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CAD/CAM Principles and Applications

Ch 4 Geometric Modelling

CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Objectives
Understand the various requirements for the information that is generated during the geometric modeling stage. Study various types of geometric models possible and their applications Develop various methodologies used for geometric construction such as sweep, surface models, solid models, etc. Recognize the various types of surfaces and their application as used in geometric modelling Appreciate the concept of parametric modeling which is the current mainstay of most of the 3D modeling systems Develop the various mathematical representations of the curves used in the geometric construction Discuss the various CAD system requirements that need to be considered while selecting a system for a given application Understand the concept of rapid prototyping and the various methods available for the purpose.
CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

4.1 Requirements of Geometric Modelling

CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Fig. 4.1

Total product cycle in a

manufacturing environment
Geometric Modelling

Ideas

Design Analysis

Production

CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Functions of Geometric Modelling


Design analysis:
Evaluation of areas and volumes. Evaluation of mass and inertia properties. Interference checking in assemblies. Analysis of tolerance build-up in assemblies. Analysis of kinematics mechanics, robotics. Automatic mesh generation for finite element analysis.

CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Functions of Geometric Modelling


Drafting
Automatic planar cross sectioning. Automatic hidden line and surface removal. Automatic production of shaded images. Automatic dimensioning. Automatic creation of exploded views for technical illustrations.
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Functions of Geometric Modelling


Manufacturing
Parts classification. Process planning. Numerical control data generation and verification. Robot program generation.

CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Functions of Geometric Modelling


Production Engineering
Bill of materials. Material requirement. Manufacturing resource requirement. Scheduling.

Inspection and Quality Control:


Program generation for inspection machines. Comparison of produced part with design.
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Requicha and Voelker [1981] specified the following properties to be desired of in any geometric modelling (solids) system.
The configuration of solid (geometric model) must stay invariant with regard to its location and orientation. The solid must have an interior and must not have isolated parts. The solid must be finite and occupy only a finite shape. The application of a transformation or other operation that adds or removes parts must produce another solid. The model of the solid in E3 (Euler space) may contain infinite number of points. However, it must have a finite number of surfaces, which can be described. The boundary of the solid must uniquely identify which part of the solid is exterior and which is interior.
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4.2

Geometric Models

Two-dimensional, and Three-dimensional. The three principal classifications can be


The line model, The surface model, and The solid or volume model
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Fig. 4.2 3D geometric representation techniques


P2 P1 P10 S6 P4 P9 P11 P12 P8 P5 S1 S7 S2 P3 S5 S4 S3 S8

P6 P7

(a) LINE MODEL

(b) SURFACE MODEL

V1 V2

(c) VOLUME MODEL

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Fig. 4.3 A geometric model represented in wire-frame model

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Fig. 4.4 Ambiguities present in the wire-frame model

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Fig. 4.5 Impossible objects that can be modelled using a wire-frame model

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Fig. 4.6 Generation of 3D geometry using planar surfaces


S5

S3 S6 S6

S5 S4

S8

S8

S3 S1 S7 S2 S4

S1 S7

S2

(b) SURFACE MODEL

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4.3 Geometric Construction Methods


The three-dimensional geometric construction methods which extend from the 2D that is normally used are:
Linear extrusion or translational sweep, and Rotational sweep.

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Fig. 4.8

Component model produced using

translational (linear) sweep (extrusion)

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Fig. 4.9

Component model produced using

translational (linear) sweep with taper in sweep direction

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Fig. 4.10

Component model produced using linear

sweep with the sweep direction along a 3D curve

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Fig. 4.11

Component model produced using

translational (linear) sweep with an overhanging edge

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Fig. 4.12 Component produced by the rotational sweep technique

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Fig. 4.13 Various solid modelling primitives

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Fig. 4.14 The Boolean operators and their effect on model construction

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Fig. 4.15 The Boolean operators and their effect on model construction

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Fig. 4.16 Creating a solid with the 3D primitives in solid modelling and the model shown in the form of Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)

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Fig. 4.17 Model generated using the sculptured surfaces (Image


appears with the permission of IBM World Trade Corporation/Dassault Systems - Model generated using CATIA)

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Fig. 4.18 The various types of surfaces used in geometric modelling


Classification of Surfaces Planar surfaces Plane Curved surfaces Single curved Double curved Free form surfaces Coons surface

Polygon Polyhedra

Cylinders Cones

Spheres Ellipsoids Paraboloid Torus

B-spline Bezier surface NURBS Fractals

Ruled surfaces

Lofted surfaces

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Fig. 4.19

Ruled surface on the left is shown the curves

from which the ruled surface on the right is formed.

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Fig. 4.20 Coons surface generation

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Fig. 4.21 The Bzier curve and the associated control polygon

Y
Control points

Control Polygon

Curve

O
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X
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Fig. 4.22 The various examples of Bzier curves depending on the associated control polygons
p2 p1 p3 p0 p0 p1 p1 p3 p2

p3 p0 p2

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Fig. 4.23 The modification of Bezier curve by tweaking the control points

Y
Control points

Control Polygon

Control points

Control Polygon

Curve

Curve

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Fig. 4.24 The spline curve

Y
Control points

Control Polygon Curve

O
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X
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Fig. 4.25 The lofted surface

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Fig. 4.26 Example of filleting or blend method for model generation

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Fig. 4.27 Example of tweaking method for surface modification ((Image appears with the permission of IBM World Trade
Corporation/Dassault Systems - Model generated using CATIA))

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4.4 Constraint Based Modelling

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Fig. 4.28 Example of initial sketch without any dimensions

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Fig. 4.29 The sketch shown above which is fully constrained and dimensioned

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Fig. 4.30 The sketch in Fig. 4.29 when swept along a linear path produces the solid

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Fig. 4.31 The sketch for the new feature (a cut)

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Fig. 4.32 The solid after executing an extruded cut of the geometry in Fig. 4.31

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Fig. 4.33 The final solid

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Fig. 4.34 The model tree of the part showing the modelling process

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Fig. 4.35 A geometric model created following the sequence of features as Box Hole Shell

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Fig. 4.36 A geometric model created following the sequence of features as Box Shell Hole

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Fig. 4.37 Feature based model and its modified form


Base feature Holes - 3 Slots - 2

(A) Original model

Base feature Holes - 5

Slots - 2

(B) Modified model


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Fig. 4.38 Typical drawing for the variant method of modelling

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Fig. 4.39 Part model produced using the symbolic programming


T C R G N COMPOSED PART SYMBOL KEYS G

KEY SEQUENCE

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Fig. 4.40 Examples of form elements used for model generation in the case of axi-symmetric components
Thread Arc Groove Taper Turn Fillet Knurl Chamfer Face

Blank

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Fig. 4.41 Examples of form features for modelling axi-symmetric components with milled features

Turn

Taper

Face

Fillet

Chamfer

Groove

Thread

Knurl

Step

Axial hole

Keyway

Radial hole

Splines

Axial slot

CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

Concentric slot

Radial slot

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Fig. 4.42 Example component modelled using the features shown in Fig. 4.41
3.2 Straight Knurl Pitch 1mm 1.6 M36x1

All chamfers 1x45

45

60

90 42

-0.015 -0.040

0.01 A

R1.5

32 75 187
+ 0.50 0.75

42 76

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Fig. 4.43 Example component modelled using the features shown in Fig. 4.41
Chamfer 2X2 @45 10 dia 4 holes M8X1 LHT
12.5

2X2 Groove

75

50

25

Chamfer angle 45 12.5 25 80

4 holes on pcd 37.5

Sectional Elevation
CAD/CAM Principles and Applications by P N Rao, 2nd Ed

End view
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4.6 Curve representation


Implicit form, and Parametric form. In parametric form, the curve is represented as X = x(t) Y = y(t) Z = z(t)
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Fig. 4.44 Circle


Y

(X, Y)

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Fig. 4.45 Ellipse


Y

x y + 2 =1 2 a b
(X, Y) b

a X

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Fig. 4.46 Parametric curve representation in Cartesian space


p3 z y u x p0
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p2 p1

Fig. 4.47 Two cubic Bzier curves joined at p3


p2 p1 u p0 z y p6 x p5 p3 p4

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4.7 Surface Representation Methods

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Fig. 4.48 Typical surface display with the parametric variables u and v

v u y

x
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Fig. 4.49 A bi-cubic Bzier surface patch


p(0,v), u=0 curve p12 p22 v p14=p(0,1) p(u,1), v=1 curve p13 p23 p24 p21 p33 p44=p(1,1) p21 p11=p(0,0) u p32 p31 p42 p43

z y

p(1,v), u=1 curve

p(u,0), v=0 curve

x
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p41=p(1,0)
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4.8 Modelling Facilities Desired


The geometric modelling features. The editing or manipulation features. The display control facilities. The drafting features. The programming facility. The analysis features. The connecting features.
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Fig. 4.50 Elimination of hidden lines in display

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Fig. 4.51

Shaded image of a CAD geometric model ((Image


Model generated using CATIA))

appears with the permission of IBM World Trade Corporation/Dassault Systems -

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Fig. 4.52 Orthographic views from a geometric model (Image


appears with the permission of IBM World Trade Corporation/Dassault Systems Model generated using CATIA)

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Fig. 4.53 Section view generation from a geometric model

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Fig. 4.54 Exploded view and bill of materials of an assembly modelled

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4.9 Rapid Prototyping (RP)

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Figure 4.55 Schematic of Stereolithography device


Scanning mirror Laser

Cured resin (to form model) Liquid resin

Recoating bar

Platform

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Figure 4.56 Schematic of selective laser sintering device


Scanning mirror Laser

Powder feed roller

Platform
Build powder Sintered powder (to form parts)

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Figure 4.57 Schematic of Three-dimensional printing device


Binder solution Powder feed roller Printing head Nozzle
Platform

Build powder Glued powder (to form parts)

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Fig. 4.58 Schematic of Fused deposition modelling device


Filament from a coil

Feeder

Melter

Extrusion nozzle Solidified plaster (to form model)

Platform

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Fig. 4.59 Schematic of Laminated Object Manufacturing device


Top view Splits in excess material (for ease of removal)

Laminating roller

Contour of actual cross section of the model

Band of build material

Scanning mirror Laser

Laminating roller

Laminate model

Band of build material

Excess laminate material

Take-up roll

Platform

Material supply roll

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Summary
Information entered through geometric modeling is utilized in a number of downstream applications such as drafting, manufacturing, inspection and planning. Geometric models are three types, viz line model, surface model and solid model. Line model though simple is rarely used because of the ambiguity present. Surface and solid models are extensively used in industrial applications. Among the geometric construction methods sweep or extrusion is most widely used, because of its simplicity and elegance in developing 3D models. Solid modeling provides the most unambiguous representation of the solid model, but is more computing intensive. However to get the correct geometric model, it is essential to utilize solid modeling approach.
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Summary
Surfaces are more widely used and it is necessary to use different types of surfaces such as b-splines, Bezier, NURB, lofted, to get the user requirements fulfilled. Constraint or parametric based modeling is the main methodology used by most of the 3D CAD systems. This system helps in grasping the designers intent and would greatly facilitate the modification and reuse of the existing designs. Some variant modeling systems are used based on tabular data for specific applications. Form features is another form of modeling system that helps in designing CAD systems with more intelligence built into the geometric entities that is possible by purely geometric systems discussed thus far.

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Summary
The mathematical representation of the geometric entities can be in implicit or parametric form, the latter being the preferred method used in CAD systems because of its easier adaptation in software development. The curve representation methods can be extended for surface representations such as used in free form surfaces. A number of modeling facilities need to be considered while selecting a CAD/CAM system for any given application. Rapid prototyping is used to generate the product directly from the 3D CAD model data. A number of different processes such as stereo lithography, selective laser sintering, 3D printing, fused deposition modeling, laminated object manufacturing, are used for this purpose.

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