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Mechanical Vibrations (ME 65

)
CHAPTER-8
MULTI DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS

Topics covered:
Influence co-efficents
Approximate methods
(i) Dunkerley’s method
(ii) Rayleigh’s method
Influence co-efficients
Numerical methods
(i) Matrix iteration method
(ii) Stodola’s method
(iii) Holzar’s method
1. Influence co-efficents
It is the influence of unit displacement at one point on the forces at various points of a
multi-DOF system.
OR
It is the influence of unit Force at one point on the displacements at various points of
a multi-DOF system.
The equations of motion of a multi-degree freedom system can be written in terms of
influence co-efficients. A set of influence co-efficents can be associated with each of
matrices involved in the equations of motion.
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 x K x M = +
& &

For a simple linear spring the force necessary to cause unit elongation is referred as
stiffness of spring. For a multi-DOF system one can express the relationship between
displacement at a point and forces acting at various other points of the system by
using influence co-efficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents

The equations of motion of a multi-degree freedom system can be written in terms of
inverse of stiffness matrix referred as flexibility influence co-efficients.
Matrix of flexibility influence co-efficients =[ ]
1 −
K
The elements corresponds to inverse mass matrix are referred as flexibility
mass/inertia co-efficients.
Matrix of flexibility mass/inertia co-efficients =[ ]
1 −
M
The flexibility influence co-efficients are popular as these coefficents give elements
of inverse of stiffness matrix. The flexibility mass/inertia co-efficients give elements
of inverse of mass matrix

VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

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2
Stiffness influence co-efficents.
For a multi-DOF system one can express the relationship between displacement at a
point and forces acting at various other points of the system by using influence co-
efficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents.
{ } [ ]{ } x K F =
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
k k k
k k k
k k k
K
wher, k
11
, ……..k
33
are referred as stiffness influence coefficients
k
11
-stiffness influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit deflection at point 1
k
21
- stiffness influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit deflection at point 1
k
31
- stiffness influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit deflection at point 1

Example-1.
Obtain the stiffness coefficients of the system shown in Fig.1.

















I-step:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 1 as shown in Fig.1(a) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 1 11
K K k + =
2 21
K k − =
0 k
31
=

m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=1 Unit
x
2
=0
m
3
K
3
x
3
=0
k
11
k
21
k
31
x
2
=1 Unit
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=0
m
3
K
3
x
3
=0
K
12
k
22
k
32
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1
=0
x
2
=0
m
3
K
3
x
3
=1 Unit
k
13
k
23
k
33
(a)
(b) (c)
Fig.1 Stiffness influence coefficients of the system
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II-step:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 2 as shown in Fig.1(b) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 12
-K k =
3 2 22
K K k + =
3 31
-K k =
III-step:
Apply 1 unit deflection at point 3 as shown in Fig.1(c) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
0 k
13
=
3 23
-K k =
3 33
K k =
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
k k k
k k k
k k k
K
[ ]
( )
( )
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
=
3 3
3 3 2 2
2 2 1
K K - 0
K - K K K -
0 K - K K
K
From stiffness coefficients K matrix can be obtained without writing Eqns. of motion.

Flexibility influence co-efficents.

{ } [ ]{ } x K F =
{ } [ ] { } F K x
1 −
=
{ } [ ]{ } F α x =
where, [ ] α - Matrix of Flexibility influence co-efficents given by
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
α α α
α α α
α α α
α
wher, α
11
, ……..α
33
are referred as stiffness influence coefficients
α
11
-flexibility influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit force at point 1
α
21
- flexibility influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit force at point 1
α
31
- flexibility influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit force at point 1

Example-2.
Obtain the flexibility coefficients of the system shown in Fig.2.
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I-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.2(a) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
1
31 21 11
K
1
α α α = = =
II-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 2 as shown in Fig.2(b) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 1
32 22
K
1
K
1
α α + = =
III-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 3 as shown in Fig.2(c) and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
2 1
23
K
1
K
1
α + =
3 2 1
33
K
1
K
1
K
1
α + + =
Therefore,
1
13 31 12 21 11
K
1
α α α α α == = = = =
2 1
23 32 22
K
1
K
1
α α α + = = =
3 2 1
33
K
1
K
1
K
1
α + + =















(b) (c)
Fig.2 Flexibility influence coefficients of the system
x
2

22
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1

12
m
3
K
3
x
3

32
F
1
=0
F
2
=1
F
3
=0
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
x
1

13
x
2

23
m
3
K
3
x
3

33
F
1
=0
F
2
=1
F
3
=0
(a)
m
1
K
1
m
2
K
2
m
3
K
3
x
3

31
F
1
=0
F
2
=1
F
3
=0
x
1

11
x
2

21
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For simplification, let us consider : K K K K
3 2 1
= = =
K
1
K
1
α α α α α
1
13 31 12 21 11
= == = = = =
K
2
K
1
K
1
α α α
23 32 22
= + = = =
K
3
K
1
K
1
K
1
α
33
= + + =
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
α α α
α α α
α α α
α
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
3 2 1
2 2 1
1 1 1
K
1
α
[ ] [ ]
1
K α

=
In Vibration analysis if there is need of [ ]
1
K

one can use flexibility co-efficent matrix.

Example-3
Obtain of the Flexibility influence co-efficents of the pendulum system shown in the
Fig.3.














I-step:
Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig.4 and write the force equilibrium
equations. We get,
m
m
l
l
m
l
Fig.3 Pendulum system
m
m
l
l
m
l
F=1
T
θ
α
11
Fig.4 Flexibility influence
co-efficents
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l θ sin T =
3mg m) m g(m θ cos T = + + =
3mg
1
θ tan =
θ sin θ tan small, is θ =
l
α
θ sin
11
=
θ sin l α
11
=
3mg
l
α
11
=
Similarly apply 1 unit force at point 2 and next at point 3 to obtain,
5mg
l
α
22
=

the influence coefficients are:
5mg
l
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
== = = = =
6mg
11l
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
6mg
11l
α
33
=


Approximate methods
In many engineering problems it is required to quickly estimate the first
(fundamental) natural frequency. Approximate methods like Dunkerley’s method,
Rayleigh’s method are used in such cases.

(i) Dunkerley’s method
Dunkerley’s formula can be determined by frequency equation,
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 K M ω
2
= + −
[ ] [ ] [ ] 0 M ω K
2
= + −
[ ] [ ] [ ] [ ] 0 M K I
ω
1
1
2
= + −


[ ] [ ][ ] [ ] 0 M α I
ω
1
2
= + −
For n DOF systems,
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[ ] 0
m . 0 0
.
0 . m 0
0 . 0 m
α . α α
.
α . α α
α . α α
1 . 0 0
.
0 . 1 0
0 . 0 1
ω
1
n
2
1
nn n2 n1
2n 22 21
1n 12 11
2
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


[ ] 0
m α
ω
1
. m α m α
.
m α . m α
ω
1
0
m α . m α m α
ω
1
n nn 2 2 n2 1 n1
n 2n 2 22 2
n 1n 2 12 1 11 2
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
¹
|

\
|
+ −
|
¹
|

\
|
+ −
|
¹
|

\
|
+ −
. . .

Solve the determinant
( )
( ) [ ] 0 ... m α ... m m α α m m α α
ω
1
m α ... m α m α
ω
1
n nn 3 1 33 11 2 1 22 11
1 n
2 n nn 2 22 1 11
n
2
= + + + +
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + + − |
¹
|

\
|

(1)
It is the polynomial equation of nth degree in (1/ω
2
). Let the roots of above Eqn. are:
2
n
2
2
2
1
ω
1
...... ,
ω
1
,
ω
1

0 ...
ω
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
...... ,
ω
1
ω
1
,
ω
1
ω
1
1 n
2 2
n
2
2
2
1
n
2
2
n
2 2
2
2 2
1
2
= −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + + −
|
|
¹
|

\
|
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|

|
|
¹
|

\
|


(2)
Comparing Eqn.(1) and Eqn. (2), we get,
=
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ + +
2
n
2
2
2
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + +
In mechanical systems higher natural frequencies are much larger than the
fundamental (first) natural frequencies. Approximately, the first natural frequency is:

|
|
¹
|

\
|
2
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + +
The above formula is referred as Dunkerley’s formula, which can be used to estimate
first natural frequency of a system approximately.
The natural frequency of the system considering only mass m
1
is:
1
1
1 11
1n
m
K
m α
1
ω = =
The Dunkerley’s formula can be written as:
2
nn
2
2n
2
1n
2
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
+ + + ≅ (3)
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where, ..... , ω , ω
2n 1n
are natural frequency of single degree of freedom system
considering each mass separately.
The above formula given by Eqn. (3) can be used for any mechanical/structural
system to obtain first natural frequency

Examples: 1
Obtain the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig.5
using Dunkerley’s method.














Dunkerley’s formula is:

|
|
¹
|

\
|
2
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + + OR
2
nn
2
2n
2
1n
2
1
ω
1
......
ω
1
ω
1
ω
1
+ + + ≅
Any one of the above formula can be used to find fundamental natural frequency
approximately.
Find influence flexibility coefficients.
K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
K
2
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
K
3
α
33
=
Substitute all influence coefficients in the Dunkerley’s formula.

|
|
¹
|

\
|
2
1
ω
1
( )
n nn 2 22 1 11
m α ... m α m α + + +
m

K

m

K

x
1
x
2
m

K

x
3
Fig.5 Linear vibratory system
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9

|
|
¹
|

\
|
2
1
ω
1
K
6m
K
3m
K
2m
K
m
= |
¹
|

\
|
+ +
K/m 0.40 ω
1=
rad/s


Examples: 2
Find the lowest natural frequency of the system shown in Figure by Dunkerley’s
method. Take m
1
=100 kg, m
2
=50 kg
VTU Exam July/Aug 2006 for 20 Marks









Obtain the influence co-efficents:
EI
1.944x10
α
-3
11
=
EI
9x10
α
-3
22
=

|
|
¹
|

\
|
2
n
ω
1
( )
2 22 1 11
m α m α +
rad/s 1.245 ω
n
=

(ii) Rayleigh’s method
It is an approximate method of finding fundamental natural frequency of a system
using energy principle. This principle is largely used for structural applications.

Principle of Rayleigh’s method
Consider a rotor system as shown in Fig.7. Let, m
1
, m
2
and m
3
are masses of rotors on
shaft supported by two bearings at A and B and y
1
, y
2
and y
3
are static deflection of
shaft at points 1, 2 and 3.




1 2
180 120
m
1
m
2
Fig.6 A cantilever rotor system.
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For the given system maximum potential energy and kinetic energies are:

=
=
n
1 i
i i max
gy m
2
1
V (4)

=
=
n
1 i
2
i i max
y m
2
1
T
&

where, m
i
- masses of the system, y
i
–displacements at mass points.
Considering the system vibrates with SHM,
i
2
i
y ω y =
&

From above equations

=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
2
max
y m
2
ω
T (5)
According to Rayleigh’s method,
max max
T V = (6)
substitute Eqn. (4) and (5) in (6)


=
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
n
1 i
i i
2
y m
gy m
ω (7)
The deflections at point 1, 2 and 3 can be found by.

g m α g m α g m α y
3 13 2 12 1 11 1
+ + =
g m α g m α g m α y
3 23 2 22 1 21 2
+ + =
g m α g m α g m α y
3 33 2 32 1 31 3
+ + =
Eqn.(7) is the Rayleigh’s formula, which is used to estimate frequency of transverse
vibrations of a vibratory systems.




1 2 3
m
1
m
2
m
3
A

B

y
1
y
2
y
3
Fig.7 A rotor system.
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Examples: 1
Estimate the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig.8
using Rayleigh’s method. Take: m=1kg and K=1000 N/m.















Obtain influence coefficients,
2K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
2K
3
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
2K
5
α
33
=
Deflection at point 1 is:
g m α g m α g m α y
3 13 2 12 1 11 1
+ + =
( )
2000
5g
2K
5mg
1 2 2
2K
mg
y
1
= = + + =
Deflection at point 2 is:
g m α g m α g m α y
3 23 2 22 1 21 2
+ + =
( )
2000
11g
2K
11mg
3 6 2
2K
mg
y
2
= = + + =
Deflection at point 3 is:
g m α g m α g m α y
3 33 2 32 1 31 3
+ + =
( )
2000
13g
2K
13mg
5 6 2
2K
mg
y
3
= = + + =
Rayleigh’s formula is:
2m

2K

2m

K

x
1
x
2
m

K

x
3
Fig.8 Linear vibratory system
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=
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
n
1 i
i i
2
y m
gy m
ω
2
2 2 2
2
2
g
2000
13
2
2000
11
2
2000
5
2
g
2000
13
2x
2000
11
2x
2000
5
2x
ω
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
+
|
¹
|

\
|
|
¹
|

\
|
+ +
=
rad/s 12.41 ω =

Examples: 2
Find the lowest natural frequency of transverse vibrations of the system shown in
Fig.9 by Rayleigh’s method.
E=196 GPa, I=10-6 m4, m1=40 kg, m2=20 kg
VTU Exam July/Aug 2005 for 20 Marks








Step-1:
Find deflections at point of loading from strength of materials principle.







For a simply supported beam shown in Fig.10, the deflection of beam at distance x
from left is given by:
( ) b) (l x for b x l
6EIl
Wbx
y
2 2 2
− ≤ − − =
For the given problem deflection at loads can be obtained by superposition of
deflections due to each load acting separately.


1 2
m
1
m
2
B

160 80 180
A

Fig.9 A rotor system.
b
x
l
W
Fig.10 A simply supported beam
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Deflections due to 20 kg mass
( )
( )
EI
0.265
0.18 0.16 0.42
6EI0.42
x0.18x0.16 9.81x20
y
2 2 2 '
1
= − − =
( )
( )
EI
0.29
0.18 0.24 0.42
6EIx0.42
x0.18x0.24 9.81x20
y
2 2 2 '
2
= − − =
Deflections due to 40 kg mass
( )
( )
EI
0.538
0.16 0.26 0.42
6EIx0.42
x0.16x0.26 9.81x40
y
2 2 2 ' '
1
= − − =
( )
( )
EI
0.53
0.16 0.18 0.42
6EIx0.42
x0.16x0.18 9.81x40
y
2 2 2 ' '
2
= − − =
The deflection at point 1 is:

EI
0.803
y y y
' '
1
'
1 1
= + =
The deflection at point 2 is:

EI
0.82
y y y
' '
2
'
2 2
= + =


=
=
=
n
1 i
2
i i
n
1 i
i i
2
y m
gy m
ω
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
20x0.82 40x0.803
20x0.82 40x0.803 9.81
ω
+
+
=
rad/s 1541.9 ω
n
=

















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14
Numerical methods

(i) Matrix iteration method
Using this method one can obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors of a vibratory
system having multi-degree freedom.
It is required to have ω
1
< ω
2
<……….< ω
n

Eqns. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written
as:
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 x K x M = +
& &

where,
{ } { } ( ) φ ωt sin A x + = (8)
substitute Eqn.(8) in (9)
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 A K A M ω
2
= + − (9)
For principal modes of oscillations, for r
th
mode,
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 A K A M ω
r r
2
r
= + −
[ ] [ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A M K
1
1
=


[ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A D
1
= (10)
where, [ ] D is referred as Dynamic matrix.
Eqn.(10) converges to first natural frequency and first modal vector.
The Equation,
[ ] [ ]{ } { }
r
2
r r
A ω A K M =
−1

[ ]{ } { }
r
2
r r 1
A ω A D = (11)
where, [ ]
1
D is referred as inverse dynamic matrix.
Eqn.(11) converges to last natural frequency and last modal vector.
In above Eqns (10) and (11) by assuming trial modal vector and iterating till the Eqn
is satisfied, one can estimate natural frequency of a system.

Examples: 1
Find first natural frequency and modal vector of the system shown in the Fig.10 using
matrix iteration method. Use flexibility influence co-efficients.

Find influence coefficients.
2K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
2K
3
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
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15
2K
5
α
33
=
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
33 32 31
32 22 21
13 12 11
α α α
α α α
α α α
α
[ ] [ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

= =

5 3 1
3 3 1
1 1 1
2K
1
K α
1

First natural frequency and modal vector
[ ] [ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A M K
1
1
=


[ ]{ } { }
r 2
r
r
A
ω
A D
1
=
Obtain Dynamic matrix [ ] [ ] [ ] M K D
1 −
=
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
5 3 1
3 3 1
1 1 1
2K
m
D
Use basic Eqn to obtain first frequency
[ ]{ } { }
1 2
r
1
A
ω
A D
1
=
Assume trial vector and substitute in the above Eqn.
Assumed vector is: { }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
1
1
1
u
1

First Iteration
[ ]{ } =
1
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

1
1
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
2.6
2.2
1
2K
5m

As the new vector is not matching with the assumed one, iterate again using the new
vector as assumed vector in next iteration.







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Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru-28.

16
Second Iteration
[ ]{ } =
2
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

2.6
2.2
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.13
2.55
1
K
4.5m

Third Iteration
[ ]{ } =
3
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

3.133
2.555
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.22
2.61
1
K
5.12m

Fourth Iteration
[ ]{ } =
4
u D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

3.22
2.61
1
5 6 2
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
K
5.22m

As the vectors are matching stop iterating. The new vector is the modal vector.
To obtain the natural frequency,
[ ]
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3.22
2.61
1
D
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
K
5.22m

Compare above Eqn with with basic Eqn.
[ ]{ } { }
1 2
1
1
A
ω
A D
1
=
K
5.22m
ω
1
2
1
=
m
K
5.22
1
ω
2
1
=
m
K
0.437 ω
1
= Rad/s
Modal vector is:
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
A
1








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17

Method of obtaining natural frequencies in between first and last one
(Sweeping Technique)

For understanding it is required to to clearly understand Orthogonality principle of
modal vectors.
Orthogonality principle of modal vectors












Consider two vectors shown in Fig.11. Vectors { } { } b and a are orthogonal to each
other if and only if
{ } { } 0 b a
T
=
{ } 0
b
b
a a
2
1
2 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦

{ } 0
b
b
1 0
0 1
a a
2
1
2 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

{ } [ ]{ } 0 b I a
T
= (12)
where, [ ] I is Identity matrix.
From Eqn.(12), Vectors { } { } b and a are orthogonal to each other with respect to
identity matrix.

Application of orthogonality principle in vibration analysis
Eqns. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written
as:
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 x K x M = +
& &

{ } { } ( ) φ ωt sin A x + =
[ ]{ } [ ]{ } [ ] 0 A K A M ω
2
= + −
1 1

x
1
x
2
{ }
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
2
1
b
b
b
{ }
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
2
1
a
a
a
Fig.11 Vector representation graphically
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18
[ ]{ } [ ]{ }
1 1
A K A M ω
2
=
If system has two frequencies ω
1
and ω
2

[ ]{ } [ ]{ }
1 1
A K A M ω
2
1
= (13)
[ ]{ } [ ]{ }
2 2
A K A M ω
2
2
= (14)
Multiply Eqn.(13) by { }
T
2
A and Eqn.(14) by { }
T
1
A
{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ }
1
T
2 1
T
2
2
1
A K A A M A ω = (15)
{ } [ ]{ } { } [ ]{ }
2
T
1 2
T
1
2
1
A K A A M A ω = (16)
Eqn.(15)-(16)
{ } [ ]{ } 0 A M A
2
T
1
=
Above equation is a condition for mass orthogonality.
{ } [ ]{ } 0 A K A
2
T
1
=
Above equation is a condition for stiffness orthogonality.

By knowing the first modal vector one can easily obtain the second modal vector
based on either mass or stiffness orthogonality. This principle is used in the matrix
iteration method to obtain the second modal vector and second natural frequency.
This technique is referred as Sweeping technique

Sweeping technique
After obtaining { }
1 1
ω and A to obtain { }
2 2
ω and A choose a trial vector { }
1
V
orthogonal to { }
1
A ,which gives constraint Eqn.:
{ } [ ]{ } 0 A M V
1
T
1
=
{ } 0
A
A
A
m 0 0
0 m 0
0 0 m
V V V
3
2
1
3
2
1
3 2 1
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

( ) ( ) ( ) { } 0 A m V A m V A m V
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
= + +
( ) ( ) ( ) { } 0 V A m V A m V A m
3 3 3 2 2 2 1 1 1
= + +
3 2 1
βV αV V + =
where α and β are constants
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
1 1
2 2
A m
A m
α
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
1 1
3 3
A m
A m
β
Therefore the trial vector is:
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Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru-28.

19
( )
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦ +
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
2
3 2
3
2
1
V
V
βV αV
V
V
V

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
3
2
1
V
V
V
1 0 0
0 1 0
β α 0

[ ]{ }
1
V S =
where [ ] S = is referred as Sweeping matrix and { }
1
V is the trial vector.
New dynamics matrix is:
[ ] [ ][ ] S D D
s
+
[ ]{ } { }
2 2
2
1 s
A
ω
V D
1
=
The above Eqn. Converges to second natural frequency and second modal vector.
This method of obtaining frequency and modal vectors between first and the last one
is referred as sweeping technique.

Examples: 2
For the Example problem 1, Find second natural frequency and modal vector of the
system shown in the Fig.10 using matrix iteration method and Sweeping technique.
Use flexibility influence co-efficients.

For this example already the first frequency and modal vectors are obtained by matrix
iteration method in Example 1. In this stage only how to obtain second frequency is
demonstrated.
First Modal vector obtained in Example 1 is:
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.23
2.61
1
A
A
A
A
3
2
1
1

[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0 0
0 2 0
0 0 2
M is the mass matrix
Find sweeping matrix
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0 0
0 1 0
β α 0
S
2.61
2(1)
2(2.61)
A m
A m
α
1 1
2 2
− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
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20
1.615
2(1)
1(3.23)
A m
A m
β
1 1
3 3
− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
|
|
¹
|

\
|
− =
Sweeping matrix is:
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0 0
0 1 0
1.615 - 2.61 - 0
S
New Dynamics matrix is:
[ ] [ ][ ] S D D
s
+
[ ]
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m
1 0 0
0 1 0
1.615 - 2.61 - 0
5 3 1
3 6 2
1 2 2
2K
m
D
s

First Iteration
[ ]{ } { }
2 2
2
1 s
A
ω
V D
1
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
8.14
1
9.71 -
K
0.28m
2.28
0.28
2.27 -
K
m
1
1
1
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m

Second Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
31.54
1 -
21.28 -
K
0.5m
15.77
0.50 -
10.64 -
K
m
8.14
1
9.71 -
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m

Third Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
15.38
1 -
8.67 -
K
3.85m
59.52
3.85 -
33.39 -
K
m
31.54
1 -
21.28 -
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m

Fourth Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
13.78
1 -
8.98 -
K
2.08m
28.67
2.08 -
18.68 -
K
m
15.38
1 -
8.67 -
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m

Fifth Iteration
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
13.5
1
7.2 -
K
1.90m
25.65
1.90 -
13.68 -
K
m
13.78
1
8.98 -
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m

Sixth Iteration
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21
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
(
(
(
¸
(

¸


− −
13.43
1 -
7.08 -
K
1.87m
25.12
1.87 -
13.24 -
K
m
13.5
1 -
7.2 -
1.89 0.39 0
0.11 0.39 0
1.11 1.61 0
K
m

K
1087m
ω
1
2
2
=
m
K
1.87
1
ω
2
1
=
m
K
0.73 ω
1
=
Modal vector
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
1.89
0.14 -
1 -
A
2

Similar manner the next frequency and modal vectors can be obtained.

























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22
(ii) Stodola’s method
It is a numerical method, which is used to find the fundamental natural frequency and
modal vector of a vibratory system having multi-degree freedom. The method is
based on finding inertia forces and deflections at various points of interest using
flexibility influence coefficents.

Principle / steps
1. Assume a modal vector of system. For example for 3 dof systems:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1
1
1
x
x
x
3
2
1

2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point,
1
2
1 1
x ω m F = for Mass 1
2
2
2 2
x ω m F = for Mass 2
3
2
3 3
x ω m F = for Mass 3
3. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients, using the
formula,
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ +
+ +
+ +
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦



33 3 32 2 31 1
23 3 22 2 21 1
13 3 12 2 11 1
3
2
1
α F α F α F
α F α F α F
α F α F α F
x
x
x

4. If assumed modal vector is equal to modal vector obtained in step 3, then solution
is converged. Natural frequency can be obtained from above equation, i.e
If
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦




¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
3
2
1
3
2
x
x
x
x
x
x
1
Stop iterating.
Find natural frequency by first equation,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x + + = = ′ 1
5. If assumed modal vector is not equal to modal vector obtained in step 3, then
consider obtained deflection vector as new vector and iterate till convergence.

Example-1
Find the fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of a vibratory system shown
in Fig.10 using Stodola’s method.




First iteration
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23
1. Assume a modal vector of system { }
1
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1
1
1
x
x
x
3
2
1

2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
2mω x ω m F = =
2
2
2
2 2
2mω x ω m F = =
2
3
2
3 3
mω x ω m F = =
3. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients
Obtain flexibility influence coefficients of the system:
2K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
2K
3
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
2K
5
α
33
=
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x + + = ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
5mω
2K

K

K

x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x + + = ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
11mω
2K
3mω
2K
6mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x + + = ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
13mω
2K
5mω
2K
6mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦



13
11
5
2K

x
x
x
2
3
2
1

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦



2.6
2.2
1
2K
5mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
2
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
1 2
u u ≠ . Iterate again using new deflection vector { }
2
u

Second iteration
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24
1. Initial vector of system { }
2
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦



2.6
2.2
1
x
x
x
3
2
1

2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
2mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
2
2
2
2 2
mω 4 x ω m F 4 . = ′ = ′
2
3
2
3 3
2.6mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
3. New deflection vector,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
9mω
2K
2.6mω
2K
4.4mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′ ′

23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
23mω
2K
7.8mω
2K
13.2mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′ ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
28.2mω
2K
13mω
2K
13.2mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′ ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
28.2
23
9
2K

x
x
x
2
3
2
1

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
3.13
2.55
1
2K
9mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
3
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
2 3
u u ≠ . Iterate again using new deflection vector{ }
3
u

Third iteration
1. Initial vector of system { }
3
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
3.13
2.55
1
x
x
x
3
2
1

2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
2mω x ω m F = ′ ′ = ′ ′

2
2
2
2 2
5.1mω x ω m F = ′ ′ = ′ ′
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25

3. new deflection vector,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x ′ ′ + ′ ′ + ′ ′ = ′ ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
10.23mω
2K
3.13mω
2K
5.1mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′ ′ ′
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x ′ ′ + ′ ′ + ′ ′ = ′ ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
26.69mω
2K
9.39mω
2K
15.3mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′ ′ ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x ′ ′ + ′ ′ + ′ ′ = ′ ′ ′
Substitute for F’s and α,s
2K
28.2mω
2K
16.5mω
2K
15.3mω
K

x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′ ′ ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
33.8
26.69
10.23
2K

x
x
x
2
3
2
1

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
′ ′ ′
3.30
2.60
1
2K
10.23mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
4
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
3 4
u u ≅ stop Iterating
Fundamental natural frequency can be obtained by.
1 =
2K
10.23mω
2

m
K
0.44 ω = rad/s

Modal vector is:
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.30
2.60
1
A
1






2
3
2
3 3
3.13mω x ω m F = ′ ′ = ′ ′
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26
Example-2
For the system shown in Fig.12 find the lowest natural frequency by Stodola’s method
(carryout two iterations)
July/Aug 2005 VTU for 10 marks















Obtain flexibility influence coefficients,
3K
1
α α α α α
13 31 12 21 11
= = = = =
3K
4
α α α
23 32 22
= = =
3K
7
α
33
=
First iteration
1. Assume a modal vector of system { }
1
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
1
1
1
x
x
x
3
2
1


2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
4mω x ω m F = =
2
2
2
2 2
2mω x ω m F = =
2
3
2
3 3
mω x ω m F = =
3. New deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients,
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x + + = ′
3K
7mω
3K

3K
2mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′
4m

3K

2m

K

x
1
x
2
m

K

x
3
Fig.12 Linear vibratory system
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27
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x + + = ′
3K
16mω
3K
4mω
3K
8mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x + + = ′
3K
19mω
3K
7mω
3K
8mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′
4. New deflection vector is:
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦



19
16
7
3K

x
x
x
2
3
2
1

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦



2.71
2.28
1
3K
7mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
2
u
The new deflection vector { } { }
1 2
u u ≠ . Iterate again using new deflection vector { }
2
u

Second iteration
1. Initial vector of system { }
2
u =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦



2.71
2.28
1
x
x
x
3
2
1

2. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point
2
1
2
1 1
4mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
2
2
2
2 2
4.56mω x ω m F = ′ = ′
2
3
2
3 3
2.71mω x ω m F = ′ = ′

3. New deflection vector
13 3 12 2 11 1 1
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
3K
11.27mω
3K
2.71mω
3K
4.56mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
1
= + + = ′ ′
23 3 22 2 21 1 2
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
3K
33.08mω
3K
10.84mω
3K
18.24mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
2
= + + = ′ ′
33 3 32 2 31 1 3
α F α F α F x ′ + ′ + ′ = ′ ′
3K
41.21mω
3K
18.97mω
3K
18.24mω
3K
4mω
x
2 2 2 2
3
= + + = ′ ′
4. New deflection vector is:
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28
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
41.21
33.08
11.27
3K

x
x
x
2
3
2
1

¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
′ ′
′ ′
′ ′
3.65
2.93
1
K
3.75mω
x
x
x
2
3
2
1
={ }
3
u
Stop Iterating as it is asked to carry only two iterations. The Fundamental natural
frequency can be calculated by,
1
2K
3.75mω
2
=
m
K
0.52 ω =
Modal vector,
{ }
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
3.65
2.93
1
A
1

Disadvantage of Stodola’s method
Main drawback of Stodola’s method is that the method can be used to find only
fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of vibratory systems. This method is
not popular because of this reason.


















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29
(iii) Holzar’s method
It is an iterative method, used to find the natural frequencies and modal vector of a
vibratory system having multi-degree freedom.

Principle
Consider a multi dof semi-definite torsional semi-definite system as shown in Fig.13.









The Eqns. of motions of the system are:
0 θ (θ K θ J
2 1 1 1 1
= − + )
& &

0 θ (θ K θ (θ K θ J
3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
= − + − + ) )
& &

0 θ (θ K θ (θ K θ J
4 3 3 2 3 2 3 3
= − + − + ) )
& &

0 θ (θ K θ J
3 4 3 4 4
= − + )
& &

The Motion is harmonic,
( ) ωt sin φ θ
i i
= (17)
where i=1,2,3,4
Substitute above Eqn.(17) in Eqns. of motion, we get,
) φ (φ K φ J ω
2 1 1 1 1
2
− = (18)
) φ (φ K ) φ (φ K φ J ω
3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
2
− + − =
) φ (φ K ) φ (φ K φ J ω
4 3 3 2 3 2 3 3
2
− + − =
) φ (φ K φ J ω
3 4 3 4 4
2
− + (19)
Add above Eqns. (18) to (19), we get
0 φ J ω
4
1 i
i i
2
=

=

For n dof system the above Eqn changes to,
0 φ J ω
n
1 i
i i
2
=

=
(20)
The above equation indicates that sum of inertia torques (torsional systems) or inertia
forces (linear systems) is equal to zero for semi-definite systems.
θ
1

K
1
θ
2

θ
3

K
2 K
3
θ
4

J
4

J
3

J
2
J
1

Fig.13 A torsional semi-definite system
VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations

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30
In Eqn. (20) ω and φi both are unknowns. Using this Eqn. one can obtain natural
frequencies and modal vectors by assuming a trial frequency ω and amplitude φ
1
so
that the above Eqn is satisfied.

Steps involved
1. Assume magnitude of a trial frequency ω
2. Assume amplitude of first disc/mass (for simplicity assume φ
1
=1
3. Calculate the amplitude of second disc/mass φ
2
from first Eqn. of motion
0 ) φ (φ K φ J ω
2 1 1 1 1
2
= − =
1
1 1
2
1 2
K
φ J ω
φ φ − =
4. Similarly calculate the amplitude of third disc/mass φ
3
from second Eqn. of motion.
0 ) φ (φ K ) φ (φ K φ J ω
3 2 2 1 2 1 2 2
2
= − + − =
0 ) φ (φ K ) φ
K
φ J ω
(φ K φ J ω
3 2 2 1
1
1 1
2
1 1 2 2
2
= − + − − =
0 ) φ (φ K φ J ω φ J ω
3 2 2 1 1
2
2 2
2
= − + − =
2 2
2
1 1
2
3 2 2
φ J ω φ J ω ) φ (φ K + = −
2
2 2
2
1 1
2
2 3
K
φ J ω φ J ω
- φ φ
+
= (21)
The Eqn (21) can be written as:
2
2
1 i
2
i i
2 3
K
ω φ J
- φ φ

=
=
5. Similarly calculate the amplitude of nth disc/mass φ
n
from (n-1)th Eqn. of motion
is:
n
n
1 i
2
i i
1 - n n
K
ω φ J
- φ φ

=
=
6. Substitute all computed φi values in basic constraint Eqn.
0 φ J ω
n
1 i
i i
2
=

=

7. If the above Eqn. is satisfied, then assumed ω is the natural frequency, if the Eqn is
not satisfied, then assume another magnitude of ω and follow the same steps.

For ease of computations, Prepare the following table, this facilitates the calculations.

Table-1. Holzar’s Table
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31
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω

S No J φ Jω
2
φ

K



Example-1
For the system shown in the Fig.16, obtain natural frequencies using Holzar’s method.








Make a table as given by Table-1, for iterations, follow the steps discussed earlier.
Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.

Table-2. Holzar’s Table for Example-1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω

S No J φ Jω
2
φ

K

I-iteration
0.25
1 1 1 0.0625 0.0625 1 0.0625
2 1 0.9375 0.0585 0.121 1 0.121
3 1 0.816 0.051 0.172  
II-iteration
0.50
1 1 1 0.25 0.25 1 0.25
2 1 0.75 0.19 0.44 1 0.44
3 1 0.31 0.07 0.51  
III-iteration
0.75
1 1 1 0.56 0.56 1 0.56
2 1 0.44 0.24 0.80 1 0.80
3 1 -0.36 -0.20 0.60  
IV-iteration
1.00
1 1 1 1 1 1 1
2 1 0 0 1 1 1

φ
2


φ
2

K
1
θ
1

K
1
θ
2

θ
3

K
2
J
3

J
2
J
1

Fig.14 A torsional semi-definite system

φ
2


φ
2

K
1
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32
3 1 -1 -1 0  
V-iteration
1.25
1 1 1 1.56 1.56 1 1.56
2 1 -0.56 -0.87 0.69 1 0.69
3 1 -1.25 -1.95 -1.26  
VI-iteration
1.50
1 1 1 2.25 2.25 1 2.25
2 1 -1.25 -2.82 -0.57 1 -0.57
3 1 -0.68 -1.53 -2.10  
VII-iteration
1.75
1 1 1 3.06 3.06 1 3.06
2 1 -2.06 -6.30 -3.24 1 -3.24
3 1 1.18 3.60 0.36  

Table.3 Iteration summary table
ω

0 0
0.25 0.17
0.5 0.51
0.75 0.6
1 0
1.25 -1.26
1.5 -2.1
1.75 0.36













φ
2

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33
The values in above table are plotted in Fig.15.


















From the above Graph, the values of natural frequencies are:
rad/s 1.71 ω
rad/s 1 ω
rad/s 0 ω
3
2
1
=
=
=


Definite systems
The procedure discussed earlier is valid for semi-definite systems. If a system is
definite the basic equation Eqn. (20) is not valid. It is well-known that for definite
systems, deflection at fixed point is always ZERO. This principle is used to obtain the
natural frequencies of the system by iterative process. The Example-2 demonstrates
the method.










0.00 0.25 0.50 0.75 1.00 1.25 1.50 1.75 2.00
-2.5
-2.0
-1.5
-1.0
-0.5
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5


φ
2

Frequency, ω
Fig.15. Holzar’s plot of Table-3
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34
Example-2
For the system shown in the figure estimate natural frequencies using Holzar’s
method.
July/Aug 2005 VTU for 20 marks








Make a table as given by Table-1, for iterations, follow the steps discussed earlier.
Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.

Table-4. Holzar’s Table for Example-2
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω

S No J φ Jω
2
φ

K

I-iteration
0.25
1 3 1 0.1875 0.1875 1 0.1875
2 2 0.8125 0.1015 0.289 2 0.1445
3 1 0.6679 0.0417 0.330 3 0.110
4  0. 557    
II-iteration
0.50
1 3 1 0.75 0.75 1 0.75
2 2 0.25 0.125 0.875 2 0.437
3 1 -0.187 -0.046 0.828 3 0.27
4  -0.463    
III-iteration
0.75
1 3 1 1.687 1.687 1 1.687
2 2 -0.687 -0.772 0.914 2 0.457
3 1 -1.144 -0.643 0.270 3 0.090
4  -1.234    
IV-iteration
1.00
1 3 1 3 3 1 3
2 2 -2 -4 -1 2 -0.5

J

2J

3K

2K
K

3J

Fig.16 A torsional system

φ
2


φ
2

K
1
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35
3 1 -1.5 -1.5 -2.5 3 -0.833
4  -0.667    
V-iteration
1.25
1 3 1 4.687 4.687 1 4.687
2 2 -3.687 -11.521 -6.825 2 -3.412
3 1 -0.274 -0.154 -6.979 3 -2.326
4  2.172    
VI-iteration
1.50
1 3 1 6.75 6.75 1 6.75
2 2 -5.75 -25.875 -19.125 2 -9.562
3 1 3.31 8.572 -10.552 3 -3.517
4  7.327    
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
ω

S No J φ Jω
2
φ

K

VII-iteration
1.75
1 3 1 9.18 9.18 1 9.18
2 2 -8.18 -50.06 -40.88 2 -20.44
3 1 12.260 37.515 -3.364 3 -1.121
4  13.38    
VIII-iteration
2.0
1 3 1 12 12 1 12
2 2 -11 -88 -76 2 -38
3 1 -27 108 32 3 10.66
4  16.33    
IX-iteration
2.5
1 3 1 18.75 18.75 1 18.75
2 2 -17.75 -221.87 -203.12 2 -101.56
3 1 83.81 523.82 320.70 3 106.90
4  -23.09    






φ
2


φ
2

K
1
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36
Table.5 Iteration summary table
ω φ4
0 0
0.25 0.557
0.5 -0.463
0.75 -1.234
1 -0.667
1.25 2.172
1.5 7.372
1.75 13.38
2 16.33
2.5 -23.09

The values in above table are plotted in Fig.17.


















From the above Graph, the values of natural frequencies are:
rad/s 2.30 ω
rad/s 1.15 ω
rad/s 0.35 ω
3
2
1
=
=
=


0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5
-20
-10
0
10
20
D
i
s
p
l
a
c
e
m
e
n
t
,

φ
4
Frequency,ω
1
ω
2
ω
3
ω
Fig.17. Holzar’s plot of Table-5

VTU e-learning Course

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Stiffness influence co-efficents. For a multi-DOF system one can express the relationship between displacement at a point and forces acting at various other points of the system by using influence coefficents referred as stiffness influence coefficents.

{F} = [K ]{x}
k11 k12 k13  [K ] = k 21 k 22 k 32    k 31 k 32 k 33    wher, k11, ……..k33 are referred as stiffness influence coefficients k11-stiffness influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit deflection at point 1 k21- stiffness influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit deflection at point 1 k31- stiffness influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit deflection at point 1
Example-1. Obtain the stiffness coefficients of the system shown in Fig.1.

K1 k11
m1

K1 x1=1 Unit K12
m1

K1 k13 x1=0
m1

x1=0 K2

K2 k21
m2

K2 x2=0 k22
m2

x2=1 Unit K3

k23

m2

x2=0 K3

K3 k31
m3

x3=0

k32

m3

k33 x3=0

m3

x3=1 Unit

(a)

(b)

(c)

Fig.1 Stiffness influence coefficients of the system I-step: Apply 1 unit deflection at point 1 as shown in Fig.1(a) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get,

k11 = K1 + K 2 k 21 = −K 2
k 31 = 0

Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal

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VTU e-learning Course

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II-step: Apply 1 unit deflection at point 2 as shown in Fig.1(b) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get,

k12 = -K 2
k 22 = K 2 + K 3
k 31 = -K 3

III-step: Apply 1 unit deflection at point 3 as shown in Fig.1(c) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get,

k13 = 0
k 23 = -K 3

k 33 = K 3

k11 k12 k13  [K ] = k 21 k 22 k 32    k 31 k 32 k 33    (K 1 + K 2 ) [K ] =  - K 2   0 
- K2

(K 2 + K 3 )
- K3

0  - K3   K3  

From stiffness coefficients K matrix can be obtained without writing Eqns. of motion. Flexibility influence co-efficents.

{F} = [K ]{x} {x} = [K ]−1 {F} {x} = [α]{F} where, [α] - Matrix of Flexibility influence co-efficents given by
α11 α12 [α] = α21 α22   α31 α32 α13  α32    α33 

wher, α11, ……..α33 are referred as stiffness influence coefficients α11-flexibility influence coefficient at point 1 due to a unit force at point 1 α21- flexibility influence coefficient at point 2 due to a unit force at point 1 α31- flexibility influence coefficient at point 3 due to a unit force at point 1 Example-2. Obtain the flexibility coefficients of the system shown in Fig.2. Prof. S. K. Kudari, Principal APS College of Engineering, Bengaluru-28.

2 Flexibility influence coefficients of the system Prof. K. .2(c) and write the force equilibrium equations. S. Principal APS College of Engineering. Bengaluru-28.2(b) and write the force equilibrium equations. 1 α11 = α 21 = α 31 = K1 II-step: Apply 1 unit Force at point 2 as shown in Fig. We get. 1 1 α 22 = α 32 = + K1 K 2 III-step: Apply 1 unit Force at point 3 as shown in Fig.2(a) and write the force equilibrium equations. We get. α11 = α 21 = α12 = α31 = α13 == α 22 = α 32 = α 23 = α33 = 1 1 + K1 K 2 1 1 1 + + K1 K 2 K 3 K1 F1=0 m1 K1 x1=α11 F1=0 m1 K1 F1=0 x1=α12 m1 x1=α13 K2 K2 F2=1 m2 K2 x2=α21 F2=1 m2 x2=α22 K3 F2=1 m2 x2=α23 K3 K3 F3=0 m3 x3=α31 F3=0 m3 x3=α32 F3=0 m3 x3=α33 (a) (b) (c) Fig. Kudari.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 4 I-step: Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig. 1 1 α 23 = + K1 K 2 α33 = 1 1 1 + + K1 K 2 K 3 1 K1 Therefore. We get.

θ T l α11 m l m l F=1 l m l m Fig. Kudari.4 Flexibility influence co-efficents I-step: Apply 1 unit Force at point 1 as shown in Fig. Bengaluru-28. S. Principal APS College of Engineering. Prof. K. .VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 5 For simplification.4 and write the force equilibrium equations. Example-3 Obtain of the Flexibility influence co-efficents of the pendulum system shown in the Fig.3. let us consider : K 1 = K 2 = K 3 = K α11 = α 21 = α12 = α31 = α13 == 1 1 = K1 K α 22 = α32 = α 23 = α33 1 1 2 + = K K K 1 1 1 3 = + + = K K K K α11 α12 [α] = α21 α22  α31 α32  α13  α32   α33   1 1 1 1 [α] = 1 2 2  K 1 2 3   [α] = [K ]−1 In Vibration analysis if there is need of [K ]−1 one can use flexibility co-efficent matrix. We get.3 Pendulum system l m m Fig.

Bengaluru-28. Approximate methods like Dunkerley’s method. tan θ = sin θ sin θ = α11 = l sin θ α11 = l 3mg Similarly apply 1 unit force at point 2 and next at point 3 to obtain. . K. Principal APS College of Engineering. S. − ω 2 [M] + [K ] = [0] − [K ] + ω 2 [M] = [0] − − 1 [] + [K ]−1[M] = [0] I ω2 1 [] + [α][M] = [0] I ω2 For n DOF systems. Prof.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 6 T sin θ = l T cos θ = g(m + m + m) = 3mg tan θ = 1 3mg α11 l θ is small. Rayleigh’s method are used in such cases. (i) Dunkerley’s method Dunkerley’s formula can be determined by frequency equation. Kudari. l α22 = 5mg the influence coefficients are: α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 == α 22 = α 32 = α 23 = 11l 6mg l 5mg α33 = 11l 6mg Approximate methods In many engineering problems it is required to quickly estimate the first (fundamental) natural frequency.

  αn1m1 αn2m 2       . 0  α11 α12 0 α21 α 22 +   ..VTU e-learning Course 1 0 .. K. + αnnmn + . Bengaluru-28.. . .  − 2 + αnnmn    ω   .. n n −1 (2) − .   1 αn1 αn2 ..  αnn   0 0 0 . we get..(1) and Eqn.. Let the roots of above Eqn. mn  . ME65 Mechanical Vibrations α1n  m1 0 α 2n   0 m2   ..   1  . α1nmn n −1 Solve the determinant  1   1   2  − (α11m1 + α22m2 + . (2).. 0  = [0]   .... Kudari... + 2  2  ω ω  ωn  ω   1 ω2     Comparing Eqn.. . . are:  1  1 1  1 1  1   − 2 .. The natural frequency of the system considering only mass m1 is: ω1n = 1 = α11m1 K1 m1 The Dunkerley’s formula can be written as: 1 1 1 1 ≅ 2 + 2 + . α2nmn  = [0]  .) = [0] 1 1 1 . .. + 2  = (α11m1 + α22m2 + .... S. 2 2 ω1 ω2 ωn n (1) It is the polynomial equation of nth degree in (1/ω2).. which can be used to estimate first natural frequency of a system approximately. = 0  1 1 1   2 + 2 + . + 2 2 ω1 ω1n ω2n ωnn Prof. . . Approximately.. 2 − 2  2 ω ω ω1   ω ω2  ωn        1   1 1 1  1  =  2  −  2 + 2 + ...... + αnnmn ) 2  ω  ω  (α11α22m1m2 + α11α33m1m3 + . 7  1  α12m 2  − ω2 + α11m1      1   0  − 2 + α22m2    ω   . 2 . + αnnmn ) ω   1 The above formula is referred as Dunkerley’s formula... + αnnmn ) ω ωn   1 ω2  In mechanical systems higher natural frequencies are much larger than the fundamental (first) natural frequencies.  1 0 1 . the first natural frequency is:  1   2  ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 + ...  0 0 .  2 − 2 ....... − 2  ω . Principal (3) APS College of Engineering.

.  1   2  ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 + .VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 8 where. Principal APS College of Engineering. + αnnmn ) OR ω   1 1 1 1 1 ≅ 2 + 2 + ... (3) can be used for any mechanical/structural system to obtain first natural frequency Examples: 1 Obtain the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig. S. K.5 Linear vibratory system Dunkerley’s formula is:  1   2  ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 + .. Bengaluru-28.. ω 2n . K m x1 K m x2 K m x3 Fig. The above formula given by Eqn. + αnnmn ) ω   1 Prof.. + 2 2 ω1 ω1n ω2n ωnn Any one of the above formula can be used to find fundamental natural frequency approximately. Kudari. 1 α11 = α21 = α12 = α31 = α13 = K 2 α22 = α32 = α23 = K 3 α33 = K Substitute all influence coefficients in the Dunkerley’s formula.. .. Find influence flexibility coefficients. ω1n .... are natural frequency of single degree of freedom system considering each mass separately.. ..5 using Dunkerley’s method.

Obtain the influence co-efficents: α11 = α22 = 1.40 K/m rad/s Examples: 2 Find the lowest natural frequency of the system shown in Figure by Dunkerley’s method. Bengaluru-28. This principle is largely used for structural applications. Principal APS College of Engineering.7. Principle of Rayleigh’s method Consider a rotor system as shown in Fig.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 9  1   m 2m 3m  6m  2 ≅ + + = ω  K K  K  1  K ω1= 0. Take m1=100 kg.6 A cantilever rotor system. m1.245 rad/s (ii) Rayleigh’s method It is an approximate method of finding fundamental natural frequency of a system using energy principle.944x10 -3 EI 9x10 -3 EI  1   2  ≅ (α11m1 + α22m2 ) ω   n ωn = 1. Kudari. m2=50 kg VTU Exam July/Aug 2006 for 20 Marks m1 1 180 120 m2 2 Fig. . m2 and m3 are masses of rotors on shaft supported by two bearings at A and B and y1. y2 and y3 are static deflection of shaft at points 1. 2 and 3. K. Prof. Let. S.

Bengaluru-28. mi.7 A rotor system. Kudari. K. Considering the system vibrates with SHM. S. y3 For the given system maximum potential energy and kinetic energies are: Vmax = Tmax = 1 n ∑ migyi 2 i =1 1 n & ∑ mi yi2 2 i =1 (4) where. 2 and 3 can be found by.(7) is the Rayleigh’s formula. y1 = α11m1g + α12m2g + α13m3 g y 2 = α21m1g + α22m 2g + α23m3 g y 3 = α31m1g + α32m2 g + α33m3 g Eqn. yi –displacements at mass points. Principal APS College of Engineering. .VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 10 m1 A 1 m2 2 m3 3 B y1 y2 Fig. which is used to estimate frequency of transverse vibrations of a vibratory systems.masses of the system. (4) and (5) in (6) ∑ m gy i n i ω2 = i =1 n ∑ mi yi2 i =1 (7) The deflections at point 1. & y i = ω2 y i From above equations Tmax = ω2 2 ∑my i i =1 n 2 i (5) According to Rayleigh’s method. Vmax = Tmax (6) substitute Eqn. Prof.

K. Bengaluru-28.8 using Rayleigh’s method. S. Principal APS College of Engineering. 2K 2m x1 K 2m x2 K m x3 Fig. Kudari. α11 = α21 = α12 = α31 = α13 = α 22 = α32 = α 23 = 5 2K Deflection at point 1 is: α33 = y1 = α11m1g + α12m 2g + α13m3 g mg (2 + 2 + 1) = 5mg = 5g 2K 2K 2000 Deflection at point 2 is: y1 = 3 2K 1 2K y 2 = α21m1g + α22m2g + α23m3 g mg (2 + 6 + 3 ) = 11mg = 11g 2K 2K 2000 Deflection at point 3 is: y2 = y 3 = α31m1g + α 32m2 g + α 33m3 g mg (2 + 6 + 5 ) = 13mg = 13g 2K 2K 2000 Rayleigh’s formula is: y3 = Prof. .8 Linear vibratory system Obtain influence coefficients.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 11 Examples: 1 Estimate the approximate fundamental natural frequency of the system shown in Fig. Take: m=1kg and K=1000 N/m.

m2=20 kg VTU Exam July/Aug 2005 for 20 Marks m1 1 A 160 80 180 m2 2 B Fig.9 by Rayleigh’s method. I=10-6 m4. Bengaluru-28.9 A rotor system. Kudari. K. Step-1: Find deflections at point of loading from strength of materials principle.10 A simply supported beam For a simply supported beam shown in Fig. Prof.10. W x l b Fig. E=196 GPa. the deflection of beam at distance x from left is given by: Wbx 2 (l − x 2 − b2 ) for x ≤ (l − b) y= 6EIl For the given problem deflection at loads can be obtained by superposition of deflections due to each load acting separately.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 12 ∑ m gy i n i ω = 2 i =1 n ∑m y i i =1 2 i 5 11 13  2  + 2x + 2x  2x g 2000 2000  2  2000 ω = 2 2 2  5   11   13  2 2  + 2  + 2  g  2000   2000   2000  ω = 12. m1=40 kg. S.41 rad/s Examples: 2 Find the lowest natural frequency of transverse vibrations of the system shown in Fig. . Principal APS College of Engineering.

26 (0. Principal APS College of Engineering. S.42 2 − 0.16 2 ) = y '2' = 6EIx0.42 (9.42 2 − 0. K.26 2 − 0.16 2 − 0. Kudari.18 2 ) = y '2 = 6EIx0.42 (9.24 2 − 0.16x0.82 2 ) ωn = 1541.18x0.81(40x0.16x0.82 ) (40x0. .42 2 − 0.18 (0.16 2 ) = ' y1' = 6EIx0.81x20 )x0.29 EI 0.53 EI ∑ m gy i n i ω2 = i =1 n ∑my i i =1 2 i ω2 = 9.18x0.81x40 )x0.42 2 − 0.803 + 20x0.803 ' ' y1 = y1 + y1' = EI The deflection at point 2 is: 0.42 Deflections due to 40 kg mass (9.82 y 2 = y '2 + y '2' = EI 0.16 (0.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 13 Deflections due to 20 kg mass (9.42 The deflection at point 1 is: 0.24 (0.803 2 ) + (20x0. Bengaluru-28.81x20 )x0.265 EI 0.9 rad/s Prof.538 EI 0.81x40 )x0.18 2 − 0.18 2 ) = ' y1 = 6EI0.

Eqn. K. (11) Eqn. [D] is referred as Dynamic matrix. In above Eqns (10) and (11) by assuming trial modal vector and iterating till the Eqn is satisfied. Use flexibility influence co-efficients. It is required to have ω1< ω2<………. [M]−1 [K ]{A}r = ωr2 {A}r [D1]{A}r = ωr2 {A}r where. of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written as: [M]{&&} + [K ]{x} = [0] x where. Find influence coefficients.< ωn Eqns. for r mode. [D1 ] is referred as inverse dynamic matrix. − ωr2 [M]{A}r + [K ]{A}r = [0] [K ]−1[M]{A}r [D]{A}r = = 1 {A}r ωr2 1 {A}r ωr2 (10) where. Examples: 1 Find first natural frequency and modal vector of the system shown in the Fig. {x} = {A}sin(ωt + φ) substitute Eqn.10 using matrix iteration method. The Equation. Bengaluru-28. Kudari.VTU e-learning Course Numerical methods ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 14 (i) Matrix iteration method Using this method one can obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors of a vibratory system having multi-degree freedom. Principal APS College of Engineering. S.(8) in (9) − ω 2 [M]{A} + [K ]{A} = [0] (8) (9) th For principal modes of oscillations.(10) converges to first natural frequency and first modal vector. one can estimate natural frequency of a system. .(11) converges to last natural frequency and last modal vector. α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 = 1 2K α22 = α32 = α23 = 3 2K Prof.

6 2 6 5       As the new vector is not matching with the assumed one.VTU e-learning Course 5 2K ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 15 α33 = α11 α12 [α] = α21 α22  α31 α32  α13  α32   α33   [α] = [K ] −1 1 1 1 1  = 1 3 3  2K  1 3 5   First natural frequency and modal vector [K ]−1[M]{A}r = 12 {A}r ωr [D]{A}r = 1 {A}r ωr2 Obtain Dynamic matrix [D] = [K ]−1 [M] 1 1 1 2 0 0 2 2 1 m   0 2 0 = m 2 6 3 [D] = 1 3 3   2K   2K 1 3 5 0 0 1 2 6 5       Use basic Eqn to obtain first frequency [D]{A}1 = 12 {A}1 ωr Assume trial vector and substitute in the above Eqn. 1  Assumed vector is: {u}1 = 1 1  First Iteration 2 2 1 1  1  m   1 = 5m 2. Prof. K.2 [D]{u}1 = 2 6 3     2K 1 2K 2. Principal APS College of Engineering. S. Bengaluru-28. iterate again using the new vector as assumed vector in next iteration. . Kudari.

22 Third Iteration [D]{u}3 Fourth Iteration 2 2 1  1   1  m    2. S.55 2 6 3   =   K  2K  2.VTU e-learning Course Second Iteration ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 16 [D]{u}2 2 2 1  1   1  m   2.555 = 5.12m  2.22 m ω1 = 0.13 2 2 1  1   1  m   2. The new vector is the modal vector. To obtain the natural frequency.61 =  2.22m = 2 ω1 K 2 ω1 = 1 K 5.  1   1    5. [D]{A}1 = 12 {A}1 ω1 1 5.22    3.133  2 6 5      3.22m   [D] 2.437 Modal vector is: K Rad/s m {A}1  1    =  2. K.23      As the vectors are matching stop iterating. .61 K  3.61 2 6 3  =    2K  K  3.23 Compare above Eqn with with basic Eqn.61 [D]{u}4 = 2 6 3     2K K  2 6 5 3. Bengaluru-28.6  2 6 5      3. Kudari.2 = 4. Principal APS College of Engineering.5m 2.61 3.22 3.22m  2.23    Prof.61 = 5.

Vectors {a} and other if and only if {b}are orthogonal to each {a}T {b} = 0 {a1 {a1 b  a2 } 1  = 0 b2  1 0 b1  a 2 }   = 0 0 1 b 2  (12) {a}T []{b} = 0 I where.(12). Bengaluru-28. K. Orthogonality principle of modal vectors x2 {b} =  b1   b2  {a} =  a1   a2  x1 Fig. [] is Identity matrix.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 17 Method of obtaining natural frequencies in between first and last one (Sweeping Technique) For understanding it is required to to clearly understand Orthogonality principle of modal vectors.11. Kudari. Vectors {a} identity matrix. and {b} are orthogonal to each other with respect to Application of orthogonality principle in vibration analysis Eqns.11 Vector representation graphically Consider two vectors shown in Fig. . of motion of a vibratory system (having n DOF) in matrix form can be written as: [M]{&&} + [K ]{x} = [0] x {x} = {A}sin(ωt + φ) − ω 2 [M]{A}1 + [K ]{A}1 = [0] Prof. Principal APS College of Engineering. S. I From Eqn.

: T {V}1 [M]{A}1 = 0 {V1 V2 0   A1  m1 0   0 m V3 } 0  A 2  = 0 2  0 0 m3  A 3     {(V1m1A1 ) + (V2m2 A 2 ) + (V3m3 A 3 )} = 0 {(m1A1 )V1 + (m2 A 2 )V2 + (m3 A 3 )V3 } = 0 V1 = αV2 + βV3 where α and β are constants m A  α = − 2 2  mA   1 1 m A  β = − 3 3  mA   1 1 Therefore the trial vector is: Prof. Bengaluru-28.(14) by {A}1 T 2 ω1 {A}2 [M]{A}1 = {A}2 [K ]{A}1 T T 2 ω1 {A}1 [M]{A}2 = {A}1 [K ]{A}2 T T (15) (16) Eqn. This principle is used in the matrix iteration method to obtain the second modal vector and second natural frequency. Kudari.(15)-(16) T {A}1 [M]{A}2 =0 =0 Above equation is a condition for mass orthogonality.(13) by {A}2 and Eqn. Principal APS College of Engineering. S. This technique is referred as Sweeping technique Sweeping technique After obtaining {A}1 and ω1 to obtain {A}2 and ω 2 choose a trial vector {V}1 orthogonal to {A}1 . K. By knowing the first modal vector one can easily obtain the second modal vector based on either mass or stiffness orthogonality.which gives constraint Eqn. T {A}1 [K ]{A}2 Above equation is a condition for stiffness orthogonality.VTU e-learning Course ω 2 [M]{A}1 = [K ]{A }1 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 18 If system has two frequencies ω1 and ω2 2 ω1 [M]{A}1 = [K ]{A }1 (13) (14) T ω 2 [M]{A}2 = [K ]{A}2 2 Multiply Eqn. .

Use flexibility influence co-efficients. Principal APS College of Engineering. In this stage only how to obtain second frequency is demonstrated. New dynamics matrix is: [Ds ] + [D][S] [Ds ]{V}1 = 1 {A}2 ω2 2 The above Eqn. For this example already the first frequency and modal vectors are obtained by matrix iteration method in Example 1.10 using matrix iteration method and Sweeping technique. Find second natural frequency and modal vector of the system shown in the Fig.61 A  3. Bengaluru-28.23   3   2 0 0 [M] = 0 2 0 is the mass matrix   0 0 1   Find sweeping matrix 0 α β [S] = 0 1 0   0 0 1   m A   2(2. First Modal vector obtained in Example 1 is: {A}1  A1   1      = A 2  =  2. . K. This method of obtaining frequency and modal vectors between first and the last one is referred as sweeping technique. Converges to second natural frequency and second modal vector.61  mA     1 1 Prof.61)  α = − 2 2  = −  2(1)  = −2.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 19  V1  (αV2 + βV3 )     V2 V2  =   V    V3  3   0 α β  V1    = 0 1 0 V2    0 0 1 V3     = [S]{V}1 where = [S] is referred as Sweeping matrix and {V}1 is the trial vector. S. Examples: 2 For the Example problem 1. Kudari.

39 1.11 [Ds ] = 2 6 3  1 0   2K K  1 3 5 0 0 0.2.50  = 0.11       K  K  1 K  2.2.1  0 0.78  Fifth Iteration 0 − 1.28m  1  0 0.08  = 2.67 . Kudari.9.39 − 0.39 − 0.61 − 1.89        15.61 − 1.61 − 1.61 .3.98 .61 − 1.0.39 − 0.89        13.61 − 1.54  K  59.21.11 1 .28 .89       First Iteration 1 {A}2 ω2 2 [Ds ]{V}1 = 0 − 1.54  Third Iteration 0 − 1.11 .89         31.2 m   1  = m  .52   0 0.89         8.11       K  K   8.08m  .39 1.28   0 0.38  Fourth Iteration 0 − 1.5         Sixth Iteration Prof.39 1.13.18.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 20 m A   1(3.8.1  = m  .77   0 0.11 m   0  = m 0 0.14  Second Iteration 0 − 1.38  K  28.2.21.615  [S] = 0 1 0    0 0 1    New Dynamics matrix is: [Ds ] + [D][S] 2 2 1 0 .615  mA     1 1 Sweeping matrix is: 0 .11 . .89  13. Bengaluru-28.1.10.65  13.1.8.11       K  K  15.8.2.11       K  K K  0 0.1.1  0 0.39 1.33.85m  .615 0 − 1.64 .61 .39 0 1  1.8.71 m  1 = m  0.39 1.39 .67 m   .7.23)  β = − 3 3  = −  2(1)  = −1. S.14  K  15.27 .28 m   1  = m  .98 m   .85  = 3.90m  1  0 0.1  = m  .68 .9. K.90  = 1.39 − 0.1  0 0.61 − 1.11 .11       K  K   31. Principal APS College of Engineering.78  25.5m  .68 .67   0 0.28  = 0.39 − 0.71 .39 − 0.11 .

K.73 Modal vector K m  -1  {A}2 = .11 .11       K  K  13. Kudari.1  = m  .08 m   .7.13.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 21 0 − 1.39 1.61 − 1.24 .89        13. .2 .89    Similar manner the next frequency and modal vectors can be obtained. Bengaluru-28.39 − 0.43  1087m 1 = 2 ω2 K 2 ω1 = 1 K 1.14    1.87 m ω1 = 0.1.0. S.7. Prof.87m  .87  = 1. Principal APS College of Engineering.5  K  25.1  0 0.12   0 0.

F1 = m1ω 2 x1 for Mass 1 F2 = m 2ω 2 x 2 for Mass 2 F3 = m 3ω 2 x 3 for Mass 3 3. then solution is converged. ′ x1 = 1 = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 5.  x   x′   3  3 Find natural frequency by first equation. S. Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients. Bengaluru-28.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 22 (ii) Stodola’s method It is a numerical method. Example-1 Find the fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of a vibratory system shown in Fig. Principal APS College of Engineering. i. First iteration Prof. . K. Assume a modal vector of system. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point. If assumed modal vector is not equal to modal vector obtained in step 3. If assumed modal vector is equal to modal vector obtained in step 3. For example for 3 dof systems:  x1  1    x 2  = 1 x  1  3   2. The method is based on finding inertia forces and deflections at various points of interest using flexibility influence coefficents. then consider obtained deflection vector as new vector and iterate till convergence. using the formula.e  x1   x ′  1     If x 2  ≅ x′2  Stop iterating.10 using Stodola’s method. which is used to find the fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of a vibratory system having multi-degree freedom. Principle / steps 1.  x′  F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13  1     x′  = F1α21 + F2α22 + F3 α23  2 x′  F α + F α + F α  2 32 3 33   3   1 31 4. Kudari. Natural frequency can be obtained from above equation.

Kudari. K. Bengaluru-28. Iterate again using new deflection vector {u}2 Second iteration Prof. Principal APS College of Engineering. New deflection vector is: x′ = 3 ′  x1  5   mω2   x′2  = 11 2K    x′   3 13  x′  1   5m ω2 x′  =  2 2K  x′   3  1    2.s mω 2 6m ω2 5m ω2 13m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K 4. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point F1 = m1ω 2 x1 = 2m ω 2 F2 = m 2ω 2 x 2 = 2m ω 2 F3 = m 3ω 2 x 3 = m ω 2 3. Assume a modal vector of system {u}1 = x 2  = 1 x  1  3   2.s x′ = 2 mω 2 6m ω2 3m ω2 11m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K x′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 Substitute for F’s and α.2 = {u}2 2. . S.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 23  x1  1    1.6   The new deflection vector {u}2 ≠ {u}1 . Find new deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients Obtain flexibility influence coefficients of the system: α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 = α 22 = α32 = α 23 = α33 = 1 2K 3 2K 5 2K x′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 Substitute for F’s and α.s ′ x1 = mω 2 mω 2 mω 2 5m ω2 + + = K K 2K 2K x′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 Substitute for F’s and α.

2  x′′  1   9mω2 x′2  =  ′ 2K x′′   3  1    2.2m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K 4. New deflection vector is: x′′ = 3 ′  x1′   9    mω2   x′′  =  23  2 2K  x′′    3 28.6  3   2.2m ω2 7. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point ′ F1′ = m1ω 2 x′′ = 2m ω 2 1 ′ F2′ = m2ω2 x′′ = 5. K. Bengaluru-28. Iterate again using new deflection vector {u}3 Third iteration  x′′   1  1     1. Kudari.4m ω2 2. New deflection vector.s mω 2 13. Initial vector of system {u}2 = x′2  = 2. Principal APS College of Engineering.13   3   2.8m ω2 23m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 Substitute for F’s and α. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point ′ F1 = m1ω 2 x′ = 2m ω 2 1 ′ F2 = m 2 ω 2 x ′ = 4.1mω2 2 Prof.s x′′ = 1 mω2 4.55  2 x′′  3.2m ω2 13m ω 2 28. ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 Substitute for F’s and α.55 = {u}3 3. Initial vector of system {u}3 = x′′  = 2.s x′′ = 2 Substitute for F’s and α. . S.2 x′  2.4m ω 2 2 ′ F3 = m 3ω 2 x′ = 2.6m ω 2 3 3.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 24  x′   1  1     1.6m ω2 9m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 mω2 13.13    The new deflection vector {u}3 ≠ {u}2 .

Principal APS College of Engineering. Bengaluru-28.VTU e-learning Course ′ F3′ = m3ω2 x′′ = 3. .23  2   mω   ′ x′2′ = 26. S.23m ω2 =1 2K ω = 0. new deflection vector.60 = {u}4 3. New deflection vector is: x′′′ = 3 ′′  x1′ 10.30    The new deflection vector {u}4 ≅ {u}3 stop Iterating Fundamental natural frequency can be obtained by. K. ′α ′ ′ x′′′ = F1′ 11 + F2′α12 + F3′α13 1 Substitute for F’s and α.s ′ x′2′ = mω2 15.30    Prof.60  3.69 2K  x′′′   3  33.13mω2 3 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 25 3.s mω2 15. Kudari.3m ω2 16.2m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K 4. 10.44 K rad/s m Modal vector is: {A}1  1    = 2.39m ω2 26.8   x′′′ 1 2   10.13m ω2 10.69m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′α ′ ′ x′′′ = F1′ 31 + F2′α32 + F3′α33 3 Substitute for F’s and α.1m ω2 3.3m ω2 9.23mω x′′′ =  2 2K x′′′  3  1    2.s mω2 5.5m ω2 28.23m ω2 + + = K 2K 2K 2K ′α ′ ′ x′′′ = F1′ 21 + F2′α22 + F3′α23 2 x′′′ = 1 Substitute for F’s and α.

Prof. Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point F1 = m1ω 2 x1 = 4m ω 2 F2 = m 2 ω 2 x 2 = 2mω 2 F3 = m 3ω 2 x 3 = m ω 2 3. Assume a modal vector of system {u}1 = x 2  = 1 x  1  3   2.12 find the lowest natural frequency by Stodola’s method (carryout two iterations) July/Aug 2005 VTU for 10 marks 3K 4m x1 K 2m x2 K m x3 Fig. Kudari.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 26 Example-2 For the system shown in Fig. α11 = α 21 = α12 = α 31 = α13 = α 22 = α32 = α 23 = 1 3K 4 3K 7 3K First iteration α33 =  x1  1    1. Bengaluru-28. S. Principal .12 Linear vibratory system Obtain flexibility influence coefficients. K. New deflection vector using flexibility influence coefficients. x′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 ′ x1 = 4m ω2 2m ω2 mω2 7m ω 2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K APS College of Engineering.

Kudari.24m ω 2 18.71   The new deflection vector {u}2 ≠ {u}1 . Find out inertia forces of system at each mass point ′ ′ F1 = m1ω 2 x1 = 4m ω 2 ′ F2 = m2ω 2 x′2 = 4.71  3   2. Principal APS College of Engineering. K.97m ω 2 41.21m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K 4. Initial vector of system {u}2 = x′2  = 2.08m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 x′′ = 2 4m ω2 18.28 x′   2.56m ω 2 ′ F3 = m 3ω 2 x′ = 2.24m ω 2 10.27m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 4mω 2 18. New deflection vector is: x′′ = 3 Prof. Bengaluru-28. S.28 = {u}2  2.71m ω 2 3 3.56m ω2 2.71m ω2 11.84m ω2 33. New deflection vector is: x′ = 3 ′  x1  7 2   mω   x′2  = 16 3K    x′   3 19  x′  1 2   7mω x′2  =  3K  x′   3  1    2. .VTU e-learning Course x′ = F1α 21 + F2 α 22 + F3 α 23 2 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 27 x′ = 2 4mω 2 8m ω2 4m ω2 16m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K x′ = F1α31 + F2α32 + F3 α33 3 4mω 2 8m ω2 7m ω2 19m ω2 + + = 3K 3K 3K 3K 4. New deflection vector ′ ′ ′ x′′ = F1α11 + F2α12 + F3 α13 1 ′ x1′ = 4m ω2 4. Iterate again using new deflection vector {u}2 Second iteration  x′   1  1     1.

75mω x′′  = 2 K x′′   3 ω = 0.75m ω2 =1 2K  x′′  1 2   3.93 3.52 Modal vector. K.08 3K  x′′    3  41.65    Disadvantage of Stodola’s method Main drawback of Stodola’s method is that the method can be used to find only fundamental natural frequency and modal vector of vibratory systems. K m {A}1  1    = 2. 3. The Fundamental natural frequency can be calculated by. S. Prof. Bengaluru-28.65    Stop Iterating as it is asked to carry only two iterations.27  1 2   mω   ′ x′2  = 33.21  1    2. Kudari. . Principal APS College of Engineering.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 28  x′′  11.93 = {u}3 3. This method is not popular because of this reason.

4 Substitute above Eqn. Prof. used to find the natural frequencies and modal vector of a vibratory system having multi-degree freedom. ∑ ω Jφ 2 i i =1 n i =0 (20) The above equation indicates that sum of inertia torques (torsional systems) or inertia forces (linear systems) is equal to zero for semi-definite systems. we get. Principle Consider a multi dof semi-definite torsional semi-definite system as shown in Fig.2. .VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 29 (iii) Holzar’s method It is an iterative method.(17) in Eqns. S. of motions of the system are: && J θ + K (θ − θ ) = 0 1 1 1 1 2 && J2θ 2 + K 1(θ 2 − θ1 ) + K 2 (θ 2 − θ3 ) = 0 && J3θ3 + K 2 (θ3 − θ 2 ) + K 3 (θ3 − θ 4 ) = 0 && J4θ 4 + K 3 (θ 4 − θ3 ) = 0 The Motion is harmonic. θi = φisin(ωt ) where i=1. of motion. ω 2J1φ1 = K 1(φ1 − φ 2 ) ω 2 J 2 φ 2 = K 1 ( φ 2 − φ1 ) + K 2 ( φ 2 − φ 3 ) ω 2J3φ 3 = K 2 (φ 3 − φ 2 ) + K 3 (φ 3 − φ 4 ) ω 2 J 4 φ 4 + K 3 (φ 4 − φ 3 ) (17) (18) (19) Add above Eqns. Kudari. we get ∑ ω Jφ 2 i i =1 4 i =0 For n dof system the above Eqn changes to. Principal APS College of Engineering.13. K. Bengaluru-28.13 A torsional semi-definite system The Eqns. (18) to (19).3. J1 θ1 K 1 J2 θ2 K 2 J3 θ3 K 3 J4 θ4 Fig.

Bengaluru-28. Using this Eqn. Steps involved 1. Holzar’s Table Prof. Prepare the following table. Principal APS College of Engineering. (20) ω and φi both are unknowns. one can obtain natural frequencies and modal vectors by assuming a trial frequency ω and amplitude φ1 so that the above Eqn is satisfied. then assume another magnitude of ω and follow the same steps. Table-1. is satisfied. ω 2 J 2 φ 2 = K 1 ( φ 2 − φ1 ) + K 2 ( φ 2 − φ 3 ) = 0 ω 2J2φ 2 = K 1(φ1 − ω2J1 φ1 − φ1 ) + K 2 (φ 2 − φ 3 ) = 0 K1 ω 2J2φ 2 = −ω 2 J1 φ1 + K 2 (φ 2 − φ 3 ) = 0 K 2 (φ 2 − φ 3 ) = ω 2J1 φ1 + ω 2J2φ 2 φ3 = φ2 - ω 2J1 φ1 + ω 2 J2φ 2 K2 (21) The Eqn (21) can be written as: ∑J φω i i 2 2 φ3 = φ2 - i =1 K2 5. if the Eqn is not satisfied. Calculate the amplitude of second disc/mass φ2 from first Eqn. For ease of computations. this facilitates the calculations.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 30 In Eqn. of motion is: ∑J φω i i n 2 φ n = φ n -1 - i =1 Kn 6. Similarly calculate the amplitude of third disc/mass φ3 from second Eqn. K. then assumed ω is the natural frequency. . Kudari. Substitute all computed φi values in basic constraint Eqn. Assume amplitude of first disc/mass (for simplicity assume φ1=1 3. Similarly calculate the amplitude of nth disc/mass φn from (n-1)th Eqn. Assume magnitude of a trial frequency ω 2. of motion. of motion ω 2J1φ1 = K 1(φ1 − φ 2 ) = 0 φ 2 = φ1 − ω 2J1φ1 K1 4. ∑ ω Jφ 2 i i =1 n i =0 7. If the above Eqn. S.

J1 θ1 K 1 J2 θ2 K 2 J3 θ3 Fig.56 0. for iterations. Principal APS College of Engineering.56 0.19 0. Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps.75 2 3 IV-iteration 1.07 1 1  0.9375 0.20 1 1  1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.00 1 2 1 1 1 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0.44 0.25 0.051 0.0625 0.25 0.VTU e-learning Course 1 ω ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 4 φ 31 2 S No 3 J 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ K Example-1 For the system shown in the Fig.172 0.25 2 3 II-iteration 1 0. Bengaluru-28.44 -0. Kudari.31 0.75 0. S.51 0.56 0.80 0.0585 0.44  0. Holzar’s Table for Example-1 1 ω 2 S No 3 J 4 φ 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ 0.24 -0.14 A torsional semi-definite system Make a table as given by Table-1. Table-2.121 0.80  Prof. .16.50 2 3 III-iteration 1 0.0625 0.0625 0.121  1 1  0. follow the steps discussed earlier.60 1 1 K I-iteration 1 0. K.36 0. obtain natural frequencies using Holzar’s method.25 0.816 1 0.

24  Table.25 -0.56 -0.25 1. Bengaluru-28.30 3.87 -1.VTU e-learning Course 3 V-iteration 1 1.25 1.06 -6.75 2 3 1 1 1 1 -2.5 1. S.17 0.18 3.3 Iteration summary table ω ∑ Jω φ 2 0 0.56 0.36 Prof.1 0.51 0.75 1 1.50 2 3 VII-iteration 1 1.57  1 1  3. Principal APS College of Engineering. .95 1 -1 -1 0 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations   32 1.26 2.5 0.25 -0.56 -1.26 -2.75 0 0.60 1 1 1 1 -1.57 -2.06 1. Kudari.25 0.25 2 3 VI-iteration 1 1.25 -0.69  1 1  2.06 -3. K.68 2.25 -2.24 0.69 -1.10 3.56 0.82 -1.6 0 -1.06 -3.53 1 1 1 1 -0.36 1 1  1.

1. If a system is definite the basic equation Eqn.0 -2.VTU e-learning Course The values in above table are plotted in Fig. Principal APS College of Engineering.25 1. Prof.15.00 Frequency.5 -2.00 0.75 2.5 0. Holzar’s plot of Table-3 From the above Graph. S. Kudari. deflection at fixed point is always ZERO.15.25 0. ω Fig.0 -1.5 0.5 1. .0 0. Bengaluru-28. This principle is used to obtain the natural frequencies of the system by iterative process.71 rad/s Definite systems The procedure discussed earlier is valid for semi-definite systems.0 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 33 ∑ Jω φ 2 -0.75 1. (20) is not valid.50 1.50 0. The Example-2 demonstrates the method. K.5 -1.00 1. the values of natural frequencies are: ω1 = 0 rad/s ω 2 = 1 rad/s ω3 = 1. It is well-known that for definite systems.

Bengaluru-28.330  K I-iteration 1 0. follow the steps discussed earlier.0417  1 2 3  0.289 0.27  1.125 -0.1445 0.00 1 2 3 2 1 -2 3 -4 3 -1 1 2 3 -0.1875 0. Table-4.16 A torsional system Make a table as given by Table-1.8125 0.75 2 3 4 IV-iteration 1.875 0.046  0.772 -0. for iterations.687 0.5 3 2 1  3 2 1  1 0.643  1.457 0. K. 557 1 0.25 -0. Principal APS College of Engineering.25 2 3 4 II-iteration 1 0.828  1 2 3  0.75 0.687 -0. S.437 0.6679 0. July/Aug 2005 VTU for 20 marks 3K 2K K J 2J 3J Fig.270  1 2 3  1.463 1 -0.1015 0.110  3 2 1  0.914 0.687 -1.234 0.50 2 3 4 III-iteration 1 0.1875 0.VTU e-learning Course ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 34 Example-2 For the system shown in the figure estimate natural frequencies using Holzar’s method.187 -0. Holzar’s Table for Example-2 1 ω 2 S No 3 J 4 φ 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ 0.1875 0.75 0.090  Prof. Assume ω from lower value to a higher value in proper steps. . Kudari.144 -1.75 0.687 0.

50 2 3 4 1 ω ME65 Mechanical Vibrations -1.VTU e-learning Course 3 4 V-iteration 1 1. Kudari.75 -9.825 -6.33 1 -17.44 -1.5 2 3 4 3 2 1  3 2 1  1 -8.687 -6.75 -101.562 -3. S.412 -2.82  18.667 1 -3.75 3.326  3 2 1  6.121  3 2 1  12 -88 108  12 -76 32  1 2 3  12 -38 10.31 7.5  -2.75 -203.88 -3. Principal APS College of Engineering.38 1 -11 -27 16.87 523.552  1 2 3  6.75 -221.979  1 2 3  4.687 -3.18 -20.66  18.75 -19.687 -11.18 12.5  3  -0.833  3 2 1  4. Bengaluru-28.125 -10.81 -23.56 106.5 -0.12 320.09 9.06 37.327 4 φ 35 1  -1.75 83.521 -0.75 -25.90  Prof.274 2.25 2 3 4 VI-iteration 1 1.18 -50. .75 2 3 4 VIII-iteration 1 2.260 13.70  1 2 3  18.572  6.517  2 S No 3 J 5 Jω2φ 6 7 2 8 1 ∑ Jω2φ K ∑ Jω φ 9.18 -40.515  1 2 3  9.875 8.172 1 -5. K.0 2 3 4 IX-iteration 1 2.154  4.687 -0.364  K VII-iteration 1 1.

5 Frequency. Bengaluru-28.557 -0.33 -23. Kudari.667 2.0 0.0 2.VTU e-learning Course Table.25 1.38 16. Principal APS College of Engineering. S. .463 -1.5 2.234 -0. the values of natural frequencies are: ω1 = 0.172 7.5 0.5 Iteration summary table ω φ4 ME65 Mechanical Vibrations 36 0 0.0 1.17.15 ω3 = 2.ω Fig.372 13.35 ω 2 = 1.75 1 1.09 The values in above table are plotted in Fig.17.5 0 0.25 0. 20 Displacement. φ4 10 0 -10 ω1 -20 ω2 ω3 0.5 1.30 rad/s rad/s rad/s Prof. Holzar’s plot of Table-5 From the above Graph.75 2 2. K.5 1.