic to U
n
and an
antistable AHmodule isomorphic to U
×
n−2
.
The subspaces ι
U
n
(U
n
) and ι
U
×
n
((U
×
n
)
) have a similar interpretation. Treating the
imaginary quaternions I as a copy of V
LR
2
, we have
I ⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= V
LR
2
⊗aV
N
n
∼
= a(V
LRN
n+2
⊕V
LRN
n
⊕V
LRN
n−2
).
and ι
U
n
(U
n
) is the aV
n+2
subrepresentation of I ⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
. In exactly the same way, for
U
×
n
we have
I ⊗((U
×
n
)
†
)
∗
∼
= V
LR
2
⊗aV
N
n+2
∼
= a(V
LRN
n+4
⊕V
LRN
n+2
⊕V
LRN
n
).
In this case, ι
U
×
n
((U
×
n
)
) is the smallest subrepresentation aV
LRN
n
. This also shows why
we would not expect U
to be closed under the left Haction — the group Sp(1)
L
does
not act upon it, since we do not have an intact copy of V
L
1
.
It is worth noting that so far we have been able consistently to interpret stable AH
modules and their subspaces as representations of highest weight in tensor products of
Sp(1)representations, and antistable AHmodules and their subspaces as representations
of lowest weight.
5.2.2 Tensor products of stable AHmodules
We shall now see how to use our description of stable AHmodules to form the quater
nionic tensor product. The results in this section can be obtained through Quillen’s
sheaftheoretic version of AHmodules by using Theorem 4.5.7. However, the author
hopes that including a little more description will help the reader to get more of a feel
for what is going on.
Let U
m
= aV
1
⊗V
m+1
, U
n
= bV
1
⊗V
n+1
be stable AHmodules. By Deﬁnition 4.1.4,
U
m
⊗
H
U
n
= (ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
) ∩ ((U
†
m
)
∗
⊗ι
U
n
(U
n
)) ⊂ H⊗(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
.
69
In terms of Sp(1)representations,
H⊗(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗aV
P
m
⊗bV
Q
n
. (5.11)
Using Equation (5.9), we write ι
U
m
(U
m
)
∼
= aV
L
1
⊗ V
RP
m+1
⊂ V
L
1
⊗ a(V
RP
m+1
⊕ V
RP
m−1
)
∼
=
H⊗(U
†
m
)
∗
. Tensoring this expression with (U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= bV
Q
n
gives
ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= a(V
L
1
⊗V
RP
m+1
) ⊗bV
Q
n
. (5.12)
In the same way, we form the isomorphism
(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗ι
U
n
(U
n
)
∼
= aV
P
m
⊗b(V
L
1
⊗V
RQ
n+1
). (5.13)
A rearrangement of the factors leaves us considering the spaces abV
L
1
⊗ V
RP
m+1
⊗ V
Q
n
and abV
L
1
⊗ V
P
m
⊗ V
RQ
n+1
. We now have an Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
RP
Sp(1)
Q
representation
and an Sp(1)
L
Sp(1)
P
Sp(1)
RQ
representation. From these we want to obtain a
single Sp(1) Sp(1)representation which leaves the left Haction intact. The way to
proceed is to leave the V
L
1
factor in each of these expressions alone and consider the
representations of the diagonal subgroup Sp(1)
RPQ
. We examine the factors
V
RP
m+1
⊗ V
Q
n
and V
P
m
⊗ V
RQ
n+1
. To obtain a stable AHmodule, we want to reduce these
two Sp(1) Sp(1)representations to a single Sp(1)representation. In so doing, we hope
to ﬁnd the intersection of these two spaces.
This is summed up in the following diagram:
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
ds
d
d
d
d
d
d
d
ds
U
m
⊗
H
U
n
∼
= abV
L
1
⊗(
V
RPQ
?
)
ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= V
L
1
⊗aV
RP
m+1
⊗bV
Q
n
(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗ι
U
n
(U
n
)
∼
= aV
P
m
⊗V
L
1
⊗bV
RQ
n−1
H⊗(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗aV
P
m
⊗bV
Q
n
c
U
m
⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
=
c
(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗U
n
∼
=
The upward arrows here are inclusion maps. The argument goes in the opposite direction,
as we restrict our attention to particular subspaces. If we go down the left hand side, we
consider the diagonal action of the subgroup Sp(1)
RP
, and restrict to the higher weight
subspace ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗ (U
†
n
)
∗
. We then consider the action of Sp(1)
RPQ
on this. If on
the other hand we go down the right hand side, we consider the diagonal action of the
70
subgroup Sp(1)
RQ
, restrict to the higher weight subspace (U
†
m
)
∗
⊗ ι
U
n
(U
n
), and then
consider the action of Sp(1)
RPQ
on this. At each ‘halfway stage’ we are considering
representations of diagonal subgroups of diﬀerent pairs of groups, and in both cases we
take the higher weight representation in a sum V
k+1
⊕V
k−1
and discard the V
k−1
part.
Since we do this for diﬀerent diagonal subgroups we expect to be left with diﬀerent
subspaces.
Using the ClebschGordon formula, we obtain the two decompositions
V
RP
m+1
⊗V
Q
n
∼
=
min{m+1,n}
j=0
V
RPQ
m+1+n−2j
and V
P
m
⊗V
RQ
n+1
∼
=
min{m,n+1}
j=0
V
PRQ
m+n+1−2j
.
These decompositions contain fairly similar summands, with diﬀerences arising as the
index j approaches the region of min¦m, n¦. However, just because we have two
Sp(1)
RPQ
representations of the same weight, we cannot say that they are automati
cally the same subspace of H ⊗ (U
†
)
∗
⊗ (V
†
)
∗
. We want to know which parts end up
contributing to the ﬁnal Sp(1)
RPQ
representation whichever path we take. This will
identify the subspace U
m
⊗
H
U
n
⊆ H⊗(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
.
One thing that we can guarantee for any m, n > 0 is that the representation with
highest weight will be the same in both cases — both expressions have leading summand
V
m+n+1
. We conjecture that this is the summand which we ﬁnd in U
m
⊗
H
U
n
. This would
ﬁt well with the observation that stable AHmodules arise as representations of highest
weight in decompositions of tensor products of Sp(1)representations.
We will show that this is in fact the case, using Joyce’s dimension formulae for stable
AHmodules. Here is the main result of this section:
Theorem 5.2.1 Let U
m
, U
n
be irreducible stable AHmodules. If m or n is even then
U
m
⊗
H
U
n
∼
= U
m+n
.
If m and n are both odd then
U
m
⊗
H
U
n
∼
= 4U
m+n
.
Proof. We have already noted that each irreducible representation of the Sp(1)
M
action
on a stable AHmodule U contributes 1 to the virtual dimension of U. Thus any
stable AHmodule of virtual dimension k must be a sum of at least k/2 and at most k
irreducibles, depending on whether the irreducibles are odd or even.
We will deal with the three possible cases in turn.
Case 1( m and n both even): Let m = 2p, n = 2q. Then
dimU
m
= 4(p + 1) dimU
m
= 2p + 3 dimU
n
= 4(q + 1) and dimU
n
= 2q + 3.
Using Theorem 4.1.14 we ﬁnd that dimU
m
⊗
H
U
n
= 4(p + q + 1) and that the virtual
dimension of U
m
⊗
H
U
n
is equal to 1. But any stable AHmodule whose virtual dimension
is equal to 1 must be irreducible. The irreducible stable AHmodule whose dimension
71
is 4(p + q + 1) and whose virtual dimension is 1 is V
1
⊗ V
2(p+q)+1
= U
m+n
. Hence
U
m
⊗
H
U
n
= U
m+n
.
Case 2( m even and n odd): Let m = 2p, n = 2q −1. Then
dimU
m
= 4(p + 1) dimU
m
= 2p + 3 dimU
n
= 4(2q + 1) and dimU
n
= 4(q + 1).
Using Theorem 4.1.14 we ﬁnd that dimU
m
⊗
H
U
n
= 4(2p + 2q + 1) and that the virtual
dimension of U
m
⊗
H
U
n
is equal to 2. Thus U
m
⊗
H
U
n
must be either an even irreducible
or a sum of two odd irreducibles.
Consider the space ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= a(V
L
1
⊗V
RP
m+1
) ⊗bV
Q
n
of Equation (5.12). For
m = 2p and n = 2q −1 this becomes
2V
L
1
⊗V
RP
2p+1
⊗V
Q
2q−1
∼
= V
L
1
⊗2(V
RPQ
2p+2q
⊕V
RPQ
2p+2q−2
⊕. . .) (5.14)
The virtual dimension of the tensor product U
m
⊗
H
U
n
must be equal to 2, so we cannot
have more than 2 of the irreducibles of the Sp(1)
RPQ
action. We also need a total
dimension of 4(2p + 2q + 1). Examining Equation (5.14) we see that the only way this
can occur is if U
m
⊗
H
U
n
∼
= V
1
⊗ 2V
2p+2q
, as all the other irreducibles of the Sp(1)
RPQ

action have smaller dimension. Hence U
m
⊗
H
U
n
∼
= 2V
1
⊗V
2p+2q
= U
m+n
.
Case 3 ( m and n both odd): The argument is very similar to that of Case 2.
Let m = 2p −1, n = 2q −1. Then
dimU
m
= 4(2p+1) dimU
m
= 4(p+1) dimU
n
= 4(2q +1) and dimU
n
= 4(q +1).
Using Theorem 4.1.14 we ﬁnd that dimU
m
⊗
H
U
n
= 16(p + q) and that the virtual
dimension of U
m
⊗
H
U
n
is equal to 4.
Consider the space ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗(U
†
n
)
∗
∼
= a(V
L
1
⊗V
RP
m+1
) ⊗bV
Q
n
of Equation (5.12). For
m = 2p −1 and n = 2q −1 this becomes
4V
L
1
⊗V
RP
2p
⊗V
Q
2q−1
∼
= V
L
1
⊗4(V
RPQ
2p+2q−1
⊕V
RPQ
2p+2q−3
+ . . .). (5.15)
The only way U
m
⊗
H
U
n
can have a virtual dimension of four and a total dimension of
16(p + q) is if U
m
⊗
H
U
n
∼
= 4V
1
⊗V
2p+2q−1
= 4U
m+n
.
Quaternionic tensor products of more general stable AHmodules can be computed
from this result by splitting into irreducibles and using the fact that the quaternionic
tensor product is distributive for direct sums.
This result is parallel to Theorem 4.5.7 applied to nonnegative vector bundles. For
the canonical sheaves O(n) over CP
1
, H
0
(O(n))
∼
= V
n
. The isomorphism O(n) ⊗
O
O(m)
∼
= O(n + m) induces a map of cohomology groups H
0
(O(m)) ⊗ H
0
(O(n)) →
H
0
(O(m + n)). In terms of Sp(1)representations, this is a map
V
P
m
⊗V
Q
n
∼
= V
PQ
m+n
⊕V
PQ
m+n−2
⊕. . . →V
m+n
.
The map in question is projection onto the irreducible of highest weight V
n+m
. This is
really what this whole section has been about — the idea that the behaviour of stable
AHmodules can be thoroughly and ﬂexibly described by taking subrepresentations of
highest weight in tensor products of Sp(1)representations.
72
5.2.3 Tensor Products of Antistable AHmodules
It is not diﬃcult to extend Joyce’s results for tensor products of stable AHmodules to
irreducible antistable AHmodules — we can follow the same argument as in the proof
of Theorem 4.1.14, since the generic properties of sums and intersections guaranteed by
stability also hold if one or both of the AHmodules is irreducible and antistable.
Let U and V be antistable AHmodules with dimU = 4j, dimU
= 2j−r, dimV =
4k and dimV
= 2k − s. Let A = ι
U
(U) ⊗ (V
†
)
∗
and let B = (U
†
)
∗
⊗ ι
V
(V ). Then
dimA = 4j(2k + s) and dimB = 4k(2j + r), so dim(H ⊗ (U
†
)
∗
⊗ (V
†
)
∗
) = 4(2j +
r)(2k + s) > dimA + dimB. Thus in generic situations we would expect dimA ∩ B =
dimU⊗
H
V = 0.
Suppose instead that V is stable, so now dimV
= 2k + s. A similar calculation
shows that dimA + dimB ≥ dimH ⊗ (U
†
)
∗
⊗ (V
†
)
∗
if and only if s(j + r) ≥ kr. In
this case we might expect dimU⊗
H
V = dimA + dimB −dim(H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
). For
example, let U = U
×
m
= (aV
1
⊗ V
m+1
)
×
and V = U
n
= bV
1
⊗ V
n+1
. Then we would
expect that dim(U
×
m
⊗
H
U
n
) = 2ab(m−n + 2).
As in Section 5.2, we can describe what is going on in terms of diagonal actions
on tensor products of Sp(1)representations. We will illustrate the case U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
. Let
U
m
= aV
1
⊗V
m+1
and U
×
n
= (bV
1
⊗V
n+1
)
×
, so (U
†
m
)
∗
∼
= V
m
and ((U
×
n
)
†
)
∗
∼
= V
n+2
. This
gives rise to the standard descriptions
H⊗
R
(U
†
m
)
∗
∼
= aV
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗V
P
m
∼
= aV
L
1
⊗(V
RP
m+1
⊕V
RP
m−1
)
and
H⊗
R
((U
×
n
)
†
)
∗
∼
= bV
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗V
Q
n+2
∼
= bV
L
1
⊗(V
RQ
n+3
⊕V
RQ
n+1
).
The only diﬀerence between this and equation (5.9) is that we have an antistable AH
module involved, and thus to obtain ι
U
×
m
(U
×
m
), we take the smaller summand of V
n+3
⊕
V
n+1
. We use the ClebschGordon formula to describe
ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗
R
((U
×
n
)
†
)
∗
∼
= abV
L
1
⊗V
RP
m+1
⊗V
Q
n+2
∼
= abV
L
1
⊗
_
_
min{m+1,n+2}
j=0
V
RPQ
m+n+3−2j
_
_
and
(U
†
m
)
∗
⊗
R
ι
U
×
n
(U
×
n
)
∼
= abV
L
1
⊗V
P
m
⊗V
RQ
n+1
∼
= abV
L
1
⊗
_
_
min{m,n+1}
j=0
V
RPQ
m+n+1−2j
_
_
.
As with stable AHmodules, our task is to ﬁnd which of these summands is in the
intersection U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
= ι
U
m
(U
m
) ⊗
R
((U
×
n
)
†
)
∗
∩ (U
†
m
)
∗
⊗
R
ι
U
×
n
(U
×
n
). This time since
min¦m + 1, n + 2¦ = min¦m, n + 1¦, we can guarantee that the summand of smallest
weight will appear in both expressions. From our dimensional arguments, we only expect
a nonzero intersection if m < n + 2, in which case min¦m, n + 1¦ = m, and we would
predict that U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
contains the summand V
n−m+1
. Because its virtual dimension is
not positive, U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
cannot be stable. This suggests that
U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
∼
= (abV
1
⊗V
n−m+1
)
×
=
_
_
_
¦0¦ if m ≥ n + 2
U
×
n−m
n or m even and m < n + 2
4U
×
n−m
n and m both odd and m < n + 2.
(5.16)
73
Rather than try to emulate Joyce’s (diﬃcult) proof of Theorem 4.1.14, we will conﬁrm
these conjectures by appealing to Quillen’s powerful results.
Proposition 5.2.2 Let U
m
be an irreducible stable AHmodule and let U
×
n
be an irre
ducible antistable AHmodule.
If m ≥ n + 2 then U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
= ¦0¦.
If m < n + 2 and m or n is even then U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
∼
= U
×
n−m
.
If m < n + 2 and m and n are both odd then U
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
∼
= 4U
×
n−m
.
Let U
×
m
and U
×
n
be antistable irreducible AHmodules. Then U
×
m
⊗
H
U
×
n
= ¦0¦.
Proof. This follows from Theorem 4.5.7 (due to Quillen), using the correspondences
U
m
= η
+
(aO(m)) and U
×
n
= η
−
(aO(−n −4)), where as usual a = 1 or 2 depending on
whether m, n are even or odd.
We can use this result about tensor products of antistable AHmodules to tell us
about AHmorphisms between stable AHmodules, using the isomorphism
Hom
AH
(U
m
, U
n
)
∼
= (U
×
m
⊗
H
U
n
)
of Theorem 4.2.9.
Proposition 5.2.3 Let U
m
and U
n
be stable AHmodules. Then
Hom
AH
(U
m
, U
n
)
∼
=
_
(aU
×
m−n
)
= aV
m−n
n ≤ m
¦0¦ n > m
where a = 4 if m and n are both odd and a = 1 otherwise.
Proof. This follows immediately by combining Theorems 4.2.9 and 5.2.2.
In particular, since U
0
= H, we see that there are always AHmorphisms from U
n
into
H (and indeed, this is a deﬁning property for AHmodules), but never AHmorphisms
from H into U
n
unless n = 0.
Similarly, we can now see that there are always AHmorphisms from antistable AH
modules into stable AHmodules, but never AHmorphisms from stable AHmodules into
antistable AHmodules.
5.3 Semistable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations
In this section we shall consider how the AHmodule X
q
ﬁts into the picture of stable
AHmodules and Sp(1)representations. Recall from Section 4.1.3 that for q ∈ S
2
,
X
q
= H and X
q
= ¦p ∈ H : pq = −qp¦ so that X
†
q
∼
= (X
†
q
)
∗
∼
= C
q
.
If we consider the dual AHmodule X
×
q
∼
= (H, C
q
) we see that the leftmultiplication
L
q
: H → H deﬁned by L
q
(p) = q p gives an AHisomorphism X
q
∼
= X
×
q
. This
suggests that Theorem 4.2.9 might be particularly interesting in the case of X
q
. For any
AHmodule U, there is a canonical isomorphism
Hom
AH
(X
q
, U)
∼
= (X
×
q
⊗
H
U)
74
and so
Hom
AH
(X
×
q
, U)
∼
= Hom
AH
(X
q
, U)
∼
= (X
q
⊗
H
U)
∼
= (X
×
q
⊗
H
U)
.
Let φ : X
×
q
→ U be an AHmorphism. Then we need φ(1) = u ∈ U
and φ(q) ∈ U
.
Since φ is Hlinear, φ(q) = qu, and so u ∈ U
∩ qU
. It follows that
Hom
AH
(X
q
, U)
∼
= (X
q
⊗
H
U)
∼
= U
∩ qU
. (5.17)
As noted by Joyce (see the summary in Section 4.1.3), the second of these isomorphisms
is given by the map (id
U
⊗
H
χ
q
) : (U⊗
H
X
q
)
→(U⊗
H
H)
∼
= U
.
Though X
q
is not itself an Sp(1)representation, the subspaces C
q
and X
q
= C
⊥
q
are acted on by the Cartan subgroup U(1)
q
⊂ Sp(1). As we shall see, taking the tensor
product of a stable AHmodule with the AHmodule X
q
serves to restrict attention
from information about Sp(1)representations to information concerning representations
of the group U(1)
q
and its Lie algebra u(1)
q
.
Let Q = aI
1
+ bI
2
+ cI
3
∈ sp(1) with a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
= 1 and let q = ai
1
+ bi
2
+ ci
3
∈
S
2
. Any irreducible representation of sp(1) is also a representation of the subalgebra
u(1)
q
= ¸Q). The analysis of V
n
as a U(1)
q
representation is already familiar: it is the
decomposition of V
n
into weight spaces of the operator Q : V
n
→ V
n
. If we choose an
identiﬁcation sp(1) ⊗
R
C = sl(2, C) such that Q = iH, this is exactly the same as the
decomposition of V
n
into eigenspaces of H with weights ¦−n, −n + 2, . . . , n − 2, n¦.
This decomposition gives important information about the action of q on the AHmodule
U
n
= aV
1
⊗V
n+1
.
This is exactly what we have done in the explicit calculations of Section 5.1.3 for the
case q = i
1
. We deﬁne a basis ¸x, y) for the space V
1
in such a way that Q(x) = ix
and Q(y) = −iy. This also gives the left action of q ∈ Sp(1) on V
1
, since the actions of
q and Q coincide for this representation (see Section 1.2.1). This gives the left action
of q ∈ H on U
n
= aV
1
⊗V
n+1
.
The goal of this discussion is to describe the AHmodule U
n
⊗
H
X
q
. We do this with
the aid of the following lemma. For ease of notation we work with the AHmodule U
n−1
.
Lemma 5.3.1 The subspace U
n−1
∩ qU
n−1
is given by the sum of the weight spaces of
Q with highest and lowest possible weights.
Proof. Recall from Section 5.1.3 that
V
1
⊗V
n
=
_
x ⊗a
n
, x ⊗a
n−1
b, . . . , x ⊗ab
n−1
, x ⊗b
n
y ⊗a
n
, y ⊗a
n−1
b, . . . , y ⊗ab
n−1
, y ⊗b
n
_
,
and that the space (U
n−1
)
∼
= V
n+1
is spanned by the vectors
¦x⊗a
n
, x⊗a
n−1
b+y⊗a
n
, . . . , x⊗a
n−k
b
k
+y⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
, . . . , x⊗b
n
+y⊗ab
n−1
, y⊗b
n
¦.
Deﬁne the basis vectors w
k
≡ x⊗a
n−k
b
k
+y ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
, including w
0
= x⊗a
n
and
w
n+1
= y ⊗b
n
.
The action of H ∈ sl(2, C) is given by H(x ⊗ a
n−k
b
k
) = (n − 2k + 1)x ⊗ a
n−k
b
k
and H(y ⊗ a
n−k
b
k
) = (n − 2k − 1)y ⊗ a
n−k
b
k
. Thus each basis vector w
k
is a weight
vector with weight (n −2k + 1). The two extreme vectors x ⊗a
n
and y ⊗b
n
are also
75
weight vectors with weights n +1 and −n −1 respectively. Note that all these weights
are diﬀerent.
The left Haction of q on V
1
⊗V
n
is given by
q(x ⊗a
n−k
b
k
) = ix ⊗a
n−k
b
k
q(y ⊗a
n−k
b
k
) = −iy ⊗a
n−k
b
k
.
Left multiplication by q therefore preserves the weight space decomposition with respect
to Q of a vector w ∈ V
1
⊗V
n
.
On the basis vectors w
k
= x ⊗a
n−k
b
k
+y ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
we have
q(x ⊗a
n−k
b
k
+y ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
) = ix ⊗a
n−k
b
k
−iy ⊗a
n−k+1
b
k−1
.
Since each vector w
k
has a diﬀerent weight from all the others we have q(w
k
) ∈ V
n+1
if
and only if q(w
k
) ∈ ¸w
k
), and
q(
λ
k
w
k
) ∈ V
n+1
⇐⇒λ
k
= 0 or q(w
k
) ∈ V
n+1
for all k.
It is evident that
q(x ⊗a
n
) = ix ⊗a
n
∈ V
n+1
and q(y ⊗a
n
) = −iy ⊗a
n
∈ V
n+1
,
but for all the other basis vectors w
k
,
q(w
k
) ,∈ ¸w
k
) and so q(w
k
) ,∈ V
n+1
.
Hence
V
n+1
∩ qV
n+1
= ¸x ⊗a
n
, y ⊗b
n
),
the weight spaces with highest and lowest weight. Taking the σinvariant subspace
¸x ⊗ a
n
− y ⊗ b
n
) if U
n−1
is an even AHmodule yields the desired result for the AH
module U
n−1
.
Since the AHsubmodule (id ⊗
H
χ
q
)(U
n−1
⊗
H
X
q
) ⊂ U
n−1
is the subspace generated
over H by U
∩ qU
, this demonstrates the main result of this section which describes
U
n
⊗
H
X
q
as follows:
Theorem 5.3.2 Let U
n
= aV
1
⊗V
n+1
be an irreducible stable AHmodule, whose eigenspace
decomposition with respect to Q ∈ sp(1) takes the form
V
1
⊗V
n+1
=
_
x ⊗a
n+1
, x ⊗a
n
b, . . . , x ⊗ab
n
, x ⊗b
n+1
y ⊗a
n+1
, y ⊗a
n
b, . . . , y ⊗ab
n
, y ⊗b
n+1
_
.
If U
n
is an even AHmodule then U
n
⊗
H
X
q
∼
= X
q
and
(id ⊗
H
χ
q
)(U
n
⊗
H
X
q
) = H ¸x ⊗a
n+1
−y ⊗b
n+1
)
R
,
where the Haction is induced by the Haction on V
1
.
If U
n
is an odd AHmodule then U
n
⊗
H
X
q
∼
= 2X
q
and
(id ⊗
H
χ
q
)(U
n
⊗
H
X
q
) = H ¸x ⊗a
n+1
, y ⊗b
n+1
)
R
= V
1
⊗¸a
n+1
, b
n+1
).
Thus the quaternionic tensor product U
n
⊗
H
X
q
picks out the representations of ex
treme weight in the decomposition of U
n
into weight spaces of Q.
76
5.4 Examples and Summary of AHmodules
By now, the reader should be familiar with the ideas of quaternionic algebra. In this
section we shall brieﬂy sum up this information, giving explicit constructions of the AH
modules which will occur most frequently in the following chapter, in the forms in which
they occur most naturally.
Example 5.4.1 Recall the AHmodule Y = ¦(q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) : q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦ of
Example 4.1.2. Since Y is stable and has virtual dimension 1, it follows that Y is
irreducible and is isomorphic to U
2
= V
1
⊗V
3
. A calculation shows that (Y
†
)
∗
∼
= V
2
and
that the equation q
1
i
1
+q
2
i
2
+q
3
i
3
= 0 is precisely the condition for (q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) to lie in
the subspace V
L
1
⊗V
RM
3
of H⊗V
M
2
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗V
M
2
∼
= V
L
1
⊗(V
RM
3
⊕V
RM
1
).
Consider the AHmodules
k
H
Y , S
k
H
Y and Λ
k
H
Y . Using the dimension formulae of
Theorem 4.1.14 and Proposition 4.1.16, we discover that Λ
n
H
Y = ¦0¦ and that
n
H
Y =
S
n
H
Y with dim(S
n
H
Y ) = 4(n + 1) and dim(S
n
H
Y )
= 2n + 3. From this we deduce that
S
n
H
Y
∼
= U
2n
, and that all the even irreducible stable AHmodules can be realised as tensor
powers of the AHmodule Y .
Example 5.4.2 [J1, Example 10.1] Let Z ⊂ H⊗R
4
be the set
Z = ¦(q
0
, q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) : q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦.
Then Z
∼
= H
3
is a left Hmodule. Deﬁne a real subspace Z
= ¦(q
0
, q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) : q
j
∈
I and q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦. Then dimZ = 12, dimZ
= 8 and Z is a stable
AHmodule.
In fact, Z is isomorphic to the ﬁrst odd irreducible AHmodule U
1
∼
= 2V
1
⊗V
2
. We
have (Z
†
)
∗
∼
= R
4
∼
= 2V
1
. The equation q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0 is the condition for
(q
0
, q
1
, q
2
, q
3
) to lie in the subspace 2V
L
1
⊗ V
RM
2
of H ⊗ 2V
M
1
∼
= V
L
1
⊗ V
R
1
⊗ 2V
M
1
∼
=
2V
L
1
⊗(V
RM
2
⊕V
RM
0
).
Example 5.4.3 We can obtain the rest of the odd AHmodules as tensor products of
those above. From Theorem 5.2.1 we know that
U
2n+1
= U
2n
⊗
H
U
1
.
This combined with the previous examples shows that
U
2n+1
∼
= S
n
H
Y ⊗
H
Z.
Thus we have obtained all the irreducible stable AHmodules in terms of previously
known AHmodules. We can also use these constructions to write down formulae giving
all those irreducible antistable AHmodules which are dual to stable AHmodules.
Example 5.4.4 Consider the AHmodule (U, U
) where
U = H
2
and U
= ¸(1, 0), (i
1
, i
2
), (0, 1), (0, i
1
)).
Then ¦(0, q) : q ∈ H¦ is an AHsubmodule of U isomorphic to X
i
1
. However, there is no
complementary AHsubmodule V such that U
∼
= X
i
1
⊕V , and indeed U is irreducible.
77
It is also clear that U is not semistable — nor is it the dual AHmodule of any semistable
AHmodule. We call such an AHmodule irregular.
Irregular AHmodules correspond to type (i) SKmodules of the form A
n,α
1
⊕A
n,−¯ α
−1
1
and torsion sheaves of the form O/m
n
x
, where n ≥ 2. In the present case which singles
out the subﬁeld C
i
1
, we have
U
∼
= η
+
(O/m
2
{0,∞}
).
For a general formula linking pairs of antipodal points ¦z, σ(z)¦ in CP
1
and complex
subﬁelds of H see [Q, ¸14].
These are the only AHmodules which we do not describe in detail, for two reasons.
Firstly, they are badly behaved compared to semistable and antistable AHmodules. Sec
ondly, as far as the author is aware, they do not arise naturally in geometrical situations
in the way that the other AHmodules do.
Example 5.4.5 There is one remaining irreducible to consider — the AHmodule
(H, ¦0¦). This trivially satisﬁes Deﬁnition 4.1.1, and so is an AHmodule. Any AH
module whose primed part is zero is a direct sum of copies of (H, ¦0¦). It is easy to see
that for any irreducible AHmodule U, U⊗
H
(H, ¦0¦) = ¦0¦ unless U = H, in which
case we have H⊗
H
(H, ¦0¦) = (H, ¦0¦).
Though badly behaved, the AHmodule (H, ¦0¦) does arise naturally in quaternionic
algebra — for example, Z⊗
H
H
×
= (H, ¦0¦). This suggests the notation
(H, ¦0¦) = U
×
−1
,
in which case this result agrees with Theorem 5.2.2. Such notation is consistent with the
sheaf description of antistable AHmodules, since we have
U
×
−1
= η
−
(2O(−3))
as expected. Thus we interpret (H, ¦0¦) as the ‘antistable part’ of 2V
1
⊗V
0
. The dual
space (H, H) is of course not an AHmodule, so there is no stable AHmodule U
−1
which
is dual to U
×
−1
. In spite of this we still regard U
×
−1
as ‘antistable’, because treating it as
an exception every time would be cumbersome.
We end this chapter with a diagram (overleaf) summarising much of our theory.
78
Figure 5.1: Irreducible AHmodules and the ratio of their dimensions.
0
1
4
1
2
3
4
1 dimU
/ dimU
AHmorphisms

Quaternionic tensor products
H
Z
∼
= U
1
c
Y
∼
= U
2
c
Y
×
∼
= U
×
2
c
Z
×
∼
= U
1
c
H
×
X
q
and irregular
AHmodules
c
U
×
−1
= (H, ¦0¦)
. . . . . .
U
×
n
(3 ≤ n < ∞)
. . . . . .
U
n
(3 ≤ n < ∞)
d
d
ds
This describes the AHmodules we have met so far — all the ﬁnitedimensional irre
ducible AHmodules. The quaternionic tensor product of two AHmodules is always to
the left of both of them in Figure 5.1. On the other hand, there are AHmorphisms from
an AHmodule into itself and any AHmodules to its right — and never from an AH
module to any AHmodule to its left. These statements are closely linked by Theorem
4.2.9. If U and V are irreducible stable or antistable AHmodules, this demonstrates
that that there will always be AHmorphisms from U⊗
H
V into U and V , but never
any AHmorphisms from U or V into U⊗
H
V , unless U or V is equal to H.
79
Chapter 6
Hypercomplex Manifolds
This chapter uses the quaternionic algebra developed in Chapters 4 and 5 to describe
hypercomplex manifolds. It is in three parts (the ﬁrst of which is a summary of Joyce’s
work, the other two being original). The ﬁrst part (Section 6.1) summarises Joyce’s
theory of qholomorphic functions. A qholomorphic function on a hypercomplex man
ifold M is a smooth function f : M → H which satisﬁes a quaternionic version of
the CauchyRiemann equations. We let T
M
denote the AHmodule of qholomorphic
functions on M. The qholomorphic functions on the hypercomplex manifold H are
precisely the regular functions of Fueter and Sudbery. Because of the noncommuta
tivity of the quaternions, the product of two qholomorphic functions is not in general
qholomorphic. Nonetheless, qholomorphic functions possess a rich algebraic structure.
Joyce attempts to capture this using the concept of an Halgebra, a quaternionic version
of a commutative algebra over the real or complex numbers.
In the second part (Section 6.2), we use the Sp(1)representation T
∗
M
∼
= 2nV
1
deﬁned by the hypercomplex structure to obtain a natural splitting of the quaternionic
cotangent space of a hypercomplex manifold M, which we write H ⊗ T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕ B.
This is precisely a version of the splitting H ⊗ aV
k
∼
= aV
1
⊗ (V
k+1
⊕ V
k−1
) used in the
previous chapter to construct and describe all stable and antistable AHmodules, and
the Sp(1)version of quaternionic algebra gives a complete description of the geometric
situation. A function f is qholomorphic if and only if its diﬀerential df takes values in
the subspace A ⊂ H⊗T
∗
M. This is very similar to the situation in complex geometry
where the diﬀerential of a holomorphic function takes values in the holomorphic cotangent
space Λ
1,0
. It follows that the subbundle A should be thought of as the qholomorphic
cotangent space of M, its complement B being the qantiholomorphic cotangent space.
The third part (Sections 6.3 and 6.4) is about AHbundles, which are smooth vector
bundles whose ﬁbres are AHmodules. They can be deﬁned over any smooth manifold
M, but are most interesting when M is hypercomplex. An AHbundle E is said to
be qholomorphic if it is simultaneously holomorphic with respect to the whole 2sphere
of complex structures on M. This condition is met if and only if E carries an anti
selfdual connection which is compatible with the structure of E as an AHbundle. We
generalise the theory of qholomorphic functions to that of qholomorphic sections, so
that a qholomorphic function is precisely a qholomorphic section of the trivial bundle
MH. We investigate the algebraic structure of qholomorphic sections in some detail,
showing that the qholomorphic sections of a qholomorphic vector bundle E form an
80
Halgebra module over T
M
.
6.1 Qholomorphic Functions and Halgebras
6.1.1 Quaternionvalued functions
This section is mainly a summary of [J1, ¸¸3,5], to which the reader is referred for
more detail and proofs of the important results. Let M be a smooth manifold and
let C
∞
(M, H) be the vector space of smooth quaternionvalued functions on M. An
Haction on C
∞
(M, H) is deﬁned by setting (q f)(m) = q(f(m)) for all m ∈ M,
f ∈ C
∞
(M, H). Thus C
∞
(M, H) is a left Hmodule. What is less immediately obvious
is that C
∞
(M, H) is an AHmodule.
Lemma 6.1.1 Deﬁne a linear subspace
C
∞
(M, H)
= ¦f ∈ C
∞
(M, H) : f(m) ∈ I for all m ∈ M¦ = C
∞
(M, I).
With these deﬁnitions, (C
∞
(M, H), C
∞
(M, H)
) is an AHmodule.
Proof. We use the fact that M can be embedded in C
∞
(M, H)
†
in the following way.
For each m ∈ M, deﬁne the ‘evaluation map’
θ
m
: C
∞
(M, H) →H by θ
m
(f) = f(m).
Then θ
m
(q f) = q θ
m
(f), so θ
m
∈ C
∞
(M, H)
×
. Also, if f ∈ C
∞
(M, I) then θ
m
(f) ∈ I
for all m ∈ M, so θ
m
∈ C
∞
(M, H)
†
.
Suppose that f ∈ C
∞
(M, H), and α(f) = 0 for all α ∈ C
∞
(M, H)
†
. Since θ
m
∈
C
∞
(M, H)
†
, f(m) = 0 for all m ∈ M ; so f ≡ 0. Thus C
∞
(M, H) is an AHmodule,
by Deﬁnition 4.1.1.
This technique of linking a point m ∈ M to an element of C
∞
(M, H)
†
is extremely
useful. Joyce has used this process to reconstruct hypercomplex manifolds from their
Halgebras. Note that we have assumed no geometric structure on M other than that
of a smooth manifold.
Complex and quaternionic functions
For each q ∈ S
2
let ι
q
: C → H be the inclusion obtained by identifying i ∈ C with
q ∈ S
2
, so that ι
q
(a + ib) = a + qb.
1
For any real vector space E, the inclusion ι
q
extends to a map ι
q
: C⊗E →H⊗E given by ι
q
(e
0
+ie
1
) = e
0
+qe
1
(for e
0
, e
1
∈ E ).
Note that the images of ι
q
and ι
−q
are the same, but the two maps are not identical:
since ι
q
(a + ib) = a + qb and ι
−q
(a + ib) = a −qb, we see that ι
q
(z) = ι
−q
(¯ z).
Let f = a + ib be a complexvalued function on M. Then for every q ∈ S
2
,
the function ι
q
(f) = a + qb is a quaternionvalued function on M. In this way we
obtain quaternionvalued functions from complex ones, and we shall soon see that this
construction can be used to obtain qholomorphic functions from holomorphic ones.
1
The map ι
q
will be distinguished from the inclusion map ι
U
of AHmodules by the use of lowercase
rather than uppercase subscripts.
81
6.1.2 Qholomorphic functions
In this section we will deﬁne qholomorphic functions, the hypercomplex version of holo
morphic functions, and familiarise ourselves with some of their basic properties. Consider
the complex manifold (M, I). A complexvalued function f = f
0
+ idf
1
∈ C
∞
(M, C) is
holomorphic (with respect to I ) if and only if f satisﬁes the CauchyRiemann equations
df
0
+ Idf
1
= 0. (6.1)
Let (M, I
1
, I
2
, I
3
) be a hypercomplex manifold. Here is the deﬁnition of a qholomorphic
function on M.
Deﬁnition 6.1.2 Let f ∈ C
∞
(M, H) be a smooth Hvalued function on M. Then
f = f
0
+f
1
i
1
+f
2
i
2
+f
3
i
3
with f
j
∈ C
∞
(M). The function f is said to be qholomorphic
if and only if it satisﬁes the CauchyRiemannFueter equations
Df ≡ df
0
+ I
1
df
1
+ I
2
df
2
+ I
3
df
3
= 0.
The set of all qholomorphic functions on M is called T
M
.
The term qholomorphic is short for quaternionholomorphic, and it is intended to
indicate that a qholomorphic function on a hypercomplex manifold is the appropriate
quaternionic analogue of a holomorphic function on a complex manifold. If a function f
is qholomorphic then the function q f is also qholomorphic for all q ∈ H. Thus the
set of qholomorphic functions T
M
forms a left Hsubmodule of C
∞
(M, H). We adopt
the obvious deﬁnition for T
M
, namely
T
M
= ¦f ∈ T
M
: f(m) ∈ I for all m ∈ M¦.
So T
M
= T
M
∩ C
∞
(M, H)
, and T
M
is an AHsubmodule of C
∞
(M, H). Thus the
qholomorphic functions T
M
on a hypercomplex manifold M form an AHmodule.
The product of two qholomorphic functions is not in general qholomorphic — we can
observe this simply by noting that all constant functions are trivially qholomorphic, but
T
M
is not even closed under rightmultiplication by quaternions. Thus qholomorphic
functions do not form an algebra in the same sense that the holomorphic functions on a
complex manifold do.
We show that there are many interesting qholomorphic functions on a hypercomplex
manifold M, by observing that every complexvalued function on M which is holo
morphic with respect to any complex structure Q ∈ S
2
gives rise to a qholomorphic
function.
Lemma 6.1.3 Let q = a
1
i
1
+ a
2
i
2
+ a
3
i
3
∈ S
2
and let Q = a
1
I
1
+ a
2
I
2
+ a
3
I
3
be the
corresponding complex structure on M. Let f = x + iy ∈ C
∞
(M, C) be holomorphic
with respect to Q. Then ι
q
(f) = x + qy is a qholomorphic function.
Proof. The proof is a simple substitution. If f = x + iy is holomorphic with respect to
Q then it satisﬁes the CauchyRiemann equations dx + Q(dy) = 0, in which case
0 = dx + (a
1
I
1
+ a
2
I
2
+ a
3
I
3
)(dy) = D(x + a
1
yi
1
+ a
2
yi
2
+ a
3
yi
3
) = D(x + qy).
82
So the Hvalued function ι
q
(f) = x + qy is qholomorphic.
If f = x + iy ∈ C
∞
(M, C) is holomorphic with respect to Q, then its conjugate
¯
f = x − iy is holomorphic with respect to −Q. Does this mean that both x + qy and
x − qy are qholomorphic functions? Closer inspection shows that this is not the case
— we see that
ι
q
(x + iy) = ι
−q
(x −iy) = x + qy.
So the holomorphic functions with respect to Q and −Q are mapped to the same
functions when we consider their images under ι
±q
in C
∞
(M, H). We shall see that this
is a consequence of (indeed is equivalent to) the fact that the AHmodules X
q
and X
−q
are the same.
Now, if the functions f, g ∈ C
∞
(M, C
q
) are both holomorphic with respect to Q,
then so is fg ∈ C
∞
(M, C
q
). By Lemma 6.1.3, ι
q
(f), ι
q
(g), and ι
q
(fg) = ι
q
(f)ι
q
(g)
are all qholomorphic. In this special case where the qholomorphic functions f and
g both take values in a commuting subﬁeld of H, their product is also qholomorphic.
This is reminiscent of the situation described in Lemma 4.1.7, where two elements u ∈
U and v ∈ V such that ι
U
(u) ∈ C
q
⊗ (U
†
)
∗
and ι
V
(v) ∈ C
q
⊗ (V
†
)
∗
deﬁne an
element u⊗
H
v ∈ U⊗
H
V . In this case we have two welldeﬁned ‘products’ of f and
g — their quaternionic tensor product f⊗
H
g ∈ T
M
⊗
H
T
M
and their product as C
q

valued functions fg = gf ∈ T
M
. This algebraic situation is described by the theory of
Halgebras.
6.1.3 Halgebras and Qholomorphic functions
An Halgebra is a quaternionic version of an algebra over a commutative ﬁeld. Let F
be a commutative ﬁeld (usually the real or complex numbers). An Falgebra is a vector
space A over F, equipped with an Fbilinear multiplication map µ : AA →A which
has certain algebraic properties. For example if µ(a, b) = µ(b, a) for all a, b ∈ A then µ
is said to be commutative. As we have already seen in Section 1.3, this formulation is of
no great use to us when seeking a quaternionic analogue because the noncommutativity
of the quaternions makes the notion of an Hbilinear map untenable.
The axioms for an algebra over F can alternatively be written in terms of tensor
products. The main feature of tensor algebra is that a bilinear map on the cartesian
product AB translates into a linear map on the tensor product A⊗
F
B. So our bilinear
multiplication map µ : A A → A becomes an Flinear map µ : A ⊗
F
A → A. The
commutative axiom µ(a, b) = µ(b, a) becomes µ(a⊗b) = µ(b ⊗a), so µ(a⊗b −b ⊗a) =
µ(a ∧ b) = 0. Hence we obtain a ‘tensor algebra version’ of the commutative axiom,
saying that µ : A ⊗
F
A →A is commutative if and only if Λ
2
A ⊆ ker µ.
Once we have reformulated our axioms in terms of tensor products and linear maps we
can translate them into quaternionic algebra, replacing ‘vector space’, ‘linear map’ and
‘tensor product’ with ‘AHmodule’, ‘AHmorphism’ and ‘quaternionic tensor product’.
This is precisely what Joyce does, producing the following deﬁnition [J1, ¸5]:
Axiom H. (i) T is an AHmodule.
(ii) There is an AHmorphism µ
P
: T⊗
H
T →T, called the multiplication
map.
83
(iii) Λ
2
H
T ⊂ ker µ
P
. Thus µ
P
is commutative.
(iv) The AHmorphisms µ
P
: T⊗
H
T → T and id : T → T com
bine to give AHmorphisms µ
P
⊗
H
id and id ⊗
H
µ
P
: T⊗
H
T⊗
H
T →
T⊗
H
T. Composing with µ
P
gives AHmorphisms µ
P
◦ (µ
P
⊗
H
id)
and µ
P
◦ (id ⊗
H
µ
P
) : T⊗
H
T⊗
H
T → T. Then µ
P
◦ (µ
P
⊗
H
id) =
µ
P
◦ (id ⊗
H
µ
P
). This is associativity of multiplication.
(v) An element 1 ∈ A called the identity is given, with 1 / ∈ T
and I1 ⊆
T
.
(vi) Part (v) implies that if α ∈ T
†
then α(1) ∈ R. Thus for each a ∈ T,
1⊗
H
a and a⊗
H
1 ∈ T⊗
H
T by Lemma 4.1.7. Then µ
P
(1⊗
H
a) =
µ
P
(a⊗
H
1) = a for each a ∈ T. Thus 1 is a multiplicative identity.
Deﬁnition 6.1.4 T is an Halgebra if T satisﬁes Axiom H.
Here Halgebra stands for Hamilton algebra. We also deﬁne morphisms of Halgebras:
Deﬁnition 6.1.5 Let T, Q be Halgebras, and let φ : T → Q be an AHmorphism.
Write 1
P
, 1
Q
for the identities in T, Q respectively. We say that φ is an Halgebra
morphism if φ(1
P
) = 1
Q
and µ
Q
◦ (φ⊗
H
φ) = φ ◦ µ
P
as AHmorphisms T⊗
H
T →Q.
Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. Joyce has constructed a multiplication map
µ
M
with respect to which the qholomorphic functions T
M
form an Halgebra, and such
that for f, g ∈ C
∞
(M, C
q
) holomorphic with respect to Q we have µ(f⊗
H
g) = fg.
In this way the the Halgebra T
M
includes the algebras of holomorphic functions with
respect to all the diﬀerent complex structures on M.
Let M, N and (therefore) M N be hypercomplex manifolds. We deﬁne an AH
morphism φ : T
M
⊗
H
T
N
→ T
M×N
. Let U and V be AHmodules. Let x ∈ U
†
⊗ V
†
and y ∈ U⊗
H
V . Then y x ∈ H, where ‘ ’ contracts together the factors of U
†
⊗ V
†
with those of (U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
in U⊗
H
V ⊂ H⊗(U
†
)
∗
⊗(V
†
)
∗
. Deﬁne a linear map
λ
UV
: U
†
⊗V
†
→(U⊗
H
V )
†
by setting λ
UV
(x)(y) = y x, (6.2)
for all x ∈ U
†
⊗V
†
and y ∈ U⊗
H
V .
2
Consider again the maps θ
m
∈ T
†
M
of Lemma 6.1.1, which allow us to interpret
points of m ∈ M as AHmorphisms θ
m
: T
M
→ H. In the same way, we can associate
to each point (m, n) ∈ M N the map θ
m
⊗θ
n
∈ T
†
M
⊗T
†
N
. Then λ
P
M
,P
N
(θ
m
⊗θ
n
) ∈
(T
M
⊗
H
T
N
)
†
.
Deﬁnition 6.1.6 We deﬁne a map φ : T
M
⊗
H
T
N
→ C
∞
(M N, H) as follows. Let
f ∈ T
M
⊗
H
T
N
. Then λ
P
M
,P
N
(θ
m
⊗ θ
n
) f ∈ H and we deﬁne φ(f) : M N → H by
setting
φ(f)(m, n) = λ
P
M
,P
N
(θ
m
⊗θ
n
) f.
For inﬁnitedimensional vector spaces U and V we deﬁne U ⊗ V to consist of
ﬁnite sums of elements u ⊗ v. Thus φ(f) is a sum of ﬁnitely many smooth func
tions, and so is smooth. It is easy to see that φ(f) is qholomorphic, since D
M×N
=
2
See [J1, Deﬁnition 4.2], where Joyce deﬁnes this map and uses it to prove that U⊗
H
V is an AH
module.
84
D
M
(φ(f)) + D
N
(φ(f)) = 0, i.e. we can evaluate the derivatives in the M and N
directions separately. It is clear that φ is Hlinear and that φ(T
M
⊗
H
T
N
) ⊆ T
M×N
.
Thus we have a canonical AHmorphism φ : T
M
⊗
H
T
N
→T
M×N
.
The second (and easier) step is to consider the case M = N, so φ : T
M
⊗
H
T
M
→
T
M×M
. The diagonal submanifold M
diag
= ¦(m, m) : m ∈ M¦ ⊂ M M is a submani
fold of M M isomorphic to M as a hypercomplex manifold, and each qholomorphic
function on M M restricts to a qholomorphic function on M
diag
. Let ρ be the re
striction map ρ : T
M×M
→ T
M
diag
; then ρ is an AHmorphism. Thus we can deﬁne an
AHmorphism
µ
M
= ρ ◦ φ : T
M
⊗
H
T
M
→T
M
. (6.3)
Here is the key theorem of this section:
Theorem 6.1.7 [J1, 5.5]. Let M be a hypercomplex manifold, so that T
M
is an AH
module. Let 1 ∈ T
M
be the constant function on M with value 1, and let µ
M
:
T
M
⊗
H
T
M
→ T
M
be the AHmorphism µ
M
= ρ ◦ φ of Equation (6.3). With these
deﬁnitions, T
M
is an Halgebra.
This statement is also true for C
∞
(M, H). An AHmorphism φ : C
∞
(M, H)⊗
H
C
∞
(N, H) → C
∞
(M N, H) can be deﬁned just as in Deﬁnition 6.1.6, and ρ is
still the obvious restriction. The qholomorphic functions T
M
form an Hsubalgebra
of C
∞
(M, H), and the inclusion map id : T
M
→C
∞
(M, H) is an Halgebra morphism.
Example 6.1.8 Qholomorphic functions on H [J1, ¸10].
Consider the manifold H with coordinates (x
0
, x
1
, x
2
, x
3
) representing the quaternion
x
0
+ x
1
i
1
+ x
2
i
2
+ x
3
i
3
. Then H is naturally a complex manifold with hypercomplex
structure (I
1
, I
2
, I
3
) given by
I
1
dx
2
= dx
3
, I
2
dx
3
= dx
1
, I
3
dx
1
= dx
2
and I
j
dx
0
= dx
j
, j = 1, 2, 3. (6.4)
Consider the linear Hvalued functions on H. Using the CauchyRiemannFueter
Equation (1.20) with the hypercomplex structure in (6.4), we ﬁnd that f = q
0
x
0
+
q
1
x
1
+ q
2
x
2
+ q
3
x
3
is qholomorphic if and only if q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0. Thus
the linear qholomorphic functions on H form an AHsubmodule of the set of all linear
functions, and this submodule is isomorphic to the AHmodule Z
∼
= U
1
of Example
5.4.2.
Consider the AHmodule U
(k)
of homogeneous qholomorphic polynomials of degree
k. The spaces U
(k)
are important in quaternionic analysis and are studied by Sudbery
[Su, ¸6]. Joyce uses the dimension formulae of Proposition 4.1.16 to prove that S
k
H
Z
∼
=
U
(k)
. We can easily show that
S
k
H
Z
∼
= (k + 1)V
1
⊗V
k+1
=
_
(k + 1)U
k
k even
1
2
(k + 1)U
k
k odd.
This constructs not only the spaces U
(k)
, but also their structure as Sp(1)representations,
which is crucial to Sudbery’s approach.
The space of all qholomorphic polynomials on H is therefore given by the sum
∞
k=0
S
k
H
Z, which is naturally an Halgebra. Joyce [J1, Example 5.1] calls this F
Z
, the
free Halgebra generated by Z , and this idea enables us to write down the multiplication
map µ
H
. The full Halgebra T
H
is constructed by adding in convergent power series.
85
6.2 The Quaternionic Cotangent Space
Let M be a complex manifold and recall the splitting C ⊗
R
T
∗
M = Λ
1,0
M ⊕ Λ
0,1
M
of Equation (2.1). A function f ∈ C
∞
(M, C) is holomorphic if df ∈ Λ
1,0
M. The
CauchyRiemann operator is deﬁned by ∂ = π
0,1
◦ d, and f is holomorphic if and only
if ∂f = 0.
This section presents the quaternionic analogue of this description. Let M be a
hypercomplex manifold. We show that there is a natural splitting of the quaternionic
cotangent space H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= A⊕B. The bundle A is then the qholomorphic cotangent
space of M. A function f ∈ C
∞
(M, H) is qholomorphic if and only if df ∈ A, and the
CauchyRiemannFueter operator can be written
¯
δ = π
B
◦ d, where π
B
is the natural
projection to the subspace B ⊂ H ⊗ T
∗
M. The ease with which quaternionic algebra
presents such close parallels with complex geometry could scarcely be more rewarding.
Theorem 6.2.1 Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold and let H⊗T
∗
M be the quater
nionic cotangent bundle of M. The hypercomplex structure determines a natural splitting
H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕B,
where dimA = 12n and dimB = 4n.
Proof. Recall from Section 3.2 that T
∗
M
∼
= 2nV
1
as an Sp(1)representation. Call this
representation 2nV
G
1
(since it is the action deﬁned by the geometric structure of M ).
Following the standard arguments of Chapter 5, we have a splitting
H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗2nV
G
1
∼
= 2nV
L
1
⊗(V
RG
2
⊕V
RG
0
)
∼
= A ⊕B,
where A = 2nV
L
1
⊗V
RG
2
and B = 2nV
L
1
⊗V
RG
0
.
This is a situation with which we are by now very familiar. Using the theory of
Chapter 5, we immediately deduce that
• The (ﬁbres of the) subspaces A and B are AHmodules with A
∼
= nU
1
and
B
∼
= nU
×
−1
.
• Dim A = 12n and dimA
= 8n, where A
= A ∩ I ⊗ T
∗
M. A is a stable AH
module.
• Dim B = 4n and dimB
= 0, where B
= B ∩ I ⊗ T
∗
M. B is an antistable
AHmodule.
• The mapping A ⊕ B → H ⊗ T
∗
M is an injective AHmorphism which is an
isomorphism of the total spaces. It is not an AHisomorphism because dim(A
⊕B
)
is smaller than dim(I ⊗T
∗
M).
86
The importance of this splitting lies partly in the following result:
Theorem 6.2.2 A function f ∈ C
∞
(M, H) is qholomorphic if and only if df ∈
C
∞
(A).
The proof of this theorem will be in two parts. Firstly, we investigate the projection
operators π
A
and π
B
from H⊗T
∗
M onto A and B. We then show that the Cauchy
RiemannFueter operator can be written as π
B
◦ d.
To work out projection maps to A and B we use the Casimir operator for the
diagonal Sp(1)
RG
action, obtained by coupling rightmultiplication on H with the action
of the hypercomplex structure. The diagonal Lie algebra action is given by
1(ω) = I
1
(ω) −ωi
1
¸(ω) = I
2
(ω) −ωi
2
/(ω) = I
3
(ω) −ωi
3
. (6.5)
Then C(ω) = (1
2
+¸
2
+/
2
)(ω) = −6ω−2χ(ω), where χ(ω) = I
1
(ω)i
1
+I
2
(ω)i
2
+I
3
(ω)i
3
.
The operator χ satisﬁes the equation χ
2
= 3 − 2χ, so has eigenvalues +1 and −3. If
ω is in the −3 eigenspace then we have C(ω) = 0, so ω ∈ V
RG
0
. If ω is in the +1
eigenspace then we have C(ω) = −8, so ω ∈ V
RG
2
. Thus the subspaces A and B are
the eigenspaces of the operator χ. This enables us to write down expressions for π
A
and π
B
such that π
A
+ π
B
= 1.
Lemma 6.2.3 Projection maps π
A
: H⊗T
∗
M →A and π
B
: H⊗T
∗
M →B are given
by
π
A
(ω) =
1
4
(3ω+I
1
(ω)i
1
+I
2
(ω)i
2
+I
3
(ω)i
3
) π
B
(ω) =
1
4
(ω−I
1
(ω)i
1
−I
2
(ω)i
2
−I
3
(ω)i
3
).
These maps depend only on the structure of M as a hypercomplex manifold.
Just as we deﬁned the Dolbeault operators in Equation (2.4), we deﬁne new diﬀer
ential operators δ and
¯
δ:
δ : C
∞
(M, H) →C
∞
(M, A)
δ = π
A
◦ d
and
¯
δ : C
∞
(M, H) →C
∞
(M, B)
¯
δ = π
B
◦ d.
(6.6)
Then for a function f ∈ C
∞
(M, H), df = δf +
¯
δf.
Proposition 6.2.4 A function f ∈ C
∞
(M, H) is qholomorphic if and only if
¯
δf = 0.
Proof. Let f = f
0
+ f
1
i
1
+ f
2
i
2
+ f
3
i
3
be a qholomorphic function on M, so Df =
df
0
+ I
1
df
1
+ I
2
df
2
+ I
3
df
3
= 0. This is exactly the real part of the equation
4
¯
δf ≡ df −I
1
dfi
1
−I
2
dfi
2
−I
3
dfi
3
= 0. (6.7)
Moreover, the three imaginary parts are the equations I
j
(Df) = 0, which are satisﬁed
if and only if Df = 0. Thus the real equation Df = 0 is exactly the same as the
quaternionic equation
¯
δf = 0.
87
It now follows that a function f is qholomorphic if and only if df = δf ∈ C
∞
(M, A).
This proves Theorem 6.2.2 and motivates the following deﬁnition:
Deﬁnition 6.2.5 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold and let H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕B, as
in Theorem 6.2.1. Then A is the qholomorphic cotangent space of M and B is the
qantiholomorphic cotangent space of M.
Here are some practical methods for writing the spaces A and B. Let ω = 1 ⊗ω
0
+
i
1
⊗ω
1
+ i
2
⊗ω
2
+ i
3
⊗ω
3
. It is straightforward to verify that
ω ∈ A ⇐⇒ω
0
+ I
1
(ω
1
) + I
2
(ω
2
) + I
3
(ω
3
) = 0,
and
ω ∈ B ⇐⇒ω
0
= I
1
(ω
1
) = I
2
(ω
2
) = I
3
(ω
3
).
Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold and let ¦e
a
: a = 0, . . . , 4n − 1¦ be a basis
for T
∗
x
M such that I
b
(e
4a
) = e
4a+b
. In other words, we choose a particular isomorphism
T
∗
x
M
∼
= H
n
such that the subspace ¸e
4a
, e
4a+1
, e
4a+2
, e
4a+3
) is a copy of H with its
standard hypercomplex structure. With respect to this basis the ﬁbres of A and B at
the point x are given by
A
x
=
_
q
a
e
a
: q
4b
+ q
4b+1
i
1
+ q
4b+2
i
2
+ q
4b+3
i
3
= 0 for all b = 0, . . . , n −1
_
(6.8)
and
B
x
=
_
q
a
e
a
: q
4b
= −q
4b+1
i
1
= −q
4b+2
i
2
= −q
4b+3
i
3
for all b = 0, . . . , n −1
_
.
(6.9)
Equation (6.8) is a higher dimensional version of the equation q
0
+q
1
i
1
+q
2
i
2
+q
3
i
3
= 0
which gives the qholomorphic cotangent space on H (Example 6.1.8). This gives an
AHisomorphism between A
x
and the AHmodule nZ
∼
= nU
1
.
Let us pause for a moment to reﬂect on what has happened. On a complex manifold,
we have a splitting of C⊗T
∗
M into two spaces of equal dimension, which are conjugate
to one another. On a hypercomplex manifold, we have a splitting into two subspaces,
but they are not equal in size. Instead, one of them has three times the dimension of the
other, because the subspaces are deﬁned by the equation V
1
⊗V
1
∼
= V
2
⊕V
0
. This type
of splitting into spaces of dimension 3n and n is typical of the quaternions, echoing the
fundamental isomorphism H
∼
= I ⊕R.
6.2.1 The Holomorphic and Qholomorphic cotangent spaces
Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold with hypercomplex structure (I
1
, I
2
, I
3
). Let
q = a
1
i
1
+a
2
i
2
+a
3
i
3
∈ S
2
and let Q = a
1
I
1
+a
2
I
2
+a
3
I
3
be the corresponding complex
structure on M. We have already seen (Lemma 6.1.3) that if f is a complexvalued
function on M which is holomorphic with respect to the complex structure Q, then
ι
q
(f) is a qholomorphic function. This is a correspondence not only of holomorphic
and qholomorphic functions, but also of the holomorphic and qholomorphic cotangent
spaces.
88
Each complex structure Q on M deﬁnes a holomorphic cotangent space Λ
1,0
Q
. Using
the embedding ι
q
we can consider C⊗T
∗
M
∼
= C
q
⊗T
∗
M as a subspace of H⊗T
∗
M. The
relationship between these subspaces of H⊗T
∗
M is clariﬁed in the following Lemma:
Lemma 6.2.6 Let A ⊂ H ⊗ T
∗
M be the qholomorphic cotangent space of a hyper
complex manifold M and let Λ
1,0
Q
⊂ C⊗T
∗
M be the holomorphic cotangent space with
respect to the complex structure Q. Then
H ι
q
(Λ
1,0
Q
) = (id
A
⊗
H
χ
q
)(A⊗
H
X
q
).
Proof. We illustrate the case dimM = 4, the general result holding in exactly the
same way but involving more coordinates. For any point x ∈ M we choose a basis
¦e
0
, e
1
, e
2
, e
3
¦ for T
∗
x
M such that the hypercomplex structure at x is given by the
standard relations (6.4). Without loss of generality take q = i
1
and consider the complex
manifold (M, I
1
). Then
Λ
1,0
I
1
= ¸e
0
+ ie
1
, e
2
+ ie
3
)
C
.
Since ι
i
1
(a + ib) = a + i
1
b, we see that
H ι
q
(Λ
1,0
I
1
) = H ¸e
0
+ i
1
e
1
, e
2
+ i
1
e
3
). (6.10)
Recall from Section 5.3 that (id
U
⊗
H
χ
q
)(U⊗
H
X
q
)
= U
∩ qU
for any AHmodule
U. Using Equation (6.8), we have A = ¦(q
0
e
0
+ . . . + q
3
e
3
) : q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦
and A
= I ⊗T
∗
M. It follows that
A
∩ i
1
A
= ¦q
0
e
0
+ . . . + q
3
e
3
∈ A : q
j
∈ ¸i
2
, i
3
)¦
= ¸i
2
e
0
−i
3
e
1
, i
3
e
0
+ i
2
e
1
, i
2
e
2
−i
3
e
3
, i
3
e
2
+ i
2
e
3
), (6.11)
and the image (id
A
⊗
H
χ
i
1
)(A⊗
H
X
i
1
)
∼
= 2X
i
1
is generated over H by this subspace.
Observe that −i
2
(i
2
e
0
− i
3
e
1
) = e
0
+ i
1
e
1
and that −i
2
(i
2
e
2
− i
3
e
3
) = e
2
+ i
1
e
3
.
Therefore H (A
∩ i
1
A
) is exactly the same as the subspace H ι
q
(Λ
1,0
I
1
) of Equation
(6.10).
This gives us a description of the qholomorphic and qantiholomorphic cotangent
spaces of M in terms of complex geometry:
Corollary 6.2.7 Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold, with qholomorphic cotangent
space A and qantiholomorphic cotangent space B. Then
A =
Q∈S
2
H ι
q
(Λ
1,0
Q
)
and
B =
Q∈S
2
H ι
q
(Λ
0,1
Q
).
Thus the qholomorphic cotangent space is generated over H by the diﬀerent holomorphic
cotangent spaces.
Proof. Use the fact that A is a stable AHmodule; thus A is generated over H by the
subspaces A
∩ qA
for q ∈ I. The proof now follows immediately from Lemma 6.2.6.
89
6.3 AHbundles
An AHbundle is the natural quaternionic analogue of a real or complex vector bundle:
a set of AHmodules E parametrised smoothly by a base manifold M.
Deﬁnition 6.3.1 Let M be a diﬀerentiable manifold and (W, W
) a ﬁxed AH
module. A smooth AHmodule bundle with ﬁbre W or simply AHbundle is a family
¦(E
x
, E
x
)¦
x∈M
of AHmodules parametrised by M, together with a diﬀerentiable man
ifold structure on E =
x∈M
E
x
such that
• The projection map π : E →M, π : E
x
→x is C
∞
.
• For every x
0
∈ M, there exists an open set U ⊆ M containing x
0
and a diﬀeo
morphism
φ
U
: π
−1
(U) →U W
such that φ(E
x
) →¦x¦ W is an AHisomorphism for each x ∈ U.
A section of an AHbundle is a smooth map α : M → E such that α(x) ∈ E
x
for
all x ∈ M, and the left Hmodule of smooth sections of E is denoted by C
∞
(M, E).
Deﬁne C
∞
(M, E)
= C
∞
(M, E
). With this deﬁnition, it is easy to adapt Lemma 6.1.1
to show that if E is an AHbundle then C
∞
(M, E) is an AHmodule. We can multiply
sections on the left by quaternionvalued functions, and C
∞
(M, E) is a left module over
the ring C
∞
(M, H).
The standard real or complex algebraic operations which give new bundles from old
can be transfered en masse to quaternionic algebra and AHbundles. Let (E, π
1
, M) and
(F, π
2
, N) be AHbundles. We deﬁne a bundle (E⊗
H
F, MN) by setting (E⊗
H
F)
(m,n)
=
E
m
⊗
H
F
n
. We can deﬁne a bundle E ⊕F in the same way.
In particular, let E and F be AHbundles over M. By restricting to the diago
nal submanifold of M M we deﬁne a bundle (E⊗
H
F, M) by setting (E⊗
H
F)
m
=
E
m
⊗
H
F
m
. In the same way (E ⊕ F, M), Λ
k
H
E and S
k
H
(E) are AHbundles, as is E
×
if the ﬁbres of E are SAHmodules. We will always make clear whether an AHbundle
‘ E⊗
H
F ’ refers to (E⊗
H
F, M M) or the diagonal restriction (E⊗
H
F, M).
The qholomorphic and qantiholomorphic cotangent bundles A and B are both
AHbundles, and are AHsubbundles of H ⊗ T
∗
M. In fact, every AHbundle can be
regarded as an AHsubbundle of some bundle H⊗V , as is easy to demonstrate:
Lemma 6.3.2 Let E = (E, π, M) be an AHbundle. Then E is isomorphic to an
AHsubbundle of H⊗V , for some real vector bundle (V, π
1
, M).
Proof. This is an extension of the fact that any AHmodule W is isomorphic to ι
W
(W) ⊆
H ⊗ (W
†
)
∗
. Consider the map ι
E
x
(E
x
) : E
x
→ H ⊗ (E
†
x
)
∗
for x ∈ M. Let V
x
= (E
†
x
)
∗
.
Then V =
x∈M
V
x
is a real vector bundle, and H ⊗ V is an AHbundle. Thus E is
isomorphic to the AHsubbundle
_
x∈M
ι
E
x
(E
x
) ⊆ H⊗V,
and the lemma is proved.
90
Abusing notation slightly, if E is an AHbundle we will often write ι
E
: E →
H⊗(E
†
)
∗
for the set of inclusion maps
x∈M
(ι
E
x
: E
x
→H⊗(E
†
x
)
∗
).
We could broaden our deﬁnition of an AHbundle, demanding only that E should be
a real vector bundle possessing a left Haction and a real subbundle E
such that (E
x
, E
x
)
is an AHmodule for all x ∈ M. The following example shows why this deﬁnition would
be unwieldy:
Example 6.3.3 Let M = R, and deﬁne a real vector bundle E = RH. Deﬁne a real
subspace E
⊂ E by
E
x
= ¸i
1
, i
2
+ xi
3
).
It is easy to check that (E
x
, E
x
) = X
i
3
−xi
2
as an AHmodule. Thus E is not an AH
bundle, since the ﬁbres E
x
and E
y
are not AHisomorphic for x ,= y. There is good
reason for excluding E from being an AHbundle. For example,
(E⊗
H
X
i
3
)
x
=
_
X
i
3
if x = 0
0 otherwise.
So despite the fact that E is a smooth vector bundle, E⊗
H
X
q
is not; if we considered
this broader class of objects to be ‘AHbundles’ then they would not be closed under the
tensor product.
Let V be a real vector bundle over the manifold M with ﬁbre R
k
, and let P
V
be the bundle of frames associated with V . Then P
V
is a principal bundle with ﬁbre
GL(k, R), and V = P
V
GL(k,R)
R
k
. In the same way, let E be an AHbundle with ﬁbre
W and let G = Aut
AH
(W). We can deﬁne a principal Gbundle P
E
associated with
E so that E = P
E
G
W. As we know, G will be a subgroup of GL(k, H). In most
cases, G will be signiﬁcantly smaller than GL(k, H). For example, if W = U
2j
for some
j then by Theorem 4.2.9 we have Hom
AH
(U
2j
, U
2j
)
∼
= R, so Aut
AH
(U
2j
) = R
∗
= R¸ ¦0¦
and P
E
is just a principal R
∗
bundle. Principal bundles associated with AHbundles
tend to be much smaller than those associated with real or complex vector bundles.
6.3.1 Connections on AHbundles
Deﬁnition 6.3.4 Let E be an AHbundle over M. An AHconnection on E is an
AHmorphism
∇
E
: C
∞
(M, E) −→C
∞
(M, E ⊗T
∗
M) = Ω
1
(M, E)
which satisﬁes the rule
∇
E
(f α) = df ⊗α + f ∇
E
α
for all α ∈ C
∞
(M, E), f ∈ C
∞
(M, H).
We will sometimes omit the subscript and just write ‘ ∇’ when the AHbundle E
is clearly implied. Let ∇ be an AHconnection on E. Then the map id ⊗(∇
†
E
)
∗
is
an AHconnection on H⊗(E
†
)
∗
which preserves ι
E
(E). Thus every AHconnection ∇
on E is equivalent to a connection (∇
†
)
∗
on the real vector bundle (E
†
)
∗
. We will not
distinguish between ∇ and (∇
†
)
∗
, but will write ∇ for both. This equivalence allows us
to construct AHconnections on tensor products, in very much the same way that Joyce
constructs the AHmorphism φ⊗
H
ψ from AHmorphisms φ and ψ [J1, Deﬁnition 4.4].
91
Lemma 6.3.5 Let (E, M) and (F, N) be AHbundles and let ∇
E
and ∇
F
be AH
connections on E and F. Then ∇
E
and ∇
F
induce an AHconnection ∇
E⊗
H
F
on the
AHbundle (E⊗
H
F, M N).
Proof. We regard ∇
E
as a connection on (E
†
)
∗
. The bundle ((E
†
)
∗
, M) extends
trivially to a bundle ((E
†
)
∗
, M N) over M N. Using the natural identiﬁcation
T
∗
(m,n)
(M N)
∼
= T
∗
m
M ⊕T
∗
n
N, deﬁne a diﬀerential operator ∇
E,M
on ((E
†
)
∗
, M N),
where ∇
E,M
diﬀerentiates only in the Mdirections of M N. In the same way deﬁne
a connection ∇
F,N
on ((F
†
)
∗
, M N) which diﬀerentiates only in the Ndirections.
Adding these gives a diﬀerential operator
∇
E,M
⊗id +id ⊗∇
F,N
: C
∞
((E
†
)
∗
⊗(F
†
)
∗
) −→C
∞
((E
†
)
∗
⊗(F
†
)
∗
⊗T
∗
(M N)).
This operator is a connection on the real vector bundle (E
†
)
∗
⊗ (F
†
)
∗
, so the operator
id ⊗(∇
E,M
⊗ id +id ⊗∇
F,N
) on the bundle (H ⊗ (E
†
)
∗
⊗ (F
†
)
∗
, M N) is an AH
connection.
Since ∇
E
is an AHconnection, the operator id ⊗∇
E,M
⊗id maps sections of ι
E
(E)⊗
(F
†
)
∗
to sections of ι
E
(E) ⊗(F
†
)
∗
⊗T
∗
(MN), and acts trivially on the (F
†
)
∗
factor;
thus id ⊗∇
E,M
⊗id maps sections of E⊗
H
F to sections of E⊗
H
F ⊗T
∗
(M N). The
same is true for id ⊗id ⊗∇
F,N
, and so the AHconnection id ⊗(∇
E,M
⊗ id +id ⊗∇
F,N
)
preserves the AHsubbundle (E⊗
H
F, MN), on which it is therefore an AHconnection.
We call this connection ∇
E⊗
H
F
.
If E and F are AHbundles over the same manifold M we can use Lemma 6.3.5 to
deﬁne an AHconnection on the diagonal bundle (M, E⊗
H
F).
This process can be described in terms of principal bundles.
3
Suppose that φ ∈
Aut
AH
(W) for some AHmodule W. Then φ induces a real linear isomorphism (φ
×
)
∗
:
(W
†
)
∗
→(W
†
)
∗
. In this way the action of G = Aut
AH
(W) on W gives rise to an action
on (W
†
)
∗
. Let E be an AHbundle with ﬁbre W, and let P be the associated principal
bundle with ﬁbre G, so that E = P
G
W. An AHconnection ∇
E
on E gives rise
to a connection D
P
on the principal bundle P, and vice versa. Since connections on
principal bundles always exist, we can use this to guarantee that every AHbundle has
an AHconnection.
Let F be another AHbundle with ﬁbre V , let H = Aut
AH
(V ) and let Q be the
associated principal bundle with ﬁbre H, so that F = Q
H
V . An AHconnection ∇
F
on F gives rise to a connection D
Q
on the principal bundle Q. Consider the principal
bundle P Q, a bundle over M N with ﬁbre G H. Since G acts on (W
†
)
∗
and
H acts on (V
†
)
∗
, there is an induced action of G H on W⊗
H
V . The AHbundle
(E⊗
H
F, MN) is the associated bundle (P Q)
G×H
W⊗
H
V . Since the connections
D
P
and D
Q
deﬁne a unique connection D
P
⊕D
Q
on the product bundle P Q, this
gives rise to a connection on the associated bundle E⊗
H
F. Since G H acts as AH
automorphisms on W⊗
H
V , this induced connection is an AHconnection, which we can
identify with the AHconnection ∇
E⊗
H
F
of Lemma 6.3.5.
3
A similar discussion for connections in complex vector bundles can be found in [K, ¸1.5].
92
6.4 Qholomorphic AHbundles
Using complex geometry as a model, we deﬁne a qholomorphic AHbundle over a
hypercomplex manifold M to be one which is holomorphic with respect to each complex
structure Q ∈ S
2
. An AHbundle is qholomorphic if and only if it admits a connection
whose curvature takes values only in E
2,0
= Λ
2
−
. We deﬁne the qholomorphic sections of
a qholomorphic vector bundle using a version of the CauchyRiemannFueter equations.
Qholomorphic sections have interesting algebraic properties, which generalise those of
Joyce’s qholomorphic functions. We give an interpretation of qholomorphic sections in
terms of quaternionic algebra and the qholomorphic cotangent space, which makes the
stepbystep correspondence with complex geometry extremely clear.
Here is the main deﬁnition of this section:
Deﬁnition 6.4.1 Let E be an AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M, equipped
with an AHconnection ∇. Suppose that ∇ gives E the structure of a holomorphic
vector bundle over the complex manifold (M, Q) for all Q ∈ S
2
. Then (E, ∇) is a
qholomorphic AHbundle.
If we want to be really speciﬁc we can write (E, π, M, ∇) for our qholomorphic
bundle; on the other hand, if a connection is already speciﬁed, we can simply refer to
the total space E as a qholomorphic AHbundle. The existence of such a connection
ensures that the diﬀerent holomorphic structures are compatible. A lot can be learned
about qholomorphic AHbundles by studying the connection ∇.
6.4.1 Antiselfdual connections and qholomorphic AHbundles
Let E be a complex vector bundle over the complex manifold (M, I) and let ∇ be
a connection on E. Just as we split the exterior diﬀerential d = ∂ + ∂, we can deﬁne
∂
E
= π
1,0
◦∇ : C
∞
(E) →C
∞
(E⊗Λ
1,0
M) and ∂
E
= π
0,1
◦∇ : C
∞
(E) →C
∞
(E⊗Λ
0,1
M).
Proposition 6.4.2 The connection ∇ gives E the structure of a holomorphic vector
bundle if and only if ∂
E
◦ ∂
E
= 0, i.e. the (0, 2)component of the curvature R of
∇ vanishes. Conversely, if E is a holomorphic vector bundle then E admits such a
connection.
Proof. This is Propositions 3.5 and 3.7 of [K, p. 9].
Let E be a qholomorphic AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M, so E has
the structure of a holomorphic vector bundle over (M, Q) for every complex structure
Q ∈ S
2
. Let ∇ be a connection on E and let R be the curvature of ∇. Each
Q ∈ S
2
deﬁnes a splitting ∇ = ∂
E
Q
+∂
E
Q
, and so a decomposition of the curvature tensor
R = R
2,0
Q
+ R
1,1
Q
+ R
0,2
Q
. By Proposition 6.4.2, ∇ deﬁnes a holomorphic structure on
E with respect to Q if and only if R
0,2
Q
≡ 0. If we reverse the sense of Q then we
reverse the decomposition of R, so R
0,2
−Q
= R
2,0
Q
. Thus ∇ gives E the structure of a
holomorphic vector bundle with respect to every Q ∈ S
2
if and only if R
2,0
Q
= R
0,2
Q
= 0
for all Q ∈ S
2
, i.e. the curvature of ∇ is of type (1, 1) with respect to all Q ∈ S
2
.
93
A 2form ω is of type (1, 1) with respect to every Q ∈ S
2
if and only if it is
annihilated by the action of sp(1) on Λ
2
T
∗
M, so ω ∈ E
2,0
⊂ Λ
2
T
∗
M. By analogy
with the 4dimensional theory (see Example 3.2.6), we call E
2,2
the space of selfdual
2forms Λ
2
+
and E
2,0
the space of antiselfdual 2forms Λ
2
−
. A connection ∇ whose
curvature R takes values only in C
∞
(End(E)⊗E
2,0
) is therefore called an antiselfdual
connection.
Several authors have considered selfdual and antiselfdual connections, particulary
on quaternionic K¨ahler manifolds: for example Galicki and Poon [GP], Nitta [N] and
Mamone Capria and Salamon [MS]. This is partly because such connections give minima
of a YangMills funtional on M. It is important to note that Mamone Capria and
Salamon refer to the bundle E
2,0
as selfdual rather than antiselfdual, and so refer
to connections taking values in E
2,0
as selfdual connections. There is no unanimous
convention in the literature: our choice is made because we are using the conventions
that I
j
(e
0
) = e
j
not −e
j
, and that the volume form e
0123
gives a positive orientation of
H.
We have established the following result:
Theorem 6.4.3 Let E be an AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M equipped
with an antiselfdual AHconnection nabla. Then (E, ∇) is a qholomorphic AH
bundle.
Conversely, an AHbundle E equipped with an AHconnection ∇ is qholomorphic
if and only if ∇ is antiselfdual.
This is similar to the idea of hyperholomorphic bundles described by Verbitsky [V, ¸2].
Verbitsky considers the case where B is a Hermitian vector bundle over a hyperk¨ahler
manifold, so the ﬁbres of such a bundle are not normally Hmodules. There is no reason
why his deﬁnition cannot be extended to hypercomplex manifolds, since as we have seen,
the Hermitian inner product is not necessary to force the connection to be antiself
dual if it is to be compatible with the 2sphere of holomorphic structures. If E is a
qholomorphic AHbundle then it is easy to see that H ⊗ (E
†
)
∗
is also qholomorphic,
and (E
†
)
∗
⊗ C is a hyperholomorphic bundle. Conversely, if B is a hyperholomorphic
bundle with a real structure σ such that B = B
σ
⊗C, then H⊗B
σ
is a qholomorphic
AHbundle. Any AHsubbundle E of H⊗B
σ
which is preserved by the antiselfdual
connection ∇ will also be qholomorphic.
The following Proposition gives further insight into the analogy between holomorphic
and qholomorphic bundles:
Proposition 6.4.4 Let (E, π, M, ∇) be a qholomorphic AHbundle over the hypercom
plex manifold M. Then E is itself a hypercomplex manifold.
Proof. Consider the splitting of TE into horizontal and vertical subbundles TE
∼
=
E ⊕TM, where the vertical subbundle E is naturally deﬁned by the structure of E as
an AHbundle and the horizontal subbundle TM is deﬁned by the connection.
Deﬁne a hypercomplex structure (I
1
, I
2
, I
3
) on TE as follows. On the vertical
subbundle isomorphic to E, the action of I
1
, I
2
and I
3
is given by the ﬁxed left Haction
of i
1
, i
2
and i
3
on the ﬁbres. On the horizontal subbundle isomorphic to TM, deﬁne
94
the hypercomplex structure (I
1
, I
2
, I
3
) to be the horizontal lift of the hypercomplex
structure on M. This deﬁnes an almosthypercomplex structure on E. The integrability
of this structure is guaranteed by the fact that (E, I
j
) is a holomorphic vector bundle
for j = 1, 2, 3.
Example 6.4.5 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. Then the Obata connection
∇ on T
∗
M is antiselfdual and deﬁnes an antiselfdual AHconnection on H⊗T
∗
M,
which is thus a qholomorphic AHbundle. Let A ⊂ H ⊗ T
∗
M be the qholomorphic
cotangent space of M,
A = ¦ω
0
+ i
1
⊗ω
1
+ i
2
⊗ω
2
+ i
3
⊗ω
3
: ω
0
+ I
1
ω
1
+ I
2
ω
2
+ I
3
ω
3
= 0, ω
j
∈ T
∗
M¦.
Let a = a
0
+i
1
a
1
+i
2
a
2
+i
3
a
3
∈ C
∞
(M, A). Then ∇a
0
+I
1
(∇a
1
)+I
2
(∇a
2
)+I
3
(∇a
3
) = 0
(where I
1
, I
2
and I
3
act on the A factor of A⊗T
∗
M ), since ∇I
j
= 0 for j = 1, 2, 3. It
follows that ∇a ∈ C
∞
(A⊗T
∗
M). Hence the Obata connection deﬁnes an AHconnection
on A. Since the Obata connection is antiselfdual, A is a qholomorphic AHbundle.
Example 6.4.6 Let E and F be qholomorphic AHbundles. Then so are the var
ious associated bundles E⊗
H
F, E ⊕ F, Λ
k
H
E and so on, all with their induced AH
connections.
6.4.2 Qholomorphic sections
Qholomorphic sections of AHbundles are deﬁned using a version of the CauchyRiemann
Fueter equations. We cannot automatically rewrite Equation (6.7) to deﬁne a Cauchy
RiemannFueter operator on a general AHbundle E, because the ﬁbres of E will not
in general have a welldeﬁned right Haction. Instead, we use the inclusion map ι
E
to
manipulate sections of e in a more manageable form.
Deﬁnition 6.4.7 Let E be an AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M equipped
with an AHconnection ∇. Let e ∈ C
∞
(M, E) so that ι
E
(e) = e
0
+ i
1
e
1
+ i
2
e
2
+ i
3
e
3
,
e
j
∈ C
∞
(M, (E
†
))
∗
. Then e is a qholomorphic section of E if and only if
∇e
0
+ I
1
(∇e
1
) + I
2
(∇e
2
) + I
3
(∇e
3
) = 0, (6.12)
where I
1
, I
2
and I
3
act on the T
∗
M factor of E ⊗T
∗
M.
Let T(M, E) = T(E) be the space of qholomorphic sections of E. Let T(E)
=
T(E) ∩ C
∞
(M, E
) so that T(E) is an AHsubmodule of C
∞
(M, E).
Qholomorphic sections are the natural generalisation of qholomorphic functions,
which are precisely the qholomorphic sections of the trivial bundle M H equipped
with the ﬂat connection. So T
M
= T(M H).
A general AHbundle might have no qholomorphic sections. However, if the AH
bundle (E, ∇) is qholomorphic then E is holomorphic with respect to the complex
structure Q, and admits holomorphic sections. It is easy to adapt Lemma 6.1.3 to
show that the holomorphic sections of this holomorphic vector bundle give rise to q
holomorphic sections of E.
95
Not all qholomorphic AHbundles have interesting qholomorphic sections. For ex
ample, the qantiholomorphic cotangent space B ⊂ H⊗T
∗
M is closed under the action
of the Obata connection, and so is technically a qholomorphic AHbundle. Recall that
B = ¦ω −i
1
⊗I
1
(ω) −i
2
⊗I
2
(ω) −i
3
⊗I
3
(ω) : ω ∈ T
∗
M¦.
Let b = b
0
−i
1
I
1
b
0
−i
2
I
2
b
0
−i
3
I
3
b
0
∈ C
∞
(M, B), so b is qholomorphic if and only if
∇b
0
−I
1
∇I
1
b
0
−I
2
∇I
2
b
0
−I
3
∇I
3
b
0
= 0.
Since ∇I
j
= 0 and I
2
j
= −1, this equation is satisﬁed if and only if ∇b = 0, and the
AHbundle B admits no nontrivial qholomorphic sections. In fact, this follows from
the fact that B
= 0, and such behaviour is predicted and described by the algebra of
the quaternionic cotangent space.
Qholomorphic sections and the quaternionic cotangent space
Let E be a qholomorphic AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M. We can
describe the qholomorphic sections of E using the qholomorphic cotangent space, just
as we did for qholomorphic functions in the previous chapter. The inclusion map ι
E
and the AHconnection ∇ (regarded as a connection on (E
†
)
∗
) deﬁne an AHmorphism
∇ ◦ ι
E
: C
∞
(M, E) → C
∞
(M, H ⊗ (E
†
)
∗
⊗ T
∗
M). After swapping the H and (E
†
)
∗
factors, we have a copy of the quaternionic cotangent space H ⊗ T
∗
M, which we can
split into the qholomorphic and qantiholomorphic spaces A and B. Thus we have a
map ∇◦ ι
E
: C
∞
(M, E) → C
∞
(M, (E
†
)
∗
⊗ (A ⊕ B)). We can now use the projections
π
A
and π
B
of the previous chapter to split the action of ∇◦ ι
E
into two operators.
Deﬁnition 6.4.8 Let (E, ∇) be a qholomorphic AHbundle. We deﬁne the pair of
operators δ
E
: C
∞
(E) →C
∞
((E
†
)
∗
⊗A) and
¯
δ
E
: C
∞
(E) →C
∞
((E
†
)
∗
⊗B) by
δ
E
= (id
(E
†
)
∗ ⊗π
A
) ◦ ∇◦ ι
E
and
¯
δ
E
= (id
(E
†
)
∗ ⊗π
B
) ◦ ∇◦ ι
E
.
Hence we regard E as a subspace of H ⊗ (E
†
)
∗
, and then the action of ∇ on E
splits into a qholomorphic part δ
E
and a qantiholomorphic part
¯
δ
E
so that in eﬀect
∇ = δ
E
+
¯
δ
E
. This is an exact analogue of the complex case where a connection ∇
splits as ∇ = π
1,0
◦ ∇ + π
0,1
◦ ∇. Let V be a holomorphic vector bundle with a
connection ∇ compatible with the holomorphic structure, so that ∂
E
= ∂. A section
v ∈ C
∞
(V ) is holomorphic if and only if π
0,1
◦ ∇(s) = 0. In just the same way, the
operator e →∇e
0
+I
1
(∇e
1
) +I
2
(∇e
2
) +I
3
(∇e
3
) of Deﬁnition 6.4.7 is precisely the real
part of
¯
δ
E
, and a section e ∈ C
∞
(E) is qholomorphic if and only if
¯
δ
E
(e) = 0.
This analogy goes further. In complex geometry, a section v ∈ C
∞
(V ) is holomorphic
if and only if ∂v = 0, which means that ∇v ∈ C
∞
(V ⊗
C
Λ
1,0
M). Here is the quaternionic
analogue of this statement:
96
Proposition 6.4.9 Let (E, π, M, ∇) be a qholomorphic AHbundle, and let e ∈ C
∞
(E)
be a qholomorphic section. Then
∇◦ ι
E
(e) ∈ C
∞
(E⊗
H
A),
where A is the qholomorphic cotangent space of M.
Proof. Let e be qholomorphic, so
¯
δ
E
(e) = 0 and ∇◦ ι
E
(e) = δ
E
(e) ∈ C
∞
(H⊗(E
†
)
∗
⊗
T
∗
M). Using the identiﬁcation (A
†
)
∗
∼
= T
∗
M we can regard δ
E
(e) as a section of
H⊗(E
†
)
∗
⊗(A
†
)
∗
.
The induced connection ∇ on (E
†
)
∗
preserves ι
E
(E), so δ
E
(e) ∈ C
∞
(ι
E
(E)⊗(A
†
)
∗
).
Clearly δ
E
(e) ∈ C
∞
((E
†
)
∗
⊗ι
A
(A)), since δ
E
is deﬁned by projection to this subspace.
Thus ∇◦ ι
E
(e) ∈ C
∞
(E⊗
H
A), by Deﬁnition 4.1.4.
In complex geometry, a holomorphic section v of a holomorphic vector bundle V is
one whose covariant derivative ∇v takes values in the complex tensor product of V with
the holomorphic cotangent space. In hypercomplex geometry, a qholomorphic section e
of a qholomorphic vector bundle E is one whose covariant derivative ∇e takes values
in the quaternionic tensor product of E with the qholomorphic cotangent space.
6.4.3 Sections of Tensor Products
For real and complex vector bundles, there is a natural inclusion C
∞
(M, E) ⊗C
∞
(N, F)
→C
∞
(MN, E⊗F) given by (e⊗f)(m, n) = e(m)⊗f(n). The quaternionic analogue
of this map is more delicate. Let E and F be AHbundles. We want to deﬁne an AH
morphism φ : C
∞
(M, E)⊗
H
C
∞
(N, F) → C
∞
(M N, E⊗
H
F). The obvious diﬃculty
is that for sections e and f of E and F respectively, there will not in general be a
section e⊗
H
f of the AHbundle (E⊗
H
F, M N). Instead we use a generalisation of
Joyce’s map φ : T
M
⊗
H
T
N
→T
M×N
(Deﬁnition 6.1.6).
Consider ﬁrst the ﬁbres E
m
and F
n
for m ∈ M and n ∈ N. Let α ∈ E
†
m
and
β ∈ F
†
n
. Deﬁne an AHmorphism α
m
: C
∞
(M, E) → H by α
m
(e) = α(e(m)) for all
e ∈ C
∞
(M, E). Then α
m
∈ C
∞
(M, E)
†
. Similarly, deﬁne the ‘evaluation at n ∈ N ’,
β
n
(f) = β(f(n)). Then β
n
∈ C
∞
(N, F)
†
. The operators α
m
and β
m
are generalisations
of Joyce’s θ
m
∈ C
∞
(M, H)
†
, introduced in Lemma 6.1.1. With Hvalued functions
(sections of M H), the evaluation map θ
m
generates the whole of H
†
m
∼
= R. For
more general AHbundles, we need to consider the combination of a point m at which
to evaluate sections, and an AHmorphism α ∈ E
†
m
, since we can no longer assume that
the map α = id generates the whole of E
†
m
.
For AHmodules U and V , recall the linear map λ
UV
: U
†
⊗ V
†
→ (U⊗
H
V )
†
of
Equation (6.2). Thus there are linear maps λ
E
m
,F
n
: E
†
m
⊗ F
†
n
→ (E
m
⊗
H
F
n
)
†
and
λ
C
∞
(M,E),C
∞
(N,F)
: C
∞
(M, E)
†
⊗C
∞
(N, F)
†
→(C
∞
(M, E)⊗
H
C
∞
(N, F))
†
.
Deﬁnition 6.4.10 Let ∈ C
∞
(M, E)⊗
H
C
∞
(N, F). Deﬁne φ
E,F
()(m, n) ∈ E
m
⊗
H
F
n
by the equation
λ
E
m
,F
n
(α ⊗β) φ
E,F
()(m, n) = λ
C
∞
(M,E),C
∞
(N,F)
(α
m
⊗β
n
)
for all m ∈ M, α ∈ E
†
m
and for all n ∈ N, β ∈ F
†
n
.
97
Thus φ
E,F
() deﬁnes a section of the AHbundle (E⊗
H
F, M N). By the same
arguments as in Deﬁnition 6.1.6, φ
E,F
() is smooth because it is a ﬁnite sum of smooth
sections, and so we have a linear map
φ
E,F
: C
∞
(M, E)⊗
H
C
∞
(M, F) →C
∞
(M N, E⊗
H
F).
It is easy to see that φ
E,F
is an injective AHmorphism. We shall call φ
E,F
the section
product map for AHbundles.
If e ∈ C
∞
(M, E) and f ∈ C
∞
(N, F) satisfy the conditions of Lemma 4.1.7 (so if
ι
E
(e) and ι
F
(f) both take values in C
q
for some q ∈ S
2
) then the section φ
E,F
(e⊗
H
f) is
the complex product of the sections, so φ(e⊗
H
f)(m, n) = e(m)⊗
H
f(n)
∼
= e(m) ⊗
C
q
f(n).
The section product map is the natural tool for relating tensor products of sections with
sections of tensor products and allows us to treat sections of more complicated AH
bundles using similar techniques to those used by Joyce for qholomorphic functions.
It is well known that sums and tensor products of holomorphic sections are themselves
holomorphic. The same is true for sums of qholomorphic sections, and there is an
analogous description for qholomorphic sections of quaternionic tensor products, using
the section product map φ
E,F
. This is a generalisation of the fact (Deﬁnition 6.1.6) that
φ : T
M
⊗
H
T
N
→T
M×N
.
Theorem 6.4.11 Let (E, π
1
, M, ∇
E
) and (F, π
2
, N, ∇
F
) be qholomorphic AHbundles,
and let T(M, E) ⊂ C
∞
(M, E) and T(N, F) ⊂ C
∞
(N, F) be the AHmodules of their
qholomorphic sections. Then
φ
E,F
: T(M, E)⊗
H
T(N, F) −→T(M N, E⊗
H
F),
where E⊗
H
F is equipped with the connection ∇
E⊗
H
F
, so the section product map takes
qholomorphic sections to qholomorphic sections.
Proof. Consider the antiselfdual connection ∇
E⊗
H
F
= id ⊗(∇
E,M
⊗ id +id ⊗∇
F,N
).
Then ∇
E⊗
H
F
= δ
E⊗
H
F
+
¯
δ
E⊗
H
F
. Using the natural splitting T
∗
(MN)
∼
= T
∗
M⊕T
∗
N,
we see that
¯
δ
E⊗
H
F
=
¯
δ
E,M
⊗id +id ⊗
¯
δ
F,N
, where
¯
δ
E,M
diﬀerentiates sections of ι
E
(E) in
the M directions and then projects to the qantiholomorphic cotangent space of MN,
and similarly for
¯
δ
F,N
.
Let ∈ T(E)⊗
H
T(F), and let φ
E,F
() ∈ C
∞
(MN, E⊗
H
F), where φ
E,F
is the sec
tion product map of Deﬁnition 6.4.10. Since ∈ ι
P(E)
(T(E)) ⊗(T(F)
†
)
∗
, it follows that
(
¯
δ
E,M
⊗id)(φ
E,F
()) = 0. Similarly, (id ⊗
¯
δ
F,N
)(φ
E,F
()) = 0. Hence
¯
δ
E⊗
H
F
(φ
E,F
()) = 0,
and φ
E,F
() is qholomorphic.
Just as for qholomorphic functions, when M = N we can restrict to the diagonal
bundle (E⊗
H
F, M). The restriction map ρ clearly preserves qholomorphic sections,
and we obtain a natural product ρ ◦ φ
E,F
: T(M, E)⊗
H
T(M, F) → T(M, E⊗
H
F). In
particular, let E be a qholomorphic AHbundle over M, let T(E) be the AHmodule
of qholomorphic sections of E and let T
M
= T(H) be the Halgebra of qholomorphic
functions on M. Then by Theorem 6.4.11, we have a natural AHmorphism
ρ ◦ φ
H,E
: T
M
⊗
H
T(E) −→T(H⊗
H
E)
∼
= T(E). (6.13)
We can descibe such an algebraic situation by saying that T(E) is an Halgebra module
over T
M
. Here is the deﬁnition of an Halgebra module:
98
Axiom M. (i) Q is an AHmodule and (T, µ
P
) is an Halgebra.
(ii) There is an AHmorphism µ
Q
: T⊗
H
Q → Q, called the module
multiplication map.
(iii) The maps µ
P
and µ
Q
combine to give AHmorphisms µ
P
⊗
H
id and
id ⊗
H
µ
Q
: T⊗
H
T⊗
H
Q → T⊗
H
Q. Composing with µ
Q
gives AH
morphisms µ
Q
◦ (µ
P
⊗
H
id) and µ
Q
◦ (id ⊗
H
µ
Q
) : T⊗
H
T⊗
H
Q →Q.
Then µ
Q
◦(µ
P
⊗
H
id) = µ
Q
◦(id ⊗
H
µ
Q
). This is associativity of module
multiplication.
(iv) For u ∈ Q, 1⊗
H
u ∈ T⊗
H
Q by Lemma 4.1.7. Then µ
Q
(1⊗
H
u) = u
for all u ∈ Q. Thus 1 acts as an identity on Q.
Deﬁnition 6.4.12 Q is an Halgebra module if Q satisﬁes Axiom M.
The idea of an Halgebra module was suggested by Joyce, and the axioms follow a
very similar pattern to those for an Halgebra (Deﬁnition 6.1.4). It is relatively easy
to see that the qholomorphic sections T(E) of a qholomorphic AHbundle form an
Halgebra module over the Halgebra T
M
, the module multiplication map being the
section product map φ
H,E
of Equation (6.13). The proof of this statement is obtained
by adapting Joyce’s proof that the qholomorphic functions T
M
form an Halgebra [J1,
Theorem 5.5].
One possible application of this idea is to study antiselfdual connections (instantons)
on H. Diﬀerent connections will give rise to diﬀerent Halgebra modules of qholomorphic
sections. This suggests that the theory of Halgebra modules over T
H
might lead to an
algebraic description of instantons on H.
99
Chapter 7
Quaternion Valued Forms and
Vector Fields
This ﬁnal chapter uses the algebra and geometry developed so far to describe quaternion
valued tensors on hypercomplex manifolds. On a hypercomplex manifold we have global
complex structures, which allows us to adapt the realvalued double complex of Chapter
3 to decompose quaternionvalued forms. The splitting H ⊗ T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕ B of the
previous chapter is the ﬁrst example of this type of decomposition. More generally, for
all k and r we obtain a splitting of H⊗E
k,r
into two AHbundles. This decomposition
gives rise to a double complex of quaternionvalued forms on hypercomplex manifolds,
which has some advantages over the realvalued double complex. Not only the top row
but the top two rows of the quaternionvalued double complex are elliptic, and in four
dimensions the whole complex is elliptic. The top row of the quaternionvalued double
complex is particularly wellbehaved, and can be constructed using quaternionic algebra.
This allows us to deﬁne qholomorphic kforms, and to describe their algebraic structure
using ideas from the previous chapter.
A similar approach to quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds is also fruitful. Just as with
the quaternionic cotangent space, there is a splitting of the quaternionic tangent space
H⊗TM using which we deﬁne a hypercomplex version of the ‘(1, 0) vector ﬁelds’ on a
complex manifold. These vector ﬁelds are closed under the Lie bracket (suitably adapted
to the quaternionic situation). This encourages us to adapt the axioms for a Lie algebra
to form a quaternionic version, in a similar way to that in which Joyce arrived at H
algebras. The Lie bracket on hypercomplex manifolds deﬁnes a natural operation on
vector ﬁelds which satisﬁes these axioms.
In recent times, Spindel et al. [SSTP] and Joyce [J3] demonstrated the existence of in
variant hypercomplex structures on certain compact Lie groups and their homogeneous
spaces. This discovery presents us with lots of examples of ﬁnitedimensional quater
nionic Lie algebras. We use this idea to calculate the quaternionic cohomology groups of
the group U(2), and suggest how these methods may be extended to higherdimensional
hypercomplex Lie groups.
100
7.1 The Quaternionvalued Double Complex
In Chapter 3, we saw how the realvalued exterior forms Λ
k
T
∗
M on a quaternionic
manifold M are acted upon by the principal Sp(1)bundle Q of local almost complex
structures on M. Recall that the subbundle of Λ
k
T
∗
M consisting of V
r
type represen
tations is denoted E
k,r
= ε
n
k,r
V
r
.
Suppose in addition that M is hypercomplex, and so possesses global complex struc
tures I
1
, I
2
and I
3
= I
1
I
2
(in other words, Q is the trivial bundle MSp(1) ). Instead
of just real or complex forms (which we can think of as taking values in the trivial repre
sentation V
0
), consider forms taking values in some Sp(1)representation W, i.e. sections
of the bundle W ⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M. Since the Sp(1)action on Λ
k
T
∗
M is now deﬁned by global
complex structures, we can take the diagonal action under which the subspace W ⊗E
k,r
splits according to the ClebschGordon formula.
The situation in which we are particularly interested is that of forms taking values
in the quaternions H = V
L
1
⊗ V
R
1
. As suggested in Section 3.4, we obtain splittings by
coupling the right Sp(1)action on H with the Sp(1)action on Λ
k
T
∗
M. In symbols, this
takes the form
H⊗E
k,r
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗ε
n
k,r
V
G
r
∼
= ε
n
k,r
V
L
1
⊗(V
RG
r+1
⊕V
RG
r−1
). (7.1)
Proposition 7.1.1 Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold. The AHbundle H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M
decomposes as
H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M
∼
= V
L
1
⊗
_
k+1
r=0
(ε
n
k,r+1
+ ε
n
k,r−1
)V
RG
r
_
,
where r ≡ k + 1 mod 2.
Proof. By Proposition 3.2.1, we have
H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗
_
k
r=0
ε
n
k,r
V
G
r
_
,
where the ‘Sp (1)
G
action’ is the action of Sp(1) on Λ
k
T
∗
M induced by the hypercomplex
structure. Taking the diagonal Sp(1)
RG
action using the ClebschGordon formula, this
becomes
H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M
∼
= V
L
1
⊗
_
k
r=0
ε
n
k,r
(V
RG
r+1
⊕V
RG
r−1
)
_
. (7.2)
Collecting together the V
r
representations yields the formula in the Proposition.
Deﬁnition 7.1.2 Deﬁne F
k,r
to be the subspace (ε
n
k,r+2
+ε
n
k,r
)V
1
⊗V
r+1
⊆ H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M.
The primed part of the space F
k,r
is obtained using the theory of Chapter 5. As in
Equation 5.10, Equation 7.1 is a decomposition of H ⊗ E
k,r
into stable and antistable
AHmodules. (This is a generalisation of the splitting H ⊗ T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕ B.) Deﬁning
F
k,r
= F
k,r
∩ (I ⊗ Λ
k
T
∗
M), the space F
k,r
is an AHsubbundle of H ⊗ (F
†
k,r
)
∗
= H ⊗
101
(E
k,r+2
⊕ E
k,r
), and each (ﬁbre of the) AHbundle F
k,r
is the direct sum of stable and
antistable components. The splitting
H⊗E
k,r
∼
= ε
n
k,r
V
L
1
⊗(V
RG
r+1
⊕V
RG
r−1
)
gives an Hmodule isomorphism
H⊗E
k,r
∼
=
_
_
_
ε
n
k,r
U
r
⊕ε
n
k,r
U
×
r−2
for r even
1
2
ε
n
k,r
U
r
⊕
1
2
ε
n
k,r
U
×
r−2
for r odd.
(7.3)
As with the decomposition H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= A⊕B, these are not AHisomorphisms because
some of the primed part is lost in the splitting. We give names to these spaces as follows
(where as usual a = 1 if n is even and a = 2 if n is odd):
Deﬁnition 7.1.3 Deﬁne F
↑
k,r
to be the AHbundle
1
a
ε
n
k,r
U
r
⊆ H ⊗ E
k,r
. Deﬁne F
↓
k,r
to be the AHbundle
1
a
ε
n
k,r+2
U
×
r
⊆ H ⊗ E
k,r+2
. Thus F
↑
k,r
is the U
r
type subspace of
H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M and F
↓
k,r
is the U
×
r
type subspace of H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M, so that
F
k,r
= F
↑
k,r
⊕F
↓
k,r
.
The qholomorphic cotangent space A is F
1,1
= F
↑
1,1
and the qantiholomorphic cotan
gent space B is F
1,−1
= F
↓
1,−1
.
With these deﬁnitions, we have (F
↑
k,r
†
)
∗
= (F
↓
k,r−2
†
)
∗
= E
k,r
, and H ⊗ E
k,r
∼
= F
↑
k,r
⊕
F
↓
k,r−2
. Just as with the splitting H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= A⊕B, there is an injective AHmorphism
F
↑
k,r
⊕F
↓
k,r−2
→H⊗E
k,r
which is an Hlinear isomorphism of the total spaces but is not injective on the primed
parts. A short calculation shows that
dimF
↑
k,r
= 2(r + 2)ε
n
k,r
dimF
↑
k,r
= (r + 3)ε
n
k,r
and
dimF
↓
k,r
= 2(r + 2)ε
n
k,r+2
dimF
↓
k,r
= (r + 1)ε
n
k,r+2
.
Since we can consider the bundles F
↑
k,r
and F
↓
k,r
separately, it may appear strange
to mix up the stable and antistable ﬁbres in the single bundle F
k,r
. However, it soon
becomes clear that exterior diﬀerentiation does not necessarily map stable ﬁbres to stable
ﬁbres or antistable ﬁbres to antistable ﬁbres, so in order to obtain a double complex it
is necessary to amalgamate the stable and antistable contributions.
The deﬁnition of the operators δ and
¯
δ of Section 6.2 can now be generalised to
cover the whole of H ⊗ Λ
•
T
∗
M, giving rise to a double complex of quaternionvalued
forms.
Deﬁnition 7.1.4 Let π
k,r
be the natural projection map π
k,r
: H ⊗ Λ
k
T
∗
M → F
k,r
.
Deﬁne the diﬀerential operators δ,
¯
δ : Ω
k
(M, H) →Ω
k+1
(M, H) by
δ : C
∞
(F
k,r
) →C
∞
(F
k+1,r+1
)
δ = π
k+1,r+1
◦ d
and
¯
δ : C
∞
(F
k,r
) →C
∞
(F
k+1,r−1
)
¯
δ = π
k+1,r−1
◦ d .
102
Theorem 7.1.5 The exterior derivative d maps C
∞
(M, F
k,r
) to C
∞
(M, F
k+1,r+1
⊕
F
k+1,r−1
), so
d = δ +
¯
δ.
It follows that
δ
2
= δ
¯
δ +
¯
δδ =
¯
δ
2
= 0.
and the decomposition H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M =
k+1
r=0
F
k,r
gives rise to a double complex.
Proof. The proof works in exactly the same way as that of Theorem 3.2.3. Let ∇ be
the Obata connection on M, so ∇ : C
∞
(M, F
k,r
) →C
∞
(M, F
k,r
⊗T
∗
M). Since
F
k,r
⊗T
∗
M = (ε
n
k,r+2
+ ε
n
k,r
)V
1
⊗V
r+1
⊗2nV
1
,
it follows (from the ClebschGordon splitting V
r+1
⊗2nV
1
∼
= 2n(V
r+2
⊕V
r
), followed by
the antisymmetrisation d = ∧◦∇) that d : C
∞
(M, F
k,r
) →C
∞
(M, F
k+1,r+1
⊕F
k+1,r−1
).
The rest of the theorem follows automatically.
Figure 7.1: The QuaternionValued Double Complex
C
∞
(M, F
0,0
= H)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
C
∞
(M, F
1,1
= A)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
C
∞
(M, F
1,−1
= B)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
δ
C
∞
(M, F
2,0
)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
C
∞
(M, F
2,2
)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
C
∞
(M, F
3,1
)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
C
∞
(M, F
3,3
)
r
r
r
r
r
rj
¯
δ
. . . . . . etc.
C
∞
(M, F
3,−1
)
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
δ
. . . . . . etc.
As already hinted, the operators δ and
¯
δ do not preserve stable or antistable sub
spaces. For example, though we have
¯
δ : F
k,r
→ F
k+1,r−1
, it is not the case that
¯
δ : F
↑
k,r
→F
↑
k+1,r−1
. This can be observed in the simplest of cases — a quaternionvalued
function f is a section of F
0,0
= F
↑
0,0
, and unless f is qholomorphic
¯
δf is a nonzero
section of F
↓
1,−1
.
Much of the theory from the realvalued double complex of Chapter 3 can be adapted
to describe the quaternionvalued version as well. For example, the operators δ and
¯
δ
can be expressed in a similar fashion to T and T, using the Casimir element technique
of Lemma 3.2.7. The Casimir operator in question is that of the diagonal Lie algebra
action given by the operators
1(ω) = I
1
(ω) −ωi
1
¸(ω) = I
2
(ω) −ωi
2
/(ω) = I
3
(ω) −ωi
3
.
103
of Equation (6.5). This leads to the following adaptation of Lemma 3.2.7:
Lemma 7.1.6 Let α ∈ C
∞
(F
k,r
). Then
δα = −
1
4
_
r +
1
r + 2
(1
2
+¸
2
+/
2
)
_
dα
and
¯
δα =
1
4
_
(r + 4) +
1
r + 2
(1
2
+¸
2
+/
2
)
_
dα.
The results on ellipticity in Section 3.3 can also be adapted to the new situation. We
can infer that the operator δ is elliptic except at the bottom spaces F
2k−1,−1
and F
2k,0
.
Again, the operator δ is elliptic at some of these lowestweight spaces for low exterior
powers; in particular the leading edge of spaces F
k,k
forms a complex which is elliptic
throughout. Closer examination also reveals that the ‘second row’ of spaces F
k,k−2
is
also an elliptic complex with respect to δ.
Lemma 7.1.7 The complex
0 −→C
∞
(F
1,−1
)
δ
−→C
∞
(F
2,0
)
δ
−→. . .
δ
−→C
∞
(F
2n+1,2n−1
)
δ
−→0
is elliptic.
Proof. Ellipticity at C
∞
(F
k,k−2
) for all k ≥ 3 follows from a generalisation of the
techniques used in the proof of Theorem 3.3.1. We need to show that the complex is
elliptic at C
∞
(F
1,−1
) = C
∞
(B) and C
∞
(F
2,0
). As in Section 3.3, it is enough to choose
some e
0
∈ T
∗
M and show that the symbol sequence
0 −→F
1,−1
σ
−→F
2,0
σ
−→F
3,1
σ
−→. . . etc.
is exact, where σ(ω) = σ
δ
(ω, e
0
) = π
k+1,r+1
(ωe
0
) for ω ∈ F
k,r
. (As usual ωe
0
means
ω ∧ e
0
.)
Since δ = d on F
1,−1
= B, we have σ(β) = βe
0
for all β ∈ B. It follows from the
expression for B in Equation (6.9) that σ : B → F
2,0
is injective, so the complex is
elliptic at B.
Let ω ∈ F
2,0
. Then σ(ω) = 0 if and only if ωe
0
∈ F
3,−1
, which is the case if and
only if 1(ωe
0
) = ¸(ωe
0
) = /(ωe
0
) = 0. The ﬁrst of these equations is
I
1
(ωe
0
) −ωe
0
i
1
= I
1
(ω)e
0
+ ωe
1
−ωe
0
i
1
= 0.
It follows by taking exterior product with e
0
that ωe
10
= 0. The same arguments for
¸ and / show that
σ(ω) = 0 =⇒ωe
10
= ωe
20
= ωe
30
= 0,
and so ωe
0
must be equal to zero and ω = γe
0
for some γ ∈ H⊗T
∗
M.
104
It remains to show that we can choose β ∈ B such that ω = βe
0
. Suppose instead
that ω = αe
0
, with α ∈ A. Since the complex is elliptic at A it follows that αe
0
∈ F
2,0
if and only if α = σ(q) =
1
4
q(3e
0
+ e
1
i
1
+ e
2
i
2
+ e
3
i
3
) for some q ∈ H. But then
αe
0
= βe
0
, where β =
1
4
q(−e
0
+e
1
i
1
+e
2
i
2
+e
3
i
3
) ∈ B. Hence we can ﬁnd β ∈ B such
that σ(ω) = 0 implies that ω = σ(β) for all ω ∈ F
2,0
, so the complex is exact at F
2,0
.
This completes the proof.
This is an unexpected bonus — on hypercomplex manifolds, the double complex of
quaternionvalued forms has not just one but two rows which with respect to the operator
δ are elliptic throughout, namely the top row F
k,k
and the second row F
k,k−2
.
Example 7.1.8 Quaternionvalued forms in four dimensions
Figure 7.2: The QuaternionValued Double Complex in Four Dimensions
F
0,0
= H
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
A
∼
= Z
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
B
∼
= U
×
−1
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
δ
F
2,0
∼
= 3H⊕H
×
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
r
r
r
r
r
rj
δ
¯
δ
Λ
2
H
A
∼
= Y
r
r
r
r
r
rj
¯
δ
F
3,1
∼
= Z
r
r
r
r
r
rj
¯
δ
F
3,−1
∼
= U
×
−1
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨
¨B
δ
F
4,0
∼
= H
In four dimensions the situation is particularly friendly towards quaternionvalued
forms, because the whole double complex is elliptic. To show this, choose a standard
basis of 1forms ¦e
0
, . . . , e
3
¦ for T
∗
M so that as usual I
j
(e
0
) = e
j
. Explicitly, we have
H⊗T
∗
M
∼
= F
1,1
⊕F
1,−1
, where
F
1,1
= A = ¦q
0
e
0
+ q
1
e
1
+ q
2
e
2
+ q
3
e
3
: q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦,
F
1,−1
= B = ¦q
0
e
0
+ q
1
e
1
+ q
2
e
2
+ q
3
e
3
: q
0
= q
1
i
1
= q
2
i
2
= q
3
i
3
¦.
Next, H⊗Λ
2
T
∗
M
∼
= F
2,2
⊕F
2,0
, where
F
2,2
= Λ
2
H
A = ¦q
1
e
01+23
+ q
2
e
02+31
+ q
3
e
03+12
: q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦,
F
2,0
= F
↑
2,0
⊕F
↓
2,0
= ¸e
01−23
, e
02−31
, e
03−12
)
H
⊕¦q
1
e
01+23
+ q
2
e
02+31
+ q
3
e
03+12
: q
1
i
1
= q
2
i
2
= q
3
i
3
¦.
Lastly, H⊗Λ
3
T
∗
M
∼
= F
3,1
⊕F
3,−1
, where
F
3,1
= ¦q
0
e
123
+ q
1
e
032
+ q
2
e
013
+ q
3
e
021
: q
0
+ q
1
i
1
+ q
2
i
2
+ q
3
i
3
= 0¦,
F
3,−1
= ¦q
0
e
123
+ q
1
e
032
+ q
2
e
013
+ q
3
e
021
: q
0
= q
1
i
1
= q
2
i
2
= q
3
i
3
¦.
It follows that the symbol map σ
δ
is an isomorphism between F
3,−1
and F
4,0
, and so
in four dimensions the entire quaternionvalued double complex is elliptic.
105
7.1.1 The Top Row Λ
k
H
A and Qholomorphic kforms
In contrast with the the role of the CauchyRiemann operator ∂ in the Dolbeault com
plex, the CauchyRiemannFueter operator
¯
δ in the quaternionvalued double complex
(Figure 7.1) does not begin a longer elliptic complex.
1
On the other hand, the operator
δ on functions does extend to give the elliptic complex
0 −→C
∞
(F
0,0
)
δ
−→C
∞
(F
1,1
)
δ
−→. . .
δ
−→C
∞
(F
2n,2n
)
δ
−→0.
This section discusses these top row spaces F
k,k
which are of particular interest.
In complex geometry the Hodge decomposition of forms results immediately from the
isomorphism C⊗T
∗
M
∼
= Λ
1,0
⊕Λ
0,1
and the isomorphism in exterior algebra Λ
k
(U⊕V ) =
p+q=k
Λ
p
U ⊗ Λ
q
V . With hypercomplex geometry we are not quite so lucky, since the
splitting A ⊕ B
∼
= H ⊗ T
∗
M is not an AHisomorphism but rather an injective AH
morphism which is not surjective on the primed parts. Despite the fact that we can
identify H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M with Λ
k
H
(H⊗T
∗
M), the induced AHmorphism
ι
k
: Λ
k
H
(A ⊕B) →H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M
is therefore not an isomorphism for k > 1. This is why we resort to our more complicated
analysis of the Sp(1)representation on H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M to discover the quaternionic version
of the Dolbeault complex. In spite of this, the inclusion map ι
k
is still of special interest,
because it describes explicitly the top row of the double complex.
Proposition 7.1.9 Let A be the qholomorphic cotangent space of a hypercomplex man
ifold M. The inclusion map ι
k
: Λ
k
H
(A⊕B) →H⊗T
∗
M identiﬁes Λ
k
H
A with the highest
space F
k,k
⊆ H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M.
Proof. There is a natural identiﬁcation Λ
k
H
(A ⊕B) =
p+q=k
(Λ
p
H
A⊗
H
Λ
q
H
B), and so
ι
k
:
p+q=k
Λ
p
H
A⊗
H
Λ
q
H
B →H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M.
Since B
= ¦0¦, B⊗
H
B = ¦0¦ and so Λ
k
H
B = ¦0¦ for k > 1 ; also A⊗
H
B = ¦0¦. Thus
Λ
k
H
(A ⊕ B) = Λ
k
H
A for k > 1, and the map ι
k
: Λ
k
H
(A ⊕ B) → H ⊗ Λ
k
T
∗
M is none
other than the normal inclusion map ι : Λ
k
H
A → H ⊗ (Λ
k
H
A
†
)
∗
. It follows that there is
an AHsubmodule of H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M which is isomorphic to Λ
k
H
A.
Now, A
∼
= nU
1
, so by Theorem 5.2.1, Λ
k
H
A ⊆
k
H
A
∼
= mU
k
for some m. (Recall
that U
k
= aV
1
⊗V
n+1
where a = 1 for k even and a = 2 for k odd.) By Proposition
4.1.16, dimΛ
k
H
(nU
1
) = 2(k + 2)
_
2n
k
_
. It follows that
Λ
k
H
A
∼
=
1
a
_
2n
k
_
U
k
=
_
2n
k
_
V
1
⊗V
k+1
. (7.4)
Thus ι
k
(Λ
k
H
A) must be a subspace of H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M of this form.
1
In 1991, Baston [Bas] succeeded in extending the CauchyRiemannFueter operator to a locally
exact complex with a diﬀerent construction involving second order operators.
106
From Deﬁnition 7.1.2, we see that F
k,k
=
_
2n
k
_
V
1
⊗ V
k+1
as well. Since there are no
other representations of this weight in H⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M, it follows that
ι
k
(Λ
k
H
A) = F
k,k
,
so there is a natural isomorphism ι
k
: Λ
k
H
A
∼
= F
k,k
.
Just as we deﬁne the qholomorphic cotangent space A as being a particular sub
module of H ⊗ T
∗
M, so that (A
†
)
∗
= T
∗
M, we identify its exterior powers with the
corresponding AHsubmodules of H ⊗ Λ
k
T
∗
M. Thus we will omit to write the ‘ ι
k
’,
writing Λ
k
H
A = F
k,k
and (Λ
k
H
A
†
)
∗
= E
k,k
.
In Section 6.2.1 we showed that the qholomorphic cotangent space A is generated
over H by the various holomorphic cotangent spaces (Corollary 6.2.7). We generalise
this result to higher exterior powers as follows:
Theorem 7.1.10
2
Let A be the qholomorphic cotangent space of a hypercomplex man
ifold M
4n
. Then
(id ⊗
H
χ
q
)(Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
X
q
) = H ι
q
(Λ
k,0
Q
).
It follows that
Λ
k
H
A =
Q∈S
2
H ι
q
(Λ
k,0
Q
),
i.e. the space Λ
k
H
A is generated over H by the spaces of (k, 0)forms Λ
k,0
Q
.
Proof. Since Λ
k
H
A
∼
=
_
2n
k
_
V
1
⊗ V
k+1
, it follows that Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
X
q
∼
=
_
2n
k
_
X
q
. This is AH
isomorphic to the submodule (id ⊗
H
χ
q
)(Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
X
q
) ⊂ Λ
k
H
A, which by Theorem 5.3.2 is
generated over H by the weightspaces of Q with extremal weight.
Consider the weights of the action of Q ∈ S
2
⊂ sp(1). The highestweight vectors in
C ⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M are the (k, 0)forms Λ
k,0
Q
, which are mapped to C
q
⊗Λ
k
T
∗
M by the map
ι
q
. Thus H ι
q
(Λ
k,0
Q
) ⊂ (id ⊗
H
χ
q
)(Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
X
q
), and since dim
C
Λ
k,0
Q
=
_
2n
k
_
we see that
H ι
q
(Λ
k,0
Q
) = (id ⊗
H
χ
q
)(Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
X
q
),
proving the ﬁrst part of the Theorem.
Since Λ
k
H
A is stable, it is generated by these subspaces. The result follows.
Just as the qholomorphic cotangent space A is our quaternionic analogue of the
holomorphic cotangent space T
∗
1,0
M, the AHbundle Λ
k
H
A is the quaternionic analogue
of the bundle of (k, 0)forms Λ
k,0
= Λ
k
C
T
∗
1,0
M. Both are formed in the same way using
exterior algebra over their respective ﬁelds, and both form the ‘top row’ of their double
complexes. This suggests a natural deﬁnition of a ‘qholomorphic kform’:
Deﬁnition 7.1.11 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. A quaternionvalued kform
ω ∈ Ω
k
(M, H) is qholomorphic if and only if ω ∈ C
∞
(M, Λ
k
H
A) and
¯
δω = 0. The
AHmodule of qholomorphic kforms on M will be written T
k
M
, so the Halgebra of
qholomorphic functions on M is T
0
M
= T
M
.
2
This theorem is really a quaternionic version of (Salamon’s) Equation 2.10, which is essentially the
same result for complexiﬁed kforms.
107
This gives rise to what we may call the qholomorphic de Rham complex
0 −→T
M
d=δ
−→T
1
M
d=δ
−→T
2
M
d=δ
−→. . .
d=δ
−→T
2n−1
M
d=δ
−→T
2n
M
d=δ
−→0. (7.5)
Just as (on a complex manifold) Λ
k,0
is a holomorphic vector bundle, it is easy to
see that (Λ
k
H
A, ∇) is a qholomorphic AHbundle where ∇ is (the connection induced
by) the Obata connection on M. The qholomorphic kforms T
k
M
are precisely the q
holomorphic sections T(Λ
k
H
A) of the AHbundle (Λ
k
H
A, ∇) as introduced in Deﬁnition
6.4.7, as the following Proposition demonstrates:
Proposition 7.1.12 A quaternionvalued kform ω ∈ C
∞
(M, Λ
k
H
A) satisﬁes the
equation
¯
δω = 0 if and only if ∇ω ∈ C
∞
(Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
A), i.e. ω is a qholomorphic section
of (Λ
k
H
A, ∇).
Proof. The ‘if’ part is automatic, since ∇ω ∈ C
∞
(Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
A) implies that dω = ∧◦∇ω ∈
C
∞
(Λ
k+1
H
A) and so
¯
δω = 0.
The reverse implication is nontrivial and depends upon analysing the Sp(1)
representation on Λ
k
H
A ⊗T
∗
M. Using Equation (7.4), we have
Λ
k
H
A ⊗T
∗
M
∼
=
_
2n
k
_
V
L
1
⊗V
M
k+1
⊗2nV
G
1
∼
= 2n
_
2n
k
_
V
L
1
⊗(V
MG
k+2
⊕V
MG
k
).
The bundle Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
A is precisely the higherweight subspace 2n
_
2n
k
_
V
L
1
⊗ V
GH
k+2
. The
complementary subspace 2n
_
2n
k
_
V
L
1
⊗ V
GH
k
is revealed by Proposition 7.1.1 to be none
other than the bundle F
k+1,k−1
⊂ H⊗Λ
k+1
T
∗
M. The component of ∇ω taking values
in F
k+1,k−1
is of course
¯
δω, the vanishing of which therefore guarantees that ∇ω ∈
C
∞
(Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
A).
The qholomorphic de Rham complex therefore inherits a a rich and interesting alge
braic structure. We have already noted that d : T
k
M
→T
k+1
M
. It follows from the theory
of qholomorphic sections that qholomorphic forms are closed under the tensor product.
Explicitly, let
φ
Λ
k
H
A,Λ
l
H
A
: C
∞
(M, Λ
k
H
A)⊗
H
C
∞
(M, Λ
l
H
A) −→C
∞
(M M, Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
Λ
l
H
A)
be the section product map (Deﬁnition 6.4.10). Deﬁne φ
k,l
to be the restriction to
C
∞
(M, Λ
k+l
H
A), brought about by the restriction ρ : M M → M to the diagonal
submanifold M
diag
⊂ MM followed by the skewing map ∧ : C
∞
(M, Λ
k
H
A⊗
H
Λ
l
H
A) →
C
∞
(M, Λ
k+l
H
A). It follows (from Theorem 6.4.11 and Proposition 7.1.12) that
φ
k,l
: T
k
M
⊗
H
T
l
M
−→T
k+l
M
.
Thus the Halgebra structure on the qholomorphic functions T
M
extends to one
on the qholomorphic kforms T
•
M
, and we say that T
•
M
forms a diﬀerential graded
Halgebra. It is well known that on a real or complex manifold M one can use exterior
products over R or C to give an algebraic structure to de Rham or Dolbeault cohomology,
which is often called the cohomology algebra of M. It may be that the diﬀerential graded
Halgebra structure on T
•
M
can be used to give a similar description of the quaternionic
cohomology of a hypercomplex manifold.
108
7.2 Vector Fields and Quaternionic Lie Algebras
Quaternionic algebra can also be used to describe vector ﬁelds on a hypercomplex man
ifold M. Using similar ideas to those of Section 6.2, we deﬁne a splitting of the quater
nionic tangent space H ⊗ TM
∼
=
´
A ⊕
´
B. Quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds which take
values in the subspace
´
A ⊂ H ⊗ TM turn out to be a good hypercomplex analogue of
the ‘ (1, 0) vector ﬁelds’ in complex geometry. In particular, an almost hypercomplex
structure is integrable if and only if these vector ﬁelds are closed under a quaternionic
version of the Lie bracket operator. This encourages us to treat these vector ﬁelds as a
quaternionic Lie algebra, a new concept which we proceed to deﬁne and explore.
7.2.1 Vector Fields on Hypercomplex Manifolds
As so often, we take our inspiration from complex geometry. An almost complex structure
I on a manifold M deﬁnes a splitting C ⊗ TM
∼
= T
1,0
M ⊕ T
0,1
M, where T
1,0
M is
the holomorphic and T
0,1
M the antiholomorphic tangent space of M. Let 1 be the
set of smooth vector ﬁelds on M. The Lie bracket is a bilinear map from 1 1 to
1. Let 1
1,0
= C
∞
(M, T
1,0
M) be the vector ﬁelds of type (1, 0) on M. The almost
complex structure I is integrable if and only if the Lie bracket preserves (1, 0) vector
ﬁelds, which is expressed by the inclusion
[1
1,0
, 1
1,0
] ⊆ 1
1,0
. (7.6)
The obstruction to this equation is the Nijenhuis tensor N
I
which measures the (0, 1)
component of the Lie bracket of two (1, 0) vector ﬁelds.
We present a similar theorem for quaternionic vector ﬁelds on hypercomplex mani
folds. Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold. We deﬁne a splitting of the quaternionic
tangent space H ⊗ TM, which is roughly dual to the splitting H ⊗ T
∗
M
∼
= A ⊕ B of
Section 6.2.
Deﬁnition 7.2.1 Let M
4n
be a hypercomplex manifold so that TM
∼
= 2nV
1
as an
Sp(1)representation. The quaternionic tangent space H ⊗ TM splits according to the
equation
H⊗TM
∼
= V
L
1
⊗V
R
1
⊗2nV
G
1
∼
= 2nV
L
1
⊗(V
RG
2
⊗V
RG
0
).
Deﬁne the AHsubbundles
´
A = 2nV
L
1
⊗V
RG
2
and
´
B = 2nV
L
1
⊗V
RG
0
, using the natural
deﬁnitions
´
A
=
´
A ∩ (I ⊗ TM) and
´
B
=
´
B ∩ (I ⊗ TM) = ¦0¦. Then
´
A is the
qholomorphic tangent bundle and
´
B is the qantiholomorphic tangent bundle of M.
This deﬁnition is perfectly natural, though not quite ideal from the point of view of
quaternionic algebra. We would like
´
A and
´
B to be dual to the cotangent spaces A
and B. However, whilst there are Hlinear bundle isomorphisms
´
A
∼
= A
×
and
´
B
∼
= B
×
,
these spaces are not isomorphic as AHbundles, nor is there any fruitful way to alter the
deﬁnitions to make them so.
The Lie bracket of vector ﬁelds is a bilinear map [ , ] : 1 1 →1, and so deﬁnes
a natural linear map λ : 1 ⊗1 →1. As with Halgebras, we will ﬁnd it much more
meaningful to talk about linear maps on tensor products, and we can use this formulation
to obtain a quaternionic analogue of Equation (7.6).
109
Deﬁnition 7.2.2 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold with qholomorphic tangent
space
´
A ⊂ H ⊗ TM. Let 1 = C
∞
(M, TM) be the vector space of smooth real vector
ﬁelds on M.
Deﬁne 1
H
= H⊗1 to be the AHmodule of smooth quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds
on M, so 1
H
= C
∞
(M, H⊗TM). Deﬁne 1
A
= C
∞
(M,
´
A) to be the AHsubmodule of
Hvalued vector ﬁelds on M taking values in
´
A ⊂ H ⊗ TM. We will refer to elements
of 1
A
as Atype vector ﬁelds.
The relationship between these vector ﬁelds and the map λ : 1 ⊗ 1 → 1 is par
ticularly interesting. Using the canonical isomorphism (H ⊗ TM)⊗
H
(H ⊗ TM)
∼
=
H ⊗ TM ⊗ TM, the Lie bracket deﬁnes an AHmorphism (which we shall also call
λ)
λ : 1
H
⊗
H
1
H
→1
H
,
which is eﬀectively a Lie bracket operation on quaternionic vector ﬁelds.
Here is the quaternionic version of Equation (7.6). The formulation and proof is
similar in spirit to Theorem 6.4.11.
Theorem 7.2.3 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold with qholomorphic tangent space
´
A, and let 1
A
denote the space of Atype vector ﬁelds on M. Then the Lie bracket λ
on quaternionic vector ﬁelds preserves 1
A
, so that
λ : 1
A
⊗
H
1
A
→1
A
.
Proof. To begin with, we use the section product map φ
A,
A
(Deﬁnition 6.4.10) to regard
elements of 1
A
⊗
H
1
A
as sections in C
∞
(
´
A⊗
H
´
A) ⊂ C
∞
(H⊗TM ⊗TM).
Let v
j
, w
j
∈ 1 be vector ﬁelds such that
j
q
j
⊗v
j
⊗w
j
∈ C
∞
(
´
A⊗
H
´
A), which means
that
q
j
⊗v
j
,
q
j
⊗w
j
∈ 1
A
. We want to ﬁnd an expression for λ(
q
j
⊗v
j
⊗w
j
) =
q
j
⊗[v
j
, w
j
].
The Obata connection ∇ is an AHconnection on
´
A (and in fact is antiselfdual, so
that
´
A is a qholomorphic AHbundle). Thus ∇(
q
j
⊗w
j
) is an element of C
∞
(
´
A ⊗
T
∗
M). Contracting the T
∗
Mfactor with v
j
∈ TM, it follows that
q
j
⊗∇
v
j
w
j
∈ 1
A
,
and similarly
q
j
⊗∇
w
j
v
j
∈ 1
A
.
Since ∇ is torsionfree, the Lie bracket [v
j
, w
j
] is given by the diﬀerence ∇
v
j
w
j
−∇
w
j
v
j
.
It follows immediately that
λ
_
q
j
⊗v
j
⊗w
j
_
=
q
j
⊗(∇
v
j
w
j
−∇
w
j
v
j
) ∈ 1
A
,
proving the theorem.
110
The reason why the hypercomplex structure must be integrable to obtain this result
is that the integrability of I, J, and K ensures that the connection ∇ with ∇I =
∇J = ∇K = 0 is torsionfree, and otherwise we would not have [v, w] = ∇
v
w −∇
w
v.
Another way to understand this result is in terms of the decomposition of tensors
with respect to diﬀerent complex structures. Just as in Theorem 7.1.10, the bundle
´
A
is generated over H by the tensors of type (1, 0) with respect to the diﬀerent complex
structures, and the bundle
´
A⊗
H
´
A is generated by the tensors of type (2, 0). In other
words, we have
´
A =
Q∈S
2
H ι
q
(T
1,0
Q
M) and
´
A⊗
H
´
A =
Q∈S
2
H ι
q
(T
1,0
Q
M ⊗T
1,0
Q
M).
If every complex structure Q ∈ S
2
is integrable, we have
[1
1,0
Q
, 1
1,0
Q
] ⊆ 1
1,0
Q
for all Q ∈ S
2
, where 1
1,0
Q
denotes the vector ﬁelds which are of type (1, 0) with
respect to the complex structure Q. Since the ﬁbres of
´
A are stable, it follows that the
Lie bracket must map sections of
´
A⊗
H
´
A to sections of
´
A.
7.2.2 Quaternionic Lie Algebras
The result of the previous section encourages us to think of the vector ﬁelds 1
A
as a
quaternionic Lie algebra with respect to the Lie bracket map λ. We describe this idea as
an abstract algebraic structure, and see how it ﬁts in with some of Joyce’s other algebraic
structures over the quaternions.
As always, we do not talk about bilinear maps, but rather about linear maps on
tensor products. A quaternionic Lie algebra will be an AHmodule A together with an
AHmorphism λ : A⊗
H
A →A, whose properties reﬂect those of a Lie bracket on a real
or complex vector space: namely antisymmetry and the Jacobi identity. Here are the
axioms for a quaternionic Lie algebra:
Axiom QL. (i) A is an AHmodule and there is an AHmorphism λ = λ
A
: A⊗
H
A →
A called the Lie bracket.
(ii) S
2
H
A ⊂ ker λ. Thus λ is antisymmetric.
(iii) The composition λ ◦ (id ⊗
H
λ) deﬁnes an AHmorphism from
A⊗
H
A⊗
H
A to A such that Λ
3
H
A ⊂ ker(λ ◦ (id ⊗
H
λ)). This is the
Jacobi identity for λ.
Deﬁnition 7.2.4 The pair (A, λ) is a quaternionic Lie algebra if it satisﬁes Axiom QL.
We will often refer to A itself as a quaternionic Lie algebra when the map λ is
understood. Axiom QL(iii) is probably the least familiarlooking of these axioms. By
way of explanation, let (V, λ) be a real or complex Lie algebra. Then in terms of tensor
products the Jacobi identity is
λ ◦ (id ⊗λ)(x ⊗y ⊗z + y ⊗z ⊗x + z ⊗x ⊗y) = 0.
111
Since we can identify x⊗y−y⊗x with x∧y, we see that the Jacobi identity is equivalent
to the condition that λ ◦ (id ⊗λ)(x ∧ y ∧ z) = 0, so that Λ
3
V ⊂ ker(λ ◦ (id ⊗λ)).
Example 7.2.5 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. The space of quaternionvalued
vector ﬁelds 1
H
is a quaternionic Lie algebra with respect to the Lie bracket operator
λ : 1
H
⊗
H
1
H
→1
H
. Axiom QL follows from the corresponding identities satisﬁed by the
Lie bracket on real vector ﬁelds.
Theorem 7.2.3 now shows that the Atype vector ﬁelds 1
A
form a quaternionic Lie
subalgebra of 1
H
. This is the quaternionic version of the wellknown fact that on a
complex manifold, the (1, 0) vector ﬁelds form a complex Lie subalgebra of the complex
vector ﬁelds.
Joyce has already considered the notion of a Lie algebra over the quaternions, but in a
diﬀerent fashion. In [J1, ¸6], he writes down axioms called Axiom L and Axiom P, which
deﬁne quaternionic analogues of Lie algebras and Poisson algebras: but instead of a Lie
bracket λ : A⊗
H
A →A, Joyce’s quaternionic Lie bracket is a map ξ : A⊗
H
A →A⊗
H
Y ,
where Y
∼
= U
2
is the AHmodule of Example 4.1.2.
The reason for this is that Joyce’s main purpose is to describe the algebraic structure
of qholomorphic functions on hyperk¨ahler manifolds. Since a hyperk¨ahler manifold M
has three independent symplectic forms, two functions f and g have three diﬀerent
Poisson brackets and the Halgebra T
M
of qholomorphic functions on M has three
independent Poisson structures. Using the fact that I
∼
= R
3
, Joyce describes the three
Poisson brackets using a single map ξ : T
M
⊗
H
T
M
→ T
M
⊗ I. Recalling that (Y
†
)
∗
∼
=
V
2
= I, we have a map ξ : T
M
⊗
H
T
M
→ ι
P
M
(T
M
) ⊗ (Y
†
)
∗
which is in fact an AH
morphism whose image is contained in T
M
⊗
H
Y . This is why, for Joyce, quaternionic
Lie algebras and Poisson algebras are deﬁned by an AHmorphism ξ : A⊗
H
A →A⊗
H
Y .
We can relate these two algebraic ideas very simply by choosing an AHmorphism
η : Y → H. The space of such AHmorphisms is of course Y
†
∼
= V
2
. Then for every
AHmodule A there is a map id ⊗
H
η : A⊗
H
Y → A⊗
H
H
∼
= A. Suppose that ξ :
A⊗
H
A → A⊗
H
Y satisﬁes Joyce’s Axiom L. Deﬁne a Lie bracket λ : A⊗
H
A → A by
setting λ = (id ⊗
H
η) ◦ ξ. It follows immediately that the pair (A, λ) is a quaternionic
Lie algebra in the sense of Axiom QL.
To go in the opposite direction, suppose that (A, λ) is a quaternionic Lie algebra,
and consider the AHmodule A⊗
H
Y . In order to deﬁne an HLalgebra we need to form
a map from (A⊗
H
Y )⊗
H
(A⊗
H
Y ) to (A⊗
H
Y )⊗
H
Y . Let τ be the natural isomorphism
τ : A⊗
H
Y ⊗
H
A⊗
H
Y →A⊗
H
A⊗
H
Y ⊗
H
Y which interchanges the second and third factors.
Deﬁne an AHmorphism
ξ = (λ⊗
H
id ⊗
H
id) ◦ τ : (A⊗
H
Y )⊗
H
(A⊗
H
Y ) →(A⊗
H
Y )⊗
H
Y.
Then ξ satisﬁes Joyce’s Axiom L, and the pair (A⊗
H
Y, ξ) forms an HLalgebra. Pre
cisely which HLalgebras may be obtained from quaternionic Lie algebras and vice versa
using these constructions remains open to question.
7.3 Hypercomplex Lie groups
As a ﬁnal example, we consider hypercomplex structures on compact Lie groups, and
show how these give rise to ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras. Since the early
112
1950s, the mathematical world has been aware that every compact Lie group of even
dimension is a homogeneous complex manifold.
3
This was ﬁrst announced by Samelson,
whose proof is an extension of Borel’s celebrated result that the quotient of a compact
Lie group by its maximal torus is a homogeneous complex manifold. In 1988 and 1992
respectively, Spindel et al. [SSTP] and Joyce [J3] demonstrated independently that these
results extend to hypercomplex geometry. Joyce’s approach also gives hypercomplex
structures on more general homogeneous spaces. It relies on being able to decompose
the Lie algebra of a compact Lie group as follows:
Lemma 7.3.1 [J3, Lemma 4.1] Let G be a compact Lie group, with Lie algebra g.
Then g can be decomposed as
g = b ⊕
n
k=1
d
k
⊕
n
k=1
f
k
, (7.7)
where b is abelian, d
k
is a subalgebra of g isomorphic to su(2), b+
k
d
k
contains the
Lie algebra of a maximal torus of G, and f
1
, . . . , f
n
are (possibly empty) vector subspaces
of g, such that for each k = 1, 2, . . . , n, f
k
satisﬁes the following two conditions:
(i) [d
l
, f
k
] = ¦0¦ whenever l < k, and
(ii) f
k
is closed under the Lie bracket with d
k
, and the Lie bracket action of d
k
on
f
k
is isomorphic to the sum of m copies of the basic representation V
1
of su(2) on C
2
,
for some integer m.
By adding an additional p (with 0 ≤ p ≤ Max(3, rk G) ) copies of the abelian Lie
algebra u(1) to b if necessary, this decomposition allows us to deﬁne a hypercomplex
structure on pu(1) ⊕g as follows. For a 1dimensional subspace b
k
of pu(1) ⊕b there
is an isomorphism b
k
⊕d
k
∼
= R ⊕I = H. The action of d
k
on f
k
gives an isomorphism
f
k
∼
= H
m
. This gives an isomorphism pu(1) ⊕ g
∼
= H
l
, in other words a hypercomplex
structure. Normally there are many choices to be made in such an isomorphism, which
give rise to distinct hypercomplex structures. That such a hypercomplex structure on
the vector space pu(1) ⊕g deﬁnes an integrable hypercomplex structure on the manifold
U(1)
p
G follows from Samelson’s original work on homogeneous complex manifolds.
This leads to the following result:
Theorem 7.3.2 [J3, Theorem 4.2] Let G be a compact Lie group. Then there exists
an integer p with 0 ≤ p ≤ Max(3, rk G) such that U(1)
p
G admits a leftinvariant
homogeneous hypercomplex structure.
There is a strong link between these hypercomplex structures and the quaternionic
Lie algebras of the previous section. Suppose that g is any real Lie algebra. Then
g
H
≡ H ⊗ g is a quaternionic Lie algebra because Axiom QL is obviously satisﬁed.
The quaternionic Lie algebra structure of g is much more interesting when g admits a
hypercomplex structure as described above. In this case we deﬁne the subspace
g
A
= ¦v
0
+ i
1
v
1
+ i
2
v
2
+ i
3
v
3
: v
0
+ I
1
v
1
+ I
2
v
2
+ I
3
v
3
= 0¦ ⊂ g
H
which we shall call the space of Atype elements of g
H
. Lie groups with integrable left
invariant hypercomplex structures then give rise to interesting quaternionic Lie algebras.
3
Note that not all ‘Lie groups possessing a complex structure’ are complex Lie groups, because their
multiplication and inverse maps might not be holomorphic.
113
Corollary 7.3.3 Let G be a hypercomplex Lie group with hypercomplex structure
(I
1
, I
2
, I
3
), and let g
A
⊂ g
H
be the subspace of Atype elements of g
H
. Then g
A
is
a quaternionic Lie subalgebra of g
H
.
Proof. By Theorem 7.2.3, the set of Atype vector ﬁelds on G is closed under the Lie
bracket operator λ. Since λ also preserves the leftinvariant vector ﬁelds g, it preserves
g
A
.
In this way, Joyce’s hypercomplex structures on compact Lie groups give rise to
many interesting ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras. We can also begin to
calculate the quaternionic cohomology groups of these manifolds. On a Lie group G the
exterior diﬀerential d on Ginvariant kforms can be expressed as a formal diﬀerential
d : Λ
k
g
∗
→ Λ
k+1
g
∗
. The map d is induced by the dual of the Lie bracket, which is a
linear map λ : g ⊗g →g. Since λ is antisymmetric it is eﬀectively a map λ : Λ
2
g →g,
so its dual is the map d = λ
∗
: g
∗
→Λ
2
g
∗
. In practice, this means that
dω(u, v) = ω([u, v]) ω ∈ g
∗
v, w ∈ g.
The map d extends to a unique antiderivation on Λ
•
g
∗
in the usual fashion. Questions
about the cohomology of G as a real, complex or hypercomplex manifold can then be
rephrased in terms of the cohomology of the complex (Λ
•
g
∗
, d). This is true at least for
Ginvariant forms, which accounts for all the de Rham cohomology since it is known that
every de Rham cohomology class has a Ginvariant representative. This is less obvious
for Dolbeault and quaternionic cohomology groups, whose theory is possibly more subtle
for this reason.
Example 7.3.4 Let M = U(2) be the unitary group in two dimensions, i.e. the
subgroup of GL(2, C) preserving the standard hermitian metric on C
2
. It is wellknown
that U(2) is isomorphic to U(1)
Z
2
SU(2), which is diﬀeomorphic to the Hopf surface
S
1
S
3
.
The Lie algebra u(2) appears naturally in the form of Equation (7.7), thanks to the
decomposition u(2) = u(1) ⊕su(2). Let u(1) = ¸e
0
) and su(2) = ¸e
1
, e
2
, e
3
), so that
[e
0
, e
j
] = 0 and [e
i
, e
j
] = ε
ijk
e
k
where i, j, k ⊂ ¦1, 2, 3¦. Let ¦e
α
¦ be the dual basis for g
∗
. It follows that de
0
=
0 and de
i
= e
j
∧ e
k
, where ¦i, j, k¦ is an even permutation of ¦1, 2, 3¦. Thus e
0
and e
123
both generate de Rham cohomology classes, and we have b
0
(M) = b
1
(M) =
b
3
(M) = b
4
(M) = 1, b
2
(M) = 0. This complex is best described using the structure
of u(2) as a representation τ of su(2) = ¸e
1
, e
2
, e
3
). This subgroup acts on u(2) via
the adjoint representation, so that τ
v
(w) = [v, w] for v ∈ su(2), w ∈ u(2). Since
[v, e
0
] = 0, e
0
generates a copy of the trivial representation V
0
and ¸e
1
, e
2
, e
3
) is just
the adjoint representation of su(2), which is V
2
. Thus T
∗
M
∼
= V
0
⊕V
2
, and this induces
a representation of su(2) on Λ
•
T
∗
M by the usual Leibniz rule τ
v
(w
1
∧ w
2
) = [v, w
1
] ∧
w
2
+ w
1
∧ [v, w
2
]. This gives the following decompositions:
T
∗
M = ¸e
0
) ⊕¸e
1
, e
2
, e
3
)
∼
= V
0
⊕V
2
Λ
2
T
∗
M = ¸e
23
, e
31
, e
12
) ⊕¸e
01
, e
02
, e
03
)
∼
= V
2
⊕V
2
Λ
3
T
∗
M = ¸e
032
, e
013
, e
021
) ⊕¸e
123
)
∼
= V
2
⊕V
0
Λ
4
T
∗
M = ¸e
0123
)
∼
= V
0
.
(7.8)
114
The beneﬁt of this approach is that the map d is su(2)equivariant. Thus once we
have shown that de
1
= e
23
, it follows immediately that d gives an su(2)equivariant
isomorphism
d : ¸e
1
, e
2
, e
3
) →¸e
23
, e
31
, e
12
).
This allows us to read oﬀ cohomological information, including the quaternionic co
homology groups H
k,r
D
(M) and H
k,r
δ
(M). To do this we compare the decomposition of
Equation (7.8) with the decomposition of Λ
k
T
∗
M induced by the hypercomplex struc
ture. In other words, we have two representations of sp(1) on T
∗
M. The ﬁrst is the
representation T
∗
M
∼
= 2V
1
deﬁned by the hypercomplex structure, and the second
is the representation T
∗
M
∼
= V
0
⊕ V
2
given by the adjoint action of the subalgebra
su(2) ⊂ u(2). The quaternionic cohomology of M is deﬁned using the ﬁrst action, but
the d operator is best described using the second. By collating the two we obtain a
complete picture of the situation.
In four dimensions, E
2,2
is the space of selfdual 2forms ¸e
01+23
, e
02+31
, e
03+12
), where
e
ab+cd
= e
ab
+e
cd
. The image under d of T
∗
M is ¸e
01
, e
02
, e
03
), and the projection π
2,2
is an su(2)equivariant surjection onto E
2,2
. The sequence
0 −→E
0,0
−→E
1,1
−→E
2,2
−→0
is therefore exact at E
2,2
, and we obtain the standard selfdual cohomology of S
1
S
3
,
H
0,0
D
(M) = R H
1,1
D
(M) = ¸e
0
)
∼
= R H
2,2
D
(M) = 0. (7.9)
Moving to quaternionvalued forms, it is easy to show that nonzero δcohomology
occurs only at F
0,0
, F
1,1
, F
3,−1
and F
4,0
, the sequence 0 →B →F
2,0
→F
3,1
→0 being
exact. Explicitly, we have
H
0,0
δ
(M) = H H
1,1
δ
(M) = ¸3e
0
+ i
1
e
1
+ i
2
e
2
+ i
3
e
3
)
H
∼
= U
×
−1
H
4,4
δ
(M) = ¸e
0123
)
H
∼
= H H
3,−1
δ
(M) = ¸e
123
−i
1
e
032
−i
2
e
013
−i
3
e
021
)
H
∼
= U
×
−1
.
(7.10)
It follows from the property of ellipticity that the cohomology sequences should be
exact, as indeed they are. However, they are clearly not AHexact, because they are
not exact on the primed parts. The quaternionic algebra of such phenonomena might be
interesting and merit closer study.
It would be desirable to extend this work to higherdimensional groups and homo
geneous spaces. The group SU(3) provides an interesting case. A similar analysis to
that above may provide the correct results, though because of the additional four dimen
sions this option is diﬃcult and complicated. The principle would nonetheless be very
much the same, and essentially involves comparing diﬀerent sp(1)actions, one deﬁned
by Joyce’s hypercomplex structure and the other arising from the adjoint representation
of a particular subalgebra su(2) ⊂ su(3). For example, it is easy to demonstrate that
H
1,1
δ
(SU(3)) ,= 0. Quaternionic cohomology is in this case certainly not a subset of de
Rham cohomology, since b
1
(SU(3)) = 0.
A logical precursor to developing the quaternionic cohomology theory of hypercom
plex Lie groups would be to understand thoroughly the Dolbeault cohomology of ho
mogeneous complex manifolds. Surprisingly, this theory seems to be lacking or at best
115
extremely obscure. The theory for complex groups and homogeneous spaces is docu
mented in Bott’s important paper [Bot, ¸2], but the link between theory and results in
this paper is quite opaque and certainly contains some mistakes. Pittie’s paper [P] uses
a simpler bicomplex than Bott’s, conjecturing that the cohomology of these complexes
is the same. Certain hypercomplex nilmanifolds discussed by Dotti and Fino [DF] might
also provide fruitful rseults. This would be an interesting area for future research.
116
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119
Abstract
QUATERNION ALGEBRAIC GEOMETRY DOMINIC WIDDOWS
St Anne’s College, Oxford Thesis submitted Hilary Term, 2000, in support of application to supplicate for the degree of D.Phil.
This thesis is a collection of results about hypercomplex and quaternionic manifolds, focussing on two main areas. These are exterior forms and double complexes, and the ‘algebraic geometry’ of hypercomplex manifolds. The latter area is strongly inﬂuenced by techniques from quaternionic algebra. A new double complex on quaternionic manifolds is presented, a quaternionic version of the Dolbeault complex on a complex manifold. It arises from the decomposition of realvalued exterior forms on a quaternionic manifold M into irreducible representations of Sp(1). This decomposition gives a double complex of diﬀerential forms and operators as a result of the ClebschGordon formula Vr ⊗V1 ∼ Vr+1 ⊕Vr−1 for Sp(1)representations. = The properties of the double complex are investigated, and it is established that it is elliptic in most places. Joyce has created a new theory of quaternionic algebra [J1] by deﬁning a quaternionic tensor product for AHmodules (Hmodules equipped with a special real subspace). The theory can be described using sheaves over CP 1 , an interpretation due to Quillen [Q]. AHmodules and their quaternionic tensor products are classiﬁed. Stable AHmodules are described using Sp(1)representations. This theory is especially useful for describing hypercomplex manifolds and forming close analogies with complex geometry. Joyce has deﬁned and investigated qholomorphic functions on hypercomplex manifolds. There is also a qholomorphic cotangent space which again arises as a result of the ClebschGordon formula. AHmodule bundles are deﬁned and their qholomorphic sections explored. Quaternionvalued diﬀerential forms on hypercomplex manifolds are of special interest. Their decomposition is ﬁner than that of real forms, giving a second double complex with special advantages. The cohomology of these complexes leads to new invariants of compact quaternionic and hypercomplex manifolds. Quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds are also studied, and lead to the deﬁnition of quaternionic Lie algebras. The investigation of ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras allows the calculation of some simple quaternionic cohomology groups.
Acknowledgements
I would like to express gratitude, appreciation and respect for my supervisor Dominic Joyce. Without his inspiration as a mathematician this thesis would not have been conceived; without his patience and friendship it would certainly not have been completed.
Dedication
To the memory of Dr Peter Rowe, 19381998, who taught me relativity as an undergraduate in Durham. His determination to teach concepts before examination techniques introduced me to diﬀerential geometry.
i
. . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Complex. .2 Sp(1)Representations and the Quaternionic Tensor Product 5. . . . . . . . . .1 Stable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. Hypercomplex and Quaternionic Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . 4. . . . . . .3 Ellipticity and the Double Complex .Contents Introduction 1 The 1. .4 Examples and Summary of AHmodules . .2 1. 3 A Double Complex on Quaternionic Manifolds 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. . . . .4 Kmodules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Lie Group Sp(1) and its Representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. . . .1 The Quaternionic Algebra of Joyce . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Quaternionvalued forms on Hypercomplex Manifolds 4 Developments in Quaternionic Algebra 4.2 Duality in Quaternionic Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. .1 Real forms on Complex Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . Diﬃculties with the Quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. . . . . 6 Hypercomplex Manifolds 6. . . .3 Quaternions and the Group Sp(1) The Quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Diﬀerential Forms on Complex Manifolds . . .2 Construction of the Double Complex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Diﬀerential Forms on Quaternionic Manifolds . . .4 Qholomorphic AHbundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Quaternionic Algebra and Sp(1)representations 5. .5 The SheafTheoretic approach of Quillen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 4 4 9 12 17 17 20 23 25 25 28 32 40 42 42 48 52 53 56 61 61 68 74 77 80 81 86 90 93 2 Quaternionic Diﬀerential Geometry 2. . . .3 Real Subspaces of Complex Vector Spaces 4.2 The Quaternionic Cotangent Space . 5. . . . . . . . .3 AHbundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Qholomorphic Functions and Halgebras 6. . . . . . . . . . ii .3 Semistable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 1. . . . . . . . . 3. . . 2. .
7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . References 100 101 109 112 117 iii . . . .2 Vector Fields and Quaternionic Lie Algebras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Hypercomplex Lie groups .7 Quaternion Valued Forms and Vector Fields 7. . . .1 The Quaternionvalued Double Complex . . . .
Chapter 2 is about quaternionic structures in diﬀerential geometry. The approach is based upon two pillars. Our contribution to the theory of quaternionic manifolds relies on decomposing the Sp(1)action on exterior forms. H)structure) are deﬁned. as is all the work on qholomorphic functions and forms on hypercomplex manifolds. The decomposition of exterior forms on quaternionic manifolds is precisely such an example. A recurrent theme throughout will be representations of the group Sp(1) of unit quaternions. Another frequent source of motivation is the behaviour of the complex numbers. The irreducible representations on complex vector spaces and their tensor products are described. Contributions are made to both ﬁelds of study. This situation has left various aspects of quaternionic behaviour unexplored. hypercomplex manifolds (those possessing a torsionfree GL(n. replacing this with the group Sp(1) can lead directly to quaternionic versions. The approach is based on the work of Salamon [S3]. as are real and quaternionic representations. H)structure). the ﬁrst chapter is devoted to a survey of the history of the quaternions and their applications.Introduction This aim of this thesis is to describe and develop various aspects of quaternionic algebra and geometry. I have often felt both surprised and privileged that it has not been carried out before. Aspects of complex geometry can often be described using the group U(1) of unit complex numbers. The importance of Sp(1)representations to both areas is chieﬂy responsible for the successful synthesis of methods in the work on hypercomplex manifolds. After reviewing the Dolbeault complex. followed by the broader class of quaternionic manifolds (those possessing a torsionfree Sp(1)GL(n. Background material also includes an introduction to the group Sp(1) and its representations. Much of the original work presented is enticingly simple — indeed. On the other hand. we consider the decomposition of diﬀerential forms on quaternionic manifolds. Taking complex manifolds as a model. whilst the main new insight in quaternionic algebra is that the most important building blocks of Joyce’s theory are best described and manipulated as Sp(1)representations. including an important elliptic complex discovered by Salamon upon which the integrability of the quaternionic 1 . To help understand the reasons for this omission and the consequent opportunities for development. namely the diﬀerential geometry of quaternionic manifolds and Joyce’s recent theory of quaternionic algebra. Many situations in complex algebra and geometry have interesting quaternionic analogues. enabling these strands to be woven together in describing the algebraic geometry of hypercomplex manifolds. Joyce’s quaternionic algebra is such a rich theory precisely because real subspaces of quaternionic vector spaces behave so diﬀerently from real subspaces of complex vector spaces. One of the main explanations for this is the relative unpopularity suﬀered by the quaternions in the 20th century.
These spaces are examples of AHmodule bundles or AHbundles. we deﬁne a natural splitting of the quaternionic cotangent space H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. further reﬁning the double = complex. which we discuss. the theory of quaternionic algebra. There is a natural product map on the AHmodule of qholomorphic functions. consisting of the basic representations V1 and the trivial representations V0 . In the fourth chapter (which is partly a summary of the work of Joyce [J1] and Quillen [Q]) we move to our other major area of interest. which are seen as the quaternionic analogue of holomorphic functions. such methods are applied to quaternionvalued tensors on hypercomplex manifolds. The new double complex is shown to be elliptic = = everywhere except along its bottom row. Joyce has already used such an approach to deﬁne and investigate qholomorphic functions on hypercomplex manifolds. The top row of the quaternionvalued double complex is particularly welladapted to quaternionic algebra. That this decomposition gives rise to a double complex results from the ClebschGordon formula Vr ⊗T ∗ M ∼ Vr ⊗2nV1 ∼ 2n(Vr+1 ⊕Vr−1 ). There are qholomorphic AHbundles with qholomorphic sections. In Chapter 5 it is shown that all stable AHmodules and their duals are conveniently described using Sp(1)representations. Using the Sp(1)version of quaternionic algebra. and show that qholomorphic func= tions are precisely those whose diﬀerentials take values in A ⊂ H ⊗ T ∗ M .structure depends. Dual AHmodules are deﬁned and shown to have interesting properties. where = V1 is the basic representation of Sp(1) on C2 . Decomposition of the induced Sp(1)representation on Λk T ∗ M is a simple process achieved by considering weights. The building blocks of this theory are Hmodules equipped with a special real subspace. the cotangent space of a quaternionic manifold M 4n takes the form T ∗ M ∼ 2nV1 . Several parallels with complex geometry arise. Such an object is called an AHmodule. The quaternionvalued double complex has advantages over the realvalued version. Joyce has discovered a canonical tensor product operation for AHmodules which is both associative and commutative. Using ideas from Quillen’s work. As an Sp(1)representation. This identiﬁcation enables tensors on hypercomplex manifolds to be treated using the techniques of quaternionic algebra. This double complex presents us with new quaternionic cohomology groups. which presents close parallels with the Dolbeault complex and motivates the deﬁnition of qholomorphic kforms. which gives the qholomorphic functions an algebraic structure which Joyce calls an Halgebra. The resulting theory is ideally adapted for describing hypercomplex geometry. The bundle A is hence deﬁned to be the qholomorphic cotangent space of M . This complex is in fact the top row of a hitherto undiscovered double complex on quaternionic manifolds. Qholomorphic sections are described using the quaternionic tensor product and the qholomorphic cotangent space. A hypercomplex manifold M has a triple of global anticommuting complex structures which can be identiﬁed with the imaginary quaternions. 2 . In the ﬁnal chapter. being elliptic in more places. which is the subject of Chapter 3. and seen to form an Halgebra module over the qholomorphic functions. we classify AHmodules up to isomorphism. The global complex structures give an extra decomposition which generalises the splitting H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. Particularly wellbehaved is the category of stable AHmodules. a process begun in Chapter 6. The double complex of Chapter 3 is revisited and adapted to quaternionvalued diﬀerential forms.
Quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds are also interesting. Interesting ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras are used to calculate some quaternionic cohomology groups on Lie groups with leftinvariant hypercomplex structures. the (1. The quaternionic tangent space splits as H ⊗ T M ∼ A ⊕ B in the same way as the cotangent space. This is the quaternionic analogue of the statement that on a complex manifold. The vector ﬁelds in question therefore form a quaternionic Lie algebra. 0) vector ﬁelds are closed under the Lie bracket. Vector ﬁelds taking = values in A are closed under the quaternionic tensor product and Lie bracket. a new concept which we introduce. a result which depends upon the integrability of the hypercomplex structure. 3 .
q = Re(q) − Im(q). ¯ • We regard the real numbers R as a subﬁeld of H. • Deﬁne the conjugate q of q = q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 by q = q0 − q1 i1 − q2 i2 − q3 i3 . Then q 2 = −1 if and only if q1 + q2 + q3 = 1. The symbol I is not standard. The quaternions are a division algebra (an algebra with the property that ab = 0 implies that a = 0 or b = 0 ). . and the quaternions as a direct sum H ∼ R ⊕ I. As with complex numbers. r3 ∈ R}. so H = {r0 +r1 i1 +r2 i2 +r3 i3 : r0 . so the set of ‘quaternionic squareroots of minusone’ is naturally isomorphic to the 2sphere S 2 . We shall call this subﬁeld Cq . i2 = i2 = i2 = −1 1 2 3 (1.1) and the distributive law. 4 . The quaternion algebra is not commutative.Chapter 1 The Quaternions and the Group Sp(1) 1. i2 and i3 . We shall often identify these sets. i2 . • Deﬁne the imaginary quaternions I = i1 . • If q ∈ S 2 then 1. i2 i3 = −i3 i2 = i1 . though it does obey the associative law. • Deﬁne the real and imaginary parts of q by Re(q) = q0 ∈ R and Im(q) = q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 ∈ I. i3 i1 = −i1 i3 = i2 . = 2 2 2 • Let q = q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 ∈ I. writing ‘q ∈ S 2 ’ as a shorthand for ‘q ∈ H : q 2 = −1’. Quaternions are added together component by component. but we will use it throughout. q is a subﬁeld of H isomorphic to C. . . and quaternion multiplication is given by the quaternion relations i1 i2 = −i2 i1 = i3 . q ∈ H. ¯ ¯ ¯¯ Then (pq) = q p for all p. .1 The Quaternions The quaternions H are a fourdimensional real algebra generated by the identity element 1 and the symbols i1 . i3 .
or light. which contains the solution of the problem. full grown. 1843.maths. He ﬁnally realised that the secret was to introduce a fourth dimension. he struggled with this problem. Substituting i1 . on my coming down to breakfast. the fundamental formula with the symbols i.” 3 “Less than an hour elapsed” before Hamilton obtained leave of the Council of the Royal Irish Academy to read a paper on quaternions. To Hamilton. and a spark ﬂashed forth. At the time. “started into life.G. and only after years of development can they be presented in a lecture course as a deﬁnitive set of axioms and results. 2 Copies of Hamilton’s most signiﬁcant letters and papers concerning quaternions are currently available on the internet at www. your brother and yourself used to ask me: “Well. For years. j. as an inscription.. can you multiply triplets?” Whereto I was always obliged to reply.1.1). on the other hand. The quaternions. “No. 5 . I pulled out on the spot a pocketbook. Rarely do we possess such a clear account of the genesis of a piece of mathematics. i2 . though neither of them published the disovery [EKR..tcd. i3 for i. whilst walking with his wife.ie/pub/HistMath/People/Hamilton 3 Letter to Professor P. I can only add and subtract them”. on the 16th of Ocober. Hamilton tried to manipulate the three symbols 1.. has long since mouldered away. an excerpt of which can be found on the same website as [H1].1. complex numbers were being applied very eﬀectively to problems in the plane R2 . For several years. as we passed it. this gives the quaternion relations (1.1 A History of the Quaternions The quaternions were discovered by the Irish mathematician and physicist. In the same letter. k: i2 = j 2 = k 2 = ijk = −1. The next day. 2 dated shortly before his death in 1865. Hamilton wrote a detailed letter to his friend and fellow mathematician John T. p.. which still exists. Nor could I resist the impulse — unphilosophical as it may have been — to cut with a knife on the stone of Brougham Bridge. with a sad shake of the head. In a touching letter to his son [H1]. Most mathematical theories are invented gradually. k. the next logical step was to seek a similar 3dimensional number system which would revolutionise calculations in R3 . Hamilton writes: Every morning. William Rowan Hamilton (18051865). but of course. 192]. and made an entry there and then.1). governed by certain rules. Graves 1 Letters suggest that both Euler and Gauss were aware of the quaternion relations (1. i and j into an algebra. 1 whose contributions to mechanics are wellknown and widely used. he had a ﬂash of inspiration. he writes: An electric circuit seemed to close. Papa. By 1835 Hamilton had helped to win acceptance for the system of complex numbers by showing that calculations with complex numbers are equivalent to calculations with ordered pairs of real numbers. j. the herald (as I foresaw immediately) of many long years to come of deﬁnitely directed thought and work . 1843. On 16th October.Tait.
Most recently.) As a result. the real numbers R. However. The timing of the discovery ampliﬁed its impact upon Hamilton and his followers. and though beautifully ingenious. once remarked that “Quaternions came from Hamilton after all his really good work had been done. quaternions have enjoyed prominence in computer science. C). while Eamon de Valera was President of Ireland (from 1959 to 1973). especially as it became clear that the quaternions are just one example of a number of possible algebras. the complex numbers C and the quaternions H are the only associative division algebras. 1. Hamilton became the ﬁgurehead of a school of ‘quaternionists’. he would attend mathematical meetings whenever their title contained the word ‘quaternions’ ! Such excesses were bound to provoke a reaction. whose fervour for the new numbers far exceeded their usefulness. and those who become familiar with them soon come to appreciate an intricacy and beauty which is all their own.193].2 Quaternions and Matrices In this section we will make use of the older notation i = i1 . and showed that the quaternion algebra could be realised as a subalgebra of the complexvalued 2 × 2 matrices. (It was not until 1858 that Cayley introduced matrices. Investigation into the nature of and constraints imposed by algebraic properties such as associativity and commutativity was greatly accelerated by the discovery of the quaternions. Indeed. It is wellknown that the quaternions can be written as real or complex matrices.1. The discovery was published within a month on the 13th of November [H3].[H2]. quaternions do shine a light on certain areas of mathematics. Lord Kelvin. The quaternions themselves have been used in various areas of mathematics. j = i2 .5] to describe quaternionic behaviour. because there are isomorphisms from H into subalgebras of Mat(4. have been an unmixed evil to those who have touched them in any way” [EKR. p. the numbers have fallen short of the early expectations of the quaternionists. The discovery of the quaternions provided enormous stimulation to algebraic research and it is thought that the term ‘associative’ was coined by Hamilton himself [H3. The only other algebras known in 1843 were the real and complex numbers. k = i3 . giving us a clear account of the train of research which led him to his breakthrough. R) and Mat(2. Certainly. The quaternions remain the simplest algebra after the real and complex numbers. and devoted the rest of his career exclusively to its study. because they are the simplest algebraic tool for describing rotations in three and four dimensions. This makes it easy to interpret i as the standard complex ‘square root of −1’ and j as a ‘structure map’ on the complex vector space C2 . the famous Scottish physicist. Hamilton believed his discovery to be of similar importance to that of the inﬁnitesimal calculus. both of which can be regarded as subalgebras of the quaternions. p. as was proved by Georg Frobenius in 1878: and amongst these the quaternions are the most general. This is far from the case. The former of these is given by the mapping 6 . A belief that quaternions are somehow obsolete is often tacitly accepted to this day. for example. Echos of this zeal could still be heard this century.
it is in this context that the term ‘vector’ ﬁrst appears [H4]). (1. In many cases. C) α + βj → α β ¯ ¯ −β α . q0 q1 q2 q3 −q1 q0 −q3 q2 . The isomorphism ι gives an easy way to deduce that H is an associative division algebra.4) Note that the squared norm q q of a quaternion q is the same as the determinant ¯ of the matrix ι(q) ∈ H. we obtain a quaternionic version of the scalar product and vector product on R3 . This identiﬁcation H = uniquely determined: each q ∈ S 2 determines a similar isomorphism. a professor at Yale University. C). the inverse of any nonzero matrix A ∈ H is also in H. it was not until the 1880’s that Josiah Willard Gibbs (18391903). a quaternionic description preﬁgures more modern descriptions. (1. = (1. An excellent and readable account of most of the following can be found in Chapter 7 of [EKR]. Having written this down. q0 + q1 i + q2 j + q3 k → −q2 q3 q0 −q1 −q3 −q2 q1 q0 More commonly used is the mapping into Mat(2. argued that the scalar and vector products 7 . q2 . we can consider each quaternion q = q0 +q1 i1 +q2 i2 +q3 i3 as the sum of a scalar part q0 and a vectorial part (q1 . 1. it is easy to form the map ι : H → H ⊂ Mat(2.1. C). We will outline two main areas – vector analysis and Euclidean geometry.3) The quaternion algebra can thus be realised as a real subalgebra of Mat(2. q ∈ I.5) Surprising as it seems nowadays. q3 ) ∈ R3 (indeed.3 Simple Applications of the Quaternions There are a number of ways in which quaternions can be used to express mathematical ideas. If we multiply together two imaginary quaternions p. using the equation q0 + q1 i + q2 j + q3 k = (q0 + q1 i) + (q2 + q3 i)j. as follows: pq = −p · q + p ∧ q ∈ R ⊕ I ∼ H. If we identify the imaginary quaternions I with the real vector space R3 . and the only matrix in H whose determinant is zero is the zero matrix. using the identiﬁcations 1 0 0 1 i 0 0 −i 0 1 −1 0 0 i i 0 1= i1 = i2 = i3 = . The map j : α+βj → −β + αj = 2 2 ∼ C2 is not is a conjugatelinear involution of C with j = −1.2) ¯ ¯ In this way we obtain the expression q = α+βj ∈ H ∼ C2 . (1. Every quaternion can be uniquely written as the sum of its real and imaginary parts. We can write every quaternion as a pair of complex numbers.
q ∈ H. Another crucial part of vector analysis which originated with Hamilton and the quaternions is the ‘nabla’ operator (socalled by Hamilton because the symbol is similar in shape to the Hebrew musical instrument of that name). q = Re(p¯). x3 ) = f1 (x1 .7). i. we can obtain the Euclidean metric on R4 in a similar fashion by relaxing the restriction in Equation (1.e. which we recognise in modern terminology as F = − div F + curl F. x2 . x3 )i1 + f2 (x1 . putting √ ¯ q = q q . Another quaternionic formula. q and so we deﬁne the canonical scalar product on H by p. (1.6) f := ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 Hamilton went on to consider applying the operator to a ‘diﬀerentiable quaternion ﬁeld’ F (x1 .5) that p and q should be imaginary. similar to Equation (1. (1. q ∈ H. obtaining the equation F =− ∂f1 ∂f2 ∂f3 + + ∂x1 ∂x2 ∂x3 + ∂f3 ∂f2 − ∂x2 ∂x3 i1 + ∂f1 ∂f3 − ∂x3 ∂x1 i2 + ∂f2 ∂f1 − ∂x1 ∂x2 i3 .7) (1. As with complex numbers. x2 . x3 ) : R3 → R was ﬁrst written as ∂f ∂f ∂f i1 + i2 + i3 . is the identity Re(pq) = p0 q0 − p1 q1 − p2 q2 − p3 q3 ∈ R. The familiar gradient operator acting on a real diﬀerentiable function f (x1 . For any p. It was he who introduced the familiar notation p · q and p ∧ q — before his time these were written ‘−Spq’ and ‘V pq’. pq = pq for p. x2 .8) The norm function is multiplicative.6) leads to the wellknown Laplacian operator 2 f =− ∂2f ∂2f ∂2f + 2+ 2 ∂x2 ∂x2 ∂x3 1 =: ∆f. x2 . we can combine the norm function with conjugation to obtain the inverse of q ∈ H \ {0} (it is easily veriﬁed that q −1 = q /q2 is the unique quaternion such that ¯ qq −1 = q −1 q = 1). x2 .9) 8 . x3 )i2 + f3 (x1 . q We deﬁne the norm of a quaternion q ∈ H in the obvious way.had their own meaning. x3 )i3 . Having obtained the standard scalar product on R3 . independent from their quaternionic origins. Applying the on R3 : operator to Equation (1. indicating the ‘scalar’ and ‘vector’ parts of the quaternionic product pq ∈ H. (1. we have Re(p¯) = p0 q0 + p1 q1 + p2 q2 + p3 q3 ∈ R.
Cayley showed that all rotations of R4 can be written in this fashion and that the two possibilities given above are the only two which give the same rotation.b (q) = q and the function fa.b : R4 → R4 is a rotation.4): I= i 0 0 −i J= 0 1 −1 0 K= 0 i i 0 . The Lie algebra sp(1) of Sp(1) is generated by the elements I. (1. There are interesting questions which arise.) This ﬁxes the real line R and rotates the imaginary quaternions I. We can write these using the matrices of Equation (1. J] = 2K. C) of Equation (1. X] = 2X. C).4) maps Sp(1) isomorphically onto SU(2).2 The Lie Group Sp(1) and its Representations The unit quaternions form a subgroup of H under multiplication. Why do the unit quaternions turn out to be so important? In view of the quaternionic version of the Lorentz metric in Equation (1. we obtain the rotations of R3 simply by putting a = b−1 . giving the inner automorphism of H. ¯ all reﬂections can be obtained by the involutions fa.If we regard p and q as fourvectors in spacetime with the ‘timeaxis’ identiﬁed with R ⊂ H and the ‘spatial part’ identiﬁed with I. According to Cayley. and consider the involution fa. Also. b gives the same rotation. q → aqa−1 .11) . which the pioneering work of Hamilton and Cayley helped to develop. As a manifold Sp(1) is the 3sphere S 3 . Clearly. which we call Sp(1). The isomorphism ι : H → H ⊂ Mat(2. this is identical to the Lorentz metric of special relativity. f−a. Identifying I with R3 .b (q) = aqb.−b = fa. all realalgebra automorphisms of H take this form. [J. the map q → aqa−1 is a rotation of R3 .b (q) = a¯b. q One of the beauties of this system is that having obtained all rotations of R4 . Y ] = H. (By Cayley’s theorem. so Sp(1) is a compact Lie group. In 1855. J and K.9). Its importance to the quaternions is equivalent to that of the circle group U(1) of unit complex numbers in complex analysis. [H. These discoveries provided much insight into the classical groups SO(3) and SO(4). and helped to develop our knowledge of transformation groups in general. Then fa. The multiplication and inverse maps are smooth. This is generated over C by the elements 0 0 1 0 0 1 H= X= Y = . within a year of the discovery of the quaternions Hamilton was aware that all rotations of R3 can be expressed in this fashion. (1.10) 0 −1 0 0 1 0 and the relations [H.b . 1. K] = 2I and [K. Y ] = −2Y 9 and [X. so each of these choices for the pair a. Let a and b be quaternions of unit norm. the Lie bracket being given by the relations [I.b : H → H given by fa. The complexiﬁcation of sp(1) is the Lie algebra sl(2. can we use quaternions to write Lorentz tranformations as elegantly? Are there other spaces which might lend themselves to quaternionic treatment? These questions are best addressed using the theory of Lie groups. I] = 2J.
= For any Q ∈ sp(1).13) The horizontal arrows are inclusions. this does not restrict to a suitably interesting real homomorphism Sp(1)→ SO0 (3. and the vertical arrows are 2 : 1 coverings with kernels {1. 1.5] (which describes the action of the group SU(2)) and [FH. This is because there is a commutative diagram of Lie group homomorphisms Sp(1) ∼ Spin(3) → Sp(1) × Sp(1) ∼ Spin(4) = = ↓ SO(3) → ↓ SO(4). The diﬀerential dρ is a Lie algebra representation dρ : g → End(V ). The applications of these homomorphisms in Riemannian geometry are described by Salamon in [S1].and fourdimensional Euclidean geometry ﬁt so well in a quaternionic framework. From this. Good introductions to Sp(1)representations include [BD.2. (1. 1). 1).1 The Representations of Sp(1) A representation of a Lie group G on a vector space V is a Lie group homomorphism ρ : G → GL(V ). C) → SO0 (3. every representation of Sp(1) on a complex vector space V can be written as a direct sum of irreducible representations.C) are a more familiar and fertile ground. −1} and {(1. but the mental gymnastics involved in using four ‘square roots of −1’ are cumbersome: the equivalent description of ‘spin transformations’ using the matrices of the group SL(2. We recall those points which will be of particular importance. which is a Cartan subalgebra of sp(1). Lecture 11] (which provides a description in terms of the action of the Lie algebra sl(2. C).12) give one possible identiﬁcation sp(1) ⊗R C ∼ sl(2. There have been attempts to use the biquaternions {p + iq : p + q ∈ H} ∼ H ⊗R C to apply quaternions to special relativity = [Sy]. Identifying a unit vector Q = aI +bJ +cK ∈ sp(1) with the corresponding imaginary quaternion q = ai2 + bi2 + ci3 ∈ S 2 .1). the normaliser N (Q) of Q is deﬁned to be N (Q) = {P ∈ sp(1) : [P. Because it is a compact group. We can also see why the same is not true for Lorentzian geometry. In the previous section it was shown that rotations in three and four dimensions can be written in terms of unit quaternions. (−1. Whilst there is a double cover SL(2. but the author has found no way which is simple enough to be really eﬀective. C)).Hence the equations I = iH. −1)} respectively. Here the important group is the Lorentz group SO(3. We will sometimes refer to V itself as a representation where the map ρ is understood. It is possible to write Lorentz transformations using quaternions (for a modern example see [dL]). = Their theory is wellknown and used in many situations. Q] = 0} = Q . we can see clearly why three. The representations of Sp(1) ∼ SU(2) will play an important part in this thesis. which we will call U(1)q .1). J =X −Y and K = i(X + Y ) (1. The multiplicity 10 . §2. the exponential map exp : sp(1) → Sp(1) maps Q to the unit circle in Cq .
xyn−1 . Let V1 be the basic representation of SL(2.12). It is easy to show that for any xn−k yk ∈ Vn .1]. so we deﬁne Vn = S n (V1 ). xn−2 y2 . Let x and y be a basis for C2 . . This coincides with the basic representation of Sp(1) by leftmultiplication on H ∼ C2 .14) A(a · b) = To obtain the induced action of sl(2. which describes the action of Lie groups and Lie algebras on tensor products. C(xn−k yk ) = −n(n + 2)xn−k yk .C) on Vn is given by the induced action on the space of homogeneous polynomials of degree n in the variables x and y. C) and sp(1). x2 yn−2 . the sl(2. . The representation Vn is irreducible [BD. and the weights are the integers {n. (1. Moreover. . . y . J and K for H.16) 4 This can be found in [FH. n − 2k. The action of SL(2. −n}.C) on C2 given by leftaction of matrices upon column vectors. .of each irreducible in such a decomposition is uniquely determined. yn . Thus Vn is also characterised by being the unique irreducible representation of sl(2.3]. and every irreducible representation of Sp(1) is of the form Vn for some nonnegative n ∈ Z [BD. C) with highest weight n. n − 2. X and Y . C) on Vn we use the Leibniz rule A(a) · b + a · A(b). so that V1 = x. 2 − n. Proposition 5. Another important operator which acts on an sp(1)representation is the Casimir operator C = I 2 + J 2 + K 2 = −(H 2 + 2XY + 2Y X). .15) Each subspace xn−k yk ⊂ Vn is therefore a weight space of the representation Vn . 110]. . 11 . . . We can compute the action of sp(1) on Vn by substituting I. C)action on V1 is given by H(x) = x H(y) = −y X(x) = 0 X(y) = x Y (x) = y Y (y) = 0. Proposition 5. . there is a unique irreducible representation on Cn for every n > 0. In terms of H. The unique irreducible = n+1 th representation on C is then given by the n symmetric power of V1 . Then Vn = S n (V1 ) = xn . Another very important way to describe the structure of these representations is obtained by decomposing them into weight spaces (eigenspaces for the action of a Cartan subalgebra). X and Y using the relations of (1. xn−1 y. This makes the representations of Sp(1) particularly easy to describe. This gives H(xn−k yk ) = (n − 2k)(xn−k yk ) X(xn−k yk ) = k(xn−k+1 yk−1 ) Y (xn−k yk ) = (n − k)(xn−k−1 yk+1 ). 4 (1. Each of the Lie group representations Vn is a representation of the Lie algebras sl(2. (1. . p. .
17) This can be proved using characters [BD.11].1. thus V2m−1 ∼ Hm . Exercise 11. Let σn be the map which σ1 induces on Vn . §3]. in such a way that the subspace v. σ2m−1 = −1. This is why a complex antilinear = map σ on a complex vector space V such that σ 2 = −1 is called a quaternionic structure. i. 5 and also a representation of the diagonal Sp(1)subgroup. Let V2m be the set 2m+1 σ of ﬁxedpoints of σ2m . 2 Then σ1 = −1 . Real and quaternionic representations It is standard practice to work primarily with representations on complex vector spaces.18) 2 σ If n = 2m is even then σ2m = 1 and σ2m is a real structure on V2m . Then Sp(1) acts on the underlying real vector space R4m . we deﬁne the structure map σ1 : V1 → V1 by σ1 (z1 x + z2 y) = −¯2 x + z1 y z ¯ z1 . the action of which is given by g(u ⊗ v) = g(u) ⊗ g(v). z2 ∈ C.Each irreducible representation Vn is thus an eigenspace of the Casimir operator with eigenvalue −n(n + 2). §2. Then their tensor product Vm ⊗ Vn is naturally an Sp(1) × Sp(1)representation. = σ Thus V2m is a representation of Sp(1) on the real vector space R2m+1 . 2 If on the other hand n = 2m − 1 is odd. A thorough guide to this process is in [BD. ¯ (1. and σ1 coincides with the map j of Section 1. Proposition 5. 5 12 . Representations on real (and quaternionic) vector spaces are obtained using antilinear structure maps. Let Vm and Vn be two Sp(1)representations. iσ2m−1 (v) ∼ R4 = is isomorphic to the quaternions.5] or weights [FH. This real vector space comes equipped with the complex structure i and the structure map σ2m−1 . σ2m−1 (v). Then V2m ∼ R is preserved by the action of Sp(1). iv. we can construct all Spin(4) and hence all SO(4) representations in = this fashion — see [S1. Since Sp(1) × Sp(1) ∼ Spin(4). σn (z1 xn−k yk ) = (−1)k z1 xk yn−k . In the case of Sp(1)representations. Vm ⊗ Vn ∼ Vm+n ⊕ Vm+n−2 ⊕ · · · ⊕ Vm−n+2 ⊕ Vm−n = for m ≥ n.6].e. and = σ V2m ⊗R C ∼ V2m . (1. The irreducible decomposition of the diagonal Sp(1)representation on Vm ⊗ Vn is given by the famous ClebschGordon formula.2.
However. due to the great complicating factor of noncommutativity. Many of the ideas which work beautifully for real or complex numbers are not suited to quaternions. counted with multiplicities. Then the mapping f : H → H is surjective. p. and in particular f has zeros in H. quaternions can be used to recreate many of the structures over the real and complex numbers with which we are familiar.1. 205] Let f be a polynomial over H of degree n > 0 of the form m + g. we obtain the following expression: (a1 X + b1 )(a2 X + b2 ) = a1 Xa2 X + a1 Xb2 + b1 a2 X + b1 b2 . where m is a monomial of degree n and g is a polynomial of degree < n. since i1 X − Xi1 ∈ I for all X ∈ H.3.3 Diﬃculties with the Quaternions Quaternions are far less predictable than their lowerdimensional cousins. which highlight the need for caution: but also. The purpose of this section is to outline some of the diﬃculties with a few examples.1 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra for Quaternions The single biggest reason for using the complex numbers in preference to any other number ﬁeld is the socalled ‘Fundamental Theorem of Algebra’ — every complex polynomial of degree n has precisely n zeros. It quickly becomes obvious that noncommutativity is going make any attempt to factorise a general polynomial extremely troublesome. There is a quaternionic analogue of the theorems for real and complex numbers. Quaternion behaviour is many degrees freer and less predictable. point the way to some of the successes we will encounter. 13 . we need to restrict our attention considerably. If we multiply together two ‘linear factors’. it is hoped.3. This is typical of the diﬃculties we encounter with quaternions. The real numbers are not so wellbehaved: a real polynomial of degree n can have fewer than n real roots. the cubic X 2 i1 Xi1 + i1 X 2 i1 X − i1 Xi1 X 2 − Xi1 X 2 i1 takes the value zero for all X ∈ H. At the other extreme. Moreover. the equation i1 X − Xi1 + 1 = 0 has no solutions at all! In order to arrive at any kind of ‘fundamental theorem of algebra’. and attempts to use them often result in lengthy and cumbersome mathematics — most of which dates from the 19th century and is now almost forgotten. less general and because of this less useful. Then there is the following ‘fundamental theorem of algebra for quaternions’: Theorem 1. ai ∈ H \ {0}. For example. but because of noncommutativity the quaternionic version is more complicated.1 [EKR. there are many polynomials which display extreme behaviour. 1. We deﬁne a monomial of degree n to be an expression of the form a0 Xa1 Xa2 · · · an−1 Xan . with modesty and care.
Hence regular functions form a left Hmodule. which we shall call 14 . Fueter. dq h→0 it can be shown [Su. A function f : C → C is holomorphic if it has a welldeﬁned complex derivative.3 Quaternion Linear Algebra In the same way as we deﬁne real or complex vector spaces. it is easy to see that their sum f + g must also be regular. noncommutativity causes immediate algebraic diﬃculties. in 1935. so the only functions which are quaterniondiﬀerentiable in this sense are aﬃne linear. It was not until the work of R.e. As usual.3. but their product f g. using a quaternionic analogue of the CauchyRiemann equations. Complex analysis can be described as the study of holomorphic functions. ∂q0 ∂q1 ∂q2 ∂q3 (1.20) The theory of quaternionic analysis which results is modestly successful. that a suitable deﬁnition of a ‘regular quaternionic function’ was found. though it is littleknown. can be written as a convergent power series.1. i. the composition f ◦ g and the right scalar multiple f q need not be. Sadly. Theorem 1] that f must take the form f (q) = a + bq for some a.3. neither of these deﬁnitions proves interesting when applied to quaternions — the former is too restrictive and the latter too general. Cauchy’s theorem and the Cauchy integral formula. Hamilton never developed a successful ‘quaternion calculus’. we can deﬁne quaternionic vector spaces or Hmodules — a real vector space with an Haction. §3. The work of Fueter is described and extended in the papers of Deavours [D] and Sudbery [Su].e. In contrast to the complex case. 1. One of the fundamental results in complex analysis is that every holomorphic function is analytic i. 4i1 (1. which include quaternionic versions of Morera’s theorem. Hamilton and his followers were aware of this — it was in Hamilton’s work on quaternions that some of the modern ideas in the theory of functions of several real variables ﬁrst appeared. the components of a quaternion can be written as quaternionic polynomials. 1 q0 = (q − i1 qi1 − i2 qi2 − i3 qi3 ) 4 q1 = 1 (q − i1 qi1 + i2 qi2 + i3 qi3 ) etc. as must the left scalar multiple qf for q ∈ H. b ∈ H. but it is diﬃcult to see how to describe any further algebraic structure.19) This takes us to the other extreme: the study of quaternionic power series is the same as the theory of realanalytic functions on R4 . for q = q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 . If f and g are regular functions. Despite the beneﬁts of this work to mathematics as a whole. A regular function on H is deﬁned to be a realdiﬀerentiable function f : H → H which satisﬁes the CauchyRiemannFueter equations: ∂f ∂f ∂f ∂f + i1 + i2 + i3 = 0.2 Calculus with Quaternions The monumental successes of complex analysis make it natural to look for a similar theory for quaternions. For a function f : H → H to have a welldeﬁned derivative df = lim (f (q + h) − f (q))h−1 .
f2 b) = f2 µ(a. b1 ) − (a. q for our tensor product we can deﬁne a generator uq ⊗ v − u ⊗ qv (replacing f (u) ⊗ v − u ⊗ f (v)) for R. Then if we deﬁne the ideal R(U. B) is the vector space freely generated (over F) by all elements (a. b ∈ B. v)q2 . q2 v) = q2 µ(q1 u. f (b)). There is the added complication that we need to say whether this multiplication is on the left or the right. In this context. V ) is equal to the whole of F (U. Now suppose that U . B) generated by all elements of the form (a1 + a2 . for a. q ∈ H and u ∈ U . V ). v) and µ(q1 u. b). In this (more restricted) case we do obtain a welldeﬁned ‘quaternionic tensor product’ U ⊗H V = F (U.21) where F (A. v). If we try to deﬁne a bilinear map µ : U × V → W as above. then an Fbilinear map µ : A×B → C satisﬁes µ(f1 a. We can now deﬁne an Hbilinear map to be one which satisﬁes µ(q1 u. B) . R(A. f1 . b) − (f (a). v ∈ V . b) and (a. B) is the subspace of F (A. Several of the familiar ideas which work for vector spaces over a commutative ﬁeld work just as well for Hmodules. we can deﬁne quaternion linear maps between Hmodules in the obvious way. f2 b) = f1 f2 µ(a. This is equivalent to having µ(f1 a. B and C are vector spaces over the commutative ﬁeld F. and so we can deﬁne a dual Hmodule U × of quaternion linear maps α : U → H. q2 ∈ H and let u ∈ U . We will work with left Hmodules — this choice is arbitrary and has only notational eﬀects on the resulting theory. b) − (a2 . Since q1 q2 = q2 q1 in general. Let U and V be left Hmodules. this process does not work for quaternions. we restrict ourselves to talking about Hmodules of the form Hn = H ⊗R Rn . V )/R(U. or alternatively µ(q1 u. such that p(qu) = (pq)u for all p. q2 v) = q2 q1 µ(u. V ) in the same way as above. However. which we write (q. Not surprisingly. Similar diﬃculties arise if we try to deﬁne a tensor product over the quaternions. but this is only saying that H⊗R Rm ⊗R Rn ∼ H⊗R Rmn .scalar multiplication. if we try to deﬁne quaternion bilinear maps we run into trouble. If A. then we need both µ(q1 u. we discover that R(U. = = our ‘quaternionic tensor product’ is merely a real tensor product in a quaternionic setting. we do get the useful relation Hm ⊗H Hn ∼ Hmn . b1 + b2 ) − (a. v) = q1 q2 µ(u. bj ∈ B and f ∈ F. f2 ∈ F. Let q1 . q2 v) = q1 µ(u. V and W are (left) Hmodules. b2 ) f (a. b) f (a. u) → q · u or just qu. b) = f1 µ(a. this cannot work. If A and B are vector spaces over the commutative ﬁeld F. 15 . b. aj ∈ A. A left Hmodule is thus a real vector space U with an action of H on the left. b) ∈ A×B and R(A. b) − (a1 . V ) which inherits a left Haction from U and a right Haction from V . B) (1. their tensor product over F is deﬁned by A ⊗F B = F (A. For example. Similarly. For example. One way around both of these diﬃculties is to demand that our Hmodules should also have an Haction on the right. In this case. b) for all a ∈ A. b) and µ(a. The drawback with this system is that it does not really provide any new insights. vq2 ) = q1 µ(u. Hn is an Hmodule with the obvious leftmultiplication. q2 v) = q1 µ(u. If we insist on having a left and a right Haction. v)¯2 . b) − (a. so U ⊗F V = {0}.
1.3.4
Summary
By now we have become familiar with some of the more elementary ups and downs of the quaternions. In the 20th century they have often been viewed as a sort of mathematical Cinderella, more recent techniques being used to describe phenomena which were ﬁrst thought to be profoundly quaternionic. However, we have seen that it is possible to produce quaternionic analogues of some of the most basic algebraic and analytic ideas of real and complex numbers, often with interesting and useful results. In the next chapter we will continue to explore this process, turning our attention to quaternionic structures in diﬀerential geometry.
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Chapter 2 Quaternionic Diﬀerential Geometry
In this chapter we review some of the ways in which quaternions are used to deﬁne geometric stuctures on diﬀerentiable manifolds. In the same way that real and complex manifolds are modelled locally by the vector spaces Rn and Cn respectively, there are manifolds which can be modelled locally by the Hmodule Hn . These models work by deﬁning tensors whose action on the tangent spaces to a manifold is the same as the action of the quaternions on an Hmodule. There are two important classes of manifolds which we shall consider: those which are called ‘quaternionic manifolds’, and a more restricted class called ‘hypercomplex manifolds’. In this chapter we describe these important geometric structures. We also review the decomposition of exterior forms on complex manifolds, and examine some of the parallels of this theory which have already been found in quaternionic geometry. Many of the algebraic and geometric foundations of the material in this chapter are collected in (or can be inferred from) Fujiki’s comprehensive article [F].
2.1
Complex, Hypercomplex and Quaternionic Manifolds
Complex Manifolds A complex manifold is a 2ndimensional real manifold M which admits an atlas of complex charts, all of whose transition functions are holomorphic maps from Cn to itself. As we saw in Section 1.3, the simplest notions of a ‘quaterniondiﬀerentiable map from H to itself’ are either very restrictive or too general, and the ‘regular functions’ of Fueter and Sudbery are not necessarily closed under composition. This makes the notion of ‘quaterniondiﬀerentiable transition functions’ less interesting that one might hope. An equivalent way to deﬁne a complex manifold is by the existence of a special tensor called a complex structure. A complex structure on a real vector space V is an automorphism I : V → V such that I 2 = − idV . (It follows that dim V is even.) The complex structure I gives an isomorphism V ∼ Cn , since the operation ‘multiplication = by i’ deﬁnes a standard complex structure on Cn . An almost complex structure on a 2ndimensional real manifold M is a smooth tensor I ∈ C ∞ (End(T M )) such that I is a complex structure on each of the ﬁbres Tx M .
17
Now, if M is a complex manifold, each tangent space Tx M is isomorphic to Cn , so taking I to be the standard complex structure on each Tx M deﬁnes an almost complex structure on M . An almost complex stucture I which arises in this way is called a complex structure on M , in which case I is said to be integrable. The famous NewlanderNirenberg theorem states that an almost complex structure I is integrable if and only if the Nijenhuis tensor of I NI (X, Y ) = [X, Y ] + I[IX, Y ] + I[X, IY ] − [IX, IY ] vanishes for all X, Y ∈ C ∞ (T M ), for all x ∈ M . The Nijenhuis tensor NI measures the (0, 1)component of the Lie bracket of two vector ﬁelds of type (1, 0). 1 On a complex manifold the Lie bracket of two (1, 0)vector ﬁelds must also be of type (1, 0). Thus if I is an almost complex structure on M and NI ≡ 0, then M is a complex manifold in the sense of the ﬁrst deﬁnition given above. We can talk about the complex manifold (M, I) if we wish to make the extra geometric structure more explicit — especially as the manifold M might admit more than one complex structure. Hypercomplex Manifolds This way of deﬁning a complex manifold adapts itself well to the quaternions. A hypercomplex structure on a real vector space V is a triple (I, J, K) of complex structures on V satisfying the equation IJ = K. (It follows that dim V is divisible by 4.) If we identify I, J and K with leftmultiplication by i1 , i2 and i3 , a hypercomplex structure gives an isomorphism V ∼ Hn . Equivalently, a hypercomplex structure is deﬁned by a pair of = complex structures I and J with IJ = −JI. It is easy to see that if (I, J, K) is a hypercomplex structure on V , then each element of the set {aI+bJ +cK : a2 +b2 +c2 = 1} ∼ S 2 = is also a complex structure. We arrive at the following quaternionic version of a complex manifold: Deﬁnition 2.1.1 An almost hypercomplex structure on a 4ndimensional manifold M is a triple (I, J, K) of almost complex structures on M which satisfy the relation IJ = K. If all of the complex structures are integrable then (I, J, K) is called a hypercomplex structure on M , and M is a hypercomplex manifold. A hypercomplex structure on M deﬁnes an isomorphism Tx M ∼ Hn at each point = x ∈ M . As on a vector space, a hypercomplex structure on a manifold M deﬁnes a 2sphere S 2 of complex structures on M . Some choices are inherent in this standard deﬁnition. A hypercomplex structure as deﬁned above gives T M the structure of a left Hmodule, since IJ = K. This induces a right Hmodule structure on T ∗ M , using the standard deﬁnition I(ξ), X = ξ, I(X) etc., for all ξ ∈ T ∗ M, X ∈ T M , since on T ∗ M we now have ξ, IJ(X) = I(ξ), J(X) = JI(ξ), X . In this thesis we will make more use of the hypercomplex structure on T ∗ M than that on T M . Because of this we will usually deﬁne our hypercomplex structures so that IJ = K on T ∗ M rather than T M . This has only notational eﬀect on the theory, but it does pay to
1
Tensors of type (p, q) are deﬁned in the next section.
18
whereas some authors use the opposite convention. The group of automorphisms of Tx M preserving such a structure is isomorphic to GL(n. H). Thus a complex manifold is precisely a real manifold M 2n with a GL(n. C)structure Q on M contain the same information. It is wellknown that S 4 does not even admit a global almost complex structure. A complex manifold generally admits many torsionfree connections which preserve the complex structure. H)structure Q. C)structure Q admitting a torsionfree connection (in which case Q itself is said to be ‘integrable’). H). Thus the group of symmetries of Hn is the product GL(1. in which case it is easy to show that I is integrable. the quaternionic projective line HP 1 is diﬀeomorphic to the 4sphere S 4 . The bundle Q admits a torsionfree connection if and only if there is a torsionfree linear connection on M with I = 0. Quaternionic Manifolds and the Structure Group GL(1. This process is described in [S3. Complex and hypercomplex manifolds can be decribed succinctly in terms of Gstructures on manifolds. R)bundle whose ﬁbre over x ∈ M is the group of isomorphisms Tx M ∼ R4n . the GL(n. H) .e. If M 4n has an almost hypercomplex structure then the group of automorphisms preserving this structure is isomorphic to GL(n. The uniqueness of any torsionfree connection on Q follows from analysing the Lie algebra gl(n. R) preserving a quaternionic structure. A Gstructure Q on M is a principal subbundle of P with structure group G. Suppose M 2n has an almost complex structure. H) ×R∗ GL(n. despite behaving extremely like the quaternions locally.be aware of how it aﬀects other standard notations. a hypercomplex manifold is seen to be a real manifold M with an integrable GL(n. and the connection is called the Obata connection. on a hypercomplex manifold there is a unique torsionfree connection such that I= J= K = 0. so HP 1 can certainly not be hypercomplex. H) commutes with that of the left Haction of the group GL(1. Let P be the principal frame bundle of M . This encourages us to think of a connection whose curvature is acted upon trivially by the hypercomplex structure as antiselfdual rather than selfdual. We can multiply on the right by any real multiple of the identity 19 . The reason (and the solution) for this diﬃculty is that GL(n. §6]. H)GL(n. H) is not the largest subgroup of GL(4n. H) as acting on Hn by rightmultiplication by n × n quaternionic matrices. i. One important diﬀerence between complex and hypercomplex geometry is the existence of a special connection. whereas Sudbery’s regular functions form a right Hmodule. H). Following the same line of argument. for us the hypercomplex − structure acts trivially on the antiselfdual 2forms ω1 = dx0 ∧ dx1 − dx2 ∧ dx3 etc. then the action of GL(n. C). For example. H). H)GL(n. H) Not all of the manifolds which we wish to describe as ‘quaternionic’ admit hypercomplex structures. Such things are largely a matter of taste — we are choosing to follow the notation of Joyce [J1] for whom regular functions form a left Hmodule. For example. which we write GL(1. If we think of GL(n. Thus an almost complex structure I and a GL(n. By contrast. R). This was proved by Obata in 1956. Let G be a = Lie subgroup of GL(n.
In four dimensions a manifold is said to be quaternionic K¨hler if and only if it a is selfdual and Einstein. H)GL(n.2 Diﬀerential Forms on Complex Manifolds This section consists of background material in complex geometry. and a hyperk¨hler a manifold has compatible hypercomplex and complexsymplectic structures.2 [S3. H) is the same as Sp(1)GL(n. There is still an S 2 bundle of local almostcomplex structures which satisfy IJ = K. When n = 1 the situation is diﬀerent. a The quaternionic analogue of the compact group U(n) is the group Sp(n). J and K. Y ) = g(IX. a an integrable U(n)structure is called a K¨hler structure. Each tangent space Tx M still admits a hypercomplex structure giving an isomorphism Tx M ∼ Hn . Such a manifold is called hyperk¨hler . For a comprehensive study of quaternionic manifolds see [S3] and Chapter 9 of [S4]. Deﬁnition 2. so without loss of generality we can reduce the ﬁrst factor to Sp(1). Y ∈ Tx M for all x ∈ M . Then M admits a Riemannian metric g with g(IX. which gives a quotient construction for hyperk¨hler a manifolds. Using each of the complex structures. H) = Sp(1) ×Z2 GL(n. but this isomorphism does not necessarily = arise from globally deﬁned complex structures on M . a we deﬁne three independent symplectic forms ωI . C)structure Q on a complex manifold M admits a further reduction to an integrable U(n)structure Q . quaternionic manifolds are a generalisation of hypercomplex manifolds in the following way.1] A quaternionic manifold is a 4ndimensional real manifold M (n ≥ 2) with an Sp(1)GL(n. We also deﬁne the diﬀerentiable 2form ω(X. Quaternionic K¨hler manifolds are the subject of [S2]. Then the complex 2form ωJ + iωK is holomorphic with respect to the complex structure I. Thus GL(1. H)structure Q reduces to an Sp(1)Sp(n)structure Q and M is said to be quaternionic K¨hler. H). if a quaternionic manifold has a metric compatible with the torsionfree Sp(1)GL(n. H) share the same centre R∗ ). H)structure Q admitting a torsionfree connection. and M is a symplectic manifold — so M has compatible complex and symplectic structures. IY ) = g(X. 1. Similarly. a 2. H)structure Q reduces to an integrable Sp(n)structure Q admits a metric g which is simultaneously K¨hler for each of the complex structures a I. especially ideas which encourage the development of interesting quaternionic versions. If such a metric arises from an integrable U(n)structure Q then ω will be a closed 2form. The group Sp(1)Sp(n) is a a maximal proper subgroup of SO(4n) except when n = 1. H)structure. Y ). Y ) for all X. ωJ and ωK . A hypercomplex manifold whose GL(n. Riemannian Manifolds in Complex and Quaternionic Geometry Suppose the GL(n. but it is free to ‘rotate’. the metric g is called a K¨hler a a metric and the symplectic form ω is called a K¨hler form. H) and GL(n. In this case M is called a K¨hler manifold.(since GL(1. More information on this 20 . Hyperk¨hler a manifolds are studied in [HKLR]. where as we know Sp(1)Sp(1) = SO(4). In four dimensions = we make the special deﬁnition that a quaternionic manifold is a selfdual conformal manifold.1. since Sp(1)×Sp(1) ∼ SO(4). In terms of tensors. then the Sp(1)GL(n.
Let (M.0 M = T1. A crucial fact is that if I is integrable.q M.0 M ⊕ T0.q M ) and Ωk (M ) = p+q=k p. These deﬁnitions rely only on the fact that I is an almost complex structure.4) where π p.1) gives rise to a decomposition of exterior forms of all powers k C ⊗R Λk T ∗ M = p=0 ∗ ∗ Λp (T1.1 M ). so Ωp.q+1 ◦ d. Deﬁne two ﬁrstorder diﬀerential operators.1) ∗ ∗ so Λ1.and other aspects of complex geometry can be found in [W] and [GH.2) With this notation. which is why a function which is holomorphic with respect to I is antiholomorphic with respect to −I.q+1 (M ) ∂ = π p. A holomorphic function f ∈ C ∞ (M.q (M ) ∂ = π p+1. Thus Λ1.1 M is called the antiholomorphic cotangent space of M . (2. where these summands are the +i and −i eigenspaces of I respectively. A closely linked statement is that Λ1.e.1 M. q) or just a (p. the decomposition (2. Λ1.1 M = T0. (2. I) be a complex manifold. §0. ∂ : Ωp.2].q M = Λp T1.e. i. The same is true of C ⊗R T ∗ M . If we reverse the sense of the complex structure (i. Λp. The operator ∂ is called the Dolbeault operator.q M .1 M .0 M and Λ0.0 M ⊕ Λ0.3) p+q=k A smooth section of the bundle Λ M is called a diﬀerential form of type (p.0 M for all m ∈ M . Equation (2.q (M ) → Ωp+1. However.0 M ) ⊗ Λk−p (T0.q ◦ d and ∂ : Ωp.q (M ) → Ωp. (2. if we swap I for −I) then we reverse the roles of the holomorphic and antiholomorphic spaces.0 M is a holomorphic vector bundle. There are various ways of writing these ∗ ∗ weight spaces. fairly standard is the notation C ⊗R T ∗ M = T1.0 M ).0 M is called the holomorphic cotangent space and Λ0. for our purposes it will be more useful to adopt the notation of [S3].1 M . q)forms on M . q)form. f is holomorphic if and only if df ∈ C ∞ (M.q denotes the natural projection from C ⊗ Λk M onto Λp.1) is an example of the more general decomposition into types C ⊗R Λk T ∗ M = Λp.q Ωp. C) is a smooth function whose derivative takes values only in Λ1.1 M.q (M ) = C ∞ (M. these are the only two components represented in 21 . writing C ⊗R T ∗ M = Λ1. Then I gives T M and T ∗ M the structure of a U(1)representation and the complexiﬁcation C⊗R T M splits into two weight spaces with weights ±i. From standard multilinear algebra. Deﬁne the bundle ∗ ∗ Λp.q (M ). We write Ωp.q (M ) for the set of (p.0 M ⊗ Λq T0. (2.
C) is holomorphic if and only if ∂f = 0 and for this reason ∂ is sometimes called the CauchyRiemann operator.Figure 2.0 r rr r Ω0.q−1 p. This induces a representation on C ⊗ Λ• T ∗ M . the exterior diﬀerential d. a (p. etc. i. . I(ω) = i(p − q)ω. etc.1 ∂ ¨ ¨¨ B ¨ r rr r j ∂ rr B ∂ ¨¨ ¨ Ω0. It is easy = to see that if ω ∈ Λp.2. Since U(1) is abelian. Similarly. .q+1 . The Dolbeault complex begins with the representation of the complex structure I ∼ u(1) on C ⊗ T ∗ M . .2. p. . 0)form α is said to be holomorphic if and only if ∂α = 0.1: The Dolbeault Complex Ω2. C) r rr r j ∂ rr ¨¨ j ∂ rr ¨¨ ¨ B ∂ ¨¨ ¨ Ω1.0 B ∂ ¨¨ ¨¨ ¨ . p. Proposition 2. They are parametrised by the integers.q 2 (2. The representations of U(1) on complex vector spaces are particularly easy to understand.e. Representations of the Lie algebra u(1) are then of the form d n : z → nz. In other words.q M .q H∂ = Ker(∂ ) Im(∂ p. C) = C∗ n : eiθ → eniθ for some n ∈ Z.q M is the bundle of U(1)representations of the type p−q .0 = C ∞ (M. .5) This gives rise to the Dolbeault complex. . taking the form n : U(1) → GL(1. . Writing ∂ for the particular map ∂ : p. . ) A function f ∈ C ∞ (M. we deﬁne the Dolbeault cohomology groups p. ∂ 2 = ∂∂ + ∂∂ = ∂ = 0. the irreducible representations all are onedimensional. An immediate consequence of this is that on a complex manifold M . . . d = ∂ + ∂ [WW. Λp. rr rr r ¨ ∂ j r Ω ¨ ¨¨ B ∂ ¨¨ ¨ 1.2 . A useful way to think of the Dolbeault complex is as a decomposition of C ⊗ Λk T ∗ M into types of U(1)representation. 22 .105].q .q Ω → Ωp.1 rr r rr ∂ j r ¨ ¨¨ Ω0.
H) on C2n . Then W is a vector bundle over M with ﬁbre W . We deﬁne the associated bundle W = P ×G W = P ×W . g −1 · w). H).1 [Kr.6) = where V1 is the basic representation of Sp(1) on C2 and E is the basic representation of GL(n. 122]. w) ∈ P × W by (p. Fujiki’s account of this [F. where ∗ : Λk T ∗ M → Λ4n−k T ∗ M is the Hodge star. where ωI . Note that Ψ ∧ Ψ = −2Ω. Let P be a principal Gbundle over the diﬀerentiable manifold M and let W be a Gmodule. We will usually just write W for W.5][Bon. Theorem 3. relying on context 23 .) This representation also describes the (co)tangent bundle of a quaternionic manifold in the following way. Kraines [Kr] and Bonan [Bon] used the fundamental 4form to decompose the space Λk T ∗ M in a similar way to the Lefschetz decomposition of diﬀerential forms on a K¨hler manifold [GH. We express the Sp(1)GL(n. ωJ and ωK are the local K¨hler forms associated to local almost complex a structures I. In this case. J and K with IJ = K.2. Bonan further reﬁnes this decomposition for quaternionvalued forms. p. using exterior multiplication by the globally deﬁned quaternionic 2form Ψ = i1 ωI + i2 ωJ + i3 ωK . The fundamental 4form is globally deﬁned and invariant under the induced action of Sp(1)Sp(n) on Λ4 T ∗ M .3 Diﬀerential Forms on Quaternionic Manifolds Any Gstructure on a manifold M induces a representation of G on the exterior algebra of M . where the µk−4j are eﬀective (k − 4j)forms. (This uses the standard convention of working with complex representations.3. the structure map is the tensor product of the quaternionic structures on V1 and E. Another way to consider the decomposition of forms on a quaternionic manifold is as representations of the group Sp(1)GL(n. This leads to the following theorem: Theorem 2. H)representation on Hn by writing Hn ∼ V1 ⊗ E. every every kform φ admits a unique decomposition φ= 0≤j≤k/4 Ωj ∧ µk−4j . A a diﬀerential kform µ is said to be eﬀective if Ω ∧ ∗µ = 0. which in the presence of suitable structure maps can be thought of as complexiﬁed real representations. G where g ∈ G acts on (p. w) · g = (f · g. Theorem 2] For k ≤ 2n + 2. a The decomposition of diﬀerential forms on quaternionic K¨hler manifolds began by a considering the fundamental 4form Ω = ωI ∧ ωI + ωJ ∧ ωJ + ωK ∧ ωK . §2] explains many quaternionic analogues of complex and K¨hler geometry. (2.
Theorem 4. Proposition 4. We will use such descriptions in detail in later chapters. H)action on the bundle of exterior kforms Λk T ∗ M .3. and ﬁnd that they play a prominent role in quaternionic algebra. we deﬁne a sequence of diﬀerential operators 0 −→ C ∞ (A0 ) −→ C ∞ (A1 = T ∗ M ) −→ C ∞ (A2 ) −→ . so that we write (2. we must antisymmetrise completely on E.11) is a complex. −→ C ∞ (A2n ) −→ 0. The following theorem of Salamon relates the integrability of such a structure with the sequence of operators in (2. D=d D D D (2. H) a representations Lk .10) Letting p denote the natural projection p : Λk T ∗ M → Ak and setting D = p ◦ d. Λk T ∗ M can be further decomposed j into representations of the compact group Sp(1)Sp(n). This decomposition is given j by Salamon [S3. = (2. This reﬁnement is performed in detail by Swann [Sw].9) The bundle Ak can be described using the decomposition into types for the local almost complex structures on M as follows [S3.8) where Lk is an irreducible representation of GL(n.to distinguish between the bundle and the representation.8) to obtain Vk . H)structure. . I (2. [k/2] [k/2] Λ T M ∼ Λk (V1 ⊗ E) ∼ = = k ∗ j=0 S k−2j (V1 ) ⊗ Lk j ∼ = j=0 Vk−2j ⊗ Lk .11) This is accomplished using only the fact that M has an Sp(1)GL(n. if M 4n is a quaternionic manifold with Sp(1)GL(n. This induces an Sp(1)GL(n. 2 24 . §4]. This is because every Sp(1)representation Vn is generated by its highest weight spaces taken with respect to all the diﬀerent linear combinations of I. If we symmetrise completely on V1 in Equation (2. j (2. then the cotangent bundle is a vector bundle associated to the principal bundle Q and the representation V1 ⊗ E. §1]. H)structure Q. Following Salamon [S3. H). and used to demonstrate signiﬁcant results. such a manifold is called ‘almost quaternionic’. J and K. This theorem is analogous to the familiar result in complex geometry that an almost 2 complex structure on a manifold is integrable if and only if ∂ = 0. If M is quaternion K¨hler.2]: 2 Ak = I∈S 2 Λk.2 [S3. .0 M.7) (T ∗ M )C ∼ V1 ⊗ E = (though we will usually omit the complexiﬁcation sign).11): Theorem 2.1] An almost quaternionic manifold is quaternionic if and only if (2. Salamon therefore deﬁnes the irreducible subspace Ak ∼ Vk ⊗ Λk E. along with more details concerning the nature of the GL(n.
q ⊕ Λq. in particular the isomorphism Vr ⊗ V1 ∼ Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 . The ellipticity properties of our double complex are more similar to those of a realvalued version of the Dolbeault complex. Then ω ∈ Λq. we consider only the action of the Sp(1)factor and decompose Λk T ∗ M into irreducible Sp(1)representations — a fairly easy process achieved by considering weights. This = encourages us to deﬁne two ‘quaternionic Dolbeault’ operators D and D.11) discovered by Simon Salamon.q ⊕ Λq. We argue that this is the best quaternionic analogue of the Dolbeault complex. Because of this similarity.Chapter 3 A Double Complex on Quaternionic Manifolds Until now we have been discussing known material. Determining where our double complex is elliptic has been far more diﬃcult than for the de Rham or Dolbeault complexes. C)bundle deﬁned by the complex structure. and leads to new cohomology groups on quaternionic manifolds. Instead of using the more complicated structure of Λk T ∗ M as an Sp(1)GL(n. 3. The resulting decomposition gives rise to a double complex through the ClebschGordon formula.p . we shall begin with a discussion of realvalued forms on complex manifolds.p )R is a real vector bundle associated to the principal GL(n. H)module. This gives 25 . This is more like the decomposition of realvalued forms on complex manifolds. where the subscript R denotes the fact that we are talking about real forms.8). which plays a similar role to that of the (k. and so ω + ω is a realvalued exterior form in (Λp. The space (Λp. The new double complex is obtained by simplifying the Bonan decomposition of Equation (2. In this chapter we present a discovery which as far as the author can tell is new — a double complex of exterior forms on quaternionic manifolds.q M . 0)forms on a complex manifold. our double complex forms an isosceles triangle.q = Λp. as if the diamond is ‘folded in half’.p )R . The ‘top row’ of this double complex is exactly the complex (2. The main geometric diﬀerence between this double complex and the Dolbeault complex is that whilst the Dolbeault complex is a diamond.1 Real forms on Complex Manifolds Let M be a complex manifold and let ω ∈ Λp.
0 ⊕ Ω0. (3. ∈ (Ωp+1. and why it is signiﬁcant.1 Thus there is a double complex of real forms on a complex manifold. It is its own conjugate and so naturally a real vector bundle associated to the trivial representation of U(1).0 ⊕ Ω0.p )R . . so ∂ ⊕ ∂ = ∂ ⊕ ∂ = d. induced from x ∗ the action on Tx M .3 ¨ ¨¨ . . Then d(ω + ω) = (∂ ⊕ ∂)(ω + ω) + (∂ ⊕ ∂)(ω + ω) .0 = C (M ) ∞ ¨ ∂⊕∂ rr rr j r ∂ ⊕ ∂ rr j Ω1.p )R .1 ⊕ Ω1. . This gives the following double complex (where the real subscripts are omitted for convenience).1) k k 2 The condition p > q ensures that we have no repetition. Let ω + ω ∈ (Ωp. p.q ⊕ Λq. it is not elliptic everywhere. Examples of elliptic This decomposition is also given by ReyesCari´n [R. The bundle ΛR 2 only appears when k is even.p )R ⊕ ΛR 2 .q+1 ⊕ Ωq+1.p )R o [[Λ ]]. .1]. Call this operator ∂ ⊕ ∂.1: The Real Dolbeault Complex Ω3.q ⊕ Ωq. obtained by decomposing Λk T ∗ M into subrepresentations of the action of u(1) = I . Λk T ∗ M = R p+q=k p>q 1 k k 2 (Λp. . who calls the bundle (Λp.2 ∂ ⊕ ∂¨ ¨ ¨¨ B ¨¨ rr rr ∂ ⊕ ∂ rr j ∂ ⊕ ∂ ¨¨ ¨ ¨¨ B ¨ Ω1. When p = q. §3. .1 ¨¨ Ω2.q ⊕ Λq. and there is only one diﬀerential operator acting on Ωp. d ¨¨ B ¨ rr d ¨¨ B ¨ Ω 0.0 ⊕ Ω0. . ω = ω.p . ∂ ⊕ ∂ ¨¨ B ¨ rr r r ∂ ⊕ ∂ rr j Ω2. Ellipticity Whether or not a diﬀerential complex on a manifold is ‘elliptic’ is an important question. . . .a decomposition of realvalued exterior forms. etc. We shall now show what this means. etc. Then ∂ω + ∂ω ∈ (Ωp+1. in particular. .p+1 )R .q ⊕ Ωq. with striking topological. Figure 3.q ⊕ Ωq.p+1 )R ⊕ (Ωp. algebraic and physical consequences. This double complex is less wellbehaved than its complexvalued counterpart.2 rr r ¨¨ ¨ .q 1 26 .
complexes include the de Rham and Dolbeault complexes. A thorough description of elliptic operators and elliptic complexes can be found in [W, Chapter 5]. Let E and F be vector bundles over M , and let Φ : C ∞ (E) → C ∞ (F ) be a diﬀerential operator. (We will be working with ﬁrstorder operators, and so will only describe this ∗ case.) At every point x ∈ M and for every nonzero ξ ∈ Tx M , we deﬁne a linear map σΦ (x, ξ) : Ex → Fx called the principal symbol of Φ, as follows. Let ∈ C ∞ (E) with (x) = e, and let f ∈ C ∞ (M ) with f (x) = 0, df (x) = ξ. Then σΦ (x, ξ)e = Φ(f )x .
∂ In coordinates, σ is often found by replacing the operator ∂xj with exterior multiplication ∂ by a cotangent vector ξ j dual to ∂xj . For example, for the exterior diﬀerential d : Ωk (M ) → Ωk+1 (M ) we have σd (x, ξ)ω = ω ∧ ξ. The operator Φ is said to be elliptic at ∗ x ∈ M if the symbol σΦ (x, ξ) : Ex → Fx is an isomorphism for all nonzero ξ ∈ Tx M .
n 0 1 2 3 A complex 0 −→ C ∞ (E0 ) −→ C ∞ (E1 ) −→ C ∞ (E2 ) −→ . . . −→ C ∞ (En ) −→ 0 is i said to be elliptic at Ei if the symbol sequence Ei−1 −→ Ei −→ Ei+1 is exact for all ∗ ξ ∈ Tx M and for all x ∈ M . The link between these two forms of ellipticity is as follows. If we have a metric on each Ei then we can deﬁne a formal adjoint Φ∗ : Ei → Ei−1 . i Linear algebra reveals that the complex is elliptic at Ei if and only if the Laplacian Φ∗ Φi + Φi−1 Φ∗ is an elliptic operator. i−1 i One important implication of this is that an elliptic complex on a compact manifold has ﬁnitedimensional cohomology groups [W, Theorem 5.2, p. 147]. Whether a complex yields interesting cohomological information is in this way directly related to whether or not the complex is elliptic. The following Proposition answers this question for the real Dolbeault complex.
Φ
Φ
Φ
Φ
Φ
Φn+1
σΦ
σΦi+1
Proposition 3.1.1 For p > 0, the upward complex 0 −→ Ωp,p −→ Ωp+1,p ⊕ Ωp,p+1 −→ Ωp+2,p ⊕ Ωp,p+2 −→ . . . is elliptic everywhere except at the ﬁrst two spaces Ωp,p and Ωp+1,p ⊕ Ωp,p+1 . For p = 0, the ‘leading edge’ complex 0 −→ Ω0,0 −→ Ω1,0 ⊕ Ω0,1 −→ Ω2,0 ⊕ Ω0,2 −→ . . . is elliptic everywhere except at Ω1,0 ⊕ Ω0,1 = Ω1 (M ). Proof. When p > q + 1, we have short sequences of the form Ωp−1,q −→ Ωp,q −→ Ωp+1,q (3.2) Ωq,p−1 −→ Ωq,p −→ Ωq,p+1 . Each such sequence is (a real subspace of) the direct sum of two elliptic sequences, and so is elliptic. Thus we have ellipticity at Ωp,q ⊕ Ωq,p whenever p ≥ q + 2.
∂ ∂ ∂ ∂
27
This leaves us to consider the case when p = q, and the sequence
∂
Ωp+1,p −→ Ωp+2,2 −→ . . . etc. (3.3) Ω
p,p+1
∂
0 −→ Ωp,p
∂
−→ Ω
∂
2,p+2
−→ . . . etc.
This fails to be elliptic. An easy and instructive way to see this is to consider the simplest 4dimensional example M = C2 . ∗ Let e0 , e1 = I(e0 ), e2 and e3 = I(e2 ) form a basis for Tx C2 ∼ C2 , and let eab... = a b 01 00 11 01 1,1 denote e ∧ e ∧ . . . etc. Then I(e ) = e − e = 0, so e ∈ Λ . The map from Λ1,1 to Λ2,1 ⊕ Λ1,2 is just the exterior diﬀerential d. Since σd (x, e0 )(e01 ) = e01 ∧ e0 = 0 the symbol map σd : Λ1,1 → Λ2,1 ⊕ Λ1,2 is not injective, so the symbol sequence is not exact at Λ1,1 . Consider also e123 ∈ Λ2,1 ⊕ Λ1,2 . Then σ∂⊕∂ (x, e0 )(e123 ) = 0, since there is no bundle Λ3,1 ⊕ Λ1,3 . But e123 has no e0 factor, so is not the image under σd (x, e0 ) of any form α ∈ Λ1,1 . Thus the symbol sequence fails to be exact at Λ2,1 ⊕ Λ1,2 . It is a simple matter to extend these counterexamples to higher dimensions and higher exterior powers. For k = 0, the situation is diﬀerent. It is easy to show that the complex 0 −→ C ∞ (M ) −→ Ω1,0 ⊕ Ω0,1 −→ Ω2,0 ⊕ Ω0,2 −→ . . . etc. is elliptic everywhere except at (Ω1,0 ⊕ Ω0,1 ). This last sequence is given particular attention by ReyesCari´n [R, Lemma 2]. He o shows that, when M is K¨hler, ellipticity can be regained by adding the space ω to a the bundle Λ2,0 ⊕ Λ0,2 , where ω is the real K¨hler (1, 1)form. a The Real Dolbeault complex is thus elliptic except at the bottom of the isosceles triangle of spaces. Here the projection from d(Ωp,p ) to Ωp+1,p ⊕ Ωp,p+1 is the identity, and arguments based upon nontrivial projection maps no longer apply. We shall see that this situation is closely akin to that of diﬀerential forms on quaternionic manifolds, and that techniques motivated by this example yield similar results.
d ∂⊕∂
3.2
Construction of the Double Complex
∗ Let M 4n be a quaternionic manifold. Then Tx M ∼ V1 ⊗ E as an Sp(1)GL(n, H)= representation for all x ∈ M . Suppose we consider just the action of the Sp(1)factor. Then the (complexiﬁed) cotangent space eﬀectively takes the form V1 ⊗ C2n ∼ 2nV1 . = k ∗ k Thus the Sp(1)action on Λ T M is given by the representation Λ (2nV1 ). To work out the irreducible decomposition of this representation we compute the weight space decomposition of Λk (2nV1 ) from that of 2nV1 . 2 With respect to the action of a particular subgroup U(1)q ⊂ Sp(1), the representation 2nV1 has weights +1 and −1, each occuring with multiplicity 2n. The weights of Λk (2nV1 ) are the kwise distinct sums of these. Each weight r in Λk (2nV1 ) must therefore be a sum of p occurences of the weight ‘+1’ and p − r occurences of the weight ‘−1’, where 2p − r = k
This process for calculating the weights of tensor, symmetric and exterior powers is a standard technique in representation theory — see for example [FH, §11.2].
2
28
and 0 ≤ p ≤ k (from which it follows immediately that −k ≤ r ≤ k and r ≡ k mod 2). The number of ways to choose the p ‘+1’ weights is 2n , and the number of ways p 2n to choose the (p − r) ‘−1’ weights is p−r , so the multiplicity of the weight r in the representation Λk (2nV1 ) is Mult(r) = 2n
k+r 2
2n
k−r 2
.
For r ≥ 0, consider the diﬀerence Mult(r)−Mult(r +2). This is the number of weight spaces of weight r which do not have any corresponding weight space of weight r + 2. Each such weight space must therefore be the highest weight space in an irreducible subrepresentation Vr ⊆ Λk T ∗ M , from which it follows that the number of irreducibles Vr in Λk (2nV1 ) is equal to Mult(r)−Mult(r + 2). This demonstrates the following Proposition: Proposition 3.2.1 Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold. The decomposition into irreducibles of the induced representation of Sp(1) on Λk T ∗ M is
k
Λk T ∗ M ∼ =
r=0
2n
k+r 2
2n
k−r 2
−
2n
k+r+2 2
2n
k−r−2 2
Vr ,
where r ≡ k mod 2. We will not always write the condition r ≡ k mod 2, assuming that
p q
= 0 if q ∈ Z.
Deﬁnition 3.2.2 Let M 4n be a quaternionic manifold. Deﬁne the coeﬃcient
n k,r
=
2n
k+r 2
2n
k−r 2
−
2n
k+r+2 2
2n
k−r−2 2
,
n k,r Vr .
and let Ek,r be the vector bundle associated to the Sp(1)representation this notation Proposition 3.2.1 is written
k k n k,r Vr r=0
With
Λ T M∼ =
k ∗
=
r=0
Ek,r .
Our most important result is that this decomposition gives rise to a double complex of diﬀerential forms and operators on a quaternionic manifold. Theorem 3.2.3 The exterior derivative d maps C ∞ (M, Ek,r ) to C ∞ (M, Ek+1,r+1 ⊕ Ek+1,r−1 ). Proof. Let be a torsionfree linear connection on M preserving the quaternionic structure. Then : C ∞ (M, Ek,r ) → C ∞ (M, Ek,r ⊗ T ∗ M ). As Sp(1)representations, this is : C ∞ (M, n Vr ) → C ∞ (M, n Vr ⊗ 2nV1 ). k,r k,r 29
. . C ∞ (E3.r+1 ⊕ Ek+1. etc.3 is equivalent to the following: Proposition 3.2. .5 On a quaternionic manifold M . (3. Again.r−1 ◦ d.r−1 ). instead of a diamond as in the Dolbeault complex.2 ) ¨¨ B ¨ D ¨¨ ¨ r rr r ¨ D rr j ¨¨ . and so D2 = DD + DD = D = 0.r ) → C ∞ (Ek+1.3 ) ¨¨ ¨ . Ek.0 = R) r r D rr j C ∞ (E2.1 ) ∞ D rr j D ¨¨ B ¨ C ∞ (E1.r under is contained in the Vr+1 and Vr−1 summands of Λk T ∗ M ⊗ T ∗ M .r be the natural projection from Λk T ∗ M onto Ek. Ek+1.r image of Ek. . 2 Figure 3.1). The ﬁrst equation is equivalent to Theorem 3.4) Theorem 3. Thus the = k. so d maps (sections of) Ek. Deﬁnition 3.2. . the operators D and D map real forms to real forms. The rest follows immediately from decomposing the equation d2 = 0.r . we have d = D + D.r ) → C ∞ (Ek+1.r k. d = ∧ ◦ . . Deﬁne the operators D : C ∞ (Ek.0 ) ¨ ¨¨ D ¨¨ B ¨ rr r r D rr j Here is our quaternionic analogue of the Dolbeault complex. etc. whereas there is one irreducible Sp(1)representation only for each nonnegative integer. 30 . rr r D ¨¨ B ¨ r C (E2.2: The Double Complex C ∞ (E3. . Since is torsionfree.3.r+1 ) D = πk+1. . This allows us to split the exterior diﬀerential d into two ‘quaternionic Dolbeault operators’. This is essentially because there is one irreducible U(1)representation for each integer. . .r to the Vr+1 and Vr−1 summands of Λk+1 T ∗ M . Note that this is a decomposition of real as well as complex diﬀerential forms.r−1 ) D = πk+1. There are strong similarities between this and the Real Dolbeault complex (Figure 3.Using the ClebschGordon formula we have n Vr ⊗2nV1 ∼ 2n n (Vr+1 ⊕Vr−1 ).4 Let πk.r+1 ◦ d and D : C ∞ (Ek. Proof. Thus d : C ∞ (M.2.1 = T ∗ M ) ¨ ¨¨ D ¨¨ B ¨ rr C ∞ (E0. the quaternionic version only extends upwards to form an isosceles triangle.r ) → C ∞ (M.2.
almost complex and Riemannian structures in four dimensions is described in more detail in [S4. Let e1 = I(e0 ). . .6) These are the relations of the irreducible sp(1)representation V2 . The relationship between quaternionic. and we see that E2. and let e ∈ Tx M . 31 . for k = 1 we no longer expect I 2 = J 2 = K 2 = −1. and by ‘act trivially’ we mean ‘annihilate’.etc. Because there is no suitable quaternionic version of holomorphic coordinates. In this way we obtain a basis {e . e3 } for Tx M ∼ H. .2.0 ) −→ C ∞ (E1. there is no ‘nice’ coordinate expression for a typical section of C ∞ (Ek. This makes no diﬀerence on T ∗ M but is important on the exterior powers Λk T ∗ M ..1 ) −→ C ∞ (E2. The celebrated splitting + − Λ2 T ∗ M ∼ Λ2 ⊕ Λ2 is an invariant of the conformal class of any Riemannian 4manifold. Here there is a splitting only in the middle dimension. J = 0 ∗ and K be local almost complex structures at x ∈ M . Then Dα = − 3 1 4 (r − 1) + 1 (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 ) dα r+1 We are assuming throughout that uppercase operators like I. Thus the leading edge of the double complex 0 −→ C ∞ (E0. In order to determine the decomposition of a diﬀerential form. In particular. Let I.11) discovered by Salamon.6 Four Dimensions This double complex is already very wellknown and understood in four dimensions.9) — they are both the subbundle of Λk T ∗ M which includes all Sp(1)representations of the form Vk . deﬁne the 2forms ± ω1 = e01 ± e23 . Λ2 T ∗ M ∼ V2 ⊕ 3V0 . D D D D D (3.r ). ω3 . so E2. J and K are acting as elements of a Lie algebra. ω3 . 2 0 3 0 0 ∗ e = J(e ) and e = K(e ). . a classic reference being [AHS]. not a Lie group.0 is the bundle of antiselfdual 2forms Λ2 . This mechanism also allows us to work out expressions for D and D acting on α. −→ C ∞ (E2n. . Lemma 3. Consider a kform α. J and K all act trivially 3 on the ωj . Example 3. the bundle Ek. Chapter 7]. = ijk.0 = ω1 . ω2 .k is the bundle Ak of (2.5) − − − − Then I. .2. This also serves to illustrate why in four dimensions we make the deﬁnition that a quaternionic manifold is a selfdual conformal manifold. ± ω3 = e03 ± e12 . These bundles will be familiar to most readers: E2.2 ) −→ .2 is the bundle of selfdual 2forms Λ2 and E2. i j k Using the notation e = e ∧ e ∧ e ∧ . = + − and I 2 + J 2 + K 2 = −4(∗ + 1).. ± ω2 = e02 ± e31 . Then α ∈ Ek. .. the simplest way the author has found is to use the Casimir operator C = I 2 + J 2 + K 2 .By deﬁnition.7 Let α ∈ C ∞ (Ek. .r ).2n ) −→ 0 is precisely the complex (2. The action of + sp(1) on the ωj is given by the multiplication table + I(ω1 ) = 0 + + J(ω1 ) = −2ω3 + + K(ω1 ) = 2ω2 + + I(ω2 ) = 2ω3 + J(ω2 ) = 0 + + K(ω2 ) = −2ω1 + + I(ω3 ) = −2ω3 + + J(ω3 ) = 2ω1 + K(ω3 ) = 0.2 = + + + ω1 . (3.r if and only if (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 )(α) = −r(r + 2)α. where ∗ : Λk T ∗ M → Λ4−k T ∗ M is the Hodge star map. ω2 .
This is exactly like the real Dolbeault complex of Figure 3.1 For 2k ≥ 4. Writing Dk. .r for the particular map D : C ∞ (Ek. it is the isosceles triangle as opposed to diamond shape which causes ellipticity to fail for the bottom row. Again.0 )) to C ∞ (E2k+1.1 . . → E2n+k. . we deﬁne the quaternionic cohomology groups k. 32 D D D D D . the exterior forms a1 dz ∧ .2n−k → 0 is elliptic everywhere except at E2k. ∧ d¯bq span Λp. because there is no quaternionic version of ‘holomorphic coordinates’. where Dα ∈ Ek+1.2 → .0 and E2k+1. The rest of this section provides a proof of this Theorem. Rearranging these equations gives Dα and Dα. r+1 Proof.r+1 and Dα ∈ Ek+1. .1.3 Ellipticity and the Double Complex In this section we shall determine where our double complex is elliptic and where it is not. we can decompose Ek. ∧ dz ap ∧ d¯b1 ∧ .r ) . Applying the Casimir operator gives (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 )(dα) = −(r + 1)(r + 3)Dα − (r + 1)(r − 1)Dα. . the complex 0 → E2k.r−1 ) (3. On a quaternionic manifold M 4n there is unfortunately no easy way to write down a local frame for the bundle Ek.r ) → C ∞ (Ek+1. For k = 1 the complex is elliptic everywhere except at E3. making it much easier to write down the kernels and images of maps which involve exterior multiplication. This allows us to decompose any form z z ω ∈ Λp. the guiding principles which determine where the two double complexes are elliptic are very much the same in both cases.7) 3. where it is not elliptic. Im(Dk−1. where it is not elliptic. It turns out that we have ellipticity everywhere except on the bottom two rows of the complex.1.r+1 ).1. Here is the main result of this section: Theorem 3.r .r−1 .1.3. the analogous result for the Real Dolbeault complex. However.q . We have dα = Dα + Dα. . Note the strong similarity between this Theorem and Proposition 3. On a complex manifold M 2n with holomorphic coordinates z j . For k = 0 the complex is elliptic everywhere.1 → E2k+2. and though it is more diﬃcult to prove for the quaternionic version.1 .and Dα = 1 4 (r + 3) + 1 (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 ) dα.1 ) is the identity.3.r HD (M ) = Ker(Dk.0 → E2k+1.0 and the projection from d(C ∞ (E2k.r just enough to enable us to prove Theorem 3. because d = D on E2k.q .
r ⊕ Ek. is exact for any nonzero e0 ∈ T ∗ Hn then it is exact for all nonzero ξ ∈ T ∗ Hn . . .r−1 . Note n n−1 0 that we can identify Ek.r . Consider.r ⊕ Ek.1. deﬁne e1 = I(e0 ).r ⊕ Ek. Secondly. the situation is of the form (pVr+1 ⊕ qVr−1 ) ⊗ 2V1 ∼ 2p(Vr+2 ⊕ Vr ) ⊕ 2q(Vr ⊕ Vr−2 ). To prove Theorem 3.r is preserved by the induced action of the hypercomplex structure on Λk Hn . where αj ∈ Λk−1 Hn−1 . since H0 ∼ 2V1 as an sp(1)= representation.r ⊂ Λk Hn according to how many diﬀerentials in the H0 direction are present. 3. We write + − + − + − + − α = α+ + α− = (α0 + α0 )e0 + (α1 + α1 )e1 + (α2 + α2 )e2 + (α3 + α3 )e3 . αj ∈ Ek−1. its components in the representations 2pVr+2 and 2qVr−2 must both vanish separately. K) be the standard hypercomplex structure on Hn .2 Deﬁne the space Ek. for example αeij means α ∧ eij . + − 0 0 where αj ∈ Ek−1. Proof. J.r ≡ Ek.r to be the subspace of Ek.A principal observation is that since ellipticity is a local property.r ∗ Let e0 ∈ Tx Hn ∼ Hn and let (I. juxtaposition of exterior forms will denote exterior multiplication.r on H . = where α+ ∈ pVr+1 and α− ∈ qVr−1 .3.r+1 and αj ∈ Ek−1. so for this to vanish we must have 33 . we choose one such e0 and analyse the spaces Ek.3. which decomposes each = l=0 Ek.r+1 ⊕ Ek−1. obtaining a (nonnatural) ∗ splitting Tx Hn ∼ Hn−1 ⊕ H0 which is preserved by action of the hypercomplex structure.r accordingly. e2 = J(e0 ) and e3 = K(e0 ). since GL(n.r .r ∩ (Λk−l Hn−1 ⊗ Λl H0 ).r = Ek. (Throughout the rest of this section.3 If α = α+ + α− ∈ Ek. = In this way we single out a particular copy of H which we call H0 . 0 1 2 3 4 Thus we obtain an invariant decomposition Ek. Thus α is an element of Λk−1 Hn−1 ⊗ 2V1 . i. we can work on Hn without loss of generality.r−1 .2. As = in Example 3. = This induces the decomposition Λk Hn ∼ 4 Λk−l Hn−1 ⊗ Λl H0 .r . . The following Lemma allows us to consider α+ and α− separately. l Deﬁnition 3. . l Then Ek.e. e3 ∼ H. . for example. Since α is in a copy of the representation Vr .r consisting of exterior forms with precisely l diﬀerentials in the H0 direction. l Ek.e.3.r ⊕ Ek. An exterior form α ∈ Ek. i. it follows from the isomorphism Vr ⊗ V1 ∼ Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 that the αj must be in a combination of Vr+1 and Vr−1 = 0 0 representations. For α to be in the representation 2(p + q)Vr .r is of the form α0 e0 + α1 e1 + α2 e2 + α3 e3 . so that e0 . . H) acts transitively on Hn \ {0}. 1 1 Lemma 3. if the σe0 σe0 σe0 symbol sequence . . the bun1 1 dle Ek.r then both α+ and α− must be in Ek. .) We can decompose these summands still further. The component in 2pVr+2 comes entirely from α+ .6.r −→ Ek+1. −→ Ek.3.r+1 −→ .1 Decomposition of the Spaces Ek. In terms of representations.r on H with Ek.
Since these are the conditions for a form to lie in a particular Lie algebra representation.r 4.r and 4. 2.r 1.r = Ek.r = Ek.r respectively.r the αj will usually have to satisfy some simultaneous equations. l. Let α ∈ Ek. 0.r and Ek.4 Deﬁne the bundle Ek...r 2. 3.r 2.r .r 4 Ek.ta + .b .r Recall the selfdual forms and antiselfdual forms in Example 3. 2.r . 3.2 Lie in conditions We have analysed the bundle Ek. The middle isomorphism follows a = similar argument. The second isomorphism is Lemma 3. 0 1 Thus we decompose the space Ek.r = Ek. We now determine when a particular exterior form lies in one of these subbundles. l.3. l. since wedging with e0123 has no eﬀect on the sp(1)action.r 2. We 2.r+1 ⊗2V1 .r = Ek.r ≡ (Ek−l.r+1 1.r−1 ⊗ 0 2V1 and one from Ek−1.α+ ∈ 2(p + q)Vr independently of α− . In other words. one coming from Ek−1.r− will call these summands Ek. Consider 0 a form α = α1 es1 . That α ∈ Ek. the bottom right index r refers to the irreducible Sp(1)representation in which α lies. l.3.r+ 2.r ⊕ Ek. 34 .r .. 4.r be as above. we mention three trivial Lie in conditions.4 allows us to write down.2.3.r into a number of diﬀerent subbundles.r ..r to be the subbundle of Ek.m ⊗ Λl H0 ) ∩ Ek. etc. where αj ∈ Ek−a. Similarly. the bottom left index k refers to the exterior power of the form α ∈ Λk Hn .3.r−1 1 Ek.r− 2.r ⊕ Ek.sa + α2 et1 .m To recapitulate: for the space Ek.r−2 2 Ek. as is the last (since the hypercomplex structure acts trivially on Λ4 H0 ).r ⊕ Ek.r arising from n−1 Vm type representations in Λk−l H .m 0 Ek. the top left index l refers to the number of diﬀerentials in the H0 direction and the top right index m refers to the irreducible Sp(1)representation of the contributions from Λk−a Hn−1 before wedging with forms in the H0 direction. so Ek.r 0 To begin with.r 0 Ek. .r ⊕ Ek.b spaces Ek.r is obvious. and the fourth follows in exactly the same way since Λ3 H0 ∼ 2V1 also. We have the following decompositions: 0.r . The bundle Ek.6.r−1 3 Ek.r . we must have α− ∈ 2(p + q)Vr .5 Let Ek.m l Deﬁnition 3.r 3. This may appear slightly ﬁddly: it becomes rather simpler when we consider the speciﬁc splittings which Deﬁnition 3.r splits according to whether its contribution from Λ2 H0 is selfdual or antiselfdual. as is αe0123 ∈ Ek. .r = Ek. we will refer to such equations as ‘Lie in conditions’. Proof.3. deﬁning the following notation.r ⊕ Ek.r+2 2. We extend this decomposition to the cases l = 0.3.r into two summands.r+1 3.r+ 2. For α to lie in one of the a. for the component in 2qVr−2 to vanish.r = Ek. The ﬁrst isomorphism is trivial.m Lemma 3.
(3. Since the αj have no ej factors and the action of I. 3.r entirely in Ek+1. so αωj ∈ Ek. = 4 35 .r 1. ω2 = e02 − e31 2.− − Likewise.r−1 . Then (I 2 +J 2 +K 2 )α = −(r −1)(r +1)α.8) gives the result that α ∈ Ek+1. 2.r . Thus 3 (I + J + K )α = j=0 2 2 2 (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 )(αj )ej + αj (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 )(ej ) + + 2 I(αj )I(ej ) + J(αj )J(ej ) + K(αj )K(ej ) 3 = −r(r + 2)α − 3α + 2 j=0 I(αj )I(ej ) + J(αj )J(ej ) + K(αj )K(ej ) I(α0 )e1 − I(α1 )e0 + I(α2 )e3 − I(α3 )e2 + +J(α0 )e2 − J(α1 )e3 − J(α2 )e0 + J(α3 )e1 + +K(α0 )e3 + K(α1 )e2 − K(α2 )e1 − K(α3 )e0 .r this alternative into Equation (3. we have that 2 I (αj ej ) = I 2 (αj )ej + 2I(αj )I(ej ) + αj I 2 (ej ). J and K preserves this property. and α is 1.r We conclude that α ∈ Ek+1.r−1 if and only if Our interest in these conditions arises from a consideration of exterior forms.r 0 Let αj ∈ Ek. 1. but the equations describe sp(1)representations in general: they are the conditions that α ∈ Vr ⊗ V1 must satisfy to be in the Vr+1 subspace of Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 ∼ Vr ⊗ V1 . 3forms and the selfdual 2forms ωj .r− − − 03 12 and ω3 = e − e is trivial.r Suppose instead that α ∈ Ek+1.r+1 if and only if (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 )α = −(r + 1)(r + 3)α. Putting 1. etc. This leaves the following three situations: those arising from taking exterior products + with 1forms.r−1 . (3.r For α ∈ Ek+1. α1 .r+1 ⊕ Ek+1. which is the case if and only if −rα = I(α0 )e1 − I(α1 )e0 + I(α2 )e3 − I(α3 )e2 + J(α0 )e2 − J(α1 )e3 − J(α2 )e0 + J(α3 )e1 + + K(α0 )e3 + K(α1 )e2 − K(α2 )e1 − K(α3 )e0 . this equation can only be satisﬁed if it holds for each of the ej components separately.r+1 we need this to be equal to −(r + 1)(r + 3)α. The cases l = 1 and l = 3 1. we apply the Casimir operator. Then α = α0 e0 + α1 e1 + α2 e2 + α3 e3 ∈ Ek+1.r+1 if and only if α0 .8) = (−r2 − 2r − 3)α + 2 1. α2 and α3 satisfy the following Lie in conditions: 4 rα0 − I(α1 ) − J(α2 ) − K(α3 ) rα1 + I(α0 ) + J(α3 ) − K(α2 ) rα2 − I(α3 ) + J(α0 ) + K(α1 ) rα3 + I(α2 ) − J(α1 ) + K(α0 ) = = = = 0 0 0 0. By the usual (Leibniz) rule for a Lie algebra action on a tensor product. the sp(1)action on the antiselfdual 2forms ω1 = e01 − e23 . As usual when we want to know which representation an exterior form is in.r for all j = 1. The other Lie in conditions have similar interpretations.9) 1.
r− − has no eﬀect on the sp(1)action. ω3 ∼ V2 ⊂ Λ2 H0 .r+2 . β2 and β3 satisfy Equation 3.13) (2 − r)β3 = I(β2 ) − J(β1 ). We calculate these Lie in conditions in a similar fashion to the previous cases. there are r + 1 linearly independent solutions of this form (for r = 0).r−1 .7 by replacing dα with αe0 . 3. (2 − r)β1 = J(β3 ) − K(β2 ) 2.r+2 ⇐⇒ (3. (3. K] = JK − KJ.5.r Ek+2.r−2 ⇐⇒ (3. it must have dim Vr = r + 1 linearly independent solutions.12.r+ 2β2 = K(β1 ) − I(β3 ) β ∈ Ek+2. By the Clebsch= Gordon formula. β2 = J(β0 ).r+1 we need = 3.2.r (2 − r)β2 = K(β1 ) − I(β3 ) β ∈ Ek+2. Since 3.r−1 we need the αj to satisfy Equations (3. the Lie in conditions are exactly the same: for α to be in Ek+3.r (r + 4)β2 = K(β1 ) − I(β3 ) β ∈ Ek+2.10) 3.3.3. Using the Lie algebra relations 2I = [J.3.3. Let β0 ∈ Vr and let β1 = I(β0 ). The case l = 2 − 0 We have already noted that wedging a form β ∈ Ek. Thus = + + + for β = β1 ω1 + β2 ω2 + β3 ω3 we want to establish the Lie in conditions for β to be in 2.r Consider now α = α0 e123 + α1 e032 + α2 e013 + α3 e021 ∈ Ek+3.12) 2β3 = I(β2 ) − J(β1 ). 2β1 = J(β3 ) − K(β2 ) 2.r Λ3 H0 ∼ H0 .1 We now describe the principal symbol of D. Moreover.r+1 ⊕ Ek+3.(r + 2)α0 + I(α1 ) + J(α2 ) + K(α3 ) (r + 2)α1 − I(α0 ) − J(α3 ) + K(α2 ) (r + 2)α2 + I(α3 ) − J(α0 ) − K(α1 ) (r + 2)α3 − I(α2 ) + J(α1 ) − K(α0 ) = = = = 0 0 0 0. Ek+2.r 3.r the αj to satisfy Equations (3. Since this equation singles out the Vr representation in the direct sum Vr+2 ⊕ Vr ⊕ Vr+2 . This leads to a proof of Theorem 3. and examine its behaviour in the context of the decompositions of Deﬁnition 3.r . the decomposition takes the form Vr ⊗ V2 ∼ Vr+2 ⊕ Vr ⊕ Vr−2 .r with an antiselfdual 2form ωj 2. β3 = K(β0 ).11) (r + 4)β3 = I(β2 ) − J(β1 ). Thus we only have to consider the + + + eﬀect of wedging with the selfdual 2forms ω1 . ω2 . and for α to be in Ek+3.10). β3 = K(β0 ).r and Ek+2.12) take the form β1 = I(β0 ).r+ 2.6).9). it is easy to see that β1 .2 and Lemma 3.r−2 . First we obtain the principal symbol from the formula for D in Lemma 3. 36 . by considering the action of the Casimir operator I 2 +J 2 +K 2 on β and using the multiplication table (3.r 2. Equation 3. so βωj ∈ Ek+2.3. The following Lie in conditions are then easy to deduce: (r + 4)β1 = J(β3 ) − K(β2 ) 2. β2 = J(β0 ).1.r ⇐⇒ (3. We conclude that all the solutions of Equation (3.12 is particularly interesting.3 The Symbol Sequence and Proof of Theorem 3.
so the index m remains the same. σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ σ (3. .r → l+1 Ek+1.r−1 −→ Ek.6 Let x ∈ Hn . e0 ∈ Tx Hn and α ∈ Ek. . e0 )(α) = − 1 1 (r − 1) + (I 2 + J 2 + K 2 ) αe0 4 r+1 −1 = ( (r − 1)(r + 1) − r(r + 2) − 3 ) αe0 4(r + 1) +2 I(α)e1 + J(α)e2 + K(α)e3 = as required. Replacing dα with αe0 in the formula for D obtained in Lemma 3.2.r to the space l+1. 1 (r + 2)αe0 − I(α)e1 − J(α)e2 − K(α)e3 .r+1 → 0 ⊕ 2. The only action in the other directions is the sp(1)action.r 3.14) Using Lemma 3.r+1 −→ Ek+2.r+1 → Ek+2.) l The point of all this work on decomposition now becomes apparent.r+2 3.r−1 −→ Ek. l. to the 5space sequence 2 3 4 0 1 0 −→ Ek−2. Using Lemma 3.r → 0. 2(r + 1) Proof.7 The principal symbol σD (x.6.r+1 −→ .3. which preserves the irreducible decomposition of the contribution from Λk−a Hn−1 . .r → Ek.∗ Proposition 3.r−1 2.m Corollary 3. etc. e0 ) maps the space Ek.r+2 → 0 ⊕ ⊕ 2.r+2 −→ 0.r+1 is given by σD (x.r+2 4.r → Ek−1. e0 ) for the rest of this section.3.7. (To save space we shall use σ as an abbreviation for σD (x.r+1 . we see that σD (x.r . e ) : Ek. we can reduce the (somewhat indeﬁnite) symbol sequence .3. We already know that σD : Ek. obtaining three short sequences (for k ≥ 2.r → Ek+1. we can analyse this sequence still further according to the diﬀerent (top right) mindices. (3.r+1 .r−2 1.r → Ek+1.r −→ Ek+1.r+2 → Ek.r−2 −→ Ek−1.r−2 → Ek−1.m Ek+1.15) 37 .r → Ek+1. −→ Ek−1. . e0 ) increases the number of diﬀerentials in the H0 direction by one.5 as well. we have σD (x.r−2 0 → Ek−2.r → Ek+1.r−1 ⊕ 1. by deﬁnition. Since σ : Ek. The principal symbol 0 mapping σD (x.r −→ Ek+1.r+1 . so the index l increases by one.3. k ≡ r mod 2) 0 0 0. 2(r + 1) Proof. e0 )(α) = 1 (r + 2)αe0 − I(α)e1 − J(α)e2 − K(α)e3 .r−2 → Ek.
2 which cannot be exact.r The case a = 2 is slightly more complicated. Here the bottom sequence of (3.r . It is clear that dim Ek.m Proof. for the middle sequence n−1 k−2.r = (r + 1) k−2. Since the isomorphism n−1 V0 ⊗V2 ∼ n−1 V2 gives no trivial V0 representations.r 2.r = (r + 1) k−2. Finally. we have dim Ek−1. l.2. .r dim Ek+1.3.r n−1 giving Ek. 3. Lemma 3.r+2 k−2. B and C it is exact at the third.This reduces the problem of determining where the operator D is elliptic to the problem of determining when these three sequences are exact.r has dimension (r +1) n−1 and the space Ek.2.r+2 3.r−2 and 4.r−2 1.r ⊗ 2V1 .r has dimension 3(r +1) n−1 .r−2 (r − 1 − 2r + r + 1) = 0.r on Hn−1 . which now follows from: 38 . The case r = 0 is diﬀerent. k.r−1 = 2r k−2.0+ Ek.r+2 2.1 → . For a sequence 0 → A → B → C → 0 to be exact.r−2 = (r − 1) k−2.3. Let r > 0. etc.r+1 = 2(r + 2) n−1 and dim Ek+1.r+ 2. k−2. and for the bottom sequence n−1 k−2. . each of the sequences in (3.0 → E1.r n−1 n−1 For a = 1. Recall 0 the notation Ek.15) satisﬁes the dimension condition above.0 . Thus dim Ek−2. We shall show that for r = 0 this dimension sum does equal zero.0 V0 −→ 2 n−1 k−2.r+2 (r + 1 − 2(r + 2) + r + 3) = 0. if the sequence is exact at any two out of A.r a total dimension of 4(r + 1) k−2.0 is ‘too small’ — we are left with a sequence 0 −→ 3 n−1 k−2.r+2 and dim Ek.r = n Vr from Deﬁnition 3. as we have to take into account exterior products with the selfdual 2forms V2 and antiselfdual 2forms 3V0 in Λ2 H0 .e. i. . 4. Thus Ek.15) n−1 k−2.r k−2.r−2 Ek.r on Hn is simply Ek.r−2 .r−1 = 2r k−2.r+2 2. the alternating sum of the dimensions vanishes.r−2 n−1 0 since Ek.0 V1 −→ 0. . k−2. k−2.0 k−2.r− space Ek.8 For r > 0.0 2.r+2 dim Ek+2.r for l = 0.0 2. .15) disappears altogether.r+2 = (r + 3) n−1 . It is now a simple matter to verify that for the top sequence of (3. (As there is no space E0. Given this condition. For a = 3.r+1 = 2(r + 2) n−1 . from which we 2.r .r k. We calculate the dimensions of the spaces Ek. The spaces 2.r−2 and dim Ek−1. 1. it is necessary that dim A − dim B + dim C = 0. .r−2 n−1 n−1 infer that dim Ek. the 2.r receive contributions only from the selfdual part V2 .r = (r + 1) n−1 .r (2r − 4(r + 1) + 2(r + 2)) = 0. there is no space = k−2. the top sequence still being exact.1.r and Ek.r 0. Exactness is lost in the middle sequence.r+2 0 The cases a = 1 and a = 3 are easy to work out since they are of the form Ek. this problem does not arise for the leading edge 0 → E0.) We are ﬁnally in a position to prove Theorem 3.0 .
r+2 −→ 0.r −→ Ek+1.r−2 1. we show that the middle sequence 0 −→ Ek−1.9 When r = 0.r+2 3.r+1 −→ Ek+2.r . Then σ(α) = 1 rαe0 − I(α)e1 − J(α)e2 − K(α)e3 . Recall the Lie in condition (3. A calculation using Proposition 3.r−2 Ek−1.r−2 Since these are linearly independent. Since the αi have no ej components.r−1 or Ek+2.r+1 is injective and the 3. Restricting to 1. 0 Consider α ∈ Ek−2.r−1 . in which case it is clear that σ(α) = 0 ⇐⇒ α = σ 2(r+1) α0 r .r → Ek+1.r .r −→ Ek+1.r of Ek.15).r−1 and Ek−1. σ 2.r−2 → σ σ 1.r−1 .r+2 The ClebschGordon formula shows that there are no spaces Ek+1.r+2 4. It is easy to check using 3.15) are exact.r is of the form β+γ = 1 − + + + − − I(β0 )ω1 + J(β0 )ω2 + K(β0 )ω3 + γ1 ω1 + γ2 ω2 + γ3 ω3 .16) shows that (r + 2)β0 + I(γ1 ) + J(γ2 ) + K(γ3 ) = (r + 2)γ1 − I(β0 ) − J(γ3 ) + K(γ2 ) = σ(β + γ) = 0 ⇐⇒ (r + 2)γ2 + I(γ3 ) − J(β0 ) − K(γ1 ) = (r + 2)γ3 − I(γ2 ) + J(γ1 ) − K(β0 ) = 0 0 0 0.r+2 2. γj ∈ Ek−2.Proposition 3. 2.3. Consider ﬁrst the top sequence 0 −→ Ek. 1 1 To show exactness at Ek−1.r−2 .r Finally.r+1 .r−2 Ek−1.r−1 −→ Ek. Hence the bottom sequence 0 −→ Ek−2. 0 1 2 This shows that the sequence Ek−2.12) that β + + + 0 must take the form β = 1 I(β0 )ω1 + J(β0 )ω2 + K(β0 )ω3 for some β0 ∈ Ek−2.3. α3 = − 1 K(α0 ) (since r r r as remarked in Section 3.).r 1. and σ : Ek−2.r+2 is surjective.r and Ek+1.r−2 −→ Ek−1.r for β0 .r+1 → Ek+2.r σ 3.r−1 . 2.r . This occurs if and only if α1 = − 1 I(α0 ).3.r is exact.6 shows that σ σ σ σ(α) = 1 (rα1 + I(α0 ))e10 + (rα2 + J(α0 ))e20 + (rα3 + K(α0 ))e30 + (3.r−1 → Ek. the three sequences of (3.r+2 4.r+2 3.r+2 D = 0 on Ek.r−2 Ek.16) 2r + (2α1 − J(α3 ) + K(α2 ))e32 + (2α2 − K(α1 ) + I(α3 ))e13 + (2α3 − I(α2 ) + K(α1 ))e21 .r+2 Proof. so D = d for the top sequence.r+2 3. (The r 1 factor makes no diﬀerence here and is useful for cancellations. α2 = − 1 J(α0 ).r+ + + + Let β = β1 ω1 + β2 ω2 + β3 ω3 ∈ Ek.r−2 → Ek−1. we see that exactness holds at these spaces in the middle and bottom sequences respectively of (3. r 0. 39 .) Thus a general element r 2. consider α = α0 e0 + α1 e1 + α2 e2 + α3 e3 ∈ Ek−1.r .r+1 −→ 2. which is now suﬃcient to show that the sequence is exact. 4.r+2 map ∧e0 : Ek+1.1 these equations also guarantee that 2α1 −J(α3 )+K(α2 ) = 0 etc. Thus 2. σ(α) = 0 if and only if all these components vanish. σ(α) = 0 if and only if α = 0.r+2 the relevant Lie in conditions that the map ∧e0 : Ek.r −→ 0 is exact. A similar calculation to that of (3.r−1 −→ 2. 2(r − 1) 0.r−2 0.r .r 1.r−1 is injective.r 0 is exact at Ek.
0 → E3. so σ : Ek. consider α ∈ Ek−2. Under this diagonal action the tensor product V1 ⊗ the representation H ⊗ Ek. Then 3. Equation (2.0 −→ E1. This amounts to applying the operators I : α → I(α) − αi1 . This concludes our proof of Theorem 3. and to show that the sequence E0. Consider.0 . for example. q) → qp−1 .0 αe0123 ∈ Ek.3.r−1 .10) which we need for β0 e0 + γ1 e1 + γ2 e2 + γ3 e3 1. We can now use our globally deﬁned hypercomplex structure to combine the Sp(1)actions on H and Λk T ∗ M .0 and σ(αe0123 ) = 0.But this is exactly the Lie in condition (3. and the righthand copy of V1 as the rightaction (p.1 is not injective.r representation H ⊗ Ek.1.1 −→ E2.0 → Ek+1. which is exactly the same as saying that the symbol sequence is not exact at Ek.1 and αe123 ∧ e0 ∈ Ek+2. 0 As a counterexample for the case r = 1 and k ≥ 2. it is easy to see that this counterexample σ σ does not arise when k = 0.17) = where we can interpret the lefthand copy of V1 as the leftaction (p.1 are injective. giving (3. in which case we have β + γ = σ 2(β0 e0 + γ1 e1 + γ2 e2 + γ3 e3 ) . (3.2 is exact at E1.r 40 splits.r . Again.r ∼ V1 ⊗ V1 ⊗ n Vr . 2. Thus we have globally deﬁned operators which generate the sp(1)action on Λk T ∗ M .1 . This motivates a thorough investigation of quaternionvalued forms on hypercomplex manifolds.0 → E1. and to show that the maps σ : E0. Consider also the quaternions themselves.r Leaving the left Haction untouched.r = n Vr . Thus the symbol sequence fails to be exact at Ek+1. It is easy to see that this counterexample does not arise when k = 0 or 2.r to be in Ek−1. Then M has a triple (I. Thus σ(αe123 ) = 0.r and so the middle sequence is exact. K) of complex structures which we can identify globally with the imaginary quaternions. Then 4. The Sp(1)action on these forms is described by the k.1 . = k.1 and σ : E2. 3.0 . In the case n = 1 this reduces to the representation H ∼ V1 ⊗ V1 . H)representation on Hn as V1 ⊗ E.4 Quaternionvalued forms on Hypercomplex Manifolds Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. = k. Since αe123 has no e0 2 components at all it is clear that αe123 = σ(β) for any β ∈ Ek.0 .r ∼ V1 ⊗ n (Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 ). quaternionvalued exterior forms in the bundle Ek.r Vr to α ∈ H ⊗ Ek. q) → pq. consider α ∈ Ek−4. 0 As a counterexample for the case r = 0 and k ≥ 4.18) .0 . J : α → J(α) − αi2 and K : α → K(α) − αi3 n k. J.r This demonstrates exactness at Ek.6) describes the Sp(1)GL(n. we consider the eﬀect of the right Haction and the hypercomplex structure simultaneously.0 4 αe123 ∈ Ek+1.0 . for q ∈ H and p ∈ Sp(1).
lead to quaternionic analogues of holomorphic functions and kforms.18). The algebraic foundation for this geometry lies in considering objects like our left Hmodules in Equation (3.Each of these summands inherits the structure of a left Hmodule from the leftaction V1 .r Hlinear submodule of Hn . Each of the summands V1 ⊗ n Vr±1 is a left Hmodule k. It will. This point of view turns out to be very fruitful. over the next few chapters. There is a decomposition of realvalued forms. which is taken further when we consider complexvalued forms. the holomorphic tangent and cotangent spaces.r which arises as a submodule of H ⊗ Ek. Thus each summand is an = k. and complex Lie groups and Lie algebras. which is not aﬀected by our splitting. 41 .r ∼ (r + 1) n Hn . This situation mirrors our discussion of real and complex forms on complex manifolds. In the next chapter we will introduce a new algebraic theory which is based upon such objects. In the same way. considering quaternionvalued forms on a hypercomplex manifold allows us to take our decomposition further.
4. Dominic Joyce.) For two AHmodules U ⊂ Hm and V ⊂ Hn . For our purposes. all Hmodules will 42 . for example it is both associative and commutative. The pair (U. 4. The interested reader should consult [J1] for more details and proofs. The basic objects of study are Hsubmodules U of H ⊗ Rn . we will see that the most important classes of AHmodules are conveniently described and manipulated using Sp(1)representations. or AHmodule. There are other algebraic operations which are equivalent to Joyce’s quaternionic tensor product.Chapter 4 Developments in Quaternionic Algebra This chapter describes an algebraic theory which will be central to our description of hypercomplex geometry. The theory is that of my supervisor.1 AHModules We begin by deﬁning Hmodules and their dual spaces. U ) is an augmented Hmodule. and is presented in [J1]. In the next chapter. It has similar properties to the tensor product over a commuting ﬁeld. The operation ‘ ⊗H ’ will be called the quaternionic tensor product. we can deﬁne a unique AHmodule U ⊗H V ⊂ Hmn . u) → q · u or qu. This allows us to develop the algebra of AHmodules as a parallel to that of vector spaces over R or C.3 that the most obvious deﬁnitions of a tensor product over the quaternions are not especially fruitful. A sheaftheoretic point of view is presented by Quillen [Q]. such that p(q(u)) = (pq)(u) for p.1 The Quaternionic Algebra of Joyce The following is a summary of parts of Joyce’s theory of quaternionic algebra. q ∈ H and u ∈ U . This allows us to classify all AHmodules and determine their tensor products. This analogy is particularly strong for certain wellbehaved AHmodules which will be called stable AHmodules. in which he discovers a contravariant equivalence of tensor categories between AHmodules and regular sheaves on a real form of CP 1 . The most important discovery in [J1] is a canonical tensor product for AHmodules with interesting properties. A (left) Hmodule is a real vector space U with an action of H on the left which we write as (q.1. Joyce shows that the inclusion ιU : U → Hn is determined up to isomorphism by the Hmodule structure of U and the choice of a real vector subspace U ⊂ U satisfying a certain condition. (Recall from Section 1.
If φ is also an isomorphism of Hmodules we say φ is an AHisomorphism. If we consider only the real part Re(α(u)) (for u ∈ U and α ∈ U × ). Let U be a real vector subspace of U . as the condition in Deﬁnition 4. U † determines U (at least for ﬁnitedimensional U ) by U = {u ∈ U : α(u) ∈ I for all α ∈ U † }. We would like to deﬁne (W.3 Let U. ν induces an isomorphism (Y † )∗ ∼ I ∼ V2 . or AHmodule. Since Y /Y ∼ (Y † )∗ . = = = Here is the natural concept of linear map between AHmodules: Deﬁnition 4. assuming that U is also given.1 that u = v. Then since α is a linear map we have α(u − v) = 0 for all α ∈ U † and it follows from Deﬁnition 4. Deﬁnition 2. Dual Hmodules behave just like dual vector spaces. We write U ∗ for the dual vector space of U . Deﬁne a real vector subspace U † of U × by U † = {α ∈ U × : α(u) ∈ I for all u ∈ U }. with H = I.1. its Hlinear span H · u should not be entirely contained in U . so U is an AHmodule. Deﬁnition 4.1 may not be satisﬁed. there is a catch: W may not be an AHmodule. AHmodules should be thought of as the quaternionic analogues of real vector spaces.be left Hmodules. We say that φ is an AHmorphism if φ(U ) ⊂ V . = so Y = {(q1 . the deﬁnition of an AHmodule demands that U should not be too large. 43 . Usually we will refer to U itself as an AHmodule. Example 4. However. In eﬀect. Deﬁnition 4. q3 ) = i1 q1 + i2 q2 + i3 q3 . By dim U we will always mean the dimension of U as a real vector space. V be AHmodules and let φ : U → V be Hlinear. Then q · α ∈ U × .1] Let Y ⊂ H3 be the set Y = {(q1 . If U is an Hmodule we also deﬁne the dual Hmodule U × of linear maps α : U → H that satisfy α(qu) = qα(u) for all q ∈ H and u ∈ U .2) (4. Deﬁne W to be the quotient Hmodule V /U and deﬁne W to be the real subspace (V + U )/U of W . We consider H to be an AHmodule. = Let U be an AHmodule and let u.1) An augmented Hmodule.1 demands for any u ∈ U . Let ν : Y → H. Conversely. deﬁne q · α by (q · α)(u) = α(u)q for u ∈ U .1. Thus if U is ﬁnitedimensional. ν(q1 .2] Let U be an Hmodule. v ∈ U such that α(u) = α(v) for all α ∈ U † . Then im(ν) = I and ker(ν) = Y . Deﬁnition 6. q2 . and U × is a (left) Hmodule. q2 . we say that U is an AHsubmodule of V if U is an Hsubmodule of V and U = U ∩ V . we can interpret U × as the dual of U as a real vector space. W ) to be the quotient AHmodule V /U .2 [J1.1 [J1. if α(u) = 0 for all α ∈ U † then u = 0. and then U † is the annihilator of U . so dim(U ∩ H · u) ≤ 3. As U † is the restriction of V † to U . (4. is a pair (U. Then Y ∼ H2 is a left Hmodule.1. q3 ) : q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0}.1. dim U + dim U † = dim U = dim U × and an isomorphism U ∼ U × = determines an isomorphism U/U ∼ U † . q2 . Thus U is an AHmodule if and only if each u ∈ U is uniquely determined by the values of α(u) for α ∈ U † . U ) such that if u ∈ U and α(u) = 0 for all α ∈ U † .1. Then dim Y = 8 and dim Y = 5.1. even if U is an Hmodule. q3 ) : qj ∈ I and q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0}. If q ∈ H and α ∈ U × . If V is an AHmodule. Deﬁne a real subspace Y = Y ∩ I3 . then u = 0.
so that ιU (U ) is an Hsubmodule of H ⊗ (U † )∗ . U ) is determined by the Hsubmodule ιU (U ).2). V be AHmodules. Suppose u ∈ ker ιU . Then ιU is Hlinear. then ψ ◦ φ : U → W is an AHmorphism.1. We will = return to this question in some detail later. Thus ιU is injective. with Haction p · (q ⊗ x ⊗ y) = (pq) ⊗ x ⊗ y. V be AHmodules and φ : U → V an AHmorphism. Then they can be regarded as subspaces of H ⊗ (U † )∗ and H ⊗ (V † )∗ respectively. Then H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ is an Hmodule. = • From Equation (4. Here is the key idea of the theory: Deﬁnition 4. Exchanging the factors of H and (U † )∗ .2 The Quaternionic Tensor Product Let U and V be AHmodules. The operation ⊗H will be called the quaternionic tensor product. Then φ(U ) ⊂ V implies that φ× (V † ) ⊂ U † . we can paste these AHmodules together to get a product AHmodule. We deﬁne their intersection to be the quaternionic tensor product of U and V . it follows that ιU (U ) = ιU (U ) ∩ (I ⊗ (U † )∗ ).1. I ⊗ Rn ) for n = dim(U † )∗ . Example 4. U ⊗H V = (ιU (U ) ⊗ (V † )∗ ) ∩ ((U † )∗ ⊗ ιV (V )) ⊂ H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ .2 shows how ths works for the AHmodule Y . with Haction p·(q⊗x) = (pq) ⊗ x.4 [J1. Real and complex vector spaces are classiﬁed by dimension. Deﬁne a map ιU : U → H ⊗ (U † )∗ by ιU (u) · α = α(u). As an abstract AHmodule Y is isomorphic to H2 and (Y † )∗ ∼ V2 . as there are several choices of U for each Hmodule U ∼ Hn . Thus the AHmodule (U. and ιU (U ) ∼ U . • Let U. Then H⊗(U † )∗ is an Hmodule.3) The vector subspace (U ⊗H V ) is then given by (U ⊗H V ) = (U ⊗H V )∩(I⊗(U † )∗ ⊗(V † )∗ ) and with this deﬁnition U ⊗H V is an AHmodule.2] Let U. • Let U be an AHmodule. We note the following points: • If φ : U → V and ψ : V → W are AHmorphisms. we may regard (U † )∗ ⊗ ιV (V ) as a subspace of H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ . so that u = 0 as U is an AHmodule.One obvious question is whether we can classify AHmodules up to AHisomorphism. Thus ιU (U ) ⊗ (V † )∗ and (U † )∗ ⊗ ιV (V ) are AHsubmodules of H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ . We will ﬁnd this version of events very useful in many situations. Deﬁnition 4. (4. Since the Haction on both of these is the same. but clearly this is not true for AHmodules.1. for u ∈ U and α ∈ U † . Deﬁne an Hlinear map φ× : V × → U × by φ× (β)(u) = β(φ(u)) for β ∈ V × and u ∈ U . One = of the easiest and most symmetrical ways to obtain Y is as an 8dimensional subspace of H3 = H ⊗ V2 . 4. 44 . This shows as promised that every AHmodule is isomorphic to a (left) submodule of (H ⊗ Rn . Then α(u) = 0 for all α ∈ U † . as we shall see immediately.
but that this is = not really any diﬀerent from taking tensor products over R.A few words of explanation may be useful at this point. we do have the following special case: Lemma 4.1. Then φ× (W † ) ⊂ U † and ψ × (X † ) ⊂ V † . This is the quaternionic tensor product of φ and ψ. and let φ : U → W and ψ : V → X be AHmorphisms.6] Let U. the dimension of U ⊗H V can behave strangely. Then the k th symmetric group Sk acts H k k U by permutation of the U factors in the obvious way. however.6 [J1. Taking the duals gives maps (φ× )∗ : (U † )∗ → (W † )∗ and (ψ × )∗ : (V † )∗ → (X † )∗ . Deﬁne SH U and Λk U on H H to be the AHsubmodules of k U which are symmetric and antisymmetric respectively H under the action of Sk . Then φ⊗H ψ is an AHmorphism from U ⊗H V to W ⊗H X . 4. Much of the algebra that works over R or C can be adapted to work over H.5) This tells us that ⊗H is commutative and associative. and let u ∈ U and v ∈ V be nonzero. (4. Suppose that α(u)β(v) = β(v)α(u) ∈ H for every α ∈ U † and β ∈ V † . If φ and ψ are both injective AHmorphisms. For example.3] that there are canonical AHisomorphisms H⊗H U ∼ U.7 [J1. = U ⊗H V ∼ V ⊗H U = and (U ⊗H V )⊗H W ∼ U ⊗H (V ⊗H W ).4) Deﬁne φ⊗H ψ : U ⊗H V → W ⊗H X to be the restriction of id ⊗(φ× )∗ ⊗ (ψ × )∗ to U ⊗H V . Lemma 7. Given u ∈ U and v ∈ V it is not possible in general to deﬁne an element u⊗H v ∈ U ⊗H V . many situations where the quaternionic tensor product behaves diﬀerently from the standard real or complex tensor product. V be AHmodules.4] Let U be an AHmodule. and that the AHmodule H acts as an identity element for ⊗H . There are.5 Let U. with 0 U = H.1. At the end of Chapter 1 we saw that it is possible to deﬁne a sort of tensor product Hm ⊗H Hn ∼ Hmn . W. How U behaves in relation to the Haction determines a particular subspace ιU (U ) of H ⊗ Rn . Lemma 4. The theory of AHmodules and the quaternionic tensor product is a way of taking the quaternionic behaviour into account. It can be proved [J1.1. Combining these. It can vary discontinuously under smooth variations of U or V . = (4.4] that φ⊗H ψ is also injective. if φ and ψ are both surjective then φ⊗H ψ is not necessarily surjective. and it is possible to have U ⊗H V = {0} when both U and V are nonzero. Since ⊗H is commutative and associative we can deﬁne symmetric and antisymmetric products of AHmodules: k Deﬁnition 4. The quaternionic tensor product is the natural way of combining these choices for AHmodules U ⊆ H ⊗ Rm and V ⊆ H ⊗ Rn into an AHmodule U ⊗H V ⊆ H ⊗ Rmn . we have a map id ⊗(φ× )∗ ⊗ (ψ × )∗ : H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ → H ⊗ (W † )∗ ⊗ (X † )∗ . Deﬁne an 45 . it is possible to prove [J1. However. 4. V. Write H U for the product U ⊗H · · · ⊗H U of k copies of U . using AHmodules and the quaternionic tensor product instead of vector spaces and the real or complex tensor product. However. X be AHmodules. We also deﬁne the tensor product of two AHmorphisms: Deﬁnition 4.
and the element u⊗H v is just the complex tensor product ιU (u) ⊗Cq ιV (v) ∈ Cq ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ . There is thus a distinct AHmodule Xq given by each pair of antipodal points {q. §8] Let U be a ﬁnitedimensional AHmodule.1 by demanding that U should not be too small. We say that U is stable if U = U + qU for all q ∈ S 2 .11 Let q ∈ I \ {0}. Xq = {p ∈ H : pq = −qp}. So Lemma 4.1. the quaternionic tensor product is the same as the complex tensor product. We can describe semistable AHmodules by the following property: Lemma 4. for integers j.7 tells us that on complex subﬁelds of H. If α(u)β(v) = β(v)α(u) ∈ H for every α ∈ U † and β ∈ V † . It is easy to visualise how this Lemma ‘works’.8 [J1. r. In eﬀect. Then U + qU = U for generic q ∈ S 2 .1. This is the same as saying that ιU (u) ∈ Cq ⊗ (U † )∗ and ιV (v) ∈ Cq ⊗ (V † )∗ . Deﬁnition 4. which we shall call semistable and stable.3 Stable and Semistable AHModules In this section we deﬁne two special sorts of AHmodules. We quote the following results. 46 .1. Xp and Xq are not AHisomorphic to one another. mainly taken from [J1.1. but not stable. Then u⊗H v is a nonzero element of U ⊗H V . Deﬁne an AHmodule Xq by Xq = H. The next logical step is to require this property for all q ∈ S 2 . 4. We say that U is semistable if it is generated over H by the subspaces U ∩ qU for q ∈ S 2 .10 Let U be a ﬁnitedimensional AHmodule. then α(u) and β(v) must both be in some commutative subﬁeld Cq ⊂ H.element u⊗H v of H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ by (u⊗H v) · (α ⊗ β) = α(u)β(v) ∈ H.9 Suppose that U is semistable. but for p = λq. Xq is the subspace of H which is perpendicular to Cq with respect to the standard scalar product.1. motivating the following deﬁnition: Deﬁnition 4. These AHmodules behave particularly well. our deﬁnitions of stable and semistable AHmodules act as a balance to Deﬁnition 4. and we can exploit their ‘nice’ properties to cement further the analogy between real and quaternionic algebra. Many of the properties of semistable and stable AHmodules can be characterised by exploring the properties of a particularly important type of AHmodule: Deﬁnition 4. Thus r ≥ 0. −q} for q ∈ S 2 .1. • Xq = Xλq for all λ ∈ R \ {0}. with dim U = 4j and dim U = 2j + r.1. §8]: • Xq is semistable. In other words.
so using the associativity of the quaternionic tensor we infer that U ⊗H V is a stable AHmodule. due to the following Proposition: Proposition 4. = • There is an isomorphism (U ⊗H Xq ) ∼ U ∩ qU ∼ Cn . The AHmodule Xq is an important bridge from quaternionic to complex algebra.13 [J1.1. dim U = 2j + r. The beneﬁts of working with stable and semistable AHmodules become increasingly apparent as one becomes more familiar with the theory. 9.12 [J1. but if p = λq then Xp ⊗H Xq = = {0}. (U. Xq = Cq ⊕ C⊥ . so it turns the AHmodule structure on U which is quaternionic information into a set of what are eﬀectively complex vector spaces. It is clear that all stable AHmodules are semistable.1. Then χq and id ⊗H χq : U ⊗H Xq → U ⊗H H ∼ U are injective AHmorphisms. where l = js + rk − rs and t = rs .1. (4. It follows that U ⊗H Xq ∼ = = q = nXq . then U ⊗H Xq ∼ nXq with n ≥ r .8]: Let V be a ﬁnitedimensional AHmodule. For now.1. 8. dim V = 4k and dim V = 2k + s.14 [J1.1] Let U and V be stable AHmodules with dim U = 4j. we will quote the following theorems: Theorem 4. For generic subspaces U . (U. Let U = Hj and let U be a real vector subspace of U with dim U = 2j + r. = • It follows that if U and V are stable AHmodules then U ⊗H V ⊗H Xq ∼ U ⊗H (sXq ) ∼ = = rsXq for all q ∈ S 2 .9] Let j. In eﬀect. • Let χq : Xq → H be the identity map on H. Then V is semistable if and only if V ∼ U ⊕ ( l Xqi ). 47 . where U is stable and qi ∈ S 2 . = • An AHmodule U is stable if and only if U ⊗H Xq ∼ rXq for all q ∈ S 2 . by Lemma 4. 8.• There is a canonical AHisomorphism Xq ⊗H Xq ∼ Xq . U ) is a semistable AHmodule. There is a sense in which the Xq ’s are the ‘only’ class of AHmodules which are semistable but not stable. = • If U is semistable then U ⊗H Xq ∼ rXq for generic q ∈ S 2 . and the operation ‘⊗H Xq ’ converts an AHmodule U into copies q of Xq . • Therefore if q ∈ S 2 and U is an AHmodule with dim U = 4j and dim U = 2j + r. r be integers with 0 ≤ r ≤ j.6) Then U ⊗H V is a stable AHmodule with dim(U ⊗H V ) = 4l and dim(U ⊗H V ) = 2l + t.9. U ) is a stable AHmodule. If r > 0 then for generic subspaces U . = i=1 Joyce also shows that generic AHmodules with appropriate dimensions are stable or semistable: Lemma 4.
48 . Theorem 4. The rest of Joyce’s proof consists of showing that if U and V are stable then this intersection is transverse and ﬁnding (U ⊗H V ) .12 shows that the virtual dimension of U ⊗H V is the product of the virtual dimensions of U and V . Then Proposition 4. with dim U = 4j and dim U = 2j + r. Then SH U and Λn U are stable AHH n n modules.Proof.2 Duality in Quaternionic Algebra The objects which are naturally dual to AHmodules are called SHmodules. We end this section by quoting the following result: Proposition 4. We deﬁne r to be the virtual dimension of U . in which case dim(U ⊗H V ) = dim A + dim B − dim(H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ ) = 4(js + rk − rs).1. with dim(SH U ) = 4k. If dim U = 4j and dim U = 2j + r. n−1 n t= r .1. n 4. s ≥ 0 then dim A + dim B ≥ dim(H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ ).14 and Proposition 4.1. Then dim A = 4j(2k − s) and dim B = 4k(2j − r). So dim(H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ ) = 4(2j − r)(2k − s). Then U ⊗H V is Thus both stable and semistable AHmodules form subcategories of the tensor category of AHmodules.1. Let A = ιU (U ) ⊗ (V † )∗ and B = (U † )∗ ⊗ ιV (V ). then dim(U † )∗ = 2j − r and similarly dim(V † )∗ = 2k − s. and so if the subspaces A and B are suitably transverse in H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ we expect that A + B = H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ .(Sketch of formula for total dimension) The proof works along the following lines. if r. dim(SH U ) = 2k + s. dim(Λn U ) = 4l and dim(Λn U ) = H H 2l + t. Under certain circumstances an SHmodule can also be regarded as an AHmodule.15 [J1.1. Now. closed under direct and tensor products. n l = (j−r) r−1 r + . these dimension formulae still hold if V is only semistable. In fact.16 [J1. 9. 9. so that U ⊗H V = A ∩ B. n−1 n s= r+n−1 . semistable. V be semistable AHmodules. Let U be a stable AHmodule. where k = (j−r) r+n−1 r+n−1 + . with dim U = 4j and n dim U = 2j + r. In this case we obtain interesting algebraic results which use dual AHmodules to tell us about AHmorphisms between AHmodules. from which it is easy to see that U ⊗H V is stable.6] Let U be a stable AHmodule. Let n be a positive integer. and dim(A + B) = dim A + dim B − dim(A ∩ B).3] Let U.12 combine to give the following: Corollary 4.
Then u ∈ U is completely determined by the values of α(u) for α ∈ U † . U ) is an AHmodule then (U × . where (U. each β ∈ U × must be an Hlinear combination of elements of U † .2.4. we see that = U + qU = U ⇐⇒ U † ∩ qU † = {0}. 49 . U ) is an AHmodule by Deﬁnition 4. We deﬁne morphisms and quaternionic tensor products for SHmodules. as a link between sheaves and AHmodules. where (U )⊥ is the subspace orthogonal to U with respect to a (hyperhermitian) metric on U . then (U. Q† ) is a strengthened Hmodule or SHmodule if Q is generated over H by Q† .2. V † ) are SHmodules and the dual Hmorphism φ× : V × → U × satisﬁes φ× (V † ) ⊆ U † . R). then (U × . Let (U. and if u is determined then so is β(u) for all β ∈ U × . Just as we sometimes write U for the AHmodule (U.1 Let Q be a left Hmodule and Q† a real linear subspace of Q. Since the only other structure present is the Haction. For example.1. We write U × ⊗H V × for the quaternionic tensor product of two SHmodules. U ). SHmodules are introduced by Quillen in [Q]. I) or the SHmodule (H.7) Another useful example is given by stable and semistable AHmodules. Since there is an SHisomorphism (U.1 SHmodules In this section we will describe the class of objects which are dual to AHmodules. U † ) is an SHmodule. V ) are AHmodules and φ : U → V is an AHmorphism. A further link between these two ideas is provided by choosing a (hyperhermitian) metric on the AHmodule (U. Being very much part of quaternionic algebra rather than sheaf theory. we will often write U × for the SHmodule (U × . so U × is generated over H by U † . U ) be an AHmodule. and these deﬁnitions are exactly equivalent. if (U. So for all β ∈ U . We see that choosing a metric gives us a decomposition U ∼ = U ⊕ (U † )∗ . by taking the deﬁnitions from their corresponding AHmodules: the whole theory works in exactly the same way. U ) and (V. U ). These will be called strengthened Hmodules. the SHmodule corresponding to U . The converse is clearly true as well — if every β ∈ U × is of the form q · α for some α ∈ U † . But U + qU = U ⇐⇒ (U )⊥ ∩ q(U )⊥ = {0}. The simplest example is that of the quaternions themselves: we can regard them as the AHmodule (H. Every AHmodule can thus be regarded as an SHmodule — the point of view depends on whether we think of U or (U )⊥ as the ‘special’ subspace. This = in turn identiﬁes U † with (U † )∗ . and so realises (U † )∗ as a subspace of U which is perpendicular to U . Deﬁnition 4. or SHmodules. An AHmodule is stable (respectively semistable) if and only if it satisﬁes the identity U = U + qU for all (respectively for generic) q ∈ I. U † ) and (V × . The natural dual to an AHmodule is thus an Hmodule equipped with a generating real subspace. which makes φ× an SHmorphism. (U )⊥ ) ∼ (U × . β(u) is determined by the action of U † on u. in other words we deﬁne U × ⊗H V × = (U ⊗H V )× . We say that the pair (Q. we discuss them in this section.1. (U † )∗ ) is an SHmodule. U † ). (4. If U = (U. giving an Hmodule isomorphism U ∼ U × . U † ).
U ) is also an SHmodule. But an Hlinear map α : U → H such that α(U ) ⊆ I is precisely an AHmorphism from U into H.1 we showed that (U. if (U. If V is a vector space over the commutative ﬁeld F then we deﬁne the dual space V ∗ to be the space of Flinear maps φ : V → F.2 Dual AHmodules In this section we take a new step and ask what happens if we consider (U × . Example 4. U † ) is an AHmodule if and only if the AHmodule (U. Unless otherwise stated.2 An SHmodule is called stable (respectively semistable) if and only if it has the property that U † ∩ qU † = {0} for all (respectively for generic) q ∈ I. U ) is both an AHmodule and an SHmodule. There are immediate attractions to this approach. Once we also have a real subspace U ⊂ U we deﬁne U † to be the set of maps U † = {α ∈ U × : α(u) ∈ I for all u ∈ U }.2. U ) is also an SHmodule. Deﬁnition 4. Proof. U † ) to be the dual AHmodule of (U. H) or (H. namely the Hlinear maps and AHmorphisms respectively. This is sometimes easier to demonstrate than the property for the corresponding AHmodules. There is an obvious possible catch: (U × .3 The AHmodule (U.4 Let U be an Hmodule and U a real subspace of U . In the same way. or SAHmodule. since their theories are interchangeable. an SHmodule if and only if it has no submodule isomorphic to (H. We have in fact already done this in Section 4. U † ) consists of two sets of maps φ : U → H. We shall work happily with either AHmodules or SHmodules according to the needs of each situation. This suggests that deﬁning (U × . {0}). Lemma 4.1. when we refer to properties of an SAHmodule such as stability.5 Any semistable AHmodule U has the property that U = U + qU for generic q ∈ I. U ) is an AHmodule if and only if it has no submodule isomorphic to (H. U ) is a strengthened augmented Hmodule. We simply reverse this argument: (U × . so U is also an SHmodule and so an SAHmodule. we need to discern which AHmodules have welldeﬁned duals. 4. H) .2. Thus the space (U × . U ) is an AHmodule if and only if (U × . U ) could be a good quaternionic analogue of the concept of a dual vector space in real or complex algebra. In Section 4. A comprehensive way to sum this up is to say that (U. U † ) if and only if (U. we mean this in terms of the structure of U as an AHmodule. U ) has a well deﬁned dual AHmodule (U × .2.2. We say that the pair (U. 50 . U † ) is an SHmodule. if U is an Hmodule we deﬁne U × to be the space of Hlinear maps φ : U → H. U † ) might not even be an AHmodule! Thus if we are to talk about dual AHmodules.Deﬁnition 4. {0}). U ). U † ) as an AHmodule — the dual AHmodule of (U.2. and an SAHmodule if and only if it has no submodule isomorphic to either (H.2.2.
This fact is an example of a more general result which makes the theory of dual spaces in quaternionic algebra particularly useful. there are canonical isomorphisms U ∼ (U × )× and (U × )† ∼ U .7 Let (U.2. Then φ ∈ (ιU × (U × ) ⊗ (V † )∗ ) ∩ ((U )∗ ⊗ ιV (V )) ∩ (I ⊗ (U )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ ). Then HomAH (U. U † ) to be the dual AHmodule of U . the space of AHmorphisms φ : U → H. We start with the following deﬁnition: Deﬁnition 4. or equivalently φ ∈ (ιU × (U † ) ⊗ (V † )∗ ) ∩ ((U )∗ ⊗ ιV (V )). U ) be an AHmodule.2. Then there is a canonical isomorphism HomAH (U.2. Using this and the canonical isomorphism of real vector spaces Hom(A. There is an analogous result in quaternionic algebra. V ) denotes the space of AHmorphisms from U into V . Here is the main result of this section: Theorem 4. and let HomR (A. It is clear that antistable AHmodules are almost always dual to stable AHmodules.2. V ) ∼ (U × ⊗H V ) .2.6 Let U = (U. 4. Then we deﬁne U × = (U × . B) ∼ A∗ ⊗ B we see = that φ is exactly equivalent to an real linear map Φ : (U † )∗ → (V † )∗ .8 Let U and V be AHmodules.9 Let U be an SAHmodule and V be an AHmodule. ﬁnite dimensional) modules over the commutative ring R. Let φ ∈ (U × ⊗H V ) . For ﬁnite dimensional U .Deﬁnition 4.3 Spaces of AHmorphisms and Duality The space U † is. = = Deﬁnition 4. 51 . B) denote the space of Rlinear maps φ : A → B. Let A and B be (free. as we have remarked. which we regard as an antistable AHmodule in spite of the fact that its dual (H. It is wellknown that there is a canonical isomorphism HomR (A. H) is not an AHmodule. The mapping ιU × identiﬁes U † with ιU × (U † ). it is clear that U × is also an SAHmodule. With this deﬁnition. which in turn is equivalent to an Hlinear map ΦH : H ⊗ (U † )∗ → H ⊗ (V † )∗ . B) ∼ = ∗ A ⊗R B. U ) be an AHmodule which is also an SAHmodule. The only irreducible exception is the AHmodule (H. {0}). Then U is called antistable if and only if U ∩ qU = {0} for all q ∈ I. Consider φ ∈ ιU × (U † ) ⊗ (V † )∗ . = Proof.
1 Let U ∼ Rk be a real linear subspace of Cn . . . . 4. Then we can choose a = j complex basis {e : j = 1. . Proof. ep . ie1 . Using the fact that φ ∈ (U )∗ ⊗ ιV (V ) and the natural identiﬁcation U ∼ ιU (U ) we see that = ΦH : ιU (U ) → ιV (V ). ieq R . U ) with U = H2 and U = (1. . eq . . p + q = k. ιU (U ) is generated over H by ιU (U ). ieq . . Both U + iU and U ∩ iU are complex subspaces of Cn . . . ep } for U . . ep } is linearly = independent over C. 0)(0. and so {e1 . . . n} of Cn such that U = e1 . . Every AHmorphism ψ : U → V is equivalent to an AHmorphism Ψ : H ⊗ (U † )∗ → H ⊗ (V † )∗ with the property that Ψ : ιU (U ) → ιV (V ). ie1 . . . which is another piece of evidence suggesting that Joyce’s deﬁnition of the quaternionic tensor product is the right one for AHmodules. The situation is very diﬀerent for Hmodules. we can construct an element of (U × ⊗H V ) from each AHmorphism from U to V . 1). Theorem 4. In other words. For example. This is not diﬃcult. eq+1 . . . we classify the possible orbits of a subspace Rk of Cn under the action of GL(n. in the sense that each basis vector of the real subspace U can be chosen to lie in one and only one copy of C. U ) ∼ = (Cn . Extend this to a real basis {e1 . though as far as the author can tell both the problem and its solution are original. ieq } is a real basis for U ∩ iU . 52 . . . . . .3. it is useful to compare this situation with that of the complex numbers. i2 ) . Thus ΦH is equivalent to an AHmorphism from U to V . As always with the quaternions. . where q ≤ p ≤ n.which by deﬁnition is an AHmorphism.3 Real Subspaces of Complex Vector Spaces We have seen that choosing diﬀerent real subspaces U of an Hmodule U ∼ Hn gives = rise to diﬀerent algebraic properties. and let U ∩ iU = Choose a complex basis {e1 . The quaternionic tensor product can be used in this way to tell us about spaces of AHmorphisms. The pair (U. . eq . . C). As an instructive example (and a bit of light relief!) we shall give a classiﬁcation of real linear subspaces of complex vector spaces up to complex linear isomorphism. eq } for U ∩ iU . . . Then {e1 . (i1 . . . Then {e1 . consider the AHmodule (U. 1 or 2 basis vectors for U . ie1 . ep } spans U + iU ∼ Cp (over C). The result follows. . from which it follows that ΦH : ιU (U ) → ιV (V ). Let U + iU ∼ Cp = ∼ Cq . It is easy to see from this theorem that choosing a real subspace of Cn is always compatible with the complex structure. Rk ) can always be completely reduced to a direct sum of copies of C. each of which contains 0. Since U is an SAHmodule. Then dimR (U ) = p + q. . . . Reversing these steps. . . .
occur as complex vector spaces with particular structure maps.2 An AHmodule (U. 4.3. In this case. (U2 . 101] Let e1 . i. Theorem 4. which shows that every indecomposable Kmodule is isomorphic to one of three basic types. some Kmodules are equivalent to AHmodules.4.2 [Ben. there are no two nontrivial AHmodules (U1 . §4. The classiﬁcation of irreducible AHmodules up to AHisomorphism is a much more diﬃcult problem than its analogue for complex vector spaces. Deﬁnition 4.4 Kmodules A Kmodule is an algebraic object based on a pair of complex vector spaces.3]. h2 } is a basis for H. U2 ) such that (U.1 [Q. Representations of the Kronecker quiver are discussed in Benson’s book [Ben. In this guise. We follow a slightly diﬀerent approach from that in Quillen’s paper to obtain a more immediate link between Kmodules and AHmodules. p. It will be addressed in the next section using a class of algebraic objects called Kmodules.1] A Kmodule is a pair (W. A Kmodule morphism is a map φ : (W1 → e2 H ⊗ V1 ) −→ (W2 → H ⊗ V2 ) which respects the Kmodule structure. a Kmodule is a representation of the Kronecker quiver. We recover the ﬁrst deﬁnition by setting e(w) = h1 ⊗ e1 (w) + h2 ⊗ e2 (w) where {h1 . Quillen is more interested in an interpretation of quaternionic algebra in terms of sheaves over the Riemann sphere. a powerful theory which we will review in the next section. Real and quaternionic vector spaces. where H ∼ C2 is the basic = representation of GL(2. the ﬁrst of which contains 2 basis vectors for U and the second of which contains the remaining basis vector. A Kmodule e : W → H ⊗ V is called indecomposable if it cannot be written as the e1 direct sum of two nontrivial Kmodules. This allows us to use the classiﬁcation of irreducible Kmodules. U1 ⊕ U2 ). U1 ). 4.e. a problem with a known solution.4. This motivates the following deﬁnition: Deﬁnition 4. to write down all irreducible AHmodules very explicitly.There is no way to decompose U into two separate copies of H. The reason why Kmodules are important to quaternionic algebra is that in the presence of suitable structure maps. This link between Kmodules and AHmodules was discovered by Quillen [Q]. U ) is irreducible if and only if it cannot be written as a direct sum of two nontrivial AHmodules. Then one of the following holds: (i) The vector spaces W and V have the same dimension. e2 : W → V be a pair of linear maps constituting an indecomposable Kmodule. C). The important result is the following classiﬁcation theorem of Kronecker (which we have summarised slightly). e2 : W → V . U ) = (U1 ⊕ U2 . as so often. V ) of (ﬁnite dimensional) complex vector spaces together with a linear map e : W → H ⊗ V . if det e1 = 0 53 . A Kmodule can equivalently be deﬁned as a pair of linear maps e1 .
Let σV be the standard quaternionic structure on V .∞ dim V = n and α on the leading diagonal of e2 . Then σW is a real structure on W . . e(w3 ) = h2 ⊗ v2 . n. w3 } be a basis for W and let {v1 . 2 Example 4. . We have e(w1 ) = h1 ⊗ v1 .4. Deﬁne X2 to be the irreducible Kmodule of type (ii) with dim V = n. . such that e · σW = (σH ⊗ σV ) · e. There is a compatible real structure σW on W given by σW (w1 ) = w3 . (We write X1 for the case det e1 = n n 0 ). w2 .4. and its set of ﬁxed points is the real vector space W σ . .4. 0 1 0 0 0 1 (iii) The dimension of W is one smaller than the dimension of V . Our aim z ¯ is for the Kmodule e : W → H ⊗ V to deﬁne a real subspace of a real Hmodule..then e1 and e2 can be written in the form e1 → id α 0 1 α e2 → . This gives H ⊗ V the structure of a complex Hmodule. ... Suppose W → H ⊗ V is an SKmodule. The map σH ⊗σV is also a real structure. If det e1 = 0 a modiﬁcation is necessary which in some sense corresponds to the ‘rational canonical form at inﬁnity’. so σV (v1 ) = v2 and σV (v2 ) = −v1 . This is accomplished by compatible structure maps on W and V .4 [Q. 11. . 0 1 α . . Deﬁne X3 to be the irreducible Kmodule of type (iii) with dim V = n. and bases may be chosen so that e1 and e2 are represented by the transposes of the above matrices. and e(W σ ) is a real subspace of this Hmodule. and in the same way we deﬁne the real vector space (H ⊗ V )σ . . e1 = e2 = . whose Hmodule structure is inherited from that on H. (ii) The dimension of W is one larger than the dimension of V . Then (H ⊗ V )σ is a real Hmodule.2] An SKmodule is a Kmodule e : W → H ⊗V equipped with antilinear operators σW and σV of squares 1 and −1 respectively.α Deﬁnition 4. . Deﬁnition 4. . . e(w2 ) = h1 ⊗ v2 + h2 ⊗ v1 . Let σH be the standard quaternionic structure map on H deﬁned by σH (z1 h1 + z2 h2 ) = −¯2 h1 + z1 h2 .5 Consider the Kmodule X2 which has dim W = 3 and dim V = 2. v2 } be a basis for V . and bases may be chosen so that e1 and e2 are represented by the matrices 1 0 0 0 1 0 .3 Deﬁne X1 to be the indecomposable Kmodule of type (i) with n. In many circumstances an SKmodule is therefore equivalent to an AHmodule.. σ(w3 )W = w1 54 . . Let {w1 .
in other words 2m+1 2m+1 X2 ⊗ H or X3 ⊗ H.α 1. The ‘annihilating 0 Kmodule’ X3 also fails to give an AHmodule. It remains to check which pairs (U. i2 and i3 respectively.2 and σW (w2 ) = −w2 . 55 . Here are some important facts about irreducible AHmodules which can now be deduced: • SKmodules of type (ii) correspond to stable AHmodules and SKmodules of type (iii) correspond to antistable AHmodules. in other words 2m 2m X2 or X3 . −1 correspond to 2m • The irreducible stable AHmodule corresponding to X2 has dim U = 4m and dim U = 2m + 1. (C) An indecomposable Kmodule of type (ii) or (iii) with dim V odd. Under this isomorphism the real subspace e(W σ ) is mapped 2 to the imaginary quaternions I. Proof.α (A) The direct sum of a pair of Kmodules of type (i) of the form X1 ⊕ X1 α . = 2m+1 • The irreducible stable AHmodule of the form H ⊗ X2 has dim U = 4(2m + 1) 2m+1 and dim U = 4(m + 1). I ) = H. = • This shows that there is an irreducible stable AHmodule with virtual dimension 1 in every dimension and an irreducible stable AHmodule with virtual dimension 2 in every odd dimension. a pair (U.4. This follows from Theorem 4. H). iw2 .− ¯ • Indecomposable SKmodules of type (i) of the form X1 ⊕ X1 α the semistable AHmodules Xq .− ¯ n. This pair is given by the SKmodule H ⊗ X3 . −1 (B) An indecomposable Kmodule of type (ii) or (iii) with dim V even. so that with these structure maps X2 is an SKmodule. This demonstrates explicitly that the SKmodule X2 is equivalent to the AHmodule (H. We have real vector spaces W σ = w1 + w3 . (H ⊗ V )σ = Every real subspace U of a quaternionic vector space U can be obtained in this fashion. As noted earlier. U ) arising in this fashion are AHmodules.2 and explicit calculations using standard structure maps on the vector spaces V . so a classiﬁcation of SKmodules gives a classiﬁcation of AHmodules.4. 1. U ) fails to be an AHmodule if and only if it has a subspace 1 of the form (H. Any SKmodule containing neither of these indecomposables is equivalent to an AHmodule. Thus U ∼ Hm and the virtual dimension of U is 1. Thus U ∼ H and the virtual dimension of U is 2. i(w1 − w3 ) and h1 ⊗ v2 − h2 ⊗ v1 i(h1 ⊗ v2 + h2 ⊗ v1 ) . tensored with the basic representation H equipped with its standard structure map σH .6 Every indecomposable SKmodule is isomorphic to one of the following: n. Corollary 4. i1 . h1 ⊗ v1 + h2 ⊗ v2 i(h1 ⊗ v1 − h2 ⊗ v2 ) An Hmodule isomorphism (H ⊗ V )σ ∼ H is obtained by mapping these basis vectors to = 1.
5 The SheafTheoretic approach of Quillen Much of Joyce’s quaternionic algebra can be described using (coherent) sheaves over the complex projective line CP 1 . can be found in Kobayashi’s book [K]. but the resulting theory is exactly the same. so each line bundle on CP 1 is given by one of the transition functions g(z) = z n . The line bundle given by the transition function z n is in fact L. Every holomorphic line bundle over CP n is a tensor power of the hyperplane section bundle L [GH. Thus in the presence of certain structure maps. Quillen’s paper works by recognising that certain exact sequences of sheaf cohomology groups are Kmodules. 3449]. 678704]. 1 56 . holomorphic vector bundles [pp. we obtain SHmodules. 4. coherent sheaves [pp. Following standard notation. 2 This uses the convention of identifying a holomorphic vector bundle with its sheaf of holomorphic sections. The most interesting new result in this section is that the equivalence between sheaves and SHmodules respects tensor products. 145]. enabling us to calculate the quaternionic tensor product of two SHmodules from knowing the tensor products of the corresponding sheaves. including many of the properties of sheaves used in Quillen’s paper. which introduces sheaves and their cohomology [pp. This interpretation is due to Daniel Quillen [Q]. Thus O = Background material can be found in [GH]. p. n n ∈ Z.• The isomorphism class of an irreducible stable AHmodule is thus uniquely determined by the dimension and virtual dimension of U . g : C∗ → C∗ such that ψ = f ψ. and every holomorphic vector bundle is a sum of holomorphic line bundles. 6671] and holomorphic line bundles [pp. Thus by the end of this section we will have succeeded in classifying all AHmodules and their tensor products. In the case n = 1.5. We will describe the vector bundles ﬁrst. we use the open cover of CP 1 = C ∪ {∞} consisting of the two open sets U0 = CP 1 \{∞} and U1 = CP 1 \{0}. so ψ : C∗ → C∗ . Two transition functions ψ and ψ determine the same line bundle if and only if there exist nonvanishing holomorphic functions f.) Quillen uses slightly diﬀerent structure maps from those we used in the previous section to obtain SKmodules. (Quillen deals primarily with SHmodules rather than AHmodules. A more thorough exposition of the diﬀerential geometry of holomorphic vector bundles. 2 These summands factorise very neatly — every torsion sheaf is the sum of indecomposable sheaves supported at a single point. we write O(n) for the sheaf of its holomorphic sections. 1 Quillen demonstrates that every coherent sheaf over CP 1 is the direct sum of a holomorphic vector bundle and a torsion sheaf (one whose support is ﬁnite). 132139].1 Sheaves on the Riemann Sphere We describe the algebraic geometry of (coherent) sheaves over CP 1 . 4. A holomorphic line bundle over CP 1 is determined by a holomorphic transition function ψ : U0 ∩ U1 → C∗ . g Two functions are equivalent under this relation if and only if they have the same winding number.
11]. Let H ∼ C2 be the basic representation of GL(2. which we write O/mn z by extending mz by O on the complement of z. (4. which are called torsion sheaves. (4. 137] 4 For example [W.10) C (global holomorphic functions on CP (1) ) and that exact sequences of (4. §2] demonstrates that every coherent sheaf over CP 1 is the sum of a vector bundle and a torsion sheaf.3] Any coherent sheaf over CP 1 splits with unique multiplicities into indecomposable sheaves of the form O(n) for n ∈ Z and O/mn for n ≥ 1 and z z ∈ CP 1 .5. It is from the maps in these sequences that we obtain Kmodules and thence SHmodules. Let z ∈ CP 1 be such a point. 3 Thus every holomorphic vector ∞ n bundle E is a sum of irreducible line bundles.9) where F (n) denotes the sheaf F ⊗O O(n). Torsion sheaves themselves split into sheaves supported at one point only.2 If we put F = O(n). Then CP 1 can be identiﬁed = with the set of quotient lines of H and there is a basic exact sequence 0 → Λ2 H ⊗ O(−1) → H ⊗ O → O(1) → 0.5. p. and can be written E = −∞ an L . We have the following Theorem: Theorem 4. This leaves us to consider sheaves which are supported at a ﬁnite set of points. where H 0 (O(n)) is shown to be isomorphic to the (complex) vector space of homogeneous polynomials of degree n in 2 variables. C). Every holomorphic vector bundle over CP 1 can be written as a direct sum of these line bundles.8) Tensoring (over O ) with the sheaf F and choosing an identiﬁcation Λ2 H ∼ C yields = the exact sequence 0 → F (−1) → H ⊗ F → F (1) → 0.O(0) is the structure sheaf of CP 1 . p.10) and induction. It is easy to see (by multiplying the transition functions together) that Ln ⊗ Lm ∼ Ln+m .1 [Q. Cohomology Groups and Exact Sequences There are various ways to calculate the cohomology groups of these sheaves. 57 . the summands being unique up to order. and there is an exact sequence by (4. Quillen [Q. By the H 0 (O(n)) ∼ S n (H) for n = of cohomology groups given (4.11) 0 → S n−1 H → H ⊗ S n H → S n+1 H → 0. Deﬁne mz to be the unique maximal ideal of Oz consisting of germs of functions whose ﬁrst derivative vanishes at z. and let Oz be the ring of germs of holomorphic functions at z. we have the exact sequence 0 → O(n − 1) → H ⊗ O(n) → O(n + 1) → 0. Every torsion sheaf splits into sheaves of the form Oz /(mz )n . Example 4. or in sheaftheoretic terms O(n) ⊗O O(m) ∼ = = O(n + m). We know that H 0 (O) ∼ = 0 H (O(−1)) = 0. it follows that ≥ 0 and zero otherwise. 4 The method Quillen outlines uses the properties of exact sequences of sheaves. n ≥ 0. 3 This follows from the HarderNarasimhan ﬁltration of a holomorphic vector bundle E over any Riemann surface M [K. where the multiplicities an are unique (though the decomposition itself may not be). 2.
Quillen uses Kmodules with a quaternionic structure σW on W and a real structure σV on V . This is clearly a Kmodule.4.10) gives rise to an injection of cohomology groups H 0 (O(n − 1)) → H 0 (H ⊗ O(n)) which takes the form e : S n−1 H → H ⊗ S n H. For all regular sheaves F . A σKmodule is not itself an SHmodule. using a resolution involving the sheaf cohomology groups H 0 (F ). Some sheaves will correspond to SKmodules.Torsion sheaves can be dealt with in a similar fashion.2 and 4. but the inclusion of the real subspace V σ in the cokernel (H ⊗ V )/W is an SHmodule if the Kmodule has no submodule for which the map e is surjective. It is easy to see that H 0 (O/mn ) ∼ Cn . Similarly for the torsion sheaves O/mn there is an injection H 0 (O/mn (−1)) → x x H 0 (H ⊗ O/mn ). These must be treated slightly diﬀerently.4. such that the map e intertwines σW and σH ⊗ σV . In this situation. torsion sheaves. Quillen investigates z σ(z) σsheaves thoroughly. a torsion sheaf F is a σsheaf if it is supported at a ﬁnite set of points which is preserved by the antipodal map σ — so it must consist of sheaves of the form O/mn ⊕ O/mn . and allows us to deﬁne a ‘ σinvariant sheaf’ or just ‘ σsheaf’. Let W → H ⊗ V be a Kmodule. The rest of the programme begins to take shape. Quillen proves this in detail [Q.12) gives a map H 1 (O(n − 1)) → H ⊗ H 1 (O(n)) which is equivalent to the indecomposable Kmodule −n−1 X3 . We call z = the sheaves O(n) where n ≥ 0. which we call negative vector bundles. Thus for any negative vector bundle G we obtain a Kmodule which we call − ξ G. Quillen formulates this slightly diﬀerently from our treatment in Section 4. Since H 0 (O(n)) = 0 for n < 0. where σ ∗ interchanges the two summands. the ﬁrst cohomology group H 1 (F ) is zero. Instead of a real structure on W and a quaternionic structure on V . Thus we obtain a x Kmodule from each regular sheaf F which we call ξ + F . This leaves the sheaves O(n) where n < 0 and sums thereof. He calls this structure a σKmodule.5] and uses the tensor product of sheaves F ⊗O G to construct an equivalent tensor product operation for Kmodules [Q. Let σ : z → z −1 be the antipodal ¯ map on the Riemann sphere. For example.12) . There is a parallel description in terms of sheaves. n < 0 be a negative vector bundle. §§4. from which we obtain SHmodules.1). and discovers that: 58 (4. The exact sequence (4.5. using the ﬁrst cohomology groups H 1 (F ). §6]. and sums thereof regular sheaves. it is clear that these categories are equivalent. This induces a map of sheaves σ ∗ : F → σ ∗ (F ) which we call the σtransform. This gives a Kmodule of type (i) and dim W = n. in which case the Kmodule is called reduced. The exact sequence (4. we obtain an exact sequence 0 → H 1 (O(n − 1)) → H ⊗ H 1 (O(n)) → H 1 (O(n + 1)) → 0. = Sheaves and Kmodules Consider the regular sheaf O(n) for n ≥ 0. Comparing the classiﬁcations of indecomposable sheaves and Kmodules (Theorems 4. the irreducible Kmodule n+1 X3 . Let O(n). W and H ⊗ V are Hmodules and e is an Hlinear map. from which it follows that H 1 (O(n)) ∼ S −n−2 H for n ≤ −2 and zero otherwise.
The formal similarity between this result and Corollary 4.6 Let G be a negative σvector bundle with no summand H ⊗ O(−1) or O(−2).5.6 is clear.Proposition 4. 4. 59 .6] The categories of reduced σKmodules and SHmodules are equivalent.5.1] 5 5 Quillen proves this theorem for the tensor product of Kmodules — the version given here is obtained by performing the simple translation into SHmodules. then H 0 (G) = H 0 (G(1)) = 0 and H 1 (F ) = H 1 (F (1)) = 0 .5. Taking real subspaces gives an SHmodule which we call η + (F ). We can also use σsheaves to obtain SKmodules which lead directly to SHmodules. Just as in the previous example.2 Sheaves and the Quaternionic Tensor Product We have seen how the tensor product of sheaves encourages us to deﬁne a ‘reduced tensor product’ operation for Kmodules. Then we have the exact sequence 0 → H 1 (G) → H ⊗ H 1 (G(1)) → H 1 (G(2)) → 0. we could combine the functors η + and η − into a single functor η = η + + η − . In theory.7 [Q. with F and G as above. (2) O(2m) for m ∈ Z. It turns out that this tensor product agrees remarkably with the quaternionic tensor product for SHmodules. 10. He also proves that: Proposition 4. SKmodules and SHmodules allow us to compute tensor products in each category. The main theorem is as follows: Theorem 4.5.4. Example 4. so η + (G) = η − (F ) = 0. We also deﬁne η − (O(−2)) = η − (H ⊗ O(−1)) = 0. since η(A) = η + (F ) + η − (G) as required. 7.5.5 Let F be a regular σsheaf. If we have a σsheaf A = F +G. (4. This is a considerable bonus from Quillen’s theory — the correspondences between σsheaves. σ(z)} of antipodal points and n ≥ 1. (4.3 [Q. this sequence gives an SKmodule H 1 (G) → H ⊗ H 1 (G(1)).4 [Q.14) We call this SHmodule η − (G).5.13) and H 0 (F ) → H ⊗ H 0 (F (1)) is an SKmodule e : W → H ⊗ V . 12. Then we have the exact sequence 0 → H 0 (F ) → H ⊗ H 0 (F (1)) → H 0 (F (2)) → 0. Example 4. (3) O(2m + 1) ⊗ H for m ∈ Z.7] Any σsheaf splits with unique multiplicities into the following irreducible σsheaves: (1) O/(mz mσ(z) )n for any pair {z.15) (4.
which of course take the form (η + F )× and (η − G)× . For example. we will often ﬁnd ourselves using this theorem for the corresponding AHmodules. Since we will usually work with AHmodules. (η + F )× ⊗H − (η G)× = {0}. η + F1 ⊗H η − G1 = η − (F1 ⊗O G1 ) and η − G1 ⊗H η − G2 = {0}. Then η + F1 ⊗H η + F2 = η + (F1 ⊗O F2 ).3 by translating known results about the degree and rank of the tensor product of two sheaves. If F = O(m) and G = O(n) (possibly tensored with H if m or n is odd) with m ≥ 0 and n < −2 then (η + F )× ⊗H (η − G)× = 0 m + n ≥ −2 × η (F ⊗O G) m + n ≤ −3 − since η − (O(k)) = {0} for k ≥ −2. 60 . it is possible to obtain the dimension theorems of Section 4. The sheaftheoretic approach is thus a very powerful tool for describing quaternionic algebra.1. Thus if F is a torsion σsheaf and G is a negative σ vector bundle.Let Fi be regular σsheaves and Gi be negative σvector bundles.
We use representations to explain the structure of stable AHmodules and their tensor products. This point of view turns out to have fruitful applications in hypercomplex geometry.1 Stable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations Sp(1)representations on the quaternions As a motivating example. especially since Sp(1) is just the group of unit quaternions and the Lie algebra sp(1) can be identiﬁed with I.r and its splitting into two Hsubmodules. where the left hand = 61 . from K¨hler a geometry to particle physics. we will see how stable and antistable AHmodules can be handled using Sp(1)representations. Because the Riemann sphere CP 1 can be described as the homogeneous space Sp(1)/U(1). Recall the description of the quaternions as a tensor product of two Sp(1)representations H ∼ V1 ⊗ V1 . Given this versatility.Chapter 5 Quaternionic Algebra and Sp(1)representations The representations of the group Sp(1) occur in so many diﬀerent situations. We also investigate the role of semistable AHmodules and their interaction with the Sp(1)representation structure of stable AHmodules. the holomorphic sections of line bundles over CP 1 are naturally Sp(1)representations. Not only do Sp(1)representations underlie all of these phenomena — they also make the theory of quaternionic algebra very easy to predict and manipulate.4. I). that they are by far the most ubiquitous Lie group representations in modern mathematical literature. viewed as the stable AHmodule (H. where we came across the space H ⊗ Ek. The structure maps necessary to deﬁne an SKmodule e : W → H ⊗ V of type (ii) or (iii) arise from Sp(1)representations on W . In this chapter. We encountered the germ of this idea in Section 3.1. given in Equation (3. it is no surprise that these representations are a powerful tool in quaternionic algebra. H and V . 5. towards which our exposition is deliberately geared. we review the case of the quaternions themselves.17).1 5.
For the quaternions. to make it clear which group is acting on which vector space. Similarly. q) : q ∈ Sp(1)} ⊂ Sp(1) × Sp(1) on V1 ⊗ V1 . q ∈ Sp(1) ⊂ H.1. It is this account of the AHmodule H which we will generalise to all stable AHmodules. where H ∼ X2 .4.1. we think of H as an Sp(1) × Sp(1)representation by deﬁning (p.copy of V1 gives the left Haction. the basic vector space H we used so much in the = 2 previous chapter is simply a copy of the basic representation V1 . which as we know preserves the splitting H ∼ I ⊕ R. This description of the quaternions is very similar to that of Example 4. the AHmodule structure H ∼ I = = † ∗ ∼ and (H ) = R is a concept which arises naturally when we take both the Sp(1) actions into account. We remove this ambiguity by writing uppercase superscripts with the groups and the representations. For left Hmodules there will always be a left Haction to consider.1) = into real subspaces of dimensions three and one respectively. Each of these V2 ⊕ V0 (equivalent to the standard isomorphism V ⊗ V = summands inherits a real structure from the real structure on V1 ⊗ V1 so we obtain the splitting V1 ⊗ V1 ∼ V2 ⊕ V0 (5. For more details. The ClebschGordon formula gives the splitting V1 ⊗ V1 ∼ = ∼ S 2 V ⊕ Λ2 V ). We have already encountered the action of Sp(1) × Sp(1) on V1 ⊗ V1 . Here we have two copies of Sp(1) acting. We will call this subgroup Sp(1) LM .5. We will denote this by V1L . q) : r → prq −1 r ∈ H. p. q)} ⊂ Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M . 5.2 Notation for Several Sp(1)representations It will be a sound investment at this point to introduce some notation to help us keep track of the structure of representations when we have several copies of Sp(1) acting on a vector space. N etc. 1 62 . and the righthand copy gives the right Haction. implicitly using the induced map σ1 ⊗ σ1 as a real structure on V1 ⊗ V1 . 1 Consider now the action of the diagonal Sp(1)subgroup {(q. and the copy of Sp(1) which acts on this factor by Sp(1) L . = We are talking about the representation V1 ⊗ V1 as a real representation on R4 . In terms of Sp(1)actions. so there is already the possibility of ambiguity concerning which Sp(1) is acting on which V1 . So we would write the above example as Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M acting on V1L ⊗ V1M . In other words. thus stating explicitly of which two groups this is the diagonal subgroup. we can combine superscripts for the representations to write V1L ⊗ V1M ∼ V2LM ⊕ V0LM . refer to Section 1. When we decompose such a representation using the ClebschGordon formula.2. just as we would expect. we are decomposing the action of the diagonal subgroup {(q. This is the same as taking the action by conjugation r → qrq −1 . Other copies of Sp(1) and other representations will be labelled with the letters M.
The primed part is then a representation of the diagonal subgroup Sp(1)LM ⊂ Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M . The basic idea is exactly the same — a stable AHmodule is a (real) Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M representation V1L ⊗ W M . and M ∼ Sp(1) if the = virtual dimension of U is 2. i. We denote this subgroup Sp(1)LM × Sp(1)N .9. we considered the diagonal subgroup of the ﬁrst and last copies of Sp(1). Let (U. 5. U ) be an irreducible stable (or antistable) AHmodule. For example. Then G is a compact Lie group of which M is a normal subgroup. Using Theorem 4. q)} × Sp(1)N . {(q. Consider now the more general group G of real linear isomorphisms φ : U → U such that: • φ(U ) = U . however. so that we now have Sp(1)LM × Sp(1)N LM LM acting on (Vj+1 ⊕ Vj−1 ) ⊗ VkN .e. We combine superscripts for the representations in the same way. where W M = k aj VjM . If. we write this as Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M × Sp(1)N acting on V1L ⊗ VjM ⊗ VkN . • The (real) determinant of φ is 1. we see that M = ±1 if the virtual dimension U is 1. we would write this as Sp(1)LN × Sp(1)M LN LN acting on (Vk+1 ⊕ Vk−1 ) ⊗ VjM . Let M be the group of AHautomorphisms of U whose (real) determinant is equal to 1.2. For example. This provides an unambiguous and (it is hoped) easy way to understand tensor products of several representations and their decompositions into irreducibles under diﬀerent diagonal actions.3 Irreducible stable AHmodules We have described the quaternions as an Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M representation. and we can join the superscripts as above to indicate exactly which one we are considering. In this section we will demonstrate how this idea can be adapted to describe more general stable AHmodules. if we have three copies of Sp(1) acting. The left Haction is given by the action of the left subgroup 1 Sp(1)L ⊂ Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M .This bookkeeping comes into its own when we come to consider tensor products of many Sp(1)representations.1. This allows us to interpret the primed part H ∼ I as a representation of the diagonal subgroup = LM L M of Sp(1) ⊂ Sp(1) × Sp(1) . supposing we want to restrict to the diagonal subgroup in the ﬁrst two copies of Sp(1). u ∈ U . Because of this the Lie algebra of G splits into two orthogonal ideals g = sp(1) ⊕ m 63 . • There exists some q ∈ Sp(1) such that φ(pu) = (qpq −1 )φ(u) for all p ∈ H. In this situation there are various diagonal actions we could be interested in.
64 . U ) m 2m+1 with U ∼ H and U ∼ R . U ) and thus U is stable. So W must be an Sp(1)LM invariant subspace of U = V2m and by Schur’s Lemma [FH.4. we have the splitting M LM V1L ⊗ V2m−1 ∼ V2m ⊕ V2m−2 . there is a unique irreducible stable AHmodule for each irreducible Sp(1)representation. and the irreducible decomposition of U as an AHmodule determines the irreducible decomposition of the Sp(1)action on U . Because σ = M σ1 ⊗ σ2m−1 is a real structure. there is no representation of Sp(1) on Xq which couples with the left Haction to give a representation of Sp(1) on Xq . AHmodules of the form V1 ⊗ V2m−1 Consider an evendimensional irreducible Sp(1)representation V2m−1 .7] W = V2m or W = {0}.r from Section 3. there is an action of Sp(1) on U for all stable AHmodules U . = LM For example. and vice versa. M LM Proposition 5. Also. = LM (5. there is a real representation V1L ⊗ V2m−1 ∼ R4m with = a left Haction deﬁned by q : a ⊗ b → (qa) ⊗ b. Since every stable AHmodule is a sum of such irreducibles. Since the elements of G map U to itself.r . Both stable and antistable AHmodules arise as Sp(1) × Sp(1)representations. W ) = (U. the smaller one is antistable. We see that each of these summands is an AHsubmodule of H ⊗ Ek. The larger (lefthand) submodule is stable. Since dim U > 1 dim U we must 2 have W = {0}.1. = = Proof. The primed part of U is then the LM Vn+1 summand in the decomposition LM M V1L ⊗ Vn ∼ Vn+1 ⊕ Vn−1 .r ∼ V1 ⊗ εn (Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 ) = k.3) M which is a splitting of real vector spaces (technically we could write (V1L ⊗ V2m−1 )σ ∼ = LM LM (V2m )σ ⊕ (V2m−2 )σ ). For example. This diagonal action will be the result of the left Haction on V1 and some other Sp(1)action on U . Let U be a stable AHmodule and suppose that U is preserved by some diagonal action of Sp(1). As we shall see. W must depend solely on the Sp(1) × Sp(1)representation structure: in particular W must be preserved by the diagonal action.2) as a representation of the group Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M . p. Hence (W.and the exponential map determines a homomorphism ρ : Sp(1) → G. Consider the maximal stable submodule W of U . Thus our AHmodules will follow the basic form M U = V1L ⊗ Vm (5. recall the splitting H ⊗ Ek. Since W is an Hsubmodule it must be invariant under the left Haction. V2m ) forms a stable AHmodule (U. ρ is a representation of Sp(1) on U .1 The pair (V1L ⊗ V2m−1 . Under the diagonal Sp(1)LM action q : a ⊗ b → (qa) ⊗ (qb). This is not necessarily the case for AHmodules which are neither stable nor antistable.
Proof. the image e(W ) is spanned by = the vectors {x⊗an . we would like to ﬁnd out how the left Haction interacts with the splitting V1 ⊗ Vn ∼ Vn+1 ⊕ Vn−1 . . This shows that x ⊗ an−k bk − y ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 ∈ Vn−1 . It is easier to observe the sp(1) action on the complementary subspace which we can identify as the U † part of an SHmodule. This follows from Proposition 5.1. . an−1 b. y ⊗ an−1 b. The Haction is as usual determined by the action of sp(1) on x and y using the correspondence 1 ←→ x i1 ←→ ix i2 ←→ y i3 ←→ −iy. . from which it follows that U must be irreducible. . x ⊗ abn−1 . . y and Vn = an . Using these isomorphisms and Theorem 4. . Let V1 = x. The virtual dimension of U is 1. where H ∼ V1 and = V ∼ Vn .2.5. Calculating the action of the Casimir operator C = H 2 + 2XY + 2Y X reveals that C(x ⊗ an−k bk − y ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 ) = (n + 1)(n − 1)(x ⊗ an−k bk − y ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 ). C) on V1 and Vn are given by Equations (1.4) The subspaces e(W ) and e(W )⊥ of the SKmodule H ⊗ V are thus equivalent to the subspaces Vn+1 and Vn−1 respectively in the splitting V1 ⊗ Vn ∼ Vn+1 ⊕ Vn−1 . . . = 2m Consider the structure of X2 as a Kmodule e : W → H ⊗ V . . x ⊗ an−1 b. x⊗an−1 b+y⊗an . The isomorphism 2m with X2 follows because irreducible stable AHmodules are uniquely determined by their dimensions. . .4. To make statements less cumbersome. .4. x ⊗ bn y ⊗ an . y ⊗ abn−1 . y⊗bn }.1 and the remarks in Section 4. 65 . In particular. bearing in mind that n is odd. we let n = 2m − 1 throughout.1). y ⊗ bn . the perpendicular subspace to e(W ) is spanned by vectors of the form x⊗an−k bk −y⊗an−k+1 bk−1 . x⊗bn +y⊗abn−1 . We want to understand the actions on the tensor product V1 ⊗ Vn = x ⊗ an . x⊗an−k bk +y⊗an−k+1 bk−1 . abn−1 . .2. . bn be Sp(1)representations. .16) of Section (1.2.1.1. = The SKmodule structure maps σW and σV are exactly the standard real structure σn−1 and the quaternionic structure σn introduced in Section 1.14) and (1. Given a suitable choice of metric. The actions of sl(2. . .4. This formalism enables us to write out the structure of V1 ⊗ Vn as an Hmodule in the same fashion as in Example 4. . It is instructive to describe the splitting of V1 ⊗ V2m−1 thoroughly in terms of basis vectors. .Lemma 5. giving the result that Vn−1 = Span{x ⊗ an−k bk − y ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 : 1 ≤ k ≤ n}.2 The AHmodule U = V1 ⊗ V2m−1 is the irreducible stable AHmodule 2m corresponding to the SKmodule X2 . . (5.
(This could also be taken to signify ‘module’ M action. thus we can think of V1L ⊗ V2m ⊗ H as a direct sum of M M two copies of V1L ⊗ V2m .and SHmodules very explicitly. This space comes equipped with a real structure σ = σ1 ⊗ σ2m ⊗ σH . and so we have a stable AHmodule M LM ((2V1L ⊗ V2m )σ . If we take the tensor product V1L ⊗ V2m ∼ C4m+2 = = L M ∼ LM LM we obtain the splitting V1 ⊗ V2m = V2m+1 ⊕ V2m−1 and a left Haction in the same way as above. we can tensor with = ∼ C2 equipped with its standard structure map. We can choose to regard this as a stable AHmodule by thinking of aVn+2 as the ‘primed part’. This formulation allows us to see the relationship between stable AH. (2V2m+1 )σ ). 2n+2 The AHmodule U2n corresponds to the SKmodule X2 and the σsheaf O(2n). The reason for this is that the structure map σ1 ⊗ σ2m has square −1 instead of 1. or as a stable SHmodule by regarding aVn as the ‘generating real subspace’.1. Firstly. (5. 5.4 General Stable and Antistable AHmodules LM M Deﬁnition 5. and the action of the ‘right’ subgroup Sp(1)M on Vn as the Sp(1)M action.AHmodules of the form V1 ⊗ V2m We can also obtain a stable AHmodule from an odddimensional irreducible M Sp(1)representation V2m ∼ C2m+1 .3 Let U2n denote the AHmodule (V1L ⊗ V2n+1 . where a = 1 if n is even and a = 2 if n is odd.5) (As usual. once the correct structure maps have been speciﬁed. The vector space H is unaﬀected H = M by the Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M action. 2n+1 The AHmodule U2n−1 corresponds to the SKmodule X2 ⊗ H and the σsheaf O(2n − 1) ⊗ H.4 and 4. which we write 2V1L ⊗ V2m . M and so V1L ⊗ V2m is a quaternionic rather than a real representation of Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M .) This approach is the equivalent of dealing with SKmodules 2m+1 of the form Xk=2.3 ⊗ H and the σsheaves O(2m + 1) ⊗ H.5 allow us to state the following theorem: 66 . Thus we write Un = aV1 ⊗ Vn+1 . The AHmodule Un = aV1 ⊗ Vn+1 splits as a(Vn+2 ⊕ Vn ). whilst doubling the dimension of the real vector space we are considering so that it is divisible by four. Both these approaches give exactly the same AHmodule.) We will often omit the superscripts L and M from expressions like V1L ⊗ Vn if the context leaves no ambiguity as to which group acts on what. we will refer to the action of the ‘left’ subgroup Sp(1)L on V1 as the left Haction. LM M Let U2n−1 denote the AHmodule (2V1L ⊗ V2n .1. However this does not restrict to an Haction on any suitable real vector space U such that U ⊗R C = V1 ⊗ V2m (this is obviously impossible since R4m+2 ∼ Hk for any = k ). By analogy with the quaternions themselves. The classiﬁcation results of Sections 4. There are two ways round this diﬃculty. V2n+2 ). 2V2n+1 ). we will not usually mention the σsuperscript. we could simply take the underlying real vector space R8m+4 ∼ V1 ⊗ V2m to be an Hmodule. Secondly. both eﬀectively leave the Sp(1) × Sp(1)representation V1 ⊗ V2m untouched.
The Sp(1)M action can be much more complicated.1.1. we know that since Sp(1) is a compact group.1.5 Line Bundles over CP1 and Sp(1)representations There is naturally a link between Sp(1)representations and the cohomology groups of vector bundles over CP 1 .C). The AHmodule U2n−1 corresponds to the SKmodule X3 O(−2n − 3) ⊗ H.1. The following Lemma then follows immediately from Deﬁnition 5. × 2n+2 and the σsheaf O(−2n− The AHmodule U2n corresponds to the SKmodule X3 × 2n+1 ⊗ H and the σsheaf 4).6 The antistable AHmodule U2n takes the form (V1L ⊗ V2n+1 . 2V2n−1 ).3.4. Consider the direct sum U = n aj Uj . any such representation can be written as a sum of irreducibles with unique multiplicities. × LM M The antistable AHmodule U2n−1 takes the form (2V1L ⊗ V2n .1. it is then easy to separate these representations to form separate AHM modules. 5. U ) can be attached an Sp(1)M action which intertwines with the left Haction in such a way that the diagonal Sp(1)LM action preserves U . However. provided that each odddimensional representation V2k appears with even multiplicity.C) ⊂ where H = GL(2.1.Theorem 5.4 Every stable AHmodule can be written as a direct sum of the irreducibles Un with unique multiplicities.5. There is a ‘unique factorisation theorem’ for antistable AHmodules which is exactly dual to Theorem 5. Thus the virtual dimension n of j odd cj .6). V2n ). × M LM Lemma 5.C). In Section 4.6) The left Haction on V1L is common to all the irreducibles.C) and therefore Sp(1).5 To every stable AHmodule (U. j even cj + 2 j=0 cj Uj is equal to Antistable AHmodules × Let Un = aV1 ⊗ Vn+1 be a stable AHmodule.1. Just like stable SHmodules. as the sum m n M V2j+1 ⊕ 2 j=1 k=1 M V2k U = V1L ⊗ . = ∼ C2 is the basic representation of GL(2. The 67 . (5. each irreducible subrepresentation of the Sp(1)M action contributes 1 to the virtual dimension of U . Then its dual AHmodule Un is an antistable AHmodule.1 we demonstrated that H 0 (O(n)) ∼ S n (H). H is also the basic representation V1 of SL(2. antistable AHmodules are formed by taking the smaller summand in the splitting aV1 ⊗Vn+1 = a(Vn+2 ⊕Vn ).4: Theorem 5. From the inclusion SL(2. Thus the following is equivalent to Theorem 5. In the decomposition of Equation (5. We can write U more explicitly in terms j=0 of Sp(1)L × Sp(1)M representations. Having done this.
Let t be the Lie algebra of T . we have † N H ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ aVn . the cohomology groups of Lλ are naturally representations of G.5. 382393]. The holomorphic line bundle associated to the principal bundle G and the representation λ is then Lλ = G ×T Cλ = (G × Cλ )/{(g. Let G be a compact Lie group and let T be a maximal toral subgroup. where L is the hyperplane section bundle of CP 1 . = 68 . (This famous result is due to Borel.8) The fact that the cohomology groups of line bundles over CP 1 have the structure of irreducible Sp(1)representations is already known in the context of the theory of homogeneous spaces. For more information see [FH. 5. p. The line = −λ bundle Sp(1) ×U(1) Cλ is then L . we have H 0 (O(n)) ∼ Vn and H 1 (O(−n)) ∼ Vn−2 . For each dominant weight λ ∈ t∗ there is a onedimensional representation Cλ of T . Since G acts on Lλ .induced action of Sp(1) on S n (H) is by deﬁnition the irreducible representation Vn . and the homogeneous space Sp(1)/U(1) ∼ CP 1 is the Hopf ﬁbration S 1 → S 3 → S 2 . LM Un = aVn+2 † LM and Un ∼ (Un )∗ = aVn .1 is thus the same as the exact sequence 0 −→ Vn−1 −→ V1 ⊗ Vn ∼ Vn−1 ⊕ Vn+1 −→ Vn+1 −→ 0. Then the homogeneous space G/T has a homogeneous complex structure. so that t is a Cartan subalgebra of g. 5.11) of Section 4.2. Then M Un = a(V1L ⊗ Vn+1 ). Thus the cohomology groups of line bundles over CP 1 are Sp(1)representations. (5. each maximal torus is isomorphic to U(1). t ∈ T }. This map has a natural interpretation in terms of the Sp(1)representations involved.1 The inclusion map ιU (U ) We begin by discussing the map ιU and its image.2 Sp(1)Representations and the Quaternionic Tensor Product This section describes the quaternionic algebra of stable and antistable AHmodules using the ideas of the previous section. v) ∼ (gt. = (5. t−1 v). Let Un be an irreducible stable AHmodule. In the case of the group Sp(1). Writing the quaternions as the stable AHmodule V1L ⊗ V1R .7) = = The exact sequence (4.) The right action of T on G gives G the structure of a principal T bundle over G/T . = † † There is an injective map ιUn : Un → H ⊗ (Un )∗ .
and antistable AHmodules and their subspaces as representations of lowest weight. = = † and ιUn (Un ) is the aVn+2 subrepresentation of I ⊗ (Un )∗ . since we do not have an intact copy of V1L . we have † N LRN LRN LRN I ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ V2LR ⊗ aVn ∼ a(Vn+2 ⊕ Vn ⊕ Vn−2 ). × LM (Un ) = aVn × × LM and (Un )† ∼ ((Un )† )∗ = aVn+2 . = = × RN × This time. 69 .7. This also shows why we would not expect U to be closed under the left Haction — the group Sp(1)L does not act upon it.10) = splits H ⊗ aVn into the direct sum of a stable AHmodule isomorphic to Un and an × antistable AHmodule isomorphic to Un−2 .5. In exactly the same way.4. for × Un we have × N LRN LRN LRN I ⊗ ((Un )† )∗ ∼ V2LR ⊗ aVn+2 ∼ a(Vn+4 ⊕ Vn+2 ⊕ Vn ). the author hopes that including a little more description will help the reader to get more of a feel for what is going on. Let Um = aV1 ⊗ Vm+1 . The results in this section can be obtained through Quillen’s sheaftheoretic version of AHmodules by using Theorem 4. The AHsubmodule ιUn (Un ) is clearly the V1L ⊗ RN † aVn+1 subrepresentation of H ⊗ (Un )∗ .2. ιUn ((Un ) ) is the smallest subrepresentation aVn . Treating the imaginary quaternions I as a copy of V2LR .1. Thus the splitting N RN RN H ⊗ aVn ∼ aV1L ⊗ (Vn+1 ⊕ Vn−1 ) (5. It is worth noting that so far we have been able consistently to interpret stable AHmodules and their subspaces as representations of highest weight in tensor products of Sp(1)representations. = There is a similar splitting × N RN RN H ⊗ ((Un )† )∗ ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ aVn+2 ∼ V1L ⊗ a(Vn+3 ⊕ Vn+1 ). By Deﬁnition 4.9) as an Sp(1) × Sp(1)representation. † † † † Um ⊗H Un = (ιUm (Um ) ⊗ (Un )∗ ) ∩ ((Um )∗ ⊗ ιUn (Un )) ⊂ H ⊗ (Um )∗ ⊗ (Un )∗ . Leaving the leftaction untouched and taking the diagonal Sp(1)RN action gives the isomorphism RN RN † H ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ V1L ⊗ a(Vn+1 ⊕ Vn−1 ) = (5.This is exactly like the motivating example of H ⊗ Ek. However. Un = bV1 ⊗ Vn+1 be stable AHmodules. × Antistable AHmodules behave in a similar fashion. × × The subspaces ιUn (Un ) and ιUn ((Un ) ) have a similar interpretation. so that × M Un = a(V1L ⊗ Vn+1 ).4. Consider the AHmodule Un . = = LRN × × In this case. 5. the AHsubmodule ιUn (Un ) is the smaller AHsubmodule V1L ⊗aVn+1 .r in Section 3.2 Tensor products of stable AHmodules We shall now see how to use our description of stable AHmodules to form the quaternionic tensor product.
The argument goes in the opposite direction. If on the other hand we go down the right hand side.13) RP Q A rearrangement of the factors leaves us considering the spaces abV1L ⊗ Vm+1 ⊗ Vn RQ P and abV1L ⊗ Vm ⊗ Vn+1 . = (5. we write ιUm (Um ) ∼ aV1L ⊗ Vm+1 ⊂ V1L ⊗ a(Vm+1 ⊕ Vm−1 ) ∼ = = † ∗ † ∗ ∼ Q H ⊗ (Um ) . we consider the diagonal action of the subgroup Sp(1)RP . This is summed up in the following diagram: † † P Q H ⊗ (Um )∗ ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ aVm ⊗ bVn = † Um ⊗ (Un )∗ s d d d d d d d d † (Um )∗ ⊗ Un ∼ = c ∼ = c RP Q † ιUm (Um ) ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ V1L ⊗ aVm+1 ⊗ bVn = RQ † P (Um )∗ ⊗ ιUn (Un ) ∼ aVm ⊗ V1L ⊗ bVn−1 = s d d d d d d d d Um ⊗H Un ∼ abV1L ⊗ ( = V RP Q ) ? The upward arrows here are inclusion maps.11) RP RP RP Using Equation (5. We now have an Sp(1)L × Sp(1)RP × Sp(1)Q representation L and an Sp(1) × Sp(1)P × Sp(1)RQ representation. = (5. † † P Q H ⊗ (Um )∗ ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ aVm ⊗ bVn . = (5. we hope to ﬁnd the intersection of these two spaces. We then consider the action of Sp(1)RP Q on this. We examine the factors RQ P Q RP Vm+1 ⊗ Vn and Vm ⊗ Vn+1 . Tensoring this expression with (Un ) = bVn gives † RP Q ιUm (Um ) ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ a(V1L ⊗ Vm+1 ) ⊗ bVn .12) In the same way. we want to reduce these two Sp(1) × Sp(1)representations to a single Sp(1)representation. The way to proceed is to leave the V1L factor in each of these expressions alone and consider the representations of the diagonal subgroup Sp(1)RP Q . From these we want to obtain a single Sp(1) × Sp(1)representation which leaves the left Haction intact.In terms of Sp(1)representations. we consider the diagonal action of the 70 . we form the isomorphism RQ † P (Um )∗ ⊗ ιUn (Un ) ∼ aVm ⊗ b(V1L ⊗ Vn+1 ). In so doing.9). and restrict to the higher weight † subspace ιUm (Um ) ⊗ (Un )∗ . To obtain a stable AHmodule. If we go down the left hand side. as we restrict our attention to particular subspaces.
Case 1( m and n both even): Let m = 2p. Since we do this for diﬀerent diagonal subgroups we expect to be left with diﬀerent subspaces. We will show that this is in fact the case. we obtain the two decompositions min{m+1. Thus any stable AHmodule of virtual dimension k must be a sum of at least k/2 and at most k irreducibles. = Proof. depending on whether the irreducibles are odd or even. At each ‘halfway stage’ we are considering representations of diagonal subgroups of diﬀerent pairs of groups. and then RP Q consider the action of Sp(1) on this. These decompositions contain fairly similar summands. This would ﬁt well with the observation that stable AHmodules arise as representations of highest weight in decompositions of tensor products of Sp(1)representations.† subgroup Sp(1)RQ . The irreducible stable AHmodule whose dimension 71 . Un be irreducible stable AHmodules. One thing that we can guarantee for any m.14 we ﬁnd that dim Um ⊗H Un = 4(p + q + 1) and that the virtual dimension of Um ⊗H Un is equal to 1. However. But any stable AHmodule whose virtual dimension is equal to 1 must be irreducible. Using the ClebschGordon formula. n = 2q. = If m and n are both odd then Um ⊗H Un ∼ 4Um+n .2. n}. restrict to the higher weight subspace (Um )∗ ⊗ ιUn (Un ). We want to know which parts end up contributing to the ﬁnal Sp(1)RP Q representation whichever path we take. n > 0 is that the representation with highest weight will be the same in both cases — both expressions have leading summand Vm+n+1 .n+1} RP Q Vm+1+n−2j j=0 ⊗ Q Vn ∼ = and P Vm ⊗ RQ Vn+1 ∼ = j=0 P RQ Vm+n+1−2j . using Joyce’s dimension formulae for stable AHmodules. just because we have two Sp(1)RP Q representations of the same weight. We have already noted that each irreducible representation of the Sp(1)M action on a stable AHmodule U contributes 1 to the virtual dimension of U .1 Let Um . We will deal with the three possible cases in turn. If m or n is even then Um ⊗H Un ∼ Um+n . Then dim Um = 4(p + 1) dim Um = 2p + 3 dim Un = 4(q + 1) and dim Un = 2q + 3. We conjecture that this is the summand which we ﬁnd in Um ⊗H Un . Here is the main result of this section: Theorem 5.n} RP Vm+1 min{m. This will † † identify the subspace Um ⊗H Un ⊆ H ⊗ (Um )∗ ⊗ (Un )∗ . and in both cases we take the higher weight representation in a sum Vk+1 ⊕ Vk−1 and discard the Vk−1 part.1. Using Theorem 4. with diﬀerences arising as the index j approaches the region of min{m. we cannot say that they are automatically the same subspace of H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ .
Let m = 2p − 1.is 4(p + q + 1) and whose virtual dimension is 1 is V1 ⊗ V2(p+q)+1 = Um+n . Hence Um ⊗H Un = Um+n . this is a map PQ PQ P Q Vm ⊗ Vn ∼ Vm+n ⊕ Vm+n−2 ⊕ . Hence Um ⊗H Un ∼ 2V1 ⊗ V2p+2q = Um+n . → Vm+n . n = 2q − 1. Thus Um ⊗H Un must be either an even irreducible or a sum of two odd irreducibles. Then dim Um = 4(2p + 1) dim Um = 4(p + 1) dim Un = 4(2q + 1) and dim Un = 4(q + 1). n = 2q − 1. Using Theorem 4. Case 2( m even and n odd): Let m = 2p. . This is really what this whole section has been about — the idea that the behaviour of stable AHmodules can be thoroughly and ﬂexibly described by taking subrepresentations of highest weight in tensor products of Sp(1)representations. For = m = 2p − 1 and n = 2q − 1 this becomes Q RP Q RP Q RP 4V1L ⊗ V2p ⊗ V2q−1 ∼ V1L ⊗ 4(V2p+2q−1 ⊕ V2p+2q−3 + . = (5. H 0 (O(n)) ∼ Vn . Then dim Um = 4(p + 1) dim Um = 2p + 3 dim Un = 4(2q + 1) and dim Un = 4(q + 1).7 applied to nonnegative vector bundles.12).15) The only way Um ⊗H Un can have a virtual dimension of four and a total dimension of 16(p + q) is if Um ⊗H Un ∼ 4V1 ⊗ V2p+2q−1 = 4Um+n . 72 . as all the other irreducibles of the Sp(1)RP Q = action have smaller dimension. Q RP † Consider the space ιUm (Um ) ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ a(V1L ⊗ Vm+1 ) ⊗ bVn of Equation (5. = Case 3 ( m and n both odd): The argument is very similar to that of Case 2. .1.1. so we cannot have more than 2 of the irreducibles of the Sp(1)RP Q action. We also need a total dimension of 4(2p + 2q + 1). The isomorphism O(n) ⊗O = O(m) ∼ O(n + m) induces a map of cohomology groups H 0 (O(m)) ⊗ H 0 (O(n)) → = H 0 (O(m + n)).) = (5.14) The virtual dimension of the tensor product Um ⊗H Un must be equal to 2.5.14) we see that the only way this can occur is if Um ⊗H Un ∼ V1 ⊗ 2V2p+2q . = The map in question is projection onto the irreducible of highest weight Vn+m . Examining Equation (5.14 we ﬁnd that dim Um ⊗H Un = 16(p + q) and that the virtual dimension of Um ⊗H Un is equal to 4. For the canonical sheaves O(n) over CP 1 . Q RP † Consider the space ιUm (Um ) ⊗ (Un )∗ ∼ a(V1L ⊗ Vm+1 ) ⊗ bVn of Equation (5. .12). .). Using Theorem 4.14 we ﬁnd that dim Um ⊗H Un = 4(2p + 2q + 1) and that the virtual dimension of Um ⊗H Un is equal to 2. This result is parallel to Theorem 4. For = m = 2p and n = 2q − 1 this becomes Q RP Q RP Q RP 2V1L ⊗ V2p+1 ⊗ V2q−1 ∼ V1L ⊗ 2(V2p+2q ⊕ V2p+2q−2 ⊕ . In terms of Sp(1)representations. . . = Quaternionic tensor products of more general stable AHmodules can be computed from this result by splitting into irreducibles and using the fact that the quaternionic tensor product is distributive for direct sums.
5. We use the ClebschGordon formula to describe min{m+1.2. we only expect a nonzero intersection if m < n + 2. we can describe what is going on in terms of diagonal actions × on tensor products of Sp(1)representations. Let × † × Um = aV1 ⊗ Vm+1 and Un = (bV1 ⊗ Vn+1 )× . This = = gives rise to the standard descriptions H ⊗R (U † )∗ ∼ aV L ⊗ V R ⊗ V P ∼ aV L ⊗ (V RP ⊕ V RP ) = = m 1 1 m 1 m+1 m−1 and RQ RQ Q × H ⊗R ((Un )† )∗ ∼ bV1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ Vn+2 ∼ bV1L ⊗ (Vn+3 ⊕ Vn+1 ). our task is to ﬁnd which of these summands is in the × × † × × intersection Um ⊗H Un = ιUm (Um ) ⊗R ((Un )† )∗ ∩ (Um )∗ ⊗R ιUn (Un ). In this case we might expect dim U ⊗H V = dim A + dim B − dim(H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ ). A similar calculation shows that dim A + dim B ≥ dim H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ if and only if s(j + r) ≥ kr. so now dim V = 2k + s. From our dimensional arguments. n + 2} = min{m. n + 1}. so (Um )∗ ∼ Vm and ((Un )† )∗ ∼ Vn+2 . Let U and V be antistable AHmodules with dim U = 4j. Let A = ιU (U ) ⊗ (V † )∗ and let B = (U † )∗ ⊗ ιV (V ). Then we would × expect that dim(Um ⊗H Un ) = 2ab(m − n + 2).2. This time since min{m + 1.n+1} RP Q Vm+n+1−2j . we take the smaller summand of Vn+3 ⊕ Vn+1 .14. = = The only diﬀerence between this and equation (5.3 Tensor Products of Antistable AHmodules It is not diﬃcult to extend Joyce’s results for tensor products of stable AHmodules to irreducible antistable AHmodules — we can follow the same argument as in the proof of Theorem 4. This suggests that {0} if m ≥ n + 2 × U× n or m even and m < n + 2 Um ⊗H Un ∼ (abV1 ⊗ Vn−m+1 )× = = n−m × 4Un−m n and m both odd and m < n + 2. For × example. and thus to obtain ιUm (Um ).16) 73 .1. so dim(H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ ) = 4(2j + r)(2k + s) > dim A + dim B. Suppose instead that V is stable. Thus in generic situations we would expect dim A ∩ B = dim U ⊗H V = 0. n + 1} = m. let U = Um = (aV1 ⊗ Vm+1 )× and V = Un = bV1 ⊗ Vn+1 . and we would × predict that Um ⊗H Un contains the summand Vn−m+1 . dim V = 4k and dim V = 2k − s. in which case min{m. We will illustrate the case Um ⊗H Un .9) is that we have an antistable AH× × module involved. we can guarantee that the summand of smallest weight will appear in both expressions. As with stable AHmodules. dim U = 2j −r. Um ⊗H Un cannot be stable. since the generic properties of sums and intersections guaranteed by stability also hold if one or both of the AHmodules is irreducible and antistable. Because its virtual dimension is × not positive.n+2} × ιUm (Um ) ⊗R ((Un )† )∗ ∼ abV L ⊗ V RP ⊗ V Q ∼ abV L ⊗ = n+2 = 1 m+1 1 j=0 RP Q Vm+n+3−2j and RQ † × P × (Um )∗ ⊗R ιUn (Un ) ∼ abV1L ⊗ Vm ⊗ Vn+1 ∼ abV1L ⊗ = = j=0 min{m. (5. Then dim A = 4j(2k + s) and dim B = 4k(2j + r). As in Section 5.
Recall from Section 4.3 Semistable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations In this section we shall consider how the AHmodule Xq ﬁts into the picture of stable AHmodules and Sp(1)representations.2.14. we will conﬁrm these conjectures by appealing to Quillen’s powerful results. U ) ∼ (Xq ⊗H U ) = 74 . = × × × If m < n + 2 and m and n are both odd then Um ⊗H Un ∼ 4Un−m . For any AHmodule U . † † Xq = H and Xq = {p ∈ H : pq = −qp} so that Xq ∼ (Xq )∗ ∼ Cq . In particular. = = × ∼ If we consider the dual AHmodule Xq = (H. Then HomAH (Um .2 Let Um be an irreducible stable AHmodule and let Un be an irreducible antistable AHmodule.1. we see that there are always AHmorphisms from Un into H (and indeed. Proof.2. this is a deﬁning property for AHmodules).5.2.9 might be particularly interesting in the case of Xq .9. but never AHmorphisms from stable AHmodules into antistable AHmodules. = × × × × Let Um and Un be antistable irreducible AHmodules.2. using the isomorphism HomAH (Um . × Proposition 5. we can now see that there are always AHmorphisms from antistable AHmodules into stable AHmodules. Proof.3 Let Um and Un be stable AHmodules. × If m ≥ n + 2 then Um ⊗H Un = {0}.Rather than try to emulate Joyce’s (diﬃcult) proof of Theorem 4. Proposition 5. This follows immediately by combining Theorems 4. n are even or odd. there is a canonical isomorphism × HomAH (Xq . We can use this result about tensor products of antistable AHmodules to tell us about AHmorphisms between stable AHmodules. since U0 = H. Then Um ⊗H Un = {0}. Similarly. 5.3 that for q ∈ S 2 .2. This = × suggests that Theorem 4.7 (due to Quillen).2. This follows from Theorem 4. where as usual a = 1 or 2 depending on whether m.2. Un ) ∼ = × (aUm−n ) = aVm−n {0} n≤m n>m where a = 4 if m and n are both odd and a = 1 otherwise. but never AHmorphisms from H into Un unless n = 0. × If m < n + 2 and m or n is even then Um ⊗H Un ∼ Un−m . Un ) ∼ (Um ⊗H Un ) = × of Theorem 4. Cq ) we see that the leftmultiplication Lq : H → H deﬁned by Lq (p) = q · p gives an AHisomorphism Xq ∼ Xq .1. using the correspondences × Um = η + (aO(m)) and Un = η − (aO(−n − 4)).9 and 5.
Then we need φ(1) = u ∈ U and φ(q) ∈ U . . the subspaces Cq and Xq = C⊥ q are acted on by the Cartan subgroup U (1)q ⊂ Sp(1).3. φ(q) = qu. x⊗an−1 b+y⊗an . .1 The subspace Un−1 ∩ qUn−1 is given by the sum of the weight spaces of Q with highest and lowest possible weights. and so u ∈ U ∩ qU . y⊗bn }. This decomposition gives important information about the action of q on the AHmodule Un = aV1 ⊗ Vn+1 . . . Recall from Section 5. Thus each basis vector wk is a weight vector with weight (n − 2k + 1). This also gives the left action of q ∈ Sp(1) on V1 . Proof. . It follows that HomAH (Xq .1. n − 2. .1. Since φ is Hlinear. U ) ∼ (Xq ⊗H U ) ∼ U ∩ qU . Lemma 5. x ⊗ abn−1 . .2. . y ⊗ abn−1 . Any irreducible representation of sp(1) is also a representation of the subalgebra u(1)q = Q . C) such that Q = iH. . y ⊗ bn . . y for the space V1 in such a way that Q(x) = ix and Q(y) = −iy.and so × × HomAH (Xq . For ease of notation we work with the AHmodule Un−1 . the second of these isomorphisms is given by the map (idU ⊗H χq ) : (U ⊗H Xq ) → (U ⊗H H) ∼ U . = Though Xq is not itself an Sp(1)representation. this is exactly the same as the decomposition of Vn into eigenspaces of H with weights {−n.17) As noted by Joyce (see the summary in Section 4. . The goal of this discussion is to describe the AHmodule Un ⊗H Xq . Let Q = aI1 + bI2 + cI3 ∈ sp(1) with a2 + b2 + c2 = 1 and let q = ai1 + bi2 + ci3 ∈ S 2 . We deﬁne a basis x. = = (5. and that the space (Un−1 ) ∼ Vn+1 is spanned by the vectors = {x⊗an . x ⊗ bn y ⊗ an . . This is exactly what we have done in the explicit calculations of Section 5.1. C) is given by H(x ⊗ an−k bk ) = (n − 2k + 1)x ⊗ an−k bk and H(y ⊗ an−k bk ) = (n − 2k − 1)y ⊗ an−k bk . As we shall see. Deﬁne the basis vectors wk ≡ x ⊗ an−k bk + y ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 . . . = = = × Let φ : Xq → U be an AHmorphism. . taking the tensor product of a stable AHmodule with the AHmodule Xq serves to restrict attention from information about Sp(1)representations to information concerning representations of the group U(1)q and its Lie algebra u(1)q . U ) ∼ (Xq ⊗H U ) ∼ (Xq ⊗H U ) . We do this with the aid of the following lemma. U ) ∼ HomAH (Xq . x⊗an−k bk +y⊗an−k+1 bk−1 . If we choose an identiﬁcation sp(1) ⊗R C = sl(2.3 that V1 ⊗ Vn = x ⊗ an . The analysis of Vn as a U(1)q representation is already familiar: it is the decomposition of Vn into weight spaces of the operator Q : Vn → Vn . −n + 2. . since the actions of q and Q coincide for this representation (see Section 1. This gives the left action of q ∈ H on Un = aV1 ⊗ Vn+1 .1). y ⊗ an−1 b. . . x ⊗ an−1 b. The two extreme vectors x ⊗ an and y ⊗ bn are also 75 . including w0 = x ⊗ an and wn+1 = y ⊗ bn . . x⊗bn +y⊗abn−1 . The action of H ∈ sl(2.3). .3 for the case q = i1 . n}.
. Since the AHsubmodule (id ⊗H χq )(Un−1 ⊗H Xq ) ⊂ Un−1 is the subspace generated over H by U ∩ qU . Thus the quaternionic tensor product Un ⊗H Xq picks out the representations of extreme weight in the decomposition of Un into weight spaces of Q. and q( It is evident that q(x ⊗ an ) = ix ⊗ an ∈ Vn+1 but for all the other basis vectors wk . . . q(wk ) ∈ wk Hence Vn+1 ∩ qVn+1 = x ⊗ an . bn+1 . x ⊗ an b. Since each vector wk has a diﬀerent weight from all the others we have q(wk ) ∈ Vn+1 if and only if q(wk ) ∈ wk . λk wk ) ∈ Vn+1 ⇐⇒ λk = 0 or q(wk ) ∈ Vn+1 for all k. On the basis vectors wk = x ⊗ an−k bk + y ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 we have q(x ⊗ an−k bk + y ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 ) = ix ⊗ an−k bk − iy ⊗ an−k+1 bk−1 . The left Haction of q on V1 ⊗ Vn is given by q(x ⊗ an−k bk ) = ix ⊗ an−k bk q(y ⊗ an−k bk ) = −iy ⊗ an−k bk . x ⊗ abn .3.2 Let Un = aV1 ⊗Vn+1 be an irreducible stable AHmodule. If Un is an even AHmodule then Un ⊗H Xq ∼ Xq and = (id ⊗H χq )(Un ⊗H Xq ) = H · x ⊗ an+1 − y ⊗ bn+1 R .weight vectors with weights n + 1 and −n − 1 respectively. 76 . If Un is an odd AHmodule then Un ⊗H Xq ∼ 2Xq and = (id ⊗H χq )(Un ⊗H Xq ) = H · x ⊗ an+1 . Taking the σinvariant subspace x ⊗ an − y ⊗ bn if Un−1 is an even AHmodule yields the desired result for the AHmodule Un−1 . . Note that all these weights are diﬀerent. . y ⊗ bn+1 R = V1 ⊗ an+1 . and q(y ⊗ an ) = −iy ⊗ an ∈ Vn+1 . y ⊗ bn+1 . x ⊗ bn+1 y ⊗ an+1 . . y ⊗ an b. . y ⊗ abn . this demonstrates the main result of this section which describes Un ⊗H Xq as follows: Theorem 5. and so q(wk ) ∈ Vn+1 . the weight spaces with highest and lowest weight. where the Haction is induced by the Haction on V1 . Left multiplication by q therefore preserves the weight space decomposition with respect to Q of a vector w ∈ V1 ⊗ Vn . whose eigenspace decomposition with respect to Q ∈ sp(1) takes the form V1 ⊗ Vn+1 = x ⊗ an+1 . . y ⊗ bn .
5.4
Examples and Summary of AHmodules
By now, the reader should be familiar with the ideas of quaternionic algebra. In this section we shall brieﬂy sum up this information, giving explicit constructions of the AHmodules which will occur most frequently in the following chapter, in the forms in which they occur most naturally. Example 5.4.1 Recall the AHmodule Y = {(q1 , q2 , q3 ) : q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0} of Example 4.1.2. Since Y is stable and has virtual dimension 1, it follows that Y is irreducible and is isomorphic to U2 = V1 ⊗ V3 . A calculation shows that (Y † )∗ ∼ V2 and = that the equation q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0 is precisely the condition for (q1 , q2 , q3 ) to lie in the subspace V1L ⊗ V3RM of H ⊗ V2M ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ V2M ∼ V1L ⊗ (V3RM ⊕ V1RM ). = = k k Consider the AHmodules Y , SH Y and Λk Y . Using the dimension formulae of H H n Theorem 4.1.14 and Proposition 4.1.16, we discover that Λn Y = {0} and that H HY = n n n SH Y with dim(SH Y ) = 4(n + 1) and dim(SH Y ) = 2n + 3. From this we deduce that n SH Y ∼ U2n , and that all the even irreducible stable AHmodules can be realised as tensor = powers of the AHmodule Y . Example 5.4.2 [J1, Example 10.1] Let Z ⊂ H ⊗ R4 be the set Z = {(q0 , q1 , q2 , q3 ) : q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0}. Then Z ∼ H3 is a left Hmodule. Deﬁne a real subspace Z = {(q0 , q1 , q2 , q3 ) : qj ∈ = I and q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0}. Then dim Z = 12, dim Z = 8 and Z is a stable AHmodule. In fact, Z is isomorphic to the ﬁrst odd irreducible AHmodule U1 ∼ 2V1 ⊗ V2 . We = have (Z † )∗ ∼ R4 ∼ 2V1 . The equation q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0 is the condition for = = (q0 , q1 , q2 , q3 ) to lie in the subspace 2V1L ⊗ V2RM of H ⊗ 2V1M ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ 2V1M ∼ = = 2V1L ⊗ (V2RM ⊕ V0RM ). Example 5.4.3 We can obtain the rest of the odd AHmodules as tensor products of those above. From Theorem 5.2.1 we know that U2n+1 = U2n ⊗H U1 . This combined with the previous examples shows that U2n+1 ∼ SH Y ⊗H Z. = n Thus we have obtained all the irreducible stable AHmodules in terms of previously known AHmodules. We can also use these constructions to write down formulae giving all those irreducible antistable AHmodules which are dual to stable AHmodules. Example 5.4.4 Consider the AHmodule (U, U ) where U = H2 and U = (1, 0), (i1 , i2 ), (0, 1), (0, i1 ) .
Then {(0, q) : q ∈ H} is an AHsubmodule of U isomorphic to Xi1 . However, there is no complementary AHsubmodule V such that U ∼ Xi1 ⊕ V , and indeed U is irreducible. = 77
It is also clear that U is not semistable — nor is it the dual AHmodule of any semistable AHmodule. We call such an AHmodule irregular. n,α n,− ¯ −1 Irregular AHmodules correspond to type (i) SKmodules of the form X1 ⊕ X1 α and torsion sheaves of the form O/mn , where n ≥ 2. In the present case which singles x out the subﬁeld Ci1 , we have U ∼ η + (O/m2 = {0,∞} ). For a general formula linking pairs of antipodal points {z, σ(z)} in CP 1 and complex subﬁelds of H see [Q, §14]. These are the only AHmodules which we do not describe in detail, for two reasons. Firstly, they are badly behaved compared to semistable and antistable AHmodules. Secondly, as far as the author is aware, they do not arise naturally in geometrical situations in the way that the other AHmodules do. Example 5.4.5 There is one remaining irreducible to consider — the AHmodule (H, {0}). This trivially satisﬁes Deﬁnition 4.1.1, and so is an AHmodule. Any AHmodule whose primed part is zero is a direct sum of copies of (H, {0}). It is easy to see that for any irreducible AHmodule U , U ⊗H (H, {0}) = {0} unless U = H, in which case we have H⊗H (H, {0}) = (H, {0}). Though badly behaved, the AHmodule (H, {0}) does arise naturally in quaternionic algebra — for example, Z⊗H H× = (H, {0}). This suggests the notation
× (H, {0}) = U−1 ,
in which case this result agrees with Theorem 5.2.2. Such notation is consistent with the sheaf description of antistable AHmodules, since we have
× U−1 = η − (2O(−3))
as expected. Thus we interpret (H, {0}) as the ‘antistable part’ of 2V1 ⊗ V0 . The dual space (H, H) is of course not an AHmodule, so there is no stable AHmodule U−1 which × × is dual to U−1 . In spite of this we still regard U−1 as ‘antistable’, because treating it as an exception every time would be cumbersome. We end this chapter with a diagram (overleaf) summarising much of our theory.
78
Figure 5.1: Irreducible AHmodules and the ratio of their dimensions.
AHmorphisms

Y × ∼ U2 = ×
Xq and irregular AHmodules
Y ∼ U2 =
Z × ∼ U1 =
× U−1 = (H, {0})
Z ∼ U1 = H
3 4
H×
1 4
c c
c
0
......
1 2
......
s d
c c
dim U / dim U 1
× Un (3 ≤ n < ∞)
Un (3 ≤ n < ∞)
d d
Quaternionic tensor products
This describes the AHmodules we have met so far — all the ﬁnitedimensional irreducible AHmodules. The quaternionic tensor product of two AHmodules is always to the left of both of them in Figure 5.1. On the other hand, there are AHmorphisms from an AHmodule into itself and any AHmodules to its right — and never from an AHmodule to any AHmodule to its left. These statements are closely linked by Theorem 4.2.9. If U and V are irreducible stable or antistable AHmodules, this demonstrates that that there will always be AHmorphisms from U ⊗H V into U and V , but never any AHmorphisms from U or V into U ⊗H V , unless U or V is equal to H.
79
showing that the qholomorphic sections of a qholomorphic vector bundle E form an 80 . qholomorphic functions possess a rich algebraic structure.1) summarises Joyce’s theory of qholomorphic functions. the other two being original). A function f is qholomorphic if and only if its diﬀerential df takes values in the subspace A ⊂ H ⊗ T ∗ M . This condition is met if and only if E carries an antiselfdual connection which is compatible with the structure of E as an AHbundle. Because of the noncommutativity of the quaternions. It is in three parts (the ﬁrst of which is a summary of Joyce’s work. A qholomorphic function on a hypercomplex manifold M is a smooth function f : M → H which satisﬁes a quaternionic version of the CauchyRiemann equations. but are most interesting when M is hypercomplex. This is very similar to the situation in complex geometry where the diﬀerential of a holomorphic function takes values in the holomorphic cotangent space Λ1. We investigate the algebraic structure of qholomorphic sections in some detail. An AHbundle E is said to be qholomorphic if it is simultaneously holomorphic with respect to the whole 2sphere of complex structures on M . The ﬁrst part (Section 6. which we write H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. The third part (Sections 6.3 and 6. we use the Sp(1)representation T ∗ M ∼ 2nV1 = deﬁned by the hypercomplex structure to obtain a natural splitting of the quaternionic cotangent space of a hypercomplex manifold M . We let PM denote the AHmodule of qholomorphic functions on M . so that a qholomorphic function is precisely a qholomorphic section of the trivial bundle M × H.0 . Joyce attempts to capture this using the concept of an Halgebra.4) is about AHbundles. They can be deﬁned over any smooth manifold M .2). its complement B being the qantiholomorphic cotangent space. the product of two qholomorphic functions is not in general qholomorphic. and the Sp(1)version of quaternionic algebra gives a complete description of the geometric situation. We generalise the theory of qholomorphic functions to that of qholomorphic sections. It follows that the subbundle A should be thought of as the qholomorphic cotangent space of M . In the second part (Section 6. The qholomorphic functions on the hypercomplex manifold H are precisely the regular functions of Fueter and Sudbery. a quaternionic version of a commutative algebra over the real or complex numbers. = ∼ aV1 ⊗ (Vk+1 ⊕ Vk−1 ) used in the This is precisely a version of the splitting H ⊗ aVk = previous chapter to construct and describe all stable and antistable AHmodules.Chapter 6 Hypercomplex Manifolds This chapter uses the quaternionic algebra developed in Chapters 4 and 5 to describe hypercomplex manifolds. which are smooth vector bundles whose ﬁbres are AHmodules. Nonetheless.
Joyce has used this process to reconstruct hypercomplex manifolds from their Halgebras. we see that ιq (z) = ι−q (¯). H) is an AHmodule. Note that we have assumed no geometric structure on M other than that of a smooth manifold. 1 81 . H). I) then θm (f ) ∈ I for all m ∈ M . so θm ∈ C ∞ (M. the function ιq (f ) = a + qb is a quaternionvalued function on M . Suppose that f ∈ C ∞ (M. but the two maps are not identical: since ιq (a + ib) = a + qb and ι−q (a + ib) = a − qb. H) → H by θm (f ) = f (m). to which the reader is referred for more detail and proofs of the important results. Then θm (q · f ) = q · θm (f ). Then for every q ∈ S 2 . §§3. In this way we obtain quaternionvalued functions from complex ones.1. H) ) is an AHmodule. H)† . Lemma 6. e1 ∈ E ). Let M be a smooth manifold and let C ∞ (M. Complex and quaternionic functions For each q ∈ S 2 let ιq : C → H be the inclusion obtained by identifying i ∈ C with q ∈ S 2 . 1 For any real vector space E. 6. the inclusion ιq extends to a map ιq : C ⊗ E → H ⊗ E given by ιq (e0 + ie1 ) = e0 + qe1 (for e0 . and we shall soon see that this construction can be used to obtain qholomorphic functions from holomorphic ones.1 Deﬁne a linear subspace C ∞ (M. f ∈ C ∞ (M. Note that the images of ιq and ι−q are the same. For each m ∈ M . C ∞ (M.5]. f (m) = 0 for all m ∈ M . H) is a left Hmodule. so θm ∈ C ∞ (M. H) be the vector space of smooth quaternionvalued functions on M . Since θm ∈ C ∞ (M. H).1.Halgebra module over PM . An Haction on C ∞ (M. H) = {f ∈ C ∞ (M.1 Qholomorphic Functions and Halgebras Quaternionvalued functions This section is mainly a summary of [J1.1 6. H)† is extremely useful. Thus C ∞ (M. z Let f = a + ib be a complexvalued function on M . if f ∈ C ∞ (M. H)† . I). H) : f (m) ∈ I for all m ∈ M } = C ∞ (M. The map ιq will be distinguished from the inclusion map ιU of AHmodules by the use of lowercase rather than uppercase subscripts. Proof. H)× . and α(f ) = 0 for all α ∈ C ∞ (M. Also. Thus C ∞ (M. H)† . H) is an AHmodule. H) is deﬁned by setting (q · f )(m) = q(f (m)) for all m ∈ M . This technique of linking a point m ∈ M to an element of C ∞ (M. H). With these deﬁnitions.1. We use the fact that M can be embedded in C ∞ (M. (C ∞ (M.1. H)† in the following way. What is less immediately obvious is that C ∞ (M. deﬁne the ‘evaluation map’ θm : C ∞ (M. by Deﬁnition 4. so that ιq (a + ib) = a + qb. so f ≡ 0.
H) . If f = x + iy is holomorphic with respect to Q then it satisﬁes the CauchyRiemann equations dx + Q(dy) = 0. the hypercomplex version of holomorphic functions. Then ιq (f ) = x + qy is a qholomorphic function. Thus the qholomorphic functions PM on a hypercomplex manifold M form an AHmodule.2 Qholomorphic functions In this section we will deﬁne qholomorphic functions. in which case 0 = dx + (a1 I1 + a2 I2 + a3 I3 )(dy) = D(x + a1 yi1 + a2 yi2 + a3 yi3 ) = D(x + qy). A complexvalued function f = f0 + idf1 ∈ C ∞ (M. H) be a smooth Hvalued function on M . Proof. H). Consider the complex manifold (M.1. The product of two qholomorphic functions is not in general qholomorphic — we can observe this simply by noting that all constant functions are trivially qholomorphic. C) be holomorphic with respect to Q. The function f is said to be qholomorphic if and only if it satisﬁes the CauchyRiemannFueter equations Df ≡ df0 + I1 df1 + I2 df2 + I3 df3 = 0. C) is holomorphic (with respect to I ) if and only if f satisﬁes the CauchyRiemann equations df0 + Idf1 = 0. Here is the deﬁnition of a qholomorphic function on M . Let f = x + iy ∈ C ∞ (M. The term qholomorphic is short for quaternionholomorphic. I1 . Deﬁnition 6. If a function f is qholomorphic then the function q · f is also qholomorphic for all q ∈ H. and it is intended to indicate that a qholomorphic function on a hypercomplex manifold is the appropriate quaternionic analogue of a holomorphic function on a complex manifold.3 Let q = a1 i1 + a2 i2 + a3 i3 ∈ S 2 and let Q = a1 I1 + a2 I2 + a3 I3 be the corresponding complex structure on M . by observing that every complexvalued function on M which is holomorphic with respect to any complex structure Q ∈ S 2 gives rise to a qholomorphic function. We show that there are many interesting qholomorphic functions on a hypercomplex manifold M . (6. Thus qholomorphic functions do not form an algebra in the same sense that the holomorphic functions on a complex manifold do. I2 . The set of all qholomorphic functions on M is called PM .2 Let f ∈ C ∞ (M. namely PM = {f ∈ PM : f (m) ∈ I for all m ∈ M }. Lemma 6. H).1.1) Let (M. Then f = f0 +f1 i1 +f2 i2 +f3 i3 with fj ∈ C ∞ (M ). 82 . I). So PM = PM ∩ C ∞ (M.1. and familiarise ourselves with some of their basic properties. I3 ) be a hypercomplex manifold.6. but PM is not even closed under rightmultiplication by quaternions. The proof is a simple substitution. We adopt the obvious deﬁnition for PM . Thus the set of qholomorphic functions PM forms a left Hsubmodule of C ∞ (M. and PM is an AHsubmodule of C ∞ (M.
ιq (g). 6. Let F be a commutative ﬁeld (usually the real or complex numbers). C) is holomorphic with respect to Q.1. producing the following deﬁnition [J1. b) = µ(b. saying that µ : A ⊗F A → A is commutative if and only if Λ2 A ⊆ ker µ. We shall see that this is a consequence of (indeed is equivalent to) the fact that the AHmodules Xq and X−q are the same. So our bilinear multiplication map µ : A × A → A becomes an Flinear map µ : A ⊗F A → A. 83 . equipped with an Fbilinear multiplication map µ : A × A → A which has certain algebraic properties. a) for all a.3. §5]: Axiom H. called the multiplication map. This algebraic situation is described by the theory of Halgebras. By Lemma 6. their product is also qholomorphic. This is reminiscent of the situation described in Lemma 4. The commutative axiom µ(a. In this case we have two welldeﬁned ‘products’ of f and g — their quaternionic tensor product f ⊗H g ∈ PM ⊗H PM and their product as Cq valued functions f g = gf ∈ PM . ‘AHmorphism’ and ‘quaternionic tensor product’.3. ιq (f ). if the functions f. this formulation is of no great use to us when seeking a quaternionic analogue because the noncommutativity of the quaternions makes the notion of an Hbilinear map untenable. a) becomes µ(a ⊗ b) = µ(b ⊗ a). and ιq (f g) = ιq (f )ιq (g) are all qholomorphic. If f = x + iy ∈ C ∞ (M. then its conjugate ¯ f = x − iy is holomorphic with respect to −Q. so µ(a ⊗ b − b ⊗ a) = µ(a ∧ b) = 0. b) = µ(b.1.1. where two elements u ∈ U and v ∈ V such that ιU (u) ∈ Cq ⊗ (U † )∗ and ιV (v) ∈ Cq ⊗ (V † )∗ deﬁne an element u⊗H v ∈ U ⊗H V . In this special case where the qholomorphic functions f and g both take values in a commuting subﬁeld of H. b ∈ A then µ is said to be commutative. For example if µ(a. Cq ). replacing ‘vector space’. An Falgebra is a vector space A over F. ‘linear map’ and ‘tensor product’ with ‘AHmodule’. Cq ) are both holomorphic with respect to Q. H). As we have already seen in Section 1. Does this mean that both x + qy and x − qy are qholomorphic functions? Closer inspection shows that this is not the case — we see that ιq (x + iy) = ι−q (x − iy) = x + qy. The main feature of tensor algebra is that a bilinear map on the cartesian product A×B translates into a linear map on the tensor product A⊗F B. (ii) There is an AHmorphism µP : P⊗H P → P.7. So the holomorphic functions with respect to Q and −Q are mapped to the same functions when we consider their images under ι±q in C ∞ (M. then so is f g ∈ C ∞ (M. g ∈ C ∞ (M.So the Hvalued function ιq (f ) = x + qy is qholomorphic. Hence we obtain a ‘tensor algebra version’ of the commutative axiom. Now. The axioms for an algebra over F can alternatively be written in terms of tensor products. Once we have reformulated our axioms in terms of tensor products and linear maps we can translate them into quaternionic algebra.3 Halgebras and Qholomorphic functions An Halgebra is a quaternionic version of an algebra over a commutative ﬁeld. This is precisely what Joyce does. (i) P is an AHmodule.
1Q for the identities in P. Here Halgebra stands for Hamilton algebra.2]. Write 1P . where Joyce deﬁnes this map and uses it to prove that U ⊗H V is an AHmodule. For inﬁnitedimensional vector spaces U and V we deﬁne U ⊗ V to consist of ﬁnite sums of elements u ⊗ v. Thus 1 is a multiplicative identity.PN (θm ⊗ θn ) · f ∈ H and we deﬁne φ(f ) : M × N → H by setting φ(f )(m. Then µP ◦ (µP ⊗H id) = µP ◦ (id ⊗H µP ).4 P is an Halgebra if P satisﬁes Axiom H. Thus µP is commutative. H (iv) The AHmorphisms µP : P⊗H P → P and id : P → P combine to give AHmorphisms µP ⊗H id and id ⊗H µP : P⊗H P⊗H P → P⊗H P. Let M .1.1.6 We deﬁne a map φ : PM ⊗H PN → C ∞ (M × N.(iii) Λ2 P ⊂ ker µP . Thus φ(f ) is a sum of ﬁnitely many smooth functions. which allow us to interpret points of m ∈ M as AHmorphisms θm : PM → H. (v) An element 1 ∈ A called the identity is given. In the same way.1. In this way the the Halgebra PM includes the algebras of holomorphic functions with respect to all the diﬀerent complex structures on M . Then λPM .1.PN (θm ⊗ θn ) ∈ (PM ⊗H PN )† . Then λPM . Deﬁnition 6. Q respectively.2) for all x ∈ U † ⊗ V † and y ∈ U ⊗H V . Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. Then y · x ∈ H. Thus for each a ∈ P. n) = λPM . and such that for f. where ‘ · ’ contracts together the factors of U † ⊗ V † with those of (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ in U ⊗H V ⊂ H ⊗ (U † )∗ ⊗ (V † )∗ . This is associativity of multiplication.5 Let P. n) ∈ M × N the map θm ⊗ θn ∈ PM ⊗ PN .1. Deﬁne a linear map λU V : U † ⊗ V † → (U ⊗H V )† by setting λU V (x)(y) = y · x. H) as follows. 1⊗H a and a⊗H 1 ∈ P⊗H P by Lemma 4.7. Composing with µP gives AHmorphisms µP ◦ (µP ⊗H id) and µP ◦ (id ⊗H µP ) : P⊗H P⊗H P → P. Q be Halgebras. Joyce has constructed a multiplication map µM with respect to which the qholomorphic functions PM form an Halgebra. we can associate † † to each point (m. Let f ∈ PM ⊗H PN . Let U and V be AHmodules. Cq ) holomorphic with respect to Q we have µ(f ⊗H g) = f g. We also deﬁne morphisms of Halgebras: Deﬁnition 6. 2 † Consider again the maps θm ∈ PM of Lemma 6. with 1 ∈ P and I·1 ⊆ / P. It is easy to see that φ(f ) is qholomorphic. Let x ∈ U † ⊗ V † and y ∈ U ⊗H V . Deﬁnition 6. since DM ×N = See [J1.1. g ∈ C ∞ (M. N and (therefore) M × N be hypercomplex manifolds.PN (θm ⊗ θn ) · f. We deﬁne an AHmorphism φ : PM ⊗H PN → PM ×N . (6. 2 84 . (vi) Part (v) implies that if α ∈ P † then α(1) ∈ R. Deﬁnition 4. and so is smooth. Then µP (1⊗H a) = µP (a⊗H 1) = a for each a ∈ P. and let φ : P → Q be an AHmorphism. We say that φ is an Halgebra morphism if φ(1P ) = 1Q and µQ ◦ (φ⊗H φ) = φ ◦ µP as AHmorphisms P⊗H P → Q.
(6.3). Let 1 ∈ PM be the constant function on M with value 1. §10]. Then H is naturally a complex manifold with hypercomplex structure (I1 . 5.4. Thus the linear qholomorphic functions on H form an AHsubmodule of the set of all linear functions.DM (φ(f )) + DN (φ(f )) = 0. I2 dx3 = dx1 .7 [J1. H) is an Halgebra morphism. PM is an Halgebra. With these deﬁnitions. Thus we can deﬁne an AHmorphism µM = ρ ◦ φ : PM ⊗H PM → PM .3) Here is the key theorem of this section: Theorem 6. Thus we have a canonical AHmorphism φ : PM ⊗H PN → PM ×N . and each qholomorphic function on M × M restricts to a qholomorphic function on Mdiag .8 Qholomorphic functions on H [J1. so φ : PM ⊗H PM → PM ×M . This statement is also true for C ∞ (M. An AHmorphism φ : C ∞ (M.20) with the hypercomplex structure in (6. The qholomorphic functions PM form an Hsubalgebra of C ∞ (M. j = 1. We can easily show that k SH Z ∼ (k + 1)V1 ⊗ Vk+1 = = 1 (k 2 (k + 1)Uk k even + 1)Uk k odd. x3 ) representing the quaternion x0 + x1 i1 + x2 i2 + x3 i3 . 2.16 to prove that SH Z ∼ = (k) U . the free Halgebra generated by Z . Consider the AHmodule U (k) of homogeneous qholomorphic polynomials of degree k.5].1. 3. and this idea enables us to write down the multiplication map µH . (6. It is clear that φ is Hlinear and that φ(PM ⊗H PN ) ⊆ PM ×N . Let ρ be the restriction map ρ : PM ×M → PMdiag . and the inclusion map id : PM → C∞ (M. This constructs not only the spaces U (k) .1. H) → C ∞ (M × N. so that PM is an AHmodule.e. I3 dx1 = dx2 and Ij dx0 = dxj .1. which is naturally an Halgebra. x1 . Using the CauchyRiemannFueter Equation (1. H) can be deﬁned just as in Deﬁnition 6. Joyce [J1. Consider the manifold H with coordinates (x0 . I2 . §6]. x2 . The spaces U (k) are important in quaternionic analysis and are studied by Sudbery k [Su. H). Example 6. Example 5. m) : m ∈ M } ⊂ M × M is a submanifold of M × M isomorphic to M as a hypercomplex manifold. H).6. I3 ) given by I1 dx2 = dx3 . then ρ is an AHmorphism. 85 . The space of all qholomorphic polynomials on H is therefore given by the sum ∞ k Z k=0 SH Z. we ﬁnd that f = q0 x0 + q1 x1 + q2 x2 + q3 x3 is qholomorphic if and only if q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0. Joyce uses the dimension formulae of Proposition 4.4). and let µM : PM ⊗H PM → PM be the AHmorphism µM = ρ ◦ φ of Equation (6. The second (and easier) step is to consider the case M = N .1.2. i.4) Consider the linear Hvalued functions on H. The full Halgebra PH is constructed by adding in convergent power series.1] calls this F . Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. and this submodule is isomorphic to the AHmodule Z ∼ U1 of Example = 5. The diagonal submanifold Mdiag = {(m. we can evaluate the derivatives in the M and N directions separately. which is crucial to Sudbery’s approach. and ρ is still the obvious restriction. H)⊗H C ∞ (N. but also their structure as Sp(1)representations.
The ease with which quaternionic algebra presents such close parallels with complex geometry could scarcely be more rewarding. • The mapping A ⊕ B → H ⊗ T ∗ M is an injective AHmorphism which is an isomorphism of the total spaces. We show that there is a natural splitting of the quaternionic cotangent space H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. • Dim B = 4n and dim B = 0. B= −1 • Dim A = 12n and dim A = 8n. A function f ∈ C ∞ (M. 86 .0 M .1). where B = B ∩ I ⊗ T ∗ M . C) is holomorphic if df ∈ Λ1. and f is holomorphic if and only if ∂f = 0. Theorem 6. Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. The hypercomplex structure determines a natural splitting H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B.6. A function f ∈ C ∞ (M. Recall from Section 3. This is a situation with which we are by now very familiar. we have a splitting H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ 2nV1G = ∼ 2nV L ⊗ (V RG ⊕ V RG ) = 1 2 0 ∼ A ⊕ B. B is an antistable AHmodule. Using the theory of Chapter 5. It is not an AHisomorphism because dim(A ⊕B ) is smaller than dim(I ⊗ T ∗ M ). where π B is the natural projection to the subspace B ⊂ H ⊗ T ∗ M .1 ◦ d. The bundle A is then the qholomorphic cotangent = space of M . where A = A ∩ I ⊗ T ∗ M . H) is qholomorphic if and only if df ∈ A.2 that T ∗ M ∼ 2nV1 as an Sp(1)representation.1 M of Equation (2. we immediately deduce that • The (ﬁbres of the) subspaces A and B are AHmodules with A ∼ nU1 and = ∼ nU × . This section presents the quaternionic analogue of this description. = where A = 2nV1L ⊗ V2RG and B = 2nV1L ⊗ V0RG . Call this = representation 2nV1G (since it is the action deﬁned by the geometric structure of M ).2. Proof. = where dim A = 12n and dim B = 4n. Following the standard arguments of Chapter 5. The CauchyRiemann operator is deﬁned by ∂ = π 0.1 Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold and let H ⊗ T ∗ M be the quaternionic cotangent bundle of M . and the ¯ CauchyRiemannFueter operator can be written δ = π B ◦ d. A is a stable AHmodule.0 M ⊕ Λ0.2 The Quaternionic Cotangent Space Let M be a complex manifold and recall the splitting C ⊗R T ∗ M = Λ1.
H) is qholomorphic if and only if df ∈ C ∞ (A). We then show that the CauchyRiemannFueter operator can be written as π B ◦ d.2. obtained by coupling rightmultiplication on H with the action of the hypercomplex structure. H). Firstly.6) ¯ Then for a function f ∈ C ∞ (M. 87 . A) δ = πA ◦ d and ¯ δ : C∞ (M. H) → C ∞ (M. (6.2 A function f ∈ C ∞ (M. If ω is in the −3 eigenspace then we have C(ω) = 0. where χ(ω) = I1 (ω)i1 +I2 (ω)i2 +I3 (ω)i3 .7) Moreover. The operator χ satisﬁes the equation χ2 = 3 − 2χ. (6.5) Then C(ω) = (I 2 +J 2 +K2 )(ω) = −6ω−2χ(ω). This is exactly the real part of the equation ¯ 4δf ≡ df − I1 df i1 − I2 df i2 − I3 df i3 = 0. Thus the subspaces A and B are the eigenspaces of the operator χ. H) → C ∞ (M. ¯ Proposition 6. df = δf + δf . Let f = f0 + f1 i1 + f2 i2 + f3 i3 be a qholomorphic function on M . H) is qholomorphic if and only if δf = 0. the three imaginary parts are the equations Ij (Df ) = 0. so ω ∈ V2RG . so has eigenvalues +1 and −3. 4 These maps depend only on the structure of M as a hypercomplex manifold. which are satisﬁed if and only if Df = 0. Thus the real equation Df = 0 is exactly the same as the ¯ quaternionic equation δf = 0. The diagonal Lie algebra action is given by I(ω) = I1 (ω) − ωi1 J (ω) = I2 (ω) − ωi2 K(ω) = I3 (ω) − ωi3 .4). B) ¯ δ = π B ◦ d. we deﬁne new diﬀer¯ ential operators δ and δ: δ : C∞ (M.The importance of this splitting lies partly in the following result: Theorem 6. Just as we deﬁned the Dolbeault operators in Equation (2.2. we investigate the projection operators π A and π B from H ⊗ T ∗ M onto A and B. so ω ∈ V0RG .2. (6. If ω is in the +1 eigenspace then we have C(ω) = −8.4 A function f ∈ C ∞ (M. Lemma 6. Proof. so Df = df0 + I1 df1 + I2 df2 + I3 df3 = 0.3 Projection maps π A : H ⊗ T ∗ M → A and π B : H ⊗ T ∗ M → B are given by 1 π A (ω) = (3ω+I1 (ω)i1 +I2 (ω)i2 +I3 (ω)i3 ) 4 1 π B (ω) = (ω−I1 (ω)i1 −I2 (ω)i2 −I3 (ω)i3 ). To work out projection maps to A and B we use the Casimir operator for the diagonal Sp(1)RG action. The proof of this theorem will be in two parts. This enables us to write down expressions for π A and π B such that π A + π B = 1.
then ιq (f ) is a qholomorphic function. 4n − 1} be a basis ∗ for Tx M such that Ib (e4a ) = e4a+b . On a hypercomplex manifold. Instead. .1. e4a+2 . but also of the holomorphic and qholomorphic cotangent spaces. . as = in Theorem 6. Let q = a1 i1 + a2 i2 + a3 i3 ∈ S 2 and let Q = a1 I1 + a2 I2 + a3 I3 be the corresponding complex structure on M . . (6.2. . In other words. one of them has three times the dimension of the other. but they are not equal in size. we have a splitting into two subspaces. . echoing the fundamental isomorphism H ∼ I ⊕ R. This type = of splitting into spaces of dimension 3n and n is typical of the quaternions.8). On a complex manifold. . .2 and motivates the following deﬁnition: Deﬁnition 6. We have already seen (Lemma 6. With respect to this basis the ﬁbres of A and B at the point x are given by qa ea : q4b + q4b+1 i1 + q4b+2 i2 + q4b+3 i3 = 0 for all b = 0. . This proves Theorem 6.8) is a higher dimensional version of the equation q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0 which gives the qholomorphic cotangent space on H (Example 6. .8) for all b = 0. = Let us pause for a moment to reﬂect on what has happened. which are conjugate to one another. A).2.1.2. Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold and let {ea : a = 0. . . and ω ∈ B ⇐⇒ ω0 = I1 (ω1 ) = I2 (ω2 ) = I3 (ω3 ). = Bx = qa ea : q4b = −q4b+1 i1 = −q4b+2 i2 = −q4b+3 i3 6. It is straightforward to verify that ω ∈ A ⇐⇒ ω0 + I1 (ω1 ) + I2 (ω2 ) + I3 (ω3 ) = 0. e4a+1 . because the subspaces are deﬁned by the equation V1 ⊗ V1 ∼ V2 ⊕ V0 . This is a correspondence not only of holomorphic and qholomorphic functions.1. we have a splitting of C ⊗ T ∗ M into two spaces of equal dimension. .9) Equation (6. e4a+3 is a copy of H with its = standard hypercomplex structure. n − 1 Ax = and (6. we choose a particular isomorphism ∗ Tx M ∼ Hn such that the subspace e4a . This gives an AHisomorphism between Ax and the AHmodule nZ ∼ nU1 . Here are some practical methods for writing the spaces A and B. I2 . 88 . Then A is the qholomorphic cotangent space of M and B is the qantiholomorphic cotangent space of M . I3 ).5 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold and let H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. Let ω = 1 ⊗ ω0 + i1 ⊗ ω1 + i2 ⊗ ω2 + i3 ⊗ ω3 .1 The Holomorphic and Qholomorphic cotangent spaces Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold with hypercomplex structure (I1 .2.3) that if f is a complexvalued function on M which is holomorphic with respect to the complex structure Q. n − 1 .It now follows that a function f is qholomorphic if and only if df = δf ∈ C ∞ (M.
i3 e2 + i2 e3 . Then A= Q∈S 2 H · ιq (Λ1.1 ).0 . . we have A = {(q0 e0 + . (6. we see that H · ιq (Λ1. . the general result holding in exactly the same way but involving more coordinates. Q Thus the qholomorphic cotangent space is generated over H by the diﬀerent holomorphic cotangent spaces. = Observe that −i2 · (i2 e0 − i3 e1 ) = e0 + i1 e1 and that −i2 · (i2 e2 − i3 e3 ) = e2 + i1 e3 .11) and the image (idA ⊗H χi1 )(A⊗H Xi1 ) ∼ 2Xi1 is generated over H by this subspace. This gives us a description of the qholomorphic and qantiholomorphic cotangent spaces of M in terms of complex geometry: Corollary 6. i2 e2 − i3 e3 . Using Q the embedding ιq we can consider C⊗T ∗ M ∼ Cq ⊗T ∗ M as a subspace of H⊗T ∗ M . + q3 e3 ) : q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0} and A = I ⊗ T ∗ M . with qholomorphic cotangent space A and qantiholomorphic cotangent space B.4). I1 Since ιi1 (a + ib) = a + i1 b.0 = e0 + ie1 . i3 e0 + i2 e1 . .7 Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold. e2 + i1 e3 .0 ) = H · e0 + i1 e1 . .0 Therefore H · (A ∩ i1 A ) is exactly the same as the subspace H · ιq (ΛI1 ) of Equation (6.6 Let A ⊂ H ⊗ T ∗ M be the qholomorphic cotangent space of a hypercomplex manifold M and let Λ1.0 H · ιq (ΛQ ) = (idA ⊗H χq )(A⊗H Xq ). 1. For any point x ∈ M we choose a basis ∗ {e0 . + q3 e3 ∈ A : qj ∈ i2 .6.Each complex structure Q on M deﬁnes a holomorphic cotangent space Λ1.2. The = relationship between these subspaces of H ⊗ T ∗ M is clariﬁed in the following Lemma: Lemma 6.2. It follows that A ∩ i1 A = {q0 e0 + . Use the fact that A is a stable AHmodule. 89 . thus A is generated over H by the subspaces A ∩ qA for q ∈ I.0 ) Q and B= Q∈S 2 H · ιq (Λ0. We illustrate the case dim M = 4. Using Equation (6.8). i3 } = i2 e0 − i3 e1 .10) Recall from Section 5. e2 . e2 + ie3 C . Then Λ1. Then 1. Without loss of generality take q = i1 and consider the complex manifold (M. e3 } for Tx M such that the hypercomplex structure at x is given by the standard relations (6. Proof.0 ⊂ C ⊗ T ∗ M be the holomorphic cotangent space with Q respect to the complex structure Q. e1 . I1 ). Proof.2. I1 (6. The proof now follows immediately from Lemma 6.10).3 that (idU ⊗H χq )(U ⊗H Xq ) = U ∩ qU for any AHmodule U .
Then V = x∈M Vx is a real vector bundle. π2 . M ) by setting (E⊗H F )m = k Em ⊗H Fm . H). The standard real or complex algebraic operations which give new bundles from old can be transfered en masse to quaternionic algebra and AHbundles. M ) be an AHbundle. Proof. and C ∞ (M. N ) be AHbundles. A smooth AHmodule bundle with ﬁbre W or simply AHbundle is a family {(Ex . M ). W ) a ﬁxed AHmodule.1 Let M be a diﬀerentiable manifold and (W. In fact. as is E × H if the ﬁbres of E are SAHmodules. The qholomorphic and qantiholomorphic cotangent bundles A and B are both AHbundles. let E and F be AHbundles over M .1. Ex )}x∈M of AHmodules parametrised by M . We can deﬁne a bundle E ⊕ F in the same way. By restricting to the diagonal submanifold of M × M we deﬁne a bundle (E⊗H F. and the left Hmodule of smooth sections of E is denoted by C ∞ (M. x∈M and the lemma is proved. E) is a left module over the ring C ∞ (M. Thus E is isomorphic to the AHsubbundle ιEx (Ex ) ⊆ H ⊗ V.2 Let E = (E. E) = C ∞ (M. π : Ex → x is C ∞ . Λk E and SH (E) are AHbundles. Then E is isomorphic to an AHsubbundle of H ⊗ V . as is easy to demonstrate: Lemma 6. M × M ) or the diagonal restriction (E⊗H F.6. Deﬁne C ∞ (M.3 AHbundles An AHbundle is the natural quaternionic analogue of a real or complex vector bundle: a set of AHmodules E parametrised smoothly by a base manifold M . every AHbundle can be regarded as an AHsubbundle of some bundle H ⊗ V . and H ⊗ V is an AHbundle. 90 . With this deﬁnition. π1 . M ) and (F. Deﬁnition 6. M ×N ) by setting (E⊗H F )(m. π1 . • For every x0 ∈ M . We deﬁne a bundle (E⊗H F. Consider the map ιEx (Ex ) : Ex → H ⊗ (Ex )∗ for x ∈ M . there exists an open set U ⊆ M containing x0 and a diﬀeomorphism φU : π −1 (U ) → U × W such that φ(Ex ) → {x} × W is an AHisomorphism for each x ∈ U . π. Let (E. it is easy to adapt Lemma 6. E ). In particular. We can multiply sections on the left by quaternionvalued functions. Let Vx = (Ex )∗ .n) = Em ⊗H Fn .1 to show that if E is an AHbundle then C ∞ (M. for some real vector bundle (V. M ). We will always make clear whether an AHbundle ‘ E⊗H F ’ refers to (E⊗H F. In the same way (E ⊕ F. This is an extension of the fact that any AHmodule W is isomorphic to ιW (W ) ⊆ † † H ⊗ (W † )∗ . and are AHsubbundles of H ⊗ T ∗ M . M ).3. E).3. A section of an AHbundle is a smooth map α : M → E such that α(x) ∈ Ex for all x ∈ M . together with a diﬀerentiable manifold structure on E = x∈M Ex such that • The projection map π : E → M . E) is an AHmodule.
Ex ) is an AHmodule for all x ∈ M . i2 + xi3 . For example. In the same way. H).3.1 Connections on AHbundles Deﬁnition 6. Then P V is a principal bundle with ﬁbre GL (k. R). H). Thus E is not an AHbundle. As we know. The following example shows why this deﬁnition would be unwieldy: Example 6.3. It is easy to check that (Ex . For example. G will be signiﬁcantly smaller than GL (k. and V = P V ×GL(k. Deﬁnition 4. Principal bundles associated with AHbundles tend to be much smaller than those associated with real or complex vector bundles. We will not distinguish between and ( † )∗ . 6.4]. if W = U2j for some j then by Theorem 4. So despite the fact that E is a smooth vector bundle. We will sometimes omit the subscript and just write ‘ ’ when the AHbundle E is clearly implied. so AutAH (U2j ) = R∗ = R \ {0} = ∗ E and P is just a principal R bundle.R) Rk . Deﬁne a real subspace E ⊂ E by Ex = i1 . if we considered this broader class of objects to be ‘AHbundles’ then they would not be closed under the tensor product.3. E) −→ C ∞ (M. E). demanding only that E should be a real vector bundle possessing a left Haction and a real subbundle E such that (Ex . (E⊗H Xi3 )x = Xi3 if x = 0 0 otherwise. H). since the ﬁbres Ex and Ey are not AHisomorphic for x = y. E ⊗ T ∗ M ) = Ω1 (M. In most cases.9 we have HomAH (U2j . We could broaden our deﬁnition of an AHbundle.4 Let E be an AHbundle over M . let E be an AHbundle with ﬁbre W and let G = AutAH (W ). Let V be a real vector bundle over the manifold M with ﬁbre Rk . E) E (f which satisﬁes the rule · α) = df ⊗ α + f · Eα for all α ∈ C ∞ (M. Ex ) = Xi3 −xi2 as an AHmodule. Then the map id ⊗( † )∗ is E an AHconnection on H ⊗ (E † )∗ which preserves ιE (E). Let be an AHconnection on E. An AHconnection on E is an AHmorphism E : C ∞ (M. and let P V be the bundle of frames associated with V . There is good reason for excluding E from being an AHbundle. E⊗H Xq is not. 91 . in very much the same way that Joyce constructs the AHmorphism φ⊗H ψ from AHmorphisms φ and ψ [J1. Thus every AHconnection on E is equivalent to a connection ( † )∗ on the real vector bundle (E † )∗ .2. if E is an AHbundle we will often write ιE : E → † H ⊗ (E † )∗ for the set of inclusion maps x∈M (ιEx : Ex → H ⊗ (Ex )∗ ). This equivalence allows us to construct AHconnections on tensor products. U2j ) ∼ R. G will be a subgroup of GL (k.3 Let M = R.Abusing notation slightly. and deﬁne a real vector bundle E = R × H. We can deﬁne a principal Gbundle P E associated with E so that E = P E ×G W . but will write for both. f ∈ C ∞ (M.
deﬁne a diﬀerential operator E.5 Let (E. This process can be described in terms of principal bundles. be AHE⊗H F on the F Proof.N on ((F † )∗ . thus id ⊗ E.5. so that F = Q ×H V . §1. Adding these gives a diﬀerential operator E. there is an induced action of G × H on W ⊗H V .M ⊗id maps sections of ιE (E)⊗ † ∗ (F ) to sections of ιE (E) ⊗ (F † )∗ ⊗ T ∗ (M × N ). and so the AHconnection id ⊗( E. The same is true for id ⊗ id ⊗ F. In this way the action of G = AutAH (W ) on W gives rise to an action on (W † )∗ . M ) and (F. We call this connection E⊗H F . which we can identify with the AHconnection E⊗H F of Lemma 6. we can use this to guarantee that every AHbundle has an AHconnection. M ) extends trivially to a bundle ((E † )∗ . M × N ) is the associated bundle (P × Q) ×G×H W ⊗H V . M × N ).5 to deﬁne an AHconnection on the diagonal bundle (M. the operator id ⊗ E. 3 A similar discussion for connections in complex vector bundles can be found in [K. = ∗ where E. on which it is therefore an AHconnection. M × N ) is an AHconnection. M × N ). Then E and F induce an AHconnection AHbundle (E⊗H F.M ⊗ id + id ⊗ F. If E and F are AHbundles over the same manifold M we can use Lemma 6.Lemma 6.M ⊗ id maps sections of E⊗H F to sections of E⊗H F ⊗ T ∗ (M × N ). Let E be an AHbundle with ﬁbre W .3.M ⊗ id + id ⊗ F. N ) be AHbundles and let E and connections on E and F .N : C ∞ ((E † )∗ ⊗ (F † )∗ ) −→ C ∞ ((E † )∗ ⊗ (F † )∗ ⊗ T ∗ (M × N )). Let F be another AHbundle with ﬁbre V . so the operator id ⊗( E. E⊗H F ). This operator is a connection on the real vector bundle (E † )∗ ⊗ (F † )∗ . Since G × H acts as AHautomorphisms on W ⊗H V .3. and let P be the associated principal bundle with ﬁbre G.N . Since the connections DP and DQ deﬁne a unique connection DP ⊕ DQ on the product bundle P × Q. In the same way deﬁne a connection F. An AHconnection E on E gives rise to a connection DP on the principal bundle P . 92 . An AHconnection F on F gives rise to a connection DQ on the principal bundle Q. and vice versa. Consider the principal bundle P × Q.N ) on the bundle (H ⊗ (E † )∗ ⊗ (F † )∗ . this gives rise to a connection on the associated bundle E⊗H F . Then φ induces a real linear isomorphism (φ× )∗ : (W † )∗ → (W † )∗ . Using the natural identiﬁcation ∗ ∗ T(m.3. 3 Suppose that φ ∈ AutAH (W ) for some AHmodule W .N ) preserves the AHsubbundle (E⊗H F. let H = AutAH (V ) and let Q be the associated principal bundle with ﬁbre H.M diﬀerentiates only in the M directions of M × N .5].M ⊗ id + id ⊗ F. a bundle over M × N with ﬁbre G × H. M ×N ). The AHbundle (E⊗H F. Since E is an AHconnection. M × N ) which diﬀerentiates only in the N directions. Since G acts on (W † )∗ and H acts on (V † )∗ . We regard E as a connection on (E † )∗ . The bundle ((E † )∗ . this induced connection is an AHconnection. Since connections on principal bundles always exist. and acts trivially on the (F † )∗ factor. so that E = P ×G W . M × N ) over M × N .M on ((E † )∗ .n) (M × N ) ∼ Tm M ⊕ Tn N .
5 and 3. π. i. so E has the structure of a holomorphic vector bundle over (M. Each E 2 E Q ∈ S deﬁnes a splitting = ∂Q + ∂ Q . The existence of such a connection ensures that the diﬀerent holomorphic structures are compatible. we can simply refer to the total space E as a qholomorphic AHbundle.1 deﬁnes a holomorphic structure on R = RQ + RQ + RQ . on the other hand.2 The connection gives E the structure of a holomorphic vector E E bundle if and only if ∂ ◦ ∂ = 0.e. Thus 2.1 ◦ : C ∞ (E) → C ∞ (E⊗Λ0. if a connection is already speciﬁed. 6. which makes the stepbystep correspondence with complex geometry extremely clear. This is Propositions 3. so R−Q = RQ . and so a decomposition of the curvature tensor 0.1 Let E be an AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M .0 0.2 2 holomorphic vector bundle with respect to every Q ∈ S if and only if RQ = RQ = 0 for all Q ∈ S 2 .1 Antiselfdual connections and qholomorphic AHbundles Let E be a complex vector bundle over the complex manifold (M.0 ◦ : C ∞ (E) → C ∞ (E⊗Λ1. Q) for all Q ∈ S 2 . 1) with respect to all Q ∈ S 2 .0 M ) and ∂ = π 0. we can deﬁne E ∂ E = π 1. Let E be a qholomorphic AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M . the (0.2 2. 9].4 Qholomorphic AHbundles Using complex geometry as a model.0 = Λ2 . 0. Conversely.4. If we reverse the sense of Q then we 2. We give an interpretation of qholomorphic sections in terms of quaternionic algebra and the qholomorphic cotangent space. Here is the main deﬁnition of this section: Deﬁnition 6. we deﬁne a qholomorphic AHbundle over a hypercomplex manifold M to be one which is holomorphic with respect to each complex structure Q ∈ S 2 . Then (E.2 gives E the structure of a reverse the decomposition of R. We deﬁne the qholomorphic sections of − a qholomorphic vector bundle using a version of the CauchyRiemannFueter equations. p. i. I) and let be a connection on E. which generalise those of Joyce’s qholomorphic functions. Q) for every complex structure Q ∈ S 2 . By Proposition 6. An AHbundle is qholomorphic if and only if it admits a connection whose curvature takes values only in E2.2 E with respect to Q if and only if RQ ≡ 0. 2)component of the curvature R of vanishes. If we want to be really speciﬁc we can write (E. A lot can be learned about qholomorphic AHbundles by studying the connection .0 0.4. Let be a connection on E and let R be the curvature of .0 1. ) for our qholomorphic bundle.7 of [K. Proof. Suppose that gives E the structure of a holomorphic vector bundle over the complex manifold (M.2. M. if E is a holomorphic vector bundle then E admits such a connection. 93 .e. Qholomorphic sections have interesting algebraic properties.4.6. Proposition 6. equipped with an AHconnection .1 M ). Just as we split the exterior diﬀerential d = ∂ + ∂. ) is a qholomorphic AHbundle. the curvature of is of type (1.4.
where the vertical subbundle E is naturally deﬁned by the structure of E as an AHbundle and the horizontal subbundle T M is deﬁned by the connection.0 as selfdual rather than antiselfdual.6). §2]. and that the volume form e0123 gives a positive orientation of H. On the horizontal subbundle isomorphic to T M . There is no reason why his deﬁnition cannot be extended to hypercomplex manifolds. I2 .0 ⊂ Λ2 T ∗ M . I3 ) on T E as follows. Verbitsky considers the case where B is a Hermitian vector bundle over a hyperk¨hler a manifold. deﬁne 94 . M. This is similar to the idea of hyperholomorphic bundles described by Verbitsky [V. if B is a hyperholomorphic bundle with a real structure σ such that B = B σ ⊗ C.4 Let (E. we call E2. particulary on quaternionic K¨hler manifolds: for example Galicki and Poon [GP].0 the space of antiselfdual 2forms Λ2 . the action of I1 . I2 and I3 is given by the ﬁxed left Haction of i1 .4. Conversely. the Hermitian inner product is not necessary to force the connection to be antiselfdual if it is to be compatible with the 2sphere of holomorphic structures. Then E is itself a hypercomplex manifold.2 the space of selfdual 2forms Λ2 and E2. Proof. Conversely. Any AHsubbundle E of H ⊗ B σ which is preserved by the antiselfdual connection will also be qholomorphic. This is partly because such connections give minima of a YangMills funtional on M . π. It is important to note that Mamone Capria and Salamon refer to the bundle E2. and so refer to connections taking values in E2. Then (E.2. A connection whose + − curvature R takes values only in C ∞ (End(E)⊗E2. The following Proposition gives further insight into the analogy between holomorphic and qholomorphic bundles: Proposition 6. 1) with respect to every Q ∈ S 2 if and only if it is annihilated by the action of sp(1) on Λ2 T ∗ M . We have established the following result: Theorem 6. Nitta [N] and a Mamone Capria and Salamon [MS].0 ) is therefore called an antiselfdual connection. There is no unanimous convention in the literature: our choice is made because we are using the conventions that Ij (e0 ) = ej not −ej . since as we have seen. If E is a qholomorphic AHbundle then it is easy to see that H ⊗ (E † )∗ is also qholomorphic. On the vertical subbundle isomorphic to E. Consider the splitting of T E into horizontal and vertical subbundles T E ∼ = E ⊕ T M . Deﬁne a hypercomplex structure (I1 . so the ﬁbres of such a bundle are not normally Hmodules.A 2form ω is of type (1.3 Let E be an AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M equipped with an antiselfdual AHconnection nabla. an AHbundle E equipped with an AHconnection is qholomorphic if and only if is antiselfdual. Several authors have considered selfdual and antiselfdual connections. i2 and i3 on the ﬁbres. then H ⊗ B σ is a qholomorphic AHbundle. so ω ∈ E2. By analogy with the 4dimensional theory (see Example 3.0 as selfdual connections. and (E † )∗ ⊗ C is a hyperholomorphic bundle.4. ) is a qholomorphic AHbundle. ) be a qholomorphic AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M .
since Ij = 0 for j = 1. Let A ⊂ H ⊗ T ∗ M be the qholomorphic cotangent space of M.12) where I1 .4. E) = P(E) be the space of qholomorphic sections of E. which are precisely the qholomorphic sections of the trivial bundle M × H equipped with the ﬂat connection. Ij ) is a holomorphic vector bundle for j = 1. all with their induced AHH connections.4. 3. 2. The integrability of this structure is guaranteed by the fact that (E.4. 2. (6. A is a qholomorphic AHbundle. E). Example 6. It follows that a ∈ C ∞ (A⊗T ∗ M ).3 to show that the holomorphic sections of this holomorphic vector bundle give rise to qholomorphic sections of E. Then so are the various associated bundles E⊗H F . Let P(M. Instead.the hypercomplex structure (I1 . and admits holomorphic sections. I2 . ) is qholomorphic then E is holomorphic with respect to the complex structure Q. Λk E and so on. 95 . Deﬁnition 6. Then a0 +I1 ( a1 )+I2 ( a2 )+I3 ( a3 ) = 0 (where I1 . This deﬁnes an almosthypercomplex structure on E. Since the Obata connection is antiselfdual. Then e is a qholomorphic section of E if and only if e0 + I1 ( e1 ) + I2 ( e2 ) + I3 ( e3 ) = 0. I2 and I3 act on the A factor of A⊗T ∗ M ). So PM = P(M × H). We cannot automatically rewrite Equation (6. we use the inclusion map ιE to manipulate sections of e in a more manageable form. ej ∈ C ∞ (M.4. However. because the ﬁbres of E will not in general have a welldeﬁned right Haction. It is easy to adapt Lemma 6. Qholomorphic sections are the natural generalisation of qholomorphic functions. Let e ∈ C ∞ (M.7 Let E be an AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M equipped with an AHconnection . (E † ))∗ . Hence the Obata connection deﬁnes an AHconnection on A. I2 and I3 act on the T ∗ M factor of E ⊗ T ∗ M .1. which is thus a qholomorphic AHbundle.5 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. A).6 Let E and F be qholomorphic AHbundles. Then the Obata connection on T ∗ M is antiselfdual and deﬁnes an antiselfdual AHconnection on H ⊗ T ∗ M . ωj ∈ T ∗ M }. E ⊕ F . I3 ) to be the horizontal lift of the hypercomplex structure on M . 6. 3.7) to deﬁne a CauchyRiemannFueter operator on a general AHbundle E. A general AHbundle might have no qholomorphic sections.2 Qholomorphic sections Qholomorphic sections of AHbundles are deﬁned using a version of the CauchyRiemannFueter equations. Let P(E) = P(E) ∩ C ∞ (M. Example 6. if the AHbundle (E. A = {ω0 + i1 ⊗ ω1 + i2 ⊗ ω2 + i3 ⊗ ω3 : ω0 + I1 ω1 + I2 ω2 + I3 ω3 = 0. E) so that ιE (e) = e0 + i1 e1 + i2 e2 + i3 e3 . E ) so that P(E) is an AHsubmodule of C ∞ (M. Let a = a0 +i1 a1 +i2 a2 +i3 a3 ∈ C ∞ (M.
Here is the quaternionic analogue of this statement: 96 . In just the same way. Let V be a holomorphic vector bundle with a E connection compatible with the holomorphic structure. Qholomorphic sections and the quaternionic cotangent space Let E be a qholomorphic AHbundle over the hypercomplex manifold M . ◦ ιE Hence we regard E as a subspace of H ⊗ (E † )∗ . For example. and so is technically a qholomorphic AHbundle. we have a copy of the quaternionic cotangent space H ⊗ T ∗ M .0 ◦ + π 0. just as we did for qholomorphic functions in the previous chapter. so b is qholomorphic if and only if b0 − I1 I1 b0 − I2 I2 b0 − I3 I3 b0 = 0. ∞ This analogy goes further.7 is precisely the real ¯ ¯ part of δ E . which means that v ∈ C ∞ (V ⊗C Λ1. and then the action of on E ¯ splits into a qholomorphic part δ E and a qantiholomorphic part δ E so that in eﬀect ¯ = δ E + δ E . so that ∂ = ∂. E) → C ∞ (M. and such behaviour is predicted and described by the algebra of the quaternionic cotangent space. The inclusion map ιE and the AHconnection (regarded as a connection on (E † )∗ ) deﬁne an AHmorphism ◦ ιE : C ∞ (M. In complex geometry. 2 Since Ij = 0 and Ij = −1.1 ◦ (s) = 0. (E † )∗ ⊗ (A ⊕ B)).1 ◦ . and the AHbundle B admits no nontrivial qholomorphic sections. Let b = b0 − i1 I1 b0 − i2 I2 b0 − i3 I3 b0 ∈ C ∞ (M. Thus we have a map ◦ ιE : C ∞ (M.0 M ).Not all qholomorphic AHbundles have interesting qholomorphic sections. the operator e → e0 + I1 ( e1 ) + I2 ( e2 ) + I3 ( e3 ) of Deﬁnition 6. the qantiholomorphic cotangent space B ⊂ H ⊗ T ∗ M is closed under the action of the Obata connection. this follows from the fact that B = 0. A section v ∈ C ∞ (V ) is holomorphic if and only if π 0. Recall that B = {ω − i1 ⊗ I1 (ω) − i2 ⊗ I2 (ω) − i3 ⊗ I3 (ω) : ω ∈ T ∗ M }. This is an exact analogue of the complex case where a connection splits as = π 1. and a section e ∈ C ∞ (E) is qholomorphic if and only if δ E (e) = 0. which we can split into the qholomorphic and qantiholomorphic spaces A and B. E) → C ∞ (M. Deﬁnition 6. a section v ∈ C (V ) is holomorphic if and only if ∂v = 0. After swapping the H and (E † )∗ factors. B). We can describe the qholomorphic sections of E using the qholomorphic cotangent space. In fact. We can now use the projections A π and π B of the previous chapter to split the action of ◦ ιE into two operators.4. ) be a qholomorphic AHbundle.4.8 Let (E. H ⊗ (E † )∗ ⊗ T ∗ M ). We deﬁne the pair of ¯ operators δ E : C ∞ (E) → C ∞ ((E † )∗ ⊗ A) and δ E : C ∞ (E) → C ∞ ((E † )∗ ⊗ B) by δ E = (id(E † )∗ ⊗π A ) ◦ and ¯ δ E = (id(E † )∗ ⊗π B ) ◦ ◦ ιE . this equation is satisﬁed if and only if b = 0.
Deﬁne φE. We want to deﬁne an AHmorphism φ : C ∞ (M. F ) → C ∞ (M × N. Using the identiﬁcation (A† )∗ ∼ T ∗ M we can regard δ E (e) as a section of = H ⊗ (E † )∗ ⊗ (A† )∗ .E). a qholomorphic section e of a qholomorphic vector bundle E is one whose covariant derivative e takes values in the quaternionic tensor product of E with the qholomorphic cotangent space. F ). we need to consider the combination of a point m at which † to evaluate sections. the evaluation map θm generates the whole of H† ∼ R. by Deﬁnition 4. M. deﬁne the ‘evaluation at n ∈ N ’.Proposition 6. E)† ⊗ C ∞ (N. Then αm ∈ C ∞ (M. In hypercomplex geometry.1. E⊗H F ). and let e ∈ C ∞ (E) ◦ ιE (e) ∈ C ∞ (E⊗H A). so δ E (e) = 0 and ◦ ιE (e) = δ E (e) ∈ C ∞ (H ⊗ (E † )∗ ⊗ ∗ T M ). In complex geometry. since δ E is deﬁned by projection to this subspace. E)⊗H C ∞ (N. β ∈ Fn . Let E and F be AHbundles.4.6). † Consider ﬁrst the ﬁbres Em and Fn for m ∈ M and n ∈ N . E)† . there is a natural inclusion C ∞ (M. F ))† . E ∞ † ∗ Clearly δ (e) ∈ C ((E ) ⊗ ιA (A)). so δ E (e) ∈ C ∞ (ιE (E)⊗(A† )∗ ). With Hvalued functions (sections of M × H ). Similarly. The operators αm and βm are generalisations of Joyce’s θm ∈ C ∞ (M. n) ∈ Em ⊗H Fn λEm . F )† .9 Let (E.F ( )(m.3 Sections of Tensor Products For real and complex vector bundles. recall the linear map λU V : U † ⊗ V † → (U ⊗H V )† of † † Equation (6. Deﬁnition 6.Fn : Em ⊗ Fn → (Em ⊗H Fn )† and λC ∞ (M. M × N ). E) ⊗ C ∞ (N. Thus ◦ ιE (e) ∈ C ∞ (E⊗H A). The obvious diﬃculty is that for sections e and f of E and F respectively. E). 97 .Fn (α ⊗ β) · φE. n) = λC ∞ (M. The quaternionic analogue of this map is more delicate. E) → H by αm (e) = α(e(m)) for all ∞ e ∈ C (M. E)⊗H C ∞ (N.E). 6.2). Instead we use a generalisation of Joyce’s map φ : PM ⊗H PN → PM ×N (Deﬁnition 6. π.1. βn (f ) = β(f (n)). For m = more general AHbundles.10 Let by the equation ∈ C ∞ (M. E ⊗F ) given by (e⊗f )(m. Then βn ∈ C ∞ (N. The induced connection on (E † )∗ preserves ιE (E).4.1. Deﬁne an AHmorphism αm : C ∞ (M. For AHmodules U and V . Let e be qholomorphic. there will not in general be a section e⊗H f of the AHbundle (E⊗H F. introduced in Lemma 6. ¯ Proof. a holomorphic section v of a holomorphic vector bundle V is one whose covariant derivative v takes values in the complex tensor product of V with the holomorphic cotangent space. Let α ∈ Em and † β ∈ Fn .4. H)† . F )† → (C ∞ (M.4.F ) (αm ⊗ βn ) · † † for all m ∈ M . since we can no longer assume that † the map α = id generates the whole of Em . F ) → C ∞ (M ×N.F ( )(m.1.C ∞ (N. α ∈ Em and for all n ∈ N . n) = e(m)⊗f (n). E)⊗H C ∞ (N. and an AHmorphism α ∈ Em . be a qholomorphic section. where A is the qholomorphic cotangent space of M .C ∞ (N. Then ) be a qholomorphic AHbundle.F ) : C ∞ (M. Thus there are linear maps λEm .
F .M diﬀerentiates sections of ιE (E) in ¯ ¯ ¯ we see that δ the M directions and then projects to the qantiholomorphic cotangent space of M ×N .Thus φE. so the section product map takes qholomorphic sections to qholomorphic sections. Let ∈ P(E)⊗H P(F ).10.N .1.1.1. In particular. It is easy to see that φE. π2 .F the section product map for AHbundles. Proof. M × N ). F ) → P(M.6) that φ : PM ⊗H PN → PM ×N . E) and f ∈ C ∞ (N.F ( ) deﬁnes a section of the AHbundle (E⊗H F.F ( )) = 0. Similarly.F : C ∞ (M. using the section product map φE.F is the section product map of Deﬁnition 6.M ⊗ id + id ⊗ F. π1 . F ) be qholomorphic AHbundles. Using the natural splitting T ∗ (M × N ) ∼ T ∗ M ⊕ T ∗ N . Consider the antiselfdual connection E⊗H F = id ⊗( E. we have a natural AHmorphism ρ ◦ φH.4. = The section product map is the natural tool for relating tensor products of sections with sections of tensor products and allows us to treat sections of more complicated AHbundles using similar techniques to those used by Joyce for qholomorphic functions. E⊗H F ). (id ⊗δ F. M. F ) satisfy the conditions of Lemma 4. The same is true for sums of qholomorphic sections.11. let E be a qholomorphic AHbundle over M . N. and so we have a linear map φE.F ( ) is qholomorphic. M ). so φ(e⊗H f )(m. and there is an analogous description for qholomorphic sections of quaternionic tensor products. ¯ and similarly for δ F. F ) ⊂ C ∞ (N. It is well known that sums and tensor products of holomorphic sections are themselves holomorphic. E ) and (F. We shall call φE.E : PM ⊗H P(E) −→ P(H⊗H E) ∼ P(E).F (e⊗H f ) is the complex product of the sections.N )(φE. where φE. ¯ Then E⊗H F = δ E⊗H F + δ E⊗H F . This is a generalisation of the fact (Deﬁnition 6.F : P(M. If e ∈ C ∞ (M. let P(E) be the AHmodule of qholomorphic sections of E and let PM = P(H) be the Halgebra of qholomorphic functions on M .6. and we obtain a natural product ρ ◦ φE. E⊗H F ). Hence δ E⊗H F (φE. E)⊗H P(N. where E⊗H F is equipped with the connection E⊗H F . F ) be the AHmodules of their qholomorphic sections.M ⊗id)(φE. Theorem 6.M ⊗id + id ⊗δ F. and φE. E) and P(N. n) = e(m)⊗H f (n) ∼ e(m) ⊗Cq f (n).4.F ( )) = 0. Here is the deﬁnition of an Halgebra module: 98 . and let P(M.4. = (6. By the same arguments as in Deﬁnition 6.N ). E⊗H F ).11 Let (E. E)⊗H C ∞ (M. Just as for qholomorphic functions. when M = N we can restrict to the diagonal bundle (E⊗H F. F ) −→ P(M × N. F ) → C ∞ (M × N.F ( ) ∈ C ∞ (M ×N.13) We can descibe such an algebraic situation by saying that P(E) is an Halgebra module over PM .F : P(M.F ( ) is smooth because it is a ﬁnite sum of smooth sections. where δ E. Then φE. and let φE.F is an injective AHmorphism. it follows that ¯ ¯ ¯ (δ E. Since ∈ ιP(E) (P(E)) ⊗ (P(F )† )∗ .7 (so if ιE (e) and ιF (f ) both take values in Cq for some q ∈ S 2 ) then the section φE.F ( )) = 0. E) ⊂ C ∞ (M. The restriction map ρ clearly preserves qholomorphic sections.N . E⊗H F ). = ¯E⊗H F = δ E. φE. Then by Theorem 6. E)⊗H P(M.
(i) Q is an AHmodule and (P. µP ) is an Halgebra.4.4). (ii) There is an AHmorphism µQ : P⊗H Q → Q. (iii) The maps µP and µQ combine to give AHmorphisms µP ⊗H id and id ⊗H µQ : P⊗H P⊗H Q → P⊗H Q. Diﬀerent connections will give rise to diﬀerent Halgebra modules of qholomorphic sections. Then µQ (1⊗H u) = u for all u ∈ Q.7.1. This is associativity of module multiplication. (iv) For u ∈ Q. This suggests that the theory of Halgebra modules over PH might lead to an algebraic description of instantons on H. called the module multiplication map. The proof of this statement is obtained by adapting Joyce’s proof that the qholomorphic functions PM form an Halgebra [J1. 1⊗H u ∈ P⊗H Q by Lemma 4. the module multiplication map being the section product map φH.12 Q is an Halgebra module if Q satisﬁes Axiom M.5]. Deﬁnition 6. The idea of an Halgebra module was suggested by Joyce.13). Then µQ ◦(µP ⊗H id) = µQ ◦(id ⊗H µQ ). Composing with µQ gives AHmorphisms µQ ◦ (µP ⊗H id) and µQ ◦ (id ⊗H µQ ) : P⊗H P⊗H Q → Q.1. It is relatively easy to see that the qholomorphic sections P(E) of a qholomorphic AHbundle form an Halgebra module over the Halgebra PM . and the axioms follow a very similar pattern to those for an Halgebra (Deﬁnition 6.Axiom M. Theorem 5. One possible application of this idea is to study antiselfdual connections (instantons) on H.E of Equation (6. Thus 1 acts as an identity on Q. 99 .
The Lie bracket on hypercomplex manifolds deﬁnes a natural operation on vector ﬁelds which satisﬁes these axioms. These vector ﬁelds are closed under the Lie bracket (suitably adapted to the quaternionic situation). there is a splitting of the quaternionic tangent space H ⊗ T M using which we deﬁne a hypercomplex version of the ‘(1. In recent times. Not only the top row but the top two rows of the quaternionvalued double complex are elliptic. We use this idea to calculate the quaternionic cohomology groups of the group U(2). This decomposition gives rise to a double complex of quaternionvalued forms on hypercomplex manifolds. which allows us to adapt the realvalued double complex of Chapter 3 to decompose quaternionvalued forms. Spindel et al. This allows us to deﬁne qholomorphic kforms. The top row of the quaternionvalued double complex is particularly wellbehaved.r into two AHbundles. On a hypercomplex manifold we have global complex structures. This discovery presents us with lots of examples of ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras. A similar approach to quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds is also fruitful. and in four dimensions the whole complex is elliptic. [SSTP] and Joyce [J3] demonstrated the existence of invariant hypercomplex structures on certain compact Lie groups and their homogeneous spaces.Chapter 7 Quaternion Valued Forms and Vector Fields This ﬁnal chapter uses the algebra and geometry developed so far to describe quaternionvalued tensors on hypercomplex manifolds. which has some advantages over the realvalued double complex. The splitting H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B of the = previous chapter is the ﬁrst example of this type of decomposition. 0) vector ﬁelds’ on a complex manifold. More generally. and suggest how these methods may be extended to higherdimensional hypercomplex Lie groups. and to describe their algebraic structure using ideas from the previous chapter. in a similar way to that in which Joyce arrived at Halgebras. Just as with the quaternionic cotangent space. for all k and r we obtain a splitting of H ⊗ Ek. and can be constructed using quaternionic algebra. This encourages us to adapt the axioms for a Lie algebra to form a quaternionic version. 100 .
r k.r splits according to the ClebschGordon formula.r Suppose in addition that M is hypercomplex. Q is the trivial bundle M × Sp(1) ). The AHbundle H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M decomposes as k+1 H ⊗ Λ T M ∼ V1L ⊗ = k ∗ r=0 n RG (εn k. Recall that the subbundle of Λk T ∗ M consisting of Vr type representations is denoted Ek. By Proposition 3. k. Instead of just real or complex forms (which we can think of as taking values in the trivial representation V0 ).r )V1 ⊗ Vr+1 ⊆ H ⊗ Λ T M .r (7. this takes the form RG RG H ⊗ Ek. n k ∗ Deﬁnition 7.1. i. (This is a generalisation of the splitting H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. and so possesses global complex structures I1 .2 Deﬁne Fk.e. consider forms taking values in some Sp(1)representation W .1 is a decomposition of H ⊗ Ek. Since the Sp(1)action on Λk T ∗ M is now deﬁned by global complex structures.r ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ εn VrG ∼ εn V1L ⊗ (Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 ).r )∗ = H ⊗ 101 .7.r−1 )Vr . The situation in which we are particularly interested is that of forms taking values in the quaternions H = V1L ⊗ V1R .r is an AHsubbundle of H ⊗ (Fk.r where the ‘Sp (1)G action’ is the action of Sp(1) on Λk T ∗ M induced by the hypercomplex structure.r ∩ (I ⊗ Λk T ∗ M ). = = k. In symbols. the space Fk. k.10.r+1 + εk.r is obtained using the theory of Chapter 5.r to be the subspace (εn k.1.r (7. we can take the diagonal action under which the subspace W ⊗ Ek. Taking the diagonal Sp(1)RG action using the ClebschGordon formula.r = εn Vr .2.r+2 + εk. As in Equation 5.) Deﬁning = † Fk. I2 and I3 = I1 I2 (in other words. Proof. Equation 7.1 The Quaternionvalued Double Complex In Chapter 3. sections of the bundle W ⊗ Λk T ∗ M .1) Proposition 7.4.2) Collecting together the Vr representations yields the formula in the Proposition.r into stable and antistable AHmodules. this becomes k H ⊗ Λ T M ∼ V1L ⊗ = k ∗ r=0 RG RG εn (Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 ) .1. where r ≡ k + 1 mod 2.1 Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold. we obtain splittings by coupling the right Sp(1)action on H with the Sp(1)action on Λk T ∗ M . k. we saw how the realvalued exterior forms Λk T ∗ M on a quaternionic manifold M are acted upon by the principal Sp(1)bundle Q of local almost complex structures on M . As suggested in Section 3. we have k H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ = r=0 εn VrG .r = Fk. The primed part of the space Fk.
r+1 ◦ d and ¯ δ : C ∞ (Fk.r−2 → H ⊗ Ek.r r 2 k. A short calculation shows that ↑ dim Fk.r ⊕ Fk. However. ¯ The deﬁnition of the operators δ and δ of Section 6.r ∼ = 1 n × ε U ⊕ 1 εn Ur−2 2 k. Just as with the splitting H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. As with the decomposition H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B. The splitting RG RG H ⊗ Ek. ↑ The qholomorphic cotangent space A is F1.r+2 .r−2 )∗ = Ek.r+2 . ↑ ↓ Since we can consider the bundles Fk.r . these are not AHisomorphisms because = some of the primed part is lost in the splitting.r+2 ↓ n dim Fk. H) → Ωk+1 (M.r is the Ur type subspace of H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M . it may appear strange to mix up the stable and antistable ﬁbres in the single bundle Fk.r be the natural projection map πk.r to be the AHbundle a εn Ur ⊆ H ⊗ Ek.−1 = F1.r = 2(r + 2)εn k.1 and the qantiholomorphic cotan↓ gent space B is F1. there is an injective AHmorphism = ↑ ↓ Fk.r+2 ⊕ Ek.r and Fk.1.1 = F1.−1 .(Ek.r H ⊗ Ek.r .r+1 ) δ = πk+1. Thus Fk.r Ur ⊕ εn Ur−2 k.r ⊕ Fk. We give names to these spaces as follows (where as usual a = 1 if n is even and a = 2 if n is odd): ↓ ↑ 1 Deﬁnition 7. giving rise to a double complex of quaternionvalued forms.r is the direct sum of stable and antistable components.r gives an Hmodule isomorphism n × εk.1. so in order to obtain a double complex it is necessary to amalgamate the stable and antistable contributions.r k. ¯ Deﬁne the diﬀerential operators δ.4 Let πk.r ∼ εn V1L ⊗ (Vr+1 ⊕ Vr−1 ) = k.r . so that ↓ ↑ Fk.r )∗ = (Fk.2 can now be generalised to • ∗ cover the whole of H ⊗ Λ T M . Deﬁnition 7.r is the Ur type subspace of k.r : H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M → Fk.r ↑ n dim Fk.r ) → C ∞ (Fk+1.r = (r + 1)εk. and H ⊗ Ek. it soon becomes clear that exterior diﬀerentiation does not necessarily map stable ﬁbres to stable ﬁbres or antistable ﬁbres to antistable ﬁbres.r separately.r−2 .r which is an Hlinear isomorphism of the total spaces but is not injective on the primed parts. H) by δ : C ∞ (Fk. δ : Ωk (M.r ↑ 1 × to be the AHbundle a εn Ur ⊆ H ⊗ Ek. and each (ﬁbre of the) AHbundle Fk.r ).r .3) for r odd.r = (r + 3)εk. Deﬁne Fk. 102 .r = Fk.r−1 ) ¯ δ = πk+1.r ∼ Fk.r and ↓ dim Fk.r ⊕ = ↓ Fk.r .r+2 ↓ × H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M and Fk.3 Deﬁne Fk.r ) → C ∞ (Fk+1.r−1 ◦ d .r for r even (7.r = 2(r + 2)εn k. we have (Fk. † ↑ † ↓ ↑ With these deﬁnitions.
This can be observed in the simplest of cases — a quaternionvalued ↑ ¯ function f is a section of F0.r ⊗ T ∗ M = (εn k. δ ¨¨ B ¨ ¯ As already hinted. .−1 ) . and unless f is qholomorphic δf is a nonzero ↓ section of F1.1. It follows that ¯ ¯ ¯ δ 2 = δ δ + δδ = δ 2 = 0.r ) → C ∞ (M.2 ) ¨¨ δ ¨¨ B ¨ C ∞ (M.Theorem 7. F1.r gives rise to a double complex. the operators δ and δ do not preserve stable or antistable sub¯ spaces.r → Fk+1.r+2 + εk. The Casimir operator in question is that of the diagonal Lie algebra action given by the operators I(ω) = I1 (ω) − ωi1 J (ω) = I2 (ω) − ωi2 103 K(ω) = I3 (ω) − ωi3 . F3. F2. F3. and the decomposition H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M = k+1 r=0 Fk.r−1 . using the Casimir element technique of Lemma 3. Since n Fk. . etc. . .7.r−1 .1 ) B ¨ δ ¨ ¨¨ ¨ ¨ r rr r rr ¯r δ rr j j r ¨ ¨¨ δ ¨¨ B ¨ C ∞ (M.0 = F0. . .0 ) B ¨ ¨ ¯r δ rr ¨¨ j C ∞ (M. F3. Let the Obata connection on M . though we have δ : Fk. . Fk.r ) to C ∞ (M.1: The QuaternionValued Double Complex C ∞ (M. it is not the case that ↑ ↑ ¯ δ : Fk. it follows (from the ClebschGordon splitting Vr+1 ⊗ 2nV1 ∼ 2n(Vr+2 ⊕ Vr ).r → Fk+1.0 = H) r rr C ∞ (M. For example. so : C ∞ (M. For example.−1 . The rest of the theorem follows automatically. Fk.2. be Proof. Much of the theory from the realvalued double complex of Chapter 3 can be adapted ¯ to describe the quaternionvalued version as well.3.r ⊗ T ∗ M ). F0. etc. followed by = ∞ the antisymmetrisation d = ∧ ◦ ) that d : C (M. The proof works in exactly the same way as that of Theorem 3. Fk+1.r−1 ).3 ) ¨ ¨¨ rr . so ¯ d = δ + δ. Fk+1.r ) → C ∞ (M. Fk. the operators δ and δ can be expressed in a similar fashion to D and D.r+1 ⊕ Fk+1.0 . F1.2. . r rr j r δ ¨¨ B ¨ rr C ∞ (M. .r−1 ).r+1 ⊕ Fk+1. Figure 7. F2.r )V1 ⊗ Vr+1 ⊗ 2nV1 .5 The exterior derivative d maps C ∞ (M. . .−1 = B) δ ¨¨ ¨ ¯r δ rr ¨¨ j C ∞ (M.1 = A) B ¨ δ ¨ ¨¨ ¨ ¨ r rr ¯r δ rr j ¨ rr ¯ δ r C ∞ (M. Fk.
We can infer that the operator δ is elliptic except at the bottom spaces F2k−1.r . As in Section 3. It follows by taking exterior product with e0 that ωe10 = 0. etc. Ellipticity at C ∞ (Fk.0 . Then σ(ω) = 0 if and only if ωe0 ∈ F3.6 Let α ∈ C ∞ (Fk. in particular the leading edge of spaces Fk.7 The complex 0 −→ C ∞ (F1.k forms a complex which is elliptic throughout.0 . .0 is injective. the operator δ is elliptic at some of these lowestweight spaces for low exterior powers. which is the case if and only if I(ωe0 ) = J (ωe0 ) = K(ωe0 ) = 0. it is enough to choose some e0 ∈ T ∗ M and show that the symbol sequence 0 −→ F1.r+1 (ωe0 ) for ω ∈ Fk. −→ C ∞ (F2n+1. Then δα = − and 1 4 r+ 1 (I 2 + J 2 + K2 ) dα r+2 1 (I 2 + J 2 + K2 ) dα. This leads to the following adaptation of Lemma 3.3. Proof.) Since δ = d on F1. we have σ(β) = βe0 for all β ∈ B. The ﬁrst of these equations is I1 (ωe0 ) − ωe0 i1 = I1 (ω)e0 + ωe1 − ωe0 i1 = 0.k−2 ) for all k ≥ 3 follows from a generalisation of the techniques used in the proof of Theorem 3. is exact. e0 ) = πk+1.−1 ) −→ C ∞ (F2.−1 .0 −→ F3.1. It follows from the expression for B in Equation (6.r ).−1 = B.−1 and F2k. 104 σ σ σ δ δ δ δ . Closer examination also reveals that the ‘second row’ of spaces Fk. so the complex is elliptic at B.7: Lemma 7.3 can also be adapted to the new situation. Again.3.−1 −→ F2.0 ).5). .−1 ) = C ∞ (B) and C ∞ (F2.of Equation (6.k−2 is also an elliptic complex with respect to δ.2n−1 ) −→ 0 is elliptic. where σ(ω) = σδ (ω. (As usual ωe0 means ω ∧ e0 .0 ) −→ . .1. . Let ω ∈ F2.1 −→ . Lemma 7. We need to show that the complex is elliptic at C ∞ (F1. r+2 1 ¯ δα = 4 (r + 4) + The results on ellipticity in Section 3.9) that σ : B → F2. and so ωe0 must be equal to zero and ω = γe0 for some γ ∈ H ⊗ T ∗ M . The same arguments for J and K show that σ(ω) = 0 =⇒ ωe10 = ωe20 = ωe30 = 0.2.1.
−1 ∼ U−1 = × rr j rr r δ ¨¨ B ¨ In four dimensions the situation is particularly friendly towards quaternionvalued forms. H ⊗ Λ2 T ∗ M ∼ F2.2 ⊕ F2.1. where = F1. where = = F3. To show this.1 ⊕ F3.−1 .2: The QuaternionValued Double Complex in Four Dimensions Λ2 A ∼ Y = H ¨ r δ¨ ¨¨ rr ¯r B ¨¨ rr rr ¯ δ r A∼Z = ¨¨ ¨ j r F3. F3.0 . H ↑ ↓ F2.1 = A = {q0 e0 + q1 e1 + q2 e2 + q3 e3 : q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0}.0 . where β = 4 q(−e + e1 i1 + e2 i2 + e3 i3 ) ∈ B. . This completes the proof. Hence we can ﬁnd β ∈ B such that σ(ω) = 0 implies that ω = σ(β) for all ω ∈ F2. with α ∈ A.It remains to show that we can choose β ∈ B such that ω = βe0 . the double complex of quaternionvalued forms has not just one but two rows which with respect to the operator δ are elliptic throughout. because the whole double complex is elliptic. It follows that the symbol map σδ is an isomorphism between F3. This is an unexpected bonus — on hypercomplex manifolds. so the complex is exact at F2.0 . Since the complex is elliptic at A it follows that αe0 ∈ F2. e03−12 H ⊕ {q1 e01+23 + q2 e02+31 + q3 e03+12 : q1 i1 = q2 i2 = q3 i3 }. F1. and so in four dimensions the entire quaternionvalued double complex is elliptic. e02−31 .0 ∼ 3H ⊕ H = ¯r δ rr j ¨ B ∼ U−1 = × B ¨ δ ¨¨ ¨¨ rr j ¨¨ ¨ δ ¨¨ B ¨ δ × F4.0 ⊕ F2.0 = F2.−1 = B = {q0 e0 + q1 e1 + q2 e2 + q3 e3 : q0 = q1 i1 = q2 i2 = q3 i3 }.2 = Λ2 A = {q1 e01+23 + q2 e02+31 + q3 e03+12 : q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0}.−1 .1 ∼ Z = r rr ¯r δ ¨¨ B ¨ δ F0. Suppose instead that ω = αe0 . 105 . But then 1 0 0 0 αe = βe . . Explicitly.0 = H r rr F2.k and the second row Fk. Lastly.8 Quaternionvalued forms in four dimensions Figure 7. Example 7.0 ∼ H = ¨ ¯r δ rr ¨¨ j F3.1 ⊕ F1. . Next.−1 = {q0 e123 + q1 e032 + q2 e013 + q3 e021 : q0 = q1 i1 = q2 i2 = q3 i3 }. H ⊗ Λ3 T ∗ M ∼ F3. . e3 } for T ∗ M so that as usual Ij (e0 ) = ej .k−2 .0 e01−23 .−1 and F4.1 = {q0 e123 + q1 e032 + q2 e013 + q3 e021 : q0 + q1 i1 + q2 i2 + q3 i3 = 0}.0 1 if and only if α = σ(q) = 4 q(3e0 + e1 i1 + e2 i2 + e3 i3 ) for some q ∈ H. choose a standard basis of 1forms {e0 . we have H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ F1. where = F2. namely the top row Fk.0 .
1. H Now. and the map ιk : Λk (A ⊕ B) → H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M is none H H H other than the normal inclusion map ι : Λk A → H ⊗ (Λk A† )∗ . (Recall = = H H that Uk = aV1 ⊗ Vn+1 where a = 1 for k even and a = 2 for k odd. A ∼ nU1 . so by Theorem 5. In complex geometry the Hodge decomposition of forms results immediately from the isomorphism C⊗T ∗ M ∼ Λ1.1 ) −→ . Proposition 7. −→ C ∞ (F2n.16.9 Let A be the qholomorphic cotangent space of a hypercomplex manifold M . It follows that there is H H an AHsubmodule of H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M which is isomorphic to Λk A. With hypercomplex geometry we are not quite so lucky.2n ) −→ 0. It follows that H k 1 2n Uk = Λk A ∼ = H a k 2n V1 ⊗ Vk+1 . dim Λk (nU1 ) = 2(k + 2) 2n . . the inclusion map ιk is still of special interest. k (7.4) Thus ιk (Λk A) must be a subspace of H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M of this form. the operator δ on functions does extend to give the elliptic complex 0 −→ C ∞ (F0. 1 On the other hand. Proof. B⊗H B = {0} and so Λk B = {0} for k > 1 .k ⊆ H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M .1. 1 106 . Baston [Bas] succeeded in extending the CauchyRiemannFueter operator to a locally exact complex with a diﬀerent construction involving second order operators. δ δ δ δ and so Λp A⊗H Λq B → H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M. Thus H Λk (A ⊕ B) = Λk A for k > 1.) By Proposition 4. This section discusses these top row spaces Fk. because it describes explicitly the top row of the double complex. Despite the fact that we can identify H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M with Λk (H ⊗ T ∗ M ).k which are of particular interest.7. In spite of this. since the splitting A ⊕ B ∼ H ⊗ T ∗ M is not an AHisomorphism but rather an injective AH= morphism which is not surjective on the primed parts.1. also A⊗H B = {0}. The inclusion map ιk : Λk (A⊕B) → H⊗T ∗ M identiﬁes Λk A with the highest H H space Fk. the CauchyRiemannFueter operator δ in the quaternionvalued double complex (Figure 7.1) does not begin a longer elliptic complex.2. H H Since B = {0}. . H In 1991. Λk A ⊆ k A ∼ mUk for some m.0 ) −→ C ∞ (F1. There is a natural identiﬁcation Λk (A ⊕ B) = H ιk : p+q=k p q p+q=k (ΛH A⊗H ΛH B).1. the induced AHmorphism H ιk : Λk (A ⊕ B) → H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M H is therefore not an isomorphism for k > 1. This is why we resort to our more complicated analysis of the Sp(1)representation on H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M to discover the quaternionic version of the Dolbeault complex.0 ⊕Λ0.1 The Top Row Λk A and Qholomorphic kforms H In contrast with the the role of the CauchyRiemann operator ∂ in the Dolbeault com¯ plex.1 and the isomorphism in exterior algebra Λk (U ⊕V ) = = p q p+q=k Λ U ⊗ Λ V .
The highestweight vectors in C ⊗ Λk T ∗ M are the (k. we identify its exterior powers with the corresponding AHsubmodules of H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M . Q i. We generalise this result to higher exterior powers as follows: Theorem 7.0 .1. so the Halgebra of 0 qholomorphic functions on M is PM = PM . so that (A† )∗ = T ∗ M .0 M . 0)forms Λk. H so there is a natural isomorphism ιk : Λk A ∼ Fk. and both form the ‘top row’ of their double complexes. Thus H · ιq (ΛQ ) ⊂ (id ⊗H χq )(ΛH A⊗H Xq ). The H k AHmodule of qholomorphic kforms on M will be written PM . H) is qholomorphic if and only if ω ∈ C ∞ (M. Thus we will omit to write the ‘ ιk ’.k . The result follows.0 ) = (id ⊗H χq )(Λk A⊗H Xq ). This suggests a natural deﬁnition of a ‘qholomorphic kform’: Deﬁnition 7. Consider the weights of the action of Q ∈ S 2 ⊂ sp(1). the space Λk A is generated over H by the spaces of (k. which is essentially the same result for complexiﬁed kforms. we see that Fk.0 k ιq .3.0 . which are mapped to Cq ⊗ Λk T ∗ M by the map Q k. H Q H · ιq (Λk.2. H Q Proof. 2 107 . 0)forms Λk. 0)forms Λk.10.k .From Deﬁnition 7. H Just as the qholomorphic cotangent space A is our quaternionic analogue of the ∗ holomorphic cotangent space T1. Λk A) and δω = 0.0 M . H H In Section 6. writing Λk A = Fk.k and (Λk A† )∗ = Ek. it follows that Λk A⊗H Xq ∼ 2n Xq . This is AH= k = k H H k k isomorphic to the submodule (id ⊗H χq )(ΛH A⊗H Xq ) ⊂ ΛH A.0 = Λk T1.10 ifold M 4n . This theorem is really a quaternionic version of (Salamon’s) Equation 2.0 ).7).1. it is generated by these subspaces.k = 2n V1 ⊗ Vk+1 as well.k .1.2. Since there are no k other representations of this weight in H ⊗ Λk T ∗ M . Since Λk A ∼ 2n V1 ⊗ Vk+1 .e. Both are formed in the same way using C exterior algebra over their respective ﬁelds. Then It follows that Λk A = H Q∈S 2 2 Let A be the qholomorphic cotangent space of a hypercomplex man(id ⊗H χq )(Λk A⊗H Xq ) = H · ιq (Λk.2 is generated over H by the weightspaces of Q with extremal weight. it follows that ιk (Λk A) = Fk. and since dimC Λk.11 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. the AHbundle Λk A is the quaternionic analogue H ∗ of the bundle of (k. H Q proving the ﬁrst part of the Theorem.0 = 2n we see that Q k H · ιq (Λk. = H Just as we deﬁne the qholomorphic cotangent space A as being a particular submodule of H ⊗ T ∗ M .1 we showed that the qholomorphic cotangent space A is generated over H by the various holomorphic cotangent spaces (Corollary 6. A quaternionvalued kform ¯ ω ∈ Ωk (M. Since Λk A is stable. which by Theorem 5.0 ).2.
the vanishing of which therefore guarantees that ω ∈ k ∞ C (ΛH A⊗H A). The component of ω taking values ¯ in Fk+1. The qholomorphic de Rham complex therefore inherits a a rich and interesting algek+1 k braic structure. ) as introduced in Deﬁnition H H 6. we have H Λk A ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ = H 2n M V1L ⊗ Vk+1 ⊗ 2nV1G k ∼ 2n 2n V L ⊗ (V M G ⊕ V M G ).e. Deﬁne φk. It follows from the theory of qholomorphic sections that qholomorphic forms are closed under the tensor product. brought about by the restriction ρ : M × M → M to the diagonal H submanifold Mdiag ⊂ M × M followed by the skewing map ∧ : C ∞ (M. let φΛk A. since ω ∈ C ∞ (Λk A⊗H A) implies that dω = ∧◦ ω ∈ H ¯ C ∞ (Λk+1 A) and so δω = 0.l : PM ⊗H PM −→ PM . .12 A quaternionvalued kform ω ∈ C ∞ (M.1. ) is a qholomorphic AHbundle where is (the connection induced H k by) the Obata connection on M .11 and Proposition 7. which is often called the cohomology algebra of M . H Proof. Λk+l A).7. Λl A) −→ C ∞ (M × M.k−1 ⊂ H ⊗ Λk+1 T ∗ M .k−1 is of course δω. = 1 k+2 k k GH The bundle Λk A⊗H A is precisely the higherweight subspace 2n 2n V1L ⊗ Vk+2 . ω is a qholomorphic section H of (Λk A. It may be that the diﬀerential graded • Halgebra structure on PM can be used to give a similar description of the quaternionic cohomology of a hypercomplex manifold. Λk A⊗H Λl A) H H H H H H be the section product map (Deﬁnition 6. Λk A)⊗H C ∞ (M.4. The qholomorphic kforms PM are precisely the qholomorphic sections P(Λk A) of the AHbundle (Λk A. it is easy to see that (Λk A. H The reverse implication is nontrivial and depends upon analysing the Sp(1)representation on Λk A ⊗ T ∗ M .4). We have already noted that d : PM → PM . 108 . Λk A) satisﬁes the H ¯ equation δω = 0 if and only if ω ∈ C ∞ (Λk A⊗H A). as the following Proposition demonstrates: Proposition 7. i. Thus the Halgebra structure on the qholomorphic functions PM extends to one • • on the qholomorphic kforms PM . Λk+l A). It is well known that on a real or complex manifold M one can use exterior products over R or C to give an algebraic structure to de Rham or Dolbeault cohomology. ).1 to be none other than the bundle Fk+1. Explicitly.This gives rise to what we may call the qholomorphic de Rham complex 2n−1 1 2 2n 0 −→ PM −→ PM −→ PM −→ .5) Just as (on a complex manifold) Λk.l to be the restriction to C ∞ (M.1.Λl A : C ∞ (M. It follows (from Theorem 6. −→ PM −→ PM −→ 0. Λk A⊗H Λl A) → H H C ∞ (M.12) that H k+l k l φk.0 is a holomorphic vector bundle.1.10).4.4. The H k 2n complementary subspace 2n k V1L ⊗ VkGH is revealed by Proposition 7. Using Equation (7. . and we say that PM forms a diﬀerential graded Halgebra. d=δ d=δ d=δ d=δ d=δ d=δ (7. The ‘if’ part is automatic.
Using similar ideas to those of Section 6. 0) vector ﬁelds’ in complex geometry.2. though not quite ideal from the point of view of quaternionic algebra.2. and so deﬁnes a natural linear map λ : V ⊗ V → V. which is roughly dual to the splitting H ⊗ T ∗ M ∼ A ⊕ B of = Section 6.0 .2 Vector Fields and Quaternionic Lie Algebras Quaternionic algebra can also be used to describe vector ﬁelds on a hypercomplex manifold M .2.0 M ⊕ T 0.1 Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold so that T M ∼ 2nV1 as an = Sp(1)representation.6) The obstruction to this equation is the Nijenhuis tensor NI which measures the (0.6). nor is there any fruitful way to alter the deﬁnitions to make them so. Let M 4n be a hypercomplex manifold. and we can use this formulation to obtain a quaternionic analogue of Equation (7. 109 .7. Quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds which take = values in the subspace A ⊂ H ⊗ T M turn out to be a good hypercomplex analogue of the ‘ (1. The quaternionic tangent space H ⊗ T M splits according to the equation H ⊗ T M ∼ V1L ⊗ V1R ⊗ 2nV1G ∼ 2nV1L ⊗ (V2RG ⊗ V0RG ). which is expressed by the inclusion [V 1.1 M the antiholomorphic tangent space of M . whilst there are Hlinear bundle isomorphisms A ∼ A× and B ∼ B × . This deﬁnition is perfectly natural. we deﬁne a splitting of the quaternionic tangent space H ⊗ T M ∼ A ⊕ B. An almost complex structure I on a manifold M deﬁnes a splitting C ⊗ T M ∼ T 1. we take our inspiration from complex geometry. We deﬁne a splitting of the quaternionic tangent space H ⊗ T M . we will ﬁnd it much more meaningful to talk about linear maps on tensor products. V 1. 0) vector ﬁelds. This encourages us to treat these vector ﬁelds as a quaternionic Lie algebra.0 . Let V be the set of smooth vector ﬁelds on M . an almost hypercomplex structure is integrable if and only if these vector ﬁelds are closed under a quaternionic version of the Lie bracket operator. T 1. using the natural deﬁnitions A = A ∩ (I ⊗ T M ) and B = B ∩ (I ⊗ T M ) = {0}. Deﬁnition 7. 7. a new concept which we proceed to deﬁne and explore. Let V 1. We would like A and B to be dual to the cotangent spaces A and B.2. where T 1.1 Vector Fields on Hypercomplex Manifolds As so often.0 = C ∞ (M. As with Halgebras. The Lie bracket of vector ﬁelds is a bilinear map [ . The Lie bracket is a bilinear map from V × V to V. However. 0) vector ﬁelds.1 M . 0) on M . Then A is the qholomorphic tangent bundle and B is the qantiholomorphic tangent bundle of M . = = these spaces are not isomorphic as AHbundles. = = Deﬁne the AHsubbundles A = 2nV1L ⊗ V2RG and B = 2nV1L ⊗ V0RG .0 M is = the holomorphic and T 0. The almost complex structure I is integrable if and only if the Lie bracket preserves (1. In particular. We present a similar theorem for quaternionic vector ﬁelds on hypercomplex manifolds.0 ] ⊆ V 1. 1) component of the Lie bracket of two (1. (7. ] : V × V → V.0 M ) be the vector ﬁelds of type (1.
wj ∈ V be vector ﬁelds such that j qj ⊗vj ⊗wj ∈ C ∞ (A⊗H A). ∈ VA . Proof. Since is torsionfree. Using the canonical isomorphism (H ⊗ T M )⊗H (H ⊗ T M ) ∼ = H ⊗ T M ⊗ T M . To begin with. it follows that qj ⊗ and similarly qj ⊗ wj v j vj wj ∈ VA .A (Deﬁnition 6. Thus ( qj ⊗ wj ) is an element of C ∞ (A ⊗ T ∗ M ).3 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold with qholomorphic tangent space A. We will refer to elements of VA as Atype vector ﬁelds. We want to ﬁnd an expression for λ( qj ⊗ vj ⊗ wj ) = qj ⊗ [vj . qj ⊗ wj ∈ VA . Then the Lie bracket λ on quaternionic vector ﬁelds preserves VA . qj ⊗ vj ⊗ wj = qj ⊗ ( vj wj − wj vj ) ∈ VA .6). 110 . Let vj . the Lie bracket [vj . Deﬁne VH = H ⊗ V to be the AHmodule of smooth quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds on M . The relationship between these vector ﬁelds and the map λ : V ⊗ V → V is particularly interesting. wj ].2. vj wj − wj vj .11.Deﬁnition 7. T M ) be the vector space of smooth real vector ﬁelds on M . so that A is a qholomorphic AHbundle).2 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold with qholomorphic tangent space A ⊂ H ⊗ T M . A) to be the AHsubmodule of Hvalued vector ﬁelds on M taking values in A ⊂ H ⊗ T M . the Lie bracket deﬁnes an AHmorphism (which we shall also call λ) λ : VH ⊗H VH → VH . so that λ : VA ⊗H VA → VA . Deﬁne VA = C ∞ (M. so VH = C ∞ (M. Here is the quaternionic version of Equation (7. Contracting the T ∗ M factor with vj ∈ T M . we use the section product map φA. H ⊗ T M ). The formulation and proof is similar in spirit to Theorem 6. Let V = C ∞ (M. The Obata connection is an AHconnection on A (and in fact is antiselfdual.4.2. and let VA denote the space of Atype vector ﬁelds on M .4. Theorem 7. which is eﬀectively a Lie bracket operation on quaternionic vector ﬁelds.10) to regard elements of VA ⊗H VA as sections in C ∞ (A⊗H A) ⊂ C ∞ (H ⊗ T M ⊗ T M ). wj ] is given by the diﬀerence It follows immediately that λ proving the theorem. which means that qj ⊗ vj .
J. and K ensures that the connection with I = J = K = 0 is torsionfree. we have 1. and otherwise we would not have [v. 0) with respect to the complex structure Q.1. it follows that the Lie bracket must map sections of A⊗H A to sections of A. the bundle A is generated over H by the tensors of type (1. Thus λ is antisymmetric.2 Quaternionic Lie Algebras The result of the previous section encourages us to think of the vector ﬁelds VA as a quaternionic Lie algebra with respect to the Lie bracket map λ. A quaternionic Lie algebra will be an AHmodule A together with an AHmorphism λ : A⊗H A → A. Since the ﬁbres of A are stable. and see how it ﬁts in with some of Joyce’s other algebraic structures over the quaternions. If every complex structure Q ∈ S 2 is integrable. whose properties reﬂect those of a Lie bracket on a real or complex vector space: namely antisymmetry and the Jacobi identity. 0). let (V. Here are the axioms for a quaternionic Lie algebra: Axiom QL.0 1. where VQ denotes the vector ﬁelds which are of type (1.0 1. 111 . λ) is a quaternionic Lie algebra if it satisﬁes Axiom QL. We will often refer to A itself as a quaternionic Lie algebra when the map λ is understood.0 H · ιq (TQ M ) and A⊗H A = Q∈S 2 1. By way of explanation.The reason why the hypercomplex structure must be integrable to obtain this result is that the integrability of I. but rather about linear maps on tensor products.10. In other words. VQ ] ⊆ VQ 1. and the bundle A⊗H A is generated by the tensors of type (2. we have A= Q∈S 2 1. 0) with respect to the diﬀerent complex structures. As always. Then in terms of tensor products the Jacobi identity is λ ◦ (id ⊗λ)(x ⊗ y ⊗ z + y ⊗ z ⊗ x + z ⊗ x ⊗ y) = 0. Another way to understand this result is in terms of the decomposition of tensors with respect to diﬀerent complex structures.0 for all Q ∈ S 2 . (iii) The composition λ ◦ (id ⊗H λ) deﬁnes an AHmorphism from A⊗H A⊗H A to A such that Λ3 A ⊂ ker(λ ◦ (id ⊗H λ)).2. w] = v w − w v. (i) A is an AHmodule and there is an AHmorphism λ = λA : A⊗H A → A called the Lie bracket.0 H · ιq (TQ M ⊗ TQ M ).2. We describe this idea as an abstract algebraic structure. we do not talk about bilinear maps. Just as in Theorem 7. This is the H Jacobi identity for λ. Axiom QL(iii) is probably the least familiarlooking of these axioms. Deﬁnition 7.4 The pair (A. λ) be a real or complex Lie algebra. 7.0 [VQ . 2 (ii) SH A ⊂ ker λ.0 1.
Suppose that ξ : = A⊗H A → A⊗H Y satisﬁes Joyce’s Axiom L. 7. and the pair (A⊗H Y.1.3 Hypercomplex Lie groups As a ﬁnal example. Theorem 7. This is why.5 Let M be a hypercomplex manifold. λ) is a quaternionic Lie algebra. quaternionic Lie algebras and Poisson algebras are deﬁned by an AHmorphism ξ : A⊗H A → A⊗H Y . The space of quaternionvalued vector ﬁelds VH is a quaternionic Lie algebra with respect to the Lie bracket operator λ : VH ⊗H VH → VH . we consider hypercomplex structures on compact Lie groups. but in a diﬀerent fashion. Then ξ satisﬁes Joyce’s Axiom L. Deﬁne an AHmorphism ξ = (λ⊗H id ⊗H id) ◦ τ : (A⊗H Y )⊗H (A⊗H Y ) → (A⊗H Y )⊗H Y. This is the quaternionic version of the wellknown fact that on a complex manifold. we see that the Jacobi identity is equivalent to the condition that λ ◦ (id ⊗λ)(x ∧ y ∧ z) = 0. In order to deﬁne an HLalgebra we need to form a map from (A⊗H Y )⊗H (A⊗H Y ) to (A⊗H Y )⊗H Y . which deﬁne quaternionic analogues of Lie algebras and Poisson algebras: but instead of a Lie bracket λ : A⊗H A → A. Since a hyperk¨hler manifold M a a has three independent symplectic forms. Then for every = AHmodule A there is a map id ⊗H η : A⊗H Y → A⊗H H ∼ A. Let τ be the natural isomorphism τ : A⊗H Y ⊗H A⊗H Y → A⊗H A⊗H Y ⊗H Y which interchanges the second and third factors. To go in the opposite direction. suppose that (A. he writes down axioms called Axiom L and Axiom P.Since we can identify x⊗y −y ⊗x with x∧y. so that Λ3 V ⊂ ker(λ ◦ (id ⊗λ)). Precisely which HLalgebras may be obtained from quaternionic Lie algebras and vice versa using these constructions remains open to question. Since the early 112 . Joyce describes the three = Poisson brackets using a single map ξ : PM ⊗H PM → PM ⊗ I.2.2. λ) is a quaternionic Lie algebra in the sense of Axiom QL. Axiom QL follows from the corresponding identities satisﬁed by the Lie bracket on real vector ﬁelds. Joyce has already considered the notion of a Lie algebra over the quaternions. Using the fact that I ∼ R3 . and show how these give rise to ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras. and consider the AHmodule A⊗H Y . ξ) forms an HLalgebra. §6]. 0) vector ﬁelds form a complex Lie subalgebra of the complex vector ﬁelds.3 now shows that the Atype vector ﬁelds VA form a quaternionic Lie subalgebra of VH . for Joyce. Joyce’s quaternionic Lie bracket is a map ξ : A⊗H A → A⊗H Y . In [J1. the (1. It follows immediately that the pair (A. The space of such AHmorphisms is of course Y † ∼ V2 . two functions f and g have three diﬀerent Poisson brackets and the Halgebra PM of qholomorphic functions on M has three independent Poisson structures. = The reason for this is that Joyce’s main purpose is to describe the algebraic structure of qholomorphic functions on hyperk¨hler manifolds. where Y ∼ U2 is the AHmodule of Example 4. Example 7. Deﬁne a Lie bracket λ : A⊗H A → A by setting λ = (id ⊗H η) ◦ ξ.2. We can relate these two algebraic ideas very simply by choosing an AHmorphism η : Y → H. Recalling that (Y † )∗ ∼ = V2 = I. we have a map ξ : PM ⊗H PM → ιPM (PM ) ⊗ (Y † )∗ which is in fact an AHmorphism whose image is contained in PM ⊗H Y .
In this case we deﬁne the subspace gA = {v0 + i1 v1 + i2 v2 + i3 v3 : v0 + I1 v1 + I2 v2 + I3 v3 = 0} ⊂ gH which we shall call the space of Atype elements of gH . 3 113 . Lemma 4. Then g can be decomposed as n n g=b⊕ k=1 dk ⊕ k=1 fk . which give rise to distinct hypercomplex structures. . This gives an isomorphism pu(1) ⊕ g ∼ Hl . . Note that not all ‘Lie groups possessing a complex structure’ are complex Lie groups. and (ii) fk is closed under the Lie bracket with dk . The quaternionic Lie algebra structure of g is much more interesting when g admits a hypercomplex structure as described above. .1] Let G be a compact Lie group. .1 [J3. . Then there exists an integer p with 0 ≤ p ≤ Max(3. . The action of dk on fk gives an isomorphism = ∼ Hm . fk ] = {0} whenever l < k. 2. fn are (possibly empty) vector subspaces of g.7) where b is abelian. such that for each k = 1. fk satisﬁes the following two conditions: (i) [dl . in other words a hypercomplex fk = = structure. dk is a subalgebra of g isomorphic to su(2). There is a strong link between these hypercomplex structures and the quaternionic Lie algebras of the previous section. Spindel et al. whose proof is an extension of Borel’s celebrated result that the quotient of a compact Lie group by its maximal torus is a homogeneous complex manifold. 3 This was ﬁrst announced by Samelson. [SSTP] and Joyce [J3] demonstrated independently that these results extend to hypercomplex geometry. rk G) such that U(1)p × G admits a leftinvariant homogeneous hypercomplex structure. Normally there are many choices to be made in such an isomorphism. It relies on being able to decompose the Lie algebra of a compact Lie group as follows: Lemma 7. because their multiplication and inverse maps might not be holomorphic.1950s. this decomposition allows us to deﬁne a hypercomplex structure on pu(1) ⊕ g as follows. (7. and f1 . the mathematical world has been aware that every compact Lie group of even dimension is a homogeneous complex manifold. In 1988 and 1992 respectively.3.2] Let G be a compact Lie group. for some integer m. Lie groups with integrable leftinvariant hypercomplex structures then give rise to interesting quaternionic Lie algebras. Joyce’s approach also gives hypercomplex structures on more general homogeneous spaces. with Lie algebra g. By adding an additional p (with 0 ≤ p ≤ Max(3. and the Lie bracket action of dk on fk is isomorphic to the sum of m copies of the basic representation V1 of su(2) on C2 . Theorem 4. This leads to the following result: Theorem 7. For a 1dimensional subspace bk of pu(1) ⊕ b there is an isomorphism bk ⊕ dk ∼ R ⊕ I = H. b + k dk contains the Lie algebra of a maximal torus of G. Then gH ≡ H ⊗ g is a quaternionic Lie algebra because Axiom QL is obviously satisﬁed. That such a hypercomplex structure on the vector space pu(1) ⊕ g deﬁnes an integrable hypercomplex structure on the manifold U(1)p × G follows from Samelson’s original work on homogeneous complex manifolds. n. .3. Suppose that g is any real Lie algebra. rk G) ) copies of the abelian Lie algebra u(1) to b if necessary.2 [J3. .
The map d is induced by the dual of the Lie bracket. and this induces = • ∗ a representation of su(2) on Λ T M by the usual Leibniz rule τv (w1 ∧ w2 ) = [v. thanks to the decomposition u(2) = u(1) ⊕ su(2). The map d extends to a unique antiderivation on Λ• g∗ in the usual fashion. j. = (7. It is wellknown that U(2) is isomorphic to U (1) ×Z2 SU(2).3. so that [e0 . which accounts for all the de Rham cohomology since it is known that every de Rham cohomology class has a Ginvariant representative. which is a linear map λ : g ⊗ g → g.2.7). the set of Atype vector ﬁelds on G is closed under the Lie bracket operator λ. Thus T ∗ M ∼ V0 ⊕ V2 . 3}. so that τv (w) = [v. By Theorem 7. Then gA is a quaternionic Lie subalgebra of gH . w] for v ∈ su(2). It follows that de0 = 0 and dei = ej ∧ ek . e02 . and let gA ⊂ gH be the subspace of Atype elements of gH .3. C) preserving the standard hermitian metric on C2 . 2. The Lie algebra u(2) appears naturally in the form of Equation (7. e021 ⊕ e123 e0123 114 ∼ V0 ⊕ V2 = ∼ V2 ⊕ V2 = ∼ V2 ⊕ V0 = ∼ V0 . e0 generates a copy of the trivial representation V0 and e1 . Thus e0 and e123 both generate de Rham cohomology classes. e3 . e3 is just the adjoint representation of su(2). i. e2 . k ⊂ {1. In this way. this means that dω(u. it preserves gA . ej ] = εijk ek where i. e013 . This subgroup acts on u(2) via the adjoint representation. complex or hypercomplex manifold can then be rephrased in terms of the cohomology of the complex (Λ• g∗ . e2 .3.8) . which is diﬀeomorphic to the Hopf surface S 1 × S 3. so its dual is the map d = λ∗ : g∗ → Λ2 g∗ . I2 . v) = ω([u. e03 e032 . w2 ]. whose theory is possibly more subtle for this reason. e12 ⊕ e01 .4 Let M = U(2) be the unitary group in two dimensions.Corollary 7. k} is an even permutation of {1. This is less obvious for Dolbeault and quaternionic cohomology groups. 3}.3 Let G be a hypercomplex Lie group with hypercomplex structure (I1 . e3 . This gives the following decompositions: T ∗M Λ2 T ∗ M Λ3 T ∗ M Λ4 T ∗ M = = = = e0 ⊕ e1 . v]) ω ∈ g∗ v. ej ] = 0 and [ei . This is true at least for Ginvariant forms. Joyce’s hypercomplex structures on compact Lie groups give rise to many interesting ﬁnitedimensional quaternionic Lie algebras. I3 ). the subgroup of GL(2. Since λ also preserves the leftinvariant vector ﬁelds g. which is V2 . w1 ] ∧ w2 + w1 ∧ [v. e0 ] = 0. w ∈ u(2). On a Lie group G the exterior diﬀerential d on Ginvariant kforms can be expressed as a formal diﬀerential d : Λk g∗ → Λk+1 g∗ . In practice. This complex is best described using the structure of u(2) as a representation τ of su(2) = e1 . Since λ is antisymmetric it is eﬀectively a map λ : Λ2 g → g. j.e. Example 7. b2 (M ) = 0. Let {eα } be the dual basis for g∗ . e31 . and we have b0 (M ) = b1 (M ) = b3 (M ) = b4 (M ) = 1. w ∈ g. Let u(1) = e0 and su(2) = e1 . 2. e2 . We can also begin to calculate the quaternionic cohomology groups of these manifolds. Since [v. Proof. e3 e23 . d). e2 . where {i. Questions about the cohomology of G as a real.
where eab+cd = eab + ecd .1 .0 . (7.2 HD (M ) = 0.0 → F3.0 −→ E1. 0.r homology groups HD (M ) and Hδ (M ). In other words. In four dimensions.−1 and F4. E2. The sequence 0 −→ E0. However. as indeed they are. e02 . we have 3e0 + i1 e1 + i2 e2 + i3 e3 H ∼ U−1 = × ∼ e123 − i1 e032 − i2 e013 − i3 e021 H ∼ U−1 . e31 . The group SU(3) provides an interesting case. 0. but the d operator is best described using the second. The quaternionic algebra of such phenonomena might be interesting and merit closer study. since b1 (SU(3)) = 0. For example. e3 → e23 . e03 . This allows us to read oﬀ cohomological information. The quaternionic cohomology of M is deﬁned using the ﬁrst action.1 Hδ (M ) = 3. Surprisingly.2 is the space of selfdual 2forms e01+23 .9) Moving to quaternionvalued forms.0 Hδ (M ) = H 4. Explicitly. By collating the two we obtain a complete picture of the situation. including the quaternionic cok. The ﬁrst is the representation T ∗ M ∼ 2V1 deﬁned by the hypercomplex structure. Thus once we have shown that de1 = e23 . F3. The principle would nonetheless be very much the same. e2 .1 Hδ (SU(3)) = 0. though because of the additional four dimensions this option is diﬃcult and complicated. The image under d of T ∗ M is e01 .2 is an su(2)equivariant surjection onto E2. the sequence 0 → B → F2.1 HD (M ) = e0 ∼ R = 2. A similar analysis to that above may provide the correct results. e02+31 . we have two representations of sp(1) on T ∗ M . e03+12 .0 . this theory seems to be lacking or at best 115 . A logical precursor to developing the quaternionic cohomology theory of hypercomplex Lie groups would be to understand thoroughly the Dolbeault cohomology of homogeneous complex manifolds. e12 . they are clearly not AHexact.2 . and the projection π2.2 −→ 0 is therefore exact at E2. and essentially involves comparing diﬀerent sp(1)actions. one deﬁned by Joyce’s hypercomplex structure and the other arising from the adjoint representation of a particular subalgebra su(2) ⊂ su(3). it follows immediately that d gives an su(2)equivariant isomorphism d : e1 . it is easy to show that nonzero δcohomology occurs only at F0.r k.1 −→ E2.10) It follows from the property of ellipticity that the cohomology sequences should be exact.0 HD (M ) = R 1.1 → 0 being exact. it is easy to demonstrate that 1. To do this we compare the decomposition of Equation (7.8) with the decomposition of Λk T ∗ M induced by the hypercomplex structure.−1 Hδ (M ) = It would be desirable to extend this work to higherdimensional groups and homogeneous spaces. and the second = is the representation T ∗ M ∼ V0 ⊕ V2 given by the adjoint action of the subalgebra = su(2) ⊂ u(2). because they are not exact on the primed parts.2 .The beneﬁt of this approach is that the map d is su(2)equivariant.4 Hδ (M ) = e0123 1. = × H = H (7. and we obtain the standard selfdual cohomology of S 1 × S 3 . F1. Quaternionic cohomology is in this case certainly not a subset of de Rham cohomology.
but the link between theory and results in this paper is quite opaque and certainly contains some mistakes. conjecturing that the cohomology of these complexes is the same. §2]. Pittie’s paper [P] uses a simpler bicomplex than Bott’s. The theory for complex groups and homogeneous spaces is documented in Bott’s important paper [Bot. This would be an interesting area for future research. 116 .extremely obscure. Certain hypercomplex nilmanifolds discussed by Dotti and Fino [DF] might also provide fruitful rseults.
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