This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CHEMICAL ENGINEERING NED UNIVERSITY
ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED TO: SIR JUNAID AKHLAS
TEMPERATURE CONTROL IN FURNACES (FIXTURES. MECHANISMS) . COMPONENTS.
called the burden or stock. the control of heat losses in turn helps in the control of temperature of the furnace up to desired level.FURNACE: A furnace is a device in which the chemical energy of fuel or electrical energy is converted into heat which is then used to raise the temperature of material. due to which temperature variations / losses occur in the furnace. The majority heat loss is from the Flue Gases. which takes heat either in the form of sensible heat or as incomplete combustion. frequently burning in the open and carrying off heat. The sources of heat losses in furnaces are: Heat is lost to the surroundings by Radiation and Convection from the outer surface of the walls or by Conduction into the ground. placed within it for that purpose. Sometimes furnace gases pass out around the door. HEAT LOSSES IN FURNACE: Conventional high temperature furnace operates generally with Thermal Efficiencies between 10 . All these factors are the reasons of loss of energy from the furnace. Some of the heat passes into the furnace wall and hearth.50 % (excepting steam generating boiler whose thermal efficiency may be up to 85%). Heat is also radiated through cracks or other openings. . Heat is also lost every time the door is opened. Therefore.
it is advisable to maintain a long flame with a golden yellow color while firing furnace oil for uniform heating. The flames from various burners in the combustion space should also stay clear of each other. The flames should not touch the stock and should propagate clear of any solid object. Any obstruction whatsoever affects combustion and creates black smoke. for direct fired heating furnace. a heat release equivalent to 700-900 kcal/hr. as homogenous heat distribution within furnace will automatically have uniform temperature (within a particular range) inside the furnace. It is also desirable to provide the combustion volume adequate to the heat release rate. besides abnormal increase in stack losses. the ingress of too much excess air lowers the flame temperature and consequently reduces furnace temperature and the heating rate. per cubic metre of combustion volume may be used. More burners of less capacity give better distribution of heat in the furnace. amount of excess air that is optimum for the combustion process at desired operating conditions. So. PROPER HEAT DISTRIBUTION: Proper heat distribution helps in controlling furnace temperature. If the flames intersect.CONTROLLING TEMPERATURE IN FURNACE: MEASURES TO CONTROL HEAT LOSSES: CONTROL OF EXCESS AIR: With the increase in excess air. As a thumb rule. For smaller reheating furnaces. . Following are the ways to achieve it: The larger burner produces a long flame which may be difficult to contain within the furnace walls. inefficient combustion would occur. should be calculated and injected into the furnace.
MINIMISING WALL LOSSES: A large proportion of fuel energy goes to make up for the wall-heat losses. is much more than would be necessary had the furnace been operated on a “PROPORTIONAL CONTROL”. only the atomizing air enters the furnace bringing down its temperature rapidly so that when the fuel firing process is recommended. any undesirable increase in furnace temperature will: Result in unnecessary waste of fuel in terms of heat. Overheating of stock. Therefore. Doors that are hinged or swinging type may be provided. all unnecessary openings of the furnaces should be sealed and the flame be contained within the furnace. Over-stressing of refractories. Doors should be tightly shut and made of light material that is durable and heat proof. The furnaces are often run without any temperature controls. a lagging of Diatomaceous insulation is placed behind a dense refractory base. its spoilage or excessive oxidation. the amount of fuel supplied to the furnace to bring up the temperature. OPERATING AT THE DESIRED TEMPERATURE: The temperature in the furnace should be maintained at optimum level as per operational requirement. The appropriate choice of refractory and insulation materials achieves Several materials with different combinations of Heat fairly high fuel saving in industrial furnaces. Increase in radiation losses. When the furnace is operating continuously under severe conditions of atmosphere or high temperature. REDUCING HEAT LOSSES FROM FURNACE OPENINGS: In fuel fired furnaces. Insulations and Thermal Inertia should be considered to minimize heat losses through furnace walls. which is extremely harmful to the optimum performance of the furnace. In the “OFF” condition. In other insulations where cleaner conditions or a . substantial heat losses occur through furnace openings. often with the “ON-OFF CONTROL”. There are two methods of insulation normally used for high temperature furnaces.
Silica-Alumina or Ball Clay Silica etc.4 to 0. the internal refractory surface of a furnace is coated with high emissivity ceramic coating material. which increases the emissivity of refractory lining at higher temperature thereby enhancing the radiative heat transfer rate to the stock inside the furnace resulting in uniform heating condition and high fuel efficiency and saving. and can in general be used up to a temperature as high as 1800 o C. . the insulating material can itself form the refractory lining with no back up refractory bricks. HIGH EMISSIVITY CERAMIC REFRACTORY COATINGS IN FURNACES: Emissivity is the capacity of a material to radiate heat. It can withstand a temperature up to 1500 o C without damaging the mother structure.lower temperature prevails. It provides good thermal shock resistance to bricks. the emissivity of various refractories drops to as low as 0. decreases with the increase in the furnace operating temperatures. On the contrary. Hence.8 at normal temperature but with increase of temperature to about 800 o C. The emissivity of common refractory materials such as Fireclay Brick. It ensures quick heating and uniformity in temperature of refractory bricks. Ceramic Fibre etc.6 while that of the zircon based coating material increases to as high as 0. Materials of the latter type are highly porous refractory and have fair strength and spalling resistances. High Alumina Brick. with the capacity to withstand thermal shocks can also be used in intermittent furnaces. Another class of materials (Ceramic Fibres) with very low thermal conductivity.95. and extremely light weight. The emissivity of refractories as well as that of zircon based coating material is about 0. There is no crack after repeated heating and cooling at 1350 o C several times. ADVANTAGES OF CERAMIC COATING: Results in reduced heat losses and thus energy savings. it increases for High Emissivity Ceramic Coating Materials such as ZrO2 (Zircon based coating).
Using the supplied emissivity value. an fiber optic sensor head. The thermometer calculates temperature measurement accuracies to within ±3°C. now we have sophisticated noncontact pyrometers which can determine high temperatures of furnace with best accuracy. Temperature Profiling is the process of recording and interpreting temperatures of products. By analyzing the profile you are able to verify products are of the highest quality. the microprocessor control processes all the data collected and displays the results on the LCD display. The main sensor head reads the radiance emitted from a hot target. . The complete system consists of three main components: an electronic Unit. This temperature feedback helps in Temperature Profiling. In its simplest form this information tells you how hot your product became and for how long. The data is displayed as a graph/profile and as numeric data. and solve production problems. A modern pyrometer infrared thermometer uses the latest state-ofthe-art electronic technology to measure precisely the true target temperature measurement. Variations from the ideal indicate a potential problem or unacceptable quality. increase throughput. and what temperatures it reached and at what point.MEASUREMENT OF HIGH TEMPERATURES: ADVANCED PYROMETERS TO MEASURE HIGH TEMPERATURES: With the advancement in technology. and fiber optic cable. Process Engineers know what the perfect profile for their product should be.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.