This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
)
CHAPTER8
MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
Topics covered:
Influence coefficents
Approximate methods
(i) Dunkerley’s method
(ii) Rayleigh’s method
Influence coefficients
Numerical methods
(i) Matrix iteration method
(ii) Stodola’s method
(iii) Holzar’s method
1. Influence coefficents
It is the influence of unit displacement at one point on the forces at various points of a
multiDOF system.
OR
It is the influence of unit Force at one point on the displacements at various points of
a multiDOF system.
The equations of motion of a multidegree freedom system can be written in terms of
influence coefficients. A set of influence coefficents can be associated with each of
matrices involved in the equations of motion.
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 x K x M = +
& &
For a simple linear spring the force necessary to cause unit elongation is referred as
stiffness of spring. For a multiDOF system one can express the relationship between
displacement at a point and forces acting at various other points of the system by
using influence coefficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents
The equations of motion of a multidegree freedom system can be written in terms of
inverse of stiffness matrix referred as flexibility influence coefficients.
Matrix of flexibility influence coefficients =[ ]
1 −
K
The elements corresponds to inverse mass matrix are referred as flexibility
mass/inertia coefficients.
Matrix of flexibility mass/inertia coefficients =[ ]
1 −
M
The flexibility influence coefficients are popular as these coefficents give elements
of inverse of stiffness matrix. The flexibility mass/inertia coefficients give elements
of inverse of mass matrix
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
2
Stiffness influence coefficents.
For a multiDOF system one can express the relationship between displacement at a
point and forces acting at various other points of the system by using influence co
efficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents.
{ } [ ]{ } x K F =
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
k k k
k k k
k k k
K
wher, k
11
, ……..k
33
are referred as stiffness influence coefficients
k
11
stiffness influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit deflection at point 1
k
21
 stiffness influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit deflection at point 1
k
31
 stiffness influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit deflection at point 1
Example1.
Obtain the stiffness coefficients of the system shown in Fig.1.
Istep:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 1 as shown in Fig.1(a) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 1 11
K K k + =
2 21
K k − =
0 k
31
=
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=1 Unit
x
2
=0
m
3
K
3
x
3
=0
k
11
k
21
k
31
x
2
=1 Unit
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=0
m
3
K
3
x
3
=0
K
12
k
22
k
32
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=0
x
2
=0
m
3
K
3
x
3
=1 Unit
k
13
k
23
k
33
(a)
(b) (c)
Fig.1 Stiffness influence coefficients of the system
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
3
IIstep:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 2 as shown in Fig.1(b) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 12
K k =
3 2 22
K K k + =
3 31
K k =
IIIstep:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 3 as shown in Fig.1(c) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
0 k
13
=
3 23
K k =
3 33
K k =
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
k k k
k k k
k k k
K
[ ]
( )
( )
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
+
=
3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1
K K  0
K  K K K 
0 K  K K
K
From stiffness coefficients K matrix can be obtained without writing Eqns. of motion.
Flexibility influence coefficents.
{ } [ ]{ } x K F =
{ } [ ] { } F K x
1 −
=
{ } [ ]{ } F α x =
where, [ ] α  Matrix of Flexibility influence coefficents given by
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
α α α
α α α
α α α
α
wher, α
11
, ……..α
33
are referred as stiffness influence coefficients
α
11
flexibility influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit force at point 1
α
21
 flexibility influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit force at point 1
α
31
 flexibility influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit force at point 1
Example2.
Obtain the flexibility coefficients of the system shown in Fig.2.
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
4
Istep:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.2(a) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
1
31 21 11
K
1
α α α = = =
IIstep:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 2 as shown in Fig.2(b) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 1
32 22
K
1
K
1
α α + = =
IIIstep:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 3 as shown in Fig.2(c) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 1
23
K
1
K
1
α + =
3 2 1
33
K
1
K
1
K
1
α + + =
Therefore,
1
13 31 12 21 11
K
1
α α α α α == = = = =
2 1
23 32 22
K
1
K
1
α α α + = = =
3 2 1
33
K
1
K
1
K
1
α + + =
(b) (c)
Fig.2 Flexibility influence coefficients of the system
x
2
=α
22
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=α
12
m
3
K
3
x
3
=α
32
F
1
=0
F
2
=1
F
3
=0
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=α
13
x
2
=α
23
m
3
K
3
x
3
=α
33
F
1
=0
F
2
=1
F
3
=0
(a)
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
m
3
K
3
x
3
=α
31
F
1
=0
F
2
=1
F
3
=0
x
1
=α
11
x
2
=α
21
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
5
For simplification, let us consider : K K K K
3 2 1
= = =
K
1
K
1
α α α α α
1
13 31 12 21 11
= == = = = =
K
2
K
1
K
1
α α α
23 32 22
= + = = =
K
3
K
1
K
1
K
1
α
33
= + + =
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
α α α
α α α
α α α
α
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
3 2 1
2 2 1
1 1 1
K
1
α
[ ] [ ]
1
K α
−
=
In Vibration analysis if there is need of [ ]
1
K
−
one can use flexibility coefficent matrix.
Example3
Obtain of the Flexibility influence coefficents of the pendulum system shown in the
Fig.3.
Istep:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.4 and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
m
m
l
l
m
l
Fig.3 Pendulum system
m
m
l
l
m
l
F=1
T
θ
α
11
Fig.4 Flexibility influence
coefficents
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
6
l θ sin T =
3mg m) m g(m θ cos T = + + =
3mg
1
θ tan =
θ sin θ tan small, is θ =
l
α
θ sin
11
=
θ sin l α
11
=
3mg
l
α
11
=
Similarly apply 1 unit force at point 2 and next at point 3 to obtain,
5mg
l
α
22
=
the influence coefficients are:
5mg
l
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
== = = = =
6mg
11l
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
6mg
11l
α
33
=
Approximate methods
In many engineering problems it is required to quickly estimate the first
(fundamental) natural frequency. Approximate methods like Dunkerley’s method,
Rayleigh’s method are used in such cases.
(i) Dunkerley’s method
Dunkerley’s formula can be determined by frequency equation,
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 K M ω
2
= + −
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 M ω K
2
= + −
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 0 M K I
ω
1
1
2
= + −
−
[ ] [ ][ ] [ ] 0 M α I
ω
1
2
= + −
For n DOF systems,
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
7
[ ] 0
m . 0 0
.
0 . m 0
0 . 0 m
α . α α
.
α . α α
α . α α
1 . 0 0
.
0 . 1 0
0 . 0 1
ω
1
n
2
1
nn n2 n1
2n 22 21
1n 12 11
2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
+
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
[ ] 0
m α
ω
1
. m α m α
.
m α . m α
ω
1
0
m α . m α m α
ω
1
n nn 2 2 n2 1 n1
n 2n 2 22 2
n 1n 2 12 1 11 2
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(
¸

¹

\

+ −

¹

\

+ −

¹

\

+ −
. . .
Solve the determinant
( )
( ) [ ] 0 ... m α ... m m α α m m α α
ω
1
m α ... m α m α
ω
1
n nn 3 1 33 11 2 1 22 11
1 n
2 n nn 2 22 1 11
n
2
= + + + +

¹

\

+ + + − 
¹

\

−
(1)
It is the polynomial equation of nth degree in (1/ω
2
). Let the roots of above Eqn. are:
2
n
2
2
2
1
ω
1
...... ,
ω
1
,
ω
1
0 ...
ω
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
...... ,
ω
1
ω
1
,
ω
1
ω
1
1 n
2 2
n
2
2
2
1
n
2
2
n
2 2
2
2 2
1
2
= −


¹

\



¹

\

+ + + −


¹

\

=


¹

\

−


¹

\

−


¹

\

−
−
(2)
Comparing Eqn.(1) and Eqn. (2), we get,
=


¹

\

+ + +
2
n
2
2
2
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + +
In mechanical systems higher natural frequencies are much larger than the
fundamental (first) natural frequencies. Approximately, the first natural frequency is:
≅


¹

\

2
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + +
The above formula is referred as Dunkerley’s formula, which can be used to estimate
first natural frequency of a system approximately.
The natural frequency of the system considering only mass m
1
is:
1
1
1 11
1n
m
K
m α
1
ω = =
The Dunkerley’s formula can be written as:
2
nn
2
2n
2
1n
2
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
+ + + ≅ (3)
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
8
where, ..... , ω , ω
2n 1n
are natural frequency of single degree of freedom system
considering each mass separately.
The above formula given by Eqn. (3) can be used for any mechanical/structural
system to obtain first natural frequency
Examples: 1
Obtain the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig.5
using Dunkerley’s method.
Dunkerley’s formula is:
≅


¹

\

2
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + + OR
2
nn
2
2n
2
1n
2
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
+ + + ≅
Any one of the above formula can be used to find fundamental natural frequency
approximately.
Find influence flexibility coefficients.
K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
K
2
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
K
3
α
33
=
Substitute all influence coefficients in the Dunkerley’s formula.
≅


¹

\

2
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + +
m
K
m
K
x
1
x
2
m
K
x
3
Fig.5 Linear vibratory system
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
9
≅


¹

\

2
1
ω
1
K
6m
K
3m
K
2m
K
m
= 
¹

\

+ +
K/m 0.40 ω
1=
rad/s
Examples: 2
Find the lowest natural frequency of the system shown in Figure by Dunkerley’s
method. Take m
1
=100 kg, m
2
=50 kg
VTU Exam July/Aug 2006 for 20 Marks
Obtain the influence coefficents:
EI
1.944x10
α
3
11
=
EI
9x10
α
3
22
=
≅


¹

\

2
n
ω
1
( )
2 22 1 11
m α m α +
rad/s 1.245 ω
n
=
(ii) Rayleigh’s method
It is an approximate method of finding fundamental natural frequency of a system
using energy principle. This principle is largely used for structural applications.
Principle of Rayleigh’s method
Consider a rotor system as shown in Fig.7. Let, m
1
, m
2
and m
3
are masses of rotors on
shaft supported by two bearings at A and B and y
1
, y
2
and y
3
are static deflection of
shaft at points 1, 2 and 3.
1 2
180 120
m
1
m
2
Fig.6 A cantilever rotor system.
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
10
For the given system maximum potential energy and kinetic energies are:
∑
=
=
n
1 i
i i max
gy m
2
1
V (4)
∑
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i max
y m
2
1
T
&
where, m
i
 masses of the system, y
i
–displacements at mass points.
Considering the system vibrates with SHM,
i
2
i
y ω y =
&
From above equations
∑
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
2
max
y m
2
ω
T (5)
According to Rayleigh’s method,
max max
T V = (6)
substitute Eqn. (4) and (5) in (6)
∑
∑
=
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
n
1 i
i i
2
y m
gy m
ω (7)
The deflections at point 1, 2 and 3 can be found by.
g m α g m α g m α y
3 13 2 12 1 11 1
+ + =
g m α g m α g m α y
3 23 2 22 1 21 2
+ + =
g m α g m α g m α y
3 33 2 32 1 31 3
+ + =
Eqn.(7) is the Rayleigh’s formula, which is used to estimate frequency of transverse
vibrations of a vibratory systems.
1 2 3
m
1
m
2
m
3
A
B
y
1
y
2
y
3
Fig.7 A rotor system.
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
11
Examples: 1
Estimate the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig.8
using Rayleigh’s method. Take: m=1kg and K=1000 N/m.
Obtain influence coefficients,
2K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
2K
3
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
2K
5
α
33
=
Deflection at point 1 is:
g m α g m α g m α y
3 13 2 12 1 11 1
+ + =
( )
2000
5g
2K
5mg
1 2 2
2K
mg
y
1
= = + + =
Deflection at point 2 is:
g m α g m α g m α y
3 23 2 22 1 21 2
+ + =
( )
2000
11g
2K
11mg
3 6 2
2K
mg
y
2
= = + + =
Deflection at point 3 is:
g m α g m α g m α y
3 33 2 32 1 31 3
+ + =
( )
2000
13g
2K
13mg
5 6 2
2K
mg
y
3
= = + + =
Rayleigh’s formula is:
2m
2K
2m
K
x
1
x
2
m
K
x
3
Fig.8 Linear vibratory system
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
12
∑
∑
=
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
n
1 i
i i
2
y m
gy m
ω
2
2 2 2
2
2
g
2000
13
2
2000
11
2
2000
5
2
g
2000
13
2x
2000
11
2x
2000
5
2x
ω

¹

\

+

¹

\

+

¹

\


¹

\

+ +
=
rad/s 12.41 ω =
Examples: 2
Find the lowest natural frequency of transverse vibrations of the system shown in
Fig.9 by Rayleigh’s method.
E=196 GPa, I=106 m4, m1=40 kg, m2=20 kg
VTU Exam July/Aug 2005 for 20 Marks
Step1:
Find deflections at point of loading from strength of materials principle.
For a simply supported beam shown in Fig.10, the deflection of beam at distance x
from left is given by:
( ) b) (l x for b x l
6EIl
Wbx
y
2 2 2
− ≤ − − =
For the given problem deflection at loads can be obtained by superposition of
deflections due to each load acting separately.
1 2
m
1
m
2
B
160 80 180
A
Fig.9 A rotor system.
b
x
l
W
Fig.10 A simply supported beam
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
13
Deflections due to 20 kg mass
( )
( )
EI
0.265
0.18 0.16 0.42
6EI0.42
x0.18x0.16 9.81x20
y
2 2 2 '
1
= − − =
( )
( )
EI
0.29
0.18 0.24 0.42
6EIx0.42
x0.18x0.24 9.81x20
y
2 2 2 '
2
= − − =
Deflections due to 40 kg mass
( )
( )
EI
0.538
0.16 0.26 0.42
6EIx0.42
x0.16x0.26 9.81x40
y
2 2 2 ' '
1
= − − =
( )
( )
EI
0.53
0.16 0.18 0.42
6EIx0.42
x0.16x0.18 9.81x40
y
2 2 2 ' '
2
= − − =
The deflection at point 1 is:
EI
0.803
y y y
' '
1
'
1 1
= + =
The deflection at point 2 is:
EI
0.82
y y y
' '
2
'
2 2
= + =
∑
∑
=
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
n
1 i
i i
2
y m
gy m
ω
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
20x0.82 40x0.803
20x0.82 40x0.803 9.81
ω
+
+
=
rad/s 1541.9 ω
n
=
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
14
Numerical methods
(i) Matrix iteration method
Using this method one can obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors of a vibratory
system having multidegree freedom.
It is required to have ω
1
< ω
2
<……….< ω
n
Eqns. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written
as:
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 x K x M = +
& &
where,
{ } { } ( ) φ ωt sin A x + = (8)
substitute Eqn.(8) in (9)
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 A K A M ω
2
= + − (9)
For principal modes of oscillations, for r
th
mode,
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 A K A M ω
r r
2
r
= + −
[ ] [ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A M K
1
1
=
−
[ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A D
1
= (10)
where, [ ] D is referred as Dynamic matrix.
Eqn.(10) converges to first natural frequency and first modal vector.
The Equation,
[ ] [ ]{ } { }
r
2
r r
A ω A K M =
−1
[ ]{ } { }
r
2
r r 1
A ω A D = (11)
where, [ ]
1
D is referred as inverse dynamic matrix.
Eqn.(11) converges to last natural frequency and last modal vector.
In above Eqns (10) and (11) by assuming trial modal vector and iterating till the Eqn
is satisfied, one can estimate natural frequency of a system.
Examples: 1
Find first natural frequency and modal vector of the system shown in the Fig.10 using
matrix iteration method. Use flexibility influence coefficients.
Find influence coefficients.
2K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
2K
3
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
15
2K
5
α
33
=
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
α α α
α α α
α α α
α
[ ] [ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
= =
−
5 3 1
3 3 1
1 1 1
2K
1
K α
1
First natural frequency and modal vector
[ ] [ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A M K
1
1
=
−
[ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A D
1
=
Obtain Dynamic matrix [ ] [ ] [ ] M K D
1 −
=
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
5 3 1
3 3 1
1 1 1
2K
m
D
Use basic Eqn to obtain first frequency
[ ]{ } { }
1 2
r
1
A
ω
A D
1
=
Assume trial vector and substitute in the above Eqn.
Assumed vector is: { }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
1
1
1
u
1
First Iteration
[ ]{ } =
1
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
1
1
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
2.6
2.2
1
2K
5m
As the new vector is not matching with the assumed one, iterate again using the new
vector as assumed vector in next iteration.
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
16
Second Iteration
[ ]{ } =
2
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
2.6
2.2
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.13
2.55
1
K
4.5m
Third Iteration
[ ]{ } =
3
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
3.133
2.555
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.22
2.61
1
K
5.12m
Fourth Iteration
[ ]{ } =
4
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
3.22
2.61
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
K
5.22m
As the vectors are matching stop iterating. The new vector is the modal vector.
To obtain the natural frequency,
[ ]
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3.22
2.61
1
D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
K
5.22m
Compare above Eqn with with basic Eqn.
[ ]{ } { }
1 2
1
1
A
ω
A D
1
=
K
5.22m
ω
1
2
1
=
m
K
5.22
1
ω
2
1
=
m
K
0.437 ω
1
= Rad/s
Modal vector is:
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
A
1
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
17
Method of obtaining natural frequencies in between first and last one
(Sweeping Technique)
For understanding it is required to to clearly understand Orthogonality principle of
modal vectors.
Orthogonality principle of modal vectors
Consider two vectors shown in Fig.11. Vectors { } { } b and a are orthogonal to each
other if and only if
{ } { } 0 b a
T
=
{ } 0
b
b
a a
2
1
2 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
{ } 0
b
b
1 0
0 1
a a
2
1
2 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(
¸
{ } [ ]{ } 0 b I a
T
= (12)
where, [ ] I is Identity matrix.
From Eqn.(12), Vectors { } { } b and a are orthogonal to each other with respect to
identity matrix.
Application of orthogonality principle in vibration analysis
Eqns. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written
as:
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 x K x M = +
& &
{ } { } ( ) φ ωt sin A x + =
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 A K A M ω
2
= + −
1 1
x
1
x
2
{ }
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
2
1
b
b
b
{ }
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
2
1
a
a
a
Fig.11 Vector representation graphically
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
18
[ ]{ } [ ]{ }
1 1
A K A M ω
2
=
If system has two frequencies ω
1
and ω
2
[ ]{ } [ ]{ }
1 1
A K A M ω
2
1
= (13)
[ ]{ } [ ]{ }
2 2
A K A M ω
2
2
= (14)
Multiply Eqn.(13) by { }
T
2
A and Eqn.(14) by { }
T
1
A
{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ }
1
T
2 1
T
2
2
1
A K A A M A ω = (15)
{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ }
2
T
1 2
T
1
2
1
A K A A M A ω = (16)
Eqn.(15)(16)
{ } [ ]{ } 0 A M A
2
T
1
=
Above equation is a condition for mass orthogonality.
{ } [ ]{ } 0 A K A
2
T
1
=
Above equation is a condition for stiffness orthogonality.
By knowing the first modal vector one can easily obtain the second modal vector
based on either mass or stiffness orthogonality. This principle is used in the matrix
iteration method to obtain the second modal vector and second natural frequency.
This technique is referred as Sweeping technique
Sweeping technique
After obtaining { }
1 1
ω and A to obtain { }
2 2
ω and A choose a trial vector { }
1
V
orthogonal to { }
1
A ,which gives constraint Eqn.:
{ } [ ]{ } 0 A M V
1
T
1
=
{ } 0
A
A
A
m 0 0
0 m 0
0 0 m
V V V
3
2
1
3
2
1
3 2 1
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
( ) ( ) ( ) { } 0 A m V A m V A m V
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
= + +
( ) ( ) ( ) { } 0 V A m V A m V A m
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
= + +
3 2 1
βV αV V + =
where α and β are constants


¹

\

− =
1 1
2 2
A m
A m
α


¹

\

− =
1 1
3 3
A m
A m
β
Therefore the trial vector is:
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
19
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦ +
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
2
3 2
3
2
1
V
V
βV αV
V
V
V
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
3
2
1
V
V
V
1 0 0
0 1 0
β α 0
[ ]{ }
1
V S =
where [ ] S = is referred as Sweeping matrix and { }
1
V is the trial vector.
New dynamics matrix is:
[ ] [ ][ ] S D D
s
+
[ ]{ } { }
2 2
2
1 s
A
ω
V D
1
=
The above Eqn. Converges to second natural frequency and second modal vector.
This method of obtaining frequency and modal vectors between first and the last one
is referred as sweeping technique.
Examples: 2
For the Example problem 1, Find second natural frequency and modal vector of the
system shown in the Fig.10 using matrix iteration method and Sweeping technique.
Use flexibility influence coefficients.
For this example already the first frequency and modal vectors are obtained by matrix
iteration method in Example 1. In this stage only how to obtain second frequency is
demonstrated.
First Modal vector obtained in Example 1 is:
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
A
A
A
A
3
2
1
1
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
M is the mass matrix
Find sweeping matrix
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
1 0 0
0 1 0
β α 0
S
2.61
2(1)
2(2.61)
A m
A m
α
1 1
2 2
− =


¹

\

− =


¹

\

− =
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
20
1.615
2(1)
1(3.23)
A m
A m
β
1 1
3 3
− =


¹

\

− =


¹

\

− =
Sweeping matrix is:
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
1 0 0
0 1 0
1.615  2.61  0
S
New Dynamics matrix is:
[ ] [ ][ ] S D D
s
+
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
=
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
=
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
1 0 0
0 1 0
1.615  2.61  0
5 3 1
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
D
s
First Iteration
[ ]{ } { }
2 2
2
1 s
A
ω
V D
1
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
8.14
1
9.71 
K
0.28m
2.28
0.28
2.27 
K
m
1
1
1
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
Second Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
31.54
1 
21.28 
K
0.5m
15.77
0.50 
10.64 
K
m
8.14
1
9.71 
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
Third Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
15.38
1 
8.67 
K
3.85m
59.52
3.85 
33.39 
K
m
31.54
1 
21.28 
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
Fourth Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
13.78
1 
8.98 
K
2.08m
28.67
2.08 
18.68 
K
m
15.38
1 
8.67 
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
Fifth Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
13.5
1
7.2 
K
1.90m
25.65
1.90 
13.68 
K
m
13.78
1
8.98 
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
Sixth Iteration
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
21
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
−
− −
13.43
1 
7.08 
K
1.87m
25.12
1.87 
13.24 
K
m
13.5
1 
7.2 
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
K
1087m
ω
1
2
2
=
m
K
1.87
1
ω
2
1
=
m
K
0.73 ω
1
=
Modal vector
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
1.89
0.14 
1 
A
2
Similar manner the next frequency and modal vectors can be obtained.
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
22
(ii) Stodola’s method
It is a numerical method, which is used to find the fundamental natural frequency and
modal vector of a vibratory system having multidegree freedom. The method is
based on finding inertia forces and deflections at various points of interest using
flexibility influence coefficents.
Principle / steps
1. Assume a modal vector of system. For example for 3 dof systems:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1
1
1
x
x
x
3
2
1
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point,
1
2
1 1
x ω m F = for Mass 1
2
2
2 2
x ω m F = for Mass 2
3
2
3 3
x ω m F = for Mass 3
3. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients, using the
formula,
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ +
+ +
+ +
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
33 3 32 2 31 1
23 3 22 2 21 1
13 3 12 2 11 1
3
2
1
α F α F α F
α F α F α F
α F α F α F
x
x
x
4. If assumed modal vector is equal to modal vector obtained in step 3, then solution
is converged. Natural frequency can be obtained from above equation, i.e
If
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
≅
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
2
1
3
2
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
Stop iterating.
Find natural frequency by first equation,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x + + = = ′ 1
5. If assumed modal vector is not equal to modal vector obtained in step 3, then
consider obtained deflection vector as new vector and iterate till convergence.
Example1
Find the fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of a vibratory system shown
in Fig.10 using Stodola’s method.
First iteration
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
23
1. Assume a modal vector of system { }
1
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1
1
1
x
x
x
3
2
1
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
2mω x ω m F = =
2
2
2
2 2
2mω x ω m F = =
2
3
2
3 3
mω x ω m F = =
3. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients
Obtain flexibility influence coefficients of the system:
2K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
2K
3
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
2K
5
α
33
=
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x + + = ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
5mω
2K
mω
K
mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x + + = ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
11mω
2K
3mω
2K
6mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x + + = ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
13mω
2K
5mω
2K
6mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
13
11
5
2K
mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
2.6
2.2
1
2K
5mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
2
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
1 2
u u ≠ . Iterate again using new deflection vector { }
2
u
Second iteration
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
24
1. Initial vector of system { }
2
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
2.6
2.2
1
x
x
x
3
2
1
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
2mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
2
2
2
2 2
mω 4 x ω m F 4 . = ′ = ′
2
3
2
3 3
2.6mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
3. New deflection vector,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
9mω
2K
2.6mω
2K
4.4mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′ ′
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
23mω
2K
7.8mω
2K
13.2mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′ ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
28.2mω
2K
13mω
2K
13.2mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′ ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
28.2
23
9
2K
mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
3.13
2.55
1
2K
9mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
3
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
2 3
u u ≠ . Iterate again using new deflection vector{ }
3
u
Third iteration
1. Initial vector of system { }
3
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
3.13
2.55
1
x
x
x
3
2
1
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
2mω x ω m F = ′ ′ = ′ ′
2
2
2
2 2
5.1mω x ω m F = ′ ′ = ′ ′
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
25
3. new deflection vector,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x ′ ′ + ′ ′ + ′ ′ = ′ ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
10.23mω
2K
3.13mω
2K
5.1mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′ ′ ′
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x ′ ′ + ′ ′ + ′ ′ = ′ ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
26.69mω
2K
9.39mω
2K
15.3mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′ ′ ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x ′ ′ + ′ ′ + ′ ′ = ′ ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
28.2mω
2K
16.5mω
2K
15.3mω
K
mω
x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′ ′ ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
33.8
26.69
10.23
2K
mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
3.30
2.60
1
2K
10.23mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
4
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
3 4
u u ≅ stop Iterating
Fundamental natural frequency can be obtained by.
1 =
2K
10.23mω
2
m
K
0.44 ω = rad/s
Modal vector is:
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.30
2.60
1
A
1
2
3
2
3 3
3.13mω x ω m F = ′ ′ = ′ ′
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
26
Example2
For the system shown in Fig.12 find the lowest natural frequency by Stodola’s method
(carryout two iterations)
July/Aug 2005 VTU for 10 marks
Obtain flexibility influence coefficients,
3K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
3K
4
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
3K
7
α
33
=
First iteration
1. Assume a modal vector of system { }
1
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1
1
1
x
x
x
3
2
1
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
4mω x ω m F = =
2
2
2
2 2
2mω x ω m F = =
2
3
2
3 3
mω x ω m F = =
3. New deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x + + = ′
3K
7mω
3K
mω
3K
2mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′
4m
3K
2m
K
x
1
x
2
m
K
x
3
Fig.12 Linear vibratory system
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
27
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x + + = ′
3K
16mω
3K
4mω
3K
8mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x + + = ′
3K
19mω
3K
7mω
3K
8mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
19
16
7
3K
mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
2.71
2.28
1
3K
7mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
2
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
1 2
u u ≠ . Iterate again using new deflection vector { }
2
u
Second iteration
1. Initial vector of system { }
2
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′
′
′
2.71
2.28
1
x
x
x
3
2
1
2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
4mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
2
2
2
2 2
4.56mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
2
3
2
3 3
2.71mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
3. New deflection vector
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
3K
11.27mω
3K
2.71mω
3K
4.56mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′ ′
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
3K
33.08mω
3K
10.84mω
3K
18.24mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′ ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
3K
41.21mω
3K
18.97mω
3K
18.24mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′ ′
4. New deflection vector is:
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
28
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
41.21
33.08
11.27
3K
mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
3.65
2.93
1
K
3.75mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
3
u
Stop Iterating as it is asked to carry only two iterations. The Fundamental natural
frequency can be calculated by,
1
2K
3.75mω
2
=
m
K
0.52 ω =
Modal vector,
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.65
2.93
1
A
1
Disadvantage of Stodola’s method
Main drawback of Stodola’s method is that the method can be used to find only
fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of vibratory systems. This method is
not popular because of this reason.
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
29
(iii) Holzar’s method
It is an iterative method, used to find the natural frequencies and modal vector of a
vibratory system having multidegree freedom.
Principle
Consider a multi dof semidefinite torsional semidefinite system as shown in Fig.13.
The Eqns. of motions of the system are:
0 θ (θ K θ J
2 1 1 1 1
= − + )
& &
0 θ (θ K θ (θ K θ J
3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
= − + − + ) )
& &
0 θ (θ K θ (θ K θ J
4 3 3 2 3 2 3 3
= − + − + ) )
& &
0 θ (θ K θ J
3 4 3 4 4
= − + )
& &
The Motion is harmonic,
( ) ωt sin φ θ
i i
= (17)
where i=1,2,3,4
Substitute above Eqn.(17) in Eqns. of motion, we get,
) φ (φ K φ J ω
2 1 1 1 1
2
− = (18)
) φ (φ K ) φ (φ K φ J ω
3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
2
− + − =
) φ (φ K ) φ (φ K φ J ω
4 3 3 2 3 2 3 3
2
− + − =
) φ (φ K φ J ω
3 4 3 4 4
2
− + (19)
Add above Eqns. (18) to (19), we get
0 φ J ω
4
1 i
i i
2
=
∑
=
For n dof system the above Eqn changes to,
0 φ J ω
n
1 i
i i
2
=
∑
=
(20)
The above equation indicates that sum of inertia torques (torsional systems) or inertia
forces (linear systems) is equal to zero for semidefinite systems.
θ
1
K
1
θ
2
θ
3
K
2 K
3
θ
4
J
4
J
3
J
2
J
1
Fig.13 A torsional semidefinite system
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
30
In Eqn. (20) ω and φi both are unknowns. Using this Eqn. one can obtain natural
frequencies and modal vectors by assuming a trial frequency ω and amplitude φ
1
so
that the above Eqn is satisfied.
Steps involved
1. Assume magnitude of a trial frequency ω
2. Assume amplitude of first disc/mass (for simplicity assume φ
1
=1
3. Calculate the amplitude of second disc/mass φ
2
from first Eqn. of motion
0 ) φ (φ K φ J ω
2 1 1 1 1
2
= − =
1
1 1
2
1 2
K
φ J ω
φ φ − =
4. Similarly calculate the amplitude of third disc/mass φ
3
from second Eqn. of motion.
0 ) φ (φ K ) φ (φ K φ J ω
3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
2
= − + − =
0 ) φ (φ K ) φ
K
φ J ω
(φ K φ J ω
3 2 2 1
1
1 1
2
1 1 2 2
2
= − + − − =
0 ) φ (φ K φ J ω φ J ω
3 2 2 1 1
2
2 2
2
= − + − =
2 2
2
1 1
2
3 2 2
φ J ω φ J ω ) φ (φ K + = −
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2 3
K
φ J ω φ J ω
 φ φ
+
= (21)
The Eqn (21) can be written as:
2
2
1 i
2
i i
2 3
K
ω φ J
 φ φ
∑
=
=
5. Similarly calculate the amplitude of nth disc/mass φ
n
from (n1)th Eqn. of motion
is:
n
n
1 i
2
i i
1  n n
K
ω φ J
 φ φ
∑
=
=
6. Substitute all computed φi values in basic constraint Eqn.
0 φ J ω
n
1 i
i i
2
=
∑
=
7. If the above Eqn. is satisfied, then assumed ω is the natural frequency, if the Eqn is
not satisfied, then assume another magnitude of ω and follow the same steps.
For ease of computations, Prepare the following table, this facilitates the calculations.
Table1. Holzar’s Table
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
31
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω
S No J φ Jω
2
φ
K
Example1
For the system shown in the Fig.16, obtain natural frequencies using Holzar’s method.
Make a table as given by Table1, for iterations, follow the steps discussed earlier.
Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.
Table2. Holzar’s Table for Example1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω
S No J φ Jω
2
φ
K
Iiteration
0.25
1 1 1 0.0625 0.0625 1 0.0625
2 1 0.9375 0.0585 0.121 1 0.121
3 1 0.816 0.051 0.172
IIiteration
0.50
1 1 1 0.25 0.25 1 0.25
2 1 0.75 0.19 0.44 1 0.44
3 1 0.31 0.07 0.51
IIIiteration
0.75
1 1 1 0.56 0.56 1 0.56
2 1 0.44 0.24 0.80 1 0.80
3 1 0.36 0.20 0.60
IViteration
1.00
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 0 0 1 1 1
∑
φ
2
Jω
∑
φ
2
Jω
K
1
θ
1
K
1
θ
2
θ
3
K
2
J
3
J
2
J
1
Fig.14 A torsional semidefinite system
∑
φ
2
Jω
∑
φ
2
Jω
K
1
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
32
3 1 1 1 0
Viteration
1.25
1 1 1 1.56 1.56 1 1.56
2 1 0.56 0.87 0.69 1 0.69
3 1 1.25 1.95 1.26
VIiteration
1.50
1 1 1 2.25 2.25 1 2.25
2 1 1.25 2.82 0.57 1 0.57
3 1 0.68 1.53 2.10
VIIiteration
1.75
1 1 1 3.06 3.06 1 3.06
2 1 2.06 6.30 3.24 1 3.24
3 1 1.18 3.60 0.36
Table.3 Iteration summary table
ω
0 0
0.25 0.17
0.5 0.51
0.75 0.6
1 0
1.25 1.26
1.5 2.1
1.75 0.36
∑
φ
2
Jω
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
33
The values in above table are plotted in Fig.15.
From the above Graph, the values of natural frequencies are:
rad/s 1.71 ω
rad/s 1 ω
rad/s 0 ω
3
2
1
=
=
=
Definite systems
The procedure discussed earlier is valid for semidefinite systems. If a system is
definite the basic equation Eqn. (20) is not valid. It is wellknown that for definite
systems, deflection at fixed point is always ZERO. This principle is used to obtain the
natural frequencies of the system by iterative process. The Example2 demonstrates
the method.
0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00
2.5
2.0
1.5
1.0
0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
∑
φ
2
Jω
Frequency, ω
Fig.15. Holzar’s plot of Table3
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
34
Example2
For the system shown in the figure estimate natural frequencies using Holzar’s
method.
July/Aug 2005 VTU for 20 marks
Make a table as given by Table1, for iterations, follow the steps discussed earlier.
Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.
Table4. Holzar’s Table for Example2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω
S No J φ Jω
2
φ
K
Iiteration
0.25
1 3 1 0.1875 0.1875 1 0.1875
2 2 0.8125 0.1015 0.289 2 0.1445
3 1 0.6679 0.0417 0.330 3 0.110
4 0. 557
IIiteration
0.50
1 3 1 0.75 0.75 1 0.75
2 2 0.25 0.125 0.875 2 0.437
3 1 0.187 0.046 0.828 3 0.27
4 0.463
IIIiteration
0.75
1 3 1 1.687 1.687 1 1.687
2 2 0.687 0.772 0.914 2 0.457
3 1 1.144 0.643 0.270 3 0.090
4 1.234
IViteration
1.00
1 3 1 3 3 1 3
2 2 2 4 1 2 0.5
J
2J
3K
2K
K
3J
Fig.16 A torsional system
∑
φ
2
Jω
∑
φ
2
Jω
K
1
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
35
3 1 1.5 1.5 2.5 3 0.833
4 0.667
Viteration
1.25
1 3 1 4.687 4.687 1 4.687
2 2 3.687 11.521 6.825 2 3.412
3 1 0.274 0.154 6.979 3 2.326
4 2.172
VIiteration
1.50
1 3 1 6.75 6.75 1 6.75
2 2 5.75 25.875 19.125 2 9.562
3 1 3.31 8.572 10.552 3 3.517
4 7.327
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω
S No J φ Jω
2
φ
K
VIIiteration
1.75
1 3 1 9.18 9.18 1 9.18
2 2 8.18 50.06 40.88 2 20.44
3 1 12.260 37.515 3.364 3 1.121
4 13.38
VIIIiteration
2.0
1 3 1 12 12 1 12
2 2 11 88 76 2 38
3 1 27 108 32 3 10.66
4 16.33
IXiteration
2.5
1 3 1 18.75 18.75 1 18.75
2 2 17.75 221.87 203.12 2 101.56
3 1 83.81 523.82 320.70 3 106.90
4 23.09
∑
φ
2
Jω
∑
φ
2
Jω
K
1
VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
36
Table.5 Iteration summary table
ω φ4
0 0
0.25 0.557
0.5 0.463
0.75 1.234
1 0.667
1.25 2.172
1.5 7.372
1.75 13.38
2 16.33
2.5 23.09
The values in above table are plotted in Fig.17.
From the above Graph, the values of natural frequencies are:
rad/s 2.30 ω
rad/s 1.15 ω
rad/s 0.35 ω
3
2
1
=
=
=
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
20
10
0
10
20
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
,
φ
4
Frequency,ω
1
ω
2
ω
3
ω
Fig.17. Holzar’s plot of Table5
VTU elearning Course
ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
2
Stiffness influence coefficents. For a multiDOF system one can express the relationship between displacement at a point and forces acting at various other points of the system by using influence coefficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents.
{F} = [K ]{x}
k11 k12 k13 [K ] = k 21 k 22 k 32 k 31 k 32 k 33 wher, k11, ……..k33 are referred as stiffness influence coefficients k11stiffness influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit deflection at point 1 k21 stiffness influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit deflection at point 1 k31 stiffness influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit deflection at point 1
Example1. Obtain the stiffness coefficients of the system shown in Fig.1.
K1 k11
m1
K1 x1=1 Unit K12
m1
K1 k13 x1=0
m1
x1=0 K2
K2 k21
m2
K2 x2=0 k22
m2
x2=1 Unit K3
k23
m2
x2=0 K3
K3 k31
m3
x3=0
k32
m3
k33 x3=0
m3
x3=1 Unit
(a)
(b)
(c)
Fig.1 Stiffness influence coefficients of the system Istep: Apply 1 unit deflection at point 1 as shown in Fig.1(a) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get,
k11 = K1 + K 2 k 21 = −K 2
k 31 = 0
Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal
APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
VTU elearning Course
ME65 Mechanical Vibrations
3
IIstep: Apply 1 unit deflection at point 2 as shown in Fig.1(b) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get,
k12 = K 2
k 22 = K 2 + K 3
k 31 = K 3
IIIstep: Apply 1 unit deflection at point 3 as shown in Fig.1(c) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get,
k13 = 0
k 23 = K 3
k 33 = K 3
k11 k12 k13 [K ] = k 21 k 22 k 32 k 31 k 32 k 33 (K 1 + K 2 ) [K ] =  K 2 0
 K2
(K 2 + K 3 )
 K3
0  K3 K3
From stiffness coefficients K matrix can be obtained without writing Eqns. of motion. Flexibility influence coefficents.
{F} = [K ]{x} {x} = [K ]−1 {F} {x} = [α]{F} where, [α]  Matrix of Flexibility influence coefficents given by
α11 α12 [α] = α21 α22 α31 α32 α13 α32 α33
wher, α11, ……..α33 are referred as stiffness influence coefficients α11flexibility influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit force at point 1 α21 flexibility influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit force at point 1 α31 flexibility influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit force at point 1 Example2. Obtain the flexibility coefficients of the system shown in Fig.2. Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru28.
We get.2(b) and write the force equilibrium equations. 1 1 α 23 = + K1 K 2 α33 = 1 1 1 + + K1 K 2 K 3 1 K1 Therefore.2 Flexibility influence coefficients of the system Prof. We get. K. 1 1 α 22 = α 32 = + K1 K 2 IIIstep: Apply 1 unit Force at point 3 as shown in Fig. 1 α11 = α 21 = α 31 = K1 IIstep: Apply 1 unit Force at point 2 as shown in Fig.2(c) and write the force equilibrium equations. α11 = α 21 = α12 = α31 = α13 == α 22 = α 32 = α 23 = α33 = 1 1 + K1 K 2 1 1 1 + + K1 K 2 K 3 K1 F1=0 m1 K1 x1=α11 F1=0 m1 K1 F1=0 x1=α12 m1 x1=α13 K2 K2 F2=1 m2 K2 x2=α21 F2=1 m2 x2=α22 K3 F2=1 m2 x2=α23 K3 K3 F3=0 m3 x3=α31 F3=0 m3 x3=α32 F3=0 m3 x3=α33 (a) (b) (c) Fig. . Bengaluru28. S. Kudari.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 4 Istep: Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.2(a) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get. Principal APS College of Engineering.
let us consider : K 1 = K 2 = K 3 = K α11 = α 21 = α12 = α31 = α13 == 1 1 = K1 K α 22 = α32 = α 23 = α33 1 1 2 + = K K K 1 1 1 3 = + + = K K K K α11 α12 [α] = α21 α22 α31 α32 α13 α32 α33 1 1 1 1 [α] = 1 2 2 K 1 2 3 [α] = [K ]−1 In Vibration analysis if there is need of [K ]−1 one can use flexibility coefficent matrix. Prof. K. S.3. Kudari. θ T l α11 m l m l F=1 l m l m Fig.4 Flexibility influence coefficents Istep: Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.4 and write the force equilibrium equations.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 5 For simplification.3 Pendulum system l m m Fig. Bengaluru28. . Example3 Obtain of the Flexibility influence coefficents of the pendulum system shown in the Fig. Principal APS College of Engineering. We get.
Approximate methods like Dunkerley’s method. Rayleigh’s method are used in such cases. S. l α22 = 5mg the influence coefficients are: α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 == α 22 = α 32 = α 23 = 11l 6mg l 5mg α33 = 11l 6mg Approximate methods In many engineering problems it is required to quickly estimate the first (fundamental) natural frequency. Bengaluru28. Principal APS College of Engineering. K. Prof. . (i) Dunkerley’s method Dunkerley’s formula can be determined by frequency equation. tan θ = sin θ sin θ = α11 = l sin θ α11 = l 3mg Similarly apply 1 unit force at point 2 and next at point 3 to obtain.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 6 T sin θ = l T cos θ = g(m + m + m) = 3mg tan θ = 1 3mg α11 l θ is small. Kudari. − ω 2 [M] + [K ] = [0] − [K ] + ω 2 [M] = [0] − − 1 [] + [K ]−1[M] = [0] I ω2 1 [] + [α][M] = [0] I ω2 For n DOF systems.
) = [0] 1 1 1 . . The natural frequency of the system considering only mass m1 is: ω1n = 1 = α11m1 K1 m1 The Dunkerley’s formula can be written as: 1 1 1 1 ≅ 2 + 2 + .. . the first natural frequency is: 1 2 ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 + .VTU elearning Course 1 0 . which can be used to estimate first natural frequency of a system approximately. = 0 1 1 1 2 + 2 + .. K.. S... − 2 + αnnmn ω . + αnnmn + . 1 . . Kudari. + αnnmn ) 2 ω ω (α11α22m1m2 + α11α33m1m3 + ...(1) and Eqn. Bengaluru28.. 2 − 2 2 ω ω ω1 ω ω2 ωn 1 1 1 1 1 = 2 − 2 + 2 + . ..... 2 2 ω1 ω2 ωn n (1) It is the polynomial equation of nth degree in (1/ω2). n n −1 (2) − . . mn . + αnnmn ) ω ωn 1 ω2 In mechanical systems higher natural frequencies are much larger than the fundamental (first) natural frequencies.. Let the roots of above Eqn.. . Approximately. 0 α11 α12 0 α21 α 22 + ....... Principal (3) APS College of Engineering. + 2 2 ω ω ωn ω 1 ω2 Comparing Eqn. + 2 2 ω1 ω1n ω2n ωnn Prof.. ME65 Mechanical Vibrations α1n m1 0 α 2n 0 m2 .. 0 = [0] . + αnnmn ) ω 1 The above formula is referred as Dunkerley’s formula.. + 2 = (α11m1 + α22m2 + .... we get. 1 αn1 αn2 ... . 7 1 α12m 2 − ω2 + α11m1 1 0 − 2 + α22m2 ω .. − 2 ω . αn1m1 αn2m 2 .. αnn 0 0 0 . (2).. 1 0 1 .. 2 − 2 . α1nmn n −1 Solve the determinant 1 1 2 − (α11m1 + α22m2 + . are: 1 1 1 1 1 1 − 2 . α2nmn = [0] . 2 ... 0 0 ....
ω 2n .. The above formula given by Eqn. + 2 2 ω1 ω1n ω2n ωnn Any one of the above formula can be used to find fundamental natural frequency approximately.. + αnnmn ) OR ω 1 1 1 1 1 ≅ 2 + 2 + .5 using Dunkerley’s method.. (3) can be used for any mechanical/structural system to obtain first natural frequency Examples: 1 Obtain the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig. + αnnmn ) ω 1 Prof. Principal APS College of Engineering... Bengaluru28. K.. . Kudari.. 1 2 ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 + . . K m x1 K m x2 K m x3 Fig...VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 8 where. 1 α11 = α21 = α12 = α31 = α13 = K 2 α22 = α32 = α23 = K 3 α33 = K Substitute all influence coefficients in the Dunkerley’s formula. are natural frequency of single degree of freedom system considering each mass separately. S... ω1n ... Find influence flexibility coefficients.5 Linear vibratory system Dunkerley’s formula is: 1 2 ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 + .
This principle is largely used for structural applications. Take m1=100 kg.245 rad/s (ii) Rayleigh’s method It is an approximate method of finding fundamental natural frequency of a system using energy principle. m1. m2 and m3 are masses of rotors on shaft supported by two bearings at A and B and y1. . Obtain the influence coefficents: α11 = α22 = 1.944x10 3 EI 9x10 3 EI 1 2 ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 ) ω n ωn = 1.6 A cantilever rotor system.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 9 1 m 2m 3m 6m 2 ≅ + + = ω K K K 1 K ω1= 0. 2 and 3. Principal APS College of Engineering. y2 and y3 are static deflection of shaft at points 1. K. m2=50 kg VTU Exam July/Aug 2006 for 20 Marks m1 1 180 120 m2 2 Fig.7. Prof. Principle of Rayleigh’s method Consider a rotor system as shown in Fig. Let.40 K/m rad/s Examples: 2 Find the lowest natural frequency of the system shown in Figure by Dunkerley’s method. S. Kudari. Bengaluru28.
Principal APS College of Engineering. mi.7 A rotor system. & y i = ω2 y i From above equations Tmax = ω2 2 ∑my i i =1 n 2 i (5) According to Rayleigh’s method. y3 For the given system maximum potential energy and kinetic energies are: Vmax = Tmax = 1 n ∑ migyi 2 i =1 1 n & ∑ mi yi2 2 i =1 (4) where. Kudari. Considering the system vibrates with SHM. . Prof. (4) and (5) in (6) ∑ m gy i n i ω2 = i =1 n ∑ mi yi2 i =1 (7) The deflections at point 1. Bengaluru28. which is used to estimate frequency of transverse vibrations of a vibratory systems.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 10 m1 A 1 m2 2 m3 3 B y1 y2 Fig. 2 and 3 can be found by.(7) is the Rayleigh’s formula. S. y1 = α11m1g + α12m2g + α13m3 g y 2 = α21m1g + α22m 2g + α23m3 g y 3 = α31m1g + α32m2 g + α33m3 g Eqn. K. yi –displacements at mass points.masses of the system. Vmax = Tmax (6) substitute Eqn.
Principal APS College of Engineering. K. S.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 11 Examples: 1 Estimate the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig. Bengaluru28.8 Linear vibratory system Obtain influence coefficients. . 2K 2m x1 K 2m x2 K m x3 Fig.8 using Rayleigh’s method. α11 = α21 = α12 = α31 = α13 = α 22 = α32 = α 23 = 5 2K Deflection at point 1 is: α33 = y1 = α11m1g + α12m 2g + α13m3 g mg (2 + 2 + 1) = 5mg = 5g 2K 2K 2000 Deflection at point 2 is: y1 = 3 2K 1 2K y 2 = α21m1g + α22m2g + α23m3 g mg (2 + 6 + 3 ) = 11mg = 11g 2K 2K 2000 Deflection at point 3 is: y2 = y 3 = α31m1g + α 32m2 g + α 33m3 g mg (2 + 6 + 5 ) = 13mg = 13g 2K 2K 2000 Rayleigh’s formula is: y3 = Prof. Kudari. Take: m=1kg and K=1000 N/m.
I=106 m4.10. Bengaluru28.9 A rotor system. Prof. the deflection of beam at distance x from left is given by: Wbx 2 (l − x 2 − b2 ) for x ≤ (l − b) y= 6EIl For the given problem deflection at loads can be obtained by superposition of deflections due to each load acting separately. Principal APS College of Engineering.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 12 ∑ m gy i n i ω = 2 i =1 n ∑m y i i =1 2 i 5 11 13 2 + 2x + 2x 2x g 2000 2000 2 2000 ω = 2 2 2 5 11 13 2 2 + 2 + 2 g 2000 2000 2000 ω = 12. E=196 GPa. Kudari. . W x l b Fig.9 by Rayleigh’s method. S.10 A simply supported beam For a simply supported beam shown in Fig. m2=20 kg VTU Exam July/Aug 2005 for 20 Marks m1 1 A 160 80 180 m2 2 B Fig. Step1: Find deflections at point of loading from strength of materials principle.41 rad/s Examples: 2 Find the lowest natural frequency of transverse vibrations of the system shown in Fig. m1=40 kg. K.
18 2 ) = y '2 = 6EIx0.42 2 − 0.26 (0.81x40 )x0.42 The deflection at point 1 is: 0.26 2 − 0.29 EI 0.81x40 )x0. K.18 2 ) = ' y1 = 6EI0.82 ) (40x0.18x0. Bengaluru28.16x0.803 ' ' y1 = y1 + y1' = EI The deflection at point 2 is: 0.81x20 )x0.42 2 − 0. Principal APS College of Engineering.18 (0.81x20 )x0.82 y 2 = y '2 + y '2' = EI 0.18x0.16x0.42 (9.265 EI 0.9 rad/s Prof.81(40x0.53 EI ∑ m gy i n i ω2 = i =1 n ∑my i i =1 2 i ω2 = 9.16 2 − 0.538 EI 0. Kudari.18 2 − 0.42 2 − 0.24 (0.16 (0. .16 2 ) = y '2' = 6EIx0.42 2 − 0.42 (9. S.803 2 ) + (20x0.16 2 ) = ' y1' = 6EIx0.82 2 ) ωn = 1541.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 13 Deflections due to 20 kg mass (9.803 + 20x0.42 Deflections due to 40 kg mass (9.24 2 − 0.
[M]−1 [K ]{A}r = ωr2 {A}r [D1]{A}r = ωr2 {A}r where. .< ωn Eqns. S. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written as: [M]{&&} + [K ]{x} = [0] x where. Find influence coefficients. [D] is referred as Dynamic matrix. K. Use flexibility influence coefficients.(10) converges to first natural frequency and first modal vector. Bengaluru28. (11) Eqn. one can estimate natural frequency of a system. Kudari. for r mode. {x} = {A}sin(ωt + φ) substitute Eqn. − ωr2 [M]{A}r + [K ]{A}r = [0] [K ]−1[M]{A}r [D]{A}r = = 1 {A}r ωr2 1 {A}r ωr2 (10) where.10 using matrix iteration method. Eqn. It is required to have ω1< ω2<……….(8) in (9) − ω 2 [M]{A} + [K ]{A} = [0] (8) (9) th For principal modes of oscillations. Examples: 1 Find first natural frequency and modal vector of the system shown in the Fig. [D1 ] is referred as inverse dynamic matrix. α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 = 1 2K α22 = α32 = α23 = 3 2K Prof.(11) converges to last natural frequency and last modal vector. In above Eqns (10) and (11) by assuming trial modal vector and iterating till the Eqn is satisfied. Principal APS College of Engineering. The Equation.VTU elearning Course Numerical methods ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 14 (i) Matrix iteration method Using this method one can obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors of a vibratory system having multidegree freedom.
Prof.6 2 6 5 As the new vector is not matching with the assumed one.VTU elearning Course 5 2K ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 15 α33 = α11 α12 [α] = α21 α22 α31 α32 α13 α32 α33 [α] = [K ] −1 1 1 1 1 = 1 3 3 2K 1 3 5 First natural frequency and modal vector [K ]−1[M]{A}r = 12 {A}r ωr [D]{A}r = 1 {A}r ωr2 Obtain Dynamic matrix [D] = [K ]−1 [M] 1 1 1 2 0 0 2 2 1 m 0 2 0 = m 2 6 3 [D] = 1 3 3 2K 2K 1 3 5 0 0 1 2 6 5 Use basic Eqn to obtain first frequency [D]{A}1 = 12 {A}1 ωr Assume trial vector and substitute in the above Eqn. iterate again using the new vector as assumed vector in next iteration. Kudari. 1 Assumed vector is: {u}1 = 1 1 First Iteration 2 2 1 1 1 m 1 = 5m 2. Principal APS College of Engineering. S.2 [D]{u}1 = 2 6 3 2K 1 2K 2. Bengaluru28. K. .
VTU elearning Course Second Iteration ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 16 [D]{u}2 2 2 1 1 1 m 2.23 Compare above Eqn with with basic Eqn. S.23 Prof.61 = 2.61 2 6 3 = 2K K 3.23 As the vectors are matching stop iterating.6 2 6 5 3. K.61 [D]{u}4 = 2 6 3 2K K 2 6 5 3. [D]{A}1 = 12 {A}1 ω1 1 5.61 = 5.22 3.5m 2.133 2 6 5 3.22m = 2 ω1 K 2 ω1 = 1 K 5.13 2 2 1 1 1 m 2.22 Third Iteration [D]{u}3 Fourth Iteration 2 2 1 1 1 m 2.555 = 5.2 = 4. The new vector is the modal vector.12m 2. 1 1 5. Principal APS College of Engineering. Kudari.22 3.55 2 6 3 = K 2K 2.61 K 3. Bengaluru28. . To obtain the natural frequency.22m [D] 2.22 m ω1 = 0.22m 2.437 Modal vector is: K Rad/s m {A}1 1 = 2.61 3.
Vectors {a} identity matrix. and {b} are orthogonal to each other with respect to Application of orthogonality principle in vibration analysis Eqns. Vectors {a} and other if and only if {b}are orthogonal to each {a}T {b} = 0 {a1 {a1 b a2 } 1 = 0 b2 1 0 b1 a 2 } = 0 0 1 b 2 (12) {a}T []{b} = 0 I where. Kudari.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 17 Method of obtaining natural frequencies in between first and last one (Sweeping Technique) For understanding it is required to to clearly understand Orthogonality principle of modal vectors.11. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written as: [M]{&&} + [K ]{x} = [0] x {x} = {A}sin(ωt + φ) − ω 2 [M]{A}1 + [K ]{A}1 = [0] Prof. [] is Identity matrix. I From Eqn. S. K. Principal APS College of Engineering. Orthogonality principle of modal vectors x2 {b} = b1 b2 {a} = a1 a2 x1 Fig. .11 Vector representation graphically Consider two vectors shown in Fig. Bengaluru28.(12).
This principle is used in the matrix iteration method to obtain the second modal vector and second natural frequency. K. Kudari. By knowing the first modal vector one can easily obtain the second modal vector based on either mass or stiffness orthogonality. T {A}1 [K ]{A}2 Above equation is a condition for stiffness orthogonality.which gives constraint Eqn.VTU elearning Course ω 2 [M]{A}1 = [K ]{A }1 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 18 If system has two frequencies ω1 and ω2 2 ω1 [M]{A}1 = [K ]{A }1 (13) (14) T ω 2 [M]{A}2 = [K ]{A}2 2 Multiply Eqn. . S. Principal APS College of Engineering.: T {V}1 [M]{A}1 = 0 {V1 V2 0 A1 m1 0 0 m V3 } 0 A 2 = 0 2 0 0 m3 A 3 {(V1m1A1 ) + (V2m2 A 2 ) + (V3m3 A 3 )} = 0 {(m1A1 )V1 + (m2 A 2 )V2 + (m3 A 3 )V3 } = 0 V1 = αV2 + βV3 where α and β are constants m A α = − 2 2 mA 1 1 m A β = − 3 3 mA 1 1 Therefore the trial vector is: Prof. Bengaluru28.(15)(16) T {A}1 [M]{A}2 =0 =0 Above equation is a condition for mass orthogonality.(14) by {A}1 T 2 ω1 {A}2 [M]{A}1 = {A}2 [K ]{A}1 T T 2 ω1 {A}1 [M]{A}2 = {A}1 [K ]{A}2 T T (15) (16) Eqn.(13) by {A}2 and Eqn. This technique is referred as Sweeping technique Sweeping technique After obtaining {A}1 and ω1 to obtain {A}2 and ω 2 choose a trial vector {V}1 orthogonal to {A}1 .
Use flexibility influence coefficients. Kudari. Examples: 2 For the Example problem 1.61) α = − 2 2 = − 2(1) = −2. First Modal vector obtained in Example 1 is: {A}1 A1 1 = A 2 = 2. . Principal APS College of Engineering. In this stage only how to obtain second frequency is demonstrated.10 using matrix iteration method and Sweeping technique. For this example already the first frequency and modal vectors are obtained by matrix iteration method in Example 1. K. New dynamics matrix is: [Ds ] + [D][S] [Ds ]{V}1 = 1 {A}2 ω2 2 The above Eqn. Converges to second natural frequency and second modal vector.61 mA 1 1 Prof.61 A 3. S. This method of obtaining frequency and modal vectors between first and the last one is referred as sweeping technique.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 19 V1 (αV2 + βV3 ) V2 V2 = V V3 3 0 α β V1 = 0 1 0 V2 0 0 1 V3 = [S]{V}1 where = [S] is referred as Sweeping matrix and {V}1 is the trial vector.23 3 2 0 0 [M] = 0 2 0 is the mass matrix 0 0 1 Find sweeping matrix 0 α β [S] = 0 1 0 0 0 1 m A 2(2. Find second natural frequency and modal vector of the system shown in the Fig. Bengaluru28.
89 8.7.9.1 = m .33.8.54 Third Iteration 0 − 1.14 Second Iteration 0 − 1.5 Sixth Iteration Prof.38 Fourth Iteration 0 − 1.39 1.8.1.85 = 3.8. K.67 .11 K K 31. Principal APS College of Engineering.14 K 15.1 0 0. Kudari.615 [S] = 0 1 0 0 0 1 New Dynamics matrix is: [Ds ] + [D][S] 2 2 1 0 .1 0 0.13.28 .28 = 0.39 1.2.77 0 0.11 [Ds ] = 2 6 3 1 0 2K K 1 3 5 0 0 0.61 − 1.27 .11 .3.61 − 1.18.68 .08m .11 .39 − 0.11 1 .39 1.1 0 0.39 0 1 1.98 m .71 .28m 1 0 0.61 .39 1.89 31.11 .78 Fifth Iteration 0 − 1.39 − 0.39 1. .61 − 1.78 25.89 First Iteration 1 {A}2 ω2 2 [Ds ]{V}1 = 0 − 1.1.61 − 1.8.2.65 13.64 .5m .21.11 K K 15. S.28 m 1 = m .67 0 0.1.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 20 m A 1(3.61 − 1.90 = 1.50 = 0.08 = 2.615 0 − 1.71 m 1 = m 0.90m 1 0 0.52 0 0.11 K K 1 K 2.68 .11 .61 .39 − 0.89 13.0.61 − 1.39 − 0.11 K K K 0 0.23) β = − 3 3 = − 2(1) = −1.2.38 K 28.21.615 mA 1 1 Sweeping matrix is: 0 .1 = m .85m .89 13.98 . Bengaluru28.2.67 m .39 − 0.11 K K 8.9.10.39 .11 m 0 = m 0 0.28 0 0.39 − 0.54 K 59.89 15.2 m 1 = m .
89 Similar manner the next frequency and modal vectors can be obtained.14 1.7.39 − 0.24 .87m .11 K K 13.89 13.61 − 1. Bengaluru28.87 m ω1 = 0.43 1087m 1 = 2 ω2 K 2 ω1 = 1 K 1.87 = 1.0.7.2 .11 . Prof. Principal APS College of Engineering.12 0 0. S. . K.39 1.08 m .13.1 = m .73 Modal vector K m 1 {A}2 = .1 0 0. Kudari.5 K 25.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 21 0 − 1.1.
If assumed modal vector is not equal to modal vector obtained in step 3.e x1 x ′ 1 If x 2 ≅ x′2 Stop iterating. For example for 3 dof systems: x1 1 x 2 = 1 x 1 3 2. First iteration Prof. Principle / steps 1.10 using Stodola’s method. S. x′ F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 x′ = F1α21 + F2α22 + F3 α23 2 x′ F α + F α + F α 2 32 3 33 3 1 31 4. The method is based on finding inertia forces and deflections at various points of interest using flexibility influence coefficents.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 22 (ii) Stodola’s method It is a numerical method. If assumed modal vector is equal to modal vector obtained in step 3. using the formula. Example1 Find the fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of a vibratory system shown in Fig. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point. which is used to find the fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of a vibratory system having multidegree freedom. Assume a modal vector of system. Principal APS College of Engineering. then solution is converged. i. F1 = m1ω 2 x1 for Mass 1 F2 = m 2ω 2 x 2 for Mass 2 F3 = m 3ω 2 x 3 for Mass 3 3. then consider obtained deflection vector as new vector and iterate till convergence. Bengaluru28. Kudari. . x x′ 3 3 Find natural frequency by first equation. ′ x1 = 1 = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 5. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients. Natural frequency can be obtained from above equation. K.
Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point F1 = m1ω 2 x1 = 2m ω 2 F2 = m 2ω 2 x 2 = 2m ω 2 F3 = m 3ω 2 x 3 = m ω 2 3.s ′ x1 = mω 2 mω 2 mω 2 5m ω2 + + = K K 2K 2K x′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 Substitute for F’s and α.s x′ = 2 mω 2 6m ω2 3m ω2 11m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K x′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 Substitute for F’s and α. S. New deflection vector is: x′ = 3 ′ x1 5 mω2 x′2 = 11 2K x′ 3 13 x′ 1 5m ω2 x′ = 2 2K x′ 3 1 2.s mω 2 6m ω2 5m ω2 13m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K 4. Assume a modal vector of system {u}1 = x 2 = 1 x 1 3 2. .2 = {u}2 2. Iterate again using new deflection vector {u}2 Second iteration Prof. Principal APS College of Engineering.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 23 x1 1 1. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients Obtain flexibility influence coefficients of the system: α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 = α 22 = α32 = α 23 = α33 = 1 2K 3 2K 5 2K x′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 Substitute for F’s and α. Kudari. Bengaluru28.6 The new deflection vector {u}2 ≠ {u}1 . K.
K.6m ω 2 3 3.s mω 2 13. New deflection vector is: x′′ = 3 ′ x1′ 9 mω2 x′′ = 23 2 2K x′′ 3 28.s x′′ = 1 mω2 4. Bengaluru28. Kudari.8m ω2 23m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 Substitute for F’s and α. ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 Substitute for F’s and α.13 The new deflection vector {u}3 ≠ {u}2 .55 2 x′′ 3.2m ω2 13m ω 2 28.2 x′′ 1 9mω2 x′2 = ′ 2K x′′ 3 1 2.6m ω2 9m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 mω2 13.2m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K 4. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point ′ F1′ = m1ω 2 x′′ = 2m ω 2 1 ′ F2′ = m2ω2 x′′ = 5. New deflection vector.6 3 2.4m ω 2 2 ′ F3 = m 3ω 2 x′ = 2. S.s x′′ = 2 Substitute for F’s and α. Initial vector of system {u}2 = x′2 = 2. Initial vector of system {u}3 = x′′ = 2.4m ω2 2.13 3 2. . Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point ′ F1 = m1ω 2 x′ = 2m ω 2 1 ′ F2 = m 2 ω 2 x ′ = 4.2m ω2 7.1mω2 2 Prof. Iterate again using new deflection vector {u}3 Third iteration x′′ 1 1 1.2 x′ 2.55 = {u}3 3.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 24 x′ 1 1 1. Principal APS College of Engineering.
23m ω2 =1 2K ω = 0. Principal APS College of Engineering.s mω2 15.69m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′α ′ ′ x′′′ = F1′ 31 + F2′α32 + F3′α33 3 Substitute for F’s and α. K.39m ω2 26.3m ω2 9.60 3. New deflection vector is: x′′′ = 3 ′′ x1′ 10.30 The new deflection vector {u}4 ≅ {u}3 stop Iterating Fundamental natural frequency can be obtained by.s ′ x′2′ = mω2 15.3m ω2 16. S. new deflection vector. ′α ′ ′ x′′′ = F1′ 11 + F2′α12 + F3′α13 1 Substitute for F’s and α.VTU elearning Course ′ F3′ = m3ω2 x′′ = 3.69 2K x′′′ 3 33. .30 Prof.13m ω2 10.5m ω2 28.8 x′′′ 1 2 10. Bengaluru28. Kudari.s mω2 5. 10.23 2 mω ′ x′2′ = 26.2m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K 4.23mω x′′′ = 2 2K x′′′ 3 1 2.1m ω2 3.13mω2 3 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 25 3.44 K rad/s m Modal vector is: {A}1 1 = 2.60 = {u}4 3.23m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′α ′ ′ x′′′ = F1′ 21 + F2′α22 + F3′α23 2 x′′′ = 1 Substitute for F’s and α.
K. x′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 ′ x1 = 4m ω2 2m ω2 mω2 7m ω 2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K APS College of Engineering. New deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 26 Example2 For the system shown in Fig. Prof. Kudari.12 Linear vibratory system Obtain flexibility influence coefficients. S. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point F1 = m1ω 2 x1 = 4m ω 2 F2 = m 2 ω 2 x 2 = 2mω 2 F3 = m 3ω 2 x 3 = m ω 2 3. α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 = α 22 = α32 = α 23 = 1 3K 4 3K 7 3K First iteration α33 = x1 1 1. Assume a modal vector of system {u}1 = x 2 = 1 x 1 3 2.12 find the lowest natural frequency by Stodola’s method (carryout two iterations) July/Aug 2005 VTU for 10 marks 3K 4m x1 K 2m x2 K m x3 Fig. Principal . Bengaluru28.
New deflection vector is: x′′ = 3 Prof. K. New deflection vector is: x′ = 3 ′ x1 7 2 mω x′2 = 16 3K x′ 3 19 x′ 1 2 7mω x′2 = 3K x′ 3 1 2. Initial vector of system {u}2 = x′2 = 2. .27m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 4mω 2 18. Iterate again using new deflection vector {u}2 Second iteration x′ 1 1 1.28 x′ 2. S.97m ω 2 41. Principal APS College of Engineering.56m ω2 2.21m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K 4.71m ω 2 3 3.24m ω 2 18. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point ′ ′ F1 = m1ω 2 x1 = 4m ω 2 ′ F2 = m2ω 2 x′2 = 4.24m ω 2 10. Kudari.84m ω2 33.71 The new deflection vector {u}2 ≠ {u}1 .56m ω 2 ′ F3 = m 3ω 2 x′ = 2. Bengaluru28.08m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 x′′ = 2 4m ω2 18.71 3 2.28 = {u}2 2. New deflection vector ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 ′ x1′ = 4m ω2 4.71m ω2 11.VTU elearning Course x′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 27 x′ = 2 4mω 2 8m ω2 4m ω2 16m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K x′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 4mω 2 8m ω2 7m ω2 19m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K 4.
Principal APS College of Engineering. Prof. The Fundamental natural frequency can be calculated by. 3.65 Stop Iterating as it is asked to carry only two iterations.75mω x′′ = 2 K x′′ 3 ω = 0. S. Bengaluru28. Kudari.93 3. .75m ω2 =1 2K x′′ 1 2 3.27 1 2 mω ′ x′2 = 33. K. K m {A}1 1 = 2. This method is not popular because of this reason.52 Modal vector.21 1 2.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 28 x′′ 11.08 3K x′′ 3 41.93 = {u}3 3.65 Disadvantage of Stodola’s method Main drawback of Stodola’s method is that the method can be used to find only fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of vibratory systems.
4 Substitute above Eqn. used to find the natural frequencies and modal vector of a vibratory system having multidegree freedom. Principal APS College of Engineering. Kudari.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 29 (iii) Holzar’s method It is an iterative method. . ∑ ω Jφ 2 i i =1 n i =0 (20) The above equation indicates that sum of inertia torques (torsional systems) or inertia forces (linear systems) is equal to zero for semidefinite systems. of motion. θi = φisin(ωt ) where i=1.3.13.2. Bengaluru28. (18) to (19). we get. we get ∑ ω Jφ 2 i i =1 4 i =0 For n dof system the above Eqn changes to. ω 2J1φ1 = K 1(φ1 − φ 2 ) ω 2 J 2 φ 2 = K 1 ( φ 2 − φ1 ) + K 2 ( φ 2 − φ 3 ) ω 2J3φ 3 = K 2 (φ 3 − φ 2 ) + K 3 (φ 3 − φ 4 ) ω 2 J 4 φ 4 + K 3 (φ 4 − φ 3 ) (17) (18) (19) Add above Eqns.(17) in Eqns. of motions of the system are: && J θ + K (θ − θ ) = 0 1 1 1 1 2 && J2θ 2 + K 1(θ 2 − θ1 ) + K 2 (θ 2 − θ3 ) = 0 && J3θ3 + K 2 (θ3 − θ 2 ) + K 3 (θ3 − θ 4 ) = 0 && J4θ 4 + K 3 (θ 4 − θ3 ) = 0 The Motion is harmonic.13 A torsional semidefinite system The Eqns. J1 θ1 K 1 J2 θ2 K 2 J3 θ3 K 3 J4 θ4 Fig. Principle Consider a multi dof semidefinite torsional semidefinite system as shown in Fig. S. Prof. K.
Steps involved 1. of motion ω 2J1φ1 = K 1(φ1 − φ 2 ) = 0 φ 2 = φ1 − ω 2J1φ1 K1 4. then assume another magnitude of ω and follow the same steps. Principal APS College of Engineering.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 30 In Eqn. Similarly calculate the amplitude of nth disc/mass φn from (n1)th Eqn. then assumed ω is the natural frequency. is satisfied. this facilitates the calculations. Assume amplitude of first disc/mass (for simplicity assume φ1=1 3. of motion. Assume magnitude of a trial frequency ω 2. of motion is: ∑J φω i i n 2 φ n = φ n 1  i =1 Kn 6. S. if the Eqn is not satisfied. Calculate the amplitude of second disc/mass φ2 from first Eqn. Kudari. Bengaluru28. . K. Table1. Prepare the following table. (20) ω and φi both are unknowns. For ease of computations. one can obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors by assuming a trial frequency ω and amplitude φ1 so that the above Eqn is satisfied. Using this Eqn. If the above Eqn. Holzar’s Table Prof. ω 2 J 2 φ 2 = K 1 ( φ 2 − φ1 ) + K 2 ( φ 2 − φ 3 ) = 0 ω 2J2φ 2 = K 1(φ1 − ω2J1 φ1 − φ1 ) + K 2 (φ 2 − φ 3 ) = 0 K1 ω 2J2φ 2 = −ω 2 J1 φ1 + K 2 (φ 2 − φ 3 ) = 0 K 2 (φ 2 − φ 3 ) = ω 2J1 φ1 + ω 2J2φ 2 φ3 = φ2  ω 2J1 φ1 + ω 2 J2φ 2 K2 (21) The Eqn (21) can be written as: ∑J φω i i 2 2 φ3 = φ2  i =1 K2 5. Similarly calculate the amplitude of third disc/mass φ3 from second Eqn. Substitute all computed φi values in basic constraint Eqn. ∑ ω Jφ 2 i i =1 n i =0 7.
0625 0. Holzar’s Table for Example1 1 ω 2 S No 3 J 4 φ 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ 0. J1 θ1 K 1 J2 θ2 K 2 J3 θ3 Fig.80 0.20 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.44 0. S.25 0.50 2 3 IIIiteration 1 0.44 0.80 Prof.75 2 3 IViteration 1.172 0. Principal APS College of Engineering.60 1 1 K Iiteration 1 0.19 0.9375 0.0625 0.56 0.44 0. Bengaluru28.00 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.56 0.816 1 0.07 1 1 0. obtain natural frequencies using Holzar’s method.051 0. . Table2. K.16.121 0.VTU elearning Course 1 ω ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 4 φ 31 2 S No 3 J 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ K Example1 For the system shown in the Fig.56 0.121 1 1 0.0585 0. for iterations. follow the steps discussed earlier.31 0.51 0.14 A torsional semidefinite system Make a table as given by Table1.25 2 3 IIiteration 1 0.24 0. Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.0625 0.75 0.25 0.25 0. Kudari.36 0.
51 0.06 3.36 Prof.06 3.69 1 1 2. Kudari.26 2.3 Iteration summary table ω ∑ Jω φ 2 0 0.25 0.56 0.87 1.60 1 1 1 1 1.53 1 1 1 1 0. Bengaluru28.25 2 3 VIiteration 1 1.36 1 1 1. .69 1.25 0.68 2.25 0.24 Table.06 6.26 2.75 0 0.57 2.10 3.18 3.6 0 1.57 1 1 3.56 0.56 1.5 0.56 0.1 0.50 2 3 VIIiteration 1 1.75 2 3 1 1 1 1 2.5 1.06 1. Principal APS College of Engineering. K.25 1. S.17 0.82 1.95 1 1 1 0 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 32 1.25 0.30 3.VTU elearning Course 3 Viteration 1 1.25 2.75 1 1.25 1.24 0.
0 1.0 0.VTU elearning Course The values in above table are plotted in Fig. Principal APS College of Engineering.5 1. the values of natural frequencies are: ω1 = 0 rad/s ω 2 = 1 rad/s ω3 = 1.71 rad/s Definite systems The procedure discussed earlier is valid for semidefinite systems.25 1. It is wellknown that for definite systems.0 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 33 ∑ Jω φ 2 0. S.75 2. This principle is used to obtain the natural frequencies of the system by iterative process.15. K. ω Fig.5 1.00 Frequency.75 1.00 1.15.0 2.50 0. The Example2 demonstrates the method. 1. Holzar’s plot of Table3 From the above Graph.00 0.5 2.25 0. Prof.50 1.5 0. . Bengaluru28. (20) is not valid. Kudari. deflection at fixed point is always ZERO. If a system is definite the basic equation Eqn.5 0.
330 K Iiteration 1 0.110 3 2 1 0.687 0.914 0.046 0.125 0.828 1 2 3 0.1875 0.643 1. S.772 0.875 0. . Bengaluru28.00 1 2 3 2 1 2 3 4 3 1 1 2 3 0. for iterations.1875 0.437 0.0417 1 2 3 0. Table4.75 2 3 4 IViteration 1.16 A torsional system Make a table as given by Table1.1015 0.687 0. 557 1 0.234 0.25 2 3 4 IIiteration 1 0.1445 0.75 0.25 0. K. July/Aug 2005 VTU for 20 marks 3K 2K K J 2J 3J Fig.27 1.687 1.457 0.289 0.VTU elearning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 34 Example2 For the system shown in the figure estimate natural frequencies using Holzar’s method.187 0.75 0.090 Prof. follow the steps discussed earlier. Kudari.5 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 0.8125 0.687 0. Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps. Principal APS College of Engineering. Holzar’s Table for Example2 1 ω 2 S No 3 J 4 φ 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ 0.270 1 2 3 1.144 1.6679 0.50 2 3 4 IIIiteration 1 0.75 0.463 1 0.1875 0.
5 0.87 523.18 20.521 0.50 2 3 4 1 ω ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 1.327 4 φ 35 1 1.33 1 17.412 2.687 0. Bengaluru28.88 3.875 8. Kudari.75 83.06 37.VTU elearning Course 3 4 Viteration 1 1.75 2 3 4 VIIIiteration 1 2.75 221.18 40.5 2.31 7.75 9.0 2 3 4 IXiteration 1 2.5 3 0.82 18.260 13.75 203. .326 3 2 1 6.552 1 2 3 6.364 K VIIiteration 1 1.687 11.687 6.172 1 5. S. Principal APS College of Engineering.154 4.5 2 3 4 3 2 1 3 2 1 1 8.09 9.75 3.12 320.18 12.18 50.121 3 2 1 12 88 108 12 76 32 1 2 3 12 38 10.81 23.70 1 2 3 18.44 1. K.25 2 3 4 VIiteration 1 1.274 2.687 3.517 2 S No 3 J 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ 9.825 6.125 10.667 1 3.56 106.38 1 11 27 16.75 19.572 6.75 101.562 3.833 3 2 1 4.75 25.515 1 2 3 9.66 18.90 Prof.979 1 2 3 4.
5 1.0 2.5 Iteration summary table ω φ4 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 36 0 0.234 0.VTU elearning Course Table.172 7.557 0. φ4 10 0 10 ω1 20 ω2 ω3 0.17. Principal APS College of Engineering.5 2. Holzar’s plot of Table5 From the above Graph.25 1.ω Fig.5 0.17.5 1.38 16.30 rad/s rad/s rad/s Prof.463 1. Bengaluru28.5 0 0.33 23. .35 ω 2 = 1. 20 Displacement.0 0.372 13.5 Frequency.75 1 1. Kudari.09 The values in above table are plotted in Fig.15 ω3 = 2.667 2. K.25 0. the values of natural frequencies are: ω1 = 0.0 1. S.75 2 2.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.