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Violence and aggression constitute some of the major problems of public health in our society nowadays. The 49th World Health Assembly established that violence prevention is the first public health priority. According to the FBI Uniform Crime Report, in the U.S.A. in 2005 occurred 1,390,695 violent crimes, which represents an increase of 2,3% between 2004 and 2005. The World Health Organization (WHO) reported violence as the first death cause among people from 15 to 44 years old. In Latin America, deaths on a weekend in cosmopolitan cities (such as Caracas, Medellin or Sao Paulo) are greater than in Kosovo during the war, according to a study by Briceo-Leon. In Brazil, the National Public Safety Secretariat (SENASP) issued a report that confirms that homicides represent 19,8% of all deaths by external causes in 1980. In 2003, those rates reached 40,3% of total deaths by external causes. Our proposition is that a study of the human violence through a neurobiology perspective will facilitate the understanding of the problem and assist in the prevention of disorders associated to aggressive and violent behaviours. Presently, there are many studies establishing the relation between neurotransmitters as serotonin, dopamine and nor-adrenaline with aggressive and impulsive behaviours. On these aspects, it is important to emphasize that the neurochemistry of behaviour does not correspond to biological determinism. Neurotransmitters show individual changes due to life experiences, social status and diet. We also know there is a correlation between serotonin levels and behaviours such as suicide, alcohol abuse, impulsive homicide and arsonism. The challenge now is how to apply these findings in the establishment of public policies involving crimes and the Law Ana Clelia de Freitas is a Medical doctor, poet and writer. She has works published on the press and on scientific books. Medical Residence on General Surgery and Dermatology. Post-Graduation on Criminal Sciences. Presently earning a Master Degree on Criminal Sciences. Portuguese and English teacher. She took part on Joo Pinheiro Literary Competition, with her tale published on the book: The Tale on Literature and also has her biography published on the book Writers Biographical Dictionary. Ana Cllia is a member of Brazilian Dermatological Society, Brazilian Society of Neurosciences and Behaviour, International Brain Research Organization, Canad, Brazilian Association of Biological Psychiatry, Neuroethics Society, USA, World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry and Brazilian Union of Writers. She has proficiency on English by PUC-RS.