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Pulsed RADAR In this system the pulse modulated signal are used for transmission.

Duplexer is used to use common antenna for transmission & reception. It can indicate the range of target. The echo power received is useful for the indicating device. It requires comparatively higher transmitting power. The circuits used in this system are comparatively complicated

CW RADAR This system uses modulated or unmodulated continuous signals for transmission. Circulator is used or separate antennas are used for transmission & reception. Simple CW RADAR can not indicate the range. The doppler frequency shift of echo signal is useful for indication device. It uses lower transmitting power. The circuits are simpler

The performance is sometimes affected The performance is unaffected by by the stationary targets. stationary targets. It can not operate down to zero range. The possible r.max is higher. The performance is not affected by presence of number of targets Practically pulsed RADAR system are used more. Because the receiver is ON all times, it can operate down to zero range. The possible r.max is lower The system gets confused by persence of large number of targets. CW RADAR are used in some application only, so comparatively have less application.

One example of such RADAR application Application is in aircraft navigation for is the mapping of airport area. speed measurement

Factors Affecting Radar Performance
1. The power of transmitter 2. The frequency of the transmitter 3. Noise generated within the receiver 4. The sensitivity of the receiver External 5. The time interval between pulses and pulse width. 6. The shape and dimensions of the radar beam 7. The size and shape of the object and the material of which it is made. 8. Radio Frequency Interference (caused by radiation of spurious and/or undesired radio frequency signals from other non-associated electronic equipment, such as navigational aids, data processing computers, voice communication systems, other radars, and from more common sources, such as ignition and electric motor control systems) 9. Noise caused by natural phenomenon (eg. by Thundering, Lightening) 10. Signals reflected by natural phenomenon (eg. Precipitation: snow, rain, mist, clouds with high humidity) 11. Distant ground returns and “Angels” (eg. Returns from Insects, Birds, different local developments at terrain, sea and ocean) 12. The curvature of the earth 13. Returns from the side and back lobes

Q: What is a radar?
A: Radar is acronym for Radio Detection and Ranging. It uses electromagnetic waves in microwave region to detect location (range & direction), height (altitude), intensity (in case of weather systems) and movement of moving and non-moving targets.

Q: What is the working principle of radars?
A: Radars are used for detection of aircrafts, ships, weather systems and a variety of other applications. Our discussion is restricted to weather radars only. Radar transmitter transmits electro-magnetic waves through a directional antenna in any given direction in a focused manner. A part of the transmitted energy is absorbed by the atmosphere. Some of the energy travels further through the atmosphere and a fraction of it is scattered backward by the targets and is received by the radar receiver. The amount of received power depends upon radar parameters like transmitted power, radar wavelength, horizontal and vertical beam widths, scattering cross section of the target atmospheric characteristics etc., In case of weather echoes like clouds it depends also on physical state (raindrops, snow, hail etc.) and drop size distribution hydro meteors. The amount of return power provides information about the intensity of weather systems and azimuth & elevation of the antenna gives the location and height of the cloud systems. The time taken in to and fro journey of the electromagnet waves gives the range (or distance from radar) of the targets. Modern day radars, viz., Doppler Weather Radars, employ Doppler principle to provide information about the speed and direction of the moving targets.

Q: What is Doppler Principle?
A: When the source for signals and the observer are in relative motion, there is change in frequency (wavelength) observed by the observer. In case the source and observer are moving closer, frequency increases and vice versa. The principle was first discovered by Austrian physicist Christian Doppler, hence named after him as Doppler Principle.

Q. How do Doppler Radars measure target velocity?
A: Doppler Radars compares the frequency of transmitted and received signals and compute the difference in frequency. The (positive or negative) Change in frequency is directly proportional to the velocity of the target towards or away from the radar. Thus target velocity is calculated from the change in frequency observed by the Doppler radars.

Factors That Affect Radar Performance
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Signal Reception Receiver Bandwidth Pulse Shape Power Relation Beam Width Pulse Repetition Frequency Antenna Gain Radar Cross Section of Target Signal-to-noise ratio Receiver Sensitivity Pulse Compression Scan Rate a)Mechanical b)Electronic

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Carrier Frequency Antenna aperture