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# T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.

com
Gi s hai ngun ti
1
s
ti A v
2
s
ti B c cng phng trnh
1 2
cos u u a t
cho n gin khi M thuc AB c
Gi s phng trnh dao ng ti cc ngun S
1
, S
2
l u
1
= u
2
= a.cos(2f.t)
Phng trnh dao ng ti M do sng S
1
truyn n: u
M1
= acos(2f.t -

1
. 2 d
)
Phng trnh dao ng ti M do sng S
2
truyn n: : u
M2
= acos(2f.t -

2
. 2 d
)
Phng trnh dao ng tng hp ti M l: u
M
= u
M1
+ u
M2
= acos(2f.t -

1
. 2 d
) + acos(2f.t -

2
. 2 d
)
= 2acos

) (
2 1
d d
.cos[2f.t - ) (
2 1
d d +

u
M
= 2a.cos d

.cos( )) (
2 1
d d t +

.
Bin : A = 2a.

d .
cos

Nhng im c bin cc i cng pha vi hai ngun khi
d
cos

= 1
d
2 k

1 2
2 d d k
(k

). (1)
Mt khc
1 2
d d L +
(2)
Cng 1 v 2 ta c
1
2
L
d k + do
1
0 d L nn ta c
2 2
L L
k

Trng hp ngc pha vi hai ngun em lm tng t
Cu 1: Trn mt nc ti hai im AB c hai ngun sng kt hp dao ng cng pha, lan truyn vi bc sng
. Bit AB = 11 . Xc nh s im dao ng vi bin cc i v ngc pha vi hai ngun trn on
AB( khng tnh hai im A, B)
A. 12 B. 23 C. 11 D. 21
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1
2 cos os
11
2 cos os 2 cos os 11
M
d d d d
U a c t
d d d d
a c t a c t

+ _

,
_

,
n y e ch nh
M cc i th
( )
2 1
cos 1
d d

t
M cc i cng pha ngun th
( )
2 1
cos 1
d d

M cc i ngc pha ngun th
( )
2 1
cos 1
d d

+
1
B C

T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Yu cu bi ton suy ra
( )
( )
( )
2 1
2 1
1 2 2 1 1 2
cos 1 2
2 5, 5 5, 5
d d
d d k
S S d d k S S k

+

suy ra c 11 gi tr ca
.............................................................................................................................................................................
Cu 2A:Trn A,B c 2 ngun sng kt hp cng pha,bc sng lam a.AB=11lama.
Hi trn AB c my im dao ng cc i v ngc pha vi 2 ngun,c my im C cng pha vi 2 ngun
Cu2B:in nng t mt nh my c a n ni tiu thu nh cc dy dn,ti ni tiu th cn mt cng sut
khng i.ban u hiu sut ti in l 90%.Mun hiu sut ti in l 96%cn gim cng dng in trn
dy ti i
A.40,2% B.36,8 % C.42,2 % D38,8%
Gii
A: em dng cng thc sau khi rt gn ny cho nhanh
Vi hai ngun cng pha
S cc i cng pha vi 2 ngun : 5, 5 5, 5
2 2
L L
k k

c 10 cc i
S cc i ngc pha vi 2 ngun :
1 1
5 5
2 2 2 2
L L
k k

c 11 cc i
Cu 3:Mt si dy n hi cng ngang, ang c sng dng n nh. Trn dy A l mt im nt, B l mt im
bng gn A nht, AB = 14 cm, gi C l mt im trong khong AB c bin bng mt na bin ca B.
Khong cch AC l
A.14/3 B.7 C.3.5 D.1.75
Gi s biu thc sng ti ngun O (cch A: OA = l.) u = acost
Xt im C cch A: CA = d. Bin ca sng dng tai C a
C
= 2asin

d 2
a
C
= a (bng na bin ca B l bng sng): sin

d 2
= 0,5
-----> d = (
12
1
+ k). Vi = 4AB = 56cm. im C gn A nht ng vi k = 0
d = AC = /12 = 56/12 = 14/3 cm. Chn p n A
Cu 4: Mt sng c hc lan truyn trn mt thong cht lng nm ngang vi tn s 10 Hz, tc truyn sng
1,2 m/s. Hai im M va N thuc mt thoang, trn cng mt phng truyn so ng, cach nhau 26 cm (M n m gn
ngun song hn). Tai thi im t, im N ha xu ng thp nht. Khong thi gian ng n nht sau im M ha
xu ng thp nht l
A. 11/120 (s) B. 1/60 (s) C. 1/120 (s) D. 1/12 (s)

Gii: Bc sng = v/f = 0,12m = 12cm
MN = 26 cm = (2 + 1/6) . im M dao ng sm pha hn im N v thi gian l 1/6 chu k . Ti thi im t
N h xung thp nht, M ang i ln, sau t = 5T/6 M s h xung thp nht:
t = 5T/6 = 0,5/6 = 1/12 (s). Chn p n D
Quan st trn hnh v ta d thy iu ny
2
B C

O
A
M
N
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Cu 5: Mt dao ng lan truyn trong mi trng lin tc t im M n im N cch M mt on 7/3(cm).
Sng truyn vi bin A khng i. Bit phng trnh sng ti M c dng u
M
= 3cos2t (u
M
tnh bng cm, t
tnh bng giy). Vo thi im t
1
tc dao ng ca phn t M l 6(cm/s) th tc dao ng ca phn t N
l
A. 3 (cm/s). B. 0,5 (cm/s). C. 4(cm/s). D. 6(cm/s).
Gii:
Phng trnh sng tai N: u
N
= 3cos(2t-
3
7 2

) = 3cos(2t-
3
14
) = 3cos(2t-
3
2
)
Vn tc ca phn t M, N
v
M
= u
M
= -6sin(2t) (cm/s)
v
N
=u
N
= - 6sin(2t -
3
2
) = -6(sin2t.cos
3
2
- cos2t sin
3
2
) = 3sin2t (cm/s)
Khi tc ca M: v
M
= 6(cm/s) ------> sin(2t) =1
Khi tc ca N: v
N
= 3 sin(2t) = 3 (cm/s). Chn p n A
CU 6.Hai ngun sng kt hp trn mt thong cht lng dao ng theo phng trnh u
A
=u
B
= 4cos10t mm.
Coi bin sng khng i, tc truyn sng v =15cm/s. Hai im M
1
, M
2
cng nm trn mt elip nhn A,B
lm tiu im c AM
1
BM
1
= 1cm; AM
2
BM
2
= 3,5cm. Ti thi im li ca M
1
l 3mm th li ca M
2
ti
thi im l
A. 3mm B. 3mm C. - 3 mm D. - 3 3 mm
BI GII
p dng )
d d
t cos(
d d
cos a 2 u
2 1 2 1

ta c u
1
= 4cos (t-b)
u
2
= 4 3 cos (t-b)
V cng trn mt elip nn b l mt hng s
lp t s u
23
= 3 3 mm
Cu 7: Trn mt nc c 2 ngun sng ging nhau A v B cch nhau 12 cm ang dao ng vung gc vi mt
nc to ra sng c bc sng 1,6 cm. im C cch u 2 ngun v cch trung im O ca AB mt khong 8
cm. s im dao ng ngc pha vi ngun trn on CO l
A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D. 2

Gii: Gi s phng trnh sng hai ngun: u = acost.
Xt im N trn CO: AN = BN

= d.
ON = x Vi 0 x 8 (cm)
Biu thc sng ti N
u
N
= 2acos(t -

d 2
).
u
N
dao ng ngc pha vi hai ngun:

d 2
= (2k.+1) -----> d = (k +
2
1
) = 1,6k + 0,8
d
2
= AO
2
+ x
2
= 6
2
+ x
2
-----> (1,6k +0,8)
2
= 36 + x
2
-----> 0 x
2
= (1,6k +0,8)
2
36 64
3
O
C
N
B A
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
6 (1,6k +0,8) 10 -----> 4 k 5.
C hai gi tr ca k: Chn p n D.
Cu 8: Giao thoa sng nc vi hai ngun ging ht nhau A, B cch nhau 20cm c tn s 50Hz. Tc
truyn sng trn mt nc l 1,5m/s. Trn mt nc xt ng trn tm A, bn knh AB. im trn
ng trn dao ng vi bin cc i cch ng thng qua A, B mt on gn nht l
A. 18,67mm B. 17,96mm C. 19,97mm D. 15,34mm
Dap an cau nay co cho nao sai ko a em lam` mai~ ko ra
Gii:
Bc sng = v/f = 0,03m = 3 cm
Xt im N trn AB dao ng vi bin
cc i AN = d
1
; BN = d
2
(cm)
d
1
d
2
= k = 3k
d
1
+ d
2
= AB = 20 cm
d
1
= 10 +1,5k
0 d
1
= 10 +1,5k 20
----> - 6 k 6
------> Trn ng trn c 26 im dao ng vi bin cc i
im gn ng thng AB nht ng vi k = 6
im M thuc cc i th 6
d
1
d
2
= 6 = 18 cm; d
2
= d
1
18 = 20 18 = 2cm
Xt tam gic AMB; h MH = h vung gc vi AB. t HB = x
h
2
= d
1
2
AH
2
= 20
2
(20 x)
2

h
2
= d
2
2
BH
2
= 2
2
x
2

-----> 20
2
(20 x)
2
= 2
2
x
2
-----> x = 0,1 cm = 1mm
----> h = mm x d 97 , 19 399 1 20
2 2 2
2
. Chn p n C
Cu 9: Giao thoa sng nc vi hai ngun ging ht nhau A, B cch nhau 20cm c tn s 50Hz. Tc
truyn sng trn mt nc l 1,5m/s. Trn mt nc xt ng trn tm A, bn knh AB. im trn
ng trn dao ng vi bin cc i cch ng thng qua A, B mt on gn nht l
A. 18,67mm B. 17,96mm C. 19,97mm D. 15,34mm
Dap an cau nay co cho nao sai ko a em lam` mai~ ko ra
Cu 10: Giao thoa sng nc vi hai ngun A, B ging ht nhau c tn s 40Hz v cch nhau 10cm. Tc
truyn sng trn mt nc l 0,6m/s. Xt ng thng By nm trn mt nc v vung gc vi AB.
im trn By dao ng vi bin cc i gn B nht l
A. 10,6mm B. 11,2mm C. 12,4mm D. 14,5
Gii:
1.
AB

## = 6,7 => im cc i trn AB gn B nht c k = 6

Gi I l im cc i trn ng trn gn AB nht
Ta c: d
1I
d
2I
= 18 cm v d
1I
= AB = 20cm
=> d
2I
= 2cm
p dng tam gic vung
x
2
+ h
2
= 4
(20 x)
2
+ h
2
= 400
Gii ra h = 19,97mm
2.
AB

## = 6,7 => im cc i trn AB gn B nht c k = 6

Ta c: d
1I
d
2I
= 9 cm (1)
4
d
1
M

A
d
2
A B
I
h
x
A B
I
d
1
y
d
2
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
p dng tam gic vung
d
2
1
= d
2
2
+ 100 (2)
Gii (1) v (2) => d
2
= 10,6mm
Chc em c kt qu tt nht trong cc t thi sp ti.
Cu 11: Hai ngun pht sng kt hp A v B trn mt cht lng dao ng theo phng trnh: u
A
= acos(100t);
u
B
= bcos(100t). Tc truyn sng trn mt cht lng 1m/s. I l trung im ca AB. M l im nm trn on
AI, N l im nm trn on IB. Bit IM = 5 cm v IN = 6,5 cm. S im nm trn on MN c bin cc i
v cng pha vi I l:
A. 7 B. 4 C. 5 D. 6
Gii:
Bc sng = v/f = 1/50 = 0,02m = 2cm
Xt im C trn AB cch I: IC = d
u
AC
= acos(100t -

1
2 d
)
u
BC
= bcos(100t -

1
2 d
)
C l im dao ng vi bin cc i khi d
1
d
2
= (AB/2 +d) (AB/2 d) = 2d = k
-----> d = k
2

= k (cm) vi k = 0; 1; 2; ..
Suy ra trn MN c 12 im dao ng vi bin cc i, (ng vi k: -5 d = k 6,5) trong k c trung
im I (k = 0). Cc im cc i dao ng cng pha vi I cng chnh l cng pha vi ngun ng vi , k = - 4;
-2; 2; 4; 6.
Nh vy trn MN c 5 im c bin cc i v cng pha vi I. Chn p n C
Hai ngun sng kt hp A v B dao ng theo phng trnh t a u
A
cos v ) cos( + t a u
B
. Bit im
khng dao ng gn trung im I ca AB nht mt on
3

. Tnh gi tr ca

## Qu tch cc im khng dao ng tha phng trnh

)
2
1
(
2
1 2
1 2
+ +

k d d
3 2
1
2 3
2
)
2
1
(
2 3
2

+ + + + k k vi k=0
CU 12. Trn mt mt nc ti hai im A, B c hai ngun sng kt hp hai dao ng cng pha, lan truyn vi
bc sng , khong cch AB

= 11. Hi trn on AB c my im cc i dao ng ngc pha vi hai ngun
(khng k A, B)

A. 13. B . 23. C. 11. D. 21
Gii:
Gi s
u
A
= u
B
= acost
Xt im M trn AB
AM = d
1
; BM = d
2
. ---- u
AM
= acos(t -

1
2 d
); u
BM
= acos(t -

2
2 d
);
5

C

N

M

B

A

I
3

M
I B
A
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
u
M
= 2acos(

) (
1 2
d d
)cos(t-

) (
2 1
d d +
)
u
M
= 2acos(

) (
1 2
d d
)cos(t - 11)
M l im cc i ngc pha vi ngun khi
cos(

) (
1 2
d d
) = 1 ---

) (
1 2
d d
= 2k
d
2
d
1
= 2k
d
2
+ d
1
= 11
-------> d
2
= (5,5 + k)
0 < d
2
= (5,5 + k) < 11 --- - 5 k 5 ---
C 11 im cc ai v ngc pha vi hai ngun p n C
CU 13. Trong th nghim giao thoa trn mt cht lng vi 2 ngun A, B pht sng kt hp ngc pha nhau.
Khong cch gia 2 ngun l AB = 16cm. Hai sng truyn i c bc sng l 4cm. Trn ng thng xx' song
song vi AB, cch AB mt on 8cm, gi C l giao im ca xx' vi ng trung trc ca AB. Khong cch
ngn nht t C n im dao ng vi bin cc i nm trn xx' l
A. 1,42cm. B. 1,50cm. C. 2,15cm. D. 2,25cm
Gii :
im M thuc xx dao ng vi bin cc i khi
1 2
(2 1)
2
k
d d
+

Do M l im cc i gn C nht nn M nm trn ng cc i th nht
k= 0 khi
1 2
2 d d

mt khc nhn hnh v ta c
2 2 2
1 2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2 2
2
1 2 1
(8 ) 8
32 2( ) 32
(8 ) 8
( ) 16 8 2
d x
d d x d d x
d x
d d x d x
+ +

+
'
+

+ +
da vo p n ta chn p n C M D A tha
mn do nu xt ring trn CD d1
khi M gn C nht th AM ngn nht x d2
nht A B
8+x 8-x
K =0 k=1 k =2
Cu 14 :Trong TNGT vi hai ngun pht song ging nhau ta A B trn mt nc .Khong cch hai ngun
AB=16cm .Hai song truyn i c bc song 4cm.trn ng thng XX song song vi Ab.cch AB mt khong
8 cm ,gi C l giao im ca XX vi ng trung trc ca AB.Khong cch ngn nht t C n im dao g
vi bin d cc tiu nm trn XX l
A1.42 B1.50 C.2.15 D.2.25
Bn c th gii theo phng trnh hypecbol nh sau nh
x
2
/a
2
y
2
/b
2
= 1
Trong : N l nh hypecbol vi ng cc tiu gn trung trc nht => vi ngun cng pha nn ON = a = /4
= 4/4= 1cm
b
2
= c
2
a
2
vi c l tiu im v c = OB = OA = AB/2 = 16/2 = 8 cm => b
2
= 63
Suy ra x = 1,42
chn p n A nh.ng nhin phi hiu tt cc im ang ni l mt nc y.
6
O N A B
C M
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Cu 15 : Mt so ng ngang co biu thc Mt so ng ngang co biu thc truyn song truyn song trn phng x la trn phng x la : :
3cos(100 ) u t x cm
, trong o , trong o x x ti nh ti nh
bng met (m), t ti nh bng giy (s). Ti s gia tc truyn so ng va tc cc ai cua ph n t vt cht mi bng met (m), t ti nh bng giy (s). Ti s gia tc truyn so ng va tc cc ai cua ph n t vt cht mi
trng la trng la : :
A:3 b A:3 b( )
1
3

. C 3 . C 3
-1 -1
. . D D2 . .
Gii: Biu thc tng qut ca sng u = acos(t -

x 2
) (1)
Biu thc sng cho ( bi ra c biu thc truyn sng...)
u = 3cos(100t - x) (2). Tn s sng f = 50 Hz
Vn tc ca phn t vt cht ca mi trng:
u = -300sin(100t x) (cm/s) (3)
So snh (1) v (2) ta c

x 2
= x -----> = 2 (cm)
Vn tc truyn sng v = f = 100 (cm/s)
Tc cc ica phn t vt cht ca mi trng u
max
= 300 (cm/s)
Suy ra:
1
max
3
3
1
300
100
'

u
v
chn p n C
Cu 16 : in a p gia hai u cua mt oa n mach la
160cos(100 )( ; ) u t V s
. S ln in ap nay b ng 0 trong
m i giy la:
A. 100. B.2 C.200 D 50
Trong mi chu k in p bng 0 hai ln. Trong t = 1 s tc l trong 50 chu k in p bng 0: 50 x 2 = 100 ln.
Chn p n A
CU 17 .Mt ngun O pht sng c dao ng theo phng trnh: 2cos(20 )
3
u t

+ ( trong u(mm), t(s) )
sng truyn theo ng thng Ox vi tc khng i 1(m/s). M l mt im trn ng truyn cch O mt
khong 42,5cm. Trong khong t O n M c bao nhiu im dao ng lch pha
6

vi ngun?
A. 9 B. 4 C. 5 D. 8
Gii
Xt mt im bt k cch ngun mt khong x
Ta c lch pha vi ngun:
1 1
20 ( ) 5( )
6 20 6 6
x v
k x k k
v

+ + +
Trong khon O n M, ta c : 0 < x < 42,5
1 1
0 5( ) 42, 5 8, 333
6 12
k k + p p p p
Vi k nguyn, nn ta c 9 gi tr ca k t 0 n 8, tng ng vi 9 im
P N A
Cu 18 : Mt sng truyn theo phng AB. Ti mt thi im no , hnh
dng sng c biu din trn hnh ve. Bit rng im M ang i ln v tr cn
bng. Khi im N ang chuyn ng nh th no?
7 Hnh 1
M
N
A B
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
A. ang i ln B. ang nm yn.
C. Khng iu kin xc nh. D. ang i xung.
Theo em cu ny phi l ang i xung. ch .mong th y c ch ra c s lm bi ny
Tr li em:
V M ang i ln nn em hiu song truyn theo hng t B sang A, khi im N s di ln
d hiu nht em hy tng tng mt si dy thp co dng nh hnh v em ko sang tri th im N phi
trt ln
Cu 19: Giao thoa sng nc vi hai ngun A, B ging ht nhau c tn s 40Hz v cch nhau 10cm. Tc
truyn sng trn mt nc l 0,6m/s. Xt ng thng By nm trn mt nc v vung gc vi AB.
im trn By dao ng vi bin cc i gn B nht l
A. 10,6mm B. 11,2mm C. 12,4mm D. 14,5.
Gii:
Bc sng = v/f = 0,015m = 1,5 cm
Xt im N trn AB dao ng vi bin
cc i AN = d
1
; BN = d
2
(cm)
d
1
d
2
= k = 1,5k
d
1
+ d
2
= AB = 10 cm
d
1
= 5 + 0,75k
0 d
1
= 5 + 0,75k 10-------> - 6 k 6
im M ng thng By gn B nht ng vi k = 6
im M thuc cc i th 6
d
1
d
2
= 6 = 9 cm (1)
d
1
2
d
2
2
= AB
2
= 10
2
------>
d
1
+ d
2
= 100/9 (2)
Ly (2) (1) 2d
2
= 100/9 -9 = 19/9----->
d
2
= 19/18 = 1,0555 cm = 10,6 mm.Chn p n A
Cch khc: Gi I l im nm trn AB
im cc i gn B nht trn By ng vi im cc i
Xa O nht l H ( Tnh cht ca Hipebol)
Ta c

AB
K
AB

=>
6 , 6 6 , 6 K
=> k
max
= 6
Vy d
1
d
2
= 6 = 9 cm . tip theo ta da vo tam gic vung AMB nh cch gii trn.
Cu 20 . Sng dng xut hin trn si dy vi tn s f=5Hz. Gi th t cc im thuc dy ln lt l O,M,N,P
sao cho O l im nt, P l im bng sng gn O nht (M,N thuc on OP) . Khong thi gian gia 2 ln lin
tip gi tr li ca im P bng bin dao ng ca im M,N ln lt l 1/20 v 1/15s. Bit khong cch
gia 2 im M,N l 0.2cm Bc sng ca si dy l:
A. 5.6cm B. 4.8 cm C. 1.2cm D. 2.4cm
Gii:
Chu k ca dao ng T = 1/f = 0,2(s)
Theo bi ra ta c
t
MM
=
20
1
(s) =
4
1
T
t
NN
=
15
1
(s) =
3
1
T
-----> t
MN
=
2
1
(
3
1
-
4
1
)T =
24
1
T =
120
1
vn tc truyn sng
8
O H
d
1
y

A
M

B
d
2
d
1
y

A
M

B
d
2
P N M
O M N P
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
v = MN/t
MN
= 24cm/s
Do = v.T = 4,8 cm. Chn p n B
Ch : Thi gian khi li ca P bng bin ca M, N i t M,N n bin ri quay lai th t
MM
> t
NN
m
bi ra cho t
MM
< t
NN

Cu 21: Mt sng c hc lan truyn trn mt thong cht lng nm ngang vi tn s 10 Hz, tc truyn sng
1,2 m/s. Hai im M va N thuc mt thoang, trn cng mt phng truyn so ng, cach nhau 26 cm (M n m gn
ngun so ng hn). Tai thi im t, im N ha xu ng th p nht. Khong thi gian ng n nh t sau im M ha
xu ng thp nht l
A. 11/120 . s B. 1/ 60 . s C. 1/120 . s D. 1/12 . s
Cu 22:Trong TNGT vi hai ngun pht song ging nhau ta A B trn mt nc .Khong cch hai ngun
AB=16cm .Hai song truyn i c bc song 4cm.trn ng thng XX song song vi Ab.cch AB mt khong
8 cm ,gi C l giao im ca XX vi ng trung trc ca AB.Khong cch ngn nht t C n im dao g
vi bin d cc tiu nm trn XX l
A1.42 B1.50 C.2.15 D.2.25
Bn c th gii theo phng trnh hypecbol nh sau nh
x
2
/a
2
y
2
/b
2
= 1
Trong : N l nh hypecbol vi ng cc tiu gn trung trc nht
=> vi ngun cng pha nn ON = a = /4 = 4/4= 1cm
b
2
= c
2
a
2

vi A,B l tiu im v c l tiu c v c = OB = OA = AB/2 = 16/2 = 8 cm => b
2
= 63
Suy ra x = MC = 1,42
chn p n A nh.ng nhin phi hiu tt cc im ang ni l mt nc y.
M rng bi toan cho ng cc i hay mt ng bt k bn c th lm tng t nh.
Lu khi tnh nh hypecbol ca ng cong theo cho c gi tr l a l ng cong cc tiu hay cc i . V
d l ng cong cc i th 2 k t ng trung trc th a = .
Cn l ng cong cc tiu th hai th a = 3/4. iu ny bn r ri nh.
CU 23. Mt si dy n hi cng ngang, ang c sng dng n nh. Trn dy, A l mt
im nt, B l im bng gn A nht vi AB = 18 cm, M l mt im trn dy cch B mt
khong 12 cm. Bit rng trong mt chu k sng, khong thi gian m ln vn tc dao
ng ca phn t B nh hn vn tc cc i ca phn t M l 0,1s. Tc truyn sng trn
dy l:
A. 3,2 m/s. B. 5,6 m/s. C. 4,8 m/s. D. 2,4 m/s.
Gii:
9
O N A B
C M
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
4 72
4
AB AB cm

## . M cch A: d = 6cm hoc 30 cm

Phng trnh sng M:
2 2
2 . sin .sin 2 .sin . os
M M
d d
u a t v a c t

.
Do
max
2
2 . sin .
M
d
v a a

Phng trnh sng B:
2 .sin 2 . os
B B
u a t v a c t
V ng trn suy ra thi gian v
B
< v
Mmax
l T/3. Do T = 0,3 s.
T tnh c tc truyn sng:
72
240 / .
0, 3
v cm s
T

p n D
Cu 24: Trong thi nghim giao thoa song trn mt nc, hai ngu n AB cach nhau 14,5 cm dao ng ngc pha. Trong thi nghim giao thoa song trn mt nc, hai ngu n AB cach nhau 14,5 cm dao ng ngc pha.
im M trn AB g n trung im O cua AB nht, cach O m t oan 0,5 cm lun dao ng cc a i. S im dao im M trn AB g n trung im O cua AB nht, cach O m t oan 0,5 cm lun dao ng cc a i. S im dao
ng cc ai trn ng elip thuc mt nc nh n A, B lam tiu im la ng cc ai trn ng elip thuc mt nc nh n A, B lam tiu im la : :
A 26 B28 C 18 D 14 A 26 B28 C 18 D 14
Gi s biu thc ca sng tai A, B Gi s biu thc ca sng tai A, B
u u
A A = acos = acos t t
u u
B B = acos( = acos( t ) t )
Xt im M trn AB AM = d Xt im M trn AB AM = d
1 1; BM = d ; BM = d
2 2
Sng tng hp truyn t A, B n M Sng tng hp truyn t A, B n M
u u
M M = acos( = acos( t - t -

1
2 d
) + acos ( ) + acos ( t - - t - -

2
2 d
) )
Bin sng ti M: a Bin sng ti M: a
M M = 2acos = 2acos ]
) (
2
[
1 2

d d

## M dao ng vi bin cc ai: cos M dao ng vi bin cc ai: cos ]

) (
2
[
1 2

d d
= 1 = 1
-----> -----> ]
) (
2
[
1 2

d d
= k ----> d = k ----> d
1 1 d d
2 2 = (k- = (k-
2
1
) )
im M gn O nht ng vi d im M gn O nht ng vi d
1 1 = 6,75 cm. d = 6,75 cm. d
2 2 = 7,75 cm vi k = 0 -----> = 7,75 cm vi k = 0 -----> = 2 cm = 2 cm
Ta c h pt: Ta c h pt:
d d
1 1 + d + d
2 2 = 14,5 = 14,5
------> d ------> d
1 1 = 6,75 + k = 6,75 + k
0 d 0 d
1 1 = 6,75 + k 14,5 -------> - 6 k 7. = 6,75 + k 14,5 -------> - 6 k 7.
Trn AB c 14 im dao ng vi bin cc i. Trn ng elp nhn A, B lm tiu im c Trn AB c 14 im dao ng vi bin cc i. Trn ng elp nhn A, B lm tiu im c 28 28 im doa im doa
ng vi bin cc i. ng vi bin cc i. p n B p n B
CU 25. Mt ngun O pht sng c dao ng theo phng trnh: 2cos(20 )
3
u t

+ ( trong u(mm), t(s) )
sng truyn theo ng thng Ox vi tc khng i 1(m/s). M l mt im trn ng truyn cch O mt
khong 42,5cm. Trong khong t O n M c bao nhiu im dao ng lch pha
6

vi ngun?
A. 9 B. 4 C. 5 D. 8
Gii
Xt mt im bt k cch ngun mt khong x
Ta c lch pha vi ngun:
1 1
20 ( ) 5( )
6 20 6 6
x v
k x k k
v

+ + +
10
A

d
1
M

d
2
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Trong khon O n M, ta c : 0 < x < 42,5
1 1
0 5( ) 42, 5 8, 333
6 12
k k + p p p p
Vi k nguyn, nn ta c 9 gi tr ca k t 0 n 8, tng ng vi 9 im
P N A
Phi th ny mi ng :
Tnh
0,1 10
v
m cm
f

lch pha so vi ngun :
2 1
2 10
6 12
d
k d k

_
+ +

,
Ta c
1
0 42, 5 4,17
12
d k

## nh vy k nhn 5 gi tri 0;1;2;3;4

p an ng l C
Cu 26 : M, N, P l 3 im lin tip nhau trn mt si dy mang sng dng c cng bin 4mm, dao ng ti
N ngc pha vi dao ng ti M. MN=NP/2=1 cm. C sau khong thi gian ngn nht l 0,04s si dy c dng
mt on thng. Tc dao ng ca phn t vt cht ti im bng khi qua v tr cn bng (ly = 3,14).
A. 375 mm/s B. 363mm/s C. 314mm/s D. 628mm/s
M v N dao ng ngc pha: hai b sng
lin k. P v N cng b sng i xng
nhau qua bng sng
MN = 1cm. NP = 2 cm---->
2

= 2.
2
MN
+ NP = 3cm Suy ra bc sng = 6cm
Bin ca sng t N cch nt d = 0,5cm = /12: a
N
= 2acos(

d 2
+
2

) = 4mm----->
a
N
= 2acos(
12
2

+
2

) = 2acos(
6

+
2

) = a = 4mm
Bin ca bng sng a
B
= 2a = 8mm
Khong thi gian ngn nht gia 2 ln si dy c dng
on thng bng mt na chu k dao ng. Suy ra T = 0,08 (s)
Tc ca bng sng khi qua VTCB
v = A
B
=
T
2
a
B
=
08 , 0
8 .. 24 , 3 . 2
= 628 mm/s. Chn p n D
Cu 27. Trn mt cht lng c hai ngun sng kt hp pht ra hai dao ng u
S1
= acost u
S2
= asint. khong
cch gia hai ngun l S
1
S
2
= 2,75. Hi trn on S
1
S
2
c my im cc i dao ng cng pha vi S
1.
Chn
p s ng:
A. 5. B. 2. C. 4 D. 3
Gii:
Ta c u
S1
= acost u
S2
= asint = .acos(t -
2

)
Xt im M trn S
1
S
2
: S
1
M = d
1
; S
2
M = d
2
. ----
u
S1M
= acos(t -
1
2 d

); u
S2M
= acos(t -
2
2
2
d

);
11
P

## T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com

u
M
= 2acos(

) (
1 2
d d
+
4

)cos(t-

) (
2 1
d d +
-
4

) = 2acos(

) (
1 2
d d
+
4

)cos(t- 3)
M l im cc i, cng pha vi S
1
, khi cos(

) (
2 1
d d
+
4

) = -1
---

) (
1 2
d d
+
4

= (2k+1) -----> d
2
d
1
= (2k +
4
3
) (*)
d
2
+ d
1
= 2,75 (**)
T (*) v (**) ta c d
2
= (k + 1,75) 0 d
2
= (k + 1,75) 2,75
--- - 1,75 k 1 --- - 1 k 1:
Trn on S
1
S
2
c 3 im cc ai:cng pha vi S
1
9Vi k = -1; 0; 1;)
C 3 im cc i dao ng cng pha vi S
1
Chn p n D.
Cu 28: Mt si dy n hi cng ngang, ang c sng dng n nh. Trn dy, A l mt im nt, B l im
bng gn A nht vi AB = 18 cm, M l mt im trn dy cch B mt khong 12 cm. Bit rng trong mt chu
k sng, khong thi gian m ln vn tc dao ng ca phn t B nh hn vn tc cc i ca phn t M l
0,1s. Tc truyn sng trn dy l:
A. 3,2 m/s. B. 5,6 m/s. C. 4,8 m/s. D. 2,4 m/s.
Gii: AB =
4

= 18cm-----> = 72 cm
Biu thc ca sng dng ti im M cch nt A AM = d
u
M
= 2acos(
2
2

+
d
)cos(t - k-
2

)
Khi AM = d =
12

u
M
= 2acos(
2 12
2

+ )cos(t - k-
2

) = 2acos(
2 6

+ )cos(t - k-
2

)
u
M
= - acos(t - k-
2

)
v
M
= asin(t - k-
2

)------> v
M
= asin(t - k-
2

)------>
v
Mmax
= a
u
B
= 2acos(t - k-
2

) ------> v
B
= -2asin(t - k-
2

)------>
2asin(t - k-
2

2

6

## Trong mt chu k khong thi gian m ln

vn tc dao ng ca phn t B nh hn vn tc
cc i ca phn t M l t = 2t
12
= 2x T/6 = T/3 = 0,1s
Do T = 0,3s -------->
Tc truyn sng v =
T

## = 72/0,3 = 240cm/s = 2,4m/s

Chn p n D
Trn mt nc c 2 ngun sng ging nhau A v B cch nhau 12 cm ang dao ng vung gc vi mt nc to
ra sng c bc sng 1,6 cm. im C cch u 2 ngun v cch trung im O ca AB mt khong 8 cm. s im
dao ng ngc pha vi ngun trn on CO l :
A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D. 6
12
1
2
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Gii:
* V 2 ngun dao ng cng pha nn ta c th chn
phng trnh dao ng ca 2 ngun l:
1 2
cos u u A t
* Phng trnh dao ng ti mt im bt k cch 2
ngun d
1
; d
2
l: ( )
1 2
1 2
cos os t-
d d
u A d d c

+ _

,
* Mt im C bt k trn ng trung trc cch u 2
ngun
1 2
d d d
nn c phng trnh dao ng:
2
2 os t-
d
u Ac

,
* lch pha ca dao ng ti C v ngun:
2 d

* V im C dao ng ngc pha vi 2 ngun nn:
2
(2 1) ( 0,5)
d
k d k

+ +
*T hnh v, ta c:
6 10 6 ( 0,5).1,6 10 3,25 5,75 d k k +
Suy ra: k = 4,5. Vy c 2 gi tr ca k tha mn iu kin bi ton, tc l c 2 im trn on CO dao ng
ngc pha so vi 2 ngun.
p n: 2 - Khng c phng n ng, em xem li cc p n cu ny nh!
quants82@gmail.com
Cu29A:Trn A,B c 2 ngun sng kt hp cng pha,bc sng lam a.AB=11lama.
Hi trn AB c my im dao ng cc i v ngc pha vi 2 ngun,c my im C cng pha vi 2 ngun
Cu29B:in nng t mt nh my c a n ni tiu thu nh cc dy dn,ti ni tiu th cn mt cng sut
khng i.ban u hiu sut ti in l 90%.Mun hiu sut ti in l 96%cn gim cng dng in trn
dy ti i
A.40,2% B.36,8 % C.42,2 % D38,8%
Gii
Bi A: em dng cng thc sau khi rt gn ny cho nhanh
Vi hai ngun cng pha
S cc i cng pha vi 2 ngun : 5, 5 5, 5
2 2
L L
k k

c 10 cc i
S cc i ngc pha vi 2 ngun :
1 1
5 5
2 2 2 2
L L
k k

c 11 cc i
Bi B:
Gi cng sut ni tiu th l P, in tr dy dn l R, hao ph khi cha thay i I l
1
P
sau khi thay i l
2
P
Ta c : H
1
=
1
P P
P
+
= 0,9 (1)

P
1
=
1
9
P
2
1
1
9
I R P (1)
H
2
=
2
P P
P
+
= 0,95 (2)

P
2
=
2
2
1 1
19 19
P I R P (2)
T 1 v 2 ta lp t l
13

C

d
d
O
A B
6
6
8
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
2
2 2 2
2
1 1 1 1
9 3 3
1 1 0, 312
19 19 19
I I I I
I I I I

do cn gim i 31,2% em th xem li p n nha
CU 30. Trn mt nc c 2 ngun sng ging nhau A v B cch nhau 12 cm ang dao ng vung gc vi mt
nc to ra sng c bc sng 1,6 cm. im C cch u 2 ngun v cch trung im O ca AB mt khong 8
cm. s im dao ng ngc pha vi ngun trn on CO l :
A. 3 B. 4 C. 5 D. 6
* e gii khng th ra ng p n no! Cc thy xem dm nh, e xin chn thnh cm n!
P N :
Do hai ngun dao ng cng pha nn n gin ta cho pha ban u ca chng bng 0. lch pha gia hai
im trn phng truyn sng:
2 d

## . Xt im M nm trn ng trung trc ca AB cch A mt on d

1
v cch B mt on d
2
. Suy ra
d
1
=d
2
. Mt khc im M dao ng ngc pha vi ngun nn
1
2
(2 1)
d
k

+ Hay :
1
1, 6
(2 1) (2 1) (2 1).0,8
2 2
d k k k

+ + + (1)
. Theo hnh v ta thy
1
AO d AC
(2). Thay (1) vo (2) ta c :
2
2
(2 1)0, 8
2 2
AB AB
k OC
_
+ +

,
(Do
2
AB
AO v
2
2
2
AB
AC OC
_
+

,
)
Tng ng:
4
6 (2 1)0, 8 10 3, 25 5, 75
5
k
k k
k

+
'

## Kt lun trn on CO c 2 im dao dng

ngc pha vi ngun.
Cu 31 : Dao ng ca mt cht im l tng hp ca hai dao ng iu ha cng phng, c phng trnh li
ln lt l x
1
= 3cos(
3
2
t -
2

) v x
2
=3 3 cos
3
2
t (x
1
v x
2
tnh bng cm, t tnh bng s). Ti cc thi im
x
1
= x
2
li ca dao ng tng hp l:
A. 5,79 cm. B. 5,19cm. C. 6 cm. D. 3 cm.
Gii: Phng trnh dao ng tng hp
x = 6cos(
3
2
t -
6

) (cm); 3cos(
3
2
t -
2

) =3sin(
3
2
t )
x
1
= x
2
------> 3cos(
3
2
t -
2

) = 3 3 cos
3
2
t
-----> tan
3
2
t = 3 = tan
6

----->
3
2
t =
6

+ k ------> t =
4
1
+
2
3k
14
A B O
M
1
d
/6
A
1
A
2
A
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
x = 6cos(
3
2
t -
6

) = x = 6cos[
3
2
(
4
1
+
2
3k
) -
3

]
x = 6cos(k -
6

) = 3 3 cm = 5,19 cm . Chn p n B
Cu 32. Mt si dy n hi cng ngang ang c sng dng n nh,.trn dy, A l 1 im nt, B la im bng
gn A nht vi AB=18cm, M l mt im trn dy cch A 12cm. Bit rng trong mt chu k sng, khong thi
gian m ln vn tc dao ng ca phn t B nh hn vn tc cc i ca phn t M la 0.1s. Tm tc
truyn sng trn dy: (2,4 m\s)
Gii: AB =
4

= 18cm-----> = 72 cm
Biu thc ca sng dng ti im M cch nt A AM = d
u
M
= 2acos(
2
2

+
d
)cos(t - k-
2

)
Khi AM = d =
6

u
M
= 2acos(
2 6
2

+ )cos(t - k-
2

) = 2acos(
2 3

+ )cos(t - k-
2

)
u
M
= - 2asin(
3

)cos(t - k-
2

)
v
M
= 2a
2
3
sin(t - k-
2

)------> v
M
= a 3 sin(t - k-
2

)------>
v
Mmax
= a 3
u
B
= 2acos(t - k-
2

) ------> v
B
= -2asin(t - k-
2

)------>
2asin(t - k-
2

## ) < a 3 -------> sin(t - k-

2

) < 3 /2
cos(t - k) < 3 /2 = cos
3

## Trong mt chu k khong thi gianm ln

vn tc dao ng ca phn t B nh hn vn tc
cc i ca phn t M l t = 2t
12
= 2x T/6 = T/3 = 0,1s
Do T = 0,3s -------->
Tc truyn sng v =
T

## = 72/0,3 = 240cm/s = 2,4m/s

CU 33 (H SP HN ln 5): Trn mt mt cht lng, c hai ngun sng kt hp O
1
, O
2
cch nhau l = 24cm,
dao ng theo cng mt phng vi phng trnh
1 2 o o
u u Acos t
(t tnh bng s A tnh bng mm) Khong
cch ngn nht t trung im O ca O
1
O
2
n cc im nm trn ng trung trc ca O
1
O
2
dao ng cng pha
vi O bng q = 9cm. S im dao ng vi bin bng O trn on O
1
O
2
l:
A. 18 B. 16 C. 20 D. 14
CU 34 (H SP HN ln 5): Ngi ta dng ht prtn bn vo ht nhn
7
3
Li ng yn gay ra phn ng : p +
7
3
Li

15
1 2
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Bit phn ng trn l phn ng to nng lng v hai ht

## to thnh c cng ng nng. Ly khi lng cc

ht nhn tnh theo n v u gn ng bng s khi ca chng. Gc

## gia hng chuyn ng ca cc ht

bay ra c th l:
A. c gi tr bt k B. bng 60
0
C. bng 160
0
D. bng 120
0
gii
cu 1: theo bi ra ta c:
IO1-OO1 =
+
2 2
1
O OI O suy ra = 3 cm
Ta c:
8 8
2 1 2 1

k
O O
k
O O

vy trn O1O2 c 16 im dao ng vi bin bng O
cu 2:
theo lbt ng lng ta c:

p p p K doK
p p p p p
p p p
p
p

+ +
+
2 1 2 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2 1
cos 2

( chus p
2
= 2mK)
2
2
2 2
cos 1 ) cos 1 ( 2

p
p
p p
p
p
+ + (1)
Theo LBT nng lng ton phn, ta c:
4
1
0 2
2
2

p
p
K K E
p
p
(2)
T (1) v (2) ta c cos

>-7/8; suy ra

> 1510
vy P N C L ph hp
Cu 35: C hai ngun dao ng kt hp S
1
v S
2
trn mt nc cch nhau 8cm c phng trnh dao ng ln
lt l u
s1
= 2cos(10t -
4

) (mm) v u
s2
= 2cos(10t +
4

## ) (mm). Tc truyn sng trn mt nc l 10cm/s.

Xem bin ca sng khng i trong qu trnh truyn i. im M trn mt nc cch S
1
khong S
1
M=10cm
v S
2
khong S
2
M = 6cm. im dao ng cc i trn S
2
M xa S
2
nht l
A. 3,07cm. B. 2,33cm. C. 3,57cm. D. 6cm.
Gii:
Bc sng = v/f = 2cm
Xt im C trn BN
S
1
N = d
1
; S
2
N = d
2
( 0 d
2
6 cm)
Tam gic S
1
S
2
M l tam gic vung ti S
2
Sng truyn t S
1
; S
2
n N:
u
1N
= 2cos(10t -
4

1
2 d
) (mm)
u
2N
= 2cos(10t +
4

2
2 d
) (mm)
u
N
= 4 cos[

) (
2 1
d d
-
4

] cos[10t -

) (
2 1
d d +
]
N l im c bin cc i: cos[

) (
2 1
d d
-
4

] = 1 ------>[

) (
2 1
d d
-
4

] = k

2
2 1
d d
-
4
1
= k -------> d
1
d
2
=
2
1 4 k
(1)
16
O2 O1 O
I
M
d
2
S
2
S
1
N
d
1
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
d
1
2
d
2
2
= S
1
S
2
2
= 64 -----> d
1
+ d
2
=
1 4
128 64
2 1

k d d
(2)
(2) (1) Suy ra d
2
=
4
1 4
1 4
64

k
k
=
) 1 4 ( 4
) 1 4 ( 256
2

k
k
k nguyn dng
0 d
2
6 ----- 0 d
2
=
) 1 4 ( 4
) 1 4 ( 256
2

k
k
6
t X = 4k-1 -------->
0
X
X
4
256
2

## 6------> X 8 ------> 4k 1 8 ------> k 3

im N c bin cc i xa S
2
nht ng vi gi tr nh nht ca k: k
min
= 3
Khi d
2
= 07 , 3 068 , 3
44
11 256
) 1 4 ( 4
) 1 4 ( 256
2 2

k
k
(cm)
Cu 36: mt thong ca mt cht lng c hai ngun sng kt hp A v B cch nhau 20cm, dao ng theo
phng thng ng vi phng trnh u
A
= 2cos40t v u
B
= 2cos(40t +
2

) (u
A
v u
B
tnh bng mm, t tnh bng
s). Bit tc truyn sng trn mt cht lng l 30 cm/s. Xt hnh vung AMNB thuc mt thong cht lng. S
im dao ng vi bin cc i trn on BN l
A. 9. B. 19 C. 12. D. 17.
Gii:
Xt im C trn AB: AC = d
1
; BC = d
2
.
Bc sng = v/f = 30/20 = 1,5cm
20 d
1
20
2
(cm)
u
AC
= 2cos(40t-

1
2 d
)
u
BC
= 2cos(40t +
2

2
2 d
)
u
C
= 4cos[
4
) (
2 1

d d ]cos[40t +
2
) (
2 1

+ + d d ]
im C dao ng vi bin cc i khi cos[
4
) (
2 1

d d ] = 1 ------>
[
4
) (
2 1

## d d ] = k (vi k l s nguyn hoc bng 0) ------->

d
1
d
2
= 1,5k + 0,375 (*)
Mt khc d
1
2
d
2
2
= AB
2
= 20
2
-----> d
1
+ d
2
=
375 , 0 5 , 1
400
+ k
(**)
Ly (**) (*): d
2
=
375 , 0 5 , 1
200
+ k
-
2
375 , 0 5 , 1 + k
=
X
200
-
2
X
Vi X = 1,5k + 0,375 > 0
d
2
=
X
200
-
2
X
=
X
X
2
400
2

0 d
2
=
X
X
2
400
2

20 ------> X
2
400 ----> X 20
X
2
+ 40X 400 0 ----> X 20(
2
-1)
20(
2
-1) 1,5k + 0,375 20 ----> 5 k 13
Vy trn BN c 9 im dao ng cc i. Chn p n A
17
C
N
A
B
M
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Cu 37. Giao thoa sng nc vi hai ngun ging ht nhau A, B cch nhau 20cm c tn s 50Hz. Tc truyn
sng trn mt nc l 1,5m/s. Trn mt nc xt ng trn tm A, bn knh AB. im trn ng trn dao
ng vi bin cc i cch ng thng qua A, B mt on gn nht l
A. 18,67mm B. 17,96mm C. 19,97mm D.
15,34mm
Gii:
v
3
f
cm ; AM = AB = 20cm
AM - BM = k BM = 20 - 3k
AB AB
k 6, 7 < <

k
max
= 6 BM
min
= 2cm
AMB cn: AM = AB = 200mm; BM = 20mm.
Khong cch t M n AB l ng cao MH ca AMB:
h =
( ) ( ) ( ) p p a p b p c
a b c
2
; p 21cm
a 2

+ +

2 21.1.1.19
h 1, 997cm 19, 97mm
20

Cng thc gii nhanh (nu nh c! )
( ) ( ) ( ) AB T AB T 3AB T
h
2AB
+

; Trong
A B
T AM BM k
2

+

> 0
M gn AB nht th k = n
2
T = n
2
+
A B
2

n
2
xc nh t
A B
2 2
AB
n , p
2

Cu 38. Giao thoa sng nc vi hai ngun A, B ging ht nhau c tn s 40Hz v cch nhau 10cm. Tc
truyn sng trn mt nc l 0,6m/s. Xt ng thng By nm trn mt nc v vung gc vi AB. im trn
By dao ng vi bin cc i gn B nht l
A. 10,6mm B. 11,2mm C. 12,4mm D.
14,5mm
Gii:
2 2
AB BM BM k +
BM (t bng x > 0) nh nht ng vi M dy cc i c bc cao nht:
k max
AB 10
6, 6 k 6
1, 5

2
100 x x 9 +
100 81
x 1, 056cm 10, 6mm
18

Cng thc gii nhanh
2 2
AB T
x
2T

A B
AM BM k
2

+

## = T > 0 (do AM lun ln hn BM)

x
max
khi k
min
(c th l 0 hoc 1 theo iu kin T > 0 _khi
A
>
B
hoc ngc li)
18
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
x
min
khi k
max
= n
2
A B
AB
2

=
2 2
n , p ; n
2
v p
2
N*
Cu 6:Mt mn cha hai khe hp song song S
1
, S
2
c t song song trc mt mn M v
cch nhau 1,2m. t gia hai mn mt thu knh hi t th ta c th tm c hai v tr
ca thu knh cng cho nh r nt ca S
1
, S
2
trn M, khong cch gia hai v tr ny l
72cm v v tr m S
1
S
2
> S
1
S
2
th S
1
S
2
= 3,8mm (S
1
,S
2
l nh ca S
1
, S
2
qua thu
knh). B thu knh i, chiu sng S
1
, S
2
bng ngun sng im S n sc = 656
nm. Tm khong vn i ca h vn giao thoa trn M.
A. 0,95 mm B. 0,83 mm C. 0.59 mm
D.0.052 mm
Cu 13: Mt on mch xoay chiu gm in tr R, cun dy thun cm L v mt hp X
mc ni tip. Hp X cha 2 trong 3 phn t R
X
, L
X
, C
X
. t vo 2 u on mch mt
hiu in th xoay chiu c chu k dao ng T, Z
L
= 3 R. Vo thi im no thy
U
RL
t cc i, sau thi gian
12
T
th thy hiu in th 2 u hp X l U
X
t cc
i.Hp X cha :
A.R
X
; C
X
B. R
X
; L
X
C. L
X
; C
X
D. khng xc
nh c
Cu 22: Trn dy cng AB vi hai u dy A,B c nh, c ngun pht sng S cch B mt
on SB = 5 . Sng do ngun S pht ra c bin l a ( cho bit trn dy c sng
dng). Tm s im trn on SB c bin sng tng hp l A = 2a v c dao ng
tr pha hn dao ng pht ra t S mt gc
2

.
A. 11 B.10 C.6 D.5
Cu 28: Mt ng Rn-ghen hot ng di in p
V U 50000
. Khi cng dng in qua ng Rn-
ghen l mA I 5 . Gi thit 1% nng lng ca chm electron c chuyn ha thnh nng lng ca tia X v
nng lng trung bnh ca cc tia X sinh ra bng 75% nng lng ca tia c bc sng ngn nht. Bit electron
pht ra khi catot vi vn tc bng 0. Tnh s photon ca tia X pht ra trong 1 giy?
A.3,125.10
16
(phtn/s) B.3,125.10
15
(phtn/s) C.4,2.10
15
(phtn/s)
D.4,2.10
14
(phtn/s)
Cu 29: Trong th nghim Ing, nh sng n sc c bc sng = 590nm, ta t mt
bn thu tinh song song dy e = 5

## m, chit sut n, trc mt trong hai khe S

1
, S
2
. Khi cho
nh sng vung gc vi bn song song th vn trung tm chuyn n vn sng bc 6
c. Khi nghing bn song song mt gc

## , vn trung tm chuyn n vn sng bc 7

c. Tnh n v

.
A.

= 60
0
, n = 1,708 B.

= 31
0
, n = 1,708
C.

= 31
0
, n = 1,51 D.

= 60
0
, n = 1,51
Cu 32 : t in p xoay chiu vo mch RLC ni tip c C thay i c. Khi C= C
1
=
4
10

F v C= C
2
=
4
10
2

F th U
C
c cng gi tr. U
C
c gi tr cc i th C c gi tr:
A. C =
4
3.10
4

F . B. C =
4
10
3

F C. C =
4
3.10
2

F. D. C =
4
2.10
3

F
Bi 1(H SP HN ln 5): Trn mt mt cht lng, c hai ngun sng kt hp O
1
, O
2
cch nhau l = 24cm, dao
ng theo cng mt phng vi phng trnh
1 2 o o
u u Acos t
(t tnh bng s A tnh bng mm) Khong cch
19
B
C L
A
N
M
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
ngn nht t trung im O ca O
1
O
2
n cc im nm trn ng trung trc ca O
1
O
2
dao ng cng pha vi O
bng q = 9cm. S im dao ng vi bin bng O trn on O
1
O
2
l:
A. 18 B. 16 C. 20 D. 14
Gii:
Bi 1:
Phng trnh dao ng ti mt im khi c giao thoa:
1 2 1 2
2 cos os
d d d d
u A c t

+ _ _

, ,
Phng trnh dao ng ti O:
2
2 os
a
u Ac t

_

,
(vi l = 2a)
Phng trnh dao ng ti M:
2
2 os
d
u Ac t

_

,
lch pha ca M so vi O:
2
( ) d a

M dao ng cng pha vi O nn:
2
( ) 2 d a k d a k

im M gn O nht th: k = 1
2 2 2 2
12 9 12 3 d a a q a cm + +
S cc i trn O
1
O
2
:
l l
k

8 8 k : c 17 cc i trn O
1
O
2
(k c O), vy c 16 im dao ng vi bin bng O .
Chn p n B
Cu 39. Mt si dy n hi cng ngang, ang c dng dng n nh. Trn dy A l mt nt, B l im bng
gn A nht, AB = 14 cm. Cl mt im trn dy trong khong AB c bin bng mt na bin ca B.
Khong cch AC l
A. 14/3 cm B. 7 cm C. 3,5 cm D. 1,75 cm
Gii:
= 4.AB = 46 cm
Dng lin h gia H v chuyn ng trn u

O
1

O
2
O
M
d
d
a
a
q
A
B C
a
a/2
30
0
20
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
AC =
30
360
= 14/3 cm
mi ngui i gip em gii my cu l ny vi
1,U238 phn r thnh Pb 206 vi chu k bn r 4,47.10^9 nam .Mt khi cha 93,94.10^-5Kg v 4,27.10^-5
Kg Pb .Gi s khi lc
u hon ton nguyn cht ch c U238.Tui ca khi l:
A.5,28.10^6(nm) B.3,64.10^8(nm)

C.3,32.10^8(nam) B.6,04.10^9(nm)

Gii:
Gi N l s ht nhn U238 hin ti , N
0
l s ht U238 lc u
Khi N
0
= N + N = N + N
Pb
N =
238
m N
A
; N
Pb
=
206
Pb A
m N
;
Theo L phng x: N = N
0
e
-

t
----------------------->
238
m N
A
= (
238
m N
A
+
206
Pb A
m N
)e
-

t
-------> e

t
=
206
238
1
238
206 238
m
m
m N
m N m N
Pb
A
Pb A A
+
+
= 1,0525
--------> 0525 , 1 ln
2 ln
t
T
------> t = 3,3 .10
8
nm. Chn p n C
Cu 40: Dng in i =
2
4cos t
(A) c gi tr hiu dng l
Gii: Ta c i =
2
4cos t
= 2cos2t + 2 (A)
Dng in qua mch gm hai thnh phn
- Thnh phn xoay chiu i
1
= 2cos2t, c gi tr hiu dng I
1
= 2 (A)
- Thnh phn dng in khng i I
2
= 2 (A)
C hai kh nng :
a. Nu trong on mch c t in th thnh phn I
2
khng qua mch. Khi gi tr hiu dng ca dng in qua
mch I = I
1
=
2
(A)
b. Nu trong mch khng c t th cng su ta nhit trong mch
P = P
1
+ P
2
= I
1
2
R + I
2
2
R = I
2
R --------> I = 6
2
2
2
1
+ I I (A)
Cu 41:Hai ngun sng kt hp, t ti A v B cch nhau 20 cm dao ng theo phng trnh u = acos(t) trn
mt nc, coi bin khng i, bc sng = 3 cm. Gi O l trung im ca AB. Mt im nm trn ng
trung trc AB, dao ng cng pha vi cc ngun A v B, cch A hoc B mt on nh nht l
A.12cm B.10cm C.13.5cm D.15cm
Gii:
Biu thc sng ti A, B u = acost
Xt im M trn trung trc ca AB:
AM = BM = d (cm) 10 cm
Biu thc sng ti M
u
M
= 2acos(t-

d 2
).
21
d
M
O
A
B
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
im M dao ng cng pha vi ngun khi

d 2
= 2k------> d = k = 3k 10 ------> k 4
d = d
min
= 4x3 = 12 cm. Chn p n A
Cu 42: Trong thi nghim giao thoa so ng trn mt nc, hai ngun AB cach nhau 14,5 cm dao ng ngc pha. Trong thi nghim giao thoa so ng trn mt nc, hai ngun AB cach nhau 14,5 cm dao ng ngc pha.
im M trn AB g n trung im O cua AB nht, cach O m t oan 0,5 cm lun dao ng cc a i. S im dao im M trn AB g n trung im O cua AB nht, cach O m t oan 0,5 cm lun dao ng cc a i. S im dao
ng cc ai trn ng elip thuc mt nc nh n A, B lam tiu im la ng cc ai trn ng elip thuc mt nc nh n A, B lam tiu im la : :
A 26 B28 C 18 D 14 A 26 B28 C 18 D 14
Gi s biu thc ca sng tai A, B Gi s biu thc ca sng tai A, B
u u
A A = acos = acos t t
u u
B B = acos( = acos( t ) t )
Xt im M trn AB AM = d Xt im M trn AB AM = d
1 1; BM = d ; BM = d
2 2
Sng tng hp truyn t A, B n M Sng tng hp truyn t A, B n M
u u
M M = acos( = acos( t - t -

1
2 d
) + acos ( ) + acos ( t - - t - -

2
2 d
) )
Bin sng ti M: a Bin sng ti M: a
M M = 2acos = 2acos ]
) (
2
[
1 2

d d

## M dao ng vi bin cc ai: cos M dao ng vi bin cc ai: cos ]

) (
2
[
1 2

d d
= 1 = 1
-----> -----> ]
) (
2
[
1 2

d d
= k ----> d = k ----> d
1 1 d d
2 2 = (k- = (k-
2
1
) )
im M gn O nht ng vi d im M gn O nht ng vi d
1 1 = 6,75 cm. d = 6,75 cm. d
2 2 = 7,75 cm vi k = 0 -----> = 7,75 cm vi k = 0 -----> = 2 cm = 2 cm
Ta c h pt: Ta c h pt:
d d
1 1 + d + d
2 2 = 14,5 = 14,5
------> d ------> d
1 1 = 6,75 + k = 6,75 + k
0 d 0 d
1 1 = 6,75 + k 14,5 -------> - 6 k 7. = 6,75 + k 14,5 -------> - 6 k 7.
Trn AB c 14 im dao ng vi bin cc i. Trn ng elp nhn A, B lm tiu im c Trn AB c 14 im dao ng vi bin cc i. Trn ng elp nhn A, B lm tiu im c 28 28 im doa im doa
ng vi bin cc i. ng vi bin cc i. p n B p n B
Cu 43: Con lc l xo nm ngang, vt nng c m = 0,3 kg, dao ng iu ha theo hm cosin. Gc th nng
chn v tr cn bng, c nng ca dao ng l 24 mJ, ti thi im t vn tc v gia tc ca vt ln lt l 20
3 cm/s v - 400 cm/s
2
. Bin dao ng ca vt l
A.1cm B .2cm C .3cm D 4cm
Gii: Gi s ti thi im t vt c li x: v = 20 3 cm/s = 0,2 3 m/s , a = - 4m/s
2
a = -
2
x ------->
2
=
x
4
(1)
A
2
= x
2
+
2
2

v
= x
2
+
4
2
x v
= x
2
+ 0,03x (2)
C nng ca dao ng W
0
=
2
2 2
A m
------>
2
A
2
=
m
W
0
2
(3)
22
A

d
1
M

d
2
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Th (1) v (2) vo (3) ta c
x
4
(x
2
+ 0,03x ) =
m
W
0
2
-------> 4x + 0,12 =
m
W
0
2
=
3 , 0
10 . 24 . 2
3
= 0,16
-----> x = 0,01 (m)
A
2
= x
2
+ 0,03x = 0,0004 -----> A = 0,02 m = 2 cm. Chn p n B
Cu 44:Mt cht im dao ng iu ha vi phng trnh x = 4sin(2t +/2) cm .Cht im i qua v tr x = 3
cm ln th 2012 vo thi im
A. 1006.885 B.1004.885s C.1005.885 D.1007.885S
Gii: x = 4sin(2t +/2) cm = 4cos2t (cm)
Khi t = 0 vt bin dng (M
0
), Chu k T = 1s
Trong 1 chu k cht im c hai ln i qua v tr x = 3cm
Cht im i qua v tr x = 3 cm ln th 2012
sau khong thi gian
t = (2012:2)T t
Vi t l khong thi gian cht im
i t li x = 3cm n bin dng
cos = 0,75 ----> = 41,41
0
115 , 0
360
41 , 41

T
t
t = (2012:2)T t = 1005,885s
Chn p n C
Cu 45:Mch in xoay chiu gm ba in tr R, L, C mc ni tip. R v C khng i; L thun cm v thay i
c. t vo hai u on mch in p xoay chiu c biu thc u = 200
2
cos(100t) V Thay i L, khi L =
L
1
= 4/ (H) v khi L = L
2
= 2/ (H) th mch in c cng cng sut P = 200 W. Gi tr R bng
A.
Z
L1
= 400; Z
L2
= 200;
P
1
= P
2
------> I
1
= I
2
------> (Z
L1
Z
C
) = -((Z
L2
Z
C
) -----> Z
C
= (Z
L1
+ Z
L2
)/2 = 300
P
1
=
2
1
2
2
) (
C L
Z Z R
R U
+
------> 200 =
2 2
2
100
) 200 (
+ R
R
------> R
2
+ 100
2
= 200R----> R = 100
CU 46. in nng mt trm in c truyn i di hiu in th 20kV. Hiu ut cu qu trnh ti in l
H
1
= 80%. Bit rng cng sut truyn ti n ni tiu th l khng i. muuos hiu sut tng ln n H = 95% ta
phi:
A. Tng hiu in th ln n 36,7 kV.
B. Tng hiu in th ln n 40 kV.
C. Gim hiu in th xung cn 5 kV.
D. Gim hiu in th xung cn 10 kV.
Gii: Gi cng sut ni tiu th l P
Ta c : H
1
=
1
P P
P
+
= 0,8 (1)-------> P
1
= P
4
1
(1)
H
2
=
2
P P
P
+
= 0,95 (2)-------> P
2
= P
19
1
(2)
23

M
M
0
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
T (1) v (2):
1
2
H
H
=
8 , 0
95 , 0
2
1

+
+
P P
P P
T (1) v (2)
4
19
2
1

P
P
Mt khc P
1
= (P + P
1
)
2
2
1
U
R

(3)

( Vi

P + P
1
l cng sut trc khi ti)
P
2
= (P + P
2
)
2
2
2
U
R

(4)

( Vi

P + P
2
l cng sut trc khi ti)
T (3) v (4)
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
) (
) (
P
P
U
U
P P
P P

+
+
------> U
2
= U
1
.
2
1
1
2
P
P
P P
P P

+
+
= 20
4
19
95 , 0
8 , 0
= 36,7 kV. Chn p n A.
Cu 47: Cho 3 linh kin gm in tr thun R=60, cun cm thun L v t in C. Ln lt t in p xoay
chiu c gi tr hiu dng U vo hai u on mch ni tip RL hoc RC th biu thc cng dng in trong
mch ln lt l i
1
=
2 cos 100
12
t

,
(A) v i
2
=
7
2 cos 100
12
t

_
+

,
(A). nu t in p trn vo hai u
on mch RLC ni tip th dng in trong mch c biu thc
A. 2cos(100t+)(A) . B. 2 cos(100t+)(A).
C. 2cos(100t+)(A) . D. 2cos(100t+)(A).
Gii: Ta thy cng hiu dng trong on mch RL v RC bng nhau suy ra Z
L
= Z
C
lch pha
1
gia u v
i
1
v
2
gia u v i
2
i nhau. tan
1
= - tan
2
Gi s in p t vo cc on mch c dng: u = U
2
cos(100t + ) (V).
Khi
1
= (- /12) = + /12
2
= 7/12
tan
1
= tan( + /12) = - tan
2
= - tan( 7/12)
tan( + /12) + tan( 7/12) = 0 --- sin( + /12 + 7/12) = 0
Suy ra = /4 - tan
1
= tan( + /12) = tan(/4 + /12) = tan /3 = Z
L
/R
-- Z
L
= R 3
U = I
1

2 2
1
2 120
L
R Z RI + (V)
Mch RLC c Z
L
= Z
C
trong mch c s cng hng I = U/R = 120/60 = 2 (A) v i cng pha vi u = U
2
cos(100t + /4) .
Vy i = 2
2
cos(100t + /4) (A). Chn p n C
CU 48 : Trong ng Cu-lt-gi, lctron p vo ant c tc cc i bng 0,85c. Bit khi lng ngh ca
lctron l 0,511MeV/c
2
. Chm tia X do ng Cu- lt-gi ny pht ra c bc sng ngn nht bng:
A. 6,7pm B. 2,7pm C.1,3pm D.3,4pm
BI GII:
ng nng lectrn khi p vo catt :
K=
2
0
2
c m 1
c
v
1
1

,
_

,
_

= 0,89832.m
0
.c
2
.
ng nng ny bin thnh nng lng ph tn: K= h.c / = hc /K = h / 0,89832 m
0
.c
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T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
= h.c / 0,89832. 0,511.1,6.10
-13
= 2,7.10
-12
m
Xin qu thy c gii chi tit cho em hai bi tm gi tr hiu dng ca dng in xoay chiu. Em xin chn
thnh cm n!
CU 49: Cho mt mch in gm R=100, mt cun cm thun L= 1/ (H), mt t in c in dung C= 10
-
4
/2 (F) mc ni tip. t vo hai u mch mt in p u= 200 cos
2
(50t) (V). Cng hiu dng chy trong
mch l bao nhiu?
CU 2: Cho mt mch in l mt cun dy c R=100 v t camt L= 1/ (H). t vo hai u mch mt
in p u= 200 cos
2
(50t) (V). Cng hiu dng chy trong mch l bao nhiu?
Gii
Cu 50. H bc ta c: u = 100(1+cos100t)V= 100 (V)+100 cos100t(V)
Nh vy in p trn gm thnh phn 1 chiu khng i U
1
= 100 V v thnh phn xoay chiu u
2
= 100
cos100t(V)
* Vi thnh phn xoay chiu: ta c U
2
= 50
2
Tng tr ca mch l:
2 2
100 2 ( )
L
Z R Z +
C..d. hiu dng:
2
2
50 2
0, 5( )
100 2
U
I A
Z

lch pha gia u v i l
4

Do cng sut
2 2 2
2
os 50 2.0, 5. 25W
2
P U I c
* Vi thnh phn khng i:
1
1 1 1 1
100
. 100. 200W
50
U
P U I U
R

Cng sut ton phn:
1 2
225 P P P W +
Mt khc:
2
225
. 4, 5 2,12( )
50
P
P I R I A
R

Cu 51. Trn mt nc ti hai im A, B c hai ngun sng kt hp cng pha, lan truyn vi bc sng . Bit
AB = 11. Trn on AB, s im dao ng vi bin cc i v ngc pha vi 2 ngun l
A. 12 B. 23 C. 11 D. 21
Gii:
AB = 11 = 22./2 c 22 b sng. Mi b c 1 cc i. Hai b lin k dao ng ngc pha nhau c 11
cc i ngc pha vi ngun
Cu 1:trn mt thong ca 1 cht lng hai ngun A.B cch nhau 4 cm dao ng cng phng ,pht ra hai ngun
song ket hp vi bc song 1 cm .Ngun B sm pha hn ngun A l pi/2.Ta mt im A trn mt cht lng
nm trn ng thng qua A,vung gc vi AB cch A mt on x.Nu Q nm trn vn cc i th x c gi tr
ln nht l
A,31,875 B.31.545 C.1.5cm D.0.84cm
Gip bn my bi sng ny nh:
A
B
/2
25
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Bi 1:
on QA=x,=1cm
III. GIAO THOA SNG
Giao thoa ca hai sng pht ra t hai ngun sng kt hp S
1
, S
2
cch nhau mt khong l:
Xt im M cch hai ngun ln lt d
1
, d
2
Phng trnh sng ti 2 ngun
1 1
Acos(2 ) u ft +
v
2 2
Acos(2 ) u ft +
Phng trnh sng ti M do hai sng t hai ngun truyn ti:
1
1 1
Acos(2 2 )
M
d
u ft

+ v
2
2 2
Acos(2 2 )
M
d
u ft

+
Phng trnh giao thoa sng ti M: u
M
= u
1M
+ u
2M
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 os os 2
2 2
M
d d d d
u Ac c ft

+ + 1 1
+ +
1 1
] ]
Bin dao ng ti M:
1 2
2 os
2
M
d d
A A c

_
+

,
vi
1 2

Nu hai ngun l vung pha th
1 2

=/2
Mt im dao ng vi bin cc i bng 2A khi
1 2
1 2
os 1
4
4
d d
c
d d
k

_
+ t

,

+
* im dao ng cc i: d
1
d
2
=( k-1/4) (kZ)
QA=d
1
=x, QB=d
2
=
2 2
4 x +
(do tam gic QAB vung)
Nhn thy cc ng cc i l cc ng cong m cng gn hai ngun th n cng b cong hn, ngha l k cng
ln th cc ng cc i ct ng vung gc AB ti A ti im cng gn A,ngha l x cng nh.Vy x
cc i th k min, y ng k=0.
Vy ta c d
1
d
2
=x-
2 2
4 x +
=(-1/4)
Gii ra c x=,31,875 cm
Cu 2:Trong TNGT vi hai ngun pht song ging nhau ta A B trn mt nc .Khong cch hai ngun
AB=16cm .Hai song truyn i c bc song 4cm.trn ng thng XX song song vi Ab.cch AB mt khong
8 cm ,gi C l giao im ca XX vi ng trung trc ca AB.Khong cch ngn nht t C n im dao g
vi bin d cc tiu nm trn XX l
A1.42 B1.50 C.2.15 D.2.25
A
Q
B Q
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T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Bi ny nm ngoi hc sinh c hi nhng gi chu cha ngh liuc, c g s send sau nh
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Cu 3:trn mt nc c 2 ngun song A.B ging nhau v cch nhau 8 cm dao ng vung gc vi mt nc to
ra song c bc song 5cm.im trn mt nc thuc dng trung trc ca on thng AB dao ng cng pha
vi hai ngun cch ng thng AB mt khong nh nht l
A2cm B2.8cm C.2,4cm D3cm
Giao thoa ca hai sng pht ra t hai ngun sng kt hp S
1
, S
2
cch nhau mt khong l:
Xt im M cch hai ngun ln lt d
1
, d
2
Phng trnh sng ti 2 ngun
1 1
Acos(2 ) u ft +
v
2 2
Acos(2 ) u ft +
Phng trnh sng ti M do hai sng t hai ngun truyn ti:
1
1 1
Acos(2 2 )
M
d
u ft

+ v
2
2 2
Acos(2 2 )
M
d
u ft

+
Phng trnh giao thoa sng ti M: u
M
= u
1M
+ u
2M
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 os os 2
2 2
M
d d d d
u Ac c ft

+ + 1 1
+ +
1 1
] ]
V l thuyt phn em cn tm:
Bt u gii nh:
Xt 1 im nm trn ng trung trc A,B. N cch ngun A,B khong l d
Phng trnh sng ti ngun:
=Acos(2 )
A B
u u ft +

Phng trnh sng ti mt im M trn ng trung trc AB s c dng:
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 os os 2
2 2
M
d d d d
u Ac c ft

+ + 1 1
+ +
1 1
] ]
27
T i nhi u ti li u, thi h n t i bookbooming.com
Do d
1
=d
2
,
1 2

nn
2
2. . os(2 )
M
d
u Ac ft

+
So snh vi phng trnh ca ngun ta c lch pha l
2 d

Ta c
2 d

## =k (do cng pha vi ngun)

d=k.
Nhn thy AO<d dn n 4<5k
k>0,8
dmin khi kmin, suy ra k=1,d=5cm
Vy im cch AB 1 on l:
5
2
-4
2
=3cm
Chc cc b n n thi t t v t k t qu cao!!! Chc cc b n n thi t t v t k t qu cao!!!
t i nhi u ti li u, thi h n, b n vui lng truy c p t i nhi u ti li u, thi h n, b n vui lng truy c p
http://bookbooming.com/ Th vi n H c v n thi n thi i h c http://bookbooming.com/ Th vi n H c v n thi n thi i h c v t i ti v t i ti
li u mnh c n. li u mnh c n.
A

B
C
0 B
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