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Education is recognized as a basic human right. It is universally acknowledged as an indispensable element in all dimensions of development.

However, demographic changes intensely affect education. Rapid development in recent decades has implications for the type of basic education required. Recently, it is apparent that globalization has a multidimensional impact on educational system. What is the main education challenge then that confronts us educators? The answer is as old as how most of the philosophers argued in their times and that is: to ensure that all people have the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and values necessary for continuing human and economic development. But what is indeed a necessary knowledge, what skills are truly required and what values are needed to cope up with the constant state of change? Jean Jacques Rousseau’s central principle is that “man is naturally good”. It is therefore according to him the goal of education to cultivate man’s natural tendencies. Further he said that man’s nature is not fully mature until it becomes social. This however should not be confused with Rousseau’s admiration of the pure state of nature when he said that “everything is good as it leaves the hands of the Author of things, everything degenerates in the hands of man”. What he is trying to imply is that although it is not possible for human beings to return to a state of nature once he is civilized or has become social, a properly educated man should relate to his or her fellow citizens in a natural way. As Rousseau puts it “The aim of education is to learn how to live righteously”. How do we cultivate man’s natural tendencies and how do we make each individual to live righteously? For Rousseau as discussed by Gutek (2001), the challenge is to provide the student a natural environment in which his intrinsic natural goodness will grow and develop without being tainted by a corrupt society. Childhood should unfold and developed naturally that each age, each stage of life has its own perfection and has its own kind of maturity. Rousseau believed that this can be accomplished by following a guardian who can point the way to good living. In Brubacher (1978), the purpose of education as clearly set up by Rousseau is to examine human nature, see what its potentialities are and then set up an educational program which aims to actualize or realize them. In his novel, Emile, he pointed out that if a man is educated naturally, it is possible to create social, political and economic institutions that also function naturally. But then again, this seems to be paradoxical when we speak of natural ways of socializing with others when Rousseau’s claim is that human beings are not social by nature. The answer lies on Rousseau’s two forms of self-love, that each of us has this natural feeling of love towards ourselves and unnatural self-love that depends on comparing oneself with others which breed contempt, hostility, and frivolous competition. Rousseau’s philosophy of education therefore is not geared simply at a particular technique that best ensure that the pupil will absorb information and concepts. It is better understood as a way of ensuring that the pupils’ character be developed in such a way as to have a healthy sense of self-worth and morality. This will allow the pupil to be virtuous even in the unnatural and imperfect society in which he lives. (http://www.iep.utm.edu/r/rousseau.htm) Looking at John Dewey is analyzing the four pillars of education as stressed in the report of the International Commission on Education for the 21st century. The first pillar of education is learning to know which implies learning how to learn by developing one’s concentration, memory skills and ability to think. This type of learning as Vega (2006) puts it is concerned less with the acquisition of structured knowledge but more with the mastery of learning tools. For Dewey, the child learns best through direct personal experience. In the primary education, what John Dewey is trying to point out is that this experience should revolve around games and occupations analogous to the activities through which mankind satisfies its basic material needs for food, clothing, shelter and protection. However, John Dewey’s epistemological view of education that education is a process of living and not a preparation for future living (Gordon, 1998) contradicts to how information society regards education as empowering tool

to make democratic institutions function effectively, to meet the demands for a more sophisticated workforce, to work for a cleaner environment, and to meet their obligations as parents and citizens (UNESCO, 1997). John Dewey nevertheless is absolute that education is life and it is a fundamental method of social progress and reform. In an ever-evolving universe, education is an endless experiment wherein educators aid students in creating ways of actively transforming themselves to secure the most complete and effective adaptation possible. (Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 1967) Francisco Benitez then was right with his new concept of education. According to Benitez, education is training the individuals for the duties and privileges of citizenship not only for his own happiness and efficiency, but for the national service and welfare as well. It used to be a matter of private concern but with the growth of national consciousness and national spirit among our people, education has become a public function and that the state has the right to educate every member of the community. The question now lies not on how to distinguish an educated man but what is it that our society hopes to achieve. (Abad, 1986) Vividly remembered was the question raised by Dr. Aser Javier, a profound professor in IDMG-CPAF-UPLB: Where is this country going? He was particularly asking us if one of us knows what vision are we following in the course of doing everything...particularly in pursuing our post graduate degree. We ended up composing a seemingly pageant speeches with Mabuhay Philippines at the end. I am raising the same question...hoping that all of us will be heading in the same direction and that is to what our society hopes to achieve. What is it that our society hopes to achieve? (http://benevieve.blogspot.com) Again, going back to the four pillars of education, Vega (2006) reiterated that these pillars emphasize the value of education as a manifestation of the spirit of unity. This stems from the will to live together as active members of a global village and contribute to the attainment of a culture of peace. Learning to live together as one of the pillars is one of the major issues in education today, since the contemporary world is too often a world of violence. Although there has been conflict throughout the history, new factors are accentuating the risk particularly the extraordinary capacity for self-destruction humanity has created in the course of the 20th century. (Vega, 2006) Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi then was right when he brought out that the nature of men is not a uniform thing. It has tensions and contradictions within it. It is human nature to satisfy the needs of the body and want to do things that will make him happy. It is the higher nature which consist of the ability to perceive truth, to show love, to believe in God, to listen to one’s own conscience, to do justice, to develop a sense of beauty and to build social life. It is through socialization that humans have created and continue to create a world. But going back to the new dimension of Education, What is in Peztalozzi’s epistemological view of education that contributes to the new emerging concept of education? Pestalozzi believed that training for work should bepart of human
education. Not only the hands but also the head and the heart should be educated. Development of the inner-self through moral-

religious education was central. And according to him, the heart of an individual can only be guided to do good by seeing the example of love and actions from others and by being loved by other. (http;//ww.bruelmeir.info/fundamental.ideas.htm) This again pointed out to the last pillar of education which is learning to be. This refers to the role of education in developing all the dimensions of the complete person; the physical intellectual, emotional and ethical integration of individual into a complete man. Education according to Delors (1996) must contribute to the all-round development of each individual – mind and body, intelligence, sensitivity, aesthetic sense, personal responsibility, and spiritual values. It describes learning to be as “the complete fulfillment of man, in all the richness of his personality, the complexity of his forms of expression and his various commitments as individual, member of a family and of a community, citizen and producer, inventor of techniques and creative dreamer.

Students are now part of the modern world. A world that has become complicated with injustice, environmental degradation and interconnections, all of which are tremendously affecting all of us, regardless of where in the world we live and under what economic circumstances are. It seems that it is no longer a choice of “to be part of the system that we live in or not” as Rousseau would create an artificial environment, or Dewey would insist on his experiential laboratory or Pestalozzi’s supreme demand on education that follows the laws of nature, but rather it is a choice of “how we want to live the system of which we are a part.” And how we want the future generation where our children will be a part of it to live. It is this light where I wanted to fill in the gaps of Rousseau’s philosophy of education when he underestimated the role of the family in nurturing what he calls the natural goodness of human beings. Or to what Dewey hoped to achieve of children being let alone as it tries to emphasize that the exploration of the self and how it relates to the world at large is the greatest challenge education can provide. Or Pestalozzi’s metaphysical claim that every child is born with natural powers and faculties- which can be developed and even contain an urge to develop on the basis of an inherent instinct. Everything has been said, everything has been tried. Yet, it still remain a vision “that all children will have equitable access to and complete education of sufficient quality to empower them to break the poverty cycle, to improve their quality of life, and to participate effectively in national development”. With this, I want to end that everything begins at home. Education is a parental function as pointed out in the Constitution. It is seen as a shared responsibility of both the parents and the teachers to educate students and prepare them for later life. Parents are concerned about student’s academic attainment as they consider it an important factor of student’s success in the future. Teachers on the other hand play an important role in achieving instructional success in their classroom as the children enter school. The idea of partnership between parents and teachers should be an utmost consideration