109 views

Uploaded by Ian G. Walker

- EGM6341_Sol_HW_02
- 012 - Advanced Mathematical Analysis.pdf
- Journal of Ultra Scientist of Physical Sciences
- Bca Edited FINAL
- Hw 3 Solution
- General Math DLL for SHS - (more dll at depedtambayanph.blogspot.com) Q1, Week 10.xlsx
- Sia3e Ssm 08
- Trinity College Maths Tripos Interview Test
- Unit -IV
- Foundations
- 07 Exponential and Logarithmic Functions
- Basic Theorems on Infinite Series
- Introduction to Power Series
- HP48S_SX_Brochure_5952-0869_0391
- On the Smarandache kn-digital subsequence
- fxjiljokvy.pdf
- CalcII-Slides8.2
- Series
- 9780817682798-c2
- Derivatives of Logarithmic and Exponential Functions

You are on page 1of 4

KEITH CONRAD

n1

(1)n1

xn , n

1+x=

n0

In each equation, the series on the right side has radius of convergence 1 and satises the same rst-order dierential equation as the function on the left side, and both sides have the same value at x = 0. Therefore the two sides of each equation are equal for 1 < x < 1. But what happens at the endpoints? For example, the series for log(1 + x) converges at x = 1 since it is alternating there. But that alone doesnt prove the series at x = 1 is log 2. Lets be sure not to confuse two issues: convergence of the series at the boundary and knowing if the value of the series at the boundary equals what we think it should equal. How can we show the values of the series at the endpoints are what we expect by continuity from inside the interval of convergence? Rather than treating these two examples by special methods adapted just for them (see [1, p. 254] for that), we will explain a more systematic approach to boundary behavior of power series. Theorem 1 (Abel, 1826). Let g(x) = |x| < 1. If n0 cn converges then

x1 n0 cn x n

lim g(x) =

n0

cn .

In other words, if a power series converges at x = 1 then its value at x = 1 is the limit of its values at x as x 1 , so a power series has built-in continuity in its behavior. Before we prove Abels theorem, lets see how it applies to our previous examples at x = 1. Example 1. In (1), set g(x) = n1 (1)n1 xn /n for |x| < 1. Then g(x) = log(1 + x) for |x| < 1. The series g(1) converges since its alternating, so by Abels theorem g(1) = lim g(x) = lim log(1 + x) = log 2

x1 x1

since the logarithm is a continuous function. (1)n1 (2n)! n Example 2. In (1), set g(x) = x for |x| < 1, so g(x) = 1 + x here. 22n n!2 (2n 1) n0 The series g(1) is absolutely convergent, so by Abels theorem and the continuity of 1 + x, g(1) = lim g(x) = lim 1 + x = 2.

x1 x1

KEITH CONRAD

Abels theorem says that if a power series converges on (1, 1) and also at x = 1 then its value at x = 1 is determined by continuity from the left of 1. You must know the series converges at x = 1 before you can apply Abels theorem. This theorem does not say that if a function has a power series representation in (1, 1) and has a limit as x 1 that the series converges at x = 1 and equals the limiting value there. Here is a counterexample. Example 3. Let g(x) = 1/(1 + x2 ), which is dierentiable for all real x. When |x| < 1, g(x) = n0 (1)n x2n by expanding a geometric series. While g(x) has a limit as x 1 (namely 1/2), the power series does not converge at x = 1. Now we prove Abels theorem. The main tool is summation by parts. Proof. We are given that

n0 cn x n

n0 n0 N n n=0 cn x

x1

lim

cn . and

N n=0 cn .

For 1 < x < 1 we will work with the truncated sums s n = c0 + c1 + + cn for n 0. Note sn sn1 = cn for n 1. Then

N N

Set

cn x

n=0

= c0 +

n=1 N

n=1 N 1

= c0 +

= c0 + u N s N u 1 s 0

n=1 N 1

= c0 + xN sN xc0

n=1

N 1

= (1 x)c0 + x sN +

n=1 N 1

n=1

= (1 x)c0 + xN sN +

Since s0 = c0 , we can absorb the rst term into the sum as the n = 0 term, and then pull a 1 x out of each term in the sum:

N N 1

(2)

n=0

cn xn = xN sN + (1 x)

n=0

s n xn .

By hypothesis, the left side of (2) converges as N . Also xN sN 0 as N since xN 0 and sN is bounded (in fact sN converges since were assuming cn converges). n=1

Therefore when 1 < x < 1 the partial sums on the right side of (2) converge as N and we get (3)

n0

cn xn = (1 x)

n0 n0 cn x n

s n xn .

n0

n0

cn xn s = (1 x)

where on the right side we used the formula (1 x) n0 xn = 1. Our goal is to show the right side of (4) tends to 0 as x 1 . By assumption, sn s as n . Pick a positive number . For all large n, say n M , |sn s| . Then we break up the right side of (4) into two sums

M 1

cn x s = (1 x)

n0 n=0

(sn s)xn + (1 x)

nM

(sn s)xn

and estimate:

M 1

cn x s

n0

|1 x|

n=0 M 1

|sn s||x|n + |1 x|

nM

nM

|1 x|

n=0 M 1

n=0 M 1

= |1 x| < |1 x|

n=0

|sn s||x|n + |1 x|

M 1

(5)

n0

cn x s < |1 x|

n=0

|sn s| + .

When x 1 , the rst term on the right side of (5) tends to 0 on account of the 1 x there. (Note the upper index of summation M 1 has nothing to do with x, so it does not change as x 1 .) When x is close enough to 1, we can make the rst term on the right side at most , so (6)

n0

cn xn s + = 2

as x 1 . Since is an arbitrary positive number, the left side of (6) must go to zero as x 1 .

KEITH CONRAD

Abels theorem was stated for the behavior of series at the point x = 1, but rescaling lets us apply it to other points, as follows. Corollary 2. Suppose a power series n0 cn xn converges for |x| < r. If the series converges at r or r then the value of the series there is the limit of the values of the series as x tends to the endpoint from inside the interval. That is, (a) if n0 cn rn converges then

xr

lim

cn x n =

n0 n0

cn r n ,

(b) if

n0 cn (r)

converges then

xr+

lim

cn x n =

n0 n0

cn (r)n .

n0 cn (rx) n

Proof. In (a), let an = cn rn and g(x) = n0 an xn = converges at x = 1 so Abels theorem tells us an = lim

n0 x1 n0

an xn = lim

x1 n0

cn rn xn = lim

xr n0

where the limit changed from x 1 to x r in the last equation (by replacing x with x/r). Since an = cn rn , the left side is n0 an = n0 cn rn . The argument in (b) is similar, using an = cn (r)n . Example 4. In the second equation in (1), the series on the right is (absolutely) convergent at x = 1. The function 1 + x is continuous from the right at x = 1, with value 0, so by Corollary 2 the second series in (1) at x = 1 has value 0: (2n)! 1 1 1 5 7 0= =1 . 22n n!2 (2n 1) 2 8 16 128 256 n0 References

[1] E. Hairer, G. Wanner, Analysis by Its History, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1996.

- EGM6341_Sol_HW_02Uploaded byRaminShamshiri
- 012 - Advanced Mathematical Analysis.pdfUploaded byVishakh Kumar
- Journal of Ultra Scientist of Physical SciencesUploaded byAtif Aziz
- Bca Edited FINALUploaded byBijay Mishra
- Hw 3 SolutionUploaded byJuneNy On-lert
- General Math DLL for SHS - (more dll at depedtambayanph.blogspot.com) Q1, Week 10.xlsxUploaded byMelanio
- Sia3e Ssm 08Uploaded bybrian
- Trinity College Maths Tripos Interview TestUploaded byAndō Jurai
- Unit -IVUploaded byRobertBellarmine
- FoundationsUploaded bySoniyaKanwalG
- 07 Exponential and Logarithmic FunctionsUploaded byGary Omar Pacana
- Basic Theorems on Infinite SeriesUploaded bysuperbro08
- Introduction to Power SeriesUploaded byMubisi Jack
- HP48S_SX_Brochure_5952-0869_0391Uploaded byCarlos Algalord
- On the Smarandache kn-digital subsequenceUploaded byRyanElias
- fxjiljokvy.pdfUploaded byMichelle Rose Roxas
- CalcII-Slides8.2Uploaded bynou channarith
- SeriesUploaded bykirrikiki
- 9780817682798-c2Uploaded bynislam57
- Derivatives of Logarithmic and Exponential FunctionsUploaded byIbrahim A Said
- BL82_DatabaseSizingUploaded bySatish Kumar Kothuru
- Math_10.pdfUploaded byShehan Fernando
- exp to log introUploaded byapi-276566085
- MATH 102 Lecture 6 (1)Uploaded byAlan Sheleng
- LECTURE 9 Series Solution of LD S2 2015-2016Uploaded byFaIz Fauzi
- ica03Uploaded byxutem
- Lecture 4 Continui Dad TopoUploaded byPatricia Calvo Pérez
- nadia.pdfUploaded bynadia mumtaz
- Maths Log Unit-02Uploaded byRajAnand
- Assignment 4 AnalysisUploaded bykowlet

- Compressed Marko Rodin Tesla Tech Article June 14th 2010Uploaded byBarbharium
- Least squares data fittingUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Uncertainty propagation with functionally correlated quantitiesUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Generalised Addition ChainsUploaded byIan G. Walker
- ANGELANTONI EKOFRIGOLAB Laboratory Refrigerators and FreezersUploaded byIan G. Walker
- A Pa Prime FractalsUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Laurence Gardner The Hidden History Of Jesus And The Holy GrailUploaded byOliver James
- Laurence Gardner-Genesis of the Grail Kings_ The Explosive Story of Genetic Cloning and the Ancient Bloodline of Jesus-Element Books Ltd (2000).pdfUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Institute of Mathematics and its ApplicationsUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Anti ManifestoUploaded byIan G. Walker
- 1409.0090v1.pdfUploaded byIan G. Walker
- InversionUploaded bydatkieng
- a simple proof that pi is irrationalUploaded by林哲侃
- Inversion - Chapter 7Uploaded byIan G. Walker
- Circle InversionsUploaded byIan G. Walker
- GUIDE-MQA-011-007Uploaded byIan G. Walker
- F0 What it means - How to calculate it - How to use itv3.pdfUploaded byJosé Manuel Pais-Chanfrau
- Steam Sterilization and the 2007 Revision of PDA Technical Report 1Uploaded byCarlos Medina Cisterna
- The Book of JubileesUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Cold chain managementUploaded byIan G. Walker
- The Abstract Algebra and the Unsolved Problems of AntiquityUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Circle InversionsUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Relativistic Kinetic TheoryUploaded byIan G. Walker
- ASTM ReferenceUploaded byIan G. Walker
- Omega flow mweterUploaded byIan G. Walker
- 3x+1 problem an overview j.lagariasUploaded byIan G. Walker
- NanoVACQ Temperature PressureUploaded byIan G. Walker
- 24) Sensors Pinswitches and ContactsUploaded byIan G. Walker

- otrs-installationUploaded byNiverson Vivinha
- UA E5 U1 W2 S2 CW the Values Americans Live ByUploaded byAlejandro McNeil
- BASF_Nanotechnology_Charts_SachwehUploaded byanpuselvi125
- Fourth DimensionUploaded bydarius
- Wikipedia Visual ThinkingUploaded bysonostufodiprovare
- rorymccaffreyresumeUploaded byapi-453396285
- Software Defined Substation AutomationUploaded byfischerbast
- Draft munaUploaded byIsagani Dulfo Jr.
- TubularUploaded byanellbmc
- Essential DrugsUploaded byZarish Iftikhar
- Troff OverviewUploaded bygagrilli
- JKE HandbookUploaded byZhess Bug
- IB Psychology Chapter 01 Learning ObjectivesUploaded byAndrea Badillo
- Cobas 6000 SOPUploaded byJohn Rumbaugh
- SSRN-id1742165.pdfUploaded byAnantHimanshuEkka
- 1212291 Criminal Justice Reference 179630Uploaded byrmiller6377227
- United Kingdom ISCED MappingUploaded byMaria Benedikta
- Nework Analysis and SynthesisUploaded bysaurabh
- Self Healing Systems LectureUploaded byhimanshu_agra
- Garcia, Tristan, 2015. in Defense of RepresentationUploaded byAnonymous OcErdDzNi
- 1575-IUCN-2240-en.pdfUploaded byAzizipho Potwana
- Heesakkers IIUploaded byDavid Aguilar
- curious george lesson reflectionUploaded byapi-299379997
- KIOCLUploaded bymdivya569
- 2011_Key_Performance_Indicators_in_Highway_Design_and_Construction.pdfUploaded byoracle259
- BSI Annex SL WhitepaperUploaded byFarhan Shariff
- 39587hg2309290fnvjnwy200909Uploaded byOrockjo
- Gender Mainstreaming in India -fUploaded bybrsiwal1475
- WaseemUploaded byArvin Delos Reyes
- ArticleUploaded byEng Selsa