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Lactobacillus Acidophilus

Lactobacillus Acidophilus is one of many bacteria in the genus Lactobacillus. lacto- means milk bacillus means rod-like in shape, and acidophilus means acid-loving. Lactobacillus Acidophilus means Milk Rod Shaped Acid Loving Bacteria L. acidophilus is considered by some, a probiotic or "friendly" bacteria. The Modern Theory The claim is that the bacteria L. acidophilus combine with proteins that are found in saliva and food debris, forming plaque. The assumption is that bacteria filled plaque then go about digesting sugary and other easily digestible foods. After the L. acidophilus has finished eating, they excrete an acid. If there is enough L. acidophilus excreting acid in one area, then the calcium can get dissolved. Once enough tooth enamel is removed, there is a groove. In this shallow hole, the lactobacillus acidophilus positions itself on the groove, and begins the process of tooth decay.
Bacteria are microscopic organisms that are a part of everyone's daily life, and they serve an important role in our body's ability to function and survive. Some bacteria are more beneficial to the human body than others. The mouth is natural haven for bacteria, both good and bad. The environment of the mouth, or oral cavity, can be influenced positively or negatively, resulting in cavities by the amount and type of bacteria present. Environment of the Oral Cavity The oral cavity's environment changes several times per day depending on the foods and drinks you consume, stressful situations and your overall systemic health. The pH, a measure of acidity, of the mouth determines if the tooth structure will be broken down. The saliva inside of your mouth contain ions, such as calcium and phosphorus, that maintain your teeth in a mineralized state with a pH of 6.8 that does not promote the breakdown of tooth structure. When you consume acidic foods or sugary drinks, the pH of the mouth decreases to 5.5, resulting in a demineralized state that can lead to the breakdown of tooth structure.

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Bacteria There are hundreds of different bacteria species present in the oral cavity. Some species can cause the pH to decrease to 5.5 or below. Lactobacillus acidophilus is a bacterium that has been found in milk and other dairy products. Lactobacillus acidophilus can produce acids in the mouth and continue to survive in the newly formed acidic environment, increasing the probability of tooth breakdown by dissolving the outer enamel surface of the tooth. Formation of Cavities Cavities are formed when the following risk factors are present simultaneously: bacteria that cause cavities, sugary or acidic food and drinks and a tooth. The primary bacteria that is responsible for the initiation of cavities is streptococcus mutans. This bacteria in addition to lactobacillus can produce acids that decrease the pH of the oral cavity. Regular brushing and flossing will mechanically interrupt the bacteria from dissolving the enamel and causing a hole, or cavity, in your tooth.



Lactobacillus acidophilus produces lactic acid and is known as "the friendly bacteria" L. acidophilus is a member of one of the eight main genera of lactic acid bacteria. Each genus and species have different characteristics but they are generally chained cocci or rod shaped Gram-positive , nonmotile, nonsporulating bacteria that produce lactic acid as a major or sole product of fermentative metabolism and use lactose as their main source of carbon to produce energy. L. acidophilus grows in or without the presence of oxygen, is able to live in highly acidic environments of pH 4-5 or lower and is characterised as a homofermentative ie produces lactic acid as its sole product. L. acidophilus is probably the best well-known species of Lactobacillus, it is naturally found in the human and animal GI tract, mouth and vagina. It has been suggested that L. acidophilus is a beneficial or so-called "friendly" bacteria which provides an important function in the body." Friendly" microorganisms are called probiotics, meaning "for life." Researchers are increasingly more convinced that probiotics are an essential link in proper health and well-being and above all help the body to get more nutrition out of the food we eat. Few microorganisms are found in the stomach because of its high acidity, their numbers increase dramatically the further down the intestinal tract. The greatest numbers and variety are found in the large intestine. When these microbial populations are in balance, optimum health is generally achieved. For instance, probiotics keep harmful pathogenic species in check. Without sufficient numbers of viable, friendly bacteria, our intestinal ecology is thrown off balance, resulting in a wide range of possible health problems and disease conditions. Friendly bacteria attach themselves to the intestinal wall and produce a mildly acidic environment (primarily lactic acid) that curbs the growth of harmful, disease-causing bacterial species. Friendly microflora are also essential in nutrient assimilation, producing many important enzymes and increasing the bioavailability of vitamins, particularly the Bs and K, fatty acids, lactase, and calcium. Among other benefits are the strengthening of the immune system, neutralisation of toxins, normalisation of bowel movements, control of cholesterol, the countering of allergies and skin problems, and the prevention of yeast and fungal infections. In its support of the immune system, probiotics have been used in alleviating chronic fatigue syndrome. Test tube studies have shown that L. acidophilus can inhibit the growth of candida albicans (candidiasis), the fungus associated with "thrush" in the mouth, esophagus or vagina and varying levels of success have been reported using yogurt and L. acidophillus as a treatment for vaginal candidiasis. Researchers are also interested in the possibilities that L. acidophilus may be implicated in the relief of athritis symptoms and counter the side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy.

With the exception of dental caries, L. acidophilus is non-pathogenic to humans. The bacteria combine with proteins that are found in saliva and food debris, forming plaque which digests sugary and other easily digestible foods and excretes acid. If enough acid is excreted in one area then calcium can be dissolved which in turn can remove some tooth enamel which will enable L. acidophilus to begin the process of tooth decay. Lactobacillus acidophilus is also important in the fermentation of many foods, from dairy products to fruits and vegetables. Fermentation occurs when bacteria break down sugars and carbohydrates to produce alcohol, carbon dioxide and lactic acid . These by-products are responsible for the unique taste of fermented foods and help preserve and increase palatability.

There are many types of fermented dairy products that use L. acidophilus. The most familiar to Americans are sweet acidophilus milk and yogurt. Sweet acidophilus milk is consumed by individuals who suffer from lactose maldigestion and intolerance, a condition that effects approximately 75% of the worlds population. Maldigestion and intolerance occurs when enzymes (lactase) cannot break down lactose or milk sugar in the intestine. Failure to digest lactose results in discomfort, cramps and diarrhea. L. acidophilus is also used in the preparation of yogurt. L. acidophilus along with other lactic acid bacteria are added to milk to decrease the pH. When milk becomes acidic, proteins in the milk break down and coagulate to form a gel. There are three essential factors that determine how cavities develop: 1) natural tooth structure exposed to the oral cavity; 2) dental plaque; and 3) substrate or food. There are other modifying factors which affect the location of cavities and their progression, but the factor you are most interested in is plaque. Plaque is composed of bacteria and their by-products. Dental plaque is actually quite complex. The accumulation of plaque on teeth is quite organized and takes place in a certain sequence. First, the bacteria must adhere to tooth structure. Primarily, certain species of Streptococci are able to create a sticky matrix which allows them to adhere to clean tooth structure. Once they adhere, they multiply to form a matlike covering so other organisms can come along and adhere to the mat. The formation of plaque undergoes many changes and each change is dependent upon the previous step. Due to the complex nature of plaque, it has been difficult to determine the exact causative agents of dental caries. Streptococcus mutans has been the most widely accepted causative agent of caries in the enamel of teeth (the outer layer of teeth). Later in the 19th century, W.D. Miller started the search for a single causative agent. From about the 1920s to 1950s, Lactobacillus acidophilus appeared to be the main factor. Large numbers of this species were found in the mouths of patients who had many cavities. It seemed these bacteria could be found with regularity prior to formation of any decay. In addition, they have the ability to survive and to produce acid in a low pH environment. It is acid production by bacteria which ultimately leads to carious lesions (cavities.) As time has passed, however, large amounts of Lactobacillus acidophilus were also discovered in the mouths of patients who had no cavities; therefore, there are arguments that cavities are not caused by this single agent. In fact, the Lactobacillus species do not have the ability to adhere to tooth surface, so it is unlikely to be the initiator of dental decay, but it does bear some responsibility for the spread of decay in dentin (the layer of tooth beneath enamel.) The three most implicated bacteria in causing dental decay are Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus species, and Actinomyces species. There are some cause and effect relationships which are recently being questioned. Other factors, such as diet and oral hygiene may play a larger role in the formation of cavities than the actual bacteria, since many of these bacteria are normally present in the oral cavity. Other factors, such as systemic diseases, genetics, saliva composition, the biochemical composition of the teeth, and the presence of fluoride, continue to be studied for their roles in the formation of cavities. Thanks for the good question.



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Penyebab karies gigi Ada empat hal utama yang berpengaruh pada karies: permukaan gigi, bakteri kariogenik (penyebab karies), karbohidrat yang difermentasikan, dan waktu.[30] Gigi Ada penyakit dan gangguan tertentu pada gigi yang dapat mempertinggi faktor risiko terkena karies. Amelogenesis imperfekta, yang timbul pada 1 dari 718 hingga 14.000 orang, ada penyakit di mana enamel tidak terbentuk sempurna.[31] Dentinogenesis imperfekta adalah

ketidaksempurnaan pembentukan dentin. Pada kebanyakan kasus, gangguan ini bukanlah

penyebab utama dari karies.[32] Anatomi gigi juga berpengaruh pada pembentukan karies. Celah atau alur yang dalam pada gigi dapat menjadi lokasi perkembangan karies. Karies juga sering terjadi pada tempat yang sering terselip sisa makanan. Bakteri Preparat Streptococcus mutans. Mulut merupakan tempat berkembanganya banyak bakteri, namun hanya sedikit bakteri penyebab karies, yaitu Streptococcus mutans dan Lactobacilli di antaranya.[5][7] Khusus untuk karies akar, bakteri yang sering ditemukan adalah Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomyces viscosus, Nocardia spp., dan Streptococcus mutans. Contoh bakteri dapat diambil pada plak. Karbohidrat yang dapat difermentasikan Bakteri pada mulut seseorang akan mengubah glukosa, fruktosa, dan sukrosa menjadi asam laktat melalui sebuah proses glikolisis yang disebut fermentasi.[6] Bila asam ini mengenai gigi dapat menyebabkan demineralisasi. Proses sebaliknya, remineralisasi dapat terjadi bila pH telah dinetralkan. Mineral yang diperlukan gigi tersedia pada air liur dan pasta gigi berflorida dan cairan pencuci mulut.[33] Karies lanjut dapat ditahan pada tingkat ini. Bila demineralisasi terus berlanjut, maka akan terjadi proses pelubangan. Waktu Tingkat frekuensi gigi terkena dengan lingkungan yang kariogenik dapat memengaruhi perkembangan karies.[34] Setelah seseorang mengonsumsi makanan

mengandung gula, maka bakteri pada mulut dapat memetabolisme gula menjadi asam dan menurunkan pH. PH dapat menjadi normal karena dinetralkan oleh air liur dan proses sebelumnya telah melarutkan mineral gigi. Demineralisasi dapat terjadi setelah 2 jam.[35] Faktor lainnya Selain empat faktor di atas, terdapat faktor lain yang dapat meningkatkan karies. Air liur dapat menjadi penyeimbangan lingkungan asam pada mulut. Terdapat keadaan dimana air liur mengalami gangguan produksi, seperti pada sindrom Sjgren, diabetes mellitus, diabetes insipidus, dan sarkoidosis.[36] Karies yang merajalela karena penggunaan metamfetamin. Obatobatan seperti antihistamin dan antidepresan dapat memengaruhi produksi air liur.[37] Terapi radiasi pada kepala dan leher dapat merusak sel pada kelenjar liur.[38] Penggunaan tembakau juga dapat mempertinggi risiko karies.[39] Tembakau adalah faktor yang signifikan pada penyakit periodontis, seperti dapat menyusutkan gusi.[40] Dengan gusi yang menyusut, maka permukaan gigi akan terbuka. Sementum pada akar gigi akan lebih mudah mengalami demineralisasi. [29] Karies botol susu atau karies kanak-kanak adalah pola lubang yang ditemukan di anak-anak pada gigi susu. Gigi yang sering terkena adalah gigi depan di rahang atas, namun kesemua giginya dapat terkena juga.[41] Sebutan "karies botol susu" karena karies ini sering muncul pada anak-anak yang tidur dengan cairan yang manis (misalnya susu) dengan botolnya. Sering pula disebabkan oleh seringnya pemberian makan pada anak-anak dengan cairan manis. Ada juga karies yang merajalela atau karies yang menjalar ke semua gigi.[42] Tipe karies ini sering ditemukan pada pasien dengan xerostomia, kebersihan mulut yang buruk, pengonsumsi gula yang tinggi, dan pengguna metamfetamin karena obat ini membuat mulut kering. [43] Bila karies yang parah ini merupakan hasil karena radiasi kepala dan leher, ini mungkin sebuah karies yang dipengaruhi radiasi. sumber: