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Table of Contents.

Page Introduction....3 Common diseases affecting crops..4 Reference....7

Plant diseases are usually caused by fungi, bacteria and viruses. Also there are other diseases which are caused by adverse environmental conditions. Common diseases caused by the above mentioned agents are: Wilt: This is the drooping of the foliage and ultimately death of the plant. It is caused in seedlings when their bases become rotted due to fungus and fall on the 0ground. e.g. shisham. The only control measure that can be applied is selection of a well-drained site. Canker: It is a definite, localised deformation (necrotic lesion) formed mainly in the bark. It results in the death of the part of the tree above the canker. Cankers are caused by frost, sun scorch, fire and drought. Decay: It is the decomposition of wood by fungi. When they attack living tissues, they may kill the trees. When they attack the dead wood (as the heartwood) they cause rot or heart rot. Heart rot: It is caused by a number of fungi. The presence of fruiting bodies of the heart rot fungi, punk knots, swollen knots, dry branch sticking out of bole and swollen boles are indications of heart rot in trees. Injury to trees should be kept to a minimum to prevent heart rot. Root diseases: Diseases in roots of trees are caused by root infecting fungi which may be soil-inhabiting or root-inhabiting. The soil-inhabiting fungi causes wilt in trees eg shisham. The rootinhabiting fungi causes root rot in trees eg shisham and khair. The roots of new seedlings receive infection from old infected roots in the soil.

Common diseases affecting crops.

Botrytis This disease causes indoor plant leaves to turn black with a gray mold. They will rot off if the disease is allowed to advance. Prevention: provide good air circulation and sanitation Treatment: treat with the fungicide Benlate Mildew Mildew causes the indoor plant leaves to get heavy white coating. Prevention: provide the plant with proper sanitation ,air circulation Treatment: the fungicide Benlate can be used Black spots This is a serious disease that is difficult to control. It is a circular black spot up to 0.5 inch across, usually on the upper leaf surface. Treatment: Benomyl, Phaltan, Captan in spray or dust form Bean Rust This is a rusty growth on the underside of leaves and may cause the leaves to fall off. This is a disease to which no plant is resistant. Treatment: applying sulphur and maneb in dust form Anthracnose This is a circular reddish brown sunken spots with purple margins and gray centers that grow on young shoots. These become large cankers in older plants. Treatment: lime sulphur in the dormant stage, and Forbam in spray form in later stages. Apple scab is worst apple disease that attacks the leaves and fruits. It appears on the leaves as small smoky areas, and moldy inch across the fruit, in raised scab like spots. Treatment: Ferban, Captan or Cypress in a spray Damping off This is a disease where seeds either fail to germinate or small seedlings rot off at soil level. It spreads rapidly and prevention is better than cure. Prevention: Captan-Arsan or Benomyl as a seed treatment or soil drench respectively Brown rot This is a disease that attacks the blossoms, stem and fruit of peaches. It starts as a brown spot which spreads rapidly until the entire fruit turns brown and dries up. Treatment: a wettable sulphur in a spray.

Common diseases affecting crops contd.

Red rot This is a fungal infection mostly found in the sugar cane crop. The fungi enter the sugar cane through the holes and tunnels made by the sugar cane moth-borer. Red rot is identified by a reddening of the tissues especially at the nodes and vascular regions and on the midrib of the leaves. There are occasional white blotches in the pith at right angles to the long axis of the stem. In severe attacks the pith shrinks and the leaves wilt and die. Prevention: planting healthy materials that are treated with fungicide Spraying against the moth-borer Root rot This is a disease in which the roots rot because of excess water in the soil. It results in fewer, smaller leaves and flowers, Prevention: proper drainage and aeration. Treatment: drench soil with Banrot Pineapple disease This is a fungal infection that enters sugar cane through holes or tunnels made by the sugarcane moth-borer. This disease is prevalent in cool weather and moist soils. The infested plant become reddish brown, brown and eventually black. The presence of the pine apple odor is also detectable at the points of infection. Prevention: use healthy planting materials that have been sprayed with a fungicide Treatment: spray against the moth-border Bacterial blight This disease deforms flowers with water soaked areas from tip downwards and rotting of the spandex from tip. Treatment: drench with Ridomil, Dithane or M45 Scab This disease attacks the leaves, twigs and fruits. The leaves are distorted and disfigured by brown raised, corky wart-like patches. Treatment: sray with copper fungicide eg. Perenox or Cupravit Melanose This disease attacks leaves and twigs. In the early stages of the disease, dark circular depressions with yellow appear on young leaves. The depressions later become raised, dark spots become brown and the surface of the leaf feels like sand paper. Treatment: spray with the copper fungicide Cupravit

Common diseases affecting crops contd.

Greasy melanose This disease causes dark oily spots to appear on the underside of leaves. The may result in severe leaf fall Treatment: use of the copper fungicide Perenox Wither tip This is a disease particularly destructive to limes. The shoots die and the tree becomes stunted and stubby. The fruits are distorted with brown corky depressions. Treatment: spray with the fungicide Cupravit Gummosis or Foot rot This is caused by a soil inhabiting fungus which attacks the trunk causing the bark to rot. A gum excludes from the affected area. Treatment: Remove the bark and paint with a fungicidal dressing eg. Bordeaux paste Bacterial wilt This is also called Moko and is caused by the bacterium pseudomonas solanacearum. This disease is confined to moist, badly drained, heavy, compact soils. The inner leaves of the mature plant develop a yellow green color. The blades turn a dirty yellow color at the point closest to the petiole. The leaf eventually hangs down. If the plant is attacked during the mature stages of fruit development, the pulp shows decay (blackening in some fringes and the pseudo stems become discolored. Prevention: non-use or improvement of the environment. Control: destroy damaged clumps. Sclerotina Dollar Spot This disease affects the bent grasses, Bermuda grass, zoysia grass among other. Individual grass blades at first show yellow-green blotches which progress to a water soaked appearance and finally a bleached to straw colored tan with reddish brown border. Entire leaves are commonly blighted but in some cases only portions of the leaves may become necrotic. Treatment: applying Banner/MAXX, Cleary 3336 Black-leg This is a bacterial disease caused by Eriwina atroseptica. Diseased plants take on a yellowish-green color. Black watery lesions develop at the base of the stem of the affected plants. Tuber infection usually begins at the stem end causing a black slimy rot. The disease is spread by infected tubers and plants may be infected at any age from soil inoculums if there wounded. Prevention: use resistant cultivars and disease free seeds. Control: handling and working around plants carefully, rouging infected plants.

Reference Producing Vegetable Crops John M. Swaider & George W. Ware The Turfgrass Disease Handbook John R. Ruberson