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J U N E 1897 - M A Y 1914

JUNE 1 8 9 7 - M A Y 1898



A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion, Commenced
V O L I. I

Philosophy, Citet%jUif Science. &c. CommemoratioU
21ST J U N E 1 8 9 7 .






M O N D A Y ,





T ' r' v

2. My great Love has b (Siva) whose tiger skin is crescent MOOD in whose hea aud Avho dances in mibroken dust.
The lijftr skin of Siva is indicator)) Ills Imviii^ < r)u(|uere(l t l . j li-^l

ifltt^i towards Him r lifhtflt- 'fchan gold, the loiBtL ?ns and bright, in the barning

\ A imt
; a jfi'oat V o g i , o f iffftii-s. a n d o f .1, .liwi hrffi: , (lie paix 1 =ud n t i o D e oil to liis pinyed I'rana

Tlif' i-resv-i-'iit ^tooii oti tlio liead of liy iiiodcrtitK cold in tiie natter of c o l-'iir a t'nil discus-ion of tlie subjcL-i, r-!


.fliisiLf^ LD> a lolrL-l jiirQ'i Ssiitiiireu ^ir.-i^ lt^'o'Sevn ir -Itlek'^I.J fisUt/l/Tft)/ jtjsia Q u oj to 7 Hj /i .I a;) Qij ,'j n'Jj. 1. The igDorjiiit tliiiik th;it fjove and Siv;iiii (thestate of being Siva or Bliss) are diffcvent. They dcj 'Kjt know that. Love lieconu', or settles iuto Sivani. Aftftr knowing thiit Love beconies or settles into Sivam, they rest tliemselves in that condition in which fjovo has settledirito Sivain. ^u-sirdaiT'i J .i. 6i. A/ (i^ ll i.j .i LS Sir,'I7\ LS Sir LC. u
.7 ^

Tl.c o:uii.'inf; of Siva in the I'urnins; ;.y motion From 1 lie bosom of vncniry vcif lllCfC.


His ii'-'tition Him-

e l s e tliRii




p ^ 9, ^.
Qi. o

3 ( J Teijr G L . /; j ;

'E . o r s d 'jj

l^ Ji ic.i' JLJ IT (i J^ -LI -T Jo-fl" Oll^ Q,u ..J Iv. en though with bone.'' i turn to liuf.-, and burnt like jf those viiD internally melt thenis
: icce.s.sible.

1, the fiosh except to

' rjovc, ('(.><1

'.'^.tj'olJ J)
o m r B P ff

..^jl U J , t 7
" *

ij jSiiir^i Sii^ <3T(b:QuiiL/ / .3,rr cV .

; ^ % ? J. :J 2 'J

Ti. ^




D E E P I K A , J . O N D A Y , T H E 218T J U N E 18977 but they never adore the Lord and seek Him and pray to Him for the same. e n n ^ L j p ^ ^ i r ^ i - ^ auw u/sffirssr j^eiti9s>ierr enirSi iuui0 ut(^t/>Gur(msrr '(SiL-.^^iSm ^tinS^-eiT itnri^i^Sa. luSsm^tssv luaQu.. (o)

4. Those with intec with oompassion will sei' load (of caret) will see will enter cycles uf bii

jll see God. Those e^t. Those with the subject to pressure, ath or nii.sery.


L / 0 s f f l


iSeireariir ^efifeir

ui(l^4iQ Lf-^iSC

ir isni3iir
ism^n^ib ir/) <suitQp. CS)) I with iove as in myi^eH'. Fi'rst Being. Thou the ,is.s1 will, directing His p protector.

O u i s r i t J

5. Adore the Lo Xelting with Love, great Nandi (the ; IjCT-7 stand forth a
m f O ^ ^ tfirci'


Qpi^m'J^ Ssm n sir em "} lU ansf! & oj s^r

pn ail t j ssfl ssr r^Qn'. i as Self-existet, tnu'O in ill your aid in your coiiiso Mirs Konrai flowers Howinsj st^at in my Love toviiird.'j TE. )

10. He (The Lord) is within and without Love, He forms the body of Love, He is both before und after ; and He is the Lord of the contemplation. He forms the internal essence of Love, or found in Jiove^ He is the doer, object sought in Love and He is the help to those who love Him.
.S. Ramasw.vmi .Aiyki;, h a , B.r..



6. K you p n the W^ay, He wi' tc-'ards Heaver with hooey ha Him.

K o n r a i flowers flowers a r c said seat on i h e Dn o f t l i c s e n s



' crioN.

Qj-eiiu^iJtf^WSSll^.^ <sus3ru<sni_ ^ 7. They dtf jOve in creat Jliss. It is I ^ith Love an.'

8. If on, fiimself by kdores Hirr Grace, the ^desires, be smeud,




Tins is the secnn'] ^rteen Siddlianta Sastras, and its autbv> 'uple of the Great Meikanda Devfi ind his l.^est ca[k.. ^"^r. Sivagnana desin.'. Botham is c 'i the " Mutuu. Niu i r Pcvealed Book, and this \ - k is called t^:f \ ra-;h, '^lU" c o n ^ f D f f S s w lu/SSevnii taining the best anJ tho rrio.i li'ciu e'ui-idj "on of ](_LCiaj.Tifi eaaSeo .Meikanda iJc^va's shoH ^^nJ coi-.cis'The. S>9i_(B [si) the second of t^.a Santhana Actio.riyaii my Lord who evinced stvonir canonized Saints of the Sai.ns, and his data may bo 1 opening up the sources of with more or less accuracy at about /th Love, filled this hard life He is author of another short v o r k ^ ^ l ^ Iruspace with Love. pairupakthu" (glo-^/r (guo^jp), in w f e i ^ iie S t a ^ eiiQa-iu .siriu^iS^ Q fj^i some of the most puzzling problems in Vndiaii Ph^lo^ LSoinpsiiQcZim (opdim'Lfir,sophy in the form of questions addressed to bis n J en 3 61' erar .-ti' master, in such a form that the answers .them.i^Fes i(BiLD ijJ ein'conT sii QuirQoW transparent. A m i Nandi Siva Chariya w a a ^ are fl in the Light engeudiv.-cid in name after he met and was initiated .by his m a b t ^ ion of attention inwards and Meikaada Deva and his other name was Sakalagania ^dition, and then desires for His Pandithar, which seems however not to be his real he Angeiic Host will grant his name but one conferred on him for his vast eruditioD and researches in the Saivite lore. And there can be no doubt that he has displayed in his works ajl his vast learning and knowledge, and ' Siddhiar' standi 3)tiLj t u e a f l ^ i bulkiest and rne ir, luu 0 j / B 6 ) , i9ITirGisvan jjM out as theof Philosophy most l ^vastd Tcoqtributionwill the field in the a m i l ; and 0 ( B I T evT<Jir, 5i,) bea^- comparison in that respect w i ^ ^ t h e best pro^ joy the benefit of crtr ro; daction in Sanscrit. Umapathi Siva qiSkri^a inclmdes jn by God ever hankei Sire this among the best six books, r e q i i r e ^ for a, man
ssion <if gCDSe a n d dosiii r.. Tliepr y as it is an i n d e x t o sIujw t h a t s i.s coiiBtqueiit upon tlio s i i p p r r s -







21ST J U N E


to perfect with

himself in Tamil, namely

Tiravalluvar, and

NOTE. (I'aiiciilm ig callcrl Vlmniaka " Ho wlio hns no (.onl almvc Mini " The plephnnt head, with the HiMj;1c tiidk and trinik denme hin I'rniiin-ii form : t!:n triplc.jnieo or Bccn-tioim <l<'nnii! I k |H)weii<, will, m intelliirencc and action 'IchiichB, (Tnana, Kri.iti). llin live h-nndu denote Iiig rBnchakirtlt^t Klhlthi. :'ni)wrii. ih-unjun-n nwl .1niij/,-nli<i). The weariti;; of rhe (Jinijris ^i);nilieH liiH L-oii(|n<>hi. of Ahiinkar; and the wenrinK nfihe Soiiiii the iipliftini; of rhe truly hundile ; und rlie eansia ( '<-r f) llowei-in rhe ev..wiiiinj rndinii I.iinrcl si^jiiifyiinf his I/nrilfili?)i. syniliiil nl' I'luniiva i'I'IkSlanthrH Itiijnnt). Tht^i^e Ryinlxils havi* otiiei* nieiininirs to 'lie Vo<:i. The donbic elfi^et of Ilis liriiee in I'lTei'tini^ l';isaichii_va ami inilm-ini; l'nthi>rniinsi ih bIiio well wr fin-tli in tluH stanza.
I n Pkaisk ok his Tii.\CHKi;.


commentary), Devaram

Tiravachakain, Tolkapiyam, Sekkilar's Periapuranam, Sivagnana Siddhi. Many are the praises sung of him and his work and of these we select two. The author

of Sivabogaaara sa,ya :

^lavwQfi^, miAaS&eriifih

ug^SMfi^ jpQeiaiemut ultnfifijBiu ^f^aSGet

Oiunr tS^fi^u uirfiQuitcQU). (To thiMC who ilcsire the path of Moksha. wlicii nil thoir lower Tatwr>8, Akmkanv and Karma will Ijo burnt up 1o cinders, half a ataiixa of Siddhinr will (if undprMood) furnish tlin key for tlio nndertandin|j; of nil the vast lore of this world).

'J'he Gracious >Sun wJiich shining on this universe opened the fjotns bud of the woman hearts, on the Our ThayiimanavHr s a y s : opening of which, the bees of the ancient A'edic Uynin.s hummed about, the ffesh nimey gu.siie'l forth, and ^tfg^^iiir Qut^fVi^aBUjf; Ljeaflei'Osii.-enG<;nn '' the I'ragrace of Sivsim blowcd f o r t h ; l i e , .Meikanda " ( ) f o r t h e d a y w h e n 1 Blmll b o w . { o w n t o t h e f e e t o f h i m w h o Deva, wlio was living in Tinivennainalln., surrounded e x h i b i t e d t h e t r n t h in lialf a s t a n / . a w h e r e b y I l o s t t h e w h o l e by groves, in full blossom, "lieCireat Suivite Toauher, UelDsive w o r l d Of all the Siddhanta works, Siddhiav h a s l u i d t l i e His golden feet which outrivals the lotns, resting in greatest number of commentators, and six of these iny head, 1 shall over worship. commentaries are brought out in a most praiseworthy A l a v k i OK LO<;IC. manner by R. R y . K . Shnninugasandara Mudaliar 1. Some classify Logical methods into .Six (1) Pr.iof Chintadripet in his " S i v a g n a n a Botha Press." thiatcha (observation and fxperinient), (2) Auunian:i Coming to the work in question, it is in two parts, (Inference). (;{) Au.ama (Testimony or Authority!. the first part called Parapaksham contains a review (i) Abava (non-cxisteiico), {'>) Atth.ipnthi filediiction ) of 14 systems of Philosophy begmniug with Loka(6) Upamana (analogy). Som^ add the followint,' yitha and ending with Pancharathra, in the manner four to the foregoing, namely ; 7) Parishe.sha (Inference of Sayana^a Sarva Dnrsana Sangralia. The other part by exceptionl, Sambavji (co-existence), Ithig-am, called ' Sup:iksha' elaborates in detail Meikanda (Tradition), ilO) Svaba Liiiga (Natural Iiifercucc). Deva'a work. The Snpaksham is prefaced vith a All these are included in the three tirst Prathiarehii. chapter on Indian Logic or Alavei or measure as Annmana, and Atrama. it is called, a knowledge of which is essential for following the argument of the Indian Schools of 1. Tlu-Tamil eiinivali'iirx .)r li-n I'liiiiiaiia arc (1) v:!) (.-,) (C) ,7. .SI Philosophy. W e propose to bef^in with, the trans- ( 2 ) lil^ f. 'siL. 'lOi ii Aljava is tlie meic iicu'atioji lation of this chapter and then i)roceed to Parapak- 111'a r.ii-r iiiiil SvaL.iliiij.M j.- imai'ly ihi- j;iitlii nn;,' tinu C sham and then to come back to Snpaksbam. Of :ui aml)if.'iiiiiiK Wiinl truni tUe ronti vl and l hei-e is nii iiiferem-c ii> l iclu i- ease anil tlicy vest r liei-efipre anil an- iiu laileil miiler lie Moes iini ciii iliiriii); rlie d a v previous translations, we are only aware of one into Prarl.iarrlia. .Vnitliapjithi (c. lie is );it, hence he iiiiisi, eal ijiiriii;,' llie iiijrht), Parisheslia i-. German by Graul, about 42 years ago and published Euma louyht Kaviina, Kama won. lu-m-e Hiivnna iaileil^. tiamliavii h .f,. -)0 is iiieliilli'il iii 101). I)an in a > Imli i. .iii- . 1 iin-lii<le(l iimlcr i 1 in Vol. 8 of the German Oriental Society's -Journal. Iiiferi-nee. hut in manv .-f tliese I In-ri' isliille real iiifeiTiiei'. Itiii^-am is iiieliiileil uiuler A'_'am:i. I. |iaeiaiia iiii ii|iii>s a |ieciiliar I n v o c a t i o n ok G a n k s h a . |ilaee riiiil is iiii hiil.'il ill iiifi vi-m c Init is Mimetimi-s (wliicli I tiiiiik O God, with the elephant hewd, singlf-tuskeil, is more ciiiTecl 1 clnsse ' as a sij .mai e methiicl. 'I'lie iljstiiutioii lieiwc-i I Western and Kaslnii I lias to l:e lieriie in double eared, triple juiced, wit.h the hanging lip, ami Iiiiml. nainrl\ IJ:I! I lu- I'.inin i- il. als witli nanics ami |ii-ii|iii.viii,in~ and (all r,.nii>i >v!,civav i lir lalti l- ileal.s witli. eniKTi,! five hands, begotten by the Lord with tlic biaided and i.a! ai-niii. iiiaticiii. \\,st..,n l,.i-ie >vas ' t ill Mill's tin ill hair, adorned with the Ganges, rhe crescent moon diMlncriiai. and indin-limi wa-'rK .in.ii- i nntiird 1.,,, Kastrn, l.i-ie as.n.n-.- indin'tiir t ha n dcd ( . ti v. and ^ a ,| ^^ and the cassia flowers. Thy feet will remove tlic . i-rni'd nn.rc- w itii tlir pM C ..r Ilia.- and ili. nirilauls i.C di,s,',.v,a rM evil in the hearts overflowing wiHi love, Ijiimility, in- tiailli l.y tl,.- a|.|.lirali,.l. a lall i v 1 a- a id , .1' 1 and knowledge night rind day without fail. Thy ilie Ih-la .sr I ,-iinii.nv .\nd in rl^i.- I.isi res|-, ; ,,f iia .,1' cniiiso it l)i-.Md,.r 1 : i a V.'i-: ni L,,;;iL-. lifii.^ 1 feet will lift each far above the delights r>f Braliiiia irn di \ isiuas ,,l' |ir(Mil' la i-.-in s.-l Im tli.M li.' \ arin -.s I ndiaii Ain'|il nl> ad. F,ir inslaia-a. tia Indian .Man i i,,ii> ' and Vishnu.
r.nkavitlia) ..niv I ' r a i li ia I r i a u The Uadillia and aisia









218T J U N E


2. P'-atliiatchs is the direct and correct perception of things without doubt and mistake and without the aens'p of differentiation. By Anuiuana we infer things liiddea froin re-taiu Jata by knowledge of their inseparable connection (by successiion or co-existence or equality). Agiini;i P r a n i a i i a will guide us to the knowledge of things unattainable by the foregoing two mrthods. G. Doubtful perception is when we doubt a thing seen to be this or that; the mistaken knowledge i< .s where we know one thing to be another ; Saviki\rpa knowledge comprises the knowledge of name, class, attribute, action, and thing. Nirvikarpa knowledge is the knowledge of the thing itself without knowledge of its name, class, attribute and action. 4. Direct Perception or I'arthiatcha is classified into four kinds, (1) Perception by means of external senses, (2) by means of internal seuses, mind, (3) by the feeling of pleasure and pain and (4) by Y o g a or seer.'hip. Anumina or inference is divided into two
tihika accept tliis aiiij inference; The SanVaya accepts also Agama I'l-amami; Tlie Nyiiyika accepts also analosy ; The Jain and Prapapara and to these f o u f ' A m t h a p a t l i i ' ; The Vedanti accepts ulso ' A b a v a ' ; The rouiuaik adds to these ' Sanibava; 'Tradition.' Kach one of tliesc Schools take np L o g ' j as only an instrnment f o r ascertainin;; the Hii^cst truth; and the subject is merely ..ppended rs in SivafjnanS Siddhi, as serving to help them in the elucidation of t' e postnlbtes and proofs they set forth in their discussion as to the notiiie of God, Soul a n d , M a t t e r ; and each of the two distinctively so-called Logical SchoolsVaisheahika and Xaikatreat of L o p e as such and proceed to discover the Higliest Truth whereby and whereby alone can any real escape from human pain and snffering can be effected. ' When man shall roll np the s'..-y as a piece of leather Then shall there be an end of pain without the knowledge of Siva." - ( S w e t . V. 20.) Af such, we shall explain certain terms w hich are used frequently in these discussious. Pramana (Alavei j/i^a isi'roof ; Prameya is the thiug proved ; Paramatha {ji/iSp^eir) isthe person who investigates; Pramithi i s t h e Inte'Ugence cognizing rhe propf. The term ' Abava ' (non-existcnce) is frequently used in Vedantic discussions. It is divided into Samsargabava (fieIntive non-existence) and Anyonayabava (natural or Biciprocal non-existence) and the former is divided into Adhvantabva .AET.JJ absolute non-existence), Prahbava ( ifst-'rfii-ttm antcci-dent 7-on-existence); Pratidwanisabava (o-arar^ar -emergent non-existence). The terms Yyapaka, Vyapthi imd Vyappia are of very great importance in Logic and in Sid Ihanta literature. Vyapaka is that which pervades over everytliin" else, the universal, a r d corresponds to the major term in a syllogism. Vyapthi is what is comprised in the luiiversal, the particular and corresponds to the middle term ai id Vyappia what is co-iuheres to the Vyapthi _ ^ li^.r lai) and corresponds to the minor term. 4. The different kinds of Perception are called or or a.-'i^r ^ i ts i Ziii^siittEaii^Q, and 'Xhe differtnt kinds of Anviniana arc called

namely (1) Swarthanumana^ (2) Parathanamana. Agama is divided into (1) Maatra, (2) Tantra, and (3) Upasana, the words of the teacher (Gnana). The things proved by means of these logical methods are classed as Vishesha, particular (spccies] and Samanya of General (Genus). 5. Vishesha apply to things which exclude from its denotation species of its own class as well as other classes. Samanya applies to class to which the thing belongs excluding other classes. These two classes described above will comprise all things. 6. Perception b j external senses arises when with the Sonl^s intelligence, the external senses coining in coLtract wiuh light, air &c., perceives correctly form sound &c., without the sense of difference and similarity. Perception by internal senses arises when after such external perception, a menta^ impressicn is produced freed from doubt and mistake, involving the operations or retention and reflection and the sense of difference and similarity. V. Perception by feeling arises when the feelings of pleasure and pain are produced in accordance with the instinct of desire and hate guided by the Law of kola. Perception by Y o g a is the perception by the Y o g i seated in one place of all things remote in place and time possible to him by his havitig destroyed all mala b y remaining in Samadhi.

8. Pakaham (Propositions) are of three kinde, Paksham (conclusion), Sapaksham, (analogy) V i p k sham, (negative proposition.)
6. The first kind of perception is bare external peiception ^vithout any shade of thought or operation of the internal sensea. The infiptal percaption is in fact the more direct perception so far as the sonl is concemcd and the e.xt^rnal^perception is accordingly remote and indirect. This classification of perception is veiy exact and strictly scientific. Peelings are also classed properly as a source of perception. As regards Perception by Yoga, the western scientist may not admit, but proofs are accumulating which tnake such knowledge possible. If by ^ e interposition of a few slideB and by the arrangement of a few wires, things invisible b y distance by intervening matter, &c. can be made visible, why should not the littman intellect be so shaipened by practice aa to make such kno4edge possible. The difference between the Eastern and Western method is in this. The European tries to subjugate external nature to serve his m a t e r a l ends Ac. but the Oriental aims at the highest and his mind is always turned on hipwelf In regard to Yoga, tne really gifted are so few and the charlatans and deceivers are so numerous, which latter class are only too much encouraged by the utter stupidity and credulity of the many (we are afraid that we have to include among them, a large section of even the so-called educated), that it i s a pity that the practice should be gradually falling into contempt. 7. Kala (ievr) is one of the higher Tatwas which enables man t o ciperience perceptions, without at the same time reaching Crnsnam, by the temporary drawing of the Veil of Acava.

Vishesha are called ^sswcr?,, . ; and Samanya . The Vishesha man the III."'"IB species or the lowest species of objects nd even among them, it seems to mean the class of Diffe, ci>tia moi-o particularly.









218T J U N E


Tbere are three kinds of H c t a (gDui'JLf, aafiiuii, j i j p Lmfi0). luferenoe is drawb out of the invni-iable concomitants flowini^ from these Paksham and Hetn. A n d the inference is of two kinds, Inference for one-self and inference for others. Inference for others is And this( latter is for explaining the proof to others. mana. 9 and The three Paksliatns arePaksham, Sapakshaiii Vipaksliam. Paksham is the statement or Inference. comtlie conclusion Sapaksham

we infer the

meaning of





The second, when we infer fire from the presence of smoke ; thr third, when we infer the absence of dew from the absjnce of cold. 11. Anvayi Anumana comprises the argument with smoke is rising from Pratigna, Hetu uiid Instance as iu the form: l i r e is in tlie mountain Pr.itigna. the mountain. present in oven. (Hetu) Because fire and smoke ie both (Instance). There is no

divided into Auvya, Anumn:v and A'yatreka Anu-

Vyathiroki argument is of Miis form from the mountain


five in the fountain, because there i.s uo smoke arising For insfunce, there cmu be no flowers. Apanaya. Nyayikas and lotus flowers. There is neither .smoke iior fire in the deep tunk filled with lotus sitions including Nigam and 12. Saiiras clearly state the argument with five propoPurvadarsana Anumana is where we infer a Vasanalinga Anu-

is statement of similar instances. wtecedent are absent. of difference. 10. from

Vipakaham is the

n e g ^ i v e statement where the thing proved and the The first two give the proof by the method of agreement and the last by the method Hetii or Reason is of three kinds. Reasoning natural relation (co-cxistence and equality),

particnliir flower from a particular smell, from our past knowledge of its connection. mana is where we infer the amount of a main's learning by the words he utters; Agama Anumana is when we infer a man's past Karma from his present experience of pleasure and pain.
Note.These kinds of inference are to be distinguished from the logical divisions of Prathiatcha, <fec.

Reasoning from causal relation (succession) and Reasoning by means of contraries (Inequality) As for instance, we exhibit the first kind of reosoning when
9 Hid 10. T b e u hve r e f e r m o c to purely Logical Methods of Inductive proof. The Text giffSB here the groands of all Induction, aa b a j ^ on nniformitioB in Natum ae Equality or Inequality, co-exiitencc and cauBation. And on these depenilB all Inductive restoning and the Inferonco (Pabaham) is got a t - b y the method! of Ajsreement (Sapakaham) and by the methods of Diiterence (Vipaksham). This is cxactly the foundations of Mill's Inductive Logic and Dr. Bain condennea Mill's 1 kinds ot predicates into three as here stated and Dr. Bain gives five methods. Hethod of AKreement, Method of Difference, The joint Method, The Hethod of Concomitant Variations, and the Method of Besidue, o f which the first two are no doubt the Primay Methods. We wai state the five laws as given by Dr. Brain (1) The Method of Agreement.If two or more instances of a phenomenon under investipation have only one circumstance in common that instance is the cause or effect of the phenomenon. (8) The Method of Difference.If an instance when a phenomensn occurs and an instance when it does not occur, have e v e ^ rircumsianrc in common except one, that one occuring only in the first; the circumstance present in the first and absent in the gecond is the cause or a part of the cause of the given phcnomenun* (3) The Joint Method.If two or more instances when the phemeuonon occni'S have only one circumstance in common, ivhilo two or more instances when it does not occur have nothing iu common savo the absence of that one circumstanco; the oircnmitonce wherein alone the two set of instances differ, is the effect or the cause or a necessary p' rt of the cause of the phenomenon. (4) The Hethod of CoDcomitant Variations.Whatever phcnojMnon varies in any manner whenever another phenomenon yaries in some other particular manner, is either a c^use or an eSect of the phenomenon and is connected with it through some bond of concomitance (5) The Hethod of Hesidne.Subduct from any phenomenon gnch part as previous induction has shown to be tho effe t of certain antecedents, and tlie residue of the phenomenon is the .effect of the remaining antecedent.

13. Being.

Agama is the word of

The Perfect Eternal

Of this Agama, the Tantra portion treats of

the rituals ascertained withoat defects and inconsistency and required for salvation ; The Mantra portion treats of Upasana required for controlling the senses and contemplation of God ; the Gnana Kanda treats of the nature of the Supreme, Beginningless and Endless. !4. - Inferential Fallacies in Fallacies are four in number; are three; These reasoning (Hetu)

Divide again into 21 ;

Fallacies in agreement or There are 6 other

analogy are 16 ; Fallacies of Nigrahasthan are divided into two and ?ub-divided into 22 ; Sub-div'sions again. 65 in number.
J. M- NALI.aswami Pill.^I, B.A., B.L.
14. We will discuss these fallacies in some future numbers. 2

On the whole, the Fallacies are













0, 0 ! Thou Omnipresent Being -who dost fill all with Beatific Bliss ! Some (such as the materialists) hold that the First Cause is the" maya, the primorQiMsr^Q^iLi eSsa-^Of'uj eSiunQeirgii.. dial state of the elements. Some say It is where ^^eiauiS^ iLsir/S the organs of sensation cease to work, ^nd some, jrareBwujiTM QavpQmA Geufiums S^i^niis^ where the internal senses stop. Some call It the futoc s?uittu LBJPGsu (ffectlessness of the three principles* in nature. JifiSte^ Q^eBiun.!: Oem Sig^S anii^iu "According to some It is the form of the Sound and some assign to It the form of Pranava.\ Some euf.i}, euiji say that It has n form and some argue that,when ^iff/SC^w. 0<tiier iSJ^C^ LD iff LD n an u-' 6eisr LDH carcfully considered. It has no form. Some assert ^ ( j i i i L y C u i f f O r f i r ^ . ' ipisnu.-i^ that It is the complete cessation of the Soul's sense Oe-esTLOcneLQ^ dLonQensiTin/w QujiSid;^ Q-fiCSsr^en joyment aud some call It the Divine A nil {Sakti fleia^OiaQi uj a ' f f ^ Qp^alu or Grace). And, lastl}*, according to some It is u.i^wfl Owiij^Qi^irsv ^li'S^tSsfU the state of annihilation that has neither beginning nor end : thus various other states also are LjiirriQLBi i^s-iLD^v .seBpS^/r assigned to It. By discussions such as the above, uSij^ir ^esrii pQio. S. ( ) ! Tliou Omnipresent Heiiig wlio dost fill all the rcind must only be agitating like meicury, withwith HeatiJic Bliss ! Thou being the Omnipresent out ever seeking the Yoga of Supreme Bliss. ^li^at ir^-Sui^Qiua ssmiiiS iBemGunOs'^is: i'liilini;' Principle in all, my iiL-tions are alAvays Thine : iind 1 can never live independent esr^^ejff a^^sS emeu a a <if Thee, I am not separate from Thee : this is the j^'Oj/^a^ ^HSIIQld up^esr stage wliere the Vedanta and the Siddhanta. can be lUQ^iffiexjB .fflCsv understood to be identical ; and t(> reach tiiat Jiujli Oifiifs^^ir OiuQg^u Otiil(g@ffarQfntr LoGea stage, Thou knowcst that T h; ve struggled hard Qffirpsi^ jPQSfi^emajJ^ f^Omarej (joowfflenr nod suffered very much. If f shoiilil try a little .^lEiSssieu^fieuBiriTOsnGeoa to li.K my irind thereto, Ignorai'ice ((nuira-niuld)* ^ikea^gniii (Ififieoiiar euSe\lujr U^fis gets hold of me again ; so I am afraid that Karma, ^fjoBre^rB^QfieBr^ir eaa-Qiua mala and inaya mala will pursue me and cause my ^anSssrGuj Qisir'suG^ LSpeaoQuj G.ineuG^ rebirths. Thou do protect me, ther(;fore, by granting ^psnsi wem^GieiT ojG^ m<- the trne knowledge with which 1 can surely put u/s^Lc/T ssr^fi/i^ eS^sar^ujGuj G/s'euG^ uiBinriTfi^ Gldjbi wjdGuj^ :iii end to my rebirths. uiTirs(^LSi^ O u ! ( g O L D ( r ( j 5 ^isLop Ssa^Ssbp icirSapjp lj. IT ^ir. u. Qp ^ Gs^eir uiiS^r uid^ir ^em/i <IGlj) 'SO) Quir^Lis\> LSL-QIH THAYUMANAVAR'S POEMS. QLjrcmO^^'' uisPfSir!^nesBrQpiji_Qeii^ufr ^.io ' Gunet^cSi QLoekuii ^su^u^ .r.T-fffl/ifl.OeueirL-ic &3\iif QiDsf uiSi. IBILI^Q) QsjuS (^if^ icnQ^LDsi' '^i LnrGiCi^ ue SscriSQ^^(^ifevQ Oeussruu Qsy:Qun QufiLD^ e^iSiiOmLL- S'^iujOLLOT jS&euir^sv-i GuS-serq^ Ofskuir Sls\>Quir iB^p,(y>^,T g B r a O c t l i - (^afiiuLD O^es^ui^son iSpajQu) OLDiT^eu SaaeL'iijnfl) uH^aff wiriLiwear^ uQweonp utLsai-s iSeLiani QUJSIGLD" unOLDSj(Ou>n(i^ iSssLO/h Sao^Ssirp ui^^ir ^emis (ai)
* Aiiiii.i lit:Tiilly Iiii'ana tlint ivhicii Ih oxceodingly snmll; the 1(11.1 if^ Anil (ii Bviioiiym for srml); tlie riiuI wliicli is a Vinhu in its real iiiiturr is called Avii in its coiijuuotion with anava main. Mn/a ih urIIpcJ jium also. ( Vide also pafre 10 of Translation ol' Siiaenana Hothnm, First Edition and notof to 2nd and 7th veravs

10. 0 ! Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill all with Beatific Bliss! I cannot quite perceive the providential motive as to why I should have been limited ar.d placed like lighting in the darkness of Anava mala, my mind at the same time damning itself more and more to that ignorance. I cannot know hy whom I have been tempted into the belief that my body which resembles the bagpipe will last for e v e r ; so that I have been all along indulging in the epicureaii thought of simplr feeding my stomach without ever strying to concentrate my mind in blissful meditation, .1 think it has been my desire that has brought me in contact and Tamat.
t Praiuiva Kcligioa. The three principles in nature are the 3 is the chief mot'"

gunasSntiva. Rajas,

Cmifi'prl MoriH of the Hindit












with this Prapancha* such as my parents &e., who is blameworthy for tUis ? Myself ? Or others ? Or does the fault atcach to my present life ? Or, shall I say to 'my past karma which has caused my rebirths ? sunt QflecmOicnifiaj auQ^ojeii OwsDnSuyiii^ uttr^'^t a^aj^ir ^Gai ^/f^^iLD Oai^nis^ ^^finip uiBufia o^LOn <f(?ai' yff/ruj wiqaf} fi.i^jiw Outuji)!^^ MBi^uuia Qflsau GunsOtfi tunesri^ QunaQio f3i_>r ssrQeu
iiirnen umiLK^a O-'etrsr sijij


Oo/iBT tflsar Q a J a . Q ' / r o



^fjsm "(Jujir

OuxBg'Jjiiiig ^ a j r . 5 ^-'Ju.



iSarsrfiQ^ LSO;^ StmitaOiu ^^trdiu^-D OaisaSearGiu steaQaiir(n, tBiaraiffl jpiemtf SGeur Ufttje uj/SuJiT^ QiOiarSie uSsaL^eSi-ilu Ljp^s iSfla mcgfi^ainuj u^j^/r ^ats ^Gw.

12. 0 ! Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill / / with I'.eatific Bliss! Is it a diftituh thing for Thee to devise me a contiivance to concentrate my w c k e d mind in meditation ? No. Nothing is difficult or ini|ii..ssible for Thee : For instnnce, it is by Thy Will thiit with the inure-like /ire ti.\ed in the centre, the (ireat. deep stop.s in its limit without an emhankinenf, round i t ; the Ic-rihlf iioinou* was easily taken in as food and the i l e r n t inoimtaiii bent into a bow. landless worlds stop where they ara in the heavens, and the seven clords gather and move niuler the i>vders of IndraX who is holding the thunder-bolt. Sri Bania'fi foot-dust turned thf .tone into a girl^ ; acd in this world various powers are resorted to with sncce.s such as alchemy itc. ^mis^sOan /7 b-roiSffljSw ojShO'l^s^ ei'ir sj^lLi^. ajueifgtm s^ehiS ^Qeo lunSsniQe^eo QeuiS&nrsu jrerQsg^ e'Ssffns euuiO'-inaiuSs saeug,^ Quq^ OiQfi^ irs-euc^s eS^oBsfd sSs^iibJaSei'iT (3,i(Bi5r usAiq^is^ (?U(, ISSmiuus GoinSBi^ -^"iLiap uisGfUf. Oiti^si-LfeBa Oameiirw (SiuiSi(a)LD GeuhtraSp u^^r ofsaiu^ OfimerQ^ Guo^nir ^Qef ors ^erjSQiu QiuirehatpeS Oi^/ieirjii iljpfQCi Liit-f-di ag^irirer loar^pp u^Hr^fi IB^&D'U ajQ^srsutj UJ unns,iSLliiiSLcp iSeiopSsBrp
v.flyfl' ^ssr^ ^Oo. (s.T^)

11. 0 ! Thou Omnipresent Being who dost fill with Beatific Bliss ! Thou hast been so much Gracious to me as to have taught me to submit myself to the inscrutable deoress of Thy providence and to be confident of all that I was not destined to never happening to me at all. It has been ^fhy Grace also that hns helped me to know the transientness of my body and to see the absence of difference between the Vedanta aud the Siddhanta. Thon hast produced in me such excessive love for % e eternal Happiness that I am ever pining for the same. Placing myself entirely at Thy mercy I pray to Thee to bestow upon me the power of concentrating my thoughts always by profound meditation in Yoga wliere the Tntwasf from earth &c. can never act. aataiSar/S iS^teS'iS't GiunQ^iri^iu euireuUiQfifinse^^Qu^u euasL-sSdr iF^eui euarefips fSoi^Giur eui^fffi fiSeo pa^nLD aSmawGnjir OuDi^ajis ^gta/irs eutaruj aS&oGiuit fU^Gtn ams^La ea^a^a ^SsmuS/b ^-eS^ St(S<uir
eunipirfi a/ir^CJaU iSanu^er^ (uT^Siouy Lei_u>eaRa eSlenQuJif

13. 0 ! 'i'hou Omnipresent Being who dost fill all mth Beatific Bliss! There is no limit for the human desires iu this world: Desirous of more power, *he Unlers of laud want to extend their rule over tlie .Sea; coveting for more riches, the richest men, who are next to 7v(er('c,'|| aspire for learning the art of alchemy, .seized.with lust; men who have already existed too long, want to remain here more and strupr.ijle in vain
Till,- iillnsion is to the Snpremc Siv.Vs act of SRviufr tlic ncv:i,-i liv oommandinK and taking in tin- poison tiiiit imrened ihnni wlioii they cliurned the Wliitc .'<ca to get (inibrosiiv. t M'' " is ihi' Himalayan Monntain which wu.s hy and usril as a bow to destroy the yt-.i.-o-^ of Tfiji-r,' Siro l iit

LDOBHitii^jr ui(T0iLjireo GsueatOiS^ uxriis^^^ aBiuds sS3b>Qu-iir

P r a p a n c h a is t h e nmnifested univeree. It is also otlioivviEi i Till' '.'irl is Ak-ahniihii thn -.vifp of Sli" ur.^r j called as he, she and it, or iis Tlwim- (animal hoilicsX Ku.inm l)V her !iii.-ilj;ii..l f o r liciii,;; K il L s" I in liis (hail .aii.i'si (eenees), Buvana (worlds) and (B/ioyn sensutions). nlc p. 4 ot absi-nco. 'I'lu- rpHrf was ..r.laine.l to !., li^ Rama .-i" fo^t-il usl TraneWtion of Sivagnana Botliam.) Hcncc the allu^ion licrc. + Tfttwas means the eomi.onpnt pai'ts in natnrf"; they arc 06 1 K'i'fr,, is tl-c GoJ of wealth. 1 callcJ hy the Hindns. in n u m b e r of w h i c h 24, five eenses Ac. belong to man.

+ t,lr:: is the Kin- of the [) ,;:.-.








21?T J U ^ J E


for such inedicnments rs can give them physiciil strength. What is the real use of all this? 1 tliink it is nothing but to eat well and sleep well. O L o r d ! 1 would rest content with gifts I am already possessed of. Grant me, now the power to ccnceatrate my mind in mona by the help of wliich I can free myself from the tranmiels of Haughtiness and get off snte across the depth of passions.

Oud^OaitSivn eaiuih^pu) iS/DijiSliLDiiiju Qufir^ Ouifliu QiDirenrLD ai(i^iSi-winu wesnonQj; Gatii-irfi QuifleirLj LDtULDirtU t^UGffm (QQ^euQ^erffp sirL-ia.i.-Of LceSp&aa^piSQffisiSjt Qsitenriu u/rjoji Q^fiwiflfia :iif6\).i is^uQur (n.en'.tairajrr^ Q^iLeuirii. {**) 16. On What Celestial Joy I meditate, Wliich the initiated* soul absorbs And flows and mixes in them still unknown; Which is beyond our thougut, beyond onr speech; A n d which the nionaf only can lead to : The AkasJ whence th' five 'elements evolve: ^suCQp (y>iiiira(^iiSeB>n iunQem.erflpp euQ^peaeu

Qijif(i^'SfT IB^^ujlD: j


/iiLLSH'LDH lu Sa nLDiL:Lr,nuj

^grcQp'-c'^i- s-iS^jQpuiiiiiij^

a-auf!^ ffcsvLOfsar ^ffneoi'cu Gsc^ir^ea^fi ^rtAwn uj.TSirii^ wujixt^rs ^iiftuj euni^isaeu wenr^iiri 0 < t i J . i _ . T j l u ^ i n S t f i i;(T^isQ^2sir QfiStieiSlBDiua A p s e w a s n ^ ^(^tn. n iLiSeir^OsnTfiraap^ s-sni^iiuuOu(^Oeuemssi(u<f ujiSiiea^ /BiTia. &ifis>p Qfujewio.
0u)(T(g0u3/r04ar d'Q^eS^/Sir Q p ^ ^ a s i p u u s


W O K S H I P OF T H E BUAHM. 14. I think on the eternal Hrahm.* the pure, Ali-bliss, All-right, in Tur'ya"!- state perceived; It has no form, nor ail, nor mundane state; Yet is til' First Cause of all (souland not soul) All It fills; why, the Ether Qreat it is : Th' Intelligence beyond, our thought and speech. To true love It reveals, to else conceals. ajt^LDGB SfeaiLfwiks, iSSssrens^ /PSsaremrS ujir^st UH^LD Qufiwp S^jDJ^Q^i QiiSirn@ ujeir Quff"



17. Let me think on and worship with my hands And my tears of joy pouring forth in drops Let me so worship the All-filling Bliss Enjoyed in Turiya; the Nectar sweet A s honey soaked in sugar-candy, fruits. It is the life of life on Heaven and Earth A n d friend to tlie redeemed from-'Tne' and 'mine'f. fflT^^SlUl iSpUlSpULIU UIB^Qfi^S ^earenw isn-tiLD QiDfiiEek/S OujuQut(j^il.(g
(5fiV(P O/;


e^i^e jgrppd^ioiSi QsMi E^fiOujnsBr Os.r'S^^s sirC.(Bis uiLD^sssr i^u Qu^ntttSeatUj'T Bisea'fi Ofujeunih.

Q^ir^esiiuLDir^ ^QSUKIHsibiu iLor^eS^ Ssnpajirar j p / f l o j euir^eaa.'^ ^^Mua laiTLDQi-KTQ^dsrfi ^ ( j s K o S e r r , iS?eeieuirs^ S/Bzm^ Q^iueuiiw. 13. On Brahm Supreme The Pure Celestail Light Let me by its Divine Grace meditate : Because with joy It fills the Mukta's mind In Turiya state; and to all it Stands
Non-dualistic||; f o r it h a s n o f o r m Purified or sanctified by the Sargurii (Divine Teacher), t Vide note to tl.s 2nd verse supra. t As AJf.ti (either) is to the lower 4 elements so God is to the five elements : ether, air, fire, water and earth. The reference is to the throe principal fruits mango, plaintHw and jack-frmt. These three fruits are held b y the Hindus t o b e

15. Again I think oh the Pure Heavenly Ligiir, The Slim of Agarua^ and Veda both; The Soul of Souls, the fountain head ot Bliss For those devoted; and to these doth show Itself devoid of form and attribute : It forms the thought of thoughts th' mind is heir to.
tf. God IB great and snbtile and Hence His name IJralim or Brahma or Brahmam oi;^ Brahman, the Lord over Trinity. t Tide note to 7th verse. t Agama ia the Siddhanto Saetrn giviDg the true meaning and

the .nngt-delicious three.

end uf the Tedae.

I Non-duaHstic is synonymous with adwaitha reUtioa (Fide I note to the 3rd verse). ^









218T J U N E


Nor name, nor caste, nor death, nor Hell; Nor lineage It-has ; nor Heaven nor Hell; Nor without form It is ; In all things, henee. Does It reside and does It all things gmde. gtifir^r
O u J i a a g ^

ITie Subtile It is and all things pervades As body's life, seed's oil, or flower's smell: The Brahm in Tiir yapada. * hence. It is, And the Supreme End of the Vedas rai-e. Nay, the eternal Sat beyond compare. fStm^S y^^OweoeairiB ^^sas^j^ QgusSiiutiu (^iras eniiSQeujn lunarii^s

^iretr^f^ '^ft'otpseo^iwre



^ai'iuj^tt O^siiOfl

tvi^^aitmarii uj^^arQfji

/tm^ird (Spda^jS ^am^Q^i^

SferL^aifirun sanggirOt^ u,a.dSe ^aSfi

^k^Q^^it ( g C J u i s T r a f l uieOn^^iSar ejQpgfiai Q^tLeunui.

tUL-eniiuj GeuO^sar O^uj^Qie^ iSaajoQiu iqarpeir fit/ifioiQ^ L-.Ssnr.'SSiari^ snmso^e Qeaaeutui. i^Gwjb

19. My Monna Guru * I adore, and praise His lotas-like feet with nndyiug Icve ; For, his initiative t sign and grace Has flooded my mind with beatitude; ,Had pinned my .thoughts to the Eternal Lord And on Him to depend taught me so well That this world to me is, thence, but a dream Or is a juggling or mii-age lake. Oun^eirirs-* iafsrc-Our Our^LDuS^ e^^LDssui
o ^ a r f O ^ r c

22. O ! Merciful Loi-d, praise be to Thy Lo.-e That to the matured souls the Gnanani\ yields! Thy own Ijove it is thnt confines their mind And, when they know Thee, drow ns them in deep Bliss. 0 Thou Bright Akas, with my heaved up hands 1 worship Thee. Thou dost keep and control The elements five, ether and the whole. eStimssSesipii^ QaixSujirQiutir uiarQeusShiip ietis^fimniLa OaieSltS ga(Bk iSsrur ttesaaHsBpk^

Ouir(^errnSu i&i^^iu

(a s s i i n p O j i d f jgitm^f ^ttaimiir miifi lifB f i t r i ^ t j f ( 5 ^tja^ii^u OurQ^e/H^offiut tSmp^S Sfiuiii.


99. I worship The Light which our darkness ilrives : An Sat f It is the causeless cause of all; As Ohit It marks the goal for devotees : As Ananda It plnngs them in Bliss. jKguttBfoiSiir 9au9ut(^vinu ^eiraaaiiij>r QptiMmiiB^fi ffirfi MjtQ^j O^SaiSnj j^aoKLDHuji stjitniisfi u S o r ^ ^ / s ^ Q^KaS LDirQi LTtDSta Loa^ QiosireBOei)aaQm iLji^^iuSf ssiiO^/s i r ^ / E QfiiiQfSeo Os^idjeufU). 21. I worship The Great Brabm that fills in all. And yet to Devas, Rishis, Sidhat hid ;
ThAywftA.navar't Spiritual Teacher. t Initiation ia the Guru't pnrifyiug touch with his saci'ed hand ox foot on the worthy disciple's head enlightening and benefitting

Qujtiur lurSd Sfirta(^isrm


23. O ! The Great Akas whei-e the ether + i-ests! O ! Thoa, The Grand Eternal Bliss, that dost Flow and fill as sweet as Ambrosia Alike my viiud and my intelligence ! In love surpassing I esteem Thy Gi-ace, Devoting my mind, my tongue and my act To witmy tongue to blab, mj mind to melt, My tears of joj to pour down as I left.
* Turiijapada is Ihe Blissful Konrth State of the Supreme Brahm or Sivam as distinct from that of Brahma, Vishnu and Badra resf Gnanam means knowledge, JutelHgciice or Wisdom. X c. f. "'aittariya Upanishad, Brahmanandnvalli, Ist Anuvaka. " From that Soul (Brahm) verily " sprang forth the ethei^fron the ether the air,from the air Hre,from fire the wateia, " f r o m the waters the earth,-

'* Moum OUTU a descendant from the Saint Thimmutay is onr pectively.

him ^disciple) tor Moktha. 2 Vide end of Ist Verse.

5 Sidhas are the Yogis working miraculous powers which are of eight kinds. Devas are Gods, Bishi is the sole beholder of God (from Daarat) or from r i = t o go. 3

Mind here neans (internal senses).

iiniuau represoiitiug [he 4 Ainlfiahiratiati










218T J U N E

1 8 9 7 . 10




air yt^scir SiuwatLO oji^ao^-- s" ijer/r^Q^tS^^ eusiiBFUi Guirea fi^^UQ^il LDSUriUir^ QAI^I S^ftuir.iiLjv Oanes-ia^itiL' Swsa waS mirfiiB^i^ fLciLiQib/S'i sS^^trS
OLjirar^Qfi!rn ul' ojujAan /^sor/n

" I am very much obliged to you for the translation of GUI'' fifiuuin^i They are very well done and I appreciate the translation very much. 1 will request you to continue in the task " * * * * *
(Sd.) J . M . N a l l a s w a m i P i l l a i , b.a., b . l . ,

G^a^etnajQiLifit gauSiifi^Ssr^eaiu aifi^s secsresiFir 0 # j ( f l o j a S ( 5 < i f f ' & ^sSfijgiiO^nQgi'i^iQf^ijsnKw. {S-S')

24. [ w o r s h i p tlic fiteinal Liglit .Snpieme. " Ji'siiLYLsargj'L/LSaj T l i e T r u t h t h n t c a n b e iieitliei- s a i d iioi- t h o u g h t ; N'or H e h a s t i e s n o r b l e m i s h i i o r d e c a y : N o r c a n t h e b i g o t e d -diun!^ e ' e r i^iiow H i m ; Let m e adoi-e H i m w i t h t e a r s of jo^-. F o r H e is o u r l i f e - g u a r d a n d d o e s p i - o t e c t W i t h motherly love and apjjears to us

District Munsiff,


' jJjf

^mqiMnar s^euTiBsar OuQ^

* * * *

u^iw' j^'iii

a^ Qlditi^I 0^iL.'iiuLi Seai^su


Lcppu UQ^a&H IL/LD Qsd^S'LD Oal/^S'irlTS QLDlT^OuiUir fi^






As Sargnrti * in mcnia f wh^n we are. ^SffofiiS wnQ Qeu(^ ajLcii^O^tar ic,flea/tot_ itSar^s^ LcrSu ustrsuenrO^ea sonwcS iLjoieiJ fiiSu uffuinS^ O^neioiifluj uuswenu) ujaS^ ^aerjii^iFi spufSap wsa Qujet fOnik
Gfintutt^ a'jSsjtSf af^^s itirS

S. Somasl'ndara


Slird March 1897.



ujSujresr QunQghir leni^

QiiC.'SiSn^j^u Gun^uir eSdm^eo Q^djeunw, Though letters, consovants, if joined to ' a ' Can only sound and otherwise are lyute, Yet they are not by nature, birth, the same ; So Pasupathi Th' Beneficient Lord Is the Guide of all things and yet not all With no likes nor disMkes He does His act; The llaha Chaitamjam J in form He is ; B\- Himself He stands not describable ; Lo ! Then, on Him with love I meditate.
R . S h i .\.Mn;.\.M McDAi.r.M:.

" I acknowledge with thanks the receipt of Translation qf the Poem of the Saint Thayumanavar of Southern India. I have read it with great interest I hope you will continue your studies and translate like works." (Sd.) fi^ird March 1897. JUSTICE R A N A D E , Sigh Cottrt, Bombay.

[The translation of the first lO stanzas has been already brought out separately and our friend has been pleased to continue his translation in the pages of this Magazine. \Ve hope to pre.sent the first part also to our readers; we are glad to p.ppend the, following opinions he lias already received.Ed.] Siirritirii mcaiiB tlic Divine T p c l i c r . Vidr note to 2ii(l vcrst^ f o r Jlonn.'
+ .If/r/in ; C/.'ii'fiii/diii - - I n t c l l i i f c n c c . ( P i h . i ( = s o u I witli )<fir ; pixtlii - - l , o i i l ) = T l i c Loiil of Koiils. c . f. " o f fetters, the l e t t e r ' " ' I nm. Hnvinfr p e r v i c l e d ' the wliole uuiverBC MntTi n portion of niyself, I c\ist "fTitn. r. f. nlso the Hret verso of the tincred Kurnl

" W e are glad to welcome this translation of the first few stanzas of the great Tamil Sage. The language of Thayumii,navar has an inimitable-grace and a mysterious something in it, which refuse to be transferred to any translation, however careful. It is our opinion that none less than an Edwin Arnold, with greater capacity than even he had for entering" into Indian thought, can do anything like justice to the task of translating the poems of the sage. The present attempt, however, is g o o i so far as it goes and de.serves every encouragement. The translation reads well and is nowhere too s:,iict to the letter. The noble object of familiarising the Tamil Upanishads to the English educated world has our fullest sy.pathy, and we hope that the translator will soon fiaish the work so well begun."

^fJ cy) W cJ eU a

(just as ' ' heafls all letters and h e l p s them t o sound, so the S u p r e m o Bralim ie the rnlei- of the u n i v e r s e ) , c . f . 8tli verse.

LUir'^ ; J T^CT rif^T.l-T l^Ot'^." Frde The " A w a k e n e d I n d i a " (a monthly Journal of Hindu Philosophy and Religion) of April 1897.








218T J U N E




in a life long atrnggle with Buddhists, and other sectaries whom he does not in his poems clearly indicate. By the Christians in Travancore he was confounded with Manes; and it is an ascertained fact that he visited the western coast, and held intercourse with the Kestorian Christians, who were then very influential in those regions , nor is it improbable that he leai-n*^ much from them, and exercised in return some influence over them. The (peculiarly Tamil) Saiva Siddhanta system of the south contains very much that may well have had its origin in such Christian influences.

DR. G. U. POPE * MAHICKA YACHAKIIB was One of tlie greatest of Hindu PoetH, Sainte rnd Sages: a typical Owti. It is yery difficalt to disentangle his history fi-om the nialtitnde 'if legends in iivhich it is involved ; br.t we have fifty-two Tamil poems ascribed to him, and (in the main) genuine. FroL. these something of his character, history, and teaching may be gathered. When thev are carefully studied the figure of a real man is seen.

I venture to offer here, a.s a f pecinieii of Saiva literature, a transcript of a liymn . U M to tlii.s day in all the Siva SH In preparing a work on tlie ' Poets, Saii^ and Sagen tif shrines of Sonth Jiidia. ufioat and small. Of course very the Tamil-land,' I have had occasion to study rtfl h of the little of the e.vecodiiio- bi^auty of the Tamil original can be wonderful Saiva literature existing iu Tamil. To Kiiri)- preserved in a lir/ral ti anslatiou ; but the attempt has pcan students this mixture of philosophy and religion been made to giVe with aUsolutc fidelity some idea of this presents an exceedingly interesting field of investi<;iti(in: exquisite ' Alorninjr Kyniii.' Almost every line requires aince no non-christiau system so nearly resemblc.s Clii is- an notation, bitt thi.s must be reserved for a complete tiknity, in of its mpects ; and, certainly, uoiu: litis i-<lirioip. reniarkaliie [loenis are full of a simple departed so far, in other very imjaortant respcct.s, fioiii fi-r\ ()iir. which Tamil people lind wb-solutely irresisti! le ; what Christians recognise as pure,and holy. The coii.stiiiLl and henee with Saivas they cpiite tak' the place occiiljietl mixture of loftiest aspirations, tenderest prayers. :iinl anion,L' Cli. istian.s the JJook of Psalms. sublimest adoration with wild legends, and with .syiiilml-'ew of ^he world's biographies are more interesting lism much of which must seem to us uncouth, re])c-ll!MM. ilian tlnit. of thi.s man of lai e genius ; who, iu his eaj'ly unworthy and degrading, makes this Saiva Pssilrer intensely fascinating. The SuiVa ^^^^W/^an^at system itsulf voiitii.when lie was tiie favourite and chief minister of is the choicest (pure South Indian) product of Drnviiliiin the King of ^ladnra. met with, and was converted whom he tlien and always believed tointellect and ought to be studied by all who seek u- iiiHii- liy a .Siiivia 1)1' Si\aii liiniself and became at onee an utterly selfence the Tamil mind. If an edition of Manicka "\'jiehiik;n- s poems which are so exceedingly precious in thfe sl^hi ol' renijiincinu'ascetic .Stilva nu iidicant ; i-onthiuing instant the Tamil people, with English translation, criui;il in labours, patient in sutterini;, and constant in devotion, apparatus, lexicon and concordance, can be issiifil. as ihi' lhronL,'li the many ye ns of his :if(er life. writer hopes, it will with the Kuml mul yul-nli'/d' already published, enable the student of Tamil t^i nniki.MOKXiXG llV-\iX I \ THE TEMPLE stand with tolerable accuracy the mental attiiuch' nl' il..very interesting peoples of South India. Mancika Vachakai-, whose legend (with t l i o s c uf it is hoped to publish, was a strange mixture of St I'aul and St. Francis of Assisi (not without s o j i u r l i i n ^ of St. Uoininic). According to tradition lie was tliu l ^ m i n i e r of the It seems c e r t a i i ) . at a n y rate, that lie was the great reviver of Saiva worship in the south, in or about 9th Century (A. D.),+ and that he was engaged
Dr. (j. U. Pop liiis kindly seut this to us for publication ui^ epeciiiieii ^v^licl^ we ilo bo with inucli jjlpasure. Tliis nortioii v;i.s THK KROAI TIIK SACRED COUCH.'

pabliGhed Boirietimo ii-ro m The Indian and Rn inr wu

JIail 1 Being, Source to me of ail life'.s joys I 'Tis dawn ; upon Thy flower like feet tv, in wreaths of blooms we lay Viid worship, 'neath the beauteous suiilo of grace benign that from Thy sai red I'aee lieaiii:> ou us. Siva-Lord, Wlio dwell'st in ri/niii-Tiii riu f girt with cool riee fields, where mid the fertile soil th' e.vpanding lotus blooms! Thou on lifted banner is the Bull Master! Our mighty Lord ! from off Thy (!Ouch in grace arise.(I)
The iina,i,'c of tlic jfod i.s luiil iipcin ii cuiuh each cvenii^, and taken lip in til ) nuniiiii;.'. This , t inV/i-is tlio Krst business oV the (hi.v This seems btl-an^ely at valiunn, with verse o. + This was coiu|)s,Bd in J'c.u-Tu,mi, 'the grenr harbour,' when-tlir j. Kt went to Iniv hi.rses for his Kin^, and ivas nia<le ii (liseijile of by Sivil. t Tlie bull is Sivu's emblem. He rides on a white bull. It is also on his brnner. The bull-headed Xandi is his Lord Uigh Chai-berlain, whose iAia^ is everywhere in South India.

bcliLvit. At the siiKS^stion of a rcspecteil fri.;id of ours, Ur. U. U. Pope intends bringing out Manicka Vachakar's Ufu in Tnniil ulsu. This is the Tamil form of hia name, and is eqnivaleiii to ihi.-

St. Manicka Vachaka ( Jiifhor of Bubyllke nttenuicef).'

+ This is tlie SumiiKi of Saiva's law. It is expounded in fourroua treatise,-. Ijy the SuutlMua Giinis (Teacher of the sucees-^ioiil J[.VccordinK to the facts brought out by Professor Snndrnni Pillai, in his ' Soinc mile-stones," Manicka Vachakar's date must be Bought very far behind the 6th century.ED.]









21BT J T J N E


The B D bas neared the eastern boand*; darkness departs; Q dawn broadens out; and, like that sun, the tendernessOf Thy blest face's flower uprising shines; and so, while bourgeons forth the fragrant flower of Thine eyes' [beam, SouBd the Eintr'a dwelling fair ham myriad swarms of [bees-t See Siva-Lord, in Perun-Turrais hallowed shrine who [dwell'st Monataii of bliss, treasures of grace who oom'st to yield ! 0 surging sea! from off Thy couch in grace arise ! (2) The tender KuyiVst note is heard ; the cocks have crowed ; tho little birds sing out; loud sound the tuneful shells ; Starlight; have paled; day's lights upon the eastern hill are mustering. In favouring love O show to us Thy twin feet, anklet-becked. | divinely bright; | Siva-Lord, in Ferun Turrai's hallowed shrine who dwel[I'st Thee all find hard to know ; easy to us Thine own. Our mighty Lord, fipm off Thy couch in grace arise!(3) There stand the players on the sweet voiced lute and lyre; there those that utter praises with the Vedic chant; There those T/hose hands bear wreaths of flowers entwined; there those that bend, that weep, in ecstasy that faint; There those that clasp above their heads adoring hands ; Siva-Lord, in Peittn-Tnn-ai'K hallowed shrine who dwel[I'st;

With beauteous garlands decjced, and clothed in human [shapei they all adore Thee, Bridegroom of the Goddess dread ? Siva-Lord, who dwell'st in Perun-Tun-ai'shnWoyr'd shrine, Girt with cool rice-iields, where th' empurpled lotus [blooms! Cut off this ' birth,'* make us Thine own,bpstow Thy grace! Our mighty Lord, from off Thy couch in grace arise !(6) ' The flavour of the fruit is that'; ' ambro.sia that'; ' that's hard '; 'this easy': thus Imnioi tals too know not! 'This is His sacred form ; this is Himself': that we may say and know, make us Tl^ine own ; in grace arise! In Uttara-Kosa-Mangai'si sweet perfumed groves Thou dwell'st! O King of Fei-vn-Turrai's hallowed shrine! Whai; service Thou demandest, Lo ! we willing pay. Our mighty Lord, from oil Thy couch in grace arise !(7) Before all being First, the Midst, the Last art Thou. The ThreeJ know not Thy nature : how should others [know ? Thou, with Thy fawn like .spouse, Thy servants' lowly hnta in grace did'st visit, entering each, Supernal One ! Like ruddy fire Thou once did'st show Thy sacred form ; did'st show me Penui-Tuyyat'.< temple, where Thoa [dwell'st; As Antha7ian^ did'st show Thyself, and inakrme Tbine. Ambrosia rare from off Thy couchin grace aiise ! (8) The gods in heaven who dwell may not approach Thy seat! 0 Being worthiest! Us who worship at Thy foot To this eartji having come, Thon caasedst to be blest. Dweller in fertile Pernii-Tnn-ai'n shrine ! our eyes Beheld Thee; honied svireetness mtide our being glad. Ambrosia of the sea 1 Sweet sugar-cane 1 Thou art Within Thy longing servants' b|ipnght! Soul of this [world! Our mighty Lord, from off Thy conch in grace arise! (9) 'Tis time we went to enrth 410 more, were born no more! This day in vain we spend, look forth atod cry ; 'Ah, when, and how will Sivan come this earth to save ?' Thou King, Who dwell'st in Pei iin Tnnai^s hallow'd [shrine, Mighty Thou wert to enter earth, .and make us Thine; Thou and the Grace, that flower like blooifts from forth [Thy form. Which sacred Mal|| and flower-born Ay an ^ lunged to see! Ambrosia rare, from off Thy coi'jch in grace ^rise ! (10)
Compare by Nuliidiyar, Chapter X I pages (56 to 68. hUttara-ITosft-Maufrai, an ancient Pandian capital, Sbiith West of Ramnatl. J i. c., Indni, Brahma and Vishnu. A title of Brahmans. (Sec P i p e ' s Kural in Lex.) II A nam6 of Vishna. A name of Brahma. This ib IlyiDii XX iu the Tkii^uvachakatm. 8 niUes

jife too make Tliou Thine own, on me sweet grace bestow ! Our mighty Lord from off Thy co'ueh in grace arise 1(4) ' Thoa dwell'st in all the elements,' 'tis said ; and yet ' Thou goest not, nor com'st;' the sages thus have sung Their rhythmic songs. Though neither have we heard nor [learnt of those that Thee by seeing of the eye have known. Thou King of Peruii-Turrai,' girt with cool rice fields. To ponder Thee is hard to hnman thought. To us In presence come! Cut off our ills ! In mercy m^ke us

Our mighty Lord, from off Tliy couch in grace arise !(o) Thy Saints, who finless in Tliy home abide and know, their bonds cast off; have come, and now, a mighty liost;
T b e orisniml Bays, Indra's i c ^ o n , since he is i-ej^eiit of ihc East. There are of tVie Coinpaes. Over each a deity preaidea. + This passage ie a curious donhh- c.tlendie. It mnv nlso Ix? Tendered ' the vast nsscnibled host siiip the six-syllables': om.i-iva-ya-na-uiiih. The bees, or winged beetles, are called by inctonoinv six-feets." t T h e Koil, or Kiiyil for which there is no Et\}{l!ah name U is the ' Indmn niKlilinnale,' a sniall bird with ft very tender note ; itjnuat not be confounded with the ' I n d i a n Cuckoo,' Tvhich is a' larger bird, the (' golden 'ino/p,')nd net a sweet singer. The SankliD, ot conch-shell, used in the temvle music. I Worn especially by Kinjfs and hferoei. I









21BT J U N E






pregentin the flower. Thou joy present in the hearts of the freed, Thou Deva, Deva of Devas, Thoa Effulgent Snn, L o ! Such is Thy Divine Presence." 'J'o the philosophic and highly devout Manickavachaka, the delicate connection of the flower -and its fragrance has appealed in another light and he sings of 'His greatness, in filling all inseparably and surpassingly Hire the fragrance of the flower." Guiri^tiiflSmfliiffi QiDeStiQuQ^saw."


218T J U N E 1897.


A Global WHEATH.

WHIT is there in Nature so full of beauty and so Bymbolic of the heart's puritv, iijnocence, and love and joy, as the tiniest flower of the field ? Wh:it reflects the great Divine Beaut- arid the Divine Loveliness and the Divine Harmony more than the lowliest blosaom of the dale ? The freshness, the symmetry and the delicate tracery of those flowers, how they appeal to man's inmost nature and liow inspriting they" are ! Need we wonder therefore that they have attracted, not more than what they are entitled to we should say, the attention and love of the Oriental; and they enter Jargely into his enjoyments, his Religion and Philosophy. They hold a considerable place in Oriental Bymbology and the Indian has loved to illustrate his great truths from flowers. No ceremonies can be performed without flowers ; and he loves to deck with them the Presence of his Heavenly Father and he calls oot to bis brethern.
" fl^^i o 3<i () Ye who Tvish to attain Peace of mind If Ye, oar Father of Arur, norehip With Flowers ot Bhakthi, Then will T e attain Makthi.(Veraram )

In another place, he compares this very connection to the connection of body and soul and in comparing both to the connection of the Param distinguishes them at the same time. t-fip aiirdeaauS giiiOuii(tjer: rjigiiiiev)
ClT^jtB jin jorDUlCsUll eo

u^p ennaiO^irir S^aSaiiru ^uQutTQ^o' uirirnQ^ QufljDain ^upp uiLiar^ ^ SITIS^SLD iS^^iQfirp Qpeir.iLirGu) aj^^ aruLiurflp ^LLIO-IU ^^ficti 'taartirCLJi. Like the soul present in the body and the fragrance in the flower. The Supreme (Param) pervades them and surpasses all. The fools, not perceiving tnis truth, simply delight in enjoying the fruits of their own Karma. The words of these, my Father has taught me not to listen by making me his slave and has drawn me to the society of his Bhaktas. This miracle haa been permitted to me to see !" Though God's coiLnectiou with us is compared to the connection of the soul and the body, yet in this case, the of the soul is still confined to the body and the connection yields the soul only a a fancied pleasure, and not a re:il and lasting one, differing thereby from the Supreme who pervades all and 8iirpasse,3 all and who is all Love and all Bliss, ready to impart this Love and Bliss to those who understand him as such ; and whon this undying love ( j f ^ a r ^OTLy) is possessed, then that very momeUit, " tile fragrance of Sivam (Lbve, Anunda) will blow It if the flower of Jiva." " 9OJ311enSeuLLtmu^y^jS^^"{Th iruvitllar.) That great Yogin, Thirnrnular is very prolific in the use of the simile of the flower, and amidst a variety of such we .select one in which lie piles liis flowers (of Rhetoric) thick, one over the other, to express tbe omnipreaencer of the most Supreme.

The flower in its trifold character of flower, colour and fragrance appeals to him as the visible presence of That which is Sat, Chit and Ananda. "^suaovu ^eSarLDessLa OljCM QiDiiiuQuir^^au LDireJsaremr OLoiLsOsireafi^aiar,"
" Like the flower, its colour and ite fmgrance The Lord a Sat, Chit and Ananda aBume8 from."

Says the author of " Thiruvilayadal Puran," a work by the way noted for its c h a m i n g diction and great powers of clear description. Onr Saint Appar addresses this Divine Form as ' O ! Thoa cow, the five products of the cow, 0 ! ThouInteUigencej Thou Atfni, Thou Sacrificial food. Thou Tonpae, wordaproceeding from the tongue, Thoa Lord, present iq the heart of the four Vedas, Thou Flower, fragrance





OK S L D D H A N T . I .



218T J D N E


" M y Lord and my King is present united in all like feeling in air, sngar in the cane, butter in milk and the sweet juice in the fruit and the fragrance in the blossom " " sneSgijitih
uiueSgtieir Q^iuiqw, ciircueM OariBig-ji

the fragrant Lotus Feet of Him, who has never been known to forsake his devajtee-i and pray to him in all love and in all humility to crown onr homble eftoits with success.

u^^jg e^a^^w

yaSiJJr unppQpLa Qurrggertn erLDtSeap

Aso/i^g San(^Geer."


WE may be pardoned if we aim too high. Our aim is no less than to transplant in the Indian soil some of those activities in the field of Indian B e l i ^ o n and literature and history which are carried on in " O . ' Tlion support of the devoted who attain to the far off countries by Western Savants, and to stimulate Limitless Yoga Sainadi by the one ivord (of their indigenous talenu to work and achieve a moderate Divine (luni) when they view this vast world as the share of success in these departments. In fact the Supreme Blis.^ ! 0 ! Tliougli loving friend of even my foremost difficulty in carrying out our enterprise lowly felf ! 0 ! T h o u liock of joy, uniting with and which was pointed out to us by our friends, nay, 'vhitfe showing in all bodies and the world and the souls like we have ourselves felt is >n finding- contributors; t i e f ragrance playing OIL the half hloimi flower shaped and translators among Indians on such sobjects. A n d like tlie half parted, elegant and sweet toned tinkling is not this difficulty owing to tlie fact that our nttaininents are not deep in any one subject, either in langB' bells on children's feet." age or history or science and that it is too superficial to The co nparison of the half opened flower (iii the be of any value and that we do find very few young Jasmine foi- instance) in which the fragrance is the Indians after a general course, taking up any one sweetest and sharpest to the sweet bells with half subject for their pleasure, for their speciat improveparted months tied rouud children's feet is most happy ment and for their hobby in after life. W e are heavilyand delicious. handicapped by want of means, .opportunities, g o o d Navkiriu- is a very ancient author said to belong to libraries and other acce^nries, we also know. Y e t the last Saugara or Colleire of Pundits in Madura and the difficulties are not insuperable, and we belie^v he has, that the Indian' intellect is fertile enough. W e can Lo "uy Lord of Kailasa, which soars high above soon see our Way to success if we begin to realize all, without any other higher than itself, is present in the necessity for our supreme effort iu these directions. all like the meaning in the word and the s-onl in W e have considered it a shame that we should be the body and thefragrancr in theflou:er " coached in our Veda andVedanta by German Professors on the banks of the Khine and the Ouse, and that an W e will weave into this growing breath one more American from a far off country should be the first flower caHed from the garden (Sivabogasaram) of the translator of the foremost work in Tamil philosopbj founder of the Dharmapnra Mutt, inasmuch as it and that an old Oxford Professor should sit ponring illustrates the lueaningof ' Adwaitha' clearly. over the Tamil ' Word,' and render it into English " T h e Ailicaitha re]ation of God and the perfected verse. All these facts redound greatly to the glory soul in Mukti is like the adwaitha relation existing of the European, who could forget for tlie time being always between fire and wood, heat and water, his narrow bit^of native land, and his own selfish sweetness and honey, nnd fiower, akas Mnd wants and go out to distant lauds add to remote antiquitites, in search of the diggings of the past and by wind." living laborious day?, live to finish the task he had Mightily diflident as we are of achieving any set to himself, in a thoroughly universal and truly thing without the Grace (Arul j i o e r ) of th most Christian spirit. Noble examples these! May we follow I High, and without the spirit? of thb sanctified filling Our Journal will devote itself to bring out translaour inmost soul, we have helped ourselves to these holy tion of rare works in Sanscrit and Tamil, both flowers of His Bhaktaa to make a wreat'ti and lay at

Our Saint Thayumiinavar, whose felicity in epithets and phrase making, we will some day illustrate, uses most happy language in this connection in invoking thaM liock of Love.










21ST J U I ^ E



literary and philosophical and religioas, will devote ita pages to a more critical and hi4torical stady of Indiaa Religions systems, to derelope a taate for and to indaoe a proper and more appreciative, cultivation of oar Indian Classical and Vernacular Languages and Literature, to bring into the Tamil all that is best and noblest in the literature and philosophy of the west, to supply to it its deficiency in the field of science and history, ancient and modern. Greater attention will .be paid to the language and history of South India, aitd the Dravidian philowphy and religion will find their best exposition in its pages; And in this respect it is intended to supply a real and absolutely inpor^ant want. Beinij fully aware of the fact what a small minority we will be addressing if our Magazine is conducted wholly in English and being aware that no real irnprove'nent iu the condition of the people can be effected except by means' of their own vernacular and being anxious to prc'^erve to them, this much at least of their natural birth right, the love of their own language, we have resolved to bring out a Tamil edition of this Magazine, to extend its usefulness among all classes of the South Indian community and to inipart to them the benefits of Western research and knowledge iind to infuse into them corrector notions of science and Jiistory and scientific and historical criticism. In regard to its policy, it is intended to conduct tiie Journal on the broadest and most innocuous lines consii^tent with the objects of the Magazine us above set forth. It is needless to observe that we shall reli^nously eschew all politics, and the only politics shall be if ever there be any occasion, to appeal to the innate loyalty of every Indian, bound up as it is with his deeply rooted religious instinct, which cannot leave him even in his bitterest extremes. In social matters we are fully alive to the manifold evils (adyatmikam, adiboudhikam iSpoa^i, Adidaivikam Ofiiueufi^irea) existing in our soceitjs and we are positively convinced also that caste and custom over rides all determinations of science and i^eligion and real piety, and we will not be afraid to speak truth in the plainest terms. But let not the orthodox stare and frown. W e can be really as conservative in our heart and deed and we will lose nothing by giving up or gradually changing some of our pernicious and oaeless customs. We will assure them however that we will strictly guard their religion and sentiment and the preservation of their owu habits and manners

if they are not positively harmful. Nothing will be done to wound any body's feelings unnecessarily and we will take care however not to sacrifice scientific truth and honest conviction to mere absuri sentiment. W e honor the past .md we appreciate the present phase of our existence at the same time. W e feel it our duty to love our country and our people and our religion j and at the same time we will not be blind to the excellence in the character of other nations and other religions. Let the Grace of God and the good will of our fellow-beings speed our wish and work.



eun^s ^.i^asi
fiS^-f ^KWLyairai

en a es eu i ^^nrfeariji
C a i ^ g i O ) |f/E7@

eaejuSQfiLD jgiajir ^lisQeu.

Hail to the sages, to the Gods, ar.d Kino all Hail! Let drop tlic gentle rain, the ^orran'f do'is tHcreas'e May Hara's name resound and all corrupt deeds fil And let nil these ills tliat afflict tlie world decrease.

Let us repeat this prayer to-day in all reverence and loyalty, a prayer which wjis repeated more than thousand four hundred years ago, on the banks of the Vaiffah by that " Tamil Child,"* on zt\ occasion, when the King of Pandy was lying ill and the hearts of all his people were sti icken sore. And yet we are better off to-day in some respects and our Mother Empress (God Bless Her) is all hale and stroug, strong in the love of her children, and childrens' children and children.s^ childvens' children, and strong in the love of her people all over liev va^t Empire, nnd strong in the love of her Sovereign neighbours. Her Majesty has reached her sixtieth year of her reign ; and our hearts fill with joy and glanuess, more and more as we know how she rejoices in us at this very moment, though we have never set our eyes on Her August Person. And does not the poetf ask whose love is greater, that of the mother who snckled her own child, or that of Mangayarkarasi ; Queen of Women) who melted into love at the distant approach of the " Tamil Child." And does not onr Sovereign Mother's heart
D r i i r i i l / i S i i u . i i c-NiircBsioii u s e d bj- !Sri S a n k a r a to Saint Gnanajanibaiithar. iii n - f o r r i i i ! ;

+ S i v a p r a k a s a r , i n Wis b u a i i t i f u l p o e m c a l l e d " N a l v a r y n n i . i n i iiialai." The reference is t o a t o u c l i i n i f e p i s o d e in 6naiiaa.-<iiib a n t l i a ' s life whi-li S i v a p n i k u s a r has e m b o d i e d in t b c stanza.





T R X ^ T H OE S I D D H A ^ J T A




21ST J U N E

189 7.

flow out to ns at this time of oar trial and grief by famine and pestilence. And how appropriate is therefore onr appeal to our God, the God of all nations to save us from famine and pestilence, by the timely down pour of freshening showers nd the increase of cattle, by removal of that dread evil monster from onrs midst, and to gladden us by increusing the life and prosperity of our Beloved, Good Mother VictoriaYea, onr God will surely hear us if we utter this exquisitely simple and truly universal prayer with true Love and penitence.

cepting the Sanscrit, and its vitality is R great that O it has preserved itself alive to-day when all othiir great langoages are dead. Have any other people loved and fostered and tended their own mother tongue and auii^ of its praises and elevated it into a Deity as the Tamils have_done. And yet, O Mores, 0 Temporal

How are we fallen ! Do wo not find Tamils t o - d ^ who would vote in the senate its abasernent add its extinction ! Corainp' back to our song, its great oonkment&tor Nachinarkfnar (whose priceless services to the ancient Tamil Litera^'ure it is not possible for us to estimate), remarks that this was composed by the Poet Kapila in the presence of the Aryan King, Brahatt% who wished to know the excellence of Tami]- The metre is Agavalpa of the Urict I ^ g l i s h blank verse type, which seems tp be the oldest Tamil metre and which the late laxnented Professor ^undram Pillai tried to reintroduce in his excellent work " Manonmaniyam" and whioh is best fitted for n a r rative and dramatic composition. Each line is divided into 4 feet or and each of two syllables or j>ss>. The syllables are of two kinds, Gaa, and S^rj when the syllable is composed of one single short o r long vowel or vowel-consonant, or one short or lo^ig letter followed by the consonant a^ ih tfi, Oa/av, Qeuea, Sear when it is two short letters, or one short aud on6 long letter by themselves o r followed by the consonant (^Jrjpi), as iii GaiS-y S/uld, tSiPirii. Two syllables of either kind in different permutations give four different kinds oE feet, called or jf'ieupwi, namely GitiiG/sii, Sesia Qair^ QfBiiSeaa, iBeoc iSsDB. And these four feet are known by four formulas, called i^eSunr^ .i^eSarii, ^(meSsruj. Qnly one more rule is necessary to be learnt for understanding the full prosody of Agavalpa; and that is what is called the gSar, the link between one foot and another, which is essential to the rhythm of the line. The ^SOT used here is called ^ u j p p ^ , and the- usual formula is that the last syllable of the first foot should be followed by the same kind of syllable in tbje following foot. The following by a different kind of ^ U a b l p is also permitted in Agavalpa. The formula is e ^ r e s s e d by saying 'mn' (jpew, Gecju), u^to, ' ^errih' (tpsr, (Smffu^u). QiSQjti). A^d the line can be shortened or lengthened by the short or long fiSa^ and made to express appropriate ideas and feelings.

liuOfisoiriii jnir^loQLr>


THIS prett\' idyll, whicii WE have picked out today for our review js one of the brightest gems in the nacklace woven by the Tamil plaasic poets of more than one thousand-eight hundred years ago. The classics of this epoch are so old, as to make the best classics iu Sapscrit or Greek look quite new, and yet the subject iu which they deal are B O human that they land us back among; the fiction and poetry o f Modern Europe. They are models of different species of, poetic composition, of style and diction, repositories of so much wealth of wisdom and sentiment; their style and diction are so pu?e and noble> that it is a matter for pity that they liave not. left us many more than we possess at present und it is a matter for greater pity that such excellent models have not been followed by the snccessive generations of poets,-who have been allured away by thejr excess of religious zeal to the ilepartments of Puranic compositions, Pillai tamil (JSTTSFIT^ ^i^ip), Kalambagam [tevwuitw) and Andadi ( ^ l i ^ n ^ j . Yet these works are numerous enough if we" want to te^t the nobility and greatness of the language and its great cnpabilities aud its genius for adapting itself to general requirements. The language isi>o old, the oldest some scholars assert not even ex One of the 'Pattupattu,' edition by - Kumbaconnm College. Price 3 Rnpeee. V. SBininathier, Pundit









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. This is as regards the prosody {OrlLu^liir gjeodeatrii). A s regards the subject matter, called ' Ou/roerr/ * the highest aim of Art and Literature ia regarded as the attninment of otw or nil of the four great PurnBhartham.s, -^vPic^ tS, DhariiiH, Wealth, Pleasure and Moksha. A n d the attainment of the highest pleasure ( ^ t u Q u n Q ^ ^ ) is sought for in thelove of the sexes and such bliss tnny restiltfroin a, wedded life ( a ^ J i u w ) or from the natural union of t^wo heartsi>wJiiL..i;) without undergoing the Bhrtckless of sooiety. does not mean immoral union as is ignorantly supposed, but is fully made subservient to every rule of virtue, and is only permitted to people f>f sufiRcient n^eans and it is sought to w^aa him gradually from such earthh-^ and mistaken love and to lead him on to the Love of the Most High (aS!. n i e r e are several other divisions ami sub-divisions of and based on the kind of country (^asB') inhabited by persons, the time of meeting &c., and we arrive after all to the divisions called These exhibit a cljjissificalion of the varying passions and sentiments arising from the human hearts of two lovers circumstanced as they are by time, place and distance, and natural and human obstp.oles, ordinary and extraordinary. The Aim of this idyll is pleasure. ^ssruii'j. The union of the two lovers is effected not b y premeditation or arrangement b y the parents but b y sheer accident and b y natural and legitimate causes and the parties are in TO way I to be blam^i. The lovers apprehend opposition from their respective parents and they are pining away in 8cret, content with such chance meetings as was possible, mutually dreading what mischance may befall the other, in the interval, rather prepared to die and be united in heaven than be pronounced guilty by the world's slanderous tongue. The mother finding her daughter wasting nway, ignorant of the real canse, resorts to magic and medicine without avail. Things are growing desperate, and the maid of the girl who was acquainted with their love and whose heart is very nigh broken, by the misery of her mistress and-mother makes up her mind to disclose everythiog, trustinf? to chance and the good sense of the mother and the poem accordingly opens and ends with
t ' - S u t r ^ v S j " ' " ^ ^ ^ " " T h e Laws of Higlicr QriticiBni in A n unrl Literature 'i foi-ms tlie Kiibjec-t of elaborate trcatjneiit in Tamil I m g n a p e a n d it is peculiar tp the Tamil laiijfiiagc anil T^mil Ian^ a g e aJoue. There in no siieli tliinj; corresponding to it in/ SansTit or in any other l a n ^ a g e , though iliete may be literature follow inj; the laws as herein laid down. AVc shall in n aepnrate paper deul with the subject of ut^srS^- i r -r jj.

her address to the mother in a thoroushly dramatic manner, reciting the various circumstances in this passage of love ai?d begging her pardon ...nd .sanction for the union of the two hearts. " Hail, mother ! He pleased to hear mc. The secret malaiJy preying on your daughter's mind and beauty is of so delicate a nature as tb prevent me hitherto from disclosing the same to you till now. It is incurable, and you have accordingly sought in vain its eradication by consulting astrologers and magicians and by perfcirining various vows to various Gods and r.ther (.erpMiuiiies; and you have become sorely distressed. (In this respect, we are as superstitious as our ancestors of old;. And my yOung mistress in her extreme says, to me, What, gold and diamonds and pearls if lost once can be re'-overed again. Unlike this, family prestige and nobility of character and g o o d name if once, tarnished, it will not be possible to brightea it again even for the greatest seers.* I bave been united to iny lover by a train of accidents and my good fortune, to tlie destruction of the well cherished plans of my parents. Do you think, that anytliing but good would result from disclosing '-ur love to my mother : If she does not approve of our innocent and legitimate love, let me die, and let us be united in H e a v e n " t : so saying her gazelle eyes fill with tears and she is pining away. If y:)U would know my own state of mind, I am, like the arbitrator J between two enraged potent ites, highly distressed, unable to bear the sorrow of yourself and your daughter. I will now narrate to j^ou how your daughter fell in love, without previously a.-'pertaining if he was a pioper match in respect of l)irtli, wealtii nud character and extent ot relations, and you can jndge how far we are to b'ame. Be not iDCcnscd, therefore, before you hear me. You may lememhei- you sent us one day to watch the millet field where in the ripe ears ai-e bent around the stalk like the triink of the elephant on its tusk, when it felt wearied ;ifter its vain attempt
* f'dnijmre with this s|ioi'( li of om- nanroless Inili.Tn lady (She is only 1 t,V|)P) I F the rirst ccntiu-R A. N. oiu- fair and V'ciitle Desdeino4 iKi's wunis of tlio llilh ci-ntiir. (Mpfjd name, in man ami miiiian, dear my lord, Is tlir immediate jewel nl' their souls ; Willi tteiils IIIV ]iursr. sti-ais trii.sli it is soinethin.!,'; iiotliiiii;. "Twas mine, 'tis liis. and has been slave to tlionsands ; Knt he that Klelies from me my gooti name, Kolis me of thai, which not enriches him, And makes me |io(ir inileed " f The pathetic ami heautifnl nature of thip speech is beyond comparison. J The dithciiky u t t h e Eiination is now manifest to every body bv the utter futility of the efforts of not one but of great many [lowere solving the easteni question.










218T J U N E


to reacli the ears of the tall bamboo * We sat watching for a time, perched on the biiiiihoo platform built on the topmost branches of the tallest tree and we wei e chasing a w a j the green parrots with our slings and by making noise with divided br.inboo sticks. Tlie <l:iv was growinir hot, when happily the clouds ciimt^ up the sky thick and dark, v. iih peals of thunder like tli.^ repeated sounds of the dnirn, and flashes of ligbtniniT as from the spear of God Kuuiara, brandished for the destruction of the .wicked Asui as and dispersed pellmell by the rising gust of M'ind, poured down on the mountain heights,fl'ishing thu nioiiutiiin torrents with briirht and limpid water like well washed clothes. We conld not keen quiet : we jmniied into the stream, and p]nv-.i :)IR1 eould not leave the deep pools sliiiiiiinr laolten crystal iu a stone basin; we played nud sang with, perfect freedom ; tinal'y we wrung (inr liaii dripping with water, our haiiwhich w:is lying on our backs like a big blue-stouo ou a base of gold, we dried it, and we reached the bank -^ith our eyes red like anythinu'- and began to cull all so-ts iif flowers(Here follows a list of 09 flowerstliL' names of all of which except Champac and Palnsa an- pure Tamil words ; in fact we coald scarcely r(!.'o<4iiize any other sanserit word in the v,-hole poem^, aud heaped them all on a now freshly cleaned pieee of rock and began to deck our parts with leaves and our heads with strings of variegjited flowevst and sr\t under the cool shade of the flaming Asoka, chatting umong ourselves, and now iuid then bawling out to drive away the pari ots. When lo and behold, who should couie ? bnt a man, with scented hair with flowers adorned on the head, ears, and necic, with sandal eonvcred body, holding a. bow, with tinkling bells attached to his a'.ikles, j-nllowed by dogs. The dogs sighted ns and with gimshing teeth like yontig bamboo shoots, staring and flaning eyes, ivere coining nearer and nearer to u3, like young warriors driving back their enemy ; we shuddeted ; we got up and ran ; our feet faltered aad our minds fi!ld with intence fear.
\Vn ll:i it lief < i.iili.s;. I- head and tlir< rU) :\rm6 iifti-i i-eaeliiii- ami ciil I.,!,' tl wild jusniiiie twinin..,'it iir hill oai-den. This ^'n eer,u 1 liuniN ti lul ntuti iiU- f rlic I'K'pliiiiit. itsu-iiiik-1 L'stiM;^ ill it.s tusk we noti ;od arioii^' .SI )iiu- rcivntlv caiiylit clcpliiini at k a n d y t \V(. Vvoiiltl iM.t have r.eliev;,! this. li ad not our own darlings fi (ars oUi pii's.-iitiMl theiiiselvc.y before n.s, after a rainbl ni 3 to 10 V nil- -iin'l c-ii anil around iln' adjoining t ink fully deekedwith iv v ild in all its rtowerv . lory and erowncd with the vine I flowers 1 t tiie Haniu uf the forest nnil . ither flowers. "lYe-huve for1 (jotten, alrt the ploasures of eoi itry and hill resorts. Read tin p; ia^e in Fronde's Oceiinift," where lie contrasts the snionlderinj; life of old Kn)?lander8 in the dingy resorts of Loudon and the free and robust life of Australians.

The young man noticed onr fear and feelinff sorry called to us in soft^^ nd reassaring tones and addressing us, asked if we had seen any of the nnitnals he had been hunting flee past us; we were pleased bnt did not reply him. and he felt offended, and asked us if we could not at least spare him a few words even if we did not choose to do him a service, and like an elephant which leavinjr off the lead of its trainer, runs off breaking and brandishing branches of trees laden with flowers, whereon the bees and beetles hum the Nattai-akam tune, he broke a flower laden branch and silenced the barking dogs and stood awaiting our answer."(Herein is given the first accident which brought the lovers togetiier). (To he].










HISTORY repeats itself ; and fully half of a century ago, the question was hotly debated outside and inside the Councils of State what educational policy should be followed by Government and whether the medium of education should be English or the Vernaculars. A n d the question was determined, on the ground of might if not solely on the ground of justice that English should be the dominanf language ; and it was conceded at the snnie time, that instrnction in the vernaculars, was at the same time necessary, and our Ui>iversities recognized the vernaculars as one of the compnlsoiy subjects in its .scheme of education, and more than a decade ago, our alma matter pelmitted its graduates to go to the Degree of Master of Arts in any two Vernaculars. The question to-day as such is not so broad as with our f) iend.s and opponents of mere than 50 years ago and yet in the current discussion of the subject, we have met with very old and outworn arguments which take us back to this old period, without taking account of the important work which both our paternal Government and the Universities independently and conjointly are carrying out. The object of the movement is in no way to depreciate the value or the importance of English education; and the names of two such great men as that of the H o n ' b l e D r . Duncan and the Hon'ble Mr, Justice Subramanya Aiyar ought to be a guarantee a ^ i n s t any snch assumption. It simply takes note of a few defects in onr present system oE education and the









21ST J U I ^ E

1 8 9 7 . 27

great necessity there, is at present, of improving the Byatem of Higher Vemacnlar Edacation, by increasing ito scope .and its status, and by affording greater facilities and better tuition. That a graduate going np for his High Degree Examination should not grasp in fais mother tongue such simple ideiis which are familiar to a second rate Tnniil Pundit does not bespeck much in favour of the foundation, he has received, in the vernacular at College. Nay, everybody knows, what contempt our young student has for liis optional language and what dodge-; he resorts to, to get a bare pass in that subject. Then it is felt by ntany* (hat the barrenness of the Indian Intellect so often bewailed of, is due in a great measure to the wpste of energy involved in early life, when the young mind must be fully engaged in the giithcriiig ami receiving of facts of knowledge and experience .and ideas direct, instead of mere sounds and symbols, b y having to learn a foreign language, not akin, but qnit alien'in every respect. More, how often have we cried when the brightest gems among our Indian g i a dnates are cut off in the full flush of manhood. Well, all manhood, his best energies are well nigh dried lip by the time a man leaves his University ; what little that remains is fully eaten up, in a scramble for bare existence and the disappointments in life; and the man finds an early grave. The want of harmony noticed in the life of an Indian betwen his speech nnd conduct is also traceable in a way to this defect in his education. It was only the other day, a valued friend of ours informed us of what that mature Scholar and Statesman, we mean the late Raja Sir T. Madava Bow, thought, was the cause of that want of clearnes.s of thought and expressifm noticed in Indian gi-aduates namely, the too early inculcation in a foreign language and this was fully perceived aud anticipated by onr friends among the rulers themselves at the very beginning. Then the fact is moat blindly forgotten what large population claims each vernacular for its mother tongue, aad what proportion of this large population, has been benefitted, nay even affected by the last 'jO years of Englis}i Education". The total literate in IndiH is estimated at about 6 or 7 per cent, and of this small percentage,t what proportion can be said to have received any English Education, much less, any real benefit. For instance, on such :i simple subject as
Onri! is howerer a conviction. -f The loweflt preccntaffc amonff the yreat niiLious ol' i)ic ^vurld nd we have nations like Germany aud SwiUerlnml wiieii' iinurly 11 u e literate.

female education, could we get*fivo out of ten graduates meeting casually in a public place to vote in its favour. W e rould undertake to convince the socalled illiterate persons but not the disaertient gradnate.-^ who receive tf-e question, not from a pi-actica' point of view but purely in a dialectical spirit: The object of the present movement is therefore not to supplant but to supplement the present system of education, to the benefit not of a few but all, and the greatest happiness of tlie greatest iiumber. In onr study of this question, we have not come across of a. more abler paper and more abler arguments thaq that were put forward by Mr. B. H. Hodgson, late of the Bengal Service, an ?rudite scholar and lin<fuist and a man of woj-ld-wide sympathies,collectt:'d and published in Volnnie II of his miscellaneous writings by Trubnor < Co. W e have deemed it worthwhile io summarise V his arguments in the body of his lettei-f, which by the way were first addressed to the Calcutta paoer, called " The Friend nf Indm" which we believe is now i j oorporated in the pre.'sent Statesman, Calcutta. Preeiiiinfuif unmri-red " <'f flm Vi'i nm-ithtrs nr /Jf avylici^i*

The letteis urc prefaced with a ([uotation from iSir T. More in quaint English, which we also quote : " For ii.s for that our tongue is called barbarous is but a fantasy ; for so is, as every ma'i knoweth, every strange language to other, and if they would call it b i i r r e u of words, there is no doubt but it is plenteous enough to e.xpress our minds in anythings whereof one man hath used to spoke with another." He points out in the first place how Lord William Bentick's proposal was a reversal of all former acts of Parliament, and solemn pledges, which after all weiv but bare acts of justice, and poceeds to assign .some reasons for the opinion that he entertained that the [ndian's e.ssential welfare not less than ri;^hts may be urged against the proposal schetjie of Lord William Benticb. Granting thrit .sound knowleage, the diffusion of wl 'ch fbninghout India was the sole j)nr))o.e, IS to bf^ found only in the Enropean languages, he enquires what is the best instrument for the free iiinl i-rpial diffusion ot that knowledge, whether English or the Vernaculars. The ;inifli< ists assuin(! that the English liingnage is ii perfect ami singly snfticieni, orir.iii. Nvhilst the native laiitj-iiage-; a r e equally obji;. tionable from their plnvaliry ;iU(l rhi-ir intrinsic Iceli.'r.-lesE. lie characrerl-i'S lln-e I'-siMnorions a.-uH'-i


LILGUT OK T K L ' T H OI; S I D D H A N T A D E K P I K A , I I O X D A Y , T H E 21ST J U N E


lia?ty and unfoundeJ. A large portion of the wuiiid knowledge of Europe is not to be found in the Knglisli lan[^uage, bnt must be sought in those of Knince and acrn^any. Eni,'lislimeii daily pic-Ic up iisclul ;uid iinporraiit words from France acd Geriuany. Ill re,i,'ard to plurality of Indian languages lie points t.i the vast range o[ teiritory and population cliiitxied l)y each vornacnlav, aud thinks that it is a range of language large enough to satisfy the most ardent of reasonable reformersa range rather above than below that of Kniope. In .regard to the alleged feebleness of the Indian ttingues, ho excepts the language i-iiiployed in the unmixed sciences and applied sciences uliich liavr a hmgua|j:e of their ow i, which words are not furnished by 'Tiie weli of pure iMiglish undefiled' :indiii wliich th':^ lan;;uage is imperfect and unal;ie to expre.-s such ideas but* thinks the Indian \'ernacMlais are sntlicient ill the field of tlie moral sciences: " F o r blended as these branches of knowle.:ge are, from their very nature, with the daily pursuits and thoughts, and ([uickly responsive as they ai-o to the strongest prejudices and ^jjas:ions, of niankiud; appealing, too, as they do for their ultimate evidence, to universal consciousness, or to almost universal ex]jerience,pov ert nl intrinsical reasons may come in aid of tl'e lingual considerations I am about to show, against the direct corrimunication of our superior light to the Indians." H e thinks that the Vernaculars possesses the hacftiarij capacity to bear any weight of knowledge coming home to the hriiil)iexf andhosoniK af inanldnd, tiiat can be laid on theui. The Vern.iculurs possess go. id dictionaries and grammars, as well as works which ir-xhibit a respectable share of precision and compass; whilst its connection with Sanscrit and the peculiar genius of the latter, atfovd extraordinary means of enrichment by new terms comjietent to express any imairiliable modilicatidir of tlioiight. H e again proceeds to assert wi'.h(lilt Tear of cdUradiction that the e,viiit.,!(/ Vd'trciiir. iii'irciinc.ii of all I'lnrojican languages as instruments of rhougiit is iniliiiivn^ and iiiiiJoiicd and tL;'.t the r.lj jcot.. are only songhl to bo i CiiioVL-d by inniih' detiuitiiin and nmcli circnmlocutiori. Tliere is
vli:it :iUo s u c h a fhiii'i as llir yciiiii.oj the laii<jKar/i' of a

i-i^id and commanding nature, aci-ording to which the improvement can only proceed For within and not by direct grafting fruni a loreign laiignage'i". After desH.SIIL.SRMIINUI.V I;,;. .|.INMII.

canting on Sir T. More's words-quoted at the beginnir.g^ the following remarkable sentence o c c u r s : ' The history, not only of our own language, but of every vulgar tongue in Europe, justifies the presumption that, as soon as effort is directed towards their improvement, the Indian Vernaculars will almost immediately and spontaneously put forth the ordinary strength of language,* and as for wdiat may bo called its extraordinary strength, even our language, liad ?io< yet put it forth. The habit of language, of all habits difficult of change, is the most obstinately adhesive and the Indians of all Xations are wedded to their habits most." He applies the very reasoning of Sir T. More when he contended against Latin and Greek ns the sole organ of communication by pointing out that love of knowledge itself most diflicult, would be rendered liopeless if the aditus of the temple were rendered so steep and thorny as the necessary acquisition of a difficult foreign tongue must make i t ; and thu.t in all probability, the end would be defeated b y the means employed to achieve it; to which loss ought to be added the entailling in perpefuitij those icorsi of eviU reKultinrj from monopolised and mis-applied learning. Noble words are these wliich follow:"Our aim is the people's increase in happiness through increase in knowledge. AVe seek to regenerate India ; and to lay the foundations of a social sy.stem which with time and God's blessing on the labours of the founders, should mature, perhaps long after we are no longer forth' coming on the scene. Let then the foundations be broad and solid enough to support the vast surperstrncture. Ijet us begin in the right way or fifty years hence, we may liave to retiace our steps and commence anew.t Sound knowledge generally diffused is the greatest of all blessings: but the souun'ness of a language has ever depended and ever will on its due and equal and large communication. Partially diffused it is not (mly no good, but a bitter and lasting cursethe special curse which hath blighted the fairest portions of Asia from time immemorial, and which for hundreds of years made even Christianity a poison to the people of Europe!" The chance of the speech of this vast continent if not impossible is most difHciilt, for which our jueans are most enormously disproportionate to the end. Specialised knowledge should not be made the monopolj- of a few it not, it will be abused. Leisure and ease are
' Tlir Sllli|iolt Willlt

U. Kl.M-lisIl n I'.Hl >| ,kii,ir M I


lit of (-.

Ml |lilll-^lla^s> and

+ li MIH .inlv 111.- I.ilir. ihiv Mr. II.. I. Kii_'li.-li .li.ini'i- l-.-lnal-kiMl lH,^^ Kii-lisli


+ Th.-.-^c :il;ii(ist |nu|.lu-iic, l.iit il.i not want to TLMl-.n-o l)nl lo luciii.>i(li-i. anil niiiutlv tin.' ilrlVcts.



the parents of knowledge and how is it to be expect- language. And he finishes his first letter with a very ed that the poor Indians with no inborn taste for the strong exhortation that what the Europeans seek to English language will readily and willingly conquer introduce into India is not to pro . e irnutritive or the vast and odious obstacle, we thus place at the poisonous but wholesome food, n o f a curse but a bics threshholcl of the temple of knowledge, obscuring all sing, and that a Vernacular organ should be given. the beauty the.-ein, tliouefh the few tan always be This is dated August 1S35, the author does not thiuk won to pursue through it the path of profit and power * it stillc ill l&7(i, and he (juotes the folhjwing froiii the Tho mystification of knowledge and administration, IVmtif, which we also re))roduce in the foot notes * separately evil, are dreadtul when combined and he and with this, we shall close to-day revertin^r to the holds'in special horror the course of this double iniquity subject again in our next issue. if allowed iu India. " Why did we immortalize our Edward," he askspertmently enough ' for VernacularizI-UX HOMINKM.t ing the language of the courts of law ? because it'ts of the last importance to the happinei^s of nations that the people,the manyshould have the readiest possi(Vull Mull Maijiiziiin). ble means of rightly appi eciatinglegul procecdings."t He further contrasts the means and the ease and W l i u r e . t h e n , h u t h F a i t h hei-uveiliistiu"* h o m e ' : ' facility of En{,lishnien ir Indian acquiring the Indiuii I ' a v i l i o n c d v i e w l e s s in t h e v In.spcrin^ w i n d . Vernaculars, and the means and the difficulty and toil in- O r iu t h e S k y ' s b l u e tlonK- r volved iu the Indians acquiring a foreign language and O v ill t h e lhiol)biii<r h e a r t of p a s s i o n a t e l i u u i a u k i m l O r in t h e a n c i e n t l a p o f dat kesl O f t a i i . asks whether the change of i)olicy is not,due to the O f iu e a i t l i s conti-u tlec|>. wish ou the pait of the rulers to cast off even this Fell hy i n t e r n a l tires a n d rui ked l o slee|i slight burden.i Here is a golden .senteindt: 'Add to 111 t w r i i i f eave.s ivitJii- tiic w u w h o f ceuselosa ' n o t i o n ? these objections, also the following (1) It is apt to generate or confirm ierrilc intfUectuul /uil^iVw,especially Kre y e t a p l a n e t s w e p t a i o i i n d t h e .sun. when combined with the absence of politica) liberty : K r e yet t h e sun w a s 1 i t l i i u t h e ilini (2) it is not less apt to dirorce, fitttidaiion frovi ex- S t e n m l inaile b u t o n e O f a t t r i b u t e s e t c r n c , wliieli. n n c i e a t u w i t h h i m perience, theory from jn-dclicv, ahafractivn from lip: ^ W h o is all f a i t l i . all s o u l , all s|nin<r o f liciiij;. t Hud in instancing the case of Konie, her vassals and her conquerors, he observes that those whom Home sub* III AhiSiue unci Loirainc. the peasainiy after two cent iiri. dued, became twice subject by their slavish acceptanuc iif siil.j<'ctii(.i. (,) iVaiK ( il<< not kiiow m e woni of Ftviich. In IValc ill Sleswic, and every where in Anstriii and Knssia, we w e all 1 1 of her language ; aTid her i-onquerors were only saved efforts to foree the riiliii;; lain.'n;;e on a suhjeci laee reaenieil, evi from vassalage to her learning by the tree geuius of w hen linhl. civiliiation, and eiijoyiiienl ot'ei|i I'l l iL'hts follow in tl iniirr of this il,;.r,>,r-.;,t i,ool m a s t e r " n Ipril i. Js;-.' their political institutions ; and he follows out other ill almofct in every de)iartiMcM[I e Then hoard, if mill, examples, among the European nations, as Ihcy camc which ilo <-\ifjl in HII availoMe riirni. anil I li. liowever. n, form II" pari of .mr onliii:ii \ i lliin;.-. When sari for under such liomau influence or not, in their media of sehool li.. hrivi- liei-M rewril 1 en. anil when t
* >li)W niiuu- ijumits ilu nlrc-ady iliat iliiv ciinmit iiffoiil Uicii- cliiitlrtMi ilie clicjip KII^rHi^LI EtUu-aiinii AVIMCII tln-y tluMiisi'l^-o L'Oiiituuiulc'd 1 1 tiicil* nwu tiays uiid lliey 1 ttt rt'ti-jfL' llit'ii ^tc|l6 and givt' tn tlicir oWiUlroii bqcIi education as v.ill biavt tlium in lifi'. ]t is ubelcsB to ij^iiore timt Kn<;lit?h is primarily learnt as a nicant; ("f lircBilwinnin^ uud; liis cffiirt in lliat (liifition is tnnrnions. lie knows nt> coittcnt. Witliin ilic iaei 2 tlaj-e, we heard nftwi>cniinent Taniil Panilits. who arc eonlcnl to eke ont just eno-. ^li for the harcbt existcnc-o. ii^noring nil unibition cvce['t in tlie attaining' uT learning and i>iety. t Tlic cvilu of Indian Judges and Vakile who now think it undijrniHed to bpeak except in Kii^li^h. in conrl. are now bceoniinj; more and more manifest. J Europettiie in India ojieniy confess that they have for;;otten the little VernncnlBr they had to learn to )iaKt a sjiimi exaniiiiati' ii. and yet thefse A-er.v European ^^entleiiieii ci*i(1iiel the nalion, and we have heard hon it eondnelcd in particuhlr inbtances. The ilLilii - arc ours. il'.-eareh pverv W M I- liei-i. Iiie, ipiirauil will liilv 10. ISTfi. r . I, , prineil resiiil hi'iivMl will I Hill rrli I he K il;lish nple h; h. ihi- wroiej and have iieei, i dileali iw.inis .il .if leaeh llie of real iniporl 'i 1 iimu. lo ih, i!- hesl fi.i hiiii 1 L'lii'raiiei'. r.i il issijiali - Jie pr.-i iiillV,-- -vhl, 1 self, to , nli-l,i, < make his life ji, min h l anlrr i hai1 il need l.i11 M'r /,..1 I.-,,.ill I K I"( ' n'ip 1 1 n /M,,/ /,. lnU< i, ^I'he ii.alieb ai-e iir<l. Ma isrl^ t When W<' i-eail t/iis oia (11 iitd J'.ih lil (-..lit. ir. he ilei- lai-eil sui-pl-iV e ed that ihis Was pure a ilwailha.a 11.1 w had 1 assure him ih.-il I lii-r 1. wais no need ffir snrpri e. as 1 hi-Km opeaus are HIOH K .111.1 siii-.-l envolvin^ a system of ll.iie.'hl ilMilepeiiil.-iit of us. II li almost.aki' IM to our o 11. Tl.i-i<-iip<i n our l-.'iii< III il <1 hired that on . loiil.r it lulls lf.iii he irne as il was the s; 1... 1I' .Hall nil.' K-sln\ ara will iMtiihr 1s, in-.iih- 1 hi-i, 1 1 also. We stale lliis M ill.- fi-eli iii.r e i.iihiii-(l h i 111. 1 pe-.ple who aiv iuinmii Il ..f 1 IH- K .\M Kaith

L hil


Held in, a> boii<j holds sounJ,* t Or light holds colour, h.s it wei'e. eiiwoiuid JOven witliin itself, beyond tlie sense of seeing! Tlie uuiversc is minel-'ov that is He, And 1, all iucurrnptible. am part of puie etcrnity So which man lowly knees with ti-embling in his hc:.rt ' What thouj^h all creeds be torn and tempest driven r They but the oiinvai-d form Vond which, unrnttled by the wildest storm. Still lives the Faith supreme for which All faith hath striven. The faith that j,'ive n.en fijjht of things Divine, That shows them immoitality beyond Deatli't tliin dividing line I J)ispersiiig as a ilreiini the vain delurion fond They hug as life. hich life at best eoncualiiig As with a mi>tgrows iliin To U't failh s brightness stream rejoicing in Thi-ongh inHi;:tu knowltuge God to mortal man re\ ea)in^

I'ecorded were not all by Englishmen nor confined to the Knglish language. The article con^ainB an excellent diatribe against the idea of ' liberty ' entertained by Bome Englishmen. same Review contains another excellent article from the pen of Jlr. Charles Johnston ou V'edanta and the doctrine t)f I'eincarnation in the West and the East, and iiis view that this doctrine of the Vedanta is not the property of Aryans will be familiar to our i-eaders. He quotes several passages to show that the doctrine was clearly recognized in the Bible, but that Christ held that al' such knowledge useless. His ideal was one of Pure Love and Duty, as that~of Buddha was of one of duty alone. The latter has surely failed to take any loot in uiau und we (ind it necessary to find a sound philosophical basis to *he former to support and strengthen it.
# *

A F draw our reixder's prominent attention lo the V annonncementfroni the Reverend Doctor G. L. PoF>:, Ji. .v., clse lieu'irsertcd in our pages. Some have r.sked whether such a translation was necessary and whether it will be good reading. In the first place, it is an lionour to our language that its treasui'es should be brought to the notice .)!' the w'-ole word, and which we should duly recogni/e and [iropeily appreciate. Besides, we will have to consider what great revival in Sanscrit learning even ii< India has been brought about by ^he publication of translations. We publish to-day a specimen page UIKI our i-eadurs can find that it is more readable tlian many translaiioi' of the kintl. " Triruvachakam oci'Ui)ies a n'ost iinii|uc place in the spiritual and mental Histoiy ol mankind and we earrestly hope that the Ue\erend Doctor will be soon enabled to bring out his invahiable wnik. We lia'.c lieard it suid that another Uevercud Gentleman and Tamil Scholar nseil lo call it the L S7 D3 or LDS!reLk^(T^sS

Two distinct and clearly marked periods in the British occupation of India are noted. 20th June of this j-ear, the day of so much joy and gladness will, it is earnestly prayed, mark a new era in our national life, which will redound much more greatly to the g-ary of Briiish rule. We begin our own enter^irise alsa-this day to mark our loyalty and our hope of success. Thv; Ti-ichinopoly Saiva Siddhanta Sabha celebrated its 12lh Anniversary and the Royal Jubilee yesterday and to-day by the singing of hymns and piayer.s, performance of services in the Temple by the distribution of prizes to the Sabha's Sunday School boys and girls and by feeding them <kc.. Ac., oud by the reading of the report. A full report will appear in our next.

H i s H o i . i n k s s the Ambalavana Pandara Sannadhi of the Tiruvavaduthurai iMntt, Kunibakonain, has sent a telegram to the Queen, in which His Holiness begs to approach Her IJajesty's Throne on behalf of him.self and the numerous disciples of Saivite community of Southern India. He moist humbly and i-evercntly conveys his (ordinal greetings on the ha|)py occasion of Her Majesty's Diamond Jubilee, and invokes Heaven's choicest blessings on Her ilajesty and the Royal family." Various charitable functions and public festivities have been organised by His Holiness in memory of the occasion. \ If -Ml.-. H. N. Cl >r. a great Scholai-and Linguist conti ibutes Amongst other things, is to be esftiblished a permanent a valuable papei- to the .\[iril Xunibcr ot' the CdlciiHa clinftntiii and water-jiandal at Knmbakonam, the III vi' ir ui\ ihe achievements dnring the last .')0 years in foundation stone of which will be laid to-morrow at ihe dejiarnnents of litligion. Science, History, tieographv, .") o'clock. * * iVc., iVc. Th^ progress which he thus notes is almost astounding and in the tield of Religion, he contrasts the IN the death of PiloKKssoi! Si SRII.vM Pii,i,.\i, M. A, we opinion of Archbishop I'sher accoiding to whom there have sustained a deep personal loss, which it is not possicould be no good religion except Cliristianity ajid that ble to i-eidace. Our ^Magazine itself wns started after n of to-day when it is recognized that God has not been good deal of consultation with him and with his promi.sed partial to one people or one country. We hold the letter co-operation. He was just beginning what he conceived oi a Reverend Missionary friend of oars, who acknow- to be the real mission of his life; his proposed tour to ledges that salvation is possible even without Cliristianitv. Oot\- was to be almost a preaching tour, as he wi-ote to us. .Anglicists will note by the way that the iu;hievements here Our minds fills with very great soii-ow as we write this and we will reserve what we have got to say of Him and (. IIU sirnti lit of 2nd einiISivaiiiiii. his work lo a futui-e occasion. We have been can-ying on a long literary correspondence with him and we have tiled iIh' ti:iviii' ill il..' U'liii. lIk' .^uinid ill ilu' tiiML' most of letters and wc should like to ))nl)1ish his 'flic Mhiiu'liiv's Cliii wliii-li ilio ivlii.l,. vunl |,ci-viulr corrcs|)Oudeiicc. if our friends in other part of the countrv l.s- with ||. v;,,nl , ,.i,iicflr,l CVCT iiiul ns our would oblige us also with theirs. lU-niu t^ud i- .\'l*Miiliiiini iiu' uia- siiy llie W-iliis.


.4 Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion,

Philosophy. Literature, Science &c.

Commenced VOL I.

on the






S L A r I O X s.
: A b e o l i i t e l o v e fuiCi nl makesf

one to

No. 2.
forget self and

I! A X

(he for>fCtfnlness of self takes one beyond the Bta^e of AhanlAra ; ;hk1 love, nt this transcendental stage, is transformed into epirin;rl knowlodge, rrnl and omniscicnt. Love of God being translated into Divine knowledge, real knowledge is the Love of God. (2) Knowledge of self or true knowledge is to stand in the beautiful way of devotion and love, that is, to practise Love of devotion to God. Reason :Abstract Love towards God is practically unattainable for ordinary men. Thirteen ways of practising Love towards God arc mentioned in Bhajravata. The foUowing arc some of thcni : (i) Love shown to His disciples. (ii) Attending His temple. (iii) Washing and cleaning H i b t e m p l e s and decorating them. (iv) Bringing flowers Ac. for Archana, bringing pure and holy water and milk for Abhisheka. (v) Establishing flower gardens for Archana. (vi) Commemorating His incarnation days or days in which he displayed acts of grace. (vii) Attending festivals celeberated on His account and celeberating festivals in His name. (viii) Dedicating property [o His service. (ix) Constructing temples for Him. (x) Illuminating His temples. II is by in-acticu of I.cji e iMivan':il>?olnle love towrinU llini cau 1.. ab.^oline love towards God, Jen I tell' is attailietl. ( IlJ





fram itncjt 2).


I]! j i f i i l . ^ ^ . ^iTLL/Ssilrr o emrsTjr (^srruiJiifl euTj euir ^auifS euirji ^ 17rvSi!sisr ryjeijir ,SirLDp! 6U'(/fSsv ^^jreu rrT&i'-'s^ l_IILCifiSI euTT^r^^ /SLD/TUJ -^Qui.


Those who know (or who know themselves; are those u ho worship the feet of the Lord ; those who know l^or who know themselves) are those who stand in the said beautiful way {i. e., who love God and take themselves to His worship), those who know (or who know themselves) are some philosophers; and to those who know themselves, the Lord is their relation. NOTE.
The foUowing are the important nsiertions madfi in the t e x t : (1) True knowledge or knowledge of self- is the Lovt of and ^rotion to God.

(Ml UMin- (li;auy I.I tin- po. ai.u ilu- lar

Icd j r

lli> I,.I.,,. I'V lll'\,.|,.|.j|, kluiulrilj'

'r .iciil>.

(If (,od's devoted difrijile? wIk, kjn.n il,, i i.j Vi._;i Kiiiiil:,!iiii ii ili' idetl iiitii 31ulcii.-ini (ih. ,,rrtie;il

i;'.(i. kii

XJw knvvrlvtluf i..(











21BT J L F L Y


kiiowleilgo CRii be Bttftiiicil tliifiu};!! tlie grace of God by practice of devotion ami loic, without tlicorcticfti knowledge, non-psychic und psychic. Those with such theoretical knowledge nmy Vi-nciicc Lo^c townj-dn find ftttftiu true knowledge or Divine kiiowledije or knowledge of eelf; but in prnctice some of them alone lirictice Divine love and attain i t ; the largest majority loving themsehcsiii disti-acied speculations und scientific and philosophic studies. (4) Gml is the relrttiou of tliose who kuow themselves. A bandhu .)1- relation comnuinic.ites his personal secrets in confidence anduiit of eonfidcuce, sliows sympathy and participates in the pleasnrcs and pains of him whoSf relation he is. God acts like ti Bandhoo towanls his disciple in his struggle for omvarddevotional or spiritual progress, by strcngtheninj; his will ami cheering up bis mind, by relieving his pains .is in the case of Manikavachakar, i>v revealing nil mysteries tu him and by keeping him above want. It is characteristic of a bandhii t " snpi'Iy food or partake In meals Mtpplied. God has sui>plicd luod to Appar, Snndar and GnanasiuiiMin <lhni :inil li;is partiikeu in meaU 'O' K-,vm\:\pi>ar -.(wl Elayiiiikiidi.

privelege to live. Y e poor sonU, what avails y e all your vigilance, as inspite thereof heat flies, off (from your body) and your eyes become fixed ? NOTE.
The impurities heroin referred to are A h a n b r a , Maya and Deaiie ( t i ^ a - js). Prana is identified heat Pranagni hotropaniebed and also my contribntions to the " Thinlcer" on the subject of Prana). The reference t o heat flying off and the e y e e b e c o i c i r ; ^xed is a reference to the occnrrence of death.




O i r e a r ^ ^

Seiresiui tufihuT ^BsiriuQffeir




lunsu' ^''^LCr LSsnpaufi Q^bitq^ u^l iiJi6U!fi(^ LCtfLouJr Qpsim^Ui (U!reuirj:(^LOmh 'SipH (suiriLjcnp QuirQjSir^f^ s)SBUi9t^ finQe^.
( a )

Before death comes b y force without your knowing when he comes, without any room for denying your identity, without his regarding your poverty or youth, be good and perform Tap^s. ^pi^dm mpi^ireiT esrpi^T ffrppQp eSeirUQp ^IB^SJSO SJFS^ (.jfr) eu^Qp^^ iBeoSsi)


Tt is possible for all to pick a leaf for oi- to put a leaf ;)\-er God ; it ia possible for all to give a handful of todder to c o w ; it is possible for all to part with a iiaiidful of food at tlie time of meals . and possible I'or nil to ^jjKuh kind icords to all. NOTE.
Tliu verse is just an enumeration of some of the ways of l>raetiuing Lo\e for or Devotion to God.

uSjii^TOH bV^Qp^

mjSiLj u>etTsu/jS euirQa.

^p^'SeisrQ/' ii^S^ir uppSsuii

(t^esnT^ii QfiQanr iLi/nQs^reir^iEi<D (^err^^enftp ^ith uius3r,(6l lUirQjr, (">-)

AfipSlT (SuT^ISJ <3iLDl^:USUIT lUir.^l

No relation from the line of him who has renouuced the w o r l d ; no pleasure from the line of him who is d e a d ; no grace shown by God to him who practices what is non-Dharna (what is not virtuous). Charity or to Dharma is the measure of knowledge. NOTE.
fienunciatioii is a consequence of spiritual perception that God is all and all^ is God. In the case o f a person renouncing the world, the nation of Dnality as a relative and a person related to hlin does not arise and the question of Dharma or charity as a duty does not arise in his case. Death is, as Maliopanisliad says, death-birth. Birth is a round of sorrowso no pleasure to him who dies. Disinterested charity will put the doer in the way of God and eventually to immortality. Reward ia regulated by merit or virtue. Arbitrary reward irrespective of merit is hereby denied. Charity or Dharma is the measure of knowledge "as real knowledge ia derived from a love of God which is estabilished |4y a love of fellow creatures e.xhibited in the form of Dharma or! charity.

Ascetics arc tliose who smell sweet with the conviction learnt that the Dharma is to part with food (apart j f food) which they take. Men do not kuow the benefit ut briugiug water from w'ell or tank and giving the same by way of charity. NOTE.
Ateordini; to Varasara, Dana (gift or charity) is the mail! Dhaniia lor iliis KaliyngaFood referred to in the text implies spiritual food, sucli as initiation, intellectual food, such asSastraic teaching, iirofcssiuiia! food, such as irdustrial education and I'l ysical food, such as bread or rice.

fiTsirpeui^ ^earQpiueu isnrnQpiueu




Qnj 'L-Lf IU/DIsxsu iSejipuS'iT .virsifjji) pQ^uiry.^ Q^^tu'j^/'r a f O ^ e v Q ' f t u e f f i r Qsuii>es)LD

u f l ^ j aiub-jr

maa, a]u9,TdStlirp QLoeirjffi

usD^u9,ir aiirQesr, (ar)


Qp<,i!TG<r theff
iu the dnys in which it is your

D r i v i n g off itiipurities.fill y o u r s e l v e s w i t h k n o w l e d g e ;
io L-liLf. ity aUu

The man who practices Tapas is reckoned as G o d by the worldDeath will come linto them w h o worship their flesh as God, declaring himself as their God.









218T J U L Y



A o e n d i n g t o a number of UpaniBliade, immortnlitj- is voucliafed to him who perceit-ca and k n o n s Pnrnmathiiia in alt aiul 11 in Paraiqathma. Death is a punishment inflictcd on him ^vho Htentifiea bis gelt with his body.

Ono of the fluties attaching to wealth is doing charily iicconl ing to capacity to the needy and the jioor in the form or the way in which t)ioir want is feh. IJsnry is condcniiiod in all tlie 1uadii\g religions of the world.

a9Seirui96v/3 iLjein

.ti^m^etr ^jduSSBT
Qutsv^^LB semSi


QuiriitP!' QUIBL^. jrnaesif (i)

eOSBird(^i ^dieui^p Qml jxSs^nrr lanQtn,

There are two ways of propellii)g with-^ut exhaustion, the boat which will take na accross the Ocean of Borrowgiving Karma. Such helps are Tapas ami charity effected by the person of undying renown, for himself and f o r all mankind. uppg! tupp iLjp^Ei^ iirriljiS^p uflftiSs^u utrii LSTn^ iotsi'^/ Qsu^Sssr
i ? J I 6)7 T Lt .T Z)., <J=,

LCipLori? mnQir.

People do not understand the necessity of Dhanua ^t.b.^,^lly) in spite of their knowledge that time is tied, tlnit (iL'liiges are Jonp, that tlieir ordained days are j>V)in', that their b o d y has become withered as if the I'ssenci.' is squeezed out from it, and that they see theijisflves or otliers-dyiiig. NOTIJ.
Ill iliis veix.', cvuii on inolii and loss iniis or roniiLiuu i:il Lulunliitions, tlio ni.'cessity of cliMvity ic. vimliciitcd. IVrsons (l\ in;,' ilo not carry pini^lc [jio with tltt'iii. Tlii y liavi- to n ;n i: their wirjiltli behind for tli" u.-^c of ..ilnM-s siii\ ivinu tlieiii, ^^!t^Lllll viMatud or not. Tlic relateil ami tlir iioii-relaicd ;irc all iiliku t" rlieiii. In charity l.riiiL's no licnclii ;Jti r >kMtli, tlie ilm i loW'..( Iiol.lliii^ and In- is not in a wor^c posil iuj, | lian a miser sliowK no .cliarity ivliatsou'vei'. /ii cayr ii Ijriiiis l.i-nelits aU.u ilearli, tlic iloer of "liariiy L'aiiis and tlw iincliaritalili; inia. r l.linkt'arilier the text nicmi.'i that wealth which i.'; meant fm th.^ uiikeep of this liody lia^iMily a limited .sftpe in ihat " a v , lor th^ liodv is mortal and iis day.'y will he over sotmer tjr later. Si aeeordiiiK to eaiiReity. /. c. witliont in-e.|niliee to wliat ia needeil f.a tlie alisoliite necessity of .cell'or tImse relying on sell'a portion e; Health should he spared tin (he use oi' ih.ise in want Th |iractici' of chari!,\ the he-i me;iiis ol' Bell'-^acriMce ai.o i-enuncintion.

(L/ifmriuiT estpQisn^d eir rr Q 6\} IT fir jn


Charity done with desire for worklly couseciuences or selfish attachments is conducive to sorrow. W h e r e a s charity done for disinterested purposes ns a dedication unto God is conducive to upward spiritoal murch in the way appointed by Gcrl.
NOTE. The importance of dedicating; all nets inelndinj,' cliaiiiiiliic iitts to God irrespective of consequences as a nieiins oF joiuin;,' untu the Lord as one s p i r i t " (I Corinthians VTI, 17) is rt'cbprnizcil l.y St. Paul in I Corinthians X I , 31 wherein ho .says 'whrtliti- tlion fore Y e eat or drink or whatsoever Yo do. ih) iiU fu tin' iili'iy i>l G o d " Interested charity is conducive to'mclied cxisieiirc or l.irili which is a source of sorrow.

=jy'Jii,!)' iuirs

uf js


^DLOflS iLHTT-flOJ Qmrj, fa'STiB(^U l-jp.Li.fi3 lUflTUeVIT OuffiilQuiJ^

i H. Lopm/i? ay.T/i(j(m imirsaPS^TT (^(Sir.

THE STRENGTH ^CASE) OI- UNI WHO DOES KG CHAUITV. A j n a ^ C a i u n s i T iffpoui.

QsuiTiLtf.lL> m^svp^
eULit^QATem L-iriLi^Qiu

QifiuiuiT ^suiiQ^s'sieuui

Those who do not know the ways or tlie uece.isity ot charity do not know how to think of the Feet ot God : they do not know tlie way to the city of God thej- listen to the false words of others and incm hatred. NOTE.
Love of Liod is inipossilile withipni loie of oar fellow creatures ami without self-sacrilice accordins; to capaL-ity. Charity as N'ai-.uhiparivrajoponishad says secures thefrood will and affection of all mankind The reverse policy fnnii a false sense of economy or from want of iiulief in a future existence is panished in this world by the enmitv of others.

ULLI-U ujSa^ir U[usw/3 lunQir.


W h a t is the use of well-developed and ripe fruits falling from an Etti or Kaugara tree? (these fruits are bitter and poisonous). The wealth of those who according to capacity do no charity is similar to Etti fruits. The benefit of charity, those day liglic siuners do not know, whu exact usai \' (interest) and bury their wealth under gruunJ.



LcSetTii^Lt, Qsuuij.s

(i/^LEI^ .B.fs o/.Djjsnfl

0 -TUJllJ.T^ilJir ^LLUITM

^ jT^LC-.h;. Oif Jjeuir'rui^h








D E E P I K A ,

W E D N E S D A Y ,


21BT J U L Y


Hiccup, bilious complaints, c o D S u i n p t i o n , and heat aflBict those who do not show charity. Lightning shock, serpent, disease called Roni attended with inflammation of the throat, and uiidne development of glands will not approach those who are chai itable. NOTi;.
Ill tills I lie rrsiiliml isiiffv:'viiiirs of iliosc wlin arc not li.ii-italiK''iii a sulistMiiiinl liirtli. in oH'cr wiirils, CL'n:;in diseases iiid nccklcntR which n i c tlii; indicos ol" iion-chnritahlc liiirdicartodiieas in a iirini- bii tli nrc slated. Hicciii>, bilious coiniilaiiite. onSHiniitioii and licat niv all tin-i-rsiill nf oxcesisivc lioat due to c x u a l rxorssi'K &c. Tlic Thapa oi- lieal of tliose in iioi'd wlio were o f n s c d liel|i liv i lio^e w lio were c.-ipa'de of o i\ in;;' tliem lielp seems r. be tlie iiln'iiiate eaiise of tlie iiuiiralile f o r m s of )iicei!|i. Soka ^ilions eoiii|.laint,i atiendvd wiiii paleness, w iiu of diL-esii^e twer. bitterness of loiioue ami consiiiiiption ;iiIlictinL;- the iTterin tlioir snb6ei|iieiit birtli. Jf l o r example A suffers f r o m Iienrable f o r m of eoiisumplion in iliis generation, w e infer tbat lie as a liard niisn- w h o did no charity in his prior birth though c a p ble of doins; ii. T h e charitable in their subsequent birth arc not illed by li'.'htniiiL;. serpent or other accidents mentioned in the text.

The sympathetic or the compassionate^^l see. the' feet of God ; the courageons or the stfbnff hearted will reign over the world of the Devas. The miserly will, without help at the time of death, with faded mindj perish and disappear. ^i'a'u iSiQjeir fohreinQp ^esiueuir Q^iLesi'hiiS. /^(S^v esieu^^^ Qpt^K^^ ("'y)

utD^ JISSSJS lSQSOITLJ Quen^s Gn iil iS SV I.IT ILipiL/S UJT'^lT.

Happiness and misery are the results of acta done iu prior Ivrth. Witnessing the sight of happiness (some people being happy), they still do no charity. Sach people are re.illy without love and know no thought, no virtue (or they do not know the mighty effect or Dliarma of inward disposition). QmQsu^ Gjfi^sii^ u'i'sj^ tc/rfiujSJ.w Q^t^ea i^sii^ t^^Q^ir


Lj'S^sjn.i UJLDSSBT Qui/ii'^ i F u: T srr r: /Ls,rJ ir cr/ nr.

J susv ij, s, 3a) uj n in . (5 7 -f i j^npw^ 3 T

ear'Sen so e<.) Qs^ikj^etTLi isiriLisij OihtlLi- ir

oiir.T'^O.^ MjmLii-'fh ^iiranaj

.iiQ 5

QiDssnr^gj/LS ^Setruti)

Q^iLjiiSiir LJfl^eUj euirCaLD.

The worlilly icputcd or the worldly influential peoule) would not adoiLC the Lord ; they would not ven pay the tax due to the k i n g ; they would not TOW shady groves, watering the plants from waterlOts, (when difficnlt to grow llicm). Ye such good eartcd 'Ironical) people, will Ye'not suffer in Hell ? XOTi;.
ill iliis verse, non-ntloration of God f o r fear of cxjiensc. n o i i - p a y !i nt of tax to G o v e r n m e n t out of iniBcrliness or our attachment moTiey, and not L^rowinu' p'lady ^j'ro\-cs where most needed jjrove^ re all declared a c t i ii'inishiible with punishment in IIcll.

Think of depositing for charity and of givinj cbai'ity and do that which will give you bliss. To b rained or to be prosperous depends on the Dharma yo' do. He that will not observe in practice the rale o Golden middle and will not establish a coarse of Wis without gaining spotless reputation, is simply a RkS (an idiot or fool) or a creation in name, NOTE.
In this text, besides s u n d r y pharities d o n e b y d e l i v e r i n g f r o hand to hand enbstantinl charities in t h e f o n n o f p e r m a n e n t invei ments, b e q n c s t a and a p p o r t i o n m e n t s are a d v o c a t e d . T h e rule o f the Golden m i d d l e is laid d o w n . Charity for attended with a spotless r e p u t a t i o n i s c o u n t e n a n c e d and it ieftutlk assorted ihiit a life w i t h o u t charity is a f o l l y a n d a b u r d e n .

'Siilji^li-. I'j u a ifl/fT'SJnQ^ (l^TC^ifU ji^.'Bi/.'; Li-iniik Lf-^tBi-i Gi-n o^ihsSc:^ ijLjrrnaS'^ UT^JJ is-ip Qsiiiri^t^i.'.. (SijiriiiSii sir

O^iveua Lf^eojS uS^'euiB eQ^eGp fuirsnenju

SsoiTu&iir euir^Q-eu^piui QuirrbjSu Lfe^avQa (c u9es>pev2s>!r Qtu^^iEm Qeuiu^ eSp^^/S ivir^us. whu do not, like the uncharitable, tread the vays (as a burden ), who tread on the ways of those vhose act.s lend them to lieaven, avoiding the inarious .or the evil or the loss-bringing acts of even .he latter, are the really great or glorious.
X'Sjfl.i^eu f^'i'si sfrsTjiuir

Without praising and serving men with limite knowledge for the sake of wealth, think of Heavei serve God and praise Him and like an unmissin arrow darted from a bow, it will have the desired effec.

/ p j f j r jiiipisLD ^irsnouir
Lit sf: IS ^ AJ T ^rcrsTi iLjQ LL IT sir fS^pi











218T J U L Y







2. The only mensure of all things is by Perception alone. This perception when!united to miud &c, divides itself into six kinds. Inference and Agama are not correct ]iiethods of proof. The things proved by Perception are the (four) elements and their inherrent natures such as hardness, coldness, heat, and diffusiveness. 3. The names of the (four) elements are earth, watr, fire and a i r ; and the quality of the products of each of these respectively are smell, taste, form and touch. These are the great Eternal Entities; aud tHese unite one with the other in regulai- order Just as you get various slmped utensils from clods of clay, so b y the uuion of these elements, all forms are produced. Like the bubbles formed in water, Btiddhi and other andahamna, and senses and sensation arise also from the uuion of those elements. 5. If one of the elements is separated from the resc, the senses and sensations and intellect, &c. all die. So do all moveable and immoveable objects die. W h e n the effects, as form, qualify &c. vanish, they
apparently Arjiina from his rcsolulion^iiirt to li;,'lit and kill his near kith and kin. The ar^'innents arc plavisible enough and Arjnnais led on to commit what would lie nxarilcd by the world as a .^in. Hut neither Brihaapntlii nor Knshna wished" to mislead really tlieir pupils. They simply wanted thorn by means of sojihisty, ifnecessarv, to conHne each to his station and thereby do his dntii; wliich

(Continued from page 5)


LBT my love to Him increase w h o lias neither b e g i n ning nor middle nor end, who is Infinite Light, Grace and W i s d o m , w h o unites Himself on the left side to H e r who begot the world, who is praised by the world as the crownje-Wel, of th& celestials, who dauces iu that ^Spreading L i g h t of Chitakas, with his coral braids adorned with the crescent moon falling behind him, and let me lift such lotus feet full with fragrant pollen on the crown of my head. She, who is the Lord's (Isa) Pdrasakti, Ichcha Sakti, Kriya Sakti and Guana Sakti, and DroupaVa Sakti, who actuates all creation, sustontation and resolution, who is form, and formlfess and neither,, who is the wife of the Lord in these Foi-ms, who is all this world and all this wealth, who begets the whole world jijid Buskains them. The graciotfs lotos Feet of This, oar Mother who imparts bliss immortal to souls, and removes their bonds of birth, and who remains seated with our Father in the hearts of the freed, let me lift up my head.

]. Not having the intelligence nor the grace to understand the trick (real purpose) of the theory promulgated b y Indra's Purohit, Brihaspathi, the Charvaka who is tied down to the pleasures of this sea-girt world, and whose person is rubbed with Sandal and adorned with festive 'wreaths (bases his own case on Brihaspathi's authority) aud. states as follows.
This describes the Saprcme who is neither Rupi noi- Ariipi nor Enpa Hupi^ who is neither Saguna nor Nirsiinn, who traiisceuds all these, and the next Terse deseribea, liow ) { o iiinuifcsts liimsolf 10 maukind. Tiiis gives His condition ns Pure Sat, and which couUl not be anytliiiig unless it ig Chit and Auanda at the same time. Tliis shows H o w God as Light uud Love in every .tiling, and manifests Hiniselt. tUffiises in all and

attaining all the lli;;h<>si, ends. It was in the nature of the Highest (rime which notliin^; can excuse that the man should forget the duties of his station. Their Kighest, ideal was Di//;/. It is wiiii this High Ideal, niiin is jiermitted to live his life in dilTcrent h.^/i/i..,,,.--, and to work for virtue or wealtli or pleasm-e. Jtut if tliis ideal is nui, kept ill view, these a,%pii-ations will surely degenerate into nnjiv hypocrisy, carth-hnnger aud grossest Iteentiousness, aud the wIi.ol<! society uiihijiged. These masters were the builders of society-. Not, imderSanding Brihnsparhi, tlie I.okayitha, despised everything else and took to indulging in grossest forms of pleasure, iii the same way as false |irophcls (here are who seek to justify tlieir drinking and gliittonoiK and riotous acts from the iiia.\inis of Sri Krishna, saying thai when they drink, they drink without any attachment aud as .siM-li 11" siii will attach to them. Sueh is the wav the noble teaeliiugs of noble masters are dragged to the dusi. alas ' alas! 2. Three kindsof A'-'c-;. i,are ^ ' 3, doubtful perception, -i. Ti'-r, prrecption liy Other senses than the eye Jpiiception of a thing in its relation to clas., species and atrihntr.- and action; sini-tr*"^ pr-eeption of tire by the jiresence of I a, perception of a |Howerfrom its smell; giSi, wrong pereeptioi). Anvaya and Vytireka are classed here as direei peireptiou, as involving ' very little of real inference. The namls of the elements believed in by the materialist ai-e given in the next stanza. 5. In stanzas 2 to 6 the Charvaka states his own theory and lie now proceeds to state the other's case and criticiae it and tiniiccuiiur note iu his manner niav better be observed, namely lii heart overflowing with pity and kindness for those deluded f..ols who would not reaililv appiveiate the wo have but go i.h hankering after unattiiinalile fancies ami he fails not to/'r,.;/ i,:,...,,!. , nsfiiinst liis .i-.ia^i.iiisi^, .is all false rfformi-ra do, l.wt. ironv aud ridicule have never bcru known lo secure one siiiLl.j

if fithfulhj and nii^rfri^hhi ,loc as ,h,f,, will be snfficient f.u-

1. ludi-a was dissnsted with the pleasures of liis state, and ;ipired to ROinctliini;- liolier and p\jrer before his tim.;and wished IJ do Mlias. Mis acharvH Briliaspati wishing to turn him from liis Djee ;in(l tn lc:>d liiiii into hi.s foir<uel- life, to Iiim tlie ealii of ihr u-url.Vs jov9 ;nicl tliefiils^tv of -..H uih.^r liopos. Tins tried ti..di vhicli f-rl Ki i-h ni,.ared ' o tin

2S TUi: LIGHT OF TRUTH O SIDDHANTA DEEPIKA, W E D N E S D A Y , T H E 218T J U L Y 1897. K j:;. Oh ! "Why should thefc people follow these

arc ivsolveJ into tlicir chum-, tliL>c' four rlenici\ts. Ami such knowleiltfe constitutes tlio liigliest "Wis^ 0. Against tliis, tlu.-re are tho^o wjio postnlare flic sLj.aratL' existupco cf Karma anil soul anil GoJ. How ilid tlie people cf tliis cartli o^cuil tlicm Tliey a^>ert tlmt tliat tlie incomparable sterile woman Le,1,'ot a sou and the latter got up on the horns c>r tlic liaro ami pliickod without fail Ihc flower of the ! 7 J t von assert tJiat the Karma efl'cctcd in a tt>rmer Mirtli attaches to one his-present life, how is this possililo, when we see all the Karma die with the death of tlie body. Oh, my good Sir. If you say that this K^irina lives iu ftil:.<linma (subfile form, then it like saying that Hamo can burn apart from the ivick of tlif* !:uup. 8. It' you compare the action of Karnui to the dead straw which rotting in the Held comes forth again aIreih gr;iss, this is ])ossiblc wlievever you niiinnre tlic lield witli the straw. .This will illustrate the ca^c of those who wish to derive tiic excreta of a man viio coming tired and hungry was fed with food. y. (J foul, i you say it is by this Kanuu, men's bodii.s audtjualities ai^d intelligence do not fit, then, by what sort of Karma, do not all the tingers on one's ])alm resemble each other. All these dilf(Menccs are due to tlie pro])ortic)nate increase or decrease in the constitiiont element-. 1U. If you say that it is by the effect of Karma meu ( luluiv pleiisnro and pnin, then, tell me, by what sort of Karma, does the body feel pleasure when 1 am sme.irod with fragrani sandal water, and feel extreme discomfort when brought in contact wifh fire. All these are due to the nature of these things. ] 1 If you assei-t there is a soul indepenilent ipf the body, don't make a false assertion. tSucli a smil must be .perceived by one of the six modes of perl eptiun.^ Mie assertion against the proof fnrni~lied ijy perception is like statements about the length of the hare's horn iu the world ! 12. If yon say that God is Arupi, tlicn He is noniutelligent liKe the ^If He is a Rupi, then He is one with the objects of thiS" world. If you say Ho is Rupa Rupi, then tell me, can you suspend a .stone in the sky.
10. I'lie last tlu-co Btnu/as (leiir ilic cxistciicc oF Kaniiii. Tlic Ituddhiat (not EBoteric if you will liavp it) ^'ocs a sie)) liiglier than the C/inviftc anil to t)ii> fotu-rieinents unci ihcii- ])roiliirts, lie adds Kuriini. Karniri in bi^' i;ipitals di) his (!u(l virtic.-illv' il,u caii.-i- ut ^.11 ^ u a t ivliri, v o u kill i l i i - i - . u L - r

v arious delusive paths, and fall into error and sorrow, when their own Yeda as.sevts that the pleinaits evoKe into food and from food ai-ises body, and from the latter mind and the and resolve into each other in the same order ? I f. 0 ! These fools give up the pleasures to hand Tliey arc like those who in this world, hanker after heavenly pleasures and drown themselves in sorrow. feeling thirsty leave the water in their presence and fly after a bcautifnl mirage, only to die of great thirst. l.">. C) to you, C) N'ami, give me yonr hand. imconipnr:ible friend, since you myself the paths of murder and robberjVou are my real pursue like

and vice which the cowards call evil .mid are tlie light of an admiring group of giils with lovely braids of hair. IG. Isa, ai\d Bralimn, \'ishnn and Indra attained their gieatness by having associated themselve.s with their godilesses. If you also wish to attain to such grc.'itness, you will do well also to en joy life with beautiful women with fifigrant locks. 17, 13, ly and 20. Instead of deriving pleasure the society of women, people die by believing in the shams setup false .systems of I'liilo>opliy. and by believing in a future existence. 21. Why do you get weary iu ])niMiiDof Mokslia?

Show nu" one, who had pointed out this way, or Lad seen it, or had he.ird of it 'r AVilli transgressing the laws C)f the king, t^irn mom.y und seek pleasure as well as yon can.
I. .M. N.\i.r,.\.-..\WMv \Tu he rniit!i,ui(h rji.r.vt, Ir. i;, I..

I I .,ulici.u.(l tl.,- ; a . l . o n v ( e ol';,11-o,,.! , . n anil ii-iu- ii. Iln. :UM1 inMc'iircf >,f ,! i.ari ii.Lel ii will be m, :il.Mu,l ramatuiVMii.l l.h.^i.lK-niinH of rral Ui,l,,i6.m to seek to itlcnt i l v i l . i s \aiiiiicli;u- will, Jliiuluisiii. Vmi may as well call this l,c.k;iy[lha wallowiiijr in tlir lowest ^Upths oi passion inul vicp, a loll<.w,.i-,.f llimliii.s.:i; The liam- and oiirsc of Hinduism has been UP .'-o-i alliil tolerani spirit ami spiiii of compromise, to seek to saiicnon and cloiln- wiili its a p p i w al, all sorts of opinions, low and taller, and partly falsi-. Couhl w e loneeive of any country where si> many niyriards of (liv. i!.'Oni ol' Kaiihs and inconsistent practises seek U) live and propoL'ate i lienisel' 4 under a spirit of miscalled mii leh-iou luiiveisal trui,.. r,.,,,], |jp ^^ liidpous and iT|..,-lkM,i iu ..ouu- ol- I he.-^e rovuu.. 11. l-or a dav wlion truth willbi,1 ii, -.n ,;., c u , , , ;,,! i .,11 |(e;,,,|v '














(Continued from page iO)

jtsiobsOsniSiDeuir^eS ^(^aaiaeii^ Qp^^nSa^/i-Ja^aa/u S a D ^ ^ ^ fiiujGauOiueiirajOi:,ir fiOffiOg^^teuaxia^aj f^LDnHiiQifiiiSsoi^ isQanlaaiu if ear f Gf ^ S
O-^ffWilxfllLlOj^iKU- o ' j j l 'ii

ble.^siiij!.-- and I am wanting iu that kind of emotional wor.ship, which mnst plunge me iu Anaiida*, being at the same time attended with my offering of flowers witJi my tears of Ioa'c raining down and niy tongue blabbing-vith addresses directed to Thee eueh jis O

.SV/),/,Y'r((t! () Sn-aiinhi1>liitX ! 0 Sainlhni !

c. innu CJ! fnuU Sl^'^CST

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U Vahchiiii'i-MiirHiy, 0 The Eternal ('iirn who art knottdedge and bliss, Thuu for tlie sake ot souls KNOWLKDOK ANI^ BLISS. niatiii9.-:t I'hyselt' a.s suuli on the mount 'Sim ! O The 0 DaJtshina-SLhtlryr OTlic JClcnml Gin ir'r svlioaiiAbsolute Giver of tlie Muhghu which is aiiuouuceil in knowledge and bliss, Tbou liidst for the sake o1' the Sidilluiutu Philosopliy ! My_//)/(7c intelligence Jias inauifest Thyself siicli on the mount Sirw^l O mncii relied on the durability of my body which is 'J'lie Absolute Giver of the ITots^ut^ whicli i? ^nuonii- reaHy as intirni as the deluged river-bank excavated ced in the Siddha)ita\\ Philosophy ! Thou didst, sittinfr beneath ; su that any attempt on my part tov ards the on a priestly seat on the said mount under the udicciithaW state of the said il/o/i-ffAa will be as feeble Banyan tree, /eveal iu one sacred word iho trui' as that of a man crying for the moon. spiritual knowledge and Tliou didst also sliow thi' Now, then, what is tlie true path of attaining the Supreme Eternal Bliss to bo attained and cnjoved fnmi iiiliiiitt: knowledge Even tJie sure appliances 1 have such knowledge. re.sorted tonamely/bVoi'i/n,*" A7y /i/aS and Yuya** Upon whom diilst Thou deign to confer lliis Ijoun have not produced any material effect upon me. Of Certainly upon those full-matured Munif*, fiahiil;n^ Aitt' uil'j b l i s s . &e, who most inquisitively stood worshippinir lit-forct , G o ( l i s Ix^Jicficcnl a n d h r n i - ' - tliL* i i a u i o * i ' i n k i t r u . Thee. But, as for ray part, I doubt whethei- I ina\ * l i t ' i s frt'lf-L'.tistcni m i l l h u i i c c t h e i i a n i o S i a i ' i u m t ^ l i i t , ever be able to find shelter in the bounties ot TJiv ? l U ' b e a u t i f u l t ol i i t i dc-\ iiU-;-!; a n d l i c n c c t l i e n a i v t t i m u b i u ' . Grace: Because I have not yet made myself woi Hiy Th\ i ' l ' l - ' n o t c . ' i t ot i n - 3 r d l e r M - . V f . l l i c ."^iainl",^ c n l i j i l c t ^ 'la^-i

G DH > 1 as thi; IvrtuNAL G C " winj iO - E 4> UL

* DttkBhina-Mfutliy irtcnns rlic Ong bittiiip with llic f:M i- tuinid to die South. t GumSpiriiiial Tcathei-. J The modem Trichinopoly. This mount was onc<' :;u\ i rin-il 1-v one Tiruaim ; bonce the name probably. Mokgba means emancipation' or liberation. Vide note to uih vcree fupni. MuniYogi. S Sanaka, Sananta. Sau:ituii;i and Sauatknnuira an: tin- euu^ Urahm'i (.of ili'; Triniiy ami nrc alw avb called the

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pS('. i;/ti nieuiis and inclndcs al* dei'ui itnuil mural pi^ncticeawhere I he imu-lisiT Burrondcrs his body to Go<l (Sii iO.
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2S TUi:




T H E 218T J U L Y


course, no echooU of philosophy can hope or profess to quoueed wit+nrat these Sadanafi.'*' O, then, for that day when with ovevwheltninp joy, I will become absorbed by Thy Divine Grace in (he Eternal Happy Communion With Thee !:The Supreme state of Infinite knowledt,'e and Bliss where even the best of religions c:uinot roacli, :is it is beyond all thought and description ; nnd where Thou and Thon alone dost remain to me, everything else including me' and ' mine' being lost and beheld in Thee and Thyself beheld in all.

by Thy Gnana Snkti* the souls languishing under the hardest noose~of p o s o . t

are uv l i a ;

fioajiaSL. i^QiDirar ^LOSifiiaiy^ffiii iLj^iBsr-Bnafjsnsajk Ou(nLjaienQ^Qa^Slema^sar an QuniuiSeinQLDUJitjBjSliSp Cuir^uS^l fm suseeauLpitairirwiTiiju Guni^eu 1 i^.rh 0^iijeJiises,iD(y>ia. eunaii jrejrsuQfir(ijiSQiu


^ (7 t S ^ ,T * ( j D ^ ai) (T l i

O m u l - o j ,f i f f / B ^ 3

sl^jSA^&iQiu.iiTefiCSsiiir anQfm ^iCiQutD li O DalshinH-Marthy, The Eternal Guru who art knowledge and bliss, Thon didst for the sake of souls swaiLDSVLDirSei'p unsunf^^^p manifest Thyself as such on the mount Sira ! 0 The f cL 0I-SI) IJS lis em OfinJ^iiB^X Absolute Giver of the Molsha vrhich is announced in S W. S so eu UJ aU Q^ GOT ^ ^eS?'J JJ the Siddhanta Philosophy ! Tliou hast produced the Si^UJ'TSSr I^LS ^^ ^t five elenients and from the five elements Thou hast Off ^sS^rjstsu ^iyu-giasrGioiTjGoii created the objects of the universe both animate aod inanimate. A n d to all creatiircs Thon hast thus imparted consciousness and revealed the Vedas and the Si sir La OJ .J et!T:6 ^ '^qt^Qsu. like SastrasJ and hast also appointed many religions 0 Dalishin'i-Mi'rthy, 0 Tlic lOternal Giirn who art systems, the Saivalym^ &c. A n d beyond the reach of knowledge and bliss. Thou didst for the sake of sonls all religions contraversies. Thon hast fixed the blissful manifest Thyself as sncli on the nionut Sim ! 0 The state of Mona\\, where reigns supreme the conciliatory Absolute Giver of the Mnk.ihn which is aunonnced in peacefnlness. the Siddhanta Pfiilosophy ! Since, as a matter of fact, How is it, then, 1'hon ha?t not bestowed Thy Grs\Ce I sec myself not free f i o m many evil (jualiticssnch as iipon mfe so as to enable me to appi-oach Thee ? egotism, envy, passions, ilesivcs, depravity &c., I am 0 Thon Infinite Lord of eternal entirety, whose led to think tliiit Thou art not tlwolling in mo. Art form is known to be the Prnnava^, the real end of the Thon, tliercfore, to be called limited and not Omnipresent ? Certainly not, 1 should smv. Because, Thou Vedas, I do understand T h y real Provident Design : being the only Sat and nil the rest amtf before 'I'hee, Thon wilt only reveal Thyself in full to true profound nothing can over affect Thy Ijeing innnanont in all * Gnaim-Eakti moang Divine 1 iitolliijciice (the power of Chit). and animating (dl. And I know, indeed, that Thou t Viile note to tlie "tli verse. X Sastra means scicncc or pliilosophv. art tlic ti'anscendent motioiilefs lord of the Moksha He Iiu-ntioiis Saiva reliirioii beinp; tlic srcnt post to Uoksha and World and as sncli Thyself dost upmifest and revivify
a Drf?a j l f B J - 1 ? a ' ^ (yj ( J ^ ir

* Tlicvsi' :! sail.iiiiis fiii-acticos) Ic':ul the soni to tnic IJivino kiinwleti^t^ :iu(l tlov()[ iijiial luvc juul, rlicn, llod wIid is all-Love or Stvaiu apiK^ars as Giivii ill ilip limiiaii form nriil imports (.Jiiaiiaiii, wliicli i>i till' ji'-ff ih pull,mil (stciO tiiiil pualiliw llic soul til f^ivc a|> itself to (loil anil lii cniiir alisorlied in lliiii. Tlin.s ilic four .stops arc Sariya, Kirlya. ^'oL':l ami Oiiaiia. A.-iii iiii'aii--anil iiielmli'^f ilii'Sat ((niil).

as sncli tlie mother ^chunl. Tlie Saint later on says " *u>uSu> ^ir n- tb" (TUe Saiva Keli^ion and Pliilosopliy ie the perfectesc of all other systems). [ I t would ajipcars that the great SamaliDftam Pillni of Vadalur \ised to olijeet to tins SoiMnyoKi, SB it meant a mnr^'a and a etcp merely. It ahonldjbe merely called ' SnicnIII", ' The llishest Anubava.'Ed.]. 1 | T

Samura/a Siddhanta

as a

Villi' note to the 2iul Vide note to the 9th

verse. verfo.









218T J U L Y




w h i l e , o n tlto o t b e r h B n d ,

Thou dost never

fit^lusMiitoir^ QuSfiiudLii^t^it
s ^ ^ i S A S * ToiriAOflr t i r ^

lk.tli7elf b e felt b j i h e f e i g n e d devotees.

^BmpuirimmtiGi^mi O Dahahinu-MArthy, O Tho Eternal Ihtnt who ai-t knowledge and bliss. Thou didst for the sake of souls manifest Thyself as snob on the mount Sirh ! O The Absolute Giver of the Moksha which is annonnced in the Siddhanta Philosophy ! Piaise be to "Hiy inateml love to ns. Seeing that wc fsoufs) were lying c o n - / cealed like an embryo in the darkness of attaea-nuila, * Thon didst benevolently take ns out and net us to the cycle of re-births guarding ns at the same time with five kinds of paint and feeding and developing ns with fruits of kannatAnd thou didst, then, cause ns to play the part of re ineamatioH in tho worldly theatre and didst, rightly call us the rharacters of ' Jivas*; Thon didst also from the Vedas tht; rules of our play to be strictly observed and acted upon ; if tl.ey bo strictly followed by us, we wonld In; placed in the Mukaha of Eternal Light and Blis Otherwise we Wonld be hurled down to,suffer undei the horrors of Fama'*^ cruel pnnishment su as tc mend ourselves for the EtermU Libemtwn withonl eternal damnatiou. 0 Lord, Thon art, thn*, oni true Beloved Mot}uir\\.

vm^SimQu&ai tSammmdIimujMttwM
fifluOuf (SiSfium uuimGeir tifimsmiigfOtrS'JK '

O Dakthind-Mnrthy, O The Eternal Gwu who art knowledge and bliss. Then didst for the sake of sonls manifest Thyself m each on the mount Sirh ! 0 The Absolate Giver of the Moksha which is annonnced in the SxddhMta Philosophy ! All the time I was ignorant of the bnbble-like nature of my body, the product of the five elements, the snmmum bonnm -ef my life was merely the pleasures of food, clothing and the like. Bnt, the moment I was gneionsly blessed with Thy knowledge, all my epicurean thoughts and aspirations Taniahed; my mind does ever since long after nothing else but Thee. And what is more surprising to ms i that, at the very thought of my mortal condition, my heart shudders, my body wears out like bees-wax exposed to fire, and, both night and day, I simply droop without sleep. MtSilL^Jmmm m^miaBpSmfimipio *tm m^mii*(g jpaSmiL, u<J uip

al/0#ic ( J W l u u r a r

^fm mm


O u a i * <0 W iL Q p ^ ^ i J . ! ^ u

n^v!. ij 9m.

QuSmiShm luiil.- mut^fiiL

TM* Bot* to the tli rm*. a -


* Vidr BIKM tu IIK' ^LI mil <l<li Tcnra Th Bre kinda of |tn rr Jh imia- (1) *ri<iuir from si nats of u m b r v o , ( I ) from binh. l a r (4) iIIhtm u d (S) Uca'ti J Vida nut* t In<l >, n.<>. .J r f a n r t u * u U to ewM( u to cs* ilw fruit* of inir KuiHa (Ammji-tit). I Y b m it ikv D i * of UiMk awl HU. lafwrriM^c m la ihr a><>tk.-rk<wid <d Cwl i, ' And akti of liid).


(' D(ik.<hiiin-Mih-tlni,

0 The Eternal




knowledge and bliss, Thon didst for the sake of souls iijiinifest Thyself as sucli on the mount Sini ! O The Absf'liitc Ciiver of the Muk-dnt which is announced iu tlic Sidillanita Philosophy ! Grautl -was Thy aitq^iclouf (iicseni-e on tlio beautiful mouot Sirit under tlie Ba:>y(i>i tvcc ; grander still was that occasion wlieii ;icat emotion and solemnity were excited in the devotifual hearts of the nuniis that stood then before 'I'hoe ; and grandest was Thy sacred symbol, Thou ilidst respond (o them, which at oncc signified the end i.f nil ends or Kiita.t*, namely, Vedantn, Siddhanta &c. O my blaster, boundless hath been Thy Grace to Steins' my intelligence rusted with ignorance l i k e coppcr, TIioii didst kindly put me in this carneous b o d y and heat me with the fire of^^f^ana ; and when [ attained the desired maturity, viz., 'mala-parihagam,f 'I'hou didst touch mc with Thy Grace, which at once like the alchemist's stone converted rie into the finest rold, i- c., realized divinity in me. Thou hast, indeed, made nie Thy servant.

the Siddhaicta Philoaophy ! As Mmvna Guru Thou didst instil into my lieart that the Final Bliss of Moksha, bej ond which there is nothing to be attained, ie where one overpo^^ered with eternal joy becomes absorbed in Thee, tho All-filling ocean of Bliss, who art beyond the'cosmic condition.and above mitta maya* and-yet inseparably connected-with all so as not to be knowable either as monistic or as dualistic; who art the Niimalaf Being of changelesa entirety beginningless or endless and hast neither q iality nor name nor f6rm nor an upper nor an under nor sides ; who hast no such tahvas J like mind, tongue, &c. and consequently neither ^uiy purpose nor wearisomeneaa, nor pleasure nor pain ; and who art neither the knowledge nor tluknower.
N. B.The Saint means to give hb to understand by this versr (33) that the nature of Brahman can, in no manner, be determined except by stating that cve-ry attribute i.i rlrnicd of Him. c. f. the 18th verse fiifiyii.

lU^sBpfien^Quj firsreu^fwuff^ttajii e&fl^so/bjtid Q/Suj J!)IIU>e)}QfiLD/!jJpi

^a lUDsit wis^jrQfi Qfisir^uisirQp^^Stsi)

^eSSOnJesetfLDQeueSlQiueifeif Qp(t^Qaiairiiixir^u
unff n^uniuuO^ uffLDOj^^^euiTiLi^uj Quj^tnT^ennopp



udrOueirffiaBiifi^aj^uitiiiruiaimiSSso a nSj^/is^m ^Q^drGeuemQaiLniuQeiir

Qeon eirpp/S"tm'ipji enniapsi^LDSsrQpLOpJli

La^^uSy^jas^ s^aeunfi^eip eHQea SL'uj to ^ ^ tl.T (j SL'^ L .7 al'^ C pQweneSGa.'

SirSS^eirdiseuQj ^iL^^Qpd^^Qnj
Smununes ie




O Dak^himX-Murihy, O 1'he Eternal Gum who art knowledge and bliss, Thou didst for the sake of soujs manifest Thyself as such on the mount Sira .' 0 The Absolute Giver of the Moki<ha which is anuounced in
T!||-(I//'".-(encla) .'ire six in number, niimely, (1) VcdanYo, (2) Siddhaiif'i, (3) Xatli;ui([i (tlip end of Xutliani or pound), (4) Butha(end lif knowledge), (o) Yogaufti (end of Yoga), and (6) Kalanta rnd of iill sciences, philosopliiea, Ac.) c. t. The Snint'e conplet

0 Dahshina-Murthy, 0 The Eternal Ghiru who art knowledge and bliss. Thou didst for the sake of souls manifest Thyself as such on the mount iSirJ ! O The Absolute Giver of the Moksha which is announced in the Siddhanta Philosophy ! With true motherly love and unlimited flow of Thy bountiful Grace, Thou didst
Sutta means pure nature. or clear, as in undifferentiated original

t Ninmala=not subject to mala or Jiasa or impurity; pure, unsullied. J Tatwae. Vide note to 11th verse. The words in the text are G)if)irn and Gnnna which mean tho knower and the knowledge respectively. Along with these words ' G'neyo' which means ' knowable' will be used by the Saini later on.

(I t r the day when I will attain knoivledge like those who knew ilic t i v c i i ' " - from Veda7ifa to Kalan/c. + The Tiiniil is " ^Nufiu-'t .




D E E P I K A , WlCDNKSDAy, THK 21ST J U L Y 180"


G o n i a p p H r to m a i m d p l w i a r T h y 8 c r d

I eanoot tharefora, pretend ot powar of effect* knowtadge.

p o M c w mi i o d a p e t i d with and, Thy Karmmk bo in a b o r t ,

iDS*aam]r I m t d . ^ i d i t i B l M v i B t o m j
ole A i A o M * p r o d m t i r s tm Thf/ Dwitf Amit of tlw

mind (bat



Mpmtivt thinkinjf

Ulinial o f tlie or ikm mul

a p a r i e n e e (rf e t a v a l A n d i a f t u i t a W t a r e i t ; aiOioat ercr ra Tog-kiMMfa beiinr t k o

to vt- diimh

I aball h a r a n o aiorp i g a o n i B r . a a d a o n o r a ind n o a i o r ^ a t n b o d m o s t n ,

m o r e iirti^mi o f m y o m i . Tboii a b r i c mast uic T b y Icuowlcdgv a a d makr

wtt^oirt a n p t o y i u f a j w i f natara of tha MiAlm'at a M nor u O , t k m , my naitkar i a Ugikt Dor u two, naither u

in t i d i n g t o n n d e i ^ n J in M o M a ^ nor ueitiier Ahtt DM o i u t i i ,


WW ' i T f i n a o f c r a a l ria^a f r t * d f r o m b a m a n i t A .

a e u M t h i u g poww,<(l ^f a StkH of n<adtiit|? i h i v s n p r e m e


L o r d , i t ia b y t b e h e l p o f T h y Ant

alona tbat I oau erer thiuk aod of the ancient u f r n .

^ r

Lf c a l l , l e ^ ii' m, uk.. i - A

y,' <J


knowledge aad

O Thi

E t e n i a l itmrn


Th af

blisa, ' I ' h o a m^nifcNt M y s e l f a^ Mich oh

Abaulote Giver of the tWSi'Mkauta

d i d t f o r t b a k e uf M i a b the moiiBt wbit-h ncby


cm! a

ia a a n o n a c c d in Highai Aan'ya, oa to all tha rmr Icarr* of or

PbikNopbr f be

Mokitha r a n u e v e r O DmUum.i.U,>Hkg, 0 T h e fcWul GOm who 5i>*i 1 O art, iloal^ The in ^n Iiord an-nry b ^ i tbt of


a/uxf, i e , either b y d o i n g b^akti g m a g nwKt- ull o r e r t h e n i n e ^ c o n t i n e i i t a a n d W t h i n g pUe*.-*, o r b } - t t H r t vileiK>a m r i n g t h e puiii fipr* u W r r a n e e uf

k a o w l a d f e a d b t i a * . T h o u di<l>t f o r t l i a a a k o f u a m f e a t T h y a e U s b Mtrli o n t h e m o o i i t Abaolata Givar ot the M o l Jta the5uUAMtePhiluMpiiv than E t e r W lluvvuly

h i c h in OB<Hinc(.<d bu<1 b e a t u w t n i r im b a t T b y

o t Kiiigor w i t h d r y tmen be eajoj* rmr *be ttamce' } bv hu b .

! T h o u ait the IVrfaet It

w a t e i ur air. o r k t p i u g t k - tjnirh e i n p t j w i i b a ] il o f drgr*toii arisinjr t ^

uf aoubi h o w t n g thcui T h y m a r c y Uliw.

Koi eau t b W v i n e eieiMW of

HttiaB ir

t h a t B i a k e a oh.' a * t t h e f r a i t * u f Hiy K t m n t i a a p c f t - v i t e d a a d , w ) u 4 i my mireraal mut|. I amuix |>fii*fMk<t> . tAMl S M a t t * i the |<rarfln r e e d hi1 e v i l f a o u U b c c u w a e^orlnatiaK a e d , t i w t w i n n u t b l * h w t o L>tow T U w , i n d t t d , actuary nM

V u g a , i n t h e p r w i H - * of

witlMi a w w a a t o i n r a w > .1 rr TL. . Vi^ aut* Iv Mtli Wlfc -"K*

1 P t - m H i t ! t m K "ttrd mi to-l U


; Th." iff iba.^ltu* ' l " (irnr. < MM* l4 MJ fl>tl- H <' .iial . n * cuBi-J # - v ( U ' > 1. ^ M d M t l > H
i t k u w o e l w i l I atli

If T W I w x M a<
aad >

i r,dt M e lo alib '

TIli J l l i l II i e d * e w - e r * - 1 . 1IW- I m S f >fcr S (itM. T " 1 T- "T M t f W ^ r m mmd in* *!( B). ( M t M i i M * " * ' mmt ^ (iWr>c w^avtn 4lli T miriirtillai < * ^ ' - MtetlM 1

K art
^ k w w


tkr f f .



t^-j^ t^mJ rm'rnmm mmd

mrr tttr iiy n m ^n. it>T


' < . Ilt^ * TW irf fi^c*










2l8T J U L Y


produced by cleasing his ten veins* and controlling and uniting in the Soina^st orb the vital spirit and the fire in his body, or he acquires the super human power of preserving his body for many a Kalpa J How then, cau the final liberation of bliss be iittainfcd ' Certainly only by hiou-ing and uniting myself in love to Tliee, whii.-li is the Patki-Qiiana^ the end and aim of all Guana.


1. Fresh air is the best tonic a nervous pei'soncan have ; so never be indooi-s if yon can get out. 2. Sunshine means life and strength. 3. A cold bath every morning before breakfast, if o n c e begun, is the best strengthener of the nei*ves I have e v e r known, and any day I would sooner want my breakfast than my bath. 4. Food in modei-ation. Fmit in the morning, and all the milk you can take, but be sparing with tea and coffee. Take cocoa instead. Medicine. Leave that to the Doctor.

(To be


J O T T I N G S . LIFE PIJOSPECTS.Accoi-ding t o t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e

THREI; Ilixvi.Be content to do the things j'ou can, and fret not because you cannot do everything. Never reply in a like manner to a sharp or angry word; it is the second word that makes the quarrel. Make the best of what you have, and do not make youi'self miserable by wishing/or irhat you have not. Good for evilLet us be like trees, that yield their fruit to tkos" who thi-ow .stones at them. Ar.CRIHOL AKiv ARCHEKy.Expert testimony against alcohol receives added evidence from professor Hein, of Zurich, who says, " The Swiss excel as archers. I had occasion to speak with one oi these famed huntsmen. Tliis clever marksman assured mc that all who attain skill in shooting are stri('tly temperate or abstainers. They live upon milk, butter, <.'heese, and eggs, and never touch alcoliol. Many do not smoke, and they also go early to.bed." Sb:\.f-Ri;t.IA.vcK of the right kind should grow side by side with dependence upon G^od and His providence.
Till- 10 vpiiis or f i ' i ' n - (Dasa-nacli) are : I c l a l k S i l S i tlio oaiiMl wliich pusbea from tliu eml of the spinal column to the head through tlic left nostril; (2) P I n g ' a l a , the canal "vvhich iiasses as the above tlironj^li tiie rigiit nostril ; (3) S u s h u m n a tlie canal which passes straight through the six centres the ninia, the private part, the navel, the heait, tlio uvula, and the fore-head; (4) K a n d h a r l , the canal dividinj;- itself intu seven paesap^es for the seven kinds of nathani or sound lj^eiu<r produced and located in the neck; (-) and (6), A t t l and S l m i v a i dividing themselves into ten liranchcs in all occupy i lie eves(71 and (8) A l a m p U d a l and P u r u s h a occH]>v the cars i (9) K u k u which connects the navel and the generic or-'an and (10) S a n k i n i which occupies the organ of generation. t Soma is the moon our benefit. which is said to remain in our forivhed for to tlio des-

insurance authorities, an habitual drunkard of forty has nn expectancy of eleven year.s of life, while a sober man of that age is likely to live twenty-nine years.
KXOWINO UXE'S .SKIIK.Goeth o n c e a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n

How can we learn to know ourselves ? " thus: " By reflection never, but by our actions. Attempt to do your duty, and you will immediately find what is in you " Actions speak louder than woixls, just as example is ever better than precept.
T o MAKE A HO.ME H A I ' I ' V . B e w a r e o f t h e first d i s a g r e e -

ment. ,2. Learn to speak in a gentle tone of voice. 3. Study the characters of each, and sympathise with all in their ti-oubles, however small. 4. Learn to say kind and pleasaut opportuitity offers. things whenever

5. Remember that, valuable ' as is the gift of speech, silence is often more valuable. 6. Bewai'o of meddlers and talp-bearei-s. 7. Xever change a bad motive If a good one is conceivable. 8. Be gentle and firm witlTchildren. 9. I-earn to govern yourselves, and to Ije geutle and patient. 10. Never speak or act in angei until you have prayed over your words or acts, and concluded that Christ would have done so in your place. 11. Do not expect too much from othei's, but remember tliat all have an evil nature whose presencewe mast expect and that we should forbear and forgive, as we often desii-e forbearence and forgiveness ourselves. 12. Be an example of courtesy and love.

J Kalpa is the cosmic period from the renovation truction of the worlds.

Pathi=Lord ; Gnana=true knowledge; true knowledge of the supreme Lord (God). I Gnana are of three kinds in general, vi?... Pasa-Gnana (knowI ledge of Prapancto), Fasu-Gnena (knowledge of self), and PathiGnana (knowledge of the Lord.)

3S T H E




OR S I ' : > D H A N T A











S i d d h a n t a Deepika.
W E D N E S D A Y , T H E 21ST J U L Y 1897

CHATHURTHAMSARVAM. THE number four is not so mystical looking as the namfeer three or five, yet it h L a certain soliEs dity, strength, broadness, and completeness attached to its signification. It expresses anything secure in its foundation, complete in its structure and universal in its influence, and transcending in its authority. In the common wisdom of the people linger such maxims,
' aaweuir ^.i^-cur^ ^eau'

' W h e n four meet, they constitute an assembly.' ' tiraieuii Q^eui e^nsr^ ' ' The testimony of four person , has thTT authority of a divine oracle.'
' If IT maid IT n G^aiQan'

' Are they the four or are they celestials: AS such, the word plays an important part in the philosophy,religion and sociology of the Indian People, and all division and classification proceed on a fourfold basis. To begin with, we have the four Yedas. They represent the collective knowledge o mankind in every department. The Hindus will not admit that there is to be found any knowledge of any kind outside the Vedas, which is not to be found therein. It is their great treasure house, where every man can come and take whatever and only so much as he requires. They adapt .themselves to the need and capacity of every one. The Veda is compared to the mirror, which every man can look into and see his own reflection. Hence its claim to be as Universal Book. Dividing all mankind into those who seek wealth or pleasure or virtue or Divine union, the fmiT great purnshathamas, the Vedas point oat the means for attaining these ends; and those who do not bear this four-fold end of the Vedas are no

doubt at a loss to understand how in the R i g Veda, f o r instance, the only cry and the ofi-rcpeated cry by the singer is for gold and silver, cattle and rain, food and drink, wife and children, health and victory &c. In every healthy society, the majority must care for such things, and all cannot become Yogis and Gijaiiis But in pointing out the means f o r seeking such purely material ends, precautions are taken, to that the individual may not concentrate and subjugate everything to his own selfish ends and to look on his' own self as the be-all and end-all of e.xistcnce. Even hero, he is trained inithe path of virtue, I19 ha^i so jjractise some kind of altruism, he has to sacrifice to the Gods and distribute alms to the poor. Tlic wicked and tlie miserly and tlin ignoble conld not liop.L- to gain these end<. The idea oT rc'l;ritli so fully believed in by every l)ody, acts a clieek to s(jr-i;i,l e.xcess. Herein is the dilVrr^ 'ici between the Indian and I'^uropean materi.'il eivili/.ation. The religious autliovity in I'Jiirope is too weak to control all these different and conflicting- elements and ideals in Society, and as sueli. Self, in the biggest capitals, is the label to be marked on the material civilization of Europe; and the conscfjuent abuses are flooding all the countrie.s touched by J'^uropeans and even in Indian Society-, they arc slowly and surely creeping into, and undermining those foundation.built on charity and good will and morality and contentment. W e were almost inclined to strike out this sentence, Avhen we remembered how many great men and great women have led the van in the greatest philanthropic movements of the day ; but we are speaking of national characteristics and tendencies,and not tliose of individuals. The fourth pursharthaiii L. ili>(1 generally as the highest end, and the in. tor ;\ttaining the first three ends, the rituals of tlje K;irma Kanda are more or less relegated to a subordinate position and the Gnana Xanda doctrincs slowly assert themselves. And there is a four-fnld division uf tliis Gnana Kanda. After a man lins ceased to cnre fur wealth or pleasure ;iiid has attained t'l a well-ri'iriii: ted and balanced mind, some of the <jnestioiis lespccting the nature of his higher powers and the liiglier ends begin to trouble him, and he begins to (MKinire into the proof of things, tjieir nature, the end lie is fitted for, and the means for securing this end. These constitute the Pramana, Lakshann, Siidana and Palanadhyaya in Vedantic enquiry. It is nut generally remembered that lieligion and Philosophy are not things to be meddled with by over^- botly






or. S I D D I I A N T A




21bt J U L Y


TLIO Adharvasiklia Upanishad adapts a four-fold divi>:ion of the Pranava and proceeds to give various meanings to each syllabic. A n d the follo\vin'g hymn Pursuing our orginal di.ssertatioii, in tJie cliiiptor on in tho Mahimnastntra" a most interesting aud Prrtmana, we postulate/o!(r things or yi^itr planes of elevating song, suins-up many of these thoughts: existence. Maya, or matter or the plane, Anda- " Ti.e mj'stical and immutable one which being comkarna or thp mentHl plane, Atmn or siiiritnal, posed of the thi-ee letters a, u, m^ signify successively God or the Highest existence. These Lonr hnve a sort the three vedasthe three states of life (aw^aking, of relatiou, of the one below to the one higher, dreaming and sleepingthe three worlds heaven, inter-depondent and inter-wovoii. whirh is called car'.h aud hell,the three Gods (Brahma, Vishnu ' adwaitha'. There are four andnkarna, Manas, Chitta, and Hudiajand which by its na.-;ai soutid is indiAhank'-ira and Buddhi. There are four uvasthas, cative of thy, fourth office, as supreme Lord of all Jagr,Swapna,Susl;upti and Duviyam, a n d / o u r bodies ever expresses and sets forth tliy collective and single Sthula, Sukshuma, Karaua and Sutta according Lo forms. some. Then in regard to Sadauas, there are four paths Wt^ will elaborate some of these subjects, explain or Margas, called Dasamarga, Satpidramnrga, Saliamanv of these terms in our future articles. margn and Sanmarya, callcd otherwise Sariya, Kiriya, Yoga and Gnuna and a Beligion which claims to biuniversal must contain these four paihs. These a i c Ivi.i criMLAr, SiM-Kn.The superiority of electricity in means provided to men, and adapted to oach one's attrtinintf speed is shown by the following analogies. A capacity to ostablish a relation between himself and horsg can make twenty miles an hour, a steam boat the most High either as servant and inastei, .son and eighteen, a sailing vessel ten, a storm moves at the rate father, friend and friend oi-a.s Self. W e had four pupils ot tliiriy-six miles an hour, hurricane at seventy, a rifle who sat under the feet of the first Gnin, who after- hali sit one tluusaud : but electricity gets over two hundwards became tbe fourgrea.t teafliciri. 'junaka, Sanat- red iiiul eighty-eisflit thousand miles p,n hour. By this kun-.ara, Sanaiidana anil vSanatm.i. In modern we see that it travels faster than cither souud, which days, wo had four great tcachcrs to illustrate the maku.- oip;lit hundred and forty-two miles an hour, or four groat margas, Appar or Aludaya Adigal (Dasa- lij.';ht, which comes to us at the rate of one hundred, and marga), Gnanasambantha or Aludaya Pillayar uiuoty-two thousand miles wi hnnr. (Satputramarga), Sundarar or Aludaya Arasu (Sahamarga') and Manickavachaka or Aludava NamLi (Sanmarga). W e only siid that these came to illustrate these Margag, hut they were no viargif themselves, They were true Gnania and Bhaktas and we find as

and any body; but the qualifications of the lulltikari are fully defined, and these include a perfect rigidity in moral conduct. In fact, the course of study prescribed for the Indian, insist on a preliminary course iu Ethics and Dharina Sastras, before he can proceed up to Logic and mental philosophy The oniis-' sion of ethics in treatises and discourses dealing with leligion and philosophy alone should not be misunderstood. But what has come upon the present day civilization thp.t it tolerates so little reference to Ethics ia public platforms and discussions and in print.. The man who would deliver a Icctare on the whole datios of man will be now felt an ;i\vful bore ? Is it because that it is alwajs distasteful to htar of advice which we fee' wo cannot follow? \V"e have described the present day civili/.ation as 'selfish' above, and we have to add to it that it, i.s hypocritical and insincerc, alas! alas!!

sucli, the highest philosophy in Appar's poems, and the highest love poured forth in Manickavachaka'B. To the four margis are provided the four state^ 'of bliss, Saloka, Samipa, Serupya aud Sayujya. The \'edantis also postulate a/our-fold Sadana Skthushtayam such as Nityanitya, Vasthuvivekam, &c. Then in regard to our conception of the most High, we regard Him as the 'I'rimurthies in the Tnatorial plane but in the bi,L'host plaue where thii senses, and speech and thought ccase to penetrate, He is the. fourth, Chathurthnm. He is the ' Thiniya Padartha'; and wc arc frequently warced in our sacred writings not to mistake this ' f o u r t h ' with anything lower. In onr soeiolofry, we have the/our castes and four
ttsli rirniaiiis-

SNI:.\K KINDLY ?Haish word.s have power to read in teuain. The dearest kindred ties of enr^h. And .sever friendship's sacred chain. In wosen even from childliood's l.irlh.


T H E ETHICS OF R U R A L . * KCRAL, iii/fivmil, signifies a couplet of a peculiar U33tre. As the work is composed of s,uch coupluts, it pd.sses by the name of Tirukkiiral, by synecdoche, Tiiu (^(5/dcnotiiix I'oly Tlje author goes by the .anio of TlriivallKi-ri Naiicuutr. i These ave the popular names by which the work and the author pass current Tamil I.itcraturL' Miid amoii^ Tamil scholavs. There are other hoiiorific designations for the author, sucli .18 Saint, Poet, Divine Poet, iJrahma and Great scholar ; and foi tiie work, such as the work of three books. Modern \'od;i. Divine AVork, Faultless word, Tamil Veda and Universal A'eda. Those of you, who msh to have our idea of the personnl appeai-auce of the sage, may proceed U) Jiis shrine at Mylapore, a minute's w:\lk from tlie Barber's
Bridge, n n d w i t n e s s the s t a t u e o f t h e Canonized saint. T h e f o l d e d k n o t o f his l o c k , the b u s h y moustaclie a n d

beard Rweeping over his breast, the gravity ot the forehead, the broad eyes revealing his noble heart, and the grace of hia majestic frame are such as remind one of Plato and Socrates. Add to these, the beads iu bis right and the inorat code in the left hand, the sftint in a sitting posture on a raised seat, seeming to impart instruction to his disciples, j'ou will verily believe that hp is a Tumil Rishi next to Agasthya. He is in fnct said to be the great grandson oi' Agasthya. At least the geiiealogy framed by the pandits states so. Modern researches of Tamil scholars of critical vmnieu,ud also internal evidence of two of the l i v e G reat Tamil Epics, go to establish, that TiruvaUuva Na^aridr lived iu the fiist century of the Christian era, if not earlier. At any .ate, the Dark Ages of Europe had not entirely passed away, the Middle Ages had not yet dawned, the Mohametan caliphate there was not, and Christendoin was just in its seed-pot, when our moralist was planning his work, and bending over his loom for his daily bread, in the great historical city of Mylapore. Moat of the great Champions and Leaders of Hinduism, in its various aspects of Sivaism, Vaishnavism, and Adwaitism, made their avatarg a. considerably long time after our great Eclectic. Nevarthelefs it was an age when the Tamil country was, within historical periods, for the first time, in its zejiith of power and fame. The Tamil country was a
A pdppr re"'l bofor the Yonng Men's Hindu Madrae. Association,

great commercinl Emporiiiui between tin; East and the West. Tlie Aryan Uriiliiinins liad long ago coli"iizcd the Diavidian country, and seen red, to sonio extent, ministerial and spiritual otliccs under tlic Tliicc Great Tamil sovereigns. The third and last Tamil Colkgo of t'le Pi!udiyas in MaduratJio then great University of Southuru Lidiawas in a flcMiiisliing state. A t the metropolitan seats, we nndei.siaiiil iyijin contemporary literature, there were iliuklliist and -Jain .tlD-ines side bysiJe witli "N'aisliiiava ;ml .Saiva .einplis, There were tenijiles deilieated to lii'lra and lirahnia. now forgctten deities. It .seems to have lieeii an of Religious toleration. It was an agi., when learneil scholars were patroui/.ed liy geiitletiieii, hciues and K-iugs.. It was an age of wide poetical creation. It was also an age, wheji (jtber iine arts i-eceived jiriiieLly patronage. It vs-as the Elizaljethan and the Augustan age, as it were, of the Tamils. Ivvcejiting the modern wonders of the Press, steam and eleeti-ii-ilv, the age seemed lo be an aiehci\ |'0 of the nilighi-iwd currint century. In such an age, and such a country, anJ amidst such classical sjr/orundiogs, was born, at Mylapore the Socrates of Sonthero Indiaihe last of the sevea issues of the intermarriage of a Brahman artd an outcaste, as tradition would have it. It is not our purpose here to eke out truth, by analysing the myths and legend in the crucible of modern scholarly criticism. That there was such a personage who produced the great work is sufficient for our present purposes. Nor need we expatiate upon the spotless and unsuUied lifD said to have been led by this Solo Gnanion of the Tamils. His work is one of the two oldest works now extant in Tamil Literature in their entirety, the other being the greagrammar of Tolkappiyanar. That this work has been preserved these ISOOyears and more, without tlie least addition or omission, is a lasting evidence of the greatness and immortality of the work. Manv subsequent works of even a later production have undergone such multifarious ter.tnal variations tJiat it is imppossible in many passages to find the real author. The Tamils regard the Tirukkural of TiruvaUuva Nayanar in such high veneration, that they believe the author to be an incarnation of the creator of the universethe great Brahma, nnd have canonized this paragon as a literary saint. Kurai is to tlie Tamils whattheHoly Bible is to Christendom,the K'oran to the followers of the Prophet, and the divine Vedas



OR S I ' : > D H A N T A



21ST J U L Y


to the Brahmans. And its unique feature is that it is not afitnixtared with any mythology or auy special theoloey. Let us now analyse the contents of this great moral code' the master-piece of Tamil Literature'. Tamil Literature is based from very remote times on a peculiar pliilo?.>pliicnl classification. Snhjcci matter uf the domain of literature relates to cither internal or external plieiioinona, mutter interior uOuTflJOT ) or pxtrrior (q^uOurr^s^r). The former deals of the ]);issioiis and affections of the mind which act on man internally ; and the latter of things external tn man. TJiu former treats of elandestine onil wedded /ore ; and the latter of the ways of liviiit^r anil tJiriving in the world, i. e. of virtue and ik:!t/(. y'irtuo, wealth and love avo all held as subservient to, and as means of,-obtaining Jutcrnal Rlis^, which is not discnssed in books, as it is incompreheiisiljlc and indescribable. It is now clear tlnit tlie ^Bl.^hn\an chissiiication of the objects of linroanity into Dharnia, Artha, ]\ama and iMoksha is well involved in a highly philoso]ihic form in the Tamil classification. Tirnvalluca Nnyanar, in the largeness of hij heart, has imposed upon himself a humanizing task of leaving to the world a work which forms us it were a ladder to Eternal Bliss. Any genins^ even of the first class, can add no more to liis work complete in it'^elf. U e discusses at largo Virtue, Wealth and Love, leaving his readers to infer that one who passes safely through these three ordeals is a welcome guest in Heaven. In the Tliird Book of 25 chapters, on clandestine and woddod love, will be found the various shades of niceties in t:iu growth and fruition of Love,, better than you can trace them in the plot of a well-developed English or French novel. There are also a number of other works in Tamil M'liich elaborate Love in idl its traits. They seem to uph"]d an inuiginary and airy ideal of F^DVO. Some o+' these traits are embodieven in pin-ely religious hymns and sonnets. i\Ianickavasagar a veriest ascctichas written a work detailing these traits in praise of Siva at Chidambaram. And it seems a ])aradox that there should be a Book on Love at the end of our profound moral code. This ideal is explained l)y a great scholar and poet of the Madura College in the folioiving manner:One who is initiated into this ideal of love will ask his reverend master " what, sir ! is the wa}' of enjoying this love impossible for mortals ? " The reverend sage

answers the question" You will have, my dear son, before you enjoy this divine love, to perform austere penance", and initiates his willing disciple into th^ mysteries of penance. The disciple after passing through the ordeal of penance penetrates into himself, and begins to abhor the burden of his flesh and its meanness, to depreciate the lusty love which opened his way to penance^ and to see divine light. This divine light leads him unto heaven and perennial bliss even unto eternity. This is the pliilosophj' of the Love of Tamil Literature. And it is a matter of gilding the pill. T o those who have not a lesson of this philosophy of Love, one half of ZTamil Literature is but a lusty lore. Y o u now see that there is Ethics, why even Jivine Ethics too, in this Third Book of Kural. Pa.ssing over the first four chapters of the work, wliich form only a kind of introduction to it, we will take a pleasant walk through an avenue of 104 chapters, which are distributed between virtue and wealth, o-i for the former and 70 for the latter. Of the 34 chapters on virtue, 20 are devoted to Domestic virtue, and 14 to Ascetic virtue. This is the First Book. Ab for the Second Book on Wealth, it .should be here ubsevved parenthetically that Tamil scholars are of opinion that a delineation ol the virtue and policy of the sovereign involves all that' should be said on AVealth. Of the 70 chapters on Avealth, 25 chapters are devoted to Royalty, 10 to Ministers of State, 22 to essentials of a state. The remaining 13 chapters form an appendix to this Book or rather,to the first two books. The earthly Ethics of Kural must therefore be evolved from the first two books. These first two Books di-.iw tha attention of every foreignei- who begins and likes to have auy acquaintance with Tamil Litei-atui'e. The extreme e x a ^ e r ations and hyperbolical language of the Epics repel him. But he pauses over these two Books, and admires the logical order of the subjeots discussed, the pithy moral enigmas, and the sublime tone of morality inculcated therein. He who first despised the Tamils as half c k d heathens and semi-barbarian? now admires them for the valuable treasure locked up in their language. These two books are an eye sore to the Christian missionary who always conies to the east pnfti d \ip with the so-called sublimity of Christian morality. He can deprecate any other thing in Tamil Literature. But this ancient and splendid monument.









218T J U L Y



lie dates not slander. This is a stumbling block Trhich can brow-beat the tnoat sablime ideas of Christian morality. T h e Christian missionary, under the ifiipression that our author lived between 800 and 1000 A. D. has attempted to establish, that the Christian scriptares were among the sources from which the poet derived his inspiration, as in that time Mylapore was a centre of Christian asylum on the Goromandal coast after the advent of St. Thome after whom the place is now called b y Europeans.. But this statement of the missionary is an absurd literary anacBromsm. Our friend does not ^ v e his reasons; but that it IS correct there can be no doubt. Prof. Seshagiri Sastriyar, M. A., states some of them in his new pamphlet "Essay on Tamil .Literature" which will be noticed more fully in our next. Except iu the appendix we can only glean morals incidentally here and there from the Second Book. T h e appendix has some chapters 6n affirmative morality such as Honor, Greatness, Perfection, Courtesy and self-reprobation ; and also some on negative morality such as Dread of Poverty, Mendicancy, Drear] of mendicancy and Vileness. The general drift of the appendix is that one should b y dint of perseverance and industry try to raise his social status, and preserve his self-respect and independence. The author advocates Agriculture as the best of professions, This appendix in short reveals the ideal citizen who instead of being a drone feeding on the product of others' labour should be fin ornament of society by exhibiting trdfts o f nobility, honor,, and perfection, at the same time relieving the indigent, and sustaining the prestige of the family. The first part of the Secoud Book on Royalty explains the ideal sovereign. H e should be well voad, and keep befitting company. He should not, lot opportunities slide. H e should use liis cliscrc-tion in the choice of civil and military serviints. His sceptre shoaXAhe oi go\di firm yet ivqml ay nncl not of iron, lie should ever be active w t h o u t any lespair in stWictim. The second part on ministers of state discusses their qualifications, and tlieir conduct iu the royal court and while on embassy. iJi ic tlie author shows such minute observation and study of political manonixres that he is really Baconian in his discussion. The third part on the Essentials of .i. statu explains the necessaries of a kingdom, policy to be observed
i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e l a t i o u s h i p , and t h e tactit-s o f 10 v.-ar-

fare This p a r t . also forbids Uxoriousness and Harlotry, Intoxication aud Garabling. The last chapter explains a very simple practical art of prolonging life and health. The last chapter of the First Book discusses the Force of Destiny which is all powerful. The second part of the First Book on Ascetic Virtue teaches mercy to animals and forbids Animal food ; insists on Penitence and protests against the Inconsistent conduct of Ascetics; discourages Fraud, Wrath, Giving pain to others and killing; and cncourages Truthfulness. This part also commends Wisdom, K n o w ledge of Truth, Renunciation and Extirpation of Jesire, and reveals the Instability of earthly things. This part might well have found a placc .it the cud of the volume, but the author's plan justifies its present place. Tho first part of the First Book depicts Domestic Virtue, and it is this part which upholds tho model man and householder. The author finds that Domustic Virtue preponderates iu the balance, and givus his palm to it. " The ideal householder leads on oartli a coiisecrated life, not unmindful of any duty to tlie living or to the departed. His wifethe glory of his houseis modest and irngal; adores her husbnnd. guards herself, and is tho guardian of his hom-p'^ fame. His children are his choicest treasures; their babbling voices arc his music; and his one. aim is to make them worthier than himself. Affection is the very life of his soul; ot all his virtues tho first and greatest. The sum and source of all is Luvl. His house is open to every giiest, whom Jio ivtlcoines with smiling face and pleasant word, aiul with whom he shares his meal. Courteous iu spccc];, gi-ateful for every kindness, just in all his dualiii^.-, master of himself in perfect solf-control, strict the perfornuince of every assigned duty, pure, pi'.tieiit aud forbearing, with .i ]ic;;rt free J"'.i !:i 'jnvy, Luotlost in desires, spt-akiug no tvil of ntlicr.-; retraining from unprofitable words, dreading the touch of evil, diligeut in the discharge of all t!ir.' duties ot his position, and liberal in his bonelactioiis. he is one Avhom all unite to p r a i s e " Ruv. Dr. Fupc. have giant- d over the contents of the Volume. ^Ve are liot in Utopia. The work ])ropounds an ideal uionarchy willi idoal ht)usclioklers and citizens aud true a ^ i c c t i c s ^ all c i i j o v i n g the sweets o f the world unsullied, aud -.'.ttainiiig Divine Bliss.

2S TUi:







218T J U L Y


Those who can cornniand leisure can make a comparative atady of Valluvar's Kural aud Plato's Republic. I am B u i e Valluvav's monarchy will out do Plato's Bepiiblic. Haying gaiued a comprehensive view of the author and his work, we may now recount the Ethics of Karal. W e have here no .scope for a psycbological study of the work. A n Ethical aud yEsthetical study of it can very well be made, ethical in as much af we have a system of rules for repulatiug the actions of men, and ajsthetical in so far the author conveys his ideas in a beautiful and attractive manner. Domestic Virtue is based on affection. Devoid of affection, one's body is but a bony frame clad in skin. Body is the seat of life only when love resides within. Hospitality is the essence of domestic virtue. The guest at your gate is as delicate as Anicha flower. It withers with a smell, and the guest is abashed with but one cold look. Sweet words accompany Hospitality. Who sees the pleasure kindly spcecli afl'oi ils'* Why makes lie use of hftrsh repellent ii ords ? When pleasout words are easy, bitter wordd to u.^e. Ib learin^ sweet ripe fruit, the sour nnripe to elioosc. Gratitude [comes next. To be grateful, one need not return a good done to him. Feel the benevolence of it, enough. It is so strong t h ^ the mere thought of one good effaces the deadliest injury done you by the self same person. Gratitude is not measure f o r measure and weight for weight. It is here that you should make a mountain of a mole-hill, a palmyra of a millet seed. I t does not become you to forget a good d o n e : it is vory good to forget an evil done you. In his Sermon on the mount Jesus said '"If yejoi-givr men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive y o u " But our author advises you to furgft trespasses, and he is only in the positive degree. In his chapter on Patience he is in the comparative degree. With overwceiiint,' pride wh( .i men with injuries assail By thine ownrigliteousdealing shall thou prevail. In another place where he would have you " shame your enemies by returning kindly benefits and pass unheeded the evil done by t h e m " , he is surely in the superlative degree. A n d yet he does not fall short of Jesus who preached in the above said resermon " Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to <iem that hate' you". But in advising you to forget
These verses are quoted from the excellent 0."cford edition of E e v . Dr. G. U. Pope, M. I., D.D.

other's trespasses, Valluvar really really transcends Jesus who only wants to forgivr other's trespasses. Though our author is peculiarly strong on gratitude, yet he would uot let you for it.s sake be impartial in your dealings.
To stand, like lialaufe rod tliiit level lianfjs and rightly wei^liii, With calm nubiaised u((iiity of soul, is sage's pinise.

The author then admonishes us to guard our tongue that unruly member of our body :
Whatever they fail to ^uard, over lips men <<uor.l -'lould keep; If uot, tlirougli fault of toiif,'iic-, tln'y hitler tear- '..-ill wceji. The sore inriained Iiy lire itiay heal, not K M Tiic soro iiiHauietl by ton^^iie.

Those wlio=soil the sanctity of the conjugal bed are numbered with the dead by the author. H e would count with ascetics these who oudure with patience the eVil words of transgressor.'-, and would place even ascetics iu the lower grade for the sake of these men. Then Envy cause of all riiiu.
Knvy they have within 1 Knon^li to ncal ih(?ir fate 'VlioiijtU foeineii i'tiil, envy rati rain consuniuiate.

A word ot warning against C o v e t i n g :

What saves iirnsia rity frcnn swift detline ^ /Vbsencc; of best, to make another's eherised rieliea thine.

A n d then against Back-biting:

In presciu'e llioii^h iiiikiadly words you .s|)eaC, say iiol In absence Wunls \iliose ill n's:ilt e\i-eecls your thought Jt is greater gain of virtuon.s gooil for innn (o die Than livi: to slaudcr absonl fi ii iul and falsely pniisewhcn nigh

The chapter on winch can only be v c y meagrely rendered in English a.s knowing what befits a man's position, reminds u.s ot Goldsmith's lino.
" Even his failings leaned to virtue's side "

A chapter on Giving next. " what is given to Iho needy de.scrves the name of g i f t ; all else has in view recompense". " T o receive is bad though g o o d it be said. To give is virtue though you gain no heaven". The goal of the householder is renown. Without this, life loses its charms. Even the ideal presented by the great peasant-pOet of Scotland in Cottar's Saturday Night does not excel our ideal. Ascetic virtue is ba.sed on Grace, as Domestic virtue on Affection. Grace is interpreted as the renunciation of flesh eating. W h e n there is no one who \vould eat flesh, there will be no one who would sell flesh.
Than Ten thousand rich oblations, with libationa rare, Better tho flei^h of slaughtered beings not t o share.

Then are rebuked those who hood-wink the world" under the cloak of asceticism. These are wolves in sheep's .clothing.
I f you shun what all the world condemns as wrong. What's the worth of ahavan head or tresses long i






T H E 21.ST J U L Y



F H n d u then condemnedi
' T i l liB if in the mind moji but tlie tlinuglit eonceifc, h a n d I will Diy neighboar of hii Avealtli borca>-c.

l'c'rro|itiviis iimiiifiilil in men iiro iif rlic iiilmUiiluiKThr \'filiii- III' till.' uiLiii by lii'^i ciiiiiiMiiir)!!!!!!!}! iv kiiuwti.

and this remind.s ns of the English saying

"Tell nil' yiiiir c'iii|ia>iiiiiis mill I t)lmll tell yon nlini you nrv" ;i. Wi iu'li ivi-H ilio ^iooil o f rueli, hia failiiiKi cloaely (corn. A.> ilii>>' (ii'ihonc iircvuil, H cktiiiiutc tlic man'i. U k Of Li'i-utiiens nnd i)f nieiiiinciib too 'MM* (:I "I|S iif ('..rh upo toiifhRtonr trno. Wliiitf-M r v'Mi |Htii(K*r Ici yoni* :iiiii liP loftv Mill, Fate (Mii.n.i r, I v , ilaiMit Mill .1,1 ii will, <i. His I' Ill il< i-;n111,.: Iiiiilis nilici li-.l lliri'.i'. Willi, hiihk ill sliiili, f'lr iifiMe olii"i-i ilm-i iimj <.iri\')'

T i m the anthor upholds Truth which he explains M ^ e e o h free from all taint of Pvil. If you utier what yon know to be false ns true, your owu heurt brwkdB yoa. It matters not' iF von ma}- leave other eta cf Virtae undone, if you but uphold the cause ot Tmih.
O a t w w d purity i e r will bcscow Inward parity from Trntli aloiic will HOH-

Theu on the \^'i^y of l^arniiij^ Wt.uili.

T l i i ' i r U ivi-iilrli. of w l i n l i l i u u c l ' i i u ' j i f i > < aii'l !i'-> Trinii iif r l i i ' i c i ' iif lii> K ' M ' ji'-i'.

In this chapter on Truth, the iiuthor gives a pralii practioil advice, which rigid moralists may not uilou.
FkUehood BU.; cake the place ol' truthful v o n l , If Ideaainfr, free from faolt, it can alfonl.





x iriiii* li, iilT


^\'c;^Uil Let

^ l i l U ' l l

111(111 i - H s i

. iiiUi

"HIM in that part of the book which prea' lies tju Ascetic, virtue! It is from thit, coutextujil posUion that the advice receives its striking si^nificauco. Our author is a humanitarian. He seeuis to belong tu the school of utilitarians who seek the greatest gf.OD DI the greatest number. Truth is intended for the greatest good of the greatest number. If, sit an exceptional moment, falsehood can do that office ^vhich Truth cannot do, of course without giving the least injury to any one, falsehood for the time being may fThe words ccfvey the idea that it is only n shift, liko a gilt ornament for a really genuiae gold one. It is no %trnth) occupy the place of truth. It will neither chide nor brand yon, because no one suffers. And yet this is no sin as there is no equivocation in it as in "Aswathama Athah Kunjai-ah" of Krishna in the Bharata war. Then follows Suppression of Auger. Suppressing your anger is really so only when you can do it where you can exercise your power and authority. What matter, if you check, or give it vent, where power yon have none ? As anger begets an endless train of evil, quench it: nip it in the bud. He who guards not agunst wrath, him his wrath shall slay. The drift of t ^ chapter forbidding evil to others concurs with the g m t precept of Jesus " All things whatsoever Ye would that men .sluHild do to you, do Ye even so to them".
W k o w wool h M M t the biUer a m n of wmny, liew cau He WTonga inflict <m erer llriug loul of man.


W e theu approach fli'- chaiitiTs on rrieittUhip. Wha' Ki> liiinl lur iin-ii tu ' j . i i i . rrii'iiil-lil)i ii-ui* '

Willi! .5 1 .vui'L'llufrfiei' 'u.iih.^l all I hat I'ih- cnii iI<> ' "1 li not fnr laii;rlitiT Inn rni- iT|irii<'t n lioti N'oii frmii ri'jiii iliat ymi Irt-frii'iiil. Mi-all I till' friL-ii'Ulii|i iliat rfii'ii Msi/< n rnitli K ITr'm I lillR (II IIIC aii'l viirli lit liiiti Iiiv VMilili 1. .-Vft l:ailll iif him wjliiri' \i->>Tliri- Mlt|*t IllVliy l-'rii-'hll^llili al I.I-I.I' ll;-- l-"iiiilrj- L'li'-f imII >t..\l a i v 111. a l l i-o-l I lie I l i e M i i|' iVi-

Ami imII a\i'a\- i.'vrn a I a 'ii.-^- I In' "t t la- liall. There arc itiiiiy o t h e r fino .>ii_vin<s o n ["'ri' . i d > h i j i .

B u t t h e r e lire t w o c o n p l r i - whoM,. s u b l i m i t y t v i n l!<iCoii will aduiiro. 1. Xiil foll_\ lite|i-Iy. lull familiar ^-^l^ll-^^lle?^s Kmeeiu it, wln.-ii yimv frieiel^ eaiuu li^.trenii 2. Til liim wliu I r iiri-* f-ia-l. ih-i i-huM mm-ai. Hie.-' the injuiy ^nllircil l.y a riiiml. ilii-iliiv ii- frieiiil ITea.1, will a|i|M;ai- a il iil' '.-i n -.

Whoredom, I n l o x i c - i t i o n demned wholesale.

1. uiie iailarki-iii | p. |



iii-<- c o n -

.triik^i'i i-iii|ii.i' ill an

2. 'I'iiu draiikanl'o juy -i.rrn^ I IllUtlier'n U en ^ What niiiBt It Ihj ill |iri -' w nf il ti-Ir wiBi .'f. Ciuinhiiiij^ ill iiii-HfiirTiiiH-'ri ..tia i nuiui I III H i hci- veil Tliey iiffer iri ii \ lai1 .1 W e h a v u t h e n o f ( irciiriK - ^ All men I lirtt li ' alx Oireinitith ..f " i l k Tile rbapter oii l:i, -I- lat \V!,r PiM-fci-:iu-ici.ii>iiiii>niitiiiii it - I :

morality d e s e r v e s kpccial i.tu iition. I .Vll Kuoilly lliiiiifN ur^ ilala o II. 11.'- 1111-11, llii". Win. set llil-mfc-lreM tu alk lirln. -i rfevt t. Till* jfO<ill nf iiiwiil-U l'\i-t-llei'f-.- iIm -. eluiiii 'Mra l>*rrfut-L uicii, nil iilli*-r i- iiil_\ jfiBHl in imiue 3. LA'VC, UMjiU-fciy, liriietuM-irtri-. lAiitKi.aiii ifnt'V. Witli Iriiili. arv pitUtn (ivi- uf |x-rfi-i I emiiL'*B l o i i i i ^ |iliiiv jfraiac . Wliui fruit Ji'ili >oiir ^'Hi.-ctioii j<-ilii yoa, ILJ) ' I ' u l r u t i i men ho ui t _ na ill i i ;/.-hI t. i<i_\ 6. Call lUetn of ptTfecl i irtai-'*. M-u!i.i iliiiriWlm. thoU'.;li the fj*U-B ftlioiild fuil. fhil i.ot fir exa-rni'il '
'io t|M.-Ak l i i j i l l of other i i a ii fM-rti-i-t vinia-'n 4. TltV tyik^' o f |,i-'lli(L-tlfM; IJI Il-tll(il44 lliilt iiittliili;; iil.iy>,

Let ns now proceed to gather some hints on morality from the many chapters ot the Second Book on Wealth.
1. Be taam that yoa may futl or fauhloa* l e a m i ^ gaiu; Then in o b e d j n x e awet to laaaoaa learut laauun.

* We ilruH the HUeiititiii of i-i-i ti.i'.l-ii.l U' liiryl t-> :

2S TUi:








218T J U L Y


Notwithstanding all his sublime morals, the venerable HUthor. would not revolutionize society. AVhen you arc at Ronn?, ho would have you live as the Romans do.
As (hvclls ilie iTnilil, Ro wiili ilic \voi'l<l i " <Uv(-ll 1 1 liarniony is 1 wIbi Iv livp and "-oil.

Here is no dansror, M in T;iinil cl.issics, icorld does S not mean tho masses, but denotes the jcw^.

From this roufjli bird's eye view of the Ethics of Kur.'il, we fiud that the author is ii. cosmopolitecitizeu of the world, except that he speaks and writes in "Sage ValliivBr, priest of thy lowly clan, X o tongue repeats, no Bpeceh reveals tliy n a m e ; Tamil., His work is of universal interest. It has Vet, all tliiiiss clmlisiiisr, clieth not thy fame, foiind a home i;) l']ngliind, I'"ranee, CJcrraany aod Italy. For ihov\ art Viarcl of universal man." Every sectarian in Indiaat least i)i Southern India, The religion of A'^alluvar is a puzzle to this day. claims kindre<l with the authof. The christian missionEvei-y couplet of his work is tight enough for elaary has o-one so far as to call this ^rand system of boration into a sermon in any country for any religion. morals, an l]clio of the Sermon on the JFoiint. The The author bases moi ality no doubt upon theology. A Rev Drew, however, wi-ou- in 1 S ll) thus " Tlic Knral goad or an evil action is a passport to heaven or hell. has a, strong claim npou our atrcraioii, a> a part of the Even his invocation of the supreme Being does not literature of the Country, and ;is a work of intrinsic give us a clue to his. i-eligion. His theology must, i Nccllcnco. The author, jiassiu^;- over what ispecidiar therefore, be only natural theology, and his religion to parf.cnlar classes of society, and intnulucino' such only natural religion. Can it be otherwise with the ideas oulj'as are connaon to all, has avoided the unbard who said that "Death is but sleep and birth intei cstiiig details of observances found in Mann and but an awakening from it" which reminds us of the other shastras : and thus in general maintains a Words worth's line in his ode in Intitiiations of Imdii^nilicd style. It cannot be supposed necessary for mortality the s;ilce of (.'liristiaiiity to deny to such works what(1\ir liirtU is bnt n slot)i a forjrottins, evei- ilei^'rec of merit they may possess. Christianity The Soul tlirtt i-iscs wirli ns, oiir life's Star, fintli liad rlsoNvlicre its setting: re(]uires not the aid of falsehood or of concealment. Ami comet ll from n f a r ; Nor need we wish to blacken the systems and books Not ill entire for^etfiilness And not in utter nakedness uf the country beyond what truth will warrant. The But trailin;; clouds of glory do vrc conic Knral itself, csteemeil the best book of moials written From God, who is our home. by a Ifiudn, is an ilbistratiuu of this remark". A n d Gentlemen, I am not a. student of the Theory of morals. again .M. .Ariel, (jnoted in I'cv. Pojie's pi-efa^e to his I cannot tell yon precisely whether the author is an valnalile Edition of The Kural, speiks of the work as ' o n e of the highest and purest expressions of human Intuitionist, Ferfectionist or Hedonist. I leave the thought' ;ind adds " That which above all is wonder- precision for theorists, though Fam inclined to call ful in tiie Kural is tin; fact that its author addi-esses the venerable snge a utilitarianPerfectionist, on the himself, without regard to castes, peoples or beliefs, whole, for he insists on the purity of mind, word and to the whole community of mankind; the fact that ho deed, for the happiness of all. Perfection of human formulates sovereign morality and absolute reason; nature is the be-all and end-all of K u ^ . '' In the world there is nothing great bat mAn tluit he proclaims in their very essence, in their eterIn man there is nothing great bnt mind " nal abstractedness, virtue and truth ; that he presents said somebody. Our author would add as it were, in one group the highest laws of domestic In mind there is nothing great bnt moral perfection. and social life; that be is equally perfect in thought, in language and in poetry, in the austere metaphj-sical Is there any body in the world who wonid r u s e his contemplation of the great mysteries of the Divine voice against the moral pertec'tion of man ? W h a t is nature, as in the easy and graceful analysis of the any religion but a dull sermon on this perfection ? tenderest emotions of the heart". Rev. Pope calls The lives of great men and saints are but a commen- -

him " the gresitest Tamil classic author, who sang of so many topics ' touching all things with poetic g r a c e ' " and also asserts that " It is not probable that Tinivalluvar translated a single sloka from Sanskrit. Kural is certainly not an anthology, but the perfect and most elaborate work of one master. The weaver of Mylapore was undoubtedly one of the great geniuses of the world. He is the venerated sage and lawgiver of the Tamil people ot whom there are about ten millions inhabiting the central and southern cftmatio", and sings of the author thus.



o r







t u j tm Aia.

A pttimmmt

of iNgion

eaanot bftvc THom MA of ^

a m p l e iMrtcrials f o r o f IiliB,'^ a e e i a g ebMoelar a a g g w f octaol of the

the j a H iUtt^atieu ao4

t o torn* is

waj the

IwMer Mbjel
iwtriq* of Iof t b i t a ^ i M f t ^ of

tor dnewBOB.
of k v m u Knrml. \ repon Mother that

*iwtiH bomtm
itttar* rtsdjr of ta t h a of

o r o t h e r , o f n o a t , if a o t of all p M * bow Ugh-datod Civiliaatioa* ef tespertuiee ladioa

of the

pUtoaoph/ oodoly eeieeew

ct IdoeMMD eutnet hurt perfMiioii B O k a of ftwd 017

any olb*r Mpiration.



Sftnkrit r v y ^ for

the phyeiial

k bigk K m l omi^anitm 4 m a e d

to th open u d

Pliil0log7. ^

M d t a e b B i e a l e d a e M i o a , tmm^
Kfe these porsaite

w M




to tb

will o e e a p y

te what a Aad in It aad is for the



n a a l l f r a c t i o n o f t h e s o c i r j , H wttl h e o o a A o e d . a e q o i r i a g O w k n o w M ^ of the p b j s i e a l scieaees. naiwitt ba ^ o k d for that the iaoder e r j tochajical aa4 p*ifia l o d i a edaeatioa as^iion, dnft siaetAim scieaee and

Untrenal ifonliatt.

b r o t W h o o d o f BMtn.


f t # r s n w h a t is t h a h i g h e s t o h j K i o o d e a d i o n e w

I imnem


M a t l e t 'm OMkt

o a hatnble b o i r


Priae* of

aU b M e d o n that s t m g g i e far a i i f w i KAtTOVAL LAirOtJAOE AND KATIOXAL th hare acqoiriag ef power departneat aktae. oar ith<

Laariat tUa


potato oat

p e o p l e b o r e a a all s a t t c i m t P m a n m c i O o B t is tbat tbc Ikajkm hats ^ or VxnAcTLAn. B a i . " I t ia w p a m d witk a a d ioto r r a l l j aeh a prorarb. eaaae. i d e ^ aod aeatiamt*, thegeaeralpriBciptrsol ative poboe sre sad

btetatofa ta iiatiaaal idaaa w a j r s o f lifir, l a t h e

r e s p e e i a a d if t a u a a j r e s p e c t * , a c h a a g o

pooa- m u ' a Ins and alrMdjr tear as

r e f a r d t s f U w o f p o p a U t i o n , t W phikmophjr ul wealth, Joriepradeetv end of mmI rvfonaihen he deMraUe



t h a t t h e b e s t Mod Murret umhie* o f

c>f M - t i u g

Let m Vtnmatimue
i h w c i w j H far t l w i r > d Soaayslfr. Hogaon, y v t Hirifhad. Iwt auiber, Tie rabtod o w

t*trmtrm u d


t h Beaded e k * n g e aeted, ^

i s ii<>t u y oot


tW>r ;iat liic iuttwtuu.-d aad piocese of findiag separates to say. the s r p

a a d p M t l i t e r a t a r e whieli are uwepaiubljr bjr d e s t r o j i u f bat pioif sod shaU t h a v a a t i o a a l txmteace, ;iliatM s o d "of OM^that ckMog aad Iodise liUf^m, that

witli w h o M p a p e r v a l m f f a o t Mumanaad ia e o a t u a e d ia oar ia his (bat rla Vrr-

lyBflMKta to w ^ mmtiy

eusprusise, by which ruatais

latter a a d r a | ^ a a e a l a r Umfwrnpt. Mwsidavnv ^ a MMMa

t h ^aaatioa as to

aCertiea irltitk, I


o f c o m B o a i c a t i D f k a o v l a d g e ia the I f a d i s of the v a l M of the iBtsllac<aal aad

a a e o o d p a p e r d e r o t e * itself t o V e r o M e o l a r Vatrmiurt a s aMral tramiof; aad them-

MMHel ht iitftuwtd


H t h i n It* i k e t
" i i k M n wr prtiweet



a t t e a s p t s t e r e w w e t h e w o o f a n d trarpuf IMIWB o d e t j w e e i d 4 b s a r g a n a e <wc!*e<]r a d tractiaa." A a d he literatare to the aew ^ - a de> the iu b sto

Che faUtmmg

l e t t s e s gin



f o r the

n t e r m t p i u p u s s d aied a a e e t h M o f t h e r d o r s s

I a t h e e a r b a r pat t o f t h e e e p a p e r s , h e e o a t r o -

alttwd.> i>i>tiu|r. bjr u i < t s i i t i a g resl o r areeiiuK lu sud ui rrform* propoMl ehiitg sud







leileiawt nqaires ia aB f teetaye ef it

epporr, haowledgv that latrodeced.*


that the V e r w e e l e r


d e net ooetsia tratntay, e n d

i a it t o a f l e t d a o r a l

H s e e Md v W w b c r e . exiau

b e immatm e p u a lh<t tniMimfi

aseml disttnotioM are a ceaseyeet danred 4 ef an i m m hj the aes " Have

g r e a t BiBeaiiry

hamaaj sacee the thf a a a

the s y e p a t h y e fact by the way wbieb MeaM e o l u v i y r e a u clsorly ef their laagaages a great l b s eoaatry. by Isanuag w the tu the Aad ' YM ' h a a e r t o tbriMMrirM

h e a s k s , l a aU a f a a a a d c e u ^ ^ f i m s m l Ifmtr ^ H t m d e n a n t rated i w l n p n t a W e a a s i < t a l s ? C e a t i a m i a t D o e s it lat A a d he farther e f i ^ t t t s u oat it s h o a U aet Aeald ^ r e

by the

e p e ef the oneeSal at b e p o M i s o e i - b y


b i s effueto s a d ef hie m i l l ---j- t m f la t h w diiwctMn

atCaeletbary that ia ethar hare f a O a d ** t o

aoapelegy fer|WOingtbefvUo**












I have spent B many, many years,^ during which and that universal experience strongly indicates the O I solemnly declare that the only unequivocal volun- entire dependence, in a national sense, of this vivifying tary testimonies I havf^ reci?ivel of influence over power of knowledge upon that compUtf. fiuion of iia their hearts or heads ot the people have been owing precepts with a nation's familiar exp&ricnces and leante* entirely to some little knowledge on any part of their which neither hath been nor can be without a Vornaliterature! With this Instrmnent 1 have wrmed hearts cular m e d i u m " ^gain, " t o enable the people to and contn)Ued heads of lutu utterly impassive to think, have not the great minds of J:Iurope forced idnduess, to reason, and to bribery; RUO. deeply am themselves to think with the people ? To induce I persuaded by expcr^nce r.ud reflection, that the use them to think, have not those minds, in all ages, deof this instrument is {H'lis2>t7iscMe in paving the way ferred to pr judice ? Christ Himself apd His favourite for any gMeral, elective and safe measures of educational disciples were " a l l things to all men." And finally '' It (the use of the Vernacular lit,rature) is necessary Tf .-generation." it is indispensable ; it sways all inteiests; it hallows ' It IS- a splendid compliment we pay to the people to master tlieir difficult literature. The memory of all opinions; and the Babel of 30 centuries resting better days connected with it elevates their lowliness upon its foundations wiU stand for ever, in despite to something like a communicable distance from our of our kjiowledge unless that knowledge be worked loftiness. Their shy and shrinking affections, to which into the People's hearts and understandings, with the we have no direct access of any description, may be precepts and examples of this omnipotent make way.'* ponred out to us through lliis indirect and modest channel which carries the whole waters of their hearts* reflecting from its tr;\nquil bosom, every rite and custom, thouglit iind feeling of the land ! Hence its influence with tho many in our hands." And we iiave already quoted the sentence whicli heads our article, to show its great importance, especially in view to passing events, which indicate conclusively whaf. little success the,Government of our country has achieved in enlisting'the sympathies of the masses; and how the whole people look upon with suspicion and resent the most innocuous reforms and regulations, however well meant and absolutely essential for their health and safety they might be ; and especially in view to tho greatsuspicion with which the English-educated Indians and the Vernacular press is rcf;arded b_v the Covcrntaent. It is thought ot in some quarters ! wc do not agree with this view in ioto ; we only thinic that English educption has made them unMt fov every thing, for nerve and for action and tht^y Imve rihfolutely no control over the hearts and heads of tho people who regard them as a mere travesty of the European) that English education for the list half oi a century or more has not achieved the glorious results which were expected of it. If 80, whose fault is it ? Our aathor thinks that sound knowledge may be accepted and taught and studied for ages without" awaking the strong man " without strirrmg the deep waters of a nation's intellect;
Alas ! How soon our Europeans frienda try to retire and fly off to their Home, and how few try to make this land their Home even in their short stay !

In letter No. I V , he makes his suggesiions for ihe end in view; (1) to institute a Njniial College, giving first aud second place to the mother tongues of the rieople, and the third place to English, (2) to have the alumni equally well versed in both tongues, (3) to locate therein a set of able men from the West, who shall be competent to give to India, ' the esscnce of onr indisputable knowledge,' (4) to associate with them other men ef this landEnglish and Indian, who together with them, shall transfer this essence into the .uigar tongues of India ill the most attractive and eflicient manner, (>) while both classes, as professors and originators of a great change, shall have u^der theu, a set of pT-'hils, ch' sen from the best alumni of aU our seminaries, for the express and perpetual piirposra of diffusing the labours of the professors, in the capacities of teachers nnd of translators, and of replacing those professors gradually as iieads of colleges^ (6) these nlumni to have scholarships and to be devoted for their lives as the pioneers of a new literature ; bound to translating within the college and to teachini; abroad'; giving their undivided time and talents to indigenate European lore'; and being to the usual edncational establishments, a peipatual fount f o r the supply of good books and good teachers.
The italics are oars.









21sr J U L Y



These are his aaggestions and valuable soggeationB they are, and they stand good to-day as they stood 50 years a g o ; and he points to the absurdity of expecting from our ordinary alumni of our colleges such VfOrk, without furniahipg them with the leisure and means of provision for life and to e:cpect that sncb avocations (as translators &c,) will be remunerative without Government aid, until the public has become their patrons and he also points out that the public will never become so, " till a close reference to life and its active aims govern letters and education; * a result we are just (1848) reaching in Europe slowly and painfully. But yesterday, these men of letters and teachers were poor and despised ! " He, in another place, asks what is the use of turning out hundreds of graduates, for the sake of regenerating their country and if it is expected that they should do this feeding on air. The struggle for bread occupies now the whole time and energy of our modern graduate, and yet it is complained that he does no good to his uneducated brethren, that he does not try to lift them frum their low position and that they do not engage themselves in original work ! Don't the few who have so worked paid the penalty with their precious life and with their emptied purse. W e heard from our publishers, how the only man who has done anything to improve the Vernacular literature l>y infusing into it all that is best and valuable in English, has to disburse largely from his own salary ino'ith after month, for his publisher's and printer's bills, here and in England: Since these letters were written, none of these proposals have been carried out, except by adopting the Vernacular in the curricula of Government and University .-tiiJies a,ud now even the (iovernment examinations, solely in Vernacular wliich qualified men from euteriug Govornnieiit posts sometime ago, has been done away with. In the matter of translations, little or nothing has been clone; except by producing a few Vei-nuciilar text books and readers* There are no fuuudations for Vcrnacnlar scholarship and no Professorial chair, and tin.! saiarios paid the pandits are the lowest in scale and the few Vernacular Supreinteudaiitships lu've and there lia\ e hocn done away with. 'JMiere are uu Universit}' honors for pure Vernacular scholarship. The richer classes are quite unprug r c s s i / e a n d illitei-ate and wanting in public feeling and patriotism, and the rest of the people who care for
Wc know what THgv there is now for school books aD<l aniiolationB and Mr. R. !?. Shf] pard, with all hi-! fpnov man) j n d Mr. R. VfiiL-ai-L Snbb;i U.."- ,!.; t'l" tho inililiihei-.

education are extremely poor. Goddess Saraswathi is said not to dwell with Goddess Lakshmi, b^ing daughter-in-law and mother-in-law. Under these most discouraging circumstances, will it not be surprising if the Vernacular is not despised and dying out. All things considered, it is fit that this question should occupy oar minds and those of the respected head of the Edacational Department and our foremost countrymaa. W e draw our reader's attention to the suggestions serially enumerated above and to consider its adoption in its entirety or with modifications. It will be idle to expect our Government to embark on large schenes involving great financial expenditure in their present embarrassed condition. W c \ O U therefore NU1 ' make the following suggestions: (1) For the Univ-ersity, to open an oriental faculty, admitting its alumni to Higli degrce.s in pure Vernacular literature insisting on a mininum standard o)' knowledge in English, if necessary, you may call tlic degrees P. A., U. A., or any other two letters. To admit to University llonoi'ary degrees, men of undoubted native scholarship, on whom the (Jovernmcn* is bestowing titles of honour. (2; For the colleges and schools to proviue cLairs in Vernacular languages with decent salaries attacliei^ to them. ' 3 ; To iJrovide seholarsliips and foundations in connectioii with particular colleges and schools, from Goveniment, University and private sources, to enable the best of their alumni to turn out as teachers and translators, providing them with work and means, as soon as their period of scholarship tenure is over and rhey have fully (jualiKed and equipped themselves. (4, To aid fully and partially, from any and all these sources, the work of translating and publishing iu Vernacular, approved books in English or on approved subjects, both original and otherwise.* To add gradually such books into the curricuhi for the higher degrees in the Vernacular. (6) To admit to post of pandits, persons p0ssc-;insuch Vernacular deifrees. (7) To make such dogrcos siifKc-ienr tor the L urraui ' into Government service which are mostly cleiiL-al ;liu! up to a pay of llupees Kfty.
It will be easy euougli to find scholarE to ti-aiislat<; ;inv Ihi^Ion technical subject, but who will buy thtin, i\iili ih. >i carricnla all in En^Hali. How many bucks nrc e^'ery rlny I.. translated into Enalish from German and Frtucli. Iiy l:.'ii-'i]-!i people tlieniseh cs ? niid they pay because of I'lL-ir Mi'j'.liuni i>: Eugli:sli and not Girck and Laiin.




O F I ' R U T H OR S I D D H A M X A





(8, To institute some of the examinations in special tests, in the Vernacular as was done before. A friend of ours asked us, that if these things are necessary and are carried out, what necessity there was for adding the Vernaculars to the ordinary University curricula,andburdening the students with their special study. Bat this will be ignoring the whole line of our argument and the past history of Education in this country. W e say that Vernacular education is absolutely essential for any and every one and we cannot afford to take away this instrument of knowledge, hou'evcr imperfectly used, from the large class, of <c-liool-going population, having regard to the fact ;inr;iin, that all the reforms proposed now could not possibly be carried out all at once and they may not I't ar fruit all so soon as we may desire, and that a very large class may not be attracted all at once by the iiiduceiiients and facilities. Such a thing must all be a \voik of time ; and as such, the question of doing away with Vernaculars from the ordinary curricula iH-i u not be entertained for a moment for the present.

" Nay," he said sadly, " in pure love there ifl no thonght of self. "Would'st thou seek to recall him whom ikaD eayest thou lovest from the rest of Paradise to tbe-trialt and woes of earth ? Not j6t is thy love of such p u i t y tliat it hath power to prevail on high." And she svok*. A year had passed by ; it was the anniveraary of tbe day when her trial had fallen upon her. The montba which had flown had been full of trouble and care ; and again and again had tbe monmer leiirnt to take comfort from the thought that he, her beloved, had been l^kken away ere these " evil days" came. And when, in her slumbei-s, she again beheld the Angel messenger, she whispered. " I have learnt better now ; I no longer ask that he, my heart's love, should be recalled to earth aqi Its. sorrows. But take me to him." The Angel looked on her with gentle gaze. ' He whom thou moni-nest," he said softly, "^was of as pui-e and saintly a nature as frail humanity may become in this life. On earth he trod closely in the footsteps of the Master; above, such as he, are called to an especial neamegs to His presence, ^fot yet is thy soul meet to enter where thy loved one resteth (for there are many mansions in the Home above); bnt it may one day be admitted there when puiified and taught in the school of suffering. Be it thine to wait and endure yet a little' longer." Sire would not heed him. " The loxcest place is- that Heavenly House must be ons of blessedness," she cried impatiently. Let my love and I be together now, if it be bnt at the very gate of the Gt>lden City." Tlie Angel sighed as he gazed sadly npon her. " Is f/usjlove ? " he asked, reproachfully" to desire to withdraw thy lost one from the greater nearness to the King, the higher place in Bis presence ? Not such is the love which shall prevail with its prayers. And she awoke. Another anniversary was dawning; the. lonely widow was lying weak and ill on a bed of sicknessvery full of suffering, as of sorrow, had been the months which liad gone by. But the sufferer had learnt many lessons in that school of affliction ; and when, in her dreams, she again beheld the angel visitant, she spoke in calm and patient tones. ' I ask nothing now " she whispered. " I am well content to leave all in the Father's hands. He, in His merey, has called away my beloved, and granted him a place in His Home on high,; knowing [this, I can rest satisfied. I ask not that my hnsband should be given



('Flif Family


[ " Ti no love

clesii-ctli not its oivn fclicitv, but tliat of its bcluvcd."]

8HI: had wept herself to sleep at last into that weary clumber of e.\haustion whicli follows a crashing sorrow I'or the pair now -suddenly parted had been for many years Imt one soul in two bodies," and the bei'ea\-ed wife knew not how she could endui-c her life alone. And, as >lie slept, she '"dreamt a dream." There stood before lior an angle with mild, gentle countenance, who asked liei the cause of her tears. I have lovedI have lost," sobbed the dreamer. Love, even for the creatine, hath a wondrous power. -L- it be wholly pure and unalloyed/' said the Shining Or.e. in gentle tones ; " and the might of such love will ;iv.'iil to win what it asketh." She stretched out her arms with a glad smile. Then my prayer must surely be heard," she said, tor I loved my husband as my own sonl. Give him bade to me." A sliadow fell on the Angle's face.

47 T H E L I G H T O F I ' R U T H OR S I D D H A M X A

D E E P I K A , W E D N E S D A Y , T H E 2L8RR J U L Y


back to me, I ask not even to be near him in the hei-eafter; encash for me to know that he is blessed ; atiJ to be permitted, though from one of the lowest seats in Heftveu, to behold my heai-t's love i-ejoicing in the immediate presence of the Lord." A bright imile came over the Augel's face as he listened to these heart-spoken woi-ds.

piece. This fact has to be know n much mgre 'argely than now. as theie is evident inclination on the part of some persons to treat llic Gita, without reference to the rest of the Mahabharata and a.s though it is something transti.xed into it and in indifferent company.

-Mi;s. AVatts Hughes has made us familiar with her ex" Now at length has tbj' love become wholly purified periments as to ilic reproduction of musical note-> as visible and self less," he said, '* and us such is it strong to pre- foiins. The sound passed tliroiigli a tube with a vibi-ating vail. Enter with me into the Golden City, to find again pin described figures of stars and dai.'jy shaped figures, Ac. there him whom thou mouraCst, and to worship tij<j(^.lu. i- ilrs. Besant records in the May number of " Lucifer" certain e.vperiments of a New York Doctor by which he has the King in His beauty throughout eternity." photofrra[)hed solid figures of Kowers and animals Ac When they found her in tlie morning they .said tliul trom the forms made Ity light i)o,.-ders, when they are thrown up from a disk vibrating under tlie impact, of sound " h e r Kori-ow h a d killed her at l a S r t t h e y knew not tliiit her heart had broken under the weight of lier {.'reat and waves. Wonld sucli cx])eriuKnts e\entually lead us to the |pioof of the connection bclwL-en iiiir nianti-ams and theiiexceeding joy ! cliakrams and the .iliape of the deliic>, representing each L n . v H . \ i , i v niantrams r
is -jf *

NOTES AMD COmiHENTS. HEK Gi-aciou-s Majesty, Tlic Queen Empress sent thefollowing Message to His Excellency The Governor of Madras, on the Commemoratioti Day. "from my bewt I tliank my beloved people. Hay ^od-bleas them." Thereupon His Excellency replied to Her Majesty a^ s follows. " On behalf of the people of Madras, I offer Your Majesty, humble and grateful thanks for your Majesty'.s Gracious Message."

\Vi; cull tlie following sentence (lom the ' Lnctfcr", fiom iJr. Well's article. W'e dare say many of our readers will relish it as an argument against the Divinity o ' Christ. But will Ihey take it lionie nincli deeper and remember it when among oiirseK es there are tlio,se who ilo state similar things y
" Y o u (1(1 111)1 im'Hii tliiii ilic Jvsiis Cliiisi i.f llic (iuspul was liii' Jiitinitc, Eui-iiul (iuil in v.luiiii HC Ijotli Ijelicvc. Tlic IiiHnitc i-iiiiiiot 1)0 foiituiiieil in liiiiiiaii ln.ily You tay tin; Ifc wus, in some niystt'iioiK- way. Goil S SDII. .SO far, W aiu aj-'icecl. As St C I'aiil says, wc all Hi-c sons of Lioil. UiiL wlien you coiiic to identify lliis JC.SUB of Xiiinrctli witii Unu wlio is Biiokt'ii of in niiottiiT JIIHCC as till- " O n l y Bc^'oticu Son of ihf Father;" to iisseri that God liae uo other boiis ; unil. fstill farther, to aksociiite tliii, relatioiisliil) with tlic circunistaiic-es of Mis iihyeieal liinh in Palestine. I iiiust ask yon to stop anil ihiiik. It is, of eoni-t-e. necless to jircss u|)on you the uietiiijliysieal ilitfienltios (ainoiintiiif.', indeed, to impossihilitii'ti) involved in this view ; but there is one thing I eiiii )iHt to yon. Uo you aecept the loL'ieal eonelnsion that His niotlier. JIary. ilio dau^'liler of Aiiiia, M as mother lil' God You i^ay. " He wub eciiieeived of the Holy ('' you eaiuiut niaki' these wi.riU .,i;jiiify anythiliL' lest than I hat !-he, a linnian Ijeili;; like \mii-.-ieir. wa.s God's wife, andmoilnr il Ilia ^cn.

A i-eviewer in the April number of the Asiatic Quarterly Review, on Dr. Dhalmann's work on Nirvana, points oat that according the learned IJoctor, who i.s a gieat authority on. Mahabhai-ata, Nirvana is a pre-Bhuddistic idea, borrowed neither from tlie classical Vedanta nor trom the classical Sankliya but fi-om an older system, in which Niryana means Biahma-Nirvana, an entring into the Asolnte-Brahman and that this s^'stem is to be found in the Mahabharata and Gita. This is no new news to the Siddhanti, who jubilantly sings'. em gisv ^ ^^Gaili-ail unjf.^ O^aGsr tmu.3s.7ili^ir(r'wir."
" ISIOLDHI^/S^ suld mar A'nuJi^fi

Q^ihrsarLO QsnLLi^nGutir."

Ur. Dhalmann's opinion is also that it is not assign different dates to different portions of the Mahabhiirata and tluxt the whole must be coiisidei-ed a;- uiiu

\Vii.vTi;\'i.l; miglil be Miid ul veviiacular pajiors and magazines in other iiarls of India, we might say that nearly all such papers in Southern India are thoroughly loyal and alnio.^t innocent of jiolitics. E-vcejii- a few, they ai-e all under the editorship of persons who are innocent of the Engli.^li hangiiage and they do not trouble themselves so much about tluir pliysical conccrus, as about their spiritual welfare. On occasions nearly the whole of their s]iace is devoted to ilisciissing religious and philosophical questions and ci)riti-o\ er.sii-s have w axed very hot over siieh niatter.>. .iVnd the so-called eilaeateil Hindu also veiy iniMict-nl uf wlial neeapies tluthoughts and Li.s|iil-aliun~ '.d lllilerale In etliel cii alul






OR S I D D H A M ' A


W E D N E S D A Y ,





he very mi-ely coudoscoiuis ;o toacli, much I K to read a CS vemacular uewspaper. It inilst also be i-omcmbeied that luofjt of theiie magaxities and papers have such an iiicouceivahly liiiiitcJ eiivle of subscribers, they hardly pay their expeuses. inspitoof the cheapest paper and cheapest printing and cheapest management and we dare say. not one pays its cuntributors.

WE have said that most of these papers occupy themselves mostly with i-eligious and philosophical questions. As a i-esult of such discussions in these papers, a goodly number of volnnie.s have been brought out separately, and tlie gi-eatest ctedit is due, in this re.spect, especially to one firm of publishers in Madra.s, we mean, the Proprietors of the Ripon Press. They have sent us manj' of their pamphlets and hooks dealing with such high topics as Dwaita and Adwaita, Jiva and Brahma. The names which figure most in these discussions are those of Srila Sri S. Soniasundara Nayagar, Srimath S. Senthinatheir, Srila Sri Sabapathi Navalar, ' Kuhadas,' and Venkatai-amana Das Av., on one side and the Editor of the 'Brahma Vidya", one ' Aryan' on the other side. Both sides have displayed an amount cf learning and logic which will be .surprising, if they are duly appreciated. "Aryan' has no necessity to conceal himself undei' an alias, anti \vc will be glad to welcome him in his own name. We are however bound (o i-emark that these discu.ssions would acquire greater weight, if some one or other pays gi'eater attention to the conclusions of European Scientists on such subjects as Physiology, Biology aud Physics Ac., We will notice these books at gi-ealer length in some future issues. * Ti(Kni; is n most interesting iirticle on ' Plants, Insects uiid Biitls,' aud their relation to man in the 'May' number of 7//(f//f/-." The conclusions of the writei'. we here also 1 eproduce.
I. All tcricstriul lif(! ilujieiKlu upon the cojiscrvatioii and wtur;i-c uf I lie Biilttr c u c i f r y . Mineral boil isi Blcrlle in itscOf. }i. Plunts, csi>c'ciiilly Mie liirfrcr :iml m o r e cniUirinn-. a r c tlie e.\i-luBive u;;ente f o r this, tlie aoluv e n e r g y bein^ remleroil latcut in ilic f o n n oC c a r b o n (earbonaeeou.s tissues und e o n i p o i m d s cliarcoal, mould, coal). Green folinge d e n o t e s i-onservation, bare irrounil dissipation of solar cnerjcy. 3. Tlie nitrogen requii'cd by plants is obtained f r o m the atnioa|p|ieif through p r o t o z o i c and other loiver and hiijiier animal life, liut espeeiully by woniis, iuscets, A-e. 4. Without a eonstani aud a b n n d a n i supply of earbonaeODUs anil nitrogenous subetaiiecs, the fertility beeonies sooner or later rxhan.sied, mineral soil ilself being sierile. 6. Insects, i e . . conirol plant life, and artist elTectiTely in s\istaining it. uihcrKisc nui',i

WE deeply regret to record the death of Mr. P. V. Ramaswami Raju, D. A., Barrister-at-Law. He was a deeply i-ead scholar and poet both in Tamil and SanS; ki-it aud the loss to both tongues, of such a rare specimen of our University Alnmni and coming so soon after that of another great Tamil scholar is crashing indeed. Our personal acquaintance with him was indeed shortbut it wa.s sufficient to form an estimate of the man. ' To pursue with singleness of pui-pose and with thorough disinterestedness, what he i-egarded as the highest aim of life of usefulness to his fellowmen, was his motto (.his parting injunction to ourselves, alas!) and he actually carried this maxim into practice, not like those who amass a fortune Avithout having a thought for their kind, nor like those who with a desire to benefit others, j-et are deten-ed by selfish calculatiotts. He spent his life and fortune in going deep into studies which all regarded as profitless. He was a well-travcllpd man and a cosmopolitan free from prejudices and yet his o\i n land.'and his own people and his own language was tlear to him and when we parted from him lastto meet no more alas Iit was with the music of " ^ifliijnSsiir ji, ifiavir^u, ei/ieaSttJaSsir" sung by his brother-in-law, ringing in our ears. Sankara rest him under his Divine Foot! May

WE have seen Pandit V Swaminatliier of Kumbakonam at work. Ever}' moment he could spare from his hard drudgery at College, he devotes to his labour of love in recoveiing long lost works from almost ii heap of debris of old cadjan leaves. The lines do not run togethtr, the spelling is abominable, whole lines are wanting and to these, he is restoring sense and order and life. He sqaate on the bai-e floor over & simple stool of a desk and he is working away, day after day in a blazing atmosphere with no punkah over head aud with no recreation and no enjoyment except those derived from his favourite task. Such It man in England would be honoured and i-espected ; he would be furnished a sinecure appointment or the generous public would reward him with suitable enconi'agement. He wotUd command ease, leisure and. comfort to pursue liis favourite study. Could not the Government raise his status at college, free him from his routine of work aud make him more useful to his pupils and the public at large Y

0. JJirdti. reptiles,and small m a m m a l s c o n t r o l eliiefly the insect world, and s-ocondarily. the plants, while also g r e a t l y assisting in the distribution and protection of the latter. 7. T h e larger m a m m a l s , aud espeeiully eivili/.ed man, teml c o n s tantly to disturb the balance of nature, the latter m o s t .injuriously, even e n d a n g e r i n g thereby his o n future prosi>erity and existciice.. besides ilii/se of all o t h e r life.

JOTTINGS. L O UI'WAKDS.People generally go in the direction OK they look. If they look upward, they ai-e moving higliei-. If they continually see the lower aud baser things of life, they are travelling in that direction.



A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion, Cmnmenced on the Qiieen^s

Philosophy, Literature, Science-, &c. Commemoration Dap, 1897.



No. 3.

T R A N 8 L A r I O \ 8.

way of Love, increasing the circle of'Love indefinitely till the One Universal Love is reached. This Yvi/a our temple-woi'ship with its services and pi'aycrs is designed to foster, gradually purifying the heart .nvl makini? it fit to be the " House of God", His " groat
ho\y s-hrine" {Tiriippmin-ivrai*), "the Pity of Siv;r'



A H M 6aid to have been sung by the Saint Y N Manikka Vftsakar in the temple at Chidambaram, probably the most revered shrine in South India and atriqae in combining the exoteric and esoteric aspects of Saivam. The hymn i the one called . uu^sCa ('the holy chapter of the House of God') in the Tiruvdsakam, the ancient and popular Psnlm-book of Tamil-land. Temples and churches, usually regarfled as Houses of God, are- bat passages to the true House of God which is in man's heart " made beauteous by the flood of His Grace." When He has tnken his abode there, all distinctions of race, religion, caste^ sex &c, disappear"who here is my kin ? who is n o t ' "and there is naught save the splendour of the Lord. The experience here recorded is the goal of the Bhakti-Yogi who seeks realization of God by the

or, in Christ's language, " tlie Kingdom of (I'od ', which, by the way, ho too said "BcholJ, tlie KiiigtliMi of God is within you" The hymns of the Tirnvi'i>iak'nii are nidst (liflifii!t translation. 'J'heir meaning often beyond ihi I;;i|is Tlio apprehension of tho mo-t loaniL-d\vliich the reason why cxphuiiitions lation here offered is necessarily disconrngcd tentative and -^ei kthere is no couiinentnry \-eii in 'l^iniil.

to express the sense of the liynin as taitlifnlly I understand it, sacrificing ele<j:ance to fidelity translation can convey original the ]ii;ked snoetiy.-it 'h. \\liiili or its wonderful i-eligious eii:f.t:.iii

caiTies one away like a torrent.

* -VUo the name '>f I't Saiiu'.s Biiiritiifil iiistory t I.









isnr^SehrOpanSm tmusS'^s u j^fS^AOp^S^' G^fl^tirOp^Gai OerQfuir^^fit^



QeuOuq^wnQesr iLjespBsuQair

iiSjSeairuu^isja eSlunesieuiLfka^ii^ oSewuGLD Oojing^eauiueirGu. ()

0 King, Father to me that am the slave of those that love Thee, Light of Truth that entering body and soul hos melted all faults and driven away the false darkness, Full, Avaveless, clear Ocean of ambrosia, Siva, Dweller in the great holy shrine, 0 Knowledge* known there where speech and knowledget are dead. Make known unto me, how shall I speak of Thee. (3) s-SisniBpLDnQfiafioi (t^ui uQairQi^nifiifiir ^war/fayig Q^fieuQfiLCiQuii(^Gstr {jSesmiaSeiiQujeoeiir eijuSifmiJ.(g(ipuS(ar

O Supreme Splendour that rises within me welling forth as ambrosia, Havinfj blocked the vay9 of the five traijior thp.t ever delude me, Graciously show Thyself to me as Thou art. O Clearest of the clear, Lord Siva, Dweller in the great holy shrinei 0 Bliss transceiidinp: all states without end, 0 my Love.! jViwtSgjsutf(Jiu i^sSQiantirsoBs ujiear/s^uiiriL-i Oa esruiTLDSOisoir luneiSi^pSsnQ^ir eBmCawnjn
Qfisir LfLDiroJuiSsi'Ll QftQ^glLaniuuuai^

senses iLioDpBaiGeir (^eeaiEisiinBsoeiin ^muGLoiL/eiiSsirs Q^QGesrpSaJfl OiumesrQeaflGiu. 0 Thou that art not to be known by the intelligence of great sages, celestials and all others, 0 Life of all diverse living things, 0 Medicine that cures me of rebirth, 0 Pure Space that came forth from the dense darkness, Siva, Dweller in the great holy shrine, 0 Character-less Bliss, What now is lacking to me who have neared Thee ? C^SBpsSeiinSaBpGeu Gfur^eaireuQ^G^ uS^eiiriQsirQ^^ oft-iisQeiiGp
(a.) mempiLiLCiiriuLDeinptiSeii


Ofi/ifiGesr (yii^ aSeiirQpfi^Se^ Q i sir 3uIB^BBflUJ ITiL &aiOu(if,u>tiQem

^(Tjso ff

With love T'^y servant's body and soul melting iu bliss. Sweet grace, by me not deserved, Tliou didst grant. For this 1 have naught to give in retiuni. Thou that didst sproad forth fts all Iwfore and all after, Free One, Substance unwasteable, Dweller in the great southern shiine, Lord Siva, (2) King of the beauteous city of Siva. j^-smo /rQarrajsiruiri aiuuGgar ujirsS (x lu iriirdest s L^sBa L^snc -t^uju ^eajQuir unin^^ Lugis^Seh.grt^iSu

LDsm ^^eai LoasreSiuuitisiQgir mea>pOu(ffMnQunp Siieo^euBujuu''T^ii ^Q^uOuQ^/ijgjeap iL/eapSaiGesr uSeapsuQariSQujii: @i'L_e\Si_0(r6roi_/r liSsafliiyewSswOiL sir aiH/i dQ^Qesi . O perfect Fulness, flawless endless, flaming Light,


Ambrosia, Mountain of

O King that earnest unto me as the Vedas and the meaning of the Vedas and didst fill my mind, Siva that, like torrent brooking not banks, rushest into the mouth of greftt holy shrine, Sovereign Lord, Thou hast made thy abode in my body. What more can I ask Thee ?
* Pure Intelligence, the Absolute, where there ie no clifferontiation of subject and objectImpure lutelligence or differentiating conBcioueuess.

my heart, 0 Dweller in the

^(j^uQuq^isjgietnfl iqeejisffloiiGeir iLiesitriLierrii^piB^Ssii j!tmneuG^ir(Tfeiarr(/ii . (Ungusir Ssar iLjestj i(^LDrj)!smf,


^it) t

5T> T H E









sprouting as the) earth and all the that art beyond, the iu the heart m^e

QiuQfStBrp'JfnfiQ^i aSeaiLQiurrr

spheres, spreadest as matciiless e.ipanse of light, 0 Fire water-laden. Pure One leach of thought,

iSttit^ainsniu eiaaj^ai OJW^UJBluaisiQ^ S f f a e S j i j f a r s s i ^ ' ^ ' ^ 0 Spleudour that rises ill l u j Iieart as asking, asking
I melt,

0 Sweetness that wells forth

beauteous by the flood of Thy grace, Siva, Dweller in the great holy shrine, W h o here is my kin ? who is not ? 0 Splendour that makes me blias ! Q f^t^ajniu^Q^nanjpi Q.aaQ^ojGear Q3agg^psiHuj suafiGiu^SGeu ujibfiGLDuiip
to^stgLDHsmi^ wnst-Gso


Thou whose lotus-feet grace the crowns of celestials, Siva, Dweller iu the great holy shi iue, W h o art all-pervading space and water and earth and fire and air. W h o art other than they, W h o s e hidden," form in them is



iLiIT^MGuirei'G^nIT a^eKMiuaiii-Q^eirniL'

1 r e j o i c e , h a v i n g s e e n T l i e e this tlay. gjiirS^sw aSQt.iirtt^ Pi^




Formless One,

i n e f l a b l e iJegiii-

Q^Q^'ieirp 0a uSG

uns:^ jt

iiing, Jliddle and


SsirfliSeirpea-snLD SSsBruupifSegrisQ^ ^a:iriLii Oujireir ^(Si'jjisQ^neir(ff-k

Great Oceau of Bh'ss tliat. destroys I)ondage, Mountain of holy grace and goodness, Siva, Dwellei iu the great holy slu-ine. Graciously come, SIIOAV me a way. Give me the refuge of Thy feet. ^ t^js^fi-sir Sand Q sr p fir

'Ss\l njsn'^S/i. /resr^.wSsu

uj IT (i^air Sun uj/ht QpunQ r. This day iu Thy mercy iiiito nic Thou dii.l>it drive away the darkness aud stand in my heart ;>s the rising Sun. Of this Thy way of risingthere lieiog uauglit
but I drew 0 atom Thou,I neiirer by and atom, tliought without n e a r e r to till I Thee, was tliooghl. wc;iriu^' with iuvp.y 'I'liec,

siBS.sncinn Q^nQeoi'j-jBJ a i^QiDnswecu ^ui'sn-i'y^.i.'iupG^!;, (^^n^S'iup p O^sITsc Qp'si' uK .. sfr aJu-'ffacaSA' Qs f sistQ'soLcSwr. ly.cer IJ (Tf.i^ yem.r fciCesv Qiu ^c'b^CI'ojjS- IT nijl^l' Tlaiitiri^
u - ^ o v S Tl; w i T Tl!>selt 'I'li'iii i<rr<i e^- -jr '-i'Qju 'Jl.l-t Mild (^'ij TliMii .ii.Nf


S i v a , D w e l l e r in t h e g-ivat Thou.

Iioly s h r i i i r Xaii-ht then-

T h o u a r t n o t a u g h t in t h e i u n v e i > ; e save W h o can k n o w Thee ?

take. Rerielios-fil l.or'-l, w h o i> Uie I aH-iiiuil W h a l . iia^l Tln'ii ^Mim-d

E h d i t s s l)li = ,-- h a \ i '


iS-Ssm ^^UHT.L wQorsifuuaJ^i-


f r o in I lit' '' L o r d thai mnde luv lii-arl liuU T l i y tela|lt-, slii'im', Thy a b o d e ni Siva,



III thi- Ljri'at

Fatiier. Sovcrciiun, iiiy b ' j d y

T l i ' . i i h:i-t m a d e

OiuQpiSfiG^iii GfcQar 0-r^uQu(^ijSee>p matpSinQar Ijti) 'iJiT(^pQjimjiEi annuj^msrf e/ieiink^iLna(^QitiarQsng

I'm- It I ha\i- naii!^ht tu g i v e in r e t u r n F A



OR S I D D H A N T A D E E P I K A ,






4. Besides, we have seen that the stafemezits contained in ths Vedas and other treatises prove trne. For instance, we find the remote calcalations of Astronomers and Astrologers verified in doe time. Besides, Persons are able to discover buried trea!'are by following the directions given in certain booka.
o^vn mind ( p h e n o m e n a l ) , t h e y plead c o m p l e t e i g n o r a n c o j and I h e w wu-i e l o q u e n t h o w e v e r on duties to each o t h e r a n d t o t h e w Ijole rnce and t h e miseries of m a n k i n d and t h e m e a n a o f relieving them ; and t h e y c r y d o w n all religions'llnd i n s t i t u t i o n i M a u i i e n t i tions and conventionalities and lies ,as i n t e n d e d td c h e a t and deceive credulous m a n k i n d . A n d it is n o w o n d e r that tliese raodem (lay aunostics a n d there are some a m o n g us like M r . B . C . Dutt, aii'iong w h o m B u d d h i s m is b e c o m i n g f a s h i o n a b l e . B a t t h e n i s a dilTcvence Victwucn those aud B u d d h a . B u d d h a w a s a strict moralist and his high ideal was D u t y and he b e l i e v e d in t h e d a r k e s t {lessimism. But the m o d e r n d a y limnanitarian believes that t h e world, a3^l is, can be b e t t e r e d and m o r e pleasure .tlnd in c e u n e 111' time t h e h i g h e s t pleasure c a n be i n t r o d u c e d - i n t o g o c i e t v , j f o n l y people will be i n d u c e d , '^to feee" w i t h Majt Nardan, " t h e civilization of t o - d a y , w h o s e characteristics arc pessimism, lyinf( and selfish e g o t i s m , f o l l o w e d b y a civilization o f t r u t h , love o f line's n e i g h b o u r a n d c l i e c r f n l n e s s . " See h o w vivid is hip h o p e ! " H u m a n i t y w h i c h is t o - d a y an abstract idea, will then be a f a c t . H a p p y the later born generations, w h o ^ lot i t will b e ^ o live in tho pm-e atmosphere of t h e f u t u r e , flooded w i t h its b r i g h t e r s n n sliine, in this perpetual f e l l o w s h i p ; true, e n l i g h t e n e d , g o o d a n d f r e e !" A noble ideal and noble f u t u r e i n d e e d , i f it . c o u l d bo realised, b y the m e t h o d s he p r o p o s e s ! H o w vain these hopes w i t h the liistory of Buddhism b e f o r e us. T h o Sjngalesc disciplSs o f the l l e n o w n c d Biiddha are tho grossest beef^eators in C e y l o n , a n d it is a horrible sight w h i c h m e e t s o n e at e v e r y turn, these b e e f Btalls. T h e Singalese w o u l d argue, O the R e n o w n e d B u d d h a o n l y enjoined u s n o t to kill b u t ir3p to eat d e a d m e a t o f a n y kind. .'Vnd so ivill evcrytliiiiir, t h e most g l o r i o n s l o o k i n g m a x i m and preci pt be r e d u c e d t o a m e r e l e t t e r and a sham, w h e n y o u deprive one of any liiulier aspirations t h a n y o u r p r e s e n t phase of e x i s t e n c e ! W h y should I caro f o r m y n e i g h b o u r o r f o r t h e p e r lietiiatioii of the race, if I am t o bft n o m o r e t o - m o r r o w a n d w h y should I not take m y utmost share of this w o r l d ' s pleasurog, as o u r a n c i e n t L o k a y i t h a a s k s ? If thore is niiseiy, tho best r e m e d y wo'.ilil lie n o t to u n d e r g o all t h i s t r o u b l e and vexation bnt t o annihilate the w h o l e world by the m o s t dea<lly of human m e a n s , maxim g n u s luid torpedoes. " T h e w e a k should g o to the wall " and ' ' t h e survival of ihe" are t h e i r c a t c h w o r d s . "Why should we allow the ieiinrant and weak nations and principalities of this earth any l o n g e r any e.\istcncc." Nihilism and t h e so-called Idealism and T'ositivisui and jMinianitarinniem all tend g r a d u a l l y or lower itself d o w n to anarchism. T h e r e is liiiv.ever a le-siiii w h i c h e v e r y one o u g h t to l o o m even f r o m a L n k a y i i h a and w hich should n o t easily be f o r g o t t e n . And that IS l o learn to test i h e f a c t s , or i n f e r e n c e s o r h i g h e r t e s t i m o n y , p r o p e r l y and ycientitically a n d n o t t o a c c e p t t h e m b l i n d - f o l d as facts 111-inferences, thennnnciit it is presented so b e f o r e us, h o w e v e r jiateiit it iiiifjht seem t o be and h o w e v e r high t h e aiithority "of t h o o n e w h o appeals t o us. T h e r e can b o no sin g r e a t e r than c r c d u l i t y ill sciciiritic investigation and honest d o u b t is esseiitinl t o right uudersianding. T h e r e is t h o o t h e r c.\tremc of t u r n i n g deaf to pvervtliiiig wliieli may not seem to suit o n e ' s f a n c y nnd sniffing at well attested f a c t s and we see t o - d a y e v e n Truth ("of Mr. L a b o u c h e r e ) ;'.sking for a fair hearing t o Mr. Grntaker, ' t h e e x p e r t w a t e r Milder' in these w o r d s . " W h a t m a y b e t h e explanation of his Hiicci PS, and that o f o t h e r m e n w h o w o r k in the same liue, I d o n o t k n o w ; b u t it seems t o me, as 1 said b e f o r e that w h e n a man c a n s h o w that what he is d o i u g is a coinniercial success, t h e ^ rs jin'mn f'cic e v i d e n c e that he is able t o find it. Scientific men o u g h t t o be able to tell us h o w i t is d o n e ; and if it is all t r i c k e r y and inijiosturo t h e y o u g h t to be able t o s h o w us h o w the t r i c k e r y and i m p o s t u r e are p e r f o r m e d . " A n d as t h e r e i s e v e n a t e n d e n c y in eiU p e o p l e t o believo in the impossible and t h e m a r v e l l o u s , and w e have reason t o suspect that this tcndcnc_ if g r o w i n g m o r e npo.n ns, f o l l o w i n g a blank A t h e i s m and Nihilism, t h e caution c o n v e y e d a b o v e to test f a c t s and inferenees and e x p e r i e n c e s o n d not to swallow them wholesale, m a y not be t h o u g h t u n w a r m n t e d . .

{Continned from fage 28) 1. 0 Lokayitha ! W h j ' do ycu hold that whatveiis seen ny direct percepfion iS ii'iie and whatever is inferred is false ? Tell nie, how yon know that yon had a father and mother, when your father had died before your birth and your mother after giving birth to you ? It could only bo by inference and not by direct perception '2. When you assert that when it begins to litrhten t.ud thundei- and the hoavons darken with clouds, it will surely vain, and when you assert that, when the river flood da?hes down Sandal and Agil trees, it had surely rained on the mountain ghauts, your knowledge is derived from inference and not by direct perception. 8. l l you assert that even such inference is only perception as it is derived from our knowledge of prev i o u s direct perception (of observed instances), then, how do you know that intelligence arises from the body composed of the four elements And if not by inference, -how -do you know.' tliat yonr intelligence perceives sensations oy mc;\ns of the sensies ? How do yon derive this visible body by the union of invisible elements ?
1, 2 Diul 3. Tlinsc staii/.aB show liow t h e world's Icnowlcdf^e is built oil tcstiinoiiv and i i i f c r c n o c and that w i t h o u t these t w o inat m m o n t s of kiiowlpdfre, it will liu impossible to k n o w a n y t h i n g . T h e L o k a y i t h a ' s splicre o f lo<;i(' is i n d e e d t o o n a r r o w aud his m o d u l i reprosoiitative has certainly lulvanci-d b e y o n d fl5ni, i n ' t h i s as ii) n o t stoppina; short of only f o u r e l e m e n t s . A n d he a c c e p t s IIOAV a tuth olonicnt, an ether, and . Icerricity, itc. A n d the m o d e r n materialist lias d i s c o v e r e d several Fcorcs of e l e m e n t s and has red u c e d the f o i i r o r five so-called elements into m u c h simpler e l e m e n t s called !,'ases,snch as niti o g e n , o x y g e n and h y d r o t f c n and c a r b o n i c acid eas, &c. ; and as such the old Indian clfissificntion of elements i n t o f o u r or rive will t h e r e f o r e seem iiicciiTect. But n o t so necosBarily. T h e Indians recos;iii''e liner conditions of m a t t e r ; a n d if wo translate t h e term ( w h i c h does n o t necessarily c o n v e y an idea of n simple euhstanciO into iiieroly a c o n d i t i o n or state of matter, then the division of sn'iMancos into 5 y j . i ( B u t h a ) , states of matter, will stand ^'ood and t h e y will be, the solids, the liquids, the irascouB, lie.\t and i lef-tricity. T h e L o k a y i t h a liasj h o w e v e r , very tew wlio f o l l o w his s i icntiKc invostig;atiou, so far, ^ t h o n g h the Oerm-plasm t h e o r y holds s w a y still iimoii!;,' a small s e c t i o n of European Materialists and so-called Idealists. The more respectable of the modern dav materialists g o b y t h e n a m e of apnoBticB and positivista and l)maiiitarians. T i . j y postn1".tc a mind and m a t t e r so f a r ris they ^ r e within o u r c o g n i t i o n and n o f u r t h e r ; and they ar not able t o a s s e r t p o s i t i v e l y w h e t h e r m i n d is d e r i v e d f r o m matter or matter is a p r o d u c t of mind. And as roparda a fntftve or a past and nnythiii<r hi'.'lier tlinn vov.t




OR S I D D H A N T A D E E P I K A ,

S. "Why dp you 8y that matter is imperishable and iiiicihagetible f AJ ita form changes tnere must be one who onuses these cfaaugea, in the same way as we infer a potter when we see pots made out of clay. If yon say, these Qeed no cause, as the bubbles formed in water, then even then, bubbles are formed by the agency of air and not without any cnnse. , A a d then, the bubble formed of water and air IB oaly of the same kind as its cause; similarly the prodact of the body, will bo similar to the body itself and not like mind whiclfTS hi ii different nature. YbuTnuy BayJihat the product is dissimilar like tlie red juice-produced on chewing betel and n u t ; b u t then tire colour is inseparable from the matter itself and on this analogy, the mind must be inseparable and concomitant with the functions of the body. But we see the life departing when the {jody is left \>ehind and hence what, yon say cannot ^e true. 7. When Che betel iind nufai-e o i e w e d together, redness alone results. But by the union of difPerent kinds of matter, senses and se^nsations and qualities of different grades and kinds result. How could this be ? A n d then, you will have to nol-ice that Mr agellc is required to bring together, betel^and nut ; and as such you will have to admit plainly th^t for bringing about material Ciiusation, an agent is also required. If you tfay that t h e JiV^e, senses, hunger, sleep, and passions are produceil from the body, without any other first cause, like the web from the spider, then why don't you prodnce the web -from the sky ? AB theelementa unite only in one wny, then differences of sex ana gender !lnd different orders of creations will become impossible.

10. If yon say that matter gaases mind, then, we do not .see any niind in earth, aili- or fire &c. If you say that intelligence can only arise, after the body ia formed, then why iaJihereno mind, in the dead body ? If you reply that is by the .absence of Prana, breath, then why is there no consciou.sness in jsleep ? 11. If you .say that intelligence is a,product of t h e ' body, then, in different order.s of creation from a i t toelephant, intelligence must differ in equal proportion to the respective size of the body. On the other M&d, the animal with the biggest body (elephant fdnnstance) is less intelligent than the animal (man,with a small body. Explain this difference if you can.
l o w e t or higher o r d e r of dcveloiinicnt and intelligence. T h e l o w e r orders simply live to proiia^atc its .spccic^ witb n o higher i>iir|isj^ (in itself the liii^host) .ind as t h e stTeCi'cs ave m o r e and m o r e d e v e l o p e d they increase in nsefnliie.9.s. And if man in w h o m t h e senses are most fully d e v e l o p e d and liiijidy intelliitcnl, lives to eat and t o prAcrcate, w e say of him, that he is vetjciatin^' and that he is leadin;/ nn animal life. Man's iiursuits arc .aecnrdins;ly hi^h o r low in as much as he d e v o t e s hiiiifpli: to the purpose of one sense or other. A n d the man w h o could use his eyes and cars m o s t and and tlieu think out the fiicts he has observed : ud proceed.s to lii'jher and hi?_'Iier v i e w s of life, ho alone could lio paiil to have l i v o d ' h i s life., The arts, ;nsLroni>niy, hortieultiire, paintinif and music folluw the same law of ;ethetics in the matter of t h e i r appreciation ; l^nstionorny, the hiwrsl as music is the hi','hcst. A ^iuj^'le morsel ITfi.n only anpetizi' o n e man, l)ut a .-(iMu'le Hower, a siiiu-le picture, a sin^'l ' note (if miisie. what a larve and fi|)rcadiii!< circle of human lioinifs ii can attract ;uid inlluenco. A n d ono principle derived f r o m these it., lieariu;,- im TIthics. Tlie lii^'hci"! inlelli;.,'ence is the hi-rhest .Morality and the hi^'he.^t Uenevolence. X o man can claim t(. any intellec Luality if his cMiduut is not consistent with his profes.sion.s ; ivc rate a most icai rrcd's worth at zero, wlicn he d o c s not s i v e the hcni Hi of his learning' to his fellow men and is not useful to them. The ..'reater the mail's leafriinn the g r e a t e r is his siiherc ol' usnfninesi. tircat nien and true are the most l i c n c v o l e u t ; tliey are tlio R.ilt of the e a r t h ; they n r j the w o r l d ' s luminaries. They live not fm- one country nor for one age. Grc.H musicians, and j,'renL saye.s have Incuthed ttieir harmony a n d ^ v e n t h e i r t h o u o h t s w h i c h live f o r all time to c o m e and like pollen o f llowors leave one brain, and fusten on to another, v i v i f y i n g and fertilizing and fructifyiirg this other. I.n ! T h e man of learning pnfTed up with his own learning and i m p o r t a n c e , and lookinj,' tlown upon others as beneath hiui '. A man niiirht t.ike the hi-rhest degrer s. the University can offer him, and if in' tlic daties of life, set f o r him, he does not s h o w honesty or s y m p a t h y , remenibcrini,' his eovineiirn and his God, of what use are his titles r .V man mi-^ht be a preat l a w y e r ; what is the e e of him, if he ig cold and seltish and calculating, unless it be, by the hies he amasses, he l^ishcs in live well and to see others of his lino behind him live a l s o ? And unfortunately, this sense of living' only bccome.s t o o predominant in his descendants, and a fortune acquired with so much skill and hair-splitting is isily enoiiL'h dissipated. Men arc therefore riven a choice, unlike other order? of ereution ro selei i i lie lower or thr- hii^Iicr an<l in rlie ii isdom of his c h o i c e li.'S his wild,- future. 11. M.idi-ni materialist lo'-ate tlii' intclliL'enee not in the boily Imt ill tlie braiu. And the .ilijectiiin herein iiointed out is explained by the t'aei that the brain is divided into parts which have different ruiieiinii.^ t>. p..rforni such iis l ei: i.r sensory, intellection and w i l i . t c . ; and ill lan.e aniiiial i tlie imrtlon of the bmin (mednlhi obU.n-ata and eert'lielluH, A-. a^idi vhieli has to control the large muscles are laru'ely develoiird ,'.ii.l rl.e I.rain prii|ier (cerebrnm) is develo|jed. In man. siz-I'mj >i7e, the frontal brain is larger and more fully develnped ami e...nvuliii.jd. X o doubt t h e r ? is considerable correJatioii beiw.'C:! rhe brafn a.:d man's iutelligencc.


9. It yon deny Karma, then the differruit orders of ere ition and thir differeuc senses, vaiyingin uiniiberand intelligence^ from one to five cannot be. Tlieii again, the mere uniou of niMcer, cannot produce leiirning and enjoyment and qualities. Kavm i alone can canse these differences.
9. Single-sensed ( t o n c l i , iirc trees and frrass iin<l vi-.'ciiiMc k i n g d o m . Double-sensed (toiKli ami liiMc) arc of ilic nvilci- uf the Mollusca, starfish, snails, ovstcrs, A'C., tiiiilr-soiiti d (tnncli. t.iste and smell) arc white-ants, ant. &c.; finir sen^c'il. (tlio laM t l i i e f w i t h sight) are beetles, butteitlies, Ac. tive-senteil (with iie.iiini;) a i e d e v a s , men, l^east and Mrda, itc. T o t h c i e live si ii.srs, Rurniiean Bcientists add t h e alimentary canal u d iliu genital oru!iii.x and t h e pleasnres d e r i v e d t'lerofroni but iliey may ije ela^a.jtl p i i marily as toncU. These senses f r o m t o u c h to licarin;; .aru^iii an iv?c e n d i n g scale of intelligence, the least int<.'lli!,'ent lieitiK' toiicli aV<l f b e sense m o s t intelligent, tho sense of hearing ; and the s'.'iiv ..f sight c o m p e t i n g ivilfti it f o r tlio Krst place almost. A n d ilie uiilerso f c r e a t i o n p^-seatiniC-^^y moj-e senses arc a h o jilaeeil in


THE LIGHT OF T R U T H OR SIDDHANTA DEEPIKA, do you feel pain in the absence of pleasure. Tell me if you can, how this Was derived. This is due td Karniti aiveady performed (PrUraptha). Even Karma (Jannot induce anything by itself, (iod in his infinite love, has to give to eacli according to his deserts. The soul, and its Kaima are eternal and eternally

12. If you say that- -ivheii the elements unite, iutelligence preponderrate.s when material components are less gross, and )nlelligencc is less when the material components are more gross, thf the respective bodies should neither grow larger iioi smaller and they should be stationary as once formed. On the other hand, tlie bodies grgw and decay with time 13. If you say all the^rC arc due tO nature, then nature must be unitorni and as such you should account for differeuces of persons being born as male and female. And why should procreation be possible by means of male and female ? And as such it will falsify your theory tluit the natural body is caused by Miiitter. Your tlieory is illusory. These differences !U'o really caivsed by one ia accordance with each one's Karma. 1 I-. You say that forms are created in this wise. Like iiots made out of clay, male and female forms are produced from matter and these in turn create fDruiN. 'i'his wo ijfiite. The elements by their nature posseiss opposing qualities. Yuu say these will unite, then tell me if you have seen fire kept unquenched in water ' I'l. If you say tbtit. bodies are formed by the .niioii of dilferent kinds of matter, then wOiy is there any necessity Lor human love ? This human love -ii]i])ly follo--vs the universal law set by tlie Lord and flis f?akti. I (J. You ([ueried what Karma it was b y . which auJal water .was cool and heated water was not. V'rom your own example, ;'.uderstand how one thing L^i't possessed of t^vo i|vva!ities. In like njanner, it is by Karma, ilien derive both pieasuie and i)ain. And tlieii the souse of this [)leas;uv or pain oidy appertains ro tlie soul and not to rlie body 1/ When cujoyiii i,^ i)feTTSui e you would assert that all this is iiature and nut due to -Karma, then wliy
lull llir inusi ii[;inni' iin inn Tails 10 ci<t;ililit<li iiiiy cuusnl 1 ..iiiiritiiii: Ih iwclm I lir n\ (P. cM-t'iii !1 c-urrol;itiuii. Ami tliis'is (jiiitc ( inisi>liMiL i\ iili ilii- l l i c o i y of Si(lilli:imliiy. \vlio ptistiihUo an e t e r n a l . i.niii.iiiu]L and curivlaliiin Ijilwi'i'ii niinil anil boily anil w h o even Ii i^iiilah iliai I V I II ill Miikii, iliL'/'i .'hu lliof are not anniliilated I. . , ililTi-riiii; I'roin llie idealist 1 1 ilir niali i iali:,t ivl.ii 1 uiali-iiiil v niinil or nniticT as a sub- l a n r r and liolil I lie oi her as a iiier.- phenonieiuil proilnct or n - ' l a d o w or all itlusiuii. 17. Wlial ihi; lail.-* In aer.Miiit lor In rel'erriiif,'all ijiialit K--to nai lire Ae.. is the faeLjim oC eonseiuusnebs, the lliiiit? w h i c h iH-eonics eon.seions orc|naliiies ami ol' pleasure luiil pain. This lias I o s u n ol'siniilariry or eoniicil iuii ii h Ihe olijec-ta p e r e c i r c d a n d u lien y o n beirin lo analyse il, it lies al the basis of y o u r i n v c s t i '-'atioii.

18. If you object that no body need unite the two (Karma and Soul, &c.) if they are etttn<iJ,tlien hear that Mala, Maya, Karm J, Soul and SlVa ATB eternal. When souls perform ^vanna Karma cannot of itself oorreoiouely give tJiein then- foi ius. The eternally caused bodies being nnintelliyent cannot unite with the soul of itself. God tlioretore brings about these unions and enjoyment under an Eternal Law. 19. If by reason ot our external sen'ses not perceiving the aonl, yon deny the soul's existeoce ; then, can the pot see the eye )vhich saw. it. It is the eye which sees it, without doubt. In like manner the soul which is conscious of objects and objective senses is similarly imperceptible to the eternal senses. The soul will perceive the senses and the senses will not perceive the soul; from thence, you see the truth of the soul's existence. 20. iMre (oxygen) cannot burn and become apparent unless connected with some substance (carbon). The soul also cannot be active unless attached to a body. The light burns in a himp lilled with oil and wick. So also, the 5>ul eats the Karma, and attaches to a body. 21. If it is objected that the soul dying and being born in bodies and different from the bodies, should possess its intelligence iiitact,theD, can you be conscious in dreams, of dream as a dream, and not a reality ? Then, is tiie intelligence of yourself " the same as after you are born? As such, pure intelligence cannot be postulated of the soul. 22. If you say that it is impossible that the intelligence which now desays should again be reproduced, then, will you explain h j w in sleep yoti. are unconscious and in waking ypu become conscious. If you ask how one body goes and another body is got,
19. Externnt senses, internal seuees and soul a n d ( i o d b e l o n g t o different planes and o r d e r s of intelligence. I n the p r e s e n c e o f the liigher t h e l o w e r is n o n - i n t e l l i g e n t and n o n - a p p a r e n t t A c h i t o r A e a t ) a n d as s u c h it c a n n o t perceiTe t h e higher. T h e e y e is intelligent, w e m i g h t say nnd it p e r c e i v e s o b j f c t s but w h a t is its i n t e l h g e n c c w h e n c o m p a r e d t o m i n d ; o n d the e y e c a n n o t see m i n d . A n d similarly m i n d is n o n - i n t e l l i g e n t in c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e Bonl and c a n n o t p e r c e i v e t h e sonl, a n d t h e soul c o n n o t k n e w G e d .


5 5

i h f t i t t h e s o u l in b l e e p losinf^ all c o u s c i o u s n e s s o f a b o d y and r e g a i n i n g it iu ^akio;;. of


these w o m e n , w h o are p r a i s e d Tor their e y e s flesh, fat, bones and secretions. dirt and worms They Lodie.''

l i k e fish ! W h a t sire t h e y ? T h e i r b o d i e s a r e c o i n j ^ o s e d blood, are the urine p o t wherein, and m ine


I f j o a a s k b o w it is thnt t h e s e n s e s a r e lost in

death, and DTO regained in r e b i r t h , t h e n i t i s l i k e t h e man who losing all b r e a t i i a n d c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l l o n a sadden regains them a f t e r a w h i l e . T h e w o r l d s p e a k of the moon waning and w a x i n g ns i t s d e a t h n n d b i r t h . Soul's death and rebirth a r e s i m i h a r .
24. 0 m y dear Sir, understand that there ig an

a n d p h l e g m o n l y t o o w e l l siro g e n e i a t e d ! T h e ' i " a r e o n l y a mas.s o f d i r t w i t h o u t d u u b t . 28. O n e ' s i n d u l g i n g in l o w w o m e n is I ' k e itself. The



w a l l o w i n i j in d i r t a n d e n j o y i n g we derive by worship of

pleasure and

I s i i is t h e B'iss.


eternal a n d p u r e Occiiii of 29. not from

e f f i c i e n t c a a s e , m as m u c h as this material w o r m

uucterthe from P e o p l e in w h o m a n g e r p e r m a n e n t l y the benefits Hold of on to Patience. the will Fee.t rise dwells du I'eoplo of in tlie Thai your understand

gpes creation and

body fooned


If you ca

say only

that be

like a pot f r o m clay

mattCT, thra even in a canse like the p o t t e r .


'such c a s e , w e r e q u i r e an efficient

w a l l o w i n g in p a s s i o n d o n o t k n o w t h e p l e a s u r e d e r i v e d Passionlessness. S u p r e m e L o r d o f L o r d s , w o r s l i i p ] ) e d b y Dt!Vii=.

T h e L o r d w h o was difficult of with

knowledge his


instant, body. 30. h e a t in ing

an inextinguishable T h i s is T r u t h .


t h e D e v a s a n d t h e, w a l k e d D e v o t e e (eudiO(ii;eiri^s!r is e a s y t o b e a p p r o a c h e d on you even 26. the


a s .a m e d i a t o r t o t h e h o u s e o f t h e b e l o v e d o f h i s s t r o n g Saiut Sundara). b y his devotees. you desire in A s suob, he Therefore this life. H e will c o n f e r Y o u have regarded passion and other T h i s is l i k e s e e k i n g p l e u s n r e i n of winter and time viccss a pleasure. smotheiing everlast-

a p p r o a c h his L o t u s - F e e t w i t h o u t fail. blessings

in c o o l w a t e r in s u m m e r . will obtniii

If yon reach the Godly path, you pleasure. W e read the Sivagainii. Isa's

I a rich

golden, ornament,


covered we are be31. W e d e c l a r e tlie Pasu iind Pasa. Feetvictorious truth We We

with dirt

w e d o n o t b o a i t:> t o u c h i t it u p . These

S o , in l a c t , bodies ugly to

must regard composed hold. of

the sexual passion of w o m e n , females' are to derive blood, urine which

as a t h i n g

of t h e T h r e e Padarthas, Pathi, ever praise and worship give up Kama to G o d ' s G r a c e . off the stains of

fit f o r o u r g i v i n g

a n d o t h e r l o w d e s i r e s aTid w e h o l d f a s t W i t h this o u r f^ith, w e h o p e to l e a v e the three mala a n d to unite with the

W h a t benefit do you hope

b y falling

on their bodies ?

Ninviald God iu Miilcti.

23. To Idok up to the supreme and to hold that all the benefits we derive are from him, even when we fally recognize that we will reap as we sow, hav a high ethical and spiritiial valae aud is the important step in one's sadana of liberation. And then, when we wishinf^ to withdraw the man from indulging in the lowest pleasures, we.teach him tn believe that he can gee better bencht by following a better path, this is only following a well-rccogiiizccl principin of education and must not bo counted an a deception. The highest philosophy of duty and Nirvana will not have the slightest attraction for such a man iind cannot weau him for a moment from iiis practices. The next stanza contains n lurther step in hie conversion. 36. You arc first taught to hope for these enjoyments by referring yourself to a superior path;and then gradually is instilled into your mind the uselessness of these pleasures. How many men wreck their whole life by neglecting even ordinary sanitary laws and "Ty jpost heedlessly associating with the most abominable creatnres. And these in their turn carry their curse into other wombs and into other genei-ations '. How sin multiplies itself and corrupts everything it touches not for one ages but for ages together ! Do they who sin bear these things in their mind, or do they know one instance, in which the sinner has come out unscathed ? With poverty and want of education and copying of fashions, sexual immorality is only too much on the increase ; and a gallant genera! in his place, in the council would even hold that we have no sense of sexual morality ! 0 for a tongue" and for a voice, that would stem this tide that is growing upon us ! ! !

^eos'Ar ^sun^LCLD uiB UK^QLOU'S ujS^.^'/Du.

QuiTQeh AirLDLcn^SsurT QsiOSU^^LD OuiT(^







U. I.

(To be cohttnuedj




[Continued from page 34)

proboscis the sweets of the pix alien systems* of Faith ; and that, roaring and flying away from my own shadow of my ignorance, I swallowed up to my fill tlie wandering mind and stripped out the front-let of maya mala.f When I was, thus, made fit to receive your Grace, you began to show me to my benefit 4he real positive aspect of your benevolencethat isfixing me to the goal of your chin-vnidrai and fostering me like an elephant whose rut is Guana' in the province of your Grace, you plunged me deep in the surpassing bliss of Divine KnowledL'c.|| ggi.^fiuao iLirSmp y^QO^ <^pQpu> ^iisisQsuefi ajis QevsrfiOfiu

Q u) srr ssT ^safSs


0 su aaar (x. W-Oifi^

eir^^Sar iSrrik^iS
LCfiiri/lS ID^LDIJl

^lEisinj Qp?e(res>iL) Onip;S jBfimea^fuSsir uiUfl^u u^-r^Su ^irn^^Qiop

iirireSQ^ t-rarssff^ iSoUss'^.sf-sifii uu.itf warca^^u ^Saa

^ ^ ^

uitS^^ s^struiffuju Q^^Qtjp

U'iTLDaresr u^iren u

Qfikanai (^Qetruj ^^TTLDUJI e!ai4C3?s Osuarpm:. u:p. i^.ilait

ITeniLO lu^eui^ iSifleu^s eajSenmraer

SUTT^ (?Q/frir,T Qilsbts' srTfrA^ffjj



( aer) (THE SAIXT'S s?

tSi/nir jpmnean &]npuaii> (^(Tjffl/ff^a euiri^aifi^ eShuiihS Lfjj Li enir^^ Qoj^rrpi^iun



Qsu^ns iD^^errh
em Qeu

S I'l liiTUAT, Tv;ACH F; i;). 0 j\I<tiiita ( h t r n , the tlie priijc;i of Y o g ' i n s , y o u are

LS/7 etir^L ( S Qajmit'Qm^ WM


(gQjQai ^aiQpet^

p r e c e p t o r of Mantra*
fo)lo^Ycl o f

iis w e l l




school o f T i i ' i i n i u l a i - .
also tlie expelled the witli

Laudable positive from

has good. the peg

QsuQaji's ^Sffl^^O

b e e n y o u r s p i r i t u a l a f f e c t i o n tou-ard?! m e roe n o t o n l y t h e n e g a t i v e b u r N c g . ' i t i v c g o o d , in tliat it has c l c p l i a i i t - l i k e b e a s t l i n e s s witli of .self-])nde and. ruttish

It has done,

0 Mnvnn


t h e p r i n c e of Y o g i h . s , y o u




p r e c e p t o r of M a n t r a a s w e l l a s T a n t r a o f t h e scho d o f Tirnmular.

being a follower

result the

that 1 have true advaita

thrOAvn o f f t h e c l i a i n s o f d o s l n ' a n d p u l l e d o l f t h e knowletlfj;o, 1 h a v e d r u n k iu a s with the

y o u r f a v o u r d o n e To n i e . s a g e ' s s t a t e of p e r f e c t

Y o u raised

me to the great where the mind



was m i ' . d e i n a c t i v e a n d t r a n q u i l

by the coiiqnest of

* Jliuiliii is Vuil:i Miiil t 'i'outni is A^aina.

c. f. Tirnimilar's * Six nlieii nyBtems arc 1. LokavRta (materialism), 2. Buddhism. 3. .Jiviiiism. t. .Miinmnsaka (the doctrine holding that Kurma is the lirst cause), 5. PiiiicharStra (bi^roted Vishnuvism stoppiiii; with Ali'daprikviri), 6. ^Iiniuvothuni (Doctrine of Idealism). Tlicse si.v si-hools rii o eoii-siderpd iniperfcrt for tlioir intolerance and bii^ucry ((((-. u^ia. + as hi ll- ii^ed iiiclndcB Karma mala that canscB it. X Chiii-ini' l.-a is the Holy Symbol formed of tlie thumb and the fore-linuer d at their cuds separating the other 3 fingers. The symbol will i xplaiii t he relation of God to the world as well ns SI I's i!i the hitter's, eoiulitioncd and unconditioned(niokslui) 8ta,tes. ^ I: .1)11 means Oivim Kmm led.;;c. Vide note to 22nd verac. The blissful elVcjt "f inilidiioii a n d ' i t s eoneequent indiBpen* sabiliiy '.> Salvatiini are sn;.;_'estcd ^n this verse 37.

(Tlie Vi (l:i iiml tlie Again.a ai-f lioili ut ilicui true, both liciiijj; [111 WiuilK <'f tlic Liird. Think .tliiit tlie lii-st is the anil tlie ficrriiirl is ihe .s|ioeiiil irriitisc. Hntli lieiiiu' the nf God, if you :isk why tlierc is ililfeieiicc betuccii tlioin, the reply is timt the iri'eJit will ]>erci'i\c im ilill'ereiici-). This \'erse is ri-itiii the fiiiiii! Tii-iniii"ihii-\s s;iere(l roeiii tailed ''T'ininiaiitraiii." |[e is -aiil ii, have unre sat in Votrir eoiUi'Ui]ilatii)n for 3,00<J \-ears ami sani^ ]ii> 'TiriiMiaiiirani ' iu 3,000 verses from what lio cnjoyiil in ! hose ,?,iK)0 years. The trauslation of this work is hciiicr done in ihis ioiirnal. 'aim I'hayuniatia^"ar elaiiiis desccut from 'I'inimiilar ihrt.iiii;li his (nini Miunia Desikarl.




tefsoK* e,




eleimiiti to the soanU m d blie*. identified

Rod, mj:-

O Spiritual firmncas








I b w B orerpowerad rapreme G u u i a t of

of tliooglit to c o n q u r r

thia d e c e i t f o J more aspire

M a ^ ; to fair

I with the O V e B e n ^

becaaae 1 d o a p p r e h e n d that any the it o u i n y p a r t i s a a flowers a b a u r d na to

mctding for the


JOD c a m e a n d i n s t r u c t e d

t r n t i i o f u n i t y b e t w e r a t h e V e d a a w d t l i e A ^ f a i n a s o an to indaoe the beloyed diaoiplea our to vend up appUuf^e who the for

o r the s k y of watwr of t h e

mirage. world

O r e v e r e n c e t o y o t i , inv ( i u r n , w h o let nil t h e know through

g u n to the Mered Foot of 4 o n d a r ^

Supreme Gunit

m y initiation the iieceasity of establiahM^hoolMuf reliipon and the ecatacy the

B a n y M tree in the North a n d a U o to who anveilod thia ti-uth

i n g t h e six'* l o c a l

tAee< o f N a a d i D e r a ^ llM world.

i>f j i e r c e i v i n g t h e - u p r m i e s t a g i - t o f n i i i t y b e t w e e n Vedanta and the Siddhaiitn.

O Silent Teacher, thus you have n a i n path of acqoiring the


mt-. J n t o



dt^m^nj Ssir^im Qu^^y iit Ou*m9>riutfi QiaimjGma^ iSi^S Ouimfitjfiat fiufmOem a^tm u'ifiifui. >0 O^^nj jui Oi^m^ti Qut^Qmror sii^u Siotttt wcrtmp (atm m Qutftfi^u

ftiUmfi u.imiu4-4?stir mfiSmfi i^ti^ud^ mimti>m i^^Guir mGrna (!uf0S0 Ou'^Mi'm latui ^Qfi HJUUJ**^ mini*^m0 QuiLajf

Oteiur^ fi^iunmL. r'niom

CfiS^Mm Omim^rnj Q^tt^i Qpm^ L/immiiL'

QiGiui* uf Qi^wm ^(gOtu. (*)

O Jfanna G u m , the prince of Vogina, >oa ttre the p r e c e p t o r o f M a n t r a b w e l l i.s T a n t r a b e i n g a of the 8(-^u/ofTiriiuiular. followet

O Mmtma (rmru, t h e p n a < o f Y o g i a a , jrou a r e

() Spiritual (uirii, 1 ffrrntly

p r a e e p l e r o f M a n t r a aa w e l l aa T a n t r a b e i n g a f o l l o w -

e r o f t h e Khool of l ^ r a m a l a r .
wonderfol l^aee power of in the Unirerae hot m ;

W h o g a r e M*fnH
Haa it no It intelligenc f your to be

other beand and

faitcinattoa T

w i t o h e a rae f r w a t h e H o l y makea thia world appear

E n d of to me

teaehioit eternal

OBchHageable Dmac ^ n J . t

a o a a t o p r e c l a d e n e f r o m o b t a i n i n g th<-

The UtvM urn thorn 1 mm^- t U ft t e - j r t ^

M ft obiccta of ir jh ^ . ' M r k . tm*it tt.,

fteBM rfartiwi - f a t thr 7 vidhvB



w d Uh- ft n t t * i t n n d t o i c with ^ k a a s tM^-m*. T h w i n faitMiia) Utvu tHlMMi I I U TRW. t Onaa-kMxrMa* J (Hr* n u n T l n h n The n l m t f l o >>> (Mva*

lull. t o w y i i a ) ri-t.ii.i , . . u 111.- ..1 aiva Htrbuub k m i m a Ml < imiIh Inn -.Im.. <<>.'.., ii.. ti MrUoril* AH' Tin: j*. i . . . (f ^ i. , aAaliiin* l."nl irf Itxr W..HI <li<m-. (J f>i*lf Si^B I*ifi|i*iflti i U.r.1 .f SotiUj ^ 4 ,1 Im,.,. . InrvT.' IrfnMla Vir ^ua i-Mitrym.; ,, wt-ariwn a naHaod .4 I Lotl ! Vxll,. > ID.ui ) il K l l a UukaMm n.ji > i i > . ><, i>1. . . , , . ^ u U rrjacala aail of t h a r . a l l . . l |>aira<4j| . i.. l i r a piwamiitM-'l iti i-riox i-.1 i.l tad a la-iaa tU<< L.>-i<i uf K.kti . > tll<i<<3i.j) (< <. dial ( V i l a ) r f i w - ' < t -I "> .T.i. 1 ! Ui- T.n.Hr..l.i) l kta kaa<l and wi-^nnt; it*- r<> tj k-..T TTW EAPNATR CMI T (K. t H j aaaavlf a i i h Owd M Lut r U rv M a r a , m Tnt* V>>4auta u w

o r f o r m a n d a t t r l l M f t a aiMl b o y o n d t i M r a o c h <r t M V a t f a c a m a a a n d of t h h u n t a n Mind

-r^K^./-w/ -t/.^.-.M Hi,i u I* 1 Kaitii TK.i I HniibM> .14 VctlmilK Suldhaiili or >i<<l i.K.n i'i>r>.;>r.uit ! < S A I V A SIfltftaantl, i.., t h * k n o w c r a n d m b r a c c r o f t K T r u Kitd (or t h e V e d a s ) viz. t h e t r u n i M n l n i " t h a t O e d l a S i v a o r L o v e .<, , f M wi.vB i> t>.< .. P a r a t o r h a m a m d e v o i d

V s ^ M M M M k B a ^ TM* ana r m r tli.^ealMAFilt>kkt(afM)



Ved'tgamas* the direct luy d o w n the and immediate that we several means should, aims for of existence

e s t e e m Y o u r D i v i n e l o v e in t a k i n g l u e i n t o y o u r s e r v i c e and, in one of word, unity inspiring nie with the Vedanta fsupreme and the " knowledge ^iddhautn. b e i n g led between the

f o r m a n s u c h as dharmaf
Highest End;

&c ;

t h a t Gnana-Margal
attaining try therefore, induction,

the to

O , y o u h i i v e t h u s s a v e d m e , i n d e e d , fi o i n a w a y i n t o t h e p a n d e m o n i u m o f Lokaynln. a LokAyata : His

destroy our self-consciousness and, applying to such methods sJifaya^ of r e a s o n i n g as nrgnmentfromsight&c., a s t h i s w o r l d o f mnya s t e p s o f SariyaW we should by

ourselves analogy, as well

H o r r i b l e are the evils of thesouletenial for him.


OHI b o d y , t r a n s i e n t a s it is l i k e a flash o f l i g h t n i n g , sual p l e a s u r e s of t h e s o c i e t y of women who can His


H i s '7immuMfj07inm is t l i o s e n easily inSratyaf procure

discriminate ourselves f r o m our L o r d

and get t h r o u g h the gradational

c h a r m him with their black'-piiiuted eyeS. is t h e h i g h s t o r i e d h o u s e t o e n j o y t h o s e h i m B11 t h e s e . Thus vainly sures harifi) of this indulging life l i i m s e l f in t h e of

&c ; a n d t h a t w e c a n , t h e n , r e a c h t h e


final adtiaita

state o f viohgha

( c a l l e d Siva-sdyugya^
neither one or t w o


T o h i m t h e e t e n i n l S a t is t h e w e a l t h t h a t c a n

the Vedas) w h e r e w e will b e

the Supreme Siva enjoying H i m as All-love-



iAeor^ Sij^SLfOwp G^enii^ (JisraSv Qa^ iSeoeini a-TilSliqisi Qsil2eissfreif etLsnia uiltShnf s
i i r ^ e S ^ ^ S O . ' B Q fQfiLD

he becomos,



^ood qualities patifnco, peirepUvitij, renunciation and

a n d possessed of the evil qualities lopa & c .

u u n t ^ * tSQ^dSsisT^


Qurr^ eon^ QunJjuQinn^m w^ein^ feirsiBir.ssrT QutQ^i ^(^exT QLD^ m/SQu.'^ HQta^RoiM SLUSsGfi u/enem^ HQ^a^n a^^ Qld^ iSstQeuev etxenn u^ajirg ^mO^Dsira Qerrssrpaiiid Ssiei'^n
-IT ira^c * Tlic W.inl ' Voilii;.;;ini:i is the compoiiiul ol' v e d a ' .ind 'agnnia.' + Here tlip reference is to the four purusharthas ( I ) Ijhii,-,I,II railed in Tamil ' A r a m ' ( ^ A U ) means ' moral acts', (2) Arclia called in Ta\nil ' p o r u l ' ( ^ ' e ) means ' wealth,' (3) K&mya calU-d in Tamil ' J n b a m ' ( H i h u d ) means 'pleasure', (4) Mfiksha called in Tamil ' Vcedu ' means 'emancipation.' These 4 are also called 'puruahirtha chatushtaya.' t Gnanfi-marga means path of knowledge of God. Tide alao notes to ;i2nil and S7th Verses, ^ a k t i - m a r ^ or Karma-marga and Yoga-margra arc accessory to the gnana-marga. ' Sadltonii.cliatii.-'litaiia are the four great.means or qualities for the Vednntic discipleahip going by 4 technical names and meaning (1) discrimination of atma and anatma, (2) a strong disregard for earthly and heavenly rewards, (3) quiescence (Sama), Self-restraint (Dama), faith (Sraddha), concentration of thongW (Saihadhana), abstinence (Uparathi), and endurance ( T i t i k s h ^ These 6 ar called angams or parts or prccepta of the 3rd Sq^hana and (4) an intense desire for emancipation and Salvation (molsha). [Note how these Sadana chatushtaya have to be attained bafore following the Sohamhavana marga of Sariya, Kriya A c . ] II Vide notes to 27th verse for definition of Sariya, Kriya, T o g a and Gnana. i Sii-a-Myuyya. Lit. intimate anion with Siva (in')HiB Absnlate nature as Love.) This is the final Uoksba or The Eternal Liberation mentioned in the Vedas and attainable b y Gnana alone. There are 3 states below this, Viz., (l).8tt'a Siloka means ' in the same world of Siva, and is attainable by Sariya ;' (2) Siva-Samipya means ' in the vicinity of Siva and is attainable by E i r i y a ; ' (9) Sarupya means 'getting likeness of the natnre of Siva, aad ia attainable by Yoga.' So the True Todantin whose end ia, " Bivolurmbhavaiia" must have gone through the above 4 steps Sdriya tp. c. f. 36th verse, and end of S9th rerse. [ " In my Father's houM, there are many monsione."]

i-/(55u/f Q u ^ ' s



rQTesOc^ Qp'lU^Offi
tUQ) C)sjrssr(g6i7^

ID H SBT (IfifiSiV
qsiDi QtJi-'if

QsieL tram oar Qpujijem eaiGkLir ffSihOu^ .zirfsTf^fn s'^Qp QiDnni^C.

i_(rf3r3(5;!9 i L ( r f i s B u j



eSfpuQfi iMiTiunjg Qmeuii4LD ^^i^aem

^ntei 3 sSlflUUiri

Qitsw Qpsir
J)l Sp


LoirOusitflunin rf^i^Qeti
QsuQiwrs ^s^jg

u)7LSiLia'(T5 Oiasro' ^rj^Qsu.

0 M a u n a Guru, the prince of Y o g i n s , of Tirumular. T h a t it you are the me p r e c e p t o r o f M a n t r a as well as Tatitra b e i n g a f o l l o w e r o f t h e school Philosophy. Y o u have well t a u g h t as in a the s u p r e m e universal nature* of ocirSaiva teaches us that, Siddhanta public

k i t c h c n , w e c a n f i n d all n e e d f u l v i c t u a l s t o e a t , s o t h e Lokayata ia materialism. Vide note to 37th verse. + Svarga is' the Heaven which is abode of Gods. This is not


t The saint refers to the five evil qualities (1) K&ma ( desire of lust), (2) Krodha (^nprer), (3) L6pa (covetousness), Mada (pride) and (5) Mptsara or Mlcharya (envy). These five are the principle bad qnalities giving birth to many sub-divisions. c. f. last para of 39th verse (Translation) and notes.


miiitoa QmgiutQuiu (jjOT-i.^cfrnr w^^cftv lunsr Stmujitiu QmQujtm ^iSjitC3<3 wffiSiiiaiQjQ^mtBr
0 Mauna-Gvru, the prince

G^^i^ ^iQfif"'

O Mauna-Ghiru, o f t h e school of

the prince of Y o g i n s , y o u Tirnmular. utmost stretch of sociable your the with beck



p r e c e p t o r of Mantra as well as Tantra b e i n g a follower Y o u r glory surpasses the are the is inspired to love and be exprescow. call Every

sion : B y virtue of y o u r divine presence, the wild tiger of Y o p n a , y o u the and p r e c e p t o r of M a o t r a as well as Tantra b e i n g a follower o { t h e school of Tirumfllar. frailties of bare knowI Even the furious elephant obeys t h i n g is at y o u r command;

a n d carries, as it were, the fuel f o r y o u r why, much better than what knowledge For, like


1 a m fully convinced of the ledge :* I am in by no way learning imbibed


waits at y o u r f e e t w i t h r e a d i n e s s of will to p r o f f e r y o u any l o o d y o u like. Kings, Vihiia-Dih-af king scholavs &c., and do Your great sages such can as as win Stika, the the

s h o u l d h a v e b e e n , if I h a d n o t a c q u i r e d t h i s which I have, I have not. yet the divine

as well s h e a r i n g . qualities



supremacy, look

fellow-feeling Ac., after giving up the low


of ascetics.


f o r lying, killing, pilfering, d r i n k i n g and lust-fulness. 0 m y spiritual Guide, Y o u k n o w that I am simply

h e a r t s o f t h e n i u e Siddhasl In short it is - n o

of powers. if both heavenly and


bearing a human frame without ever the true sole L o r d end of m y of existence. And,

t r y i n g to realize you being the

earthly beinijs shall c o m e a n d prostrate b e f o r e I'Ogtf^s^' Osr ajMsuir^


All-powerfulness, 'I

can the

never Light,

h o p e of of Your

reaching the Salvation except' b y

M a y Y o u , therefore, and protect me. place me under your control

fSsirji QunetO^ai ^SL'STiSsi OmiTQfsLSiT^ ^/naniLifm u^iuir^ ^ar'imwuj gtak^ Gsti^ @(5nAasw erp^jeij usOeteiru QiLnsur ^aea

mTors i5etfm@L/ei9 umQen"^ (^MirajSt^ ^tmsjre^ m^uja iS eatitTLLi ojEstoiujir QeaSi^i OsaruOuiBiu SLLesnLBt Qoiis^ ai(^GLD Gutars w^cciSfiO^ar SUtlo OuiTsa'ori^iS aH^jpt Qfir^Gin L/a9ff/rgg<r ssSirii^ij foiUir^ Qar sm jtiesru
(Suir/h^BHJ dunp/S Ou- w u i r / r

eitufi ssriis^ Qsiri^ (Sifi^

(S ulSlLi- esr^(yiai>jd QfiscmieS^

(^an^Glujffiir.i icgtfioT) ^Qio &jemauLD ^ft2sii'uif

u>fa s



Qpsiistmi Qun^Qso

^uaQt^'sk ^esi^i'iu O^nnA a. ^in GaiQuj^ii (?i Qpsusw LDniS^euQ^ Qic^nsai (^(^Qeu,
O MaHiia-Onrii, tin. pi iiiue o f Yogins, 3 0U a r c the p r e c i ' p t o i ' J J a i i t i ii a s w e l l iis T a n t r a b e i n g a f o l l o w e r

BTLLiS&ir eS(tfieL/Si/iT 17 x^-i/Tdi/rw

(SJTfiBl?4(g5 Q f i ^ Q L C ^ ^eutir

of the .schou! of Tininiular.

Jf n o w o r d s o f p i a i s c c a n c o m p r e h e n d t h e limits j l ' y o u r gloi'v, such when ential gloi'iotisness: 1 will he woistiip would to be m a y 1 t h i n k of toijoyinij' I ild your ardently leet with on the \Yish for a l w a y s tu o f f e r ricli .supreme y o u in the day niy r e v e r flowtiN, ornatiicnta|

euiritrsQfi LDememSTfiJ^ f sO^^ir &iaaiSl^ay^rir LoSGatDtu^ wif^o Qsus^Qj^a QetiGiijtls ^li fu (aQ^

iIilJlSei>SU(T^ QiLerreta g^jGoi'.

The Saint unravels iu this vtTBC the CXCI-IIlmicl' of .9,,/. Ihantu School. Mere liiiowleclso of " Sadliana cliatushtav.i ranTiot procure tlic Highest G ^ l ; but, after atcinirin- it as a niatti ] of coui-ee, the pnre B o i i l Bhoukl, hy surcesive stat-'cs of Sarija, Kriya, Yo;;a and Gnana, rise anJ reaeh, lhroiii;h (hjil's (iracc, iljc Mdksha of" .SivohambhAvana (the Siiiiri'iiic Ailliwaita Kiid). e. f list verse and Mr. Snba R o n ' s ' Disconrscs on the llha-a\at-(.iila" where ajjainBt tlie Son-tlicistic Saulthya I'hilosopliy he OII^TVIS Wliile Parabrhamara remains passive, Priiki il! t,'oeB on t-peatinthe cosmos in'thoiit I'lf iiiti'iferrnrr. It is not possible to iret riil uT P / ' n i i . i f i or its a l t O f T o t h e r " i.e. Karma wliich is t h e i n i i i . table result of PnikriH.' vide page SA Edition of H8.

periiii; tod seated


uliile y o u

' K;iiiKi-I)l';'nn is I 1 1 1' ''lilv (" iil' ph'lirv Siippo-Si'd i.iu'iv.^\h;tll'\rr her hi\'iMiricv wants. t 'I'liusi- Miires IjcKini,'- Ii- tin- i;r(>nii of nnnii.s whusr niniiVn'r is :il I The 0 tiihlhas of siipi rnjirnral powers arr (1) .Sai_\:niitili;(, (:i)Sakodhanatha, (;j) Adhi-iKit ha, ( IJ Ankiiii-iiai lia, Ma'dliuiik;;natlia, (t'l) Mai svaindi a-ndl li.i. 1 "HJataiiidra-natlia ami (S) (i horiika n;1tha. 6 Seciii'-'' :hal his tJiivn's i.s Iii'vcnd all desiiipt ion. t he taint indnli.'cs inrnsilf tlir .illcrn:.! IM; of reali/iiiu' it. by aftual i-n)f.yiiici-t pra\'i.<l fiir.



H e t e r o d o x y ia itfl O r t h o d o x y i t s i t s finn o v e r m y intelligence. (md iirith t h i s mfetha

t h r o n e , sui roiinded b y the various classes o f a s c e t i c s n a m e l y t h o s e w h o can preserve their b o d y b y t a k i n g in d r y l e a v e s a n d w a t e r ; i i n d t h o s e w h o c a n d o BO b y Greek-partridge,* both day f e e d i n g on t h e lunar beams like the and

and those free f r o m b o n d a g e of action a n d t a t i o n in s o l i t u d e ; or powers.t

n i g h t i m m e r s e d in llie eternal bliss o f silent m e d i a n d , a b o v e all, those i n c o m p a r a b l e eight kinds of Siddhia

S i d d h f i s w h o ivre p o s s e s s e d o f

^issirjr ifiTor^^ev O^L^Omw duiLuirifi^fi wojsS it(Beo^tu QtuKili-ir^ ujqQ^nssf Jtt Ofau^i^ Ui^euiriLJ^ fiHB*"^ Omn^^u^ miflsiiu iSnLoufi ^LDQlbhffianesiQw^ij ^LD fieaiiufl-D QfiSet';^ SUIToBttQUITeoQeu
^ikG^soeiBSujuji iS^a^ch

OajUfiitDfi^iL OtLirtkpimu upfimjfiii d^tfi Qureau uitjfi^&iits^ Quppitntir Omitiliuiis Ssirmr(gm umiisfiUifi Gimirjpi <S^(iar Bppfi^ fi^/Qnf QiDoXSnat Outirc^OuucijS ~'^<BiQseir j^esmfi,^ Qun^ ujaaQeu umpiueopiu ajfitO&i uiareu eirnai aiaaimifljfeb w^^Onfi titrnQuirai K.r^(?fiuiar wiraisth
B-CBViraiO^u O^ fwrarufr

Oirsrestuir ^niS^ SUIT mnS ^^luOeusfi QujA^^/i ^ sir em: B istt(BQ*iu "^^St^iSg O^OiQis iTQfiii eutnLsmH eon^i^^LD Quirffnt Qptf.i^luiJ
OusrrG(g)[j Q^f (^(T^Geu


a/jjajO^u uuf-ujt nSgniJa WflQpard ciDu/? Qf(iaiesiQain(^ LuSkiiiSeid Qsstisu: tSQtseir ('BuGiuff^is^iifg^ Gaj^smt^ LDaiSieu( Oinerar (^(t^Gai.
0 Manila Guru, the p r i n c e o f Y o g i n s , y o u a r e ^
like a rambling


p r e c e p t o r o f , M a n t r a as w e l l as T a n t r a b e i n g a f o l l o w e r

o f the school

of Tirumular.

B e i n g p o s s e s s e d o f a r e s t l e s s mind*

ui/b^tr^Q^ QaiGiuir^ ^f i^^'OO (tojQfisoeir uitnSa>su(^ QLosrrair g^Oau.

0 Manna of the whool

ipaggot, I w a s n o t able to k n o w the supreme effect of

yonr grace on which I should be ever intent for my (5') final liberation. A n d I c a n n e v e r e x p e c t t o get it
are t h e
t h r o u g h t h e dvaitaf never dies out. If I should contend which its one get casually, myself hear any sacred pinching and word blub uttered b y as in a any I k n o w l e d g e whf re the idea of ' I '


the p r i n c e o f Y o g i n s ,


p r e c e p t o r o f M a n t r a sis w e l l a s T a n t r a b e i n g a f o l l o w e r

o f Tiriimular.
Master, I i a n l it i s f o r m e t o : worse than many and I t is t h e f i e r c e n o t i o n o f

my Divine

out of a

desire to

g r a s p it

a g a i n s t t h e s i n f u l Egctism is m e r e It ignorance. iny Its



state of

s e l f - p i o p e r t y a n d a s s u c h is stupefies


stupor. H o w can I, therefore, h o p e to reach of salvation after getting my good equipoised ? But, however, t h i n g else b u t 0 Lord, I would neVer One Word which think of any me the true and ba<i path karma

evils are

^reat: it o f Ravana, nniverse-



!StiHuicX r e c t i t u d e .

I t d o e s , . lil;!.' t l i e l i i u i g l i t y n o n e e l s e in t h e

e.steeui i t s e i r a s i n f e r i o r t o

not e v e n to Trininrti, I c , B r a h m a , V i s h n u a n d R u d r a .




* Tlic GreuW-iiai-ti-icl;;o in calk'il ' I'crdix rnfa' said to feed on the at m y initiation. Mioou'a beams. l u the text, it is called ' Snlioni.' t The S eiddhis a r e : ( 1 ) (niinutciicss) endowed with K . SHANHUOAH MUDALIAB. i liich one can make hie way into a solid rock. (2) huihimti (light\ ness) endowed with which one can aesond to the Solar Sphere (To he continued), '|IU11 a aun-beam, 4 c . (3) UKihiiiin (Miai,'iii; iide) CIUIOWCHI with which c,\n expand himeclf to occupy all spacc ; ( i ) P.npti (reach) ciith.twrd with wliich one can toiicli the moon "with the tip of Hn* Mi^d is here used as representing ' andakarana'. jjei(5) rniJ.iiniiiii (anobstrnction nf wish) endowed with which + DiiVa=duali8tic. The dvaita schoolB hold that God is eterone can, dive oi-tloat in earth as in water; (6) Vasita (eubjuganally separate from nature (maya) and'from the human soul. -.J^he tiou of nature) is the power over the elements and elementary dvaita practice or sadhana a necessary unavoidable p r e l i m i n i ^ in liein^s; (7) I'^itn (donjinion) in which inanimate things obey all schools is to worship or contemplate God in the second person coniniandi (8) Yni.'ihiinii'dM'njilii is obtainin;,' any thing desired in any form. TJiough the multitude of devotional practices falling such a.s coiivi iiiii'j poiKOU into ambrosia, c. F. notes to ''siddhas" under either Sariya, or Kriya or Toga are all dualistic; yet in the iindev 2Ut and Wrd verses. fonrth and Moksha state of Divine Guana, the duality ceases and X Satfvicrel'cralde to (-atva gan:i ((roodncBs). lapses into advaita or non-duality, since, then, the mnkta lays Kav:uiii fstlie ten-hcadcil demon, chief of J{i\kshasas, King of down his Soul to and identifies himself with God. Vide note to 27th verse. l.aiika, vaiKiui.shed by Kanu(,\




S o wi'ote S i r W a l t e r E l l i o t ,

K C. S. I , F. H. 8 ,





a l m o s t liis d y i n g b r e a t h , tion to the " Indian


years ago, on

in a contribuImportance



of Early Dravidian Literature "

W e dare say that w h e n any people to-

this l a m e n t e d s c h o l a r w r o t e this, s c a r c e l y


n o t i c e d it a n d p o n d e r e d o v e r it; a n d w e q u o t e this

day,, as w e c h a n c e d on the p a r a g r a p h only recently a u d to s h o w that the work we have set before it, The ourselves, is not an

AUGUST 181)7. ifboble

unworthy w e may be to one and barren of




w i l l , h o w e v e r , d e p e n d u p o n w h a t enthu.siun these w o r d s w i l l a w a i c e n in t h e h w u ts o f every ti u e South Indian, scholia's repudiBrah-





f i n d w h a t a n .amount o f F e l f - s a c r i f i c e , tli/jse f e w able to do the ation w o r k are able to u n d e r g o . In

LITERATUKE, "THE deriving unthor of his name cansed the Tolkappi^-am, of Tu-anaduinagni, from Jii.s is

of tlic niifouiiJcd

as])cr?ion cast against

niin.s, h o w e v e r , w f n e e d o n l y p o i n t o u t t h e f a c t t h a f f r o m Agastiya downwards t o i l u j ])i-(\sent t i m e , t h e r e were fn-m

M p r e s e n t e d to h a v e b e e n t h e p r i n c i p a l d i s c i p l e of Ap;astya, Tolkappiyr.nar native place, which great work. Tolkappiyam immigration North. temporary him to employ it as t h e title of h i s of an tiic the con-

n o m o r e g r c v i t Jiiid a r d e n t Pclidliir.s i n T a m i l tJian the ranks of taking of stronge.^t Jiriiliiiiins and in lliis pri^-oiit havr

iimh i-

B u t it is, b y

no means, improbable that the a n d is a r e m n a n t flourished missionaries and furnish a that before from other


<JI;I- B i - a l i m i n f r i o n d s and

U-iit!!i IVr'in fruiu

is of o l d e r o r i g i u literatare the of t h e Brahraanical



eaxlier Di-avidiau

b e g i n n i n g , a n d it w a s o n l y y e s t e r d a y w e h e a u l valued liave H r a l i j n u i h ' l e n d t("j t h e treasures of following eilec".

T o thai case archaic




locked up



writings, would


ancient Tamil Literature.

I w o u l d a s k y o u to coufiius the Tamil literastill

m i n e of classical a n d e t h n o l o g i c a l lore. A n d m y p u r p o s e i n t h i s c o m m u n i c a t i o n is to e x p r e s s a h o p e t h a t s o m e of t h e a l u m n i may be induced to explore of the M a d r a s in University lliu h o p u of ol its roccsses,

y(jni' l a b o u r t o t r a n s l a t i o n & c . , f r o m ture. The glauionr (if the



holds sway of the public iniod both Indian and foreign. Tlie field of Tamil is completely neglected. can secure The sli(aild of the and your Tainii

t h r o w i n g l i g h t o n t h e n o r m a l literature, m a n n e r s , ('ustoins. &c., of their o w n land ; followincf distinguished countrymen " A t t e n t i o n is not n o w time. great Fifteen years of ago eai'ly authority the e x a m p l e their in B o m b a y a n d Bunp;iil. c a l l e d t o t h i s u b j e c t f u r t h e lii-st Mr. Cover, supported csiiecially has fallen. it so by Ihe how Tamil Over much Judges, pointed neglect out

resourL-es o f inoue\- a n d l a b o u r o n e be entirely devoted towards the on the


Tamil literaturee.specially tbeosi.plii.' side. I hope

ihe first

philoso])hio issue of

j o u r n a l is a n a u g u r y o f a b l i g h t f u t u r e f o r t h e literature." We piint also another such

of several c o m p e t e n t " total

cominiuiidid not

is t h e m a s s


cation elsewhere.

T h e f a c t is tliat all,


literature upon which borne by Brahmanic

n e g l e c t the T a m i l at

b u t t h e r e v i v a l i n .-ill I n d i a n age of soninolenu)the great and and

legend, hated

by the

B r a h m a n s , * it

h a s not h a d a chance of obtaining

the notice

learning, after a v e r y jnade b y a few noble



' T o rai^e these hoohs in piihlic


v e r y nearly death, w a s s o l e l y d u e t o European

efforts those


to exhibit the true products of the Dravidian mind, would be a task worthy of the ripest scholar and the most enlightened
Government. I would especially draw attention to the eighteen b o o k s that are said to h a v e received the sanction of the M a d u r a College, a n d are a m o n g t h e oldest specimens of Dravidian literature. Any student of Dravidiun valuable writings w o u l d be able to a d d a score of equally

happening t o b e all l i v i n g o r c o n n e c t - j d with N o r t h e r n India, Sanscrit l e a r n i n g a t t r a c t e d t h e i r attention, luid

its treasures were so vast as to a b s o r b t h e m in the t a s k ; a n d HS s u c h Tamil was altogether noticed liardly

a n d tlie c r y o f a f e w w a s a c r y in the w i l d e r n e s s ; a n d t h e R e v . G . M . C o b b i n w r i t i n < , ' t o .i f r i e n d o f o u r s .say> that though to he ealled the attention of Prof, .Max aud

books. If thcic mre eiirefully edited they uunldfurm i,f Drttvidiaii clusiic-' of tlir hi'jhd^t rolvc."

n body


some of t h e s j Tamil J'liilosophic works

W e do not, know wliat uuthority lit- Iins for ihia ttiiiciiieiit. Mmiy of the chasteet writers iu Tuiiiil lire B K !iihi>"< 'ii IL^t T;umiI Poudit now i.s n. Bralimiii. 10

p v e s s e d m i h i m t o i s s u e a i:raii.slatii.)U o t in one of the V o l u m e s of the sacred

.SC'ine ut: t h e m Books of the



(the italics a r e o u r s ) different o r is b u t H i m s e l f , w h o h a s b e c o m e this universe. cause of the universe thereof. apart (the the

East, there w a s h a r d l y a n y r e s p o n s e ; a n d with t r u t h , " j u s t i c e o f t e n s e e m s t o c o m e does come; a n d t h e s e w o r k s w h i c h a r e s o

will receive their and our friends m e e d of h o n o r . " need no


observes b u t it

late, '

mmc how
is a l s o

from Him. Ifc italics are ours)


d e a r t,o na

W e sny

yoii Amen,'

H e is n o t o n l y t h e but

further assurance,

A c a u s e is n e v e r

material Oftnae altogether different from its

cause reproduced


f u l l w e l l t h a t o u r h e a r t is in o u r


e f f e c t a n d an effect is b u t its o w n
iu-another form." All Vedantists






to The

an first


entitled is

' Wisdom devoted namely to

and the of

Worship' J u u e J397. statement

iii ail i s s u e o f t h e and exposition of

Brahmavadin the two

dated 5th postulates


existence, according

to the S a n k h y a s ,

nature unten-

a n d souls and the n e x t paragraph article proceeds in its first h a l f t o

shows how

a b l e t h i s t h e o r y is, in t h e v i e w o f t h e V e d n n t i , a n d t h e e x p o u n d the view of the Y e d a n t i , on the same subject- A s t h e article deals with some of the most fundamental questions c o n n e c t e d with Hindu Philosophy w e p r o c e e d to-day to examine s o m e o f vhese s t a t e m e n t s c o n t a i n e d discussed nature hereafter. Accoi-ding to clianges in t h e first p a r t o f w o r s h i p to b e manifests all S a n k h y a t h e r e is mid souls nil not also. simple, omnithen There and tliis from

accept these proposit i o n s i t i s s t a t e d , n a m e l y first, t h a t G o d is both the i n s t r u m e n t a l a n d m a t e r i a l c a u s e o f t h i s universe and t h a t e v e r y t h i n g t h a t e x i s t s i s He ; and secOBdy, that .souls a r e a l s o p a r t o f G o d , s p a r k s o f that infinite fire, a n d a n U p a n i s h a d t e x t i s q u o t e d i n p r o o f of this. N o , i t i s s a i d f u r t h e r d p w n , i t i s n o spark hut the b u r n i n g l o g i t s e l f , in a s m u c h a s B i a h m a n can have n o parts. ' T h e n h o w (?an t h e r e b e s o many souls.' W e a i e l e d i n t o a n o t h e p s i m i l e , t h e o f t - r e p e a t e d simile o f t h e s u n a n d i t s m y r i a d r e f l e c t i o n s in difEereiit p a r t i c l e s o f w a t e r ; " s o a l l t h e s e s o u l s a r e but reflections o f the Brahman
the real ' I,' brutes ' yoir' T h e r e is the One are mere but one and

and a r e n o t real.
of him and and

T h o y are not

undivided Being ; men, are he

unreal. as


Infinite B e i n g


the article only, leaving the questiou of (Pradana) which

of distinctions is a l l d e l u s i o n . " T h i s a p p a r e n t division o f Him is c a u s e d b y l o o k i n g a t H i m t h r o u g h the n e t work of

' me ' and the appearance time and space and causation. They ai e not T h e E g o is H e , part of Him, the N o n - E g o is H e . w h o l e of H i m . b u t the

phenomena and there arc 1)6 diiTercnt from

an infinite, nuinbt-r of Nature the is soul works soul, and

which b e i n g simple cannot chringe and must, therefore, nature. out p h e n o m n n a f o r the liberation of t i o n c o n s i s t s in thi^ s o u l nature (Pradaiui). i^^ s i m p l e , The and soul the and libera-

" I t is t h e E t e r n a l k u o w e r h i m s e l f is t h e might pause

b e h i n d all p h e n o m e n a ; H e the Non-Ego." Here we

who stands phenomena.

and we before

H e is b o t h t h e s u b j e c t a n d o b j e c t . p r o c e e d to the rest of the I n t h e first p l a c e ,

H e is the E g o


t l n i t i t is

omnipiesent is also a being and also

paragraphs. to state that

T h e Y e d a n t i a n s w e r s t h a t this is n o t a j i e r f e c t s y s t e m . If nature there will b e two'simples, the soul

we must beg leave

the criticism of the S a n k h y a p r o c e e d s on a ({nibble; believe, pute t h e w o r d that is t r a n s l a t e d 'Avyaktam,' a number that of source

mere word-'
is, we disthe fruitful like

' simple' of

present, nature must

Lie o m n i p r e s e n t as such having in

n a t u r e .will b e b e y o n d t i m e a n d s p a c e a n d a l l c a u s a t i o n a n d n o c h a n g e is p o s s i b l e is til lis a n i m p o s s i b i l i t y T.wii a b s o l u t e s . pioblem y to the His Sankhyas, ilow solution there of does must nature. solve apart two simples


learned heads,


Mr. T. Subba Row,


t h e Light

of the East,
The whole that


the Vedantin bo a soul

Thinker and the Brahmavadin

where the word occurs t a k e is, n o the not doubt, due to


&c., &c., i. e.

is t h i s . B e c a u s e in a l l i t s

according modifica-

nature, for the reason that nature is s i m p l y i n s e n t i e n t so tljere must b e ])Ower b e h i n d iinture w o r k .

t i o n s , f r o m g r o p s m a t t e r u p t o chitta,, o r some sentient making

the intellect, motive and we sentient wholly

( e v e n t h e m i n d - s t u f f is i n s e n t i e n t ) , b e i n g as the the mind this think

this Kshetra &c. a r e u s e d i u t h e o l d e r w o r k s i n a n u m b e r of accepta t i o n s a n d a n y a r g u m e n t b a s e d o u s u c h a verbal res e m b l a n c e i s s u r e t o e n d i n f a t a l e r r o r . Now i n regard

remembering w o r d and others like, Prana, Purusha, Atma, t o t h i s w o r d ' A v y a k t a ' it is u s e d i n t h e 1 0 t h S u t r a o f S a n k h y a Karika, to distinguish own products ; and that the distinction the


N o w , says the V e d a n t i s t ,

mulapr&kriti from its

b e i n g w h i c h is b e h i n d t h e w h o l e

u n i v e r s e is w h a t

commentator apply

call G o d , a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y this u n i v e r s e is n o t


T h e w o r d m i g h t itself b e a p p l i e d

doubt says s o u l also. to the soul but then

no to the



it^nly maaoB, a o c a u s e d a n d c a u s e l e s s . A q d C o l b r o o k e truulates it o s u n d i s c r e t e . The crd s u t r a m a k e s deaip tbis dist^Dction i n t h e v e ' } ' b e g i n n j n g " Nature
u n o production ; seven principles are productions and

ence of Pradana a n d Soul length, breadth, tenuity &c, impossibility. the other and If width they and

The riddle of no the

supposes density

that or an over For iu

t w o things are of the same kind, of the same quantity, same are can so, doubt it will b e one

produCtiTe; s i x t e e n a r e p r o d u c t i o n s ( u n p r o d u c t i v e ) . T i e ?oul > n e i t h e r a p r o d u c t i o n n o r B productive." Herein lies all t h e d i f f e r e n c e , b e t w e e n t h e s o u l a s Avyakta and n a t u r e ( P i a d a n a ) ;!S A v y a k t a a n d t h e mental and s e n s o r y p l a n e s . N a t v i i ? i t s e l f o c c u p i e s a higher p o s i t i o n , i s m o r e p e w a d l n g t h a n t h e I n t e l l e c t
a n d I n t e l l e c t is m o r e p e r v a d i n g t h a n t h e s e n s e s a n d s o on. T h a t is to s a y . I n t e l l e c t is o m n i p r e s e n t a n d s e n s ^ But Prathe and in a r e n o t w h e n i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e soiise.s t h e m s e l v e s . I n t e l l e c t i s n o t ; w h e n i n r e l a t i v e t o Pradana, dana i s o m n i p r e s e n t s o f a r a s r e g a r d s i t s o w n

B u t we contend that tilings of different fill a n d overlap and much is more when two o n e is s e n t i e n t a n d Achit. so contrary T o the by

densities and tenuities Chit and the other

non-sentient things

instanc);, there can b e no not, or are they one only to instance

nature as l i g h t a n d d a r k n e s s .

A n d d o lliey coexist or objection have own our

and the same ?

o f t h e V e d a n t i , that d a r k n e s s is n o p a d a r t h a , w e the recent discoveries Indian Scientist, I mean dark room b y m e a n s of Dr. Bose, w h o could light too his instrument.

demonsdoes as to a


trate t h e . p r e s e n c e of invisible rays of t h i s m e a n ? TJie r a y o f l i g h t h a s b e e n be covered up b y the lamp is b r o u g h t it more could dispel the

in a pitch What thin

tions b n t i t s o m n i p r e s e n c e presencfi o f t h e s o u l , s i n c e t h e


nothing when

l a t t e r is the


dent, the enjoyer, a n d the f o r m e r cease to exist t h e s o u l is in a state of a b s t r a c t i o n .

gross darkness.


As such, the word

d a r k n e s s itself. candle of one, not all the (,non-

o m n i p r e s e n c e . i t s e l f i s a r e l a t i v e t e r m , a s . s p a c e i t s e l f is, a n d it is a b s u r d to c o n c l u d e that s i n c o b o t h a r e c a l l e d simple and omnipi'esent, snch the ergo, they for The it is must be We two will the absolutes and two impossiblu Take but ear &cthings. eye

But onlj' within a-certain radius. powers but all these

Then a b i g g e r light the brilliant

a gas b g h t , an electric light of vast n u m b e r of pale away' before l i g h t of t h e S'.m. T h e r e the less p o w e r f u l , sannithau,' is t h u s s u c h a m e r g e r tenuous : are

explain onrselves more fully.


in o n e m o r e Qswujii ?

five senses,


in its

covers a and biit Tlie all the sen^s. relation As Pra-

these s u m m e d u p in the s i m p l e s e n t e n c e " ' nj-eosj^/^ p i e s e n c e of the Sat, e v e r j existeiitnon-apparent


certain sphere

operation what the liiniied in

limited ( it and this. and so on.

^ j j O ^ f e i j ' I n


ear c a n and


t h i n g e l s e is S u n y a m

the ear cannot d o take amells the &o. Intellect It

w h a t t h e noPe c a n feel connection a greater own with sphere itself

E f c c h s e n s e i n f a c t is


Saint Meikauda Dova adds and Eternal Intelligence, fore established loses its l i g h t . " amplified iu t h e the

As before



I n t e l l e c t is o m n i p r e s e n t . covers

I t b o t h s e e s wnd

hears and

imperfect and acquired Asat ceases mis-

i n t e l l i g e n c e ( f u l s e h o o d ) is s h o r n o f i t s l i g h t , i t ia t h e r e t h a t in t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e S a t , following verse, "Evil Asat A n d t h e i l l u s t r a t i o n i m p l i e d in t h i s is





productions, the in its

But take

the intellect (Buddbi) the

t o B o u l . T h e .soul i s s e n t i e n t a n d Bnddki T h e latter is n o w h e r e w h e n s n c h , soul is m o r e dana or nature. planes of Vyapli. is Vyapaka an4 That really is to

is i n s e n t i e n t .

s o u l i.s i n it'SCjlf.

t o e x i s t b e f o r e H i m , as d o e s d a r k n e s s b e f o r e t h e S u u . " T h e t e r m A s a t h a s itself b e u u t h e psirent o f m a n y coAceptions, ways. Heri' in t h e e.nst a n d is what a the west, and i n t r e p r e t e r s of Sankai-ii himself different

omnipresent than say,

there are different VijaitSka a n d the o n e hig'her itself and so o n ,

existen'-e, and different grades of T h e o n e l o w e s t is Vyapti

e x p l a i n it i n d i f f e r e n t Denssen says. our

c r i t i c of Paul beneath

a n d t h i s h i g h e r i t s e l f is V y a p t i w h e n c o m higher than B e i n g w h o is m o s t o m n i p r e s e n t a n d thought and mind cannot penetrate. doubt not the presenthas Vedanti mind and what latter

K a n t is m o s t l y c r e d i t e d w i t h l i u v i n g p r o v e d t h a t t h e r e is s o m e t l u i i g senses, The if we behind or tlieso the " reality " of which cannot fathom. {jii^fi^jSiua). W h a t o f t h a t , A n d on the No, that term And

p a r e d w i t h s o m e thiiiff

till we a r r i v e a t n beyond w h i c h o u r
ed itself to the

E u r o p e a n scientists say siieeriiigly c a n n o t g e t a t it, let us i ^ n o i e i t !

This view of the S a n k h j a has no however in his

o t h e r h a n d , t h e N e o k a n t i a n M e t a p h y s i c i a n s say : r u b b i s h , o n l y fit f o r m o m e n t a r y a m u s e m e n t : a n d is a l l .

is t h e o l d r i d d l e ,

h o w can two L i k e all s u c h

t h i s i s t h e o n l y r e a l i t y ; t i i e i e f o r e .ill t h e l e s t is u s e l e s s

things coexist, and one be omnipresent.


t h i s is b a s e d o n a f a l l a c y , in n o t t a k i n g n o t e " T h a t is t h e w e s t e r n c o n c e p t i o n of t h e I n d i a n of t h e facts a b o v e presented, about the essential differ- . M a y a ( A s a t ) indeed a rubbish conception.



mistaken declared

b y this that

illusion, western philosophers philosophy are the Is to of and

have that

the use of similes,







be be be and the in


particularly ' i. e. real ixUogether. meaning E v e r y oni?

proved solely from figures, then no a p o l o g y should p r e s e n t e d that it is o n l y a f i g u r e a n d strained. it s h o u l d n o t possible present T h e simile was expressly used f o r

Vedantism and Buddhism, they deny the existence An of incredible Sankara easy enough absurdity !

' Akosviism universe not the


trating to the ignorant, h o w the t h i n g is simile, a s k s if the same antecedents the are

understand ?

conceivable and when the ignorant man following the thing c o m p a r e d to warrant division of Him (as conclusion, " This the net

k n o w s tliat theve are d i f f e r e n t states o f cnoscionirness ; t h a t o f a n a n i m a l i s d i f f e r e n t f r o m t h a t o f :i m a n , tliiit o f ft s a v a g e d i f f e r e n t f r o m waking man and all Samadhi. 'reality' ' reality' dreaming, 'reality' and than different are it he both a is these of that of a savant, f r o m that is of that of a man, the is of a s a g e in that he f r o m that that f r o m thnt a matter iniin very of a dreamin<r of course, liifferent such states of

\chat is of

answer does the Vedanti give him ? c a u s e d b y l o o k i n g at Hitn, time; space and causality." a n d this delusion possible, itself ? and of and ' me ' ' you' Him 'me' and and animal " me ' through

apparent work

you ' and m e and the d o g )


Now, which and or

' L o o k i n g at H i m , ' i n d e e d ! before the a c t u a l Him upon delusion into into each ' y o u ' To the division 'yon ' operation other in and any. must Brahmawill be delusion is no come

waking are

W h e n ? A n d b y w h o m ? H o w is this ' L o o k i n g at H i m , ' T h e operation of division of <lfec., looking the

conceives different


different from enters other these or a



must p r e c e d e , Does

which he becomes conscious when he Turiya, that as a n d all t l i e s e a r e a g a i n which the Makt:i

Sushnpti 'realities' Atnian different of as unreal. to be as yet is



b e f o r e the evolution of and ' animal,'


v i e w e d f r o m the f^tandpoint o f a n y o f states of consciousness' 'reality' The np])ear as material all t h e as not deny other Maya, even not

or after such evolution ? a n d the that there and

conceptions n.ost

t h i n k i n g b e i n g , it m u s t o c c u r , t h a t t h i s - d e l u s i o n have occurred before and not after; radin sees this, and states below in the universe a u s e d as a brushed existence, A n d yet final duality,

illusion hesitate

scientist, t o g e t h e r with would would

European minute might

philosopheis, declare the although ho

Atman and this

alleged realisation consciousness." nescience, but but as

of A t m a n that this

an illusion,

(mark h e r e and el&ewheve, t h e w o r d delusion in s i m p l y synonym aside 'you' on for Maya) the ground ' m e ' objection is that delusion

some state of ignorance or non-existent, Sankara's above, hesitate and

A n d b y the way, he objects to translating A v i d y a not V i d y a or not This wise or other than wise. view yet

a n d that t o c a l l o t h e r w i s e , is i d l e s o p h i s t r y I and a n d o t h e r s w e r e all this we or were that a we not ? of or fact Is the evolution Were

Tliii t i s , A s a t d o e s n o t m e a n other Dr. t h a n sat. Hubbe jSclileiden ; of Sankava and In

while under u delusion !

n o t Siit o r according to how many

I s that fiicr o r a d e l u s i o n itself ? not ? If a f a c t , is t h e q u e s t i o a , a possible a fact, If n o t why

G o d i n t o n.e;), w o m e n a n d a n i m a l s , .is brought about,' (juestion ' question is t h e

a n d t h i s is t h e v i e w w e h a v e t a k e n t r o u b l e t o e x j D o n n d followers ^Jaya as before reading illusion

' h o w is this e v o l u t i o n or an impossible made and statement

d e l u s i o n , a n d A v i d y a iis i g n o r a n c " a n d n e s c i e n c e . the v e r y article uiuler review, w e read iu o n e t h a t e a c h soul is a s p a r k , a p a r t ; in t h e n e x t no, it is n o t a p a r t next but the whole all but is it of the souls In the very sentence, are how these

in a n o t h e r p a r a g r a p h , t h a t imperfect men, who have to be worshipped

there are perfect m e n Buddha and a n d m e n like'

sentence sentence, Brahman. are of but Him, with the up but must

men like Christ,

Krishna ourselves, into and His in as in

w h o h a v e to w o r s h i p t h e m . rational b.nsis, i n and (why that realize

This evolution of G o d wants to k n o w by means

m a n a n d a n i m a l s is p u t in o n e p l a c e o n a p o s s i b l e God sf^e H i m s e l f reflexions Himself of

n-jie.viona of the Brahman,

w o m e n and animals &c.,

and are not real.


' Men,


and aie unreal

reflections, a n d

in themiiclves."
unreal, The


they are mere

a n d w h e r e f o r e it is n o t s t a t e d )


much He cannot know and cept in a mirror! Again

see himself otherwise, we ask, is t h e

t h e s t a t e m e n t , t h a t e a c h s o u l is n o t e v e n p a r t b u t whole of Brahman. b y the use arising iu whole argument is m a d e of similes a n d by not s t i c k i n g to o n e , the former. Either the argument and

the same w a y as we, o n earth, c a n n o t see our face e x distinction between a perfect man and imperfect m a n real A n d does our learned siblity of seeing his mirror ? W h o s e brother beautiful this ? contemplate face It was our

posin a

b y j u m p i n g f r o m o n e into a n o t h e r , to m e e t t h e diflBculty p r o c e e d an simple facts and inferences, without



fault was



iBolt in Dot c h o o s i n g - a good mirror. And does he mean to attribute to the m o a t Intelligent s a c h f a u l t i n not chtjosing euch a vessel in which He can see Himself and know himself to the beat a d v a n t a g e ? T h e perfect cannot seek to know Himself in the i m p e r f e c t and the ignorant and the w i c k e d ' a n d sinful ai^d sorrowing and suffering. If all this is a play of His and no snoh distinction, as thevimperfect, the wicked and sinful and sorrowing a u d s u f f e r i n g , a n d all t h i s is hallncination, myth, n o n - e x i s t e n c e ( w e u s e l i i s o w n choice wordi") why should n n y m a n a s p i r e t o - b e H. good man, a perfect m a n , a J i V a n m u k t a , w h y s h o u l d
b e realize
ing to


i-MiaJ c o n s c i o u s n e s s




And the

critic's the who

o w n e x p l a n a t i o n is t h a t e x i s t e n c e is t h e i n a n i f e s t j i c i o n o f t h e w i l l t o e x i s t a n d t h i s w i l l is trishna, desire for e n j o y m e n t Well tanhn, w h o s e will w e ask,

desires for enjoyment? T h e Absolute, theSatchidauanda, o r a n y o t h e r ? W h a t , call this hell on earth an e n j o y m e n t for Him ? W o leave Professor another Deussen learned our learned by himself opinion. Doctor and If to fight fo out state proceed we



correctly, she said, I s h w a r a evolves into man a n d brnte to gather experience, Brahman, at t o i m p r o v e ]iim.self b y m e a n s nf perfcct itsr'lf cry on improving his a n i m a l sheaths a n d that t h e r e c o u M b e no o n e t i m e ; it g o e s day after day. r e t u r n , i t is a right?

his identify

with the absolute ? G o d in

( f o r his sport




o r f o r wha,t ? )

A n d t h a t if t h e V e d a r e p e a t s t h e mere make believe. of ? a n k a r a ' s this question an

He became m a n and woman a n d b r u t e a n d l o o k a t t h e bother, of this man, w o m a n o r brute, d o i n g g o o d a c t s , acts without attachment, r e a l t a p n s , y o g a a n d . g n a n a to realize bis identy with Che A b s o l u t e ! W K a t g u a r a n t e e is there that after a l l t h i s b o t h e r , J i v a n u i u k t a iTi.ty not again be d i f f e r e n t i a t e d f r o m t h e A b s o l u t e i n t o a man, woman or a n i m a l ? H o w s e n s e l e s s , iiiid v a i n a l l theseefforts s e e m , h o w i g n o b l e t h e p u r p o s e o f c r e a t i o n and evolution ? T o the q u e s t i o n w h y d o e s t h e P e r f e c t become the imperfect, which q u e s t i o n , o u r b r o t h e r fltates in all its various f o r m s , v u l g a r a n d h i g h l y philosophic, onr brother's a n s w e r i s that this q u e s t i o n is an impossible o n e ; it should not be pu*- at all ! W e have already p o i n t e d o u t , how i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l this question and a n w e r i s . B u t t h e !=arae q u e s t i o n has been put i n a n d a n s w e r s a t t e m p t e d b y l e a r n e d
m e n w h o are of our brother's ilk ; and t h e s e answerM

t h a t t h e r e is a b o u r n e f r o m w h i c h t h e r e i.'i n o r e t u r n , n o A n d nil t h e s e a r c scliool !ind or is is t h a t our who i'; qnesti^'ii T h e faf.-t Imperfectman learned expounder's Can w e ask captious ? The a s s u m e d is t h a t and brute ? what phic unity ?

Siddanti's answer the'Perfect is t h e p r o o f

the question

i t s e l f is b u s e d o n a f a l l a c y , Is this a fact p r o v e d ?

assumption. bo'-omes the

Doe= G o d really


of this, let a l o n e Y c d i c

t e x t s atid t h e d e s i r e t o reach a h i g h s o u n d i n g p h i l o s o I t is t h i s f - m c i e d d e s i r e t o g e n e n l i z e e v e r y Greek philosophers to a n d tire a s t h e final and t h i n g into one, that led to the postulate number and water

u l t i m a t e c a u s e o f all t h i n g s . W h y n o t l e a v e b a d . g o o d a n d evil as t h e y a r e ? W h y s h o u l d j o u r e f e r t h e evil to t h e g o o d , i m p u r e t o t h e p u r e ? W i l l n o t s i l e n c e in t h i respect be golden ? real G n a n a m ? Well, of what we the will here go back to our he st.>tcnieiit postulated l-Alitor o f Will not M o w n a m in t h i s c a s o be-

are various and c o n f l i c t i n g in t h e m s e l v e s . O f t h e s e , 8wuii Vivekananda g e t s m o s t g l o r y . H i s a n s w e r is ' I do not know.' M r . M u k o p a d b a y a y a r e p l i e s t h a t ihe Swami is wrong and t h a t t h e P e r f e c t d o e s n o t become the imperfect, G o d d o e s n o t b e c o m e m a n .
Man is only a reflection aud as such cannot be God. Accordingtothe'BraTimarftdin'manis m a n is G o d . . A n d areflexion,




a P r a d a n . i a n d S o u l oi- S o u l s .

(The learned Ancient



of the Ea>'t"

hi.s e v i d e n t l y fallen


where there of

liis a c c o u n t o f only

Sankliyn niiuiy" i-;

sy.stem, h e o p i u e s t h a t a c c o r d i n g ; to and Gita, Puiushas. enumeration

A n c i e n t ^ankliy.i and not

is unreal; but t h e u n r e a l i t y i t s e l f is u n r e a l a n d a s s u c h
so n o q u e s t i o n nrises of t h e P e r f e c t


and the Imperfect. A c c o r d i n g t o P a u l D e u s s e n , ihe answer is, ' T h e n e v e r c e a s i n g n e w c r e a t i o n of the world is a moral n e c e s s i t y , c o n n e c t e d w i t h the doctrine of samsara' " A m o r a l n e c e s s i t y f o r Atman? W h a t a ecntradictio in )idject:>!" exclaims his flritic* " Atman as we all a g r e e is t h a t w h i c h is b e jMid necessity, and necessity, that is, causality

'J'ho iui<t;iL-e U i d u e t o t o e t'^ict t h a t , in tintlie ]i:idart]ias, rhe s i n g u l a r only as in s u c h p h r a s e * , -JivesliPasa. only

used a mere technical All one souls sutras used

w a i a J a g a t , C h i t A c l i i t Ish\v;ii a, P a t h i P a s n a n d that the Jiva are of but respective or one hclii-ols will b e Pin-u-h:i mean to p o s t u l a t e In

t h e w o r d s u s e d a r e in ^liii^ular a n d it c a n n o t m e a n Cli t o r In one I'lisu. e.Npliiiinni.'tlie r earluT -tato

each, the explanation many. the .Sanklnus

t l m t tlie -Jixa the -mL'iil:.-i

reigns o r exists only i n o u r m a n i f e s t e d w o r l d , o f iiifli* Dr. H^bbe Bchleiden. t>age 227, Jaiiuiiiy 1H95. ' Tlicosoplii^t.' 17

tlu- v;iiiie w j y ,


-iitra-i ]n-i'CC0<l


T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H OR S I D D H A N T A D E E P I K A ,


t l i c P u i - u s l i a :u-e u i u l t i t u d i i i o n s ' a s t l i e eff<^ct s u b s i s t * leaviied hrotlier cause its o w n al.

r n i i l n i i v is veiil aro an u s name but be the tlie cause it, form,

L o o k again the steps that follow one over the in t h e n e x t verse.


.tnd'it and

i s t h e c a u s e , i i m l i t s e f f e c t t h e pIiiMiouicnn .i<]y in in upptovinglv puts anotlicr

;ilso roal, effect

as onr


a n d w e h o p e the followinir >entenci' f r o m Dr. B n ' T h a t it a n d the tlie f o r m tliat tlic itself." c,f t h e position forms If and of so, Iwdy of the the why is o n l y parts should body aie auothor nothing the cause

" Since I e.vel the destructible (first Purusha) and are more excellent than the indestructible (the second Purusha), in the world and tn the Veda, lam proclaimed Purushothama " (third Purusha).
B e it n o t e d h e r e t h a t t h e w o r d P u r u s h a s i m p l y m e a n s a c a t e g o r y , a P a d a r t h a , as w h e n w e s p e a k of the padartha or Tatwatriyam. chapter I'd, t h e f i r s t t w o Note again h o w in Purushas aie Thrias v e i s e J 9, Purusha; step

lectures, will equally meet with our brother's a p p r o v a l . t.n- t l i e r e l a t i v e body tliat c o n s t i t u t e


( b y its m o r e a p p r o p r i a t e i n a m e s P r a k r i t i a n d 20 and 21 as by the Sankhya; and

c o n s i d e r e d real


u n r e a l , as af^ainst I f t h e M a y a is relation of

a n d t h e s a m e d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e s e t w o is g i v e n in v e r s e s a further b e y o n d K a p i l a is t a k e n b y S r i K r i s h n a in postulating.

\ i e w of S a u k h y a s b y Vedantis':' taueo effect from the ]f and has, of c a u s e is however, substance rertl ? T h e to and be

pheuoand the two the the

ii;-3ua a n d e f f e c t w h y s h o u l d i t b e u n i - e a l , w h e n t h e s u b cause these Tn and kept and Our separate-from delusion. brother Maya or God

iflatiou second

p h e n o m e n a "and

tlie q u e s t i o n s of paragraph Purusha

relity with

" A spectator and'permitter, supporter and Mahefihwara., thu.i is styled the Paraviatman, hod]] the Faramaptirusha."
And tinction Gnans, The then of a most beautiful these three Padarthas and of

enjoyer, in this

however. with


passage about the disdifferent occurs' has no

Sanlihya's-Pradana .so,

his o w n


bis o w n



Pasngnan, and knows self his or

Pathignan body and

why a t t e m p t a n y criticism of t h e S a u k h y a . it i s alf a q u i b b l e about words ? Tney p r a q t i c a l l y postulate the s a m e and mean the same things. Then why is it the Sankhya i^i called by Sankara ' N i r i sliwara Sankhya' ' Godless or A t h e i s t i c Sankhya' and
the Philosophy the Theistic a of t h e Gita as S e s h w a r a The word with meant Kapila Saukhya and or Sankhya. Sankhya

Lokayatha of

only his




higher. \'edanPrakriti

A c c o r d i n g to the N i r i s h w a r a S a n k h y a a n d the tin, t h e r e are or s e e m to exist o n l y t w o t h i n g s

and Son), Maya and A t m a n and the liberation consists in d i s t i n g u i s h i n g Prakriti or Atni.'ignaii. he .sees and Maya, his o w n self delusions. to the as different is from the or




primarily theory

number or

Acconliug learns to from


Sankhya, from 29),

philosophy. C o m p a r e f o r c h a n o r e in t h e Tamil word 'cremr'

' srak' meaning logic the two and

instance meaning

a numThe


Praki'iti (verse

his self a m i his self

the Hii^hestone

b e r a n d in t h e d i s t i c h ^ '^uo,"

" erem^ui stq^^^ld


a s A k n r t h i i m d K a i tlui, a n d k n o w i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h i s O n e , he reaches Bi-alim(inliood. (\'erse 30 chapter 13).


following q u o t a t i o n f r o m the difference b e t w e e n t h e

G i t a itself will schools.


Tt i s -.ilso t o b e r e m a r k e d p a r t i c u h i r l y t l i a t i n t h e f l i t a , in i n n u m e r a b l e p ; i s s ; i g e s , n s i n t h e o n e c i t e d

whole above, to

" There are 'two Pnriishas' in this world, one deHfnictiblo and one inde!.tructihle, the di'xtrurfihle Snrcalhuthani fall thing."), fhe indestructible ix called thr. Kntasthn." fChujitcr XV 1(>.)
Well from the look how this verse runs ; but there it m e n t i o n s three, purpose in only so to

t j i e k m i w l e d g c uf t l i e S n ] ) r e m e , t h e d e v o t i o n w h o l l v h i m , is p u t f o r w a r d a s t h e libei'ation. tillp.ntl ni^t of the tlie highest path of

attaining that

Atmngnan individual

doctrine self as-


implied attainHubbe is

In t h e [ i h n i s o ment. \\\-

K n o w T h y s e l f , ' is t h e beoloiive to again to

highest Dr.


t\o ] i n r u s h a s , i n s t e a d o f m e t \ t i o n i n g the next verse

as arising reiterate School the next

Sclileidcn. repiiLinaii! can bi' no

simply to

show h o w this latter


is a

followers of Sankara. fatal error than to

' Indeed believe

there with that intelbut

m e n t i o n i n g t w o P n r n s h a s ; it is s e e m i n g l y t o a c c e p t e d postulate of it to state is the the Pnrvapatciia Siddhanf v view in enable


tlifise f n r d u -t .Indiiiini M'^l^hn

idvaueed means

Western nothing

philosojibws else but the

Vfr-e which

lectual conce])tion,

\loniVni ' A d v a i f a ) , n o n i i n g e l s e theory." convince

" The ' I'arauui rarushci ' Is rcrilij {inotliry declared the ' Para mi it man.' He who prrrradex and cns^taincth thr three worlds, the ind-^'ilriirtihle Ishwarn."

t h e i \ i t o , l l e c t u a l I'll j o y n i e n t o f a p r o u d \\ hat we h;ive ;iid till now

will to


r e a i l e i s t h a t i h e r e is a n o t h e i - s k l e





and that they do



alone where the

in his

Sankyaa Sankyas

aakti of the individual soul and Lovo and exercise of the Divine

and p's



Grace The itself itself, simply

a n d V'^edantis l e f t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s v i e w , t h e a r e c o r r e c t n o d o u b t s o f a r a s t h e y go, in



postulating, Maya

W i l l is n o t f o r e n a b l i n g not for perfecting b n t i t is

P r a k r i t i a n d P u r u s h n a n d t h e V e d a n t i is quif,e c o r r e c t

to exist, free f r o m Samsara,


identification of




In with not

n o t f o r k n o w i n g , s e e i n g o r r e a l i z i n g itself, n o t f o r its sport or pleasure, not for no purpose, to help a n d aid t h e p o o r soul all t h e s e t h i n g s . How in its attempt to effect Thayuma-


T h e r e is b u t a t h i n p a r t i t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s o u l S a u k h y a a n d t h e l a t t e r ' s Brahman In such indcntification of man intelligence does and realizing a Higher this

o r in:in of t h e

f a c t m a n is G o d .

well does our Saint

G o d . whH.t r e s u l t s i s t h a t m a n ' s p a s s to the p o s t u l a t i n g s o ill nvime.

iiavar realize this c o n c e p t i o n of Goii's gi-eat Beneficpncf* in the f o l l o w i n g line. " gjeM^.^'i-fTiyti

Being third either tlie be

t h a n h i m s e l f ; a n d the Brahiniiii o f t h e V e d a n t i is o n l y Tiie third school postulates Padartlia, differinc; f r o m the soul or A t m a n of and thougli know it

K-uairj Lcettfw.iw ^ludanSITS (gearss'-soijiu

or Dwaita or anything Adwaitha

be of the also, sort, true

s c h o o l , w h o m the latter c a n n o t k n o w g r a c e o f t h e -'ird I ' i i d a r t h . j , c o r r t j c t t o s a y tli;it m a n This cannot

except with might himself,

T h i s v i e w p o s t u l a t e s t h r o e P a d a r t h a s , a n d it m a y called Dualism b u t h o w t h i s v i e w is t h e strict

it will himself. to the our know

b o bl isphoin.His to say that G o d c a n n o t k n o w

m o n i s m , w e will d e m o n s t r a t e in a f n t n r e



be attributing an human imperfection


H i g h a n d to limit nor Him passage


nature. His Saint to

H o w do we Grace.

that H e cannot know Himself, when we cannot know o w n selves without from itself

Consider Deva. His


the following

Meikiindii and feels

" W h e n the soul unites


(Love), G o d covers ifc- with H i s S u p r e m e B l i s s ajid becomes oiif irith it. Will the not know Himtelf who is understood hy the soul through the intelligence of the soul ? " The next passage w e a r e g o i n g t o q u o t e will show clearly that God has n o t m a n i f e s t e d H i s glorious T r u t h to o n e people a n d i n o n e c l i m e n l o n e . " Why may not the absolute B e i n g b e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s ? " asks a Christian Divine in a l m o s t t h e s a m e w o r d s . " To
d e n y this to Him, w o u l d b e to d e n y to H i m o n e of the



[Coiitittnod fnim I'aiji 18).

THE m a i d c o n t i n u e s h e r a d d r e s s her lady and her lover. " W h i l e w o w e r e s t a n d i n g s o , t h e fields w e r e e n t e r e d by a rogue the elephant, negligence and were l>eing laiil very with lialioo waste, had conmillet and which and and its thvougli of the watchman, who t o TLIE m o t h e r and and s e t s f o r t h t h e p a r t i c u l a r s in t h e l o r e courtship of


which even what and

finite then

beings may liave."* is the The in answer the first The third, is

The conof

question remains,

n e c e s s i t y f o r all sutra

p o n e to sleep eyes, stalk!:. his fiery dwelling

o v e r his p o t of in the low hut and

date-toddy, thatched raised aKo fields, and a

this evolution
tained in a

resolution. sentence

siderately h a n d e d o v e r to him b y his w i f e with gazelle T h e m a n srot n p w i t h r a g e a n d a i m l e s s l y s p e d snakelike i t in diirfs which others the joined,


Padartha in


' '^'v^'-^er^iru:.'

second is i m which so

o u r c a t e g o r i e s a n d ni't the like the colors on

perfect o r more c o r r e c t l y

is s h r o u d e d b y d r o s s ,

whistle after

haa to be removed

a crystal

became tromeiidons rage, snapping

a n d s h o o k the w h o l e f o r e s t ; with rut striking came br.tnches

t h a t its trwn p r i s t i n e p u r i t y may




the elephant driven o'U from trees and majestic trunk US unawares

it can reflect a n d reali/^e the G l o r y a n d P r e . s e n c e o f God in BU its brightest effulgence. This existence and resolation is due to the will of this lower being, Atman to perfect itself a n d the will of the H i g h e s t oomes into play to enable the sonl to work out its own salration. The Ichcha, Gnana and Kriya S a k t i of the Lard indnces the Icheka, Ghiana a n d K r i y a

on the g r o u n d , and and suddeulj' like

raising a roar like upon B W k more vfritable

that of a tdack cloud Death.

i n tiie r a i n y s e a o n , the

W e w e r e paralysed with fear and did not k n o w w e run to h i m the bright ( T h e l o v e r of bells tinklmg

w h e r e t o fly f o r l i f e , a n d f o r g e t t i n g o u r m o d e s t y , d e a r t o ifs t h a n o u r l i f e , of her lady) for protection, rfSar^ and wl'iatlc ivith lipe

B a r . i. I v a n o l i ' i ' l a God knowaWe,' f g a 236.


m, out of whicli is tlrrivetl tliawuul fc ----


THE L I G H T OF T R U l ' H oR S I D D H A N T A D B E P I K A .

r o u n d o u r feet, HTid stood shaking

dancing peacork in a frenzy
our danger, most intrepidly at the beautiful f o r e h e a d of

with fear

as f/ie

b e seen

to-pass comes

through to touch

their them




T h e y o n n g liero s e e i n g
a i m e d his the unerring magnificent tusker,

another male We dare say to

even by accident. conld not be

European feeling. Once a



strangers ing


I t is a l l a m a t t e r o f particular sense had


a n d t h e b l o c d f l o w e d in torreTits o v e r t h a t s p o t t e d f a c e , like nnto the ground fulfilment where cattle are slaughtered and the in

and habit

d e v e l o p e d in a p a r t i c u l a r w a y , it w i l l b e t o o h a z a r d o n s to-try to destroy it, b y introducing what we might among

of v o w s to G o d M u r n p a ;


n o t b e i n g a b l e t o b e a r t h e p a i n , t u r n e d i t s b a c k o n tis a n d fled a w a y . (This Avas t h e second rc;is0n which theme

f a n c y a g o o d b y o b s e r v i n g it to b e f a s h i o n a b l e a differently phrase constituted people'. i;fTS!)r w i l l and in this

T h e m e a n i n g of the disclose the the facts as

l i n k e d b o t h in l o v e a n d w e

know what fruitful

eme^smu-.u above,

t h i s is t o E u r o p e a n n o v e l i s t s t o b u i l d l o v e o n g r a t i t u d e f o r some act p e r f o r m e d or benefit c o n f e r r e d ! . " While we the locked flowers our foaming in ; but each were standing, torrent others in we again with in a jumped our into

w e set out

place sheer


idyll, the she felt

lover having

touched her b y to him

accident, maid was

bound iprevocably pleads for her

and that

the she

therefore at all

play, us too

fingers of and

mistress, having a

not love.

palm, was

garland us,

r e s p o n s i b l e for Here which cription e-siLDii shall rocky follows

entered into this of the

the current fell

strong for we

description hero in

hill country and tliis

of des-


limbs like



were on

being the

this y o u n g contains (an

is t h e c h i e f j a iigure,

carried river


the tender by the

plantain dashing stream assured be

trees, waves. took her

itself or

called simile) and on we these with


uprooted jnmpin?

When my in lady sweet by not her he



m y master, in h i s a r m s tones the let that flood her

into the her, her

set fovtli the sides strewn


T h e d e e p pools,

and embraced he will n o t let

with black pepper,


carried ho

down will oflf at me,

the sweet juices and flowed to out


the ripe m a n g o and the bees and the and

jack-fruits flies that

and go

that by, the him his


chance, and

drovviiiug them;

from with

either, hands I


swarmed partaken


peacock having got

having tipsy

bright face laughed,


looking a

o f it a s

fresh water


hinting that so

should permit begun.


course mistress get let his The be and touch to of be a

s h o o k t h e w l i o l e hill s i d e w i o h its d a n c e , j u s t a s a d a n c i n g girl d a n c i n g in c r o w d e d a r e n a o n afestive o c c a s i o n , t o t h e t u n e o f s w e e t n i i l s i c , g e t s n e r v o u s b y t h e .'^haip s o u n d of t h e c y m b a l s " rocky sides strewn inhabitants; and (The implied m e a n i n g is : t h e w i t h its the_ born

of courtship overcome herself her go, bosom." chaste touched


My young


modesty and his

shame, but more last

s t r u g g l e d to he will not to

free and


embrace only the




w i t h p e p p e r is t h e v i l l a g e the pool is the

This completes Indian woman

link in love. allow own for herself to husband any to

habitation, of


never her

c h i e f ; a n d t h e j u i c e s o f f r i u t s is t h e y o u n g c h i e f ;

b y any male the if an


o f h i s pai-ents ; a n d t h e p e a c o c k d r i n k i n g t h e j u i c e is the y o u n g l a d y ; at this union of a n d t h e j o y o f t h e p e a c o c k is h e r two hearts; ^nd the shaking of joy the

it is c o n s i d e r e d a female, nnd



unmarried it will be

female the rest

comes sabject only if

touched quarrel


a male, could

beconje set at

hill s i d e is h e r s o r r o w at t h e a p p r o a c h i n g Here similar country room follows another figure. description " H e was which the

separation). contains chief of a the



parties are marriageable relations, b y actual Europeans nize how could far and not to possibly what on conceive

marriage. recogdelicacy women most will


and of

w h e r e t h e hills are c a r p e t e d l i k e a n the red and cnol flowers of

assembly Senganthal

highest pitch part we of can and


this sense of has been

modesty and


Indian find in

t h r o w n d o w n f r o m mountain heights reaching the skies, b y playful nymphs, crushed a little and yet lovely. born al-



w o m e n this sense as fresh as e v e r

a tremor

( H e r e t h p o t h e r m e a n i n g is t h a t t h e y o u n g


o f s u p e r i o r l i n e a g e , c o n - d e s c e n d e d t o f o r m t h i s mes T 1)18 is a most beautiful figure. W e are all familiar with the simile of peacocks anil wonien; but this is new and beautiful and true \Vc liavp scon the beautiful penfiook in the seaj^i^ Temple a.t Tiriicln'iKliiv, dance f o r hours together, and every few second.?, there in a ti-pinor and ruefcle heard ( y o r cannot see it) passinR throiiKl" its whole phnnairp, which is most beautiful and which is H.vactly thi' jioiHt herein jjoticed l)y the poet. .5.1-. a peculiar wortl liiciiiiin-j; sliarf) or sudden. liance a n d g a v e j o y a n d dignity to his lover). " T h e


o f t h e s e b e a u t i f u l h i g h l a n d s , this l.ovely h e r o ,

D,oticing fact

that the shyness o n m y l a d y ' s p a r t w a s d u e t o the

thatshe desired legal marriage before the con summation of their love, praised the duties and j o y s of a we4ded


life, p r a j e d to God Mnruga (Skanda) who presided on these giddy heights, and sworn before him that he will never be unfaithfal to his first love, and in ratification of bis path dr^nk the limpid water of the stream. And my yonog lady was satisfied; and they spent the rest of the day enjoying themselves under Uie cool shade of deep cavcrns and flower laden sholas (There is a walk and shola called lover's retreat in Kodikunal) ou these hills. The lovers saw the Sun, riding ou his chariot drawn with seven horses, g o belnad the western hills, followed by eventide ; and lo ! the antelopes gathered under the shade of trees, and the kine turned towards their paddock c a l l i n g n f t e r t h e i r s t r a g g l i n g calves; and the nightingale perched on the top of tho
tall p a l m y r a c o o e d and thioat resonant a f t e r its a b s e n t m a t e , with its bill horn; prey; and shaped like a b l o w i n g a n d its l a i r in s e a r c h of



by the







visits. A n d n o w l o o k at t h e p i c t u r e of y o u r g i r l soi r o w ing and s h e d d i n g tears, shorn of her beauty flowers after a h e a v y rainfall * like t h e you


Aud do eyes

k n o w the reason ' with tears,

H e r heart sickens and her


w h e n e v e r she t h i n k - of the d<ingers w h i c h

po.ssibly a w a i t h e r l o v e r , w h e n he s e e k s to c o m e t o h e r secretly f r o m his mountain liome ; of the d a n g e r s f r o m w i l d b e a s t s sui h as t i g e r s , b e a r s , d a n g e r o u s a n t e l o p e s , elephants, evil sprits in and from big and and snakes, fiery leeches, and from and roband

nnd deep

from pools

crocodiles nnd from



bers. a n d slippery


and difficult paths ;

of such and similar dangers." fails not to imagine d a n g e r s ever safe he m i g h t when there can knowledge. be

( A n d which true heart to h e r absent lord, to be and howeven own her and

consider himself no possible

t h e s n a k e l e f t its g e m

dangers journey

t o h!r gives

a n d the s o n g a n d the p i p i n g of the s h e p h e r d b o y s , c a m e floating its a l o f t f r o m a l l s i d e s j a n d ^he w a t e r l i l y o p e n e d b e g a n to perform girls

T h e "safest


fears, and she thinks of the Kiiramadiii


petals w i d e ; and the b r a h m a n s

t h e s t r o n g e s t e s c o r t g i v e s h e r atarms w h i c h n o simount of reasoning will free her f r o m ! A h ! T h o s e false m e n w h o will blaspheme the Indian women

their Sandyavandana : and the beautiful bangled

lit their w e a l t h y - h o u s e s operations; a n d the hill fires;



s(;t a b o u t t h e i r


m e n w h o h a d to rest in their

b a m b o o p l a t f o r m s e r e c t e d o n trees, also lit t h e i r n i g h t


clonds b e g a n to darken the mountain tops; n o i s e s o f its native In such

the forest began to echo with the


dwellers, and the cry of the-birds rose high.

a fashion the evening c a m e . And w e turned o u r s t e p s homeward and the young a i a u f o l l o w e d u s l i k e the b u l l after its mate, f i n d assured m y lady t h a t h e w i l l surely marry her and t i l l that i s brought a b o u t , he begged her in g r a c e f u l w o r d s t o r e t a i n her
love for him and thus tried to remove her soriow and

INTKODL'CTION. WE have no materials to this prepare a biogi-aphy to draw the country he of

K a m b a n , nor have w e materials p h y of any old poet. decided every thing, That there was a poet


there could be no and that

biograw h e r e custom r e a l biography.

or .

wrote a work

lighten the

w a y a n d h e t h u s f o l l o w e d us u p to t h e v e r y situated drums;

s o m e w o r k s is all t h e b i o g r a p h y w e c a n m a k e . that there w e r e not m a n y stirring out a special man. ceptronal events anecdotes. The c e n t u r y old here. which the Tradition Piinting The which bias cooks Press of lioard incidents down beeu to


t a n k , w h e r e w e g e t all o u r d r i n k i n g w a t e r a n d n e a r t h e f o r t gates in w h i c h the noises of big

class o f the p o p u l a t i o n m o v e d in s u c h r e g u l a r g r o o v e s hands has some exonly f a


c e a s e , a n d t o o k h i s l e a v e o f us. interview

Since then, he with my lady liome about

would come to seek a secret

up into miraculous Mackenzie for a inus-

at n i g h t . While o n without seeing m y

such errands,


will return

l a d y , if the w a t c h m e n w e r e

or the dogs barked or you were wakeful,

or the moon go (lidhis

c r i p t s u p o n w h i c h t h e C o l o n e l h a d s p e n t k l."),OoO a n d Govei nnient who have purchased consumed 10,000 has f deal of ' n o t c l e a r e d t l i e d a r k n e s s eus^ro.ssing s c h o l a r s a n d p o e t s . ' Archajologists great have n i o n e v f r o m t h e ( i t M ' e r n i n e n t T r e a s u r y FOR d e c i p h e r i n g a n d publishing some stone other worthies. inscriptions of the not yet aud are we f r a m e d a n y regnl;n- c h r o n o l o g y old poets

appeared <in the h o r i z o n . S o m e t i m e h e w o u l d away d i s a p p o i n t e d , b u t n o t w i t h a n y o f F e n c f , i f w e not keep h i s a p p o i n t m e n t t h r o u g h m i s t a k i u f i '


A n d a f t e r all, h e is n o t o l d a n d h e h i s n o t b e e n

led into any excesses f o r g e t t i n g the d u t i e s b e l o n g i n g to his station, owing to the p r i d e o f h i s w e a l t h ; a n d he is prepared to enter into l a w f u l w e d l o c k , k n o w i n g and fearing such s c a n d a l s a s w o u l d s u r e l y b e c r e a t e d

W e d o admit, h o w e v e r , that

n o t in t h e s a m e p o s i t i o n i n w h i c h s c h o l a r s a n d p a n d i t s This is an exquisite simile.


T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H OR S I D D H A N T A D E E P I K A ,

w e r e in t h e bej^inning of died at an earliar dte. and



century. of

Jt is the

l o r e , and the latter of virtue a n d wealth a n d The special feature of the f o r m e r is love,

heroism. and that

pity that the author of the T a m i l P l u n t a r c h lived und The publications of the old Archeeologists the rescuing manusof

of t h e latter
and Heroism. analysed fecial into

of the . M a d u r a C o l l e g e s a n g of abstraction and the arts of Love until elements, every number and Love was the four one of The generic sevenfold

T h e old b a r d s

cripts f r o m the almiras of the jealous pandits, a n d the publication of m a n y of the valuable classical w o r k s antiquity arc bci^iiiniiig in to throw glimpses of o u the dfirk past. before our eyes light Our here by cri-

them was further split u p into sab-elements ramifications approached had hundred. warfare.

Poets of old are beginning to m o v e their ^chronological order. thing


a corresponding

analysis, tactics of

sons a n d o u r s o u ' s s o n s m a y see m o r e of t h e m p e r h a p s . A study of the lives of the p o e t s is a n e w of criticism w e liave not. the Knglisli Standaril m i n ; i ; b y t h e lOngHsh l a w . old precedent. a s w e l l .as r e v i e w i n g a u a u t h o r . C a n n o n s a n d s t a n d a r d s T o review a Tamil poet a Hindu T o review will be to j u d g e

a n d e m b r a c e d all t h e t h e n k n o w n and professors. guage heros in and honor Love and songs memory who and of

L o v e a n d Heroi.Bni h a d e a c h i t s s p e c i a l p o e t s heroic and kings piineayrios lanrichcs and their nobles, polished

were composed in the most refined commanders

an o l d p o e t b y b y an this


i i n o d e n i caunOKs will b o jv\dgiiig a m o d e r n c a s e study of Kaiuban to skotch any regular and witli the penel - a t i i i g e y e of a We only mean modern

and valuables upon Even drama. In the after the

poets. age of Tholkuppiyan, and art w.aner). ^ladura College lony and as HilapKiinthere were

W'e d o n o t , t h e r e f o r e , p r o p o s e in

elaborate works

written treatises on

the theory

of imi-iu and

life o f t h e p o e t , n o r d o w e [)roposG to r e v i e w h i s to d e t e r m i n e t h e to study relative

But these gradnnlly time of th'e lust

G e r m a n critic. position of their of work, Tamil,

K a m b a n a n d Iiis ] > a i j i a y ; i n a m o n g t h e P o e t s a n d works. W e also mean t h e p o e t , a n d the p o e t as intlionted b y h i s g r e a t w l i i c l i is i n d e e i l a l a n d i i u i r k i n t h e uay even Dravidian A A literature. history of

sustained p o e m s of indigr-uo'is e r o w t h such

briefly the genius

pathiicaram a n d Manimekal:ii, Vnluiyapathy and

d u l a k e s i , w h i c h c o m b i n e d in t h e m t h e d i f f e r e n t p h ; i s e s



a n d Purajipoml,



in a

m a n n e r p e c u l i a r to the r e s o u r c e s of the T a m i l l a n g u n g c stad t h e T a m i l c o u n t r y . w a s not as yet in v o ? n e . rules o n the epic. The very name Knviyani has no long The Tholkappiyam

BI;IKI' SLIJVKV OI' EIMO POKTRY. of Tamil Literature cannot extend the

A c c o r d i n g to this Qf!rpO(ir^i-/r

grannnar, or


poems were


-SSsoiOj^ Ouiit^.IQi^it mentioned It may be t o o , in and term to doTIH;

f u r t h e r t h : i n t h e d a y s o f A g a s t h i y a t h e first s y s t e m a t i c grammarian of t h e first M a d u r a flourished College. From extant traditions a n d sntrams of his treatise w e u n d e r stand that Tamil fold departments i n t h o s e d a y s i n i t s thrt>eOf is was Tholof Literature, Music and Drama. t h e first and f o r e m o s t of the then literature

which preserved continuity of words, thought or subject matter. here The that in

L - i S2ei>^Qfiuiqefrthose w h i c h p r e s e r v e d c o n t i n u i t y of above works went under the parenthetically stated latter designation. generic


his t w e l v e s c h o l a r s ,

days of yore, K a v i y a m was only a

t e i in This

Icappiyan a n d his g r a m m a r do\v^ t o us in its e n t i r e t y . of modern of Tumil and poetry, Orthngiaphy subject book hoary

d e n o t e d any. p r o d u c t i o n o f a K a v y ( p o e t ) .

the only treatise of those p a l m y d a y s w h i c h grammarsbesides Etymology, which forms the

has come mother with the last book the

c a m e to b e specialized in c o u r s e of time and b e g a n denote a peculiar class of p o e m s t h e Epic poem. first Sanskrit work which had the of honor the of this nomination was the R a m a y a n E p i c P o e m " , as stated in (and which to well be suits our defined a fable great

This treatisethe dealing expounds third

fully and this of

Valmiki. Romance "may be

Scott's Essay ou Indian Epics),

of the treatise. past It

T h e first c h a p t e r s of to

g i v e us a c l u e t o t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f relates phenomena, matter iuterior exterior F L/.CUOLJTQO-^). The passions and


related b y a poet to excite adHeaven, who executes a that opposL

either internal o r e x t e i ^ a l or matter former deals with the man

miration and inspire virtue, by representing the action of s o m e o n e hero favoured by him." I n t h e last Mi+dura C o l l e g e , tliere b e g a n g r e a t e r c o n t a c t than b e f o r e b e t w e e n T a m i l to prow { and Sans g r e a t d e s i g n i n spite of all the o b s t a c l e s

affections of the m i n d w h i c h act on

internally ; and the latter with t h i n g s external to m a n . Tlie f o r m e r treats especially of clandestine and w e d d e d

71 T H E L I G H T OF T R U T H On S I D D H A N T A


k i i t Bcholnrs. Tamil scholars dived deep into the lores of Sanskrit, and SHDskrit scholars began to bring into prevalence, among the Tamils, doctrines peculiar to Sanskrit. It was chiefly the Baddhist and Jain scholars whofirst intermingled Tamil and Sanskrit thoughts in their Tamil works. The Tamil poets began to imitate Sanskrit models and borrowed tlie fijfures of speech and figures of thought of the Aryan Brahmins. The first Tamil poet who succeeded in this attempt and who consequently deviated the Tamil from their Idylls and moral treatises was that " P r i n c e of Poets," the famous author of Chintamany.

bdoks published stood



several years ago, Sri A s bearing' o n


Nayagar ktaaza is so anderGnana S a m b a n t h a ' s d a t e aod

Sri S o m a s n n d a r a

o n t h e a l l e g e d t r a d i t i o n oC T j r a m a n g a i A l w a i - ' s c o n t e s t with him, our Sastrigal argues well, that the preposte. rous these claims to antiquity true. works and preferred points such for to the as Vaishnava style those of of He Alwars cannot be -Al w a r ' s He


' Pattupattu ' as disclosing their m o d e r n should have drawn further attention to a cf Audal's B . C.,) Tiruppa and in (alleged to be 0OO.3 Manicka Vachaka's


comparison before called piece


' Tiruvempavai' Sundrauj Pillai

' Tiruvachakam,' the story

to elicit the fact Prcfes.sor the alleged to bear date of Tirumangai of and

w h i c h w a s c o m p o s e d first a n d w h i c h l a t e r . doubted contest between Gnana Sambantha almost

(To be


A l w a r and our Sastrigal brings greater proof on the subject b y giving the R E V I E W . certain

t h e V a i s h n a v a S a i n t T i r u m a n g a i A l w a r as h e r e f e r s t o T o n d i a r K o n in t w o p l a c e s i n h i , P r a b a n d a m earliest Tondaiman was a son of w h o r e i g n e d f r o m 1064 to 1113. and'the chola Kulottunga

ESSAY ON TAMIL L I T E R A T U R E * This hand-book and t.lie other one by the late Professor P. Sondnun Pillai, M. A., on ' Some milestones,' t are indispensable to every student of Tamil Litoratare. The dark horizon of the history of Ancient Tamil Literature is just now clearing a bit and these books mark and record the earliest rays of light that have been tin own on the subject. Professor Snndram Pillai's pamphlet dealt with the period from the great Gnana Sambantha down to the 14 century and was confined mostly to the literary history of the Saiva Saints and writers. The present book glances a little at Gnana Sambantha's period and the period of some of the Tamil Alwars and deals most with the period anterior to Gnana Sambantha. Onr Sastrigal fixed the period of Gnana Sambantha as anterior to 7th century, even before Professor Snndram Pillai. And though our Sastrigal claims precedence for some of his dates and fact, it may be that other scholars nad arrived at the same facts and figures independently. Our Sastrigal quotes by the way from the Tamil poetic translation of Souudriyalahiri, the stanza referring to ' Dravida Sisu' and ' Dravida Sisu' is rendered as meaning Gnana Sambantha of Kaundinya Gotra. This, at any rate, is the entire belief of the Saivite writers and iu several
By Professor M. Se8hag:IRI Sastri, M. A.. Professor of Sanscrit and Comparative Philology, Presidcnty Collcjte i c . , S. P C. K. Press, Madras, 1897. To be had of Messrs. Srinivasa Varada Chnri & Co., Triplicane. Price 8 Annas. t To be had o f " Messrs. Addison A Co.. Mount 'Boad. PPIL-C H Annas.

T h e first p a r t o f t h e Our be Professor after all

b o o k is, h o w a v e r , d e v o t e d t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t h r e e S a n g a m s and their probable existence. luarshalls his f a c t s well enotigh to s h o w character of these Sangams. do in It not may that these three S a n g a m s three Colleges, but only to three distinct periods the mythical represent belonging numerous At' the

actually poets

a galaxy of

the history

of the Tamil. f o r the entire

T h e references to one or t w o deluges are too to be untrue a n d this possibly accounts a b s e n c e of any writings of the rfHd s o m e o f t h e t e s t s a p p l i e d It and is better correct to keep an open first by any rate w e cannot b e too d o g m a t i c

two periods. the people of

in these matters

n e w s c h o o l o f criticism are in t h e m s e l v e s too artificial. m i n d in from time these things to time up. as In turn our knowledge

proofs of undoubted character actually labours Seshagiri jain. the This of such of our and is the scholars others. that received Saiv-as, it w i l l '

the m e a n w h i l e , w e c a n n o t b u t b e too t h a n k f u l f o r the as o u r One tl Professor more. was a And Tamil Sastrigal is a g a i n s t of

Our Sastrigal's opinion language Jains of

Tiriivalluvar tradition. in be the


n o m e n c l a t u r e i.s s o v e r y e x a c t ( a l m o s t all t h e uanie.s nf Aruga are names Siva) that ut^safe r.. d r a w any conclusions f r o m mere verbal resemblance-:. T h e w o r d uisur in ' to^oiLSiinc^ S b y Parimelalagar as ' is i i i t e r p r e t c i l lotus of the h e a r ^ r^wi^ff. r

b u t t h e r e is a n o t h e r l u e a n i n f ' t o it n a m e l v


historical research to matters that did not immediately c o n a v i t b in the methods oT the m o r d e m school of history. N o t to s p e A of court and family records, eron Indian treatises on ilie4MBS, certain handicrafts, music, and other subjects, away f r o m c u i u n t politics, very often contained important historical iiifaDCs wbidt shonld not he neglected. In the Dayanai^s, o f direoUons i n 4 | worship to the various Deities on certain occasions, lostmctiDVts were -laid down which were sometimes not altogether witJMat historical value. Bama had been referred t o ; well, in the o a a o f the monkey King Hanuman, really an aboriginal ruler, throwing the nuuintnin into the sea, in order to facilitate the crossing tf^Iie Aryan Rama to Ceylon, the Dayanam told them that the mountain mast always be coloured green as a method of conveying t h e idea that it was not the mountain that was throyrn into the sea, bnt the trees of-the mountain. In other words, the date and arigin o f navigation was thus sought t o be indicated. By many u<!h devotional instmctions hail historical facts been sought to be preserved." A n d the Chairman Lord R e a y agreed with Dr. Leitner that Indian legend o u g h t not to be neglected in the g t o d y of Indian Histoi-y. T h e lectui'er b y the w a y pointedly r e f e r r e d t o t h e seriov^s o m i s s i o H o f l n d i a n H i s t o r y ( a n c i e n t a n d m o d e r n ) in t h e a r t s c u m c u l a o f t h e M a d r a s U n i v e r s i t y . A FRIEND w r i t e s t o o n e o f o u r c o n t r i b u t o r s : in which I was glad to (iiid two articles f r o m your pen. I th^nk it is a publication that eeoiiis to deserve encouragement and I mera to subscribe for it. I am glad to tind that you Ifeve time and inclination to translate some of the great old Tamil books treating of the Hindu or Saivite philosophy and it is a pity that the matter has t o bo translated into English to catch attevcion. It occnra,^' me whether it is not possible and advantageoTifl to accompany the English taanslation with a running parapkrase and commentax; in simple Tamil prose giving the drift of the stanzas and a Short Kfe of the author. What appears t o me desirable and necessary is to create good simple prose literature which ordinary people can understand containing the sublime truths of our philosophy and religion, which unfortunately arc found in verse not eaay to understand except by the leanied in that literature who aie necessarily f e w and whose nnmljer is decreasing. Tamil veirn, , w d Tamil poems, ai-o as much sealed books t o the many as Siinsarit and perhaps is ns difGciilt to understand. T make the suggestion because I have been' long of that opinion and T should like-to possess some Tamil works treating of our philosophy and I am prepared to make a Small collection of euch books in course of time and I would bo glad if yon can make eut a list for me and note w h e r e the best editions (that is those f r e e from blunders in printing) conld be had." T h e d i f f i c u l t i e s f e l t b y o u r f r i e n d a r e real a n d n o t imaginary. T h e j o u r n a l is o n l y i n t e n d e d f o r s m o o t h e n i n g such difRc.ilties in t h e w a y of pti'sons w i s h i n g to s t u d y T a m i l a n d t h e T a m i l e d i t i o n is also~ i n t e n d e d t o s u p p l y t h e w a n t f e l t by: o u r f r i e n d . B u t m a n y w o u l d feel i t d i f f i c u l t , t o s u b s c r i b e f o r b o t h m a g a z i n e s . { Tcf meet this d i f f i c u l t y , w e w o u l d s u g g e s t t h e f o l l o w i n g tp o u r saba> cribers. W l e r e t w o o r m o r e s u b s c r i b e r s a r e i i r o m one and t h e s a m e p l a c e , e a c h o n e m i g h t g o i n f o r t h e EnsHsh or T a m i l a n d t h e y m i g n t b e e x c h a n g e d a n d l'>oth r e a d ^ ail of them. T h e E n g l i s h e d i t i o n w i l l s m o o t h e s t h e i r difficult i e s c o n s i d e r a b l y a n d t h e y m i g h t g r a d u a l l y l e a m t o learn th^ir T a m i l better and better and to appreciate it m o r e and more. T h e n a g a i ^ o u r f r i e n d feels difficulty in n o t k n o w i n g w h a t b o o k s t o b u y and w h e r e t o b u y t h e m . W e hope to s u p p l y b o t h in c o u r s e o f t i m e . Our Tamil publishers d o n o t k n o w as y e t the advantages of advertising, tf only t h e y w i l l t h i n k o f d o i n g t h i s , w e w i l l b e glad to dffet' "OUT s p a c e f o r a l m o s t n o t h i n g . W e d r a w t h e atteittitm rif T a m i l a n d S a n s c r i t p u b l i s h i n g firms t o t h i s .

or water end Manickavachaka of ' .tciSesir m u - i ^ t i u d ^ t t p f l ' here Saints also a too is a is very well-known sung of of blance Saivite t h i s is

alludes and name him iia and The of

to an

incident reeem' ertm and all though interpreWe will the the separate and

the verbal phrase Kiva such ;



have name


Pai imelalagar

(reputedly a Vaishnava) prefers discuss the religion of

the Saivite in he a

tation o f t h e w o r d t o its J a i n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n . Tiruvalluvar ample is too that p a p e r , f o r w h i c h t h e r e ai e R e v . Dr. Pope's Saiva opinion Philosophy. materials



THB e l e v e n t h s e s s i o n o f T h e I n t e r n & t i o u a l O r i e n t a l C^ongress w i l l be l i e l d f r o m o t l i t o 1 2 t h o f S e p t e m b e r n e x t in Paris, the cradle of the m e e t i n g i n 1873. In a paper c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e J u l y n u m b e r o f t h e Asiatic Quarterly Rciicir, D r . R . N . G u s t gi\ es a b r i e f s u m m a r y o f t h e -loitig's o f t h e pjist t e n c o n g r e s s e s h e l d in v a r i o u s c e n t r e s o f E u r o p e and pci'sonally testifies t o t h e i m p o r t a n c e a n d u s e f u l n e s s o f s ^ch c o n g r e s s e s t o o r i e n t a l l e a r n i n g a n d r e s e a i ' c h a n d s a j s lie is ' d e e p l y s e n s i b l e o f t h e i n t e r e s t tliey creatcd, the i n f o r m a t i o n they collected, the n e w vistas t h a t wei-e o p e n e d , a n d t h e f r i e n d s h i p s ( l i f e - l o n g ) I h o p e , tlien f o r m e d w i t h scholars, valued p r e v i o u s l y f o r their w o r k s only but now also esteemed f o r their personality." T h e same number contains a paper from the Rev. D r . G. U. P o p e on ' the Poets of the T a m i l lands' which, seems t o be t h e first o f a s e r i e s , a n d w e s h a l l b e g l a d t o r e p r i n t t h i s i n our forthcoming number. * THE s a m e n u m b e r g i v e s a p a p e r o f M r . R . S e w e l l o n India before the English," read before a meeting of the E a s t India Association a n d the proceedings of t h e m e e t i n g . Several speakers laid stress o n the g r e a t v a l n e of t h e s t u d y of A n c i e n t H i s t o r y of I n d i a a n d S i r R a y m o n d W e s t observed. ' W e slioiiUl .study the matter, not on the basis of the Epic gioeTiia, but bv reference to monuments which though they contain iiianv falaehoods, j e t , neceaaarily, revealed many troths in cliaracters comparatively imperiBliable.> He (Sir H.) had oocaaion in the conrsc of his Indian service'to look at many monnments, iiiclading inscriptions, and he thonght there waa a work cnt ont toi- tiie scholars of India, working on such a basis as his friend K:im Krislmci Gopal, the ^ a t Sanskrit scholar of Deccan, had with regard to the history of the Mahaiattas, and the early period of the northern Deccan. If gentlemen Hke Mr. Dntt would take up a \i-ork of that ki^d they might add veiy much U> the interest of the histoty of their own country, and trace valuable Hources of information, and comparison; for the history of tho pro!^eB9 of mankind generally in the manifold phases which it had gone through und.? native Dynasties, presented, if proI>crly studied, perhaps, the most instructive of the remaining volumes of human history open to the research of scholars. Sir B. commended very strongly to the numerous capable young Hindoo, and Hahomedan, gentlemen the aoquisition of the critical faculty, and the application of it to the development and history of their own country." Dr. Leitner corrected the notion that Epic poems traditions w e r e quite useless and observed, and

" Hecently I got a new Magazine entitled ' Si'fdhanta Dtf^ka '

" At the same time, he rather joined in the *iew exprested by Bir Alfred Lyill witB regard to the importance to be attached in



Comihenced o n the Queen's

Commemoration B a y , 1897.

A Monthly Jvurnal Devoted to Religion, Philosophy, Literature, Science-, &c.

VOL. I 1


No. 4.

T b a n s l a t i o n s .

Line for line in the work, we can find exact equivalents in the upanishads in Sanscrit. The cITect of a Mantra is practical and the reading and ponderin<f over tlie work ia enunciated as a merit by the author himself in the end of the work, just in the same way as in our Sanskrit Upanishade. N o w coming to the text, the propitiatory verse embodies the popular conception of Vinayaka, which ia at the same time symbolical. He is called Vinayaka, aa there is r.o Nayaba or Lord over Him. In the words of Ganapathy Upanishad, Thou (Vinayaka) " I^^^OBi-SjJo Thou art the essence of Brahman, Sat, Chit and Ananda (Reality, Njan and bliss)Thus as the highest Paramatma, He is without a Lord over Him. His five hands represent the five kinds of action ascribed to him, Tiz; creation, preservation, destruction, retention and grace. The said UpauiRhad addressee him thus " Thou art the doer or creator or worker ( i S o o r ^ ^ S ) Thou Hit the p r e s e n c r Thoti art the destroyer In order to indicate the function of Thirobhavam (Retention) the same Upanishad at once says " # ( " t h a t is thou art all this universe Brahman). The function of grace consists in creation or reward according to merit. So this function can be brought under the first and the second function. As the functional Being of all these actions, Brahma the creator) ' ' (Thou ^^oD&s art ' ' (Thou art





{Continued from page 26).


luirSsnrQpt^fiSssr fsipQun^QiauSpiridBir QuirpjoiSela(p<Sesi

and adore tooth Him with five like a y o u n g Nandi and the

Si^eSsniaiS i^i^uSev^eii^^if.
I inwardly hands, face


l i k e t1>nt o f e l e p h a n t ,

p h a s e of the m o o n ,

w h o is t h e son of NOTE.

t e r m i n a t i o n of ^ ' j a n or WnowledgeI'rofiit.nyTlicvc twu books in Tamil called Mantra, one is bv DaksliniuiMnitlii aii'l tlio^ other by Thirnmoolar. The uame Maiiini is ascfibeci to VcJab alone. The fact that the work ander traiiElatiiju is called Mantra is sufficiently indicatire of the iiupoitiiuce thereof, ;iud it RISO shows that it is an attempt to reproduce ill T.-iinil the osecnoe of our Vedae, especially the ITpanishade. 19

(Thou art Vishnu the preserver In order to

Hudra the destroyer).

iiidicate this function of grace. Ho is (>aid to be Indra, Vayu &e. implying thereby the various worlds where reward is enjoyed for good Karma done in this life. According to this Upanishad, Vinayaka has and 4 hands. that is He has one tooth The hands are reduced to four in-stcad of five in



Vinayaka. In the words of Thayumanar, c-r ri^. WIGARBJA.."

tbe teKt tM tho function of grsoe, reducible to the function of orei)on u d preserTUon, doei not require a geporate hand in eiotorio ayMiboUBn. H hM the face of an elephRnt, as he ii ( t h e w n e UpMiiihad). O m w h a n written is jost like tho head or tba elepkaat witk iU trank or hand, fi^ ia the symbol for Piwiava oonUiniBR iiirff the process of evolution and infnlation. i o Vinyak> ia th Primordial Pianava Being. Some think t U t elephant is an embodiment of immense physical powers and wisdom. Tliis sense is not improbable; bnt there is no authority in support of it. The letter in other characters is not shaped like (for instance in Nagari). But this means nothing. Xagari characters are but recent innovations. According to oar Sastras the letter runs round over the head in the region of posted at and above the eyes, and is derived from a line drawn from the thick end of the left eye-brow round the head up to the thick end of the right eye-brow and then extended over the whole lengt h of the nose, then carried over the protruding surface of the right nostril, and then bent within itself inwards, the cypher accompanying the said lines and curvatures representing the spherical light appearing between t h e - e y e brows. The figure has immense meaning iu Esoteric philosophy which it would be out of placc to enter into in this connection. The author spe.iks of His tusk in the siiif^ular in deference to the vedic authority above (luoted. The tusk represents tlie line of evolution and involution which is only Om. According to Chandogya and other Upanishads, creation, preservation and destruction take place by an act of chit whicli giving rise to force or energy (that is forward and backward motion) settles, itself into atomic and gross matter, into all anthakarana and in short all bodies. According to European physiology, tooth and bone are all met:imorphosed forms of primordial protaplasmic cells homogenous "Tn nature. Tusk ii) an elephant is the most hardened form of the original homogenous BubftauM in the Elephantine b_ody and Prithivi is the most hardeuedform inthecosmic creation, corresponding tu thetuak, emanating from theoriginalsource,namely,the chit-given motion-form cnergj-. As evolution is by chit, so is involution by chit. So that the one line of action for evolution or involution is chit and thus the npanishad speaks of only one tusk in Vinayaka. Involution includes both individual involution by Yoga-practice or by divine grace as well as cosmic involution, and so this interpretation of the tusk as representing 4hat is salvation in non-dualistic Kne is included in our interpretation. The tusk of an elephant is his tooth extended and when the Upanishad above named describes it as tooth it shows the accui-acy of physiological knowledge which onr ancients had. The tusk is said to be like a young phase of the moon. The description indicates the straight linear and curve linear coarse which forward and backward motion takes in the coarse of evolution and involation. It idso shows that evolution-cannot be infinite and at certain point it should bono backward.and merge in or is sacceeded by, involution. The Parent stage being the primordial stage antecedent to the functional stage iti relation to creation, Ac., the assumption of the fanctional stage is tantamonnt to a birth, and so Vinayaka becomes ,the ^ of the Primordial Being, who is called Nandi on account o f hla teing the fountain head of Bli^s or the giver of Bliss. Ganapathy-Upanishad describes Vinayaka by S l b s 8 8 (the son of 'Siva which means the same thing as Nandi) S i T S o ^ d B s i S ^ r ' i i & S Vinayaka is c a l k d the termination of Njan or knowledge. This descriptioii either nnans that the highest knowledge leads to the knowledge of Vinayaka in His non-functional primordial aspect or His functional aspect, or that in the course of individnal Psychicinvolution, that is in the act of merging the self in Him, the act takes place in the form of knowledge which is Himself. Accordi&g t o the said Dpanishad JfiSr' that is

He invokes the aid of the being as with His aid, every thing can ls done without obstacle or difficulty. Acrordingly the B i d Dpatoiihad addresses Vinayaka as O t i ^ ^ B ^ ^ ' f l i S A l and alM aMorei at that he who adores Him in t h words of -the Upniihd " o t affected by Miy obstacle or difficulty. In short, the propitiatory Ganapathy Dpanishad. verse is the sum and substanco of




u^eifSDi'^ i^etS^^etr


Qinp^Sesi^s. (^LLQI^ ^ndisriijir^

QeutS/S (4)
begat kicked of the

fills Lord of Her who

I speak of Him, the holy being, w h o souls, of Him in king who the of is t h e four death everything Yarna, the soathern directions, and the

all h a p p y

and who master

direction. NOTE

This verse contains in part the popular conception of Siva strictly speaking, iliero-is no substantial distinction between the conception of Vinayaka and that of Siva. The conception of Siva is just the conception, of the Parent, s t a ^ as refeiTed to in my note on the preceding verse. He is replete with diverse lives as so many sparks in the atmosphere. This idea is found in Pi-asnopanishad Mahopanishad and Bhagavata. They are called happy as they find happiness in their lot or as their end is in the beatitude of Siva. As Randolph observes in his Alchemy of Lovp, there is a she-side or mother-side of deity as well a s ' H i s hc-side or fatherside. The mother side of Siva is called Sakti or ParasaktiVide Saktopanishad on the point. This side is no more than the energy emanating from the Chit of Siva or Paramatma for purposes of creation, &c. In Rudra Kahasyopanishad, Unia or sakti is said to be the whole of the definite. t f i p i o Wti^J^oflb The same Upanishad, a little before, says aJr-ii-^^dSjoOgJ " d&^db-

that is, she who is

Uma i Vishnu and Vishnu is Chandi-ama or cold. This is emphatic in saying that Uma is ciJld form energy. The same Upanishad further on says thatis, Budre is the essence of Brahma and Vishnu, and the universe is made up of heat and cold. This tough subject is treated in my contribution on Prana in the Thinker. The conclusion enunciated in this Upanishad is A ' l t o - O b T J ' y ^ - r ' ^ JThe whole creation, movable and immovable is but ihe cssence of Rudra and Uma). Kudra referred t in this vedic text is the H e side of the deity. Creation would be the off-spring of the father side and the mother-side, which are both capablc of being designated by the common term of sakti or goddess. Siva is said to have kicked >ut the kiqg of death for the sake of Markanta, a sivite devotee who was attacked by him in hia sixteenth year. This ia just a popular way of saying that within sixteen years, it is practicable to'attain yoga sidh'i and so attain physical immortality; or b y the grace of Siva, physical death can be avoided through a life of devotion, for Siva can make his devotees immortat. Individual immortality is subject to the process of destruction comprehensive and general, not limited and special. The incident of Markanta implies that mortal -beings can make themselves immortal by devotion to S I v o ; Our Upanishads identify Rudra with Yania. For a ^fuU .discossion of the subject, vide my contributions in the Thinker on the snbject of Prana.

" Thon, Vinayaka art the essence of knowledge and snperior knowledge." According to Yoga Sikhopanishad, Ratopanishad and a number of other vedio texts, salvation is effected by Njan or gnperior knowledge alone. Hence the justification for the description in the text. The author itwardly contemplates Vinayaka as any outward act Is inoompetent t o reac^ the knowledge of







r^Qita Sasari-ai


Qfi'V oaifh
H e is o n e in His Anil and


IT^c3iiii :ii
He liimxelf 1)ecamu the two three the who them

sakti, the

I t i s H e t l i a t ac t u a t e s four truths tlie six, and and

Jesus as much aji our Upiinisliada advooBtt- the c a u i c of preyer always. 'I'o n Jivnnmukta. there is notliiiij{ but God wherever he sees. This is also a >faliomcdaii doctrine. According t o Annapornr.jinnisliail. J(.>.-ii,,(;,iin (Hijrht in ihe air) that Is wherever the Yo^i ).len9cd. ig an index to the sidilhi of a Jivaniukta WT'eX^^^^o. The anther tells UB that he was a Jivaii niukia. The justitiration for ihe addition of the worda in the larcuthceis is now clear.

tiud u n d e r s t o o d five, and

conquered it is he


out as

e n t e r i n g the seven celestial regions in h i s e i g h t f o l d Form. N'lTK.





Liirflibj SmneiiQ^ iSev3eo

Tills ^ .i-K'ctinlilislic'> Ailwyiji mill its manifemntioii iiiio divereiiios ilirouffli various kidv'OS. In <!Iier woitlj, this verm; is uitefiil ill iliM-nssiii); tlin (intKliiiii ipf I'voliitioii and iiivolniioii. wliich Connor Im- lu lirivcil in ilio limited $|>act' of a iioir. Jt is iiuorcetiiig li) iioii- iliat ilio nuihor evolves liip work in tlie same manner ns Vcdnvyabrt Itis Vcdania basira. 1 mean ilovolinj; a so|taraic Tolnnie for tlic .siiltjert in i liis ver<-'\

Even on search, there




c-fjual t o bright all

Siva. tnfts the

T h e r e is n o n e h e r e eqn;il to H i m , of hair stream with f.'oliloM NUTf.


its' Q^OSIT LjSVUlSlsSl QiStli^ ui^^iir i-l -i,^

1 adore at'tei' w i t h him great who



worlds, This Verse S()iai-ate elucidation, coniiijL; nninbei\ bee separaiO article in a forth

I 'li iLi i^
pervades whom

everywhere daily standinef all in all, seek cannot

otSuj.ieir lun i^iiQ.r-ii.; (Sai^em.

adoring by,

jyay&w Qujiri^uj svidoq^ lEmteC !eucvm (S^ Qj'ijiLj t o ^ i ^ e u LSevds>i ij311 stro!ir dS ^euir^r evTSuQ^^rsir /6levSei> iLisiicsr^fll ii^di-i'^ iDirvjol
Without Him no Him, tapas there can be can be No Devas; without Him know

whom the Devas without misery, desire,

k n o w , a n d w h o m I r e t r e a t i n g in m y s e l f , w i t h t h o u g h t s oonccntrated, contemplate. NOTE Tlir uienns of attainiii^ A'. <ii lor Uevae iu ilio intevn;il Dliyan iuCI-ImhI, wliicli is dcclaietl ilic sii|ii'n<.r method in Mnndnlalirahmaiiopanisliad and toino oilier I'lianielmds. Tlio first line in thevnree is the Slim and siibeianen of Ensavasyopanisliad. JXi Taiamanna ie i^aid to liu S^ (EHt-avasyopa-


without I d o not

n o t h i n g is p o s s i b l e to e v e n t h e Trinity. the path to enter Him. NOTE. within OP r e t r e a t



nii^liad). l i e liceomc a disiani to those in ivhom Ahankara Egoism incvailM ; ontward inejinil activilv would lead K) dnaKtii' notion.^. pi'cventin(r jierei iition oi liod. pervadine everywhere and ninnifesi iiig itbelf in- diverfse forms.

n Qutiuanui IIJOBBII_ taS^oJiHiu LjAiSL-dQ^ijiQLDujmiuu

I biive stood in

Quo,'iQiL 'in^ssru
(J^Gem. { f )
dark, the me Reality

According to Maiiopanishad. out Him oven atrrass cannot move.' Jesus clearly admits this doctrine when he says that, of his own accord, he can do nothinjf. The -Mfthomedan doctrine of predestination combined with or without the Doctrine of Anal Hak (I am god, Sivoham) point to the same conclusion. The Bnddistic doctrine of Karma is just the same as that enunciated hi our Upanishads.

QpanSserQuTu pewSsirQiuTu
this sinful world cleared of

uitiLfmetr uirQiuir^ jn iSs^isoi^ urSsirp Qut^^fi

^^^sadr ^Ssotcssar fltQar,

joeirSsiriULJ u/rQeueireBHsouu^ u^irn^etreit H e is prior to the T h r j e He is the Highest Being, having none equal to him. H e becomes father to those who call him father. H e resides in the heart iVMmbling a golden iotna.
NOTB; In this verae He, Siva < tk Far^idmiain from whon the l U a i t y have been eyoKed and nat member of the Trinity.

nesa, a d o r i n g d a y a n d n i g h t , H i m , w h o is t h e of those in the i m m e n s e space, w h o w o r l d s , w h o is m y o n l y R e f u g e to g o (wherever I desired). and who

is the seed o f allowed

NOTE. The clearing of dkrkneiB is the maaaa of aeeiiig God near. Inteuae oorftemplstion with aenaea and t h o n ^ t U boiit inwarda will alone enable a peraon t o aee God within,- ilD perTading. Thii ia exactly what Katopaniabad aaya.



0^iuiuir LfstreSsui ^essra^iu QuiemasBeS Q^suSpi^ir
maarr (^tp^ewL-^nj/rCflsitr. (jy) jpi eU" IT tl^th


eSetiQsireir piSu-iS eoirirsiQen.

A t the thought that innumerable of the t h i r d - e y e d Devas all perished, Siva, it is Stated the as

H e i s h o t t e r t h a n fire a n d c o o l e r t h a n w a t e r a n d y e t none perceives His grace. is f r i e n d to those w h o l o v e mother, H e is b e t t e r than S o n . him. He is better He than


Devas and men their Lord.

d o not

of them recognize H i m

H e nrith h a n g i n g t u f t s o f h a i r . NOTE.

N'OTE. The third eye of Siva is llic circular (iipcluding noii-cii-ciilai-) mark of light (including rays of light), which constitute the speciul means of omniscience. Symbolically it is rei)resente<l by the red circular dot worn on tlie fore-licad between the eye brows. In idols, a large ruby affixed on the forohcatl midway between the cye-browK represents it. Kyvalyopanished describes Siva as ' Thrilocluinu.' that is one with three eyes. According to tlio verse under comment, the third eye of Siva is located in this foro-head. At the time when the three cities (Thripuram)(what these are will bo explained further on) were destroyed by Siva, sparks are said to have emanated from his foro-head eye and destroyed the cities. In Sarabbopanishad, it is said that " Ho destroys the whole universe by sparks emanating from His fore-head." This fixes His third eye in his fore-head. The same Upanishad further down says that His three eyes .ire ' Somasin-ijugninta' that is, the Moon, the Sun and Agni (Fire). The seat of Agni is stated beautifully thus b y Valayanda, " t^^tH^^B^^ arorcrt) KfC-Uu) ivc;- m^^tk^sar I1_ that is Nanui is located in the sphere of A g n i which lies midway between the eye-brows. "Shis again fixes the position of Siva's third-eye in Uis fore-head. In Pasupatha Brahmopanishad, Nada, Bindu and Kala are said to be the three eyCs. In this authority, it is clearly laid that Kala (knowledge or Gnan) ia the third eye of Siva. Bindu is but Nada heard in the head and this is explicitly affirmed by Thiru Moolar further on his work, in accordance with upanishad texts on the point. Kala is the higher knowledge into which Nada and Bindu are translated in tlic act of spiritual involution. The specification of Bindu and Kula which are both developed in us by piactice of Pranayama, Prathiakara, Dharana, Dhama, Samadhi cspeciallv Samndhi at a point called Brabmarsndra in the forc-hcad, fixes the place of tho third eye or the eye of Njan in the fore-head. According to SoobalopaDishad, it is possible to sec things by rays of energy developed in us b y Y o g a practicc from other centres in the botly, than the seat of Nandi locatcd midway bctweoii tht; eye-brows. A s the five senses physically are all located together in the topmost part of the body above the neck, so tho main centre of Spiritual Njan, or the eye of Njan is situated inside tho forc-hcad, above the eye brows midway between them. Locally the sense of touch is below the sense of taste, which is below the sense of smell, and the sense of smell is below the sense of sound, which is lielow the sense of sight. The physical eye which is the organ_ of physical vision is and must be situate below the eye of Njan ' (htuva Satehun'' which is spoken of in Swateropanishad, Mahopatiishad, and some other Upanishad and which is located at Brahmarandhra (probably pineal gland) inside the head straight down f r o m a point in the fore-head, midway between the eyc-browB. Tho eye of Njan is cci-tainly the heart of thc binin system. Pineal gJond whicli is 1 small reddish body is |>laccd beneath tho back part of 1 the corpus C l i l l o s u n i , and rests upon tho ' Corpora quadri gemino' (Kirkes Physiology 447) which may be regarded as the principal nerve-centre for v i s u a l sensations. The fact that the pineal gland rests upon the principal nerve centres for visual sensations show that it is related to I lie function_ of inner vision or it constitutes the organ or the eye of spiritual Nj.nn. ' S. RAMASWAMY A I Y E R , B A., B. L.

Here the term liot or cool are used as indiention of His power of puniehntcncs and his capacity J o r grace. There is tic harm hi taking them literally, and giving them a scientific turn but the contest would require the sense first given.

Qurem^p Qiueir^jb peii^p

Ljfii^iL Quepa=ss)u. Qu'reii^ QQ^tfiUu QutinBemp Q(^ipuu(S


Qiu^esiu tpppeueir
() golden

i3ajrg)i iSpiis,


H i s n a m e is N a n d i hairs from behind

w h o sits s t r e a m i n g

His back.

U e is t h e L o r d w h o is

worshipped b y M e and H e worships none.

^irQm ^rQes!

uS(i^i3eois ^trmSeQeiiii (SWBS (^ITII9jpiib en^oj^ uiinijSp(j^'B Kitri;s^u\

and and Sun Moon rain. It

flirQea iDenifiQurtfi flirQfw ^t^euenr^

H e alone Akas. Agni. I t is supports the


stands as and is

two worlds pours

H e that forms the

H e is t h e m a i d w h o


H e that forms the h u g e mountains a n d the c o l d sea. NOTE. This Terse is but an amplified form of a text from Katopanishad that cjt^^^^Tj-'^ that is; 'the one Atma, controlled and free, pervading all elements took each and every form in the universe'. ' H e is the support'. The Trhole universe is according to another Upanished held together by force ( tioo ) which emanates the chit of Paramatma (Chandogyopanishad). from

jyujjti'tA L^atji-iLjOuiiii inir^'Siniij QisfiS eStu^ti) Qptu^ Qum^

in nothing

{B'utr^Qi,iT6iir j^ioSsO QpiueQeti Qpi^ofttip ^laQa (aa)

He. The

iDSstffiQpQp (SuiriBiB^ ^nQesr.

perceived the results in of nature efforts greater than

L o o k i n g a t o u r first c a u s e a r o u n d a n d n e a r u s , t h e r e Efforts and are in H i m .

(To le


n a m e o f H i m w h o is t h e r a i n i n g c l o u d is N a n d h i .








{Continued from jyage 55)

1. iDg up The t.he to Banddhns m are of four classes s^t fortli forth in ten golden in the the who denyfollow and act wear the Dhanna Yedas, and

3. There are two methods of proof, namely, Perception and Inference, accepted by. the Pitakas. The things derived therefrom are subject and object, and these change (die) from moment to moment. The subject and object divide themselves into Rapa and Arupa, or Nirvana and (belief), and each one of the four divides itself into two, and there are thus eight in all.
4. R n p a is o f t w o kinds, Butha Bupa (material

the Dharma




f o r m , Achaitanya) and Vj)adana

Ruj>a (Sensory,
of faults






is of t w o kinds, Chitta
of two,

( m i n d j and

r e d resture, a n d w o r s h i p the liodh



Veedu or Nirvana,

jfgfutaw) tree.
dha, who

O f t h ^ e fonr, the Sauti-antika no caste, claims our

S k a n d a s ; a n d belief, of true and false belief.






a n d a i r are
combine, we



2. The great sage Buddha is our Lord, who

Hnrdness, taste, smell and colour form the


W h e n these eight

becoming o m n i s c i e n t , h a t e d t h e f i v e g r e a t siui;, s i i c l i as killing & c . , a n d b e i n g f i l l e d w i t h trtae ( i i a c e , took on h i m s e l f t h e s o r r o w s o f oHifcr b e i n g s , a n d c o m posed the h o l y P i t a k a , A g a n i a s p r a i s e d b y t h e ( l o d s .

1. The four cIrmcs of.-BaiiUlliHS HIT Snntinmiku (lfo|ir( M iitiitionit),Yo)5chtt(3ubjc<th-oiilonlist5),WaclliyiMmka(Xiliilists) ,111(1 Vaibhaahika (PreicntatiimiBtp). The Hvc polcleii rules arc Aliim^n: (1), Satyn ( i ) . Atthe'in, (.1), Bmliiimeliniiyn (4). and Snii>naliii (con(rrc(mtion), (5), For the ten, we Imve lo a<lil, (B) Heinj; iteatcil in hiffh plaree, {7) not rcclininar, (SI not weariii-,' BUnilal Ae.. (9) Disliko of song and dance, (in) eatint' I.eforr ^iimUc. Casu. inclndes Dtiivj-R, Nama, Giinn, ftc.

CJiitta ( B u d d l i i

o r iniiid! p e r c e i v e s

have visible sensations

t h r o u f ^ h t h e .senses.

W h e n the B u d d h i perceives such Karma. the

a s g o o d o r hiiil, it i?; d u o t o t h e e f f e c t o f 6. N i r v a n a of faults ( &c. are avoided.

i.s a t t a i n e d w h e n Nirvana of

sins of lust, iScc. i s l u s t

Skandas name each and

a S S ) is a t t a i n e d w h e n k n o w l e d g e o f R u p a , Right aud wrong belief are divided into a g g r e g a t i o n annihilation ( G ^ n p p i, s n c c e s s i o i i f^irfii).

ideal (gross or noble) of inHiikind but ia present in every such lorni. Compare verses 22 and 2:i of Chapter I X of the (Hta. " To those who worship We, not meditating on another, to those ever 2. (1) T o the Buddhiet, Bnddlia it tl.r (ind, or his eaviour and haniionioua, I bring full secavity of Yoga," and ' Thc>y also who worhe eeta up liia imBgea and prava in it-; |irc>fni i'. and aiiytliiiif; ship other Gods, with devotion, full of taith tlicy also worship Me, connected with him, auch us his tonth, iinilirelln. Bo tree Ac., has () sou of Kunti; though this ia eontiary to the ancient rule." In also become objccts of fetish worshiji. The resale tan'r hr dtln-rthe subsequent verses, Sri Krishna speaks of them such as not know wiac. Man ahvaya -n-ishes to rest liis mind <ai soniotliins; liiy^her Him in Essence, and that they fall and, go to the Go<lP and pitrrs than himaelf and when the True One laniun Iji- pointi il Out, " hom thev worship. anything tliot cornea in tho way supplies its place. While jouniev ing in Cevlon, a Binpileac began to pn-nch to us " w h a i vou call The special acts of grace shown by Buddha are enumerated God, Devadi Devn. Sirsdi 8iva, Snkradi Sakra, lall jBudilha. In Tamil works such as ' lUmimihiloi' 4 c . ; asgiving up his kingdcmi, Buddha is Devadi Deva, Sivadi Siva, Saknidi Sakra. ' We had will-and child, losing his eye, giving his Hesh on account of a to point ont that such good nnderetandin^ between the Ituddhisr pigeon, lie. and the Hindu was good enongh, but the essential distinctiiiii (3l The Pitnkns are three in number, Vimmaya (Vinaya), Sutra bet-ween the two conceptions liad to be home in mind nevertlie(SntiM\ AlMdharuia (Abhidamma). lesa. WTiat onr Singalesc friend called Uiiddho was a man Imrii in :!. The change i.s of 4 k i n d s ( i ) Increase hy change. (2) Kapilavnstu and who Bttained Buddliahood. As such lie tmihl not ilcircasc by change, (3) remaining the sartie after change, (4) total be the iindyinK and the unborn ( S r l - T w , th? aiitlidr uf destruction by change. creation, aiistentntion and reaolntiou, Droupava am'. Anii^raha One who in the words'of Thiruvacliaka is " t h e oldest of the ulil 6. i'roni these eight forms and their actions are derived the tilings and the newest of the new" ( " g live Skandas. Kroui the visible form is derived Rupa Skanda (1) ; m .... . ^ . .. 1 . t . . . ^ T ^LJ Ujfi'.^- '^-^r.-T^sr drta b f ' j -i^^titmi^ 1-'"^ffi-Ji'^u t: ' "), One From the senses, Kama Skanda (.Abstract Ideas) ( 2 ) ; from the wlfo was before all the 21 Buddhns put tofrctlier, one whose Golden Huddhi, Vi'jvuiia Skanda (3); from Karma, Vedana(4); and Bavana crown is where all things and w o r d a cease to penetrate (-'^^^L-JSH^ ('i'endencies) (5). Bapa Skanda arc the four elcinenta and their Qp JtBrmiD* 'C^ff^/TT four Upadana; Namaakanda, the five senses, and Baddhi; Vignana Skanda, the six kinds of Sensations or knowledge per; One who filla our liearts with grace like water ceived by these Benaes; Vedanaskanda, the knowledge of flood, brooking not ita banks, Sii!T;ia:i _ j/Byui pleasure and pain; Bavanaskanda, ten kinds af merit and ten 9arSr'). There Diay he no anch God, and no such consummation kinds of demerit. The ten kinda o r merit are (1) Anil or Love, as we aasert and there may be only the live Skandas and their (8) Deaireloaaneas, (8) Love of anaterity, (4) Sweet worda, (6) Truth result or extinction as the Buddhists assert, yet the tw o notions telling, (8) Useful apeaking, (7) Preaching charity, (8) Hnmility, of Siva or Buddha are entirely distinct and can have no connection (9) Giving to the needy, (10) Performanoe of aoaterity. The ten between them. This does not prevent the Siddhanti from holding sins are (I) Contemplation of evil, (2) Deaire or Lost, (3) Anger, that it ia the only One who appears i n ' j v e r y form, and being (4) Speaking harsh words, (5) and nnleaa worda, <8) and false adopted for worship by mankind, occepta the adoration of the truly penitent heart (j. - i - . - c.' ^ " i - l i j - worda, (7) Envy, (8) Thieving, () Killing and (10) IMiig anleaa acts. These ten kinds of merit and sin seem to be from tki Bntrs .V'). Tlie essentini difference of these two of 42 sections, tranalated into Chinese in the firat centnry A. D. statements have to lie liomc in mind, that the true God is not e i e r y



7. the

R i g h t b e l i e f o f a g g r e g a t i o n is a inan is m e r e l y belief five Skandae. Wrong five of

when the


apsert is

T o hold that I n t e l l i g e n c e c a n rise w i t h o n t d e n t c a u s e is A s a t S a t - v a d a . like 12. that T o assert t h e hair g l o w s on the palm ot one's postulates, assert.


that what w e call

aggregate of different from

haad sod


w h e n w e a s s e r t t h a t m a n is n the aggregate of the 6.


that t h e r e is a l o p e of hair is A s a t Except our four s t a u d all t h a t t h e s e p e o p l e

Asat-vada. we d o not nadCP-


R i g h t b e l i e f o f s u c c e s s i o n is t h e p a t h o f h o l d i n g another as cause and effect and beone

that events succeed one

w i t h o u t r e f e r e n c e to time, past, present o r f u t u r e t h a t i n s u c c e s s i o n t h e r e is n o c o n t i n u i t y . l i e f o f B u c c e s s i o n is w h e n w e succession of cause and effect. 9. hold that s o u l o r p a d a r t h a u n c h a n g e d at all t i m e , in Wrong there is

Are they not mad i n s a y i n g t h a t t h e r e a r e A k a s and T i m e , and sevenl c a r d i n a l p o i n t s , a n d s o u l and a L o r d whom thought and words cannot reach ? T h e s e things cannot b e
true. 13. W e c a n u o t use A k a s in a n y o f o u r p r o d n c t i o n s . and gives room formless. If you there to I f y o n say that A k a s holds


everyIf you

T o h o l d t h a t all t h i n s r s t h a t a p p e a r w i l l s u r e l y b e is R i g h t b e l i e f . T o h^^ld in that effect things is do e x i s t e n t as c a u s e wrong

t h i n g else, it c a n n o t d o so, a s it is is t h e p r o d u c t o f b o d i e s wi^rh it i.s p r e s e n t inseparably such things as this o r that. 14. senses with form.

annihilatrd belief. 10. belief To

s a y t h a t i t is t h e c a u s e o f s o u n d , i t c a n n o t b e , a s s o u n d say that are no everywhere, (A thing

not die but are


Right Sat Asat


(Sat-vada) Sat


Wrong A sat when

is n w r e a c t i o n

b e l i e f ( A s a t - v a d a ) a r e t o lie a d d e d f o u r o t h e r k i n d s o f namely, and Sat-vada, Asat-vada. Asat-vada, is Sat-vada Has Sat-vada

and attribute and not substance). If y o u assert that man has an A t m a o r Intelliwithout the and and (internal the senses and and external) by and of Bensationa sensations in gence, then w h y does he not understand

w e assert au a c t u a l l y e x i s t i n g f a c t tuslis. To Asat-vada hold that l i k e t h a t a n h a r e lias t u s k s . 11. intelligence

as t h a t a n e l e p h a n t statements mere

is w h e n w e m a k e

b o o k s . I f y o u s a y t h a t t h e s o u l u n d e r s t a n d s Hy u n i t i n g contact b y permeating into books, then w h y d o y o u feel d o u b t as to t h e c o l o r of the cloth y o u t a k e as s u c h it c a n n o t so u n d e r s t a n d s iri. Man cannot know except union with by the senses. If, out darkness;

is b o r n f r o m

c o n t a c t is S a t S a t - v a d a dies another canuot

T o h o l d t h a t if a n i n t e l l i g e n c e

r i s e in i t s p l a c e i s S a t A s a t - v a d a .

7. The first kind of Rif;ht belief is explained by the simile of the chariot and its parts. Without its parts tliere^ ie no chaiiot. Without the SkanJftS, there 'R no Atiiifi. To assert otherwiac is liei'esy. Buddha, denies clearly the existence of an Atma. but lie does posit Buddhi, or mind. It must be roinembercd iliat. in his days, the Hindu philosophy as representi d liy the Gira and the Siddhiinta was in existence and Buddha ^ t only arifuiii/ against such ^ rp Hinduismand against Lokayita. The Lokayita Jiostulatcd the e.xietence and eternality of the 4 material elements. Gautama analysed these into the Kve .''k-andaR. denied its positive existence and only asserted its phenomenal aiipe.-irance ) lud claimed that it wa capable of anniliihuion Beyond these phenomenal appearance, he docs assert the existence" of mind or Buddhi. This was one of the andakaranas reco^nizcd by his opponent. But as for postulating nn .\tma beyond thin miiid or Buddhi, Gautama could never consent. Aecordinj; to the Hindu, .\tn\.i was different from Buddhi or any one or nil of the andakaianas. But Gautama would sometimes identify this Bmldhi ilgplf with Atma, or God, as Hindu Idealists identify Atma iiiilividual soul with Paramatma, With this essential difference and distinction in mind, the question whether Gautama attirms or denies the existence of a soul will be easily solved. To the Hindu, Buddhi itself was perishable and when Gautama asserted its imperishability, the Hindus called him Buddha, the system Buddbism, which held to the assertion of Buddhi as a Padartha. This will explain also why in the classification of seven principles of man according to Theoaophy (or shall we say esoteric Buddhism), Bndhi is classed w ith the three princijiles above as im))eriahble. To the Hinau as such. Buddhism is clear Atheism and Denial of SonI or Atma, Where the definition and analysis of each is clear and distinct, it serves no <ro"d purpose to state that all are one. The reliability of the account of Buddhism as herein set forth may be compared with nen-Boddhisni as represented by some Theoso; phists, as the Tamil account seems to follow some of the oldest treatises on Bmldhism by Hindn Buddhists both in .Sanskrit and in Tamil.

a s t h e sense.s a r e n o t i n t e l l i g e n t , y o u s a y i t is t h e s o u l that u n d e r s t a n d s in sensation. the senses, thtfn t h e soul must, t h r o u g h each o n e of the sense", feel t h e same If von say that then tho sonl u n d e r s t a n d s as it we are mistaken in n o t is j o i n e d t o t h e s e n s e s , beautiful!

k n o w i n g y o u to b e a B u d d h i s t . W h a t y o u - s a y is really

i.s a

Is (hiatha, postulated besides friiana and Gneya

or insensient. like much that is beyond Dholl If the latter, t h e n it If sentient, itself, you aa i f (Achetana) otie t o o say Atma earth. rice

by yon, sentient material man 17. postulate ciirry. If the



has D h o l l f o r its it

formless, if

then of

attached to a b o d y with f o r n i ;


cannot b e it cannot

17. Tlie following (piotations from Kundalalteti, one of the Pancha, Kavyaa ( lost work) are cited in the commentaries on this Btanza.

" ij.^tai,"^ si' ijOitrT '^juf^a^-'^^'f^^'-

a jg^u

li^ C f 'e^ ii^flfl Sar^ ifiirQgQsf^jlA s^tr riS^eic i-^aefl^J s^i^ai


the east -oi but myself, the

b e contained in another b o d j . then it will paxs away

I f i t i e a n anu

(an a t o m ) body then



one where

standin^^ I stand


w i t h o u t s t a y i n g in the If it is e t e r n a l ,

direction direction,

is w e s t ,

to one west of in c a r d i n a l

t h r o n j r h m a n y o f its o p e n i n g s .

m y s e l f it is e a s t . T h e r e f o r e tell m e w h i c h is t h e p r o p e r I s t a n d in. Your wrong belief p o i n t s is t h e r e f o r e false. a God who created the earth. then the it c a n n o t effect be

it shonld not b e capable of appearance and ance. 18. T h a t t h e A t m a is o m n i p r e s e n t , whole body, If


cannot be it will in it

true, die any

21. tion.

You If it

postulate did not

as onr k n o w l e d g e does not cxt6od everywhere. If A t m a is said t o p e r T a d e t h e one organ of the the feet and 19. body then wiih the death of the b o d y . it is located the

I f t h e e a r t h e.xisted b e f o r e c r e a t i o n , it n e e d s n o c r e a exist before, created. 22. potter If you a say pot that out G o d creates of clay, If yon the w o r l d as he been have stood a on and If creation means creating from

(such' as t h e heart), part of


its cause, t h e n t h e w o r l d m u s t he said t o exist a n d n o t

h a v e c o n s c i o u s n e s s in a n y o i h e r bead.

H o w d o e s y o u r T i m e o p e r a t e ? I f it is that, b y creation, development and


where say have must

did he stay created existed

w h i c h all t h i n g s u n d e r g o

w h e n H e m a d e this world. the w o r l d , tlien t h e worlij before hand. If then y o u say omnipre.sent,

d e s t r a c t i o n , it w i l l b e c o n f u s e d w i t h t h e o b j e c t s t b e m selvesi - a n d time will cease, w h e u such .things cease to exist. T o assert that there aie three i^; c k u i kinds of time belief a n d n o t t h r e e k i n d s of (Asnt-vada)." 18. If there should then be auy J o u b t ihat the Hiuldhiet denies an Atma. the arguments so elaborately Ect forth from etauzae 14 to 18 both inclusive on^ht to place the matter beyond all doubt. The commeiitatorB quote from works of Baddhist themselves. These t e i t s deny a Gnatha as distinct from Gnana, A Guni as distinct from Gana, an Atma as distinct from Buddhi or other senses. Is there snch a thing as Atma distinct from Buddhi or not f If it is, then the Baddhist surely denies its existence. It_won't do for him to say that his G n a n a a n d Gunaand Buddhi is as ^oud as his Atma and that as such, he does not really deny such an Atma. This is perfectly futile as where WP have pointed out Hbove. Buddhi it. rejnii-ded by the Siddhenti as material and insoiticnt and Atma as non-material niid f-nticnr. Look at the followiii)f apology of an argument from the l> arned Editor of the Slonl.'i. " This is plain to every one wlio uudcrsi.incls that truths are real even though they are not eubetancos or entities. .\ud the same is true of the soul. To deny that Volition, Cognition, anil othei mental actirities are substances or entities, or that they need a suhstrarum or metaphysical subject, is not a ilenial of their cxisteiico--it ie simply the consistent consequence of the cfmiinnnly acknowledged truth that they ai-e not material." And the able Editor accuses Prof. Oldenburg, the greatest Pali scholar, of misunderstanding Buddhist texts. It will be apparent to anybody, in the light of our foregoing observations, who has really miennderstood Buddhism ; or rather, the fact is, not, Paul C a m s has not understood Buddhism, but that he has not understood true Hiuduism better. The quotation from Paul Carus we have given above contains the gist of the idealism. And Hinduism has been till now solely understood in it. idealistic form, which according to the opinion nf a nunilior of scholars micli as Prof. Kunte, Col. Jacob, and as understood by the Hindu ohools of Sankhya <Both Nirishwaja and Seshwara) was derived from Buddhism. " The Professor talks of ' the consistent consequence of the commonly acknowledged trnth that they are not niateriaJ: Consistent consequence indeed ! Need we wonder that the most thorough-going idealists of to-day are also the most thorough-going materialists of the day, and iice-rfiioi. Anybody who knows anythijig of the social and political condition of to-day will not fail to be struck with the fact how closely related are Idealism and Materialism and Nihilism and Anarchism of to day. What to the Hindu Siddhanthi is immaterial, To the Buddhist is non-existent. ViTiat to tin- former is material, to the Buddhist is not material. And yei Axina and Buddhi are to be held as synonymous '.!! objects wtong


he was birth.



before God and given Him '23. mercy,

If yon say that G o d created the out of when hi.s merc}', the w h e r e is creating



of and He


His Grace yama. If



such as lionb, t i g e r s a n d elephants a n d then y o u had better worship a madman. 24. by

c r e a t e d all t h e s e t h i n g s as H e liked to s h o w his m i g h t ,

W h a t is t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s c r e a t i o n ? L o r d is a m e r e c h i l d . then the performed, persons

I f it is

tnere p l a y , y o u r Karma

If necessitated performing The truth

K a r m a must have existed before creation. is, t h e w o r l d is e t e r n a l a n d n o t c r e a t e d . 25.

If G o d is B n p i , t h e r e m u s t b e o n e w h o c r e a t e d If H e a s s n m e d F o r m o u t o f his m e r e could do so by their mere his K a r m a , him. then the wish wish. Karqia

this f o r m .

t h e n all t h e w o r l d

If each ? e t s his f o r m b y must have existed before

21. The reference in the last line is to the asti nasti or Sapta Bhangi Nyaya of the Jains, accoi-cling to which neither e.xisiente nor non-existi'uJe c a n b e jiredicated of a thing; and asin the first case it will bo mere implication and in the second case not a fact. So, all that can he said is 'asti-nasti.' cvistont-non-existent.' This is a curious conclusion. Thrie is however an element of truth in this, so far as the nature of a logical jiredicate is concerned. Dr. Bain for instauce rejects 'existence' stated by Mill as a predicate and reduces the latter's six classes of predicates to three namely coexistcuce, snceession and e<|nality. The Buddhist apprehension of the theory of causation is entiiely erroneous in the light of the modem theory of causation as involving conserration of energy, held by Wustcm Logicians i and this only follows what the two schools of Sankhya (Nirishwat* and Seshwara) have always held. Both the Jains and the Buddhists merely quibble about it and there is neither science nor sense i]i it. 22. Tlie aign from the world, rliat i . God ca isniucli you cannot separate God -t as such apart from the world,

23. A mad man docs n..t k<,. )w vlie von sequence of his act and God should have known that I is creating these terrible animala must produce evil to hie other (




1 * U I B


D E F U A .

26. If k>d ii Arnpi, He, like A,kaB, oannot lift as froiH onr sin. If He is like tke ahadow of B tree, then the credit is dae to those who neaied tke skelter (or the benefit is to those who approach the shelter) and as snch he is not omnipresent If He is omniscient, then a Form is necessary which should be l o v i r g l j dwelt npon. I t there was no such form, ao intelligence could subsist. 27. If you s a j the Vedagamas are eternal and proves the existence of God, then what you s a j , that nobody gave it forth is really beautiful! Yon, to say that you knew God by the Vedagamas and the Vedagamas by means of God ! This is wonderful

30. To say that the five Bkandas are not annihilated bnt are reduced to their cause is Wrong belief of {dfiitpiD at^th) and is the cause of birth and suffering. To hold that these are altogether annihilated is Right belief and leads to the Bliss of Moksha, Nirvana. 31. To' leave off the sins of Kama, Envy, Ac. to hold on to good deeds, to destroy the desires of the senses, and the sense of pleasure and pain, to practice the eight kinds of Bight conduct, and to give o p all wrong doing and attain to snch Gnana is to attain to Imperishable Samadhi or Nirvana.

{To he continited).

28. The vegetable kingdom (IJrpeeja) and all its maltitadiBoaa forms-grow and die tike hair and horns on animal's bodies and hence have no life or intelli^ence. They exisk for the benefit of other creatures with life. (Andaja, Swethaja and Sarayuja). 89. Yon must not kill at all. You can eat always what had been shughtered already by-others, as a slaughtered animal is simply dead like earth. Tell me who gets t t e merit of the deed, whether one who keeps a water pandal with fragrant drinking water or one who partook of that water ?
26. The Akas does not put forth any active powers. It is merely passive. Here the Baddhist is wrong.' We now know what amoont of force is locked up in Akas or Ether and the m o d e m European research tries hard only to nnlock it and even when they sometimes by mere chance, aulock such powers, they are p a n their comprehension, as for instance the X rays. As similar to ft shadow, God cannot be omnipresent and omniscient, and no ciedit t0 Him, except to those who approach Him. This latter view will laccoBnt for their believing more in a Buddha, a Mnkta, as a saviour than in God. According to the, Buddhist, no intelligence can be conceived of, except as dwelling in some form. 28. Urpeeja are produced from the earth; Andaja from eggs, Swethaja from sweat and damp, and Saraynjam from womb. 29. Meat is distinguished to be of two kinds Kallya (Karpiya) Uamsa, that which can be eaten; and Akallya (Akarpiya), that which caoBot i e eaten. Akarpiya is of three kinds, Thrikodi (meat o t by direct killing, or express order or implied consent) Shatkodi .(last three and by seeing or hearing that it was killed for his own use and by not suspecting the character of the slaughter) Kavakodi (the last 6 and by relish of meat, eating too much, praise of the tilled meat). Beally the distinctions are too nice, but the ignorant cannot possibly understand their niceties and they liold on to the saying that they cannot kill bnt can eat meat killed by others and in so acting they do not make any distinctions of the meat of any animals that might be slaughtered for their use.



(etfirSsu ^asriS^

uppS mSQaigpiLc, (Siup/S^ QS^^Sal^

^saiQiDSPi'^ ^Jr^ma Qetiir(Su, lo^Qm^ih Quir^

uireap ^t^S Qairein^


ffiibriLisiii Qpessiiraneu is^air

( 5 a n i _ i i j CJffffCefiu."


" With the boat vianas, and the oar of Bhuddhi With anger laden, one crosses the raging sea. And as he founders against the rock of passion, he cannot know his God. Grant me the wisdom to know Thee, O Lord of Tiruvottiyuv

31. The eight kinds of right conduct a r e ( 1 ) Eight Seeing, (2) Eight touching, (3) Right speech, (4) Right action, (S) Eight life, (6) Right endeavour, (7) Right principles and (8) Right company.


ic'tm^^ aiuisQfirfS L/^^^jirsr /rpKit/^iiuj euirsirfi grQeir^ on^a^a eueriS^p O^fm^girp e-ugv^ uaTiD''& ^'ivu.ngjpir^^tv a; QiLtreSiLiniuf t-Q^ LLiiigt Sr^^^fi iqi^Qsn O^irartaOainc^ QfnpOaaem
Q^fijUi^atjf OiU^Offiti



(Continiud from jxtge 60)


im(gmm tgiriDij iSr^rer Set9DLDu SitBa^v 6nc a/MOj u>r iaf^trr iBrfiOfiip ^jrurtBmmii^f ffimrifi ^tosQf S^^ (tcifi j^ifttr

^OftiofJiL/ ^niustiw iiiari!^ ^s^aifl




iSf.v ''9 0^9

uirta.u uif^.^CS'-

u^eiresiLD(iii5/) iSskjpi us(gai tSQ^a^nfuj Qisi^Qibs (gQ^Su uaJlisOpQfi ^QtDS /tk-utSi aeia^jlt aeaCLjUsr /Sek/DOisir uantOiLi0i>tia tstsaSiire sulLSI iLjpQai &flfepu(iS eanarmg iBirfiSLilCc
ii-a/Psr. 48. the O Supreme dance Thy Lord in the Arul of Grace, who devotees always dost (^jy) play

^nm umi Oimrj/giar

m*r fiOm* Jt^P Jli^dlp

Sfiu^ lupaattm


(Bair^fiOujii uttkuQ^m lurnr Ofitf^unr

(jps0ii-ar cit-if^^

mtmra^ ^isfi


wortliy may

stage of who

wisdom. are ever and sweet melting

So that, enjoy

self-controlled prostration

intent on T h y Divine Thee "bj

realize with and

and woiship

BpmmuS sts

Mtmisf (,.)
GBACE. the wisdom! *

melodious h y m n s with tears overflowing hearts and emaciated bodies !


O h o w ezaltinff is that H o l y W o r d T h o u h a s t GODHEAD AB T H I SUPBIUX LOBD o r 47. O Supreme Lord of joyous dance in the worthy stage of m e as M a u n i * ! deqnences. was in able the Alras and Grace, who dost play

taught it, I 96

N o w o r d s to d e s c r i b e its blissful c o u the were universal burnt Heavenly Joy the at once tatvas with with

T h e m o m e n t I b e g a n to contemplate to experience of Thy rest the knowledge wherefrom away the internal beginning beginning

O Transcendent unknowable Teacher, who didst manifest T h r e e - E y e d . t under t h e banyan tree in the North, a n d l e t T h y fit d i s c i p l e s ^ r e a l i z e a n d e n j o y T h y universe. O Supreme Siva, let me offer m y Perfect nature a n d bliss a n d T h y true advaita relation to the incessant prayers to T h e e in these t e r m s :


n a m e l y t h e external tatvas and b e g i n n i n g w i t h earth, with mana, skin, beginning with beginning with halai

b e g i u i u g w i t h )io(t</i, b e g i n n i n g fonyid, and

0 Banhira, Sambhu, Baddtiva, Sarvdisa, SadAnanda, Bhagava, Nirguna, Nirdmaya, Nirdnjana, Nirdlamba, Nishkala, Nirvachana, Nirdhonda, Kaivalya, Nirvishaya, Nitya, San^ala-rahitha, Tatpara, mutta Aanga, Viavdthitha, Vyoma, Piinia,^ 0 Sankara, Sambhu, Saddnva!
* The word in the text iB chitsabha (hall of wiadom) + Bapreme Siva ia Three-Eyed when personified. 2 The reference is to the Anspicione Dakshiui-mArthy who eulightened the great mnnis Banaka FtH 26th verse with notes and notes to 'chin-mndra' in !l7th verte. S The meanings of these addresses respectively are : (1) Benetootor, (2) Hapiv being, (3) All-love, (4) Universal ruler, (6) Brer Uiirful, (6) Owner of wealth, power, praise, felicity, knowledge, and iadiBBrwuce or Aversion to worldly objects, (7) Void of properties, SI

(8) free fr(nH dis'-Hec, j^nik-lefeo or sincere, (10) Self-existent oi Self-8n|>portinj^. (11) 1 inlivisihle or Entire, (12) liideecribahle or L'nEiu-iikiilile, (l:ij Xot iliml ur two, (14) AbKohite Bliss, (15) free t'rf)ni |ni>inii (lc>ir(-s ; dibpassion, (IG) Sityix^ ilr. naf aud unfrom eiires, (1^) Intent un doin^ good or beloved to souls, (19) Uncoiiditituied or sinlcHS, (20") Not attached to an3-tlnnf^ ; rtndin;^ no rcsistence, (21) acceaeible or welcome to all alike; also nmy menn E.xtra-eosniic. (22) Hlling tlie Ether or A kas in full, (23) < IninipresenL c. f. also 3rd v erse. Herein i.^ implied the theory of Gnni-dai'sana, i. e. of God initiating the worthy devotees amon^ men (Sakalars) through the iustrumentality of human fono or Muktas or liliaktaR or Siddhas. c. f. notes to the 37th veree about ' initiation.' t The 9 6 tatvas are (u) the 36 internal tatvas, 5 NCoss elements, e a r t h , w a t c r , fire, air and e l t h e r , - 5 organs of ii'.^nllnnt, S k i n , tong'ue, eye, nose and ear,S rudimentary undifferentiated subtile elements from which the gross elements a r u c r o d u c e d i.e., S O U n d . t O U C h , taSte, smell, colour5 organs of action. m O U t h , f O O t , h a n d , a r n i ' s , g e n i t a l s , 4 andakaranas c h l t t a m

fhan'in'l'ii. iir >'< e,.

nud unchntigcfiblc, (17) careless and free'



traieotQfi arl^fawGlu Qj.'in wiQfi igieiBifauiGiu

erMKiaQfi ^tat-uj . rj

49. 0 joyous art the

S i i p i e m e Jjorri o f ( i r a c e , dance in t h e worthy Holy doininatint;

wlio dost



stnge of w i s d o m Spirit exi.stinjf

! Tliou everyas rightly body the


^ujiriSf Qnjo'jiQfs)!


w h e r e ill n n t u r e .

S o tlie V e d i i Rig;* & c . ,

as w e l l

t h e g r e a t Y o g i n s and ScIkihIx

of T e a c h e r s have

O^fitsiirsm (^^iSiu^

tSitojU anDLnns-

d e c l a r e d t h a t all a r e T l i y s l a v e s , t l i a t all a r e T h y a n d p r o p e r t y a n d t h a t all m o r i o n ? ; a n d actioDS i n

OfjsiiarsB&iiLi iSsaaiiiKii (^(tj^usar Gu(^ii Of&A^ O-i^ ^fgB iB-aaiQiu lUSDiomii aSsD&iOiLiar no:(^vufiiiQ^^ ^aiTfi a/air<ar(ric iS^euasas umuSGeiriir jiffieifSer ^(^Oateip taQoi MAeoiTfl oi-S^aiii (genGer lijearn^fiSmr Giu^ i^menrdj &p*aBLjiSffirarifiiSir^fiiSd) /ri si-ajGsn.


are T h i n e






bles.sed to see, ing T h y Bliss,

was t h e trne S i d d h a n t a t or e.stablisheJ attaintime ; the I have simply Tliy scjuandered Benevolence my

B u t i n s t e a d o f a d l i e r i n g t o it a n d

and 1 am not untold of c a u s e j of this also.


I w o u l d , t h e i - e f o r e , a p p e a l t o 'J'hy j M e r c i f u l n e s s g e t final L i b e r a t i o n a n d Bliss.



ui-^-U us/bQuiiQ^au^ uSo^Oentap ui(^erir^w, !.:ei^Gica Osior^ uffiAii u.'if^^iaPcQsq^fiS^^ (^ik^tuir^ ua-inQeijisS ujir-i Oenir(ijOf ir ^'^iQfi'sir OLcerefiujir UJ(i^i'rQiflu ^(i^iseiji G^sitld sen a'' a/saea (uiiisixr Quirso
fLiiSsaruj eirda^p ssosSiLliit affCJoj *(J0ii

(thinking), mind (doubting), a h a n k a r a m (wrongly reolving), b u d d h l (properly determining); These 24 are atma tatvae or component parts of the s o u l ) 7 vidhya tatvas k a l a (time), nlyati (destiny or necessity), kalaj (inducing souls to aensa of duty), Vidhal (imparting knowledge to souls), I r a k a m (exciting desire in them), pUrUSh^ (consciousness prod u c t by the preceding five kAla, 4 c . when joined together), m a y a <force of n a t u r e ) 5 siva tatvas SUtta-Vldhai (predominance of gnana over Eriya), ISWaraitl (predominance of Kriyaover gnma), Sa'thakKlam (equilibrium of Kriya and gnana), Saktl (act) Sivam Or s o u n d (gnana) and (j>) the 60 external tatvas, viz., 5 parts of earth, h a i r bones, e x t e r n a l skIn, b l o o d v e s s e l s , flesh, + 5 parts of water,

fluid w a t e r , b l o o d , s e m e n , m a r r o w and f a t + 5 parts of tire, hunfiTer, Sleep, fear, c o h a b i t a t i o n and l a z l n e s s - - 5 parts of air, runnlngT. walklnsr, s t a n d i n g , s t a y i n g and lyinsr5 parts of Ether, k a ' m a (sexual love), k r o ' d h a (anger') Lo'pa (avarice), m a d a (pride), m a ' c h a r y a o r m a t s a r a (envy).
(These 26 are the products of the five e l e m e n t s ) 1 0 vital airs, prji'na (inhaled and exhaled air, 12 inches are prodneerl from the nose of which 8 inches go in and 4 inches go o u t ; in so doing 2 4 , 6 0 0 breaths are inhated in one day), a p a ' n a (downwai-d air causing discharge of excretions), Uda'na (the air going upwards from the sole of the foot to the head and causing stoutness), v y a ' n a (the regulating air khat circulates and is the cause of energetic action), s a m a ' n a (carries ;and distributes food and and water and digests food in the stomach; it correspojids to what the modern scientist calls ' gastricjnice'), Na'gTa (causing coughing and sneezing for the benefit of the body), kOOrma (giving vitality to the eye), k r l h a r a (causing laziness and yawnings), De'vadatta" (cause of twinkling laugliing), ,Dhananff^y^ fattens) I veins or blood vessels

is^efieuiL! ions eygir^ "inOen^MQ<u.iaii fiadvitp^^ OtueiieetQ^ H^QZL' (jpSsca;^ Lots'eo^d SiLi-mijS u^irmGa) eunio-Gtsr Qst uQu^fi

50. 0




Grace, v/ho dost play wisdom.


j o y o i i s d a n c e in t h e w o r t h y s t a g e o f

(vide notes to 36th versed5 objects of the organs of action above-said, v a c h a n a (speech), g-amana (goin;;), Dha'ria (gift), v i s a r g a (discharge), a ' n a n d a (pleasure c a r n a l ) 4 articula(e*sounds, SOOkumal (sound iu the navel); Pisanti (sound produced in the throat), m a d h y a m a (sound foi-med within Ih^ throat), Vikarl (articulate sound from the tongne or m o u t h ) 3 gunas or gunams, S a t t v a (goodness), RaJaS (foulness), T a m a S (darkness)- 3 ahankaras or egotisms, valk r l t a (the egotism iq which goodness. ( s o t t r i ) predominates over foulMOM ( S a j w ) and darkness (Tamaa), BhU'ta'dl (the egotism in which darkness predominates over goodness and foulness), TalJaSa (the egotism in which fai<)ni:s predominates over ifood.wsB and darkness), c. f. " F r o m the tiist egotism (vaikrita), the five organs of sensation and the five organs or action and the mind are produced ; from the 2nd egotism (Bhutaili) the five rqdimental elements proceed; and the 3rd egotism (Taijasa) being ' active' or ' ardent' influences both the orgniis of ensfi and the five rudiments said above)."

* riic Vedas consist (if four grem folltctions (nmde to facilitate Ilic (Intics of the olasscE of i>rieiiTs, iu the sacrificial ceremonies, uiid ot the t4tli) superintendent of the sacrifice)namely Rig veda, Yajiir veda, Si'iina-veda, anil .\tharva-veda. Veda means know ledge. + This was the nicaninjr of all great saints, miinis. yogins, sidillias, luid all <<i-pat pure souls. Kqulpped with such knowledge, tliey iH.rccive no difl'prcnce between the Veda .tnd the Agama, and they tolerate all schools, inroriioi'utc all schools, assimilate all schools, and accomodate ull schools in their essence and truth. Tlicn onlv thev can be worthy Saiva .Sid'lliantis. c. f. vtree. 8, 37 and 39. + Cause of i. e. squandorinf; of time. The Saint refers to the Doctrine of Karma as po.sited by the Sai\a Siddhanta Schoolthat isGod is said to ordain the workinj.' of the* Universal Law of Karma which iiuluccs the souls to eat the fftiits of past actions, rood as el'l as bad : -hen Imd. the s.iiil is sajd to suffer under the Rajasie misiiic of time (S-c. Hence the f-alii'it knows* G o d ' s ' B e n e volence as the cause of this evil quality and consequent suffering of pain, because, as said above, it is by God's Gr-ace that we g o round the course of rebirths to eat away the fruits of Korma and procure the equilibrium (Iruvinai Oppn) of both.



I a m D o t ft b l i p d b i g o t * l i k e o n e I did not ia the pletely benefit mjaelf by that



obstiwhich com-

B u t tamaetc

i n f i d e l i t y is p r e d o m i n a l i t In down in this way ! Thou Brahma 0



u t o l y a 7 t h a t w h a t ) i s b l a c k ia w h i t e .


O ! N o o t h e r a l t e r n a t i v e f o r iiie i f T h o u w b a l d s t c o n tinue to k e e p me Universal G u r u , I appeftl t o T h y mercy. art the basis of well to skilled Thee in be^

One W o r d I was

T h o a k i n d l y cboBeat t o t e a c b roe a n d w h i c h l a n d e d m e aniTenal absorbed. fancy conscioasness And of I in w h i c h in the hare been seized with the intellectual

a l l manifestatioDB. T h o u a r t t h e N i l a k a n t a , * t h e 3 I a h a Vishnu and the four-headed schools of religion. the vedic learning and T h o u art the sole G u i d e Again do I appeal cause T h o u alone canst inspire L o v e of T r u t h lovers that seek after Thee. o f all in Tliy



r e a e i t r e h e s a l o a e : t o t h e e n d t h a t I h a v e not b e e n a b l e t o c o n t r o l a n d r o n c e p t r a t e m y m i n d a,nd d i s c r i m i n a t e t myielf from Thee the Lord of all. May Thon, therefore, bless me at onoe with Thy Grace.

uaaQsar ^taaanesr ^atfQuJuq^ euif.JiQm uiiS^ ^em^^f OjnwGa unifiSsarjD u^etiQ iQiu
UbMlUPi iDSmQflUl

OiAiL/aS._ir 3/76ycr6r Q w i i j l U 0

SujiLiurm Oi^iiimujOajeietwiB I Qsd-'Otjtr miftrr^fiia^ OwiCjtiSflji eos'tJiSin) QwtuQu^ mjStj' QaijuuD QuMiiitSl'TLi OuirujiiSGar gtmen^ ^(^isfifineir
O u t u u - i f s r Ouniueaiu Quwaoirii)

fferaQtm arsiiTLDeSfr^ eaagneir

(Sff^Otrsw g^efSflfi /g


iiiinir(g,LD LSSWGUIT ./femirir^ijt LSL-it^SV/TA v^ar^eaff- Qfiimeir (ytao/oGiurr eSamQaiTsS ^^lurrii Gsu^Ow Geufimh ^Gld Gusset QserreSOuj Gssr^ajaw eS^G^oj ^^jSar QpSe^uj sekrGesa sfissear Qinnar ^/bseouiS Sii^^iSlB
who dost to be play the I am offered pujaht reThee he^

OuiirujOi- Q) aismtmGw Listosmeuf ^irQiuafifl

LiekeaioGuj 0rRr


aD(ii60i_> Qf(ifXti


uittiduiJ) u,aipQiu(i^ ignarQ^si (SQfGaj lAfiisQi-rj)/ iBaifl



fBsaSi'i Q^Qiusirfl mieiruQ^i saruiriad fQ^SlLi ^pfOtLjHS miiarii^ MH^^LB

airs mi-ekjOair.
52. O S u p r e m e L o r d of G r a c e , j o y o u s d a n c e in t h e w o r t h y s t a g e of ^wisdom ! of making very I

61. O S u p r e m e L o r d an for undoubted of Thy truth's fact


Grace, stage Thou art

w h o dost play the of wisdom ! manifest and follow them the It iu is the

ignorant of the to Thee.

due form



j o y o u s d a n c e in t h e w o r t h y that hearts devotees and

A n d if I s h o u l d t h i n k presence flowers; Thou

t o T h e e in a n y o f T h y m a n i f e s t a t i o n s , ] : I c a n n o t d o s o b e c a u s e I find T h y q u i r e d f o r t h e pi'ijah those dew-filled h a n d s a with my in t h e can my flowers and consequently I cannot pluck nor a r t in worship ashamed

w h o love teach

truth Truth



absolute. Bigot. The saint alludes to ' fftiiaticism and prejudice ' witji which some get foolhardy andobatinate in contraveredes, especially, when their aide is found to be weak. t Supreme Love can arise only if God in h:a supreniacv and benevolence over ns (BOUIB) is well diacrlniinated and understood as inch and enjoyed as sach : This is a diatin|^isl]ing mark of thr Saivs Biddhanta School from such other schools as do postulate, as it were, EvOlutlOn Of GOd hlmSelf II <. perfect Uod becoming imperfect or the pure becoming the-impure or the entire becoming the broken and so on. c. f. Shvet Dpaniahad IV 16. " Surely is He the guafdian of this World aB long as time aliall Ust, the lord of aW, in tjvery oreatnre hid ; in whom the soers of bnhm and powers ^ v i n e arc conjoined. Tliua Jnounii; ose outs the bonds of death"Ur. Mead's Translation. "TIKI tepwvs of Brahma, knowing Him in this UiKrerse as differrent from it, become free from birth when they are absorbed in Brahma and steady in afcrtraet meditation "Dr. E. Eoai's Translatbn.

a n d m y w o r s h i p m a y b e iaid to b e i m p r o p e r . 0 T h o u art t h e O n e costoos: Essence of everything fi'^ in tba eleVide

T h o u art the Ether, T h o u art the

* Nilakanta is Hii opithet of Siva meaniug 'blue-necked*. also notes on 'terrible poision' under 18th verse. t PAjalvmeanB worhip.

J Manifeatatioii In ro nieau.s jrurtliy. Tfic reference is to the nine iitaniFegtatiinis uf l';irn))mnu:\n. \ i/.. (1) Bndiuia, (2) Vishnu. (3) Rmlrn, ( i ) Malicfwtii;,. (:,') Siuhisiva. (ti), (Salnl^ Bralmiaiii), (7^ Biiimln. (S) S:ikii and (91 ."^ivani. The Saint poinra out in llii^ vcr.^r ilmt when I ino Si\'ai^nan:i it-aftaint-d. tho dnaliijtic 'woreliip iil' Clod )'or..innihctl ln^corno-; nnnccesearv, still, liowrvcv. Ctnana-..iai-iya, (inan.i-kii-iyu and Giinna._\'oga are

unavoidahlv ncceesarv till rlie Fmoi Ltbe^-atl"!' and BHiH rcached.




jim^iD/S tjinnar^



art the sound,

Thou art the Vedaa and all im-

utf^OairfS^ O^sBisnLo

the Vedanta, T h o u a r t t h e f i n a l e n d a n d f r u i t o f
i n q u i r i e s a n d r e s e a r o h e a , a n d , in s h o r t , T l i o u a r t The silent state of Moiia

^fiiufitofl e-tn^aopiS


miem^iuT QfiovsQm taniGn-^fiiUii uniremiir ^m^ajn a^i

uukoent i u all o b j e c t s o f t h e s e n s e s a n d o f t h e intellects a l o n e c a n r e a l i z e TI13- o w n Divine nature.

Q^BQfUlUtV^ uSCifixs igA


Qw^QuiHifi ajirQfiiieirjpi upjStf^ Qaesreiirii ioB^(ipenr Qi_ei<ru^

^(^meiuitii/S^ ^flasneo QeuiruLlaSfi Q^efiifiGfi fiwajsif Ger9

O^meBoieap aiif-aStLi WQfifiu iS^iiQu eSQm iSujaajii fiiratiQL^a(if(g uirGa

OioeirarQuietr OaieffujlliLji /swwa/^Ccu

iB^i-ii iSSKim fi^te) StiaB^v/S luniaS^ Qu'^uu ^eoeiQai O^uiSg^iii suDtrijD S^fiiri^ Sfiuj ireoGfTiT ^jiioafi Q^etieo^asr SsriDir^ auiojeri: Otiifi Qfiofiejir fftmsisSiu Sfnrtvfiii fia.ivir'^ ^fi^rser ujir^ (eiuirirseisii^C^ain anam wpssi-Btuns eSujuaiQhiii a>s(seS4 fiSOfiiu euGio sfs
53. 0 been fiapreme

QfitSiiiiifl tuntai^Gui
teirsretrjB seniseuQ

ac^^Shu SflfmuiS


54. O Supreme Lord oi

Grace, who dost play the

joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom !

H a v i n g pacified the malevolent Deities of m y Kanna-

Lord of Grace, proclaimed by who the dost wisdom ! Vedas

play the It has that

MaJa & c , w i t h t h e o f f e r i n g o f m y t u r b u l e n t mind^

sacrifice, 1 would, 0 Motionless L o r d i n Turiyai, if T h o u couldst in Thee bathed of m y myself to Thy Supreme worship utake

set be the

j o y o u s d a n c e in the w o r t h y s t a g e of invariably

realized b y me : 1 would have water of my pious love, m y soul a n d worship and of iny

those who Jim their mind iipoii any object and meditate on the name: hecomt ahuorhed and trannformed in to that object quite forgetful of i ceri/thing elue So the great
sages who live in this world as Jivun Muktas are (|uitc m i n d l e s s o f t l i e i r d e a M i . T h i s g r e a t \'e<lie t r u t l i oi Sohain-hhacaiia* be told to the unwise ; for ti-aversy. T h e Muktas who d i d reiili/.o this Trutli aie.MnrTlion il will only end vau in iievor coii-

to Thee the offering of prana^

Thee with dQpat

intellgenco. performing who this jn'ijah^ Homage with my ThySweet

A n d I will b o c o n t i n u a l l y to Thee, my Gracious

in v i e w t o r e c e i v e T h y b l e s s i n g s . H o m a g e , 0 Lord, and mixest

depraved iLtelligeuce and gradnnlly presentestH self a s i n y juice Holy Friend from Saviour! 0 sweets The O The A m b r o s i a , the Esseiico of the V c d a s ? extracted various dtc! O sncjir-candy, honey

Resplendent Bliss ot

khandeya, Suka and such-liko sages : Please do

such as sugar, Grace. Mc'DAf.IAJ:.

raise m e to their level, 0 find of ( i o d s , w h o art a d o r e d


b y t h e D e v a s , India

&,<:, a d o r e d b y t h e ( l o d s


iiii r e a s i u g d e l i f i l i t , f d o a l w a y s s e e k T l i y U. SlIANJtll'i lAM

iVc, a d o r e d b y t h e M m i i s s k i l l e d i u tlii'

Uii;- \'etla i t e ,



the nine SiddhaD.f

and the M o o n tSto,

b y the
liy t h e


{Til he

IlirluU I'f

l!ic S u a

the KiiinaraisW and t h e rest.

' S.i|i;iii,
l i i - s c i r I d In-

i-om-riv iiiif in In-, m cnn.-i-i* ini; wli;it [(< ri)UL't'i\L'ii l l l u m l . tUnr,-,, 11 c u i u - f i v i m ; UIIClli'.'ninitl'j' (;




* M i n d III' MomlS i M ' i l l ' ; I lie CiUISi- III' nml.i'hlnt ikUi ms UT i'\is(oii('. s l i c is kiM'l i n n i l t ' r h k i l l i l u - K i i n h i i i t - f l T r i M s . t"'I'liriyn l'\ninli Sitiir. V i J r noh- l o T i l i vrr.M'. J l>ri|:i is I III* iiicrnKi*. D i p a i.s li^Hil s IMij.i . r. norsliii'; AH lioul iuimui^i'. iluMi.::li Vi'Kl .'i2iul r \ n u liin;; Ilil>c\<iU'e niiindam.', uiicler [n-i s c t i i in

I I I l>i' t;i>tl IXilliijiU llu- iiliM 1)1' 'iTir' Mliil 'Mliln*

I.R Mriil ir\ Iiiicscir witli Coll. It is IMIII'II ;IU.I i lali/al ion + Vi.lo nolo 10 1I10 -iL'ii.l 1 (iillKillllI luij, irl ilKl",-. iiiuliM ill,i:i| ,1,1,. I iimr-sa Willi is Ci.iii ol u,lr,n,. I lio I'OIIIIH IT I.r CllllU|l1llt-\'a8 ill',' tloilio;! oi" SUIIU'S ftll'l l'U,>iL-. Kiniiurus urc ili,- sorvaius ol' Kiivfrii liivlf-mnn unci liixil'-.iiiimal. 'nio,*, I,,'


i n a k e a ir v i s i h l t * UIMU'I* ct i ' l i i i u f n m l i l i n n s . >> t lie D e i t y ( G o t l ) l l j o u g h :ill-|ier\;nliti,' <-(>iuiiiioit." m a n i r o s t s lliinr^eir i n curtain





b a z a a r d o e s n o t l i e s i t a t e t o p a l m ofE h i s g a r b l e d M e c u r a o f m e d i c i n e as tlie w o r k o f tlie s a g o And all a the^e untruths mob, are swallowed they will nnd by


Agastyn. wholesale the exdisnot is and up is thoronglily








m o s t a p p r o v e d s c h e m e s of sanitation tested modes of medical treatment perts.

European It is

Siddhanta Beepika.
MADRAS, 21ST S E P T E M B E R 1897

T h e reason f o r the belief on o n e side a n d to seek. If lie AViiole

b e l i e f o n t h e o t h e r s i d e is n o t f a r that the oriental does not change. would be acting against its nature. ever changing but gradations

did not, he nature luiuute. lifted

.irn v e r y

I f w e a,re t o b e l i e v e G e o l o g i s t s , THE OLD A N D THE NEW. all a t o n c e b y t h e the slow rHB e x p r e B s i o n ' c h a n g e l e s s E a s t ' e m b o d i e s honODred all life parties and fallacy, and the sooner concerned. The and a time the for who inner and and ever going h o w slow cataclysms also ou.


continents so mncli

the highest of mouiitian peaks had not been earth's cataclysm, unperceived heaving to and

as b y sevefeet, doubt, as re-

fro that

If b y this constant h e a v i n g for incessant change. nuw such and then eruptions. cataclysms, ever the as real No

it is e x p l o d e d , foreigner

ral c e n t u r i e s , t h e s u r f a c e is o n l y r a i s e d b y a f e w must b e this in nature, and undergo be occur Midi And but cases. are, fact the

b e t t e r will it b e f o r t h e f u t u r e of this c o u n t r y a n d average k n o w s so little of our past a n d m u c h less of onr their rationale,

earth-qaakes societies may


similarly AVhoK; countries is, the be ancient


becoming whith led

COBBoious o f t h e d i f f e r e n c e o f h i s o w n i n s t i t u t i o n s manners of the W e s t f r o m the East, and meetin? relaotance and sometimes with opposition o f the oriental to swallow his g i l d e d pill into this belief. This view only assists

sults will b e a w f u l a n d terrific in m a n y societies by doomed In for earth-quakes. India of how

on the part is easily the as hardy much this The every

oriental has changed often enough. past. has A n d in this vast sea not he encountered has almost and time,

H i s is a n what

storms many the all

o r i e n t a l a n d s e r v e s t o k e e p h i m i n t h e e r r o r he h a d all along been brought u p in. The o r i e n t a l is i n a hallucination a b o u t this as the E u r o p e a n ; a n d


under-ground sand thes^ wonder

r o c k s ho has not tilted banks


>nd h o w And in

g r o u n d e d in.

i a d o e i n a g r e n t m e a s u r e t o t h e w a n t o f t h e h i s t o r i c Fa-

is that h e h a s c o m e c u t so w h o l e changes. L i k e his soil, sent but the

spite of deep


80 o r t e n p o i n t e d o u t b y E u r o p e a n S c h o l a r s . hns the inveterate habit of referring

T h e r e is h o w e v e r o n e p e c u l i a r i t y in his c a s e . h e is n o t p r e p a r e d f o r ploughing.

oriental flaid;

t h i n g t o w h a t his a n c e s t o r s d i d a n d w h a t his a n c e s t o r s a n d if w e , h o w e v e r , h a u l h i m u p a n d test his lore history, he cannot carry himself evidence introduced ancesknowledge, o n e o r t w o g e n e r a t i o n s a n d his w h o l e Let the newest practice be a s r e g a r d s his past

N o d o u b t t h e soil c a n b e p l o u g h e d d e e p e r t h a n at p r e t h e f o r e i g n p l o u g h is n o t t h e b e s t o f t h e m a I f u s e d , it is a p t t o sands turn up the to and land than v' es chines f o r d o i n g this.


surface more of laterite and up him

breaks d o w n as the barest hearsay and he breaks d o w n miserably. into a person's & m i l y b y the most immediate

m a d e unfit in c o n s e q u e n c e f o r y e a r s t o c o m e . civilization w a k e s in him as a w h o l e ) and to wean more from work, of his these attained


vices new the

his v i r t u e s ( s p e a k i n g g e n e r a l l y of c o u r s e a n d its effect will take another age. As i t i s , t h e I n d i a n affricDicnbest existas-

tor, a n d o n l y let it b % s t a r t e d w i t h o u t his he. will speak of it as the oldest custom

prevailing in

Ilia f a m i l y f o r h u n d r e d s o f y e a r s . T h o u g h h e w i l l o f t e n

rist has, b y slow and s t e a d y ing means to the best


to the days of R a m a and Yudhistra, we don't beeither authorities. found

results and enduring ones too, b y adapting the o f his nbility. e x h a u s t t h e soil t o o m u c h - b y tbnndin<7 results. his haste And to as

l i e v e h e h a s r e a d half of a p a g e of anoient Yedas, and whether

H e does not show

T h e m o a t i n c o n s i s t e n t p r a c t i c e s ai-e a s c r i b e d t o t h e m o s t they are actually

T h e r e was not so m u c h of w o r r y nnd a matter as are high incivilization

there, i s a d i f f e r e n t q u e s t i o n . T h e v e r i e s t m o d e r n d a y dreamer t r a c e s his d o c t r i n e s t o t h e r e m o t e V a s h i s t a ; the latest s t o r y t e l l e r q u o t e s V y a s a a n d S u t a a s h i s aotborky; and the v e r i e s t p l a g i a r i s t o f t h e G u j i l i b o o k


selfishness in his o l d m o d e of life. o f f a c t , be>has s l o w l y b u i l t u p a

as his m o u n t i a n p e a k , t h o u g h n o d o u b t there accessible and unattainable heights and

must slippery

T i n ; LKiJIT OF I'ljUTH o:; b l D U H A N T A



tlioi-i iii

T h e niucli ilcsi)i-.ed K a l i a g e lias

ing and repugnant


Inm a n d that


burst out


s o o n m n c l i - r e a t i M ' r o f o n i i s i n vi'lij^ioii a n d m u r a l s a n d nuK-li i;-rraU'r a d v a i i c o i n o i i t in P l i i l n - u p l i y a m i S c i e n u c . T o (.>iilv ii; o n e in- t w o fw.p abli' Dr. W instanci--^. A s t.o tlie e v i l be now no of .llVvls ,,f m r a t a m i i l r i n k , l l u ' i v R. Covnisli. late i.iii;lit t o

you, men

9.6ir2iRir HaiSl^si''
thereby foieign)





meaning (Indian and

d o n e it o f h i s o w n f r e e w i l l . U n t h i n k i n g a n d i g n o r a n t frequently flaunt ngaiu-st even has the that H i n d u i s m , e x c e s s e s in t h e s e r e p e a t s in certain f o r u i i o f ISaktaism a n d V' i n b y e g o n e d a y s a n d now in s o m e forsaken aud uiiseen corner. It and only to be remembered that mature

a m o n g Uindn,-;, at a n y r a t e . T l i e I l o n o i u " .Sni'geon-Genci'aJ alumni of the (junlities of charaetori" pointed pracsanction modern tliat a l while u life

.NEadras in liis addi'e:<s Lo t h e a s s e m b l e d ed them to a d h e r e to the two

M a d r a s U i i i v e i s i t y at t h e C o n v o e a t i o n o f 1 S 3 4 , e x h o r t excellent \ hieh \ of the ' jjlain l i v i n g ' a n d ' high thiukiiig'

o p i n i o n of both

these sects are dead


the.'e practices

g e n e r a l s e n s e o f t h e p e o p l e i t s e l f , w h i c h l i k e a n y thinge l s e h a s g r o w n , is a g a i n s t t h e m , a n d i t i s t h e r e b y these Then Vishnu author few i t is out-castes w h o seen that i n the Vedic days, i n d u l g e i n i t , d o it u n s e e n . the people and the the Aud that

s e d t h e l n d i lu p h i l o s o p h e r s o f o l d e n da3 S a n d o u t t h a t " in a d h e i i i i g t o t h e .simplicity ticed by y o n r I'orefatliers, y o u will h a v e a n d a p p r o v a l of s o m e of the most scientists who have liealtli, life, or conio to and the coholic drinks and strong mental meats

cniinent of conclusion, are not

p r a y e d t o A g u i a n d V a r u n a a n d V a y u aTid I n d r a (Sun) aud of a M a r u t s a n d all the g o d s . Manual np complains given of the their Vedic fire District

essential to vigor,


country people have


t h e a b u s e of st:rong d r i n k s , at a n y rate, c u r s c to the n o r t h e r n p e o p l e s " .

has p r o v e d

a u d w e k n o w a learned b r a h m i n f r i e n d ol ours used to observ that the worship ' Vaidika' \va,ii'Avaidika' brahmin a n d its u p k e e p . in Siva present the Sun, to the and the (Rudra) does practice and But and it n o t of Vayu household and the if the was the strictly in the to see temples in e v e r y fire these worship of

A n d it w a s o n l y y e s t e r -

day a -writer in the NviiJi

selled king to his countrymen m e a t a n d driidv.



counin ta-


that he desired kindling instead

A n d y e t , is it

a f a c t tliat people of meat these. does cona

t h e saci-ed

in t h e f a r f a m e d D w - a p a r a a g e a n d V e d i c a g e , of the liigliest caste were i m m o d e r a t e l y f o n d N o Bralnnin writer of to-day a n d t n a d h u , a n d p r a y e d to t h e Ciods f o r p l e n t y o f

of worshipping one

e l e m e n t s t h e m s e l v e s as g o d s , the m o d e r u H i n d u sects, Vishnu, the show and see the an Trut; G o d present iu in t h o u g h t . Agni, mo by art give who i n t h e fire a n d prayer one True God adviince Indra,

-will l a y d o w n r u l e s f o r A n d ic m u s t sacrifices be

the e a t i n g of p a r t i c u l a r k i n d o f m e a t a n d fish as the g r e a t M a n u in h i s S m i r i t i . fessed remnant of savagei-y. that the institution of animal

The old f o r m valiant

' I pray

to the visible



A s tiie s e n t i m e n t of t h e p e o p l e up these re-

health, wealth,children and cattle,' new form, ' 0 Siva, w h o and in present in Akas, being Agni

is s u b s t i t u t e d

b e c a m e r e f i n e d in c o u r s e o f l o n g a g e s , t h e m o r e intell i g e n t a n d educa-ted classes s l o w l y g a v e of A v a i d i k a ' practices, innocent and cnlled gnasalas, only modern and drink that substituted prehensible practices, a n d not to Le p r o n o u u c e d g u i l t y others old altogether The YaAud meat absupanlyenof the The as a sacriold of is a n them after the the a names. name.

art all L o v e , and

air and water and each


present these." most


g i v e s t e a c h its p e c u l i a r b e a u t y a n d p o w e r , a n d y e t a r t not a n y of is T h e c h a n g e in these respects, the vividly out in in the Kena had do to ye to Upanishad, wondrous point out triumph." Brahman. know this s t r u g g l e in the old belief a n d the subsequent conquest recorded the earliest of the U p a n i s h a d s . fair, U m a tricked gold "Brahman! If the very In Brahman's Devas could That Lady

m o d e r n T e m p l e s w h i c h took the place of the retain even ' Balipita' in \^aishnava The we rare might Sai\ a i s m i s s o r i g i d i n t h e e x c l u s i o n who

s t a i n e r s a y s h e is a ' S a i v a ' . porters. gir In this connection, mentioned to us

performances give an

conquest only

of Y a g u a t o - d a y find very f e w syinpathi/i;rs a n d ecdote of the Great A p p a y a Dikshita, w h i c h an pandit when we spoke in this great Yagna i m p r o v e m e n t in the Great Dikshit ficed. Kali age a respect. and be

.Then only did the D e v a s k n o w

t h a t it w a s come




was it




to those

who np

then how






as a l l

powerful. setting


D o e s it n o t s h o w an a d v a n c e if, instead of a p o t o f fire i n e a c h set u p house and worship

matter of course, a n u m b e r of cattle had to H e s a w t h e s i g h t a n d i t Avas m o s t

it as fire, w e in a Temple,


symbol (of the f o r m of





a n d w o r s h i p it as tlie G o d p r e s e n t s e a i c h ; if i n s t e a d of a n d t a n k as a, G o d , worshipping

in ti in

fire, sen

a n d \vlaicli and a river make

Kvt-ry t h i n g o l d c a n n o t b e g o o f l ami everything new cannot be bad)." T h e instaiico we w o u l d sslect from the field of Sociology marriage. We refer to the question and the But that of Independent scholars pandits custom In Hindu rewith was lower Kali

t h e g r e a t e s t D e v a s c o u l d not d i s c o v e r a f t e r v e r y g r e a t we introduce a symbol and

it s u r r o u n d e d o n all sides b y w a t e r

almost a miraThe old later Tantric on Mantras forms Vedas the old only


c u l o u s w a y a n d w e w o r s h i p this s y m b o l as t h a t o f th^ o n e T r u e G u d , w h o is p r e s e n t in w a t e r . the old V e d i c Worship and are and and all based at and what h3 though from point the the of or A g a m i c form of worship was u distinct advance w e r e continaed to b e recited, yet the ideas and derived precise as D p a n i s h a d s a n d it w i l l b e i n t e r e s t i n g note forms

s o m e h o n e s t y wiil f i e e l y a d m i t classes of society they age. mature to life age) ful to to do (one and the so. Who

n o t o n e u n k n o w n in I n d i a in r e m o t e t i m e s . still p r e v a i l .

the pandits

s a y thnt s u c h r e m a r r i a g e is p r o h i b i t e d in t h e b a d p r o h i b i t e d it, w e a s k ? slowly this checks in Kali to age that the thought minds of

I s it n o t t h e f a c t (Be it said than in to k e e p the rather wedded Kali faithafford love The and even only

to e n q u i r e substitutedThose at advance modern by

and steadily d a w n e d on the is Ijetter population


rituals w e r e given up and the n e w This, no scholar, in thought in

its c r e d i t )

that singleness the

yet attempted. symbolism in no cavil

w h o d o not understand this slow g r o w t h and Indian "We Image worship. will wise b e by

that a w i d o w w o u l d d o well It marks also good the highest their unto them if

m e m o r y o f h e r first l o r d , i f s h e c a n sentiment in remain built for true unto deaththe unmarried they abide It was let them


r e v e r t i n g t o t h e o l d p r a c t i c e in t h e d a y s of R i g V e d a . I m p r o v e t h e m o d e r n w o r s h i p if possible it of t h e it with, dross which b u t it w i l l b e Saivism one absurd to talk of cleansing coated back. come best to age and ignotance have going

that the lovers should Europeans widows. as I . have is words : " I say It But if

faith on St. Paul's

therefore cannot

T h e modeiii day living Religions Systems (we can only mention two, clearly under and stories Theology take up and Vaishnavism, others other) contain and the or, the




f o r i t is b e t t e r t o n i a r r y t h a n

to burn."

the other day, the Indian Sorial Reformer,

If such is the sentiment in modem


Philosophy, theoretical bigoted

practical. which

H e r Most Gracious Majesty for her noble widowhood. Europe, w e w o n d e r that in I n d i a , where the p e o p l e attained some evil higher miscaution sense PrinciI t is is or M the

If a f e w missionaries and

sectarians stooj) box,

from a forgotten rubbish

tend to lower the divinity of the one or the other, wise m e n w i l l r e m e m b e r t h a t t h e s e s t o r i e s o n l y d w e l l iii t h e filthy devout Saiva and him imagination minds rejects of the of the these people of the So the and not in the The as respective late worshippers. Vaishnavas

an early civiiizat'on,these thoughts became crystallized a n d h a n d e d d o w n as c u s t o m ( u n f o r t u n a t e l y castes b e g a n of St. Paul to prohibit it that it is altogether; and wise in one practices h a v e had this t e n d e n c y too) and the take was made, in not remembering the better

stories and

altogether the as


malicious both

productions against wish to be

t o m a r r y t h a n to b u r n .

Vaishnava rejects being ' Tamasa.' forgotten have

authorities parties

B e s i d e s t h i s r i g o r o u s c u s t o m is o p p o s e d ples, as deduced from the doctrine of

t o t h e g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d f r e e d o m in H i n d u freely held that n o o n e man's or w o m a n ' s equal to that of a n o t h e r a n d that as s u c h




that, may modern

Karma. no

capacity man that

r e p u g n a n t to their H i g h Ideal and the prefers the address ' uBLD^iDiTertn One more instance of such ideas, which the Tamils as: familiar sentences change


' etan j n - a r Q u ' a n d t h e V a i s h n a v a ,

w o m a n can b e f o r c e d to u n d e r t a k e the duties a n d responsibilities b e y o n d his o r h e r s t r e n g t h , a n d s u c h , if he blamed. template, or she fails to undertake such duty, as the h i g h e s t , harmful. case of a of And widows, to she even


growth in





t h o a g h it b e r e g a r d e d if t h e y are positively as in the

cannot be oonsome

A c t i o n s or omissions can only be prohibited when we that in

" uaBjfiiuesr sj^^^'o i^^iuesr l/Q^S'I'^ aiQ^Bieo rt/rev- oiaosuSi^Qar."

( " T h e old changeth and the new entereth ; T h i s is no w r o n g . " OfiirdieBJitJ I t is the e f f e c t of t i m e ) . "

instances, the forcing


to bear a cause

burden enduring

which she cannot afford a contingency

is l i k e l y

injury to her and to society, w e d o not think that such a.>ffOu>0> Ou>C9a;a/u

Q^asirjSiu ^Oeogt

Qmaa^ufi ^^"rttir."

w a s e v e r a c t u a l l y f o r e s e e n by tile L a w





wliicli tliiiiu to

I'liiniclntcs likfly o

' Aliiiiisii P i i r n m o canso jiaiii is ) ;niil P i m y . i i i i is.

Dlinnno.' ;is \\ (> ;iii_\ rliin<;-

AnyPuiiam liki.'lv kiunv is tlmiiu'li









HISTORY.' century it w o u l d


]ilc;isnn^ tliiit llir in iiiiiiiy l)v onfiircod tiMioiir :uul feared, by the

Q-iil^j v). ca^rs wiid giont, widmvliood, <1 > lioing tlu-ir

Ai;oi I t h e




positively cau!<oil it lie evoii, only l)y


s e e m , a r o s e a. T a m i l p o e t w h o s e i n f l u e n c e S o u t h 1 ndi;t h a s increasing. He been very great,

throughout probably

tcnqiorcd This i;liiince which

a n d is

u i i c M itino

n'oiicM'allv lives.

cimtfntcil. locliiit;- o f it of is lias being people tlinrst no our vice for there are in anil

came f r o m the village of

Kundiattur of

pious to bo tlie

T- h i U - t u i r n ' j ^ a n d thi- (Ti-ncioii.t JI'tDv?.'

w a s c a l l e d A r u l - m o r i - d i i v a r , 'He H i s b r o t h e r Avas

oonti-utnuM\t imd(n'niined and by on thoni.

iitteily every

resigned, a few

c a l l e d Piil-arrii-

stands of

viiyar, 'He fruiii iihof^e iiioitf/i milk evvrflows'

may have been epithets afterwards given that n a m e o f SiMdcirar tribe which was originally

but of the the was of

liysterieal edncarion lleyiicdds

crie:> o f

cliai:;cter ^Io(1i'rn




(a sub-division of the Yellalar, or Y e o m e n ) , preeminently the of that an day epithet

eont'^iil a n d if w e d n l y e o n t e i n p l a t e t h e c h a n c e s o f yonni,'- g i r l s n o v e l s , the eh reading

rl.ll COS

given-to the poet as,being his race. Anapiiyar The i^/Zie Sora king


and other one There is

penny is

was of

called Sivs^),


are awful.


e v e n n o w in c o n s e i j u e n c e o f t l i i s e n t o r c e i . b u t b y n o w evil intiiiences there g r e a t e r v i c e t o p r e v a i l in t i n ; f u t u r e flyini,' f r o m t h e i r the o]ien market,; duces homes bnt and offering

widowhood room

whose d a t e i s b e t w e e n A.D. 1 0 6 3 a n d 1 1 1 2 , a n d i s s a i d to have been literature, greatly addicted to the study- of of their of great which reasons epi is Jain the given against that The been great-



especuilly an

a n - g i l ls w h o b r o o k n o t t h e i r p a r e n t a l c o ) i t r o l a n d themselves selfisli ma.n is e.vtremely her he

Jivaga-Cliintiiniani, elsewhere.


There were

many good

this h e r e t i c a l 5 t n d y , b u t tlie c h i e f o n e u r g e d w a s its t e a c h i n g s w e i e opposed to the and Saiva faithpiety had

tliouijli o y his p r c a c - h i n g Sic., ( ] ) u r e l y d i d a c t i c ) nu i n n o c e n t girl to l e a v e m o d e of life, yet fornier, not even luippj' wonld

he inhimself ex-


Sekkiriir, w h o for his


m a d e prime minister of the k i n g d o m , a position ly a f f e c t e d in o l d t i m e s his master for these where by Saiva devotees, studies. of

n n d e r jjo a like sacrifice. a supply before we male-kind. It

A s it i s , c a u t i o n l i a s t o b e

reproved The king Saiva

ercised, even on prudential considerations, i a create a demand. c a t e himself m u c h far than he has to educate

creating his fewe

heretical are

M a n has to edu-

answered Saints ? and

' But

the lives


G i v e them to me, that I ' m a y obtain pleasure from their perusal.' Tu this the up,

is a p e r f e c t l y f r i v o l o u s e x c u s e t h a t


h a v e often heard, that b u t f o r his females at h o m e , h e w o u l d h a v e e l l c c t e d this a n d that r e f o r m ; a n d all the w h i l e t h e s p e a k e r is a peison whose other vices his proand w i f e o r m o t h e r h a d n o t s o u g h t t o e r a d i c a t e hitn f t o m . F r o m the f o r e g o i n g discussion w e wish to minent attention to the fact that c h a n g e are not o p p o s e d to the g e n i u s of H i n d u draw and Dharma freedom

minister replied, that Sundara Mnrthi had summed in eleven p o e m s , * the history of the Saiva

devotees, work king, too the great make

and that Nainbi-andar-Nambi had amplified this in verse. who read brief. He These works were brought to the

them with therefore


b u t f o u n d t h e m all his minister, be n


Sekkirar, to compose a p o e m that epic like the Jivaga Chintamani

should and

religion ; a n d that on the other hand, c h a n g e has b e e n its s p e c i a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a n d t h a t it h a s all a l o n g b e e n improving ments. * and Adapting itself to its new environ-


these histories p o p u l a r t h r o u g h all t h e T a m i l lands

speaking pro-

Sekkiriir undertook the task, and at o n c e

ceeded to Chithambaram, the Siva metropolis, a f t e r b a t h i n g in the s a c r e d tank, and


p e r f o r m i n g all the God, who

* It Bhoukl be apparent to every one, how, hut for our est.xblished courts of Law, Hindu law in the hands of the people v. onid have undeiftonc many ehanKes ; and to how many shifts and contrivances people have recourse to, to keep themselve.'i clear of tlic pre8nmp;i(,..3 cf c-jr la-.v ccv.rts. Even the Lejjislatnrc is too slow (perhaps justly) to m o v e with the times, and we know what ditfienlty tlio Hon'ble Mr. Sankaran Nairhnrtin carrying a niero permifsivc piece of legislation throuffti the Council; und tlie JT n'ble Mr. Baehyani Ayyangar's tiny bill is still hanging fiie.

holy rites, h e p r e s e n t e d himself b e f o r e there ever performs the his five divine

mystic dance that There

symbolises he



m a d e his p r a y e r f o r inspiration t o p e r f o r m the ed task. In response a voice line was heard



shrine w h i c h uttered the

' He who is hard to be underBtood and exprees^'d in wotda.' This is a famous poem composed by the Saint. Se bis life.




THFT<e words both the poet and the thr. e


A b o u t this period,


Ncstorian India ,weie

Christians on


devotees of the temple heard, nd understood that the 6t>d BADctioned the undertaking, and cutnnianded that the poem should commence with this line. T h e bard now set himself to collect from every quarter, Rrrnniri*, and versify the lejfeiids. while the impatient k i n g continually <ent messengers to enquire as to the progress of the work and to urge it on. At length the poem was completed, a u d t h e k i n g himself, learning that the great poem, whose initial line the g o d himself had vonch-safed to dictate, was completed, came to the sacred place, and bowed in revereucf before his poet-laureate and minister. A n d now epistles were despatched to all parts of the Tamil country, to tbe devotees of the God of every order, who came thronging in until the city was crowded with sages and ascetics. In the Golden H a l l t h e Poiinamhalama seat was placed f o r the bard, and with royal p o m p the finished poeiii was placed upon a pedestal, while flowers were spattered around and incense offered. So the first reading began on the Ctli of the month Sittirai (April'; and continued day by day till the same time of the following year, while ia the interval, all the iiuditors from every region were daily feasted by the bounty of the king. A f t e r the reading was completed, the book was wrapped up in a silken covering fringed with gold, then deposited in a golden casket, and with the bard placed in the kotoddh of a royal elephant, where the k i n g stationed himself with a fan to cool the distinguished c o m p i l e r ; and thus in royal p o m p they returned to the royal ibode. T h e king then ussigned to the poet the Tondai land* as a kingdom, which, with his brother, he g o v e r n e d for sometime, und then returning to the presence of the God, in due time obtained his fina] release. T h e collection of legends which this poet has thus versified consists of seventy-two cantos, in which the lives of sixty-three devotees of Siva are given, with every apeoies of embellishment. It would seem that the Saiva gurus had come to tbe conclusion that they cotild not retain their hold upon the people without ifometfaing that should be equivalent to the Jatdkas carrent among both Buddhists and Jains, and probaWy beginning then to b e used b y the Vaishnavites d m . It is curious that the same species of legendary kifltory was commencing at that very time to play a teiry great part in the religion of the Western peoples.
* T b e Tonds-mandalam w u a ubotdinato kiu(((]uiii, Bubject to IkiSoraa.

W e s t e r n Coast of South though great nini it would

in full f o r c e , a n d and mingling a

s e e m vi-ry c o r r u p t ,

d e a l o f Hindui.>ni, B u d d h i s m , a n d with and their Christianity, .still

Mnhammadaand with



v a u n t e d thi'ir o w n l e g e n d s t o g e t h e r history.

a n d a b o v e the sacred authentic Christian Our seem poet and the to liavn formed of devotees at an

Chithambi-am, Committee, Every to

who had






throughout the

Tamil lands was made

g i v e u p its

t r a d i t i o n s , a n d a d d i t i o n a l m a t t e r s o u g h t f o r in all direc tions. T h e result is a v e r y r e m a r k a b l e a n d com-

Hagiograpliy. translated a lew of these almost in their

I Jiave

e n t i r e n e s s , : i n d g i v e n ( i n t h e p a g e s o f tlii.s a very b r i e f abstract of s o m e otln-rs, b e i n g to o m i t all r e f e r e n c e t o

Magazine) compelled whose

a considerable number

c h a r a c t e r is a b s o l u t e l y u u o d i t y i i i g . give extracts from writings which

I t is h a r d l y f a i r t o are b e a u t i f u l in

the main, without noticing the fact that many of them are e x c e e d i n g l y silly, a n d n a n t t o all g o o d feeliuf.'. some of them There is a IDOSL goi)d is, repugdeal of

I n d i a n w i s d o m in t h e s e p o e m s gled very Yet with things that are


alas !


affecting and evil.* read


much folly, ineptitude, and every Tamil student




m a r v e l l o u s PKNIVA PCRANAM.





'Tlic boy, from guilt and evil frre, cot off tho feet of liini Who raelily overthrew the work in SIVO'B honour done; In caate n Brahman he, his father too ? Throu^li laon'a gruco. While gods adored, hig crime wag utterly consiiuied.

In a town in the Sora country, called iSeyna/ur a Brahman boy WHS born, whose name was Visara-sarumar, who, from his earliest days, instinctively understood the whole Saiva creed ; so that when the sages came to instruct him he met them with the recitation of the essential doctrines of the system, which he had grasped by a livine intuition. It may be permitted to repeat the articles of his creed, as these are summed up in the legend : All souls are from everlasting fast
* We question these renmrkSi but we retain tlie same in ovr pages, if only to sliow what peoaliar prejudices are retained even by the most informed and open-minded of the Cliristinn Missionni-ies.ED. t This verv ancient nnd popular legand is rpferi-ed to in the Thn nvv^aknnl, X V . ; ijo- 2S.



into the shady groves, and guards them well, firewood necessary' f o r dis home. the cows innnd of that meanhousecow

b o u n d in t h e c h a i n s o f i m p a r i t y .

T o d e s t r o y tliat i m felicity and He des-

purity, a n d to g i v e to these souls infinite eternal release, He who is

while gathering the

e t e r n a l is r e v e ; i l e d .

hold TKuship; and then at eventide, leaving each a t its o w n e r ' s d o o r , h e g o e s to his

p e r f o r m s t h e five A c t s o f C r e a t i o n , p r e s e r v a t i o n , truction, " envelopment," and gracious

deliverance. eight form^

W h i l e t h i n g s w e n t o n in t h i s m a n n e r c r e a s e d d a i l y in b e a u t y , w a x e d f a t , w e r e b y da_y a n d n i g h t p o u r e d f o r t h milk for their owners. The

H e is t h e o n e L o r d ( P a t h i ) ,

W h o possesses the purity of

joyous, .=treanis fo'ind

attributes of iibsolute.independence, spontanouus understanding,

aband;int Bralvmans


knowledge, endless

n a t u r a l f r e e d o m f r o m all b o n d s , infinite g r a c e ,

they had more and were varying glad.

milk than formerly for their offerings, The cows, tended and with such unand tied joy him and

m i g h t , b o u n d l e s s b l e s s e d n e s s ; a n d w h o s e n a m e is S i v a , the Great Lord. He performs his gi-acious acts by





p u t t i n g f o r t h t h e e n e r g y {Satf.iJ,

W h o , a s a p e r s o n , is Mother of

though separated f r o m their calves that remained up in the houses, grieved not a whit, but with

o n e w i t h H i m , a n d is t h e r e f o r e t h e d i v i n e all, as H e is t h e d i v i n e F a t h e r loved and worshipped.

and must, witli H i m , b e do as the is to-

awaited the c o m i n g of their

herdsman, following

N o r can w e say " w e will we are born here and

g l a d l y , c r o w d i n g rfi-nund h i m l i k e t e n d e r m o t h e r s , l o w i n g j o y f u l l y at the s o u n d of his v o i c e The

this in s o m e f u t u r e b i r t h , " f o r


h u m a n b e i n g s f o r this a n d no other p u r p o s e ;

B r a h m a n , seeing the exuberance of their milk, reflecte d that this w a s a fitting unction for the head to a of tlip it,

h u m a n f o r m in t h e i n f i n i t e s e r i e s o f t r a n s m i g r a t i o n s hard to attain morrow not the our unto. Nor of should we defer till

G o d ; a n d conceiving a great desire so constructed a lingam of earth on



oui selves, since we Therefore must we grace, studying the

know avail sacred comway



day of

our death.

beneath the sacred Atti tree on the bAnk of the river, a n d b u i l t a r o u n d i t a m i n i a t u r e tera|>le w i t h t o w e r a n d walls. He then plucked suitable flowers, and new little with

ourselves of Siva's gift of Agamas and

other works, without doubting, or T h i s is t h e

mingling of perverse interpretation. o f life !' school river

them adorning the image, procured some of clay, and took from each of the cows a

vessels milk, for the the of

O n e day, t o g e t h e r with his went out to the bank of the

companions, where the of the


with which he performed the the divine emblem (the


pi e s c r i b e d nnd Sivau

village herdsand


c o w s w e r e g r n z i n g in c h a r g e o f a man caste. This rustic,



looked d o w n and received 'with pleasure guileless he worship. supplied b y this was All the done essentiils force daily, no

having no sense of right

boy-sliepherd's the sacred

w r o n g , beat one of the cows with a stick ; but s a r u m a r w a s v e h e m e n t l y stirred by this rushing up to from striking him the in great wrath,

Visaraand him not,'


o f liia the whit




restrained 'Know you

supply of miik in the diminished. F o r a l o n g t i m e this

Brahmans' dairy- was

sacred animal.

said he, 'chat c o w s h a v e c o m e d o w n f r o m the w o r l d of Siva to this earth ? sages five and the In their m e m b e r s the gods, the The sacred adorntheir a decontinued, until some tnalicithe


purifying stream dwell. are the

o u s p e r s o n s a w w h a t w a s g o i n g o n a n d t o l d it t o Brahmans in the villajre, w h o c o n v e n e d an

products of these sacred creatures

assembly him of the he

unguents of Siva. A n d the ashes w h i c h are the m e n i o f tiie G o d a n d his d e v o t e e s is m a d e refuse.' from

b e f o r e which they s u m m o n e d his father, and told that his son Visara-sarumar the Brahmans' sacred cows earth in sport. heard the The father was by wasting

the milk

D w e l l i n g u p o n this idea he c o n c e i v e d to the task of

pouring h idly on greatly when

sire to d e v o t e himself entirely a n d cariri!? f o r t h e t r o o p o f ingly sent a w a y the rustic, ed. man And n o w o u r h e r o is He

herding accorddepartBrahall


sacred c o w s ; and w h o reverentially the self-dedicated

accusation, but

protested his entire asking


ance of the waste and desecration, a n d e n g a g e d to p u t a stop to his son's Accordingly the next day and he hid


eccentric forth

practices. to watch thicket son


ea.sily o b t a i n s p e r m i s s i o n o f


the B r a h m a n s of the town to take c h a r g e of their k i n e ; a n d daily along the bank of the beautiful river M a n n i h e leads forth his green When troop into the grassy glades and

thti b o y ' s p r o c e e d i n f f s , on the bank of the


in a

river. the

H e soon saw river, and

his little then

c e r e m o n i o u s l y b a t h e in to and his miniature

proceed flowers for the

pastures allowing them the fierce

with refreshing

water. leads




heut of the sun oppresses, he




in o r d e r




m i n n t i u of Siva worship, and then poaring a strram aBDointiog milk over the earthen lingam. Thns conyipped of the truth of the accusation he was greatly incensed> and rushing forth from his concealment Inflicted severe blows upon the boy, and used many reproachful words. But the youpg devotee's mind was so absorbed in tlie worship, so full of the rapture of ihfstic devotion, that he neither perceived his father's presence, nor heard his words, nof felt his Uows. Still more incensed by the boy's insensibility, the infatuated father raised his foot, broke the vesaels M consecrated milk, and destroyed the whole appa^ ratus of worship. This was too much f o r the young enthasiast to b e a r ; the god of his .adoration was i]isnlt4< ftud the sacred worship defiled. He regarded not the fact that it was his father, a Brahman and a guru that was the offender; but only saw the heinous sin and insult to Siva. So with the staff in his hands he aimed a blow at the offender's feet, as if to cut t h e m . o f f ; a n d , behold, the shepherd's staff became in hi^ hands the Sarred .4x" of Siva, and the father fell maimed and dying to the ground. The boy then went on with his worship as if nothing hud teoarred, but the Lord Siva with Umii the goddess riding on the sacred White Ball immediately appeared hovering in the air. The young devotee prostrated bimaelf before the holy vision in an ecstacy of j o y ; when the Supreme One took him up in his dirine arm', saying, 'For my sake thon hast smitten down the father that begat theo. Henceforth I alone am thy father, and embracing him stroked his body with his acrd hand, and kissed him on the brow. The form bf the child thus touched by the divine hand shone forth with ineffable lustre, and the God further addressed him thus : ' "niou shalt become the chief among my servants, and to thee shall be given all the offerings of food and flowers that my w6rshipperg present His name then hecamp Sand^uvarar ( ' t h e impetooua Lord') The God finally took the mystic Casn'a wreatJi from his own he id. and with it crowned the yonthfnl saint. And so he :i8cended to heaven with Siva, and was oxalted to t^iat divine rank. The father, too, wno had >eeD guilty of nch impiety to the God, and had been punished by tlie hand of bis oWn son, was forgiven and restore<l. and witli the whole family passed into Siva's abode of blif:
G . U . PltPE, M. .1., I..




A CAMEO is a gem, a precioos stone or shell cnt and carved in relief with a picture. This word exactly hits off the uatnre of the lyrical and dramatio pieces we have selected for translation and publication in the pages of this Magazine under this heading. These pieces will be mostly from the collection of poems called o t i a ^ O ^ i f t n s and from of Manickavachaka. The works comprised in s i l f l ^ O^rma are enumerated in the following stanza. " itpjBim ufifijtuu^ Q0rw^ OuiD tiSGujir mtji^jfje ufiutf-ii t-^inpOtAm

1. t f l ^ i m Nar'r'iuai, an anthology of four-hundred verses, by Pan'n'Adutanda Pnn'diyan' M i r a n ' Val'udi. 2. Kurundogai, an anthoiogy of fourhundred verses, by two-hundred and five authors compiled b y Pfirikko. 3. 4thors. o. Aingurnnurn, by different authors. Padir'r'upattu, by different auufiuiri^ij Paripadal, by different author*. Nallan-

6. stS^O^0fBim Kalitto^ni, compiled by duvanar.

7. J i m t i ^ j n AgauMnuru, an anthology of fonrhnndred verses, compiled by Umthira Saoman, during the reign of Uggiraperaval'udi relating to Agaporul.
8. porul. Kach metre i^ of these v e r ^ n u, g e m , a o r Ode!< in e v e r y varifty of every full of tolfnied This uieu lieais r j ^ p I'nraiinDUi-u, nu a n t h o l o g y of fourh u n d r e d vei-sef, b y d i f f e r e n t a u t h o r s r e l a t i n g to



picture, describing vivid and by we have

v a r i e t y o f s c e n e s , hcjnie o r o i i t - d o o r , l i f e a n d m o r a l jutli. f o r its e x c e l l e n c e the name of Th(> p i w e fitly d a y is f r o m KMlittoiriii, pruised and W

tp^^S- i n .Mr C

lum-u^it. the


l e a r n t i l h^iLoi

o f tbi.i j i r i c e l e - * wiji k ,

UuinodHram Pillai,

TIh' WR^ .r fi.^. .'I.HI lit.iii ^-LITIUR til I (t^ T^itii! ^in.r'r-. ) U intlll|ll\ In*. It MtMliltHhil* >V JUlt lilK Ifn-.!! I-III Hliil J- rM^M-niiirv-lull .. tf < n ).t ii < l* ^ h ..i k )in>Hffla III Hill. I lir i.-ii, ..I- T,,^
LONX .LLFII R. . ,J.,.|

I.f tk-A









-'The drivel let fall, from the month, bright like a sonnds;

c o u t r o v e r t s t h e v i e w t h a t this points out that each name quotes of the nnthor Tee in

is o n l y a c o l l e c t i o n


different Buthore like A g a n a n n r u a n d P u r a n a u u r u , a u d in Kali, d o e s not bear t h e manuscripts, what of the great as is the he is m o r e , the

spotless coial,

as it

babbled below.


wetting the jewels

T h e tiny guldeu crescent strung with pearls, from side to side, from the lovely, a n d

dropping fragrant

case with the other collections and the direct authority kiniar himself.


forehead, The transparent garment which loveliness of the body, foot. flowing breasts, little could not conceal and the

In pafje 449, the commentator direct-

ly refers to Nallauduvanar as the author,



L/Mtu Smdl Qfiujiiii.

M r . D a m o d a r a m Pillai m a k e s t h e to 3,000 years old. m a y b e as s u c h o r after Christ. same p e r i o d as m a n y of the ascribed to


the ever-linkliug

H e leaves off f e e d i n g f r o m h e r m o t h e r ' s and goes after the it, of toy-cart

revolving on

wheels 2,500 the and iu and He,

and drags,

work from

my life, verily the i m a g e begotten by the Banyan the Supreme tree."

the mighty

Muruga iinder

'J'he w o r k m a y b e a s c r i b e d t o pieces of Pattupattu the first c e n t u r y




T h e v e r s e is i a K a l i p a m e t r e , a n d Mai uthaui, Mullai, K u r u n j i is a anil woik piece

[The mother now addresses the child O l; U), aff ( 5 < O ^ s an ^ 5 Qij0,iQ^Q^e8/D Osirehru-irt^. i^iriuii-f

itself. ijiiSijbp^

e v e r y s p e c i e s o f it. t h e five s p e c i e s P a l a i , Neithal Thinai.

T h e s u b j e c t is ' A g a m ' a n d i n a l l

su IT* O 61/ti) in iX) ity ( y sir sir/7 (t; lutriiQai^u iDuSeitpp(^p

T h e piece w e h a v e selected to-day is characteristic complete dramatis dramatic particular, they dramatic the strict iu of

^ ( ( j ' B ^ L / Saii>p Q^irp^m Qm^^p aiByj^ (SuQ^iB^airiij oh-jpiSlisv ;

" O my little, good natured,

f r o m Marutham ; aud w e d d e d life ill itseli: are highly dramatic of of this

of it. A l l t h e p i e c e s , t h o u g h e a c h s e p a . a t e a n d personae torni. makes s p e a k iu t h e first existence a ujuttcr om^ person in extreme






f o r g e t me, e n g a g e d incessantly as I a m in ing to m y guests, in in j ' o u r learning speech. cease to fill me with play from with


it s u c h

regret that


liave n o t left evou composition.


ernesses and

them again

again to articulate Your prattle could not

Scene. Town home with Verandah and central renewed pleasure. courtyard. A mother seated at the edge of the Verandah Let me now hear from you what you have newly her back against the door way, suMing her child. The learnt, and drink y o u r w o r d s sweeter than a m rhild leaves its mother and goes after a toycart in the broBia." courtyard. On one aide, hhe viaid seen standing, the mother looks at he/ hoy and says aloud.'\ [The father comes up behind and stands quiet ; the laiiunup sQetriaSuj LOtnf?u>0ST7'eu aiiriLi^m child sees him and cries, ' papa,' 'papa' ' ^fi^n,' ' Jjr^ QuituOu(nj> LCifi^eciiS^ 6Seirisi(^t^iifsr Ssw^ffi-/ fiir,' and the mother not knowir.y the real cause, addres'3u!r6\iu>i3ej,piLfteB8sai(Lf(i^eii aeveir* ses her m a i d . ] ismiiiQu^ tUi^Qa^^eS msnQujn(S ^luwaa afQ^Oeu^a^rr npusL-ay) eo/ejgQ e\.'/PQuTeQ SewrSenafl luiriruiouitairr uirQcvT L^eviie^ (jpSsOLOfoii^ Qfipp^^i ^ire\)euQpii enmuS aSiuiS i6eiDi-Uii9p(y euirmuiir esressfla'irn Qu(^s6ps\> Quirsveu^ ;
- H-- The reader is requested to note the vci-j- uiaiiv tiu riirus of expression, qnite simple. The diction being unfaniiliaV ninv unintelligible. Bnt witl. a little patience aud funiiliniitv. its i uiity can be relished. M


erweStfiaIU, Q^iLSiArjpi euirdiwri^ Qiu^^u QiBiiiuiBiri (Ituireuir



urt^iu utQ^iQ^tsru ^^^nQaiem uirjiirtLi_ uir^utirmr ir^^^ u^piStum

QfuiiiQuaarQQyeir Qeuij^^p^CSf

a/ffityefrcrflij QuirsiTSSiQra ;
* c. f. the expression " m^aiaiiit C a r i i l l x , " t The Masciilino of this is (father), which m y m o t h e r Iisod. luit which ia becoming obsolete in o u r o w n generation.




" Look

here, my bright jewelled girl, my man whoin 1 had .80 loved is almost a stranger to me owing to his present aasuoiations ! child, I go to it and l o ! prating ' p a p a , " papa,' he- would not cease



UinQura)^Jt isiru)He."If from you am me, will not believe innocent then my let and me me even will afti-r m y keep breast cow flies up." oath aloof and to that I still

Wishing to find a balm for my diseased mind, in my

take to m y son, as the

carry away


I forget his fnnlt and take him ap on my shonlders smooth like a bent bamboo. A n d even then hix mouth does not cease prating the same word." e.6ir(fl ttyRnyjCJuj Ooj"'(581(5 uc>t_eO(-

t h e s i d e o f i t s b e l o v e d c a l f w h e r e it is t i e d


embody in his work

the salient f e a t u r e s o f his of the birth and exsuccessful Kaviya

T h o u g h the o b j e c t of the poet was chiefly to inculcate r e l i g i o n , y e t , in h i s d e l i n e a t i o n

"I-see, he has come here like a thief sent b y one side to rob the enemy of their war-implemenj;s, only to wound me and not for love of me."
OffuUT Qi-awawflu L//f?a^fl<o aawrSiOiiisw ^ ^ Q e a n r

ploits of the hero, he thoroughly came out in his s e c o n d a r y the model object of launching Tamil, of the a p p r o v e d

on the f a c e ol


B u t his c o m m e n t a t o r N a c h i n a r k i n i y a " i n c l u d e s thii w o r k u n d e r Q u ' 7 ( B t ~ 0 ' - i r i ^ i r S U i ^ Q f i i i d i a r ^ b a s e s i t 01 "the Q f i t o i o f O f i K ^ t i t u i S u j i r , a n d s t a t e s t h a t t h e w o r d uiSujii w a s n o t in v o g u e i n t h e a u t h o r ' s t i m e . B u t the o f seattreatment of the subject, and the description

uifB<Juireoa= ftswa/aflsw



g)8araTt_iffl/u urrnnjTii ; jtfe " The watchmen on the tower fancy they see thieves, while there are none, b y reason of their fevered imngination. Like them, don't accuse m e of w h a t I a m innocent and get enraged and get away from me. W h o will disobey your
commands ? "

and scenes are quite ditterent from those of the work; of his T a m i l pvedecesaoi-s, a n d so close after the m o d e o f S a n s k r i t , that there c a n b e n o d o u b t that the autlioi n e v e r i n t e n d e d h i s w o r k t o b e i n c l u d e d in t h e c a t e g o r y of the Tamil gprammarian. points out The that commentator the w o r d o' Silappathikaram ait^inu

( r u t S u h) w a s a l r e a d y u s e d in t - ^ u j a s i i r sesifi

jy^QjaSw u / ^ O ' S c g i f f i euisQ^sw Qp^Si^at iLf^j^ a^^^Sfii Qoj^ir&ieif! Sik(iftL


avMirdlujii). Qp^B snuiSiu ejir^tesrs seoii^eaoi GfirmeS,"

i n t h e 2 9 t h s t a n z a o f sartwireboiurifls^ilusili mani itself, of Chinta

Qsu^wirem Q)S5>(_ QiLifreQuu /fO^ov;

Don't stand in the direction of the w i n d w h i c h beyour new uiy love; child." and go

wafts f r o m y o u r clothes fi-agrant dust which l o n g e d t o the person of awuy from me. You shamelessly

and in the 19th canto of

aeSj^a saLL

pain me, y o u

ouly c a m e out of l o v e to see

" mirigi snuiSuj /fengprgtsJIuQuffir."

T h e r e w e r e also, b e f o r e I n his preface to the time M r . (,' ^-"'i' of K a m b a n , \V five m i n o r e p i c s o f t h e J a i n c l a s s i i f t e r t l i e .Sanskrit m o d e l (gsr.rLo^, Daiaodaraii , iiinl .att I'l Pillai enumerates these t o b e i^Osr.j-

gjafiQaiiceottiLtirui, cjja/fsfl aiaO^ir^j)) Qu^^ia Qaiieu)^

Qiaiajji Qu.iut2s>ir*(uria

Q^sifJtjua/B (3ir^Qiu/i

QiDiameitt u>j)i/ijSTeQsoeorii9gir

T'CT rf r. ff<r. This tlie mcaiiiii(< of ilie contmt'iefl from ji- jii', 2 The grandson, one at Ipiist, wonld be invariably called after liie grHndfather.

awa/rsBdJii, iiird(gu>iri sk^hjCd, is at least 1 , 5 0 0 year.s old.

a n d e s t a b l i s h e s w i t h s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n i c tl);it The- a i i H i . T -



The subjec'; is a v a s t o n e t r e a t e d in of so it is many portly in a the

L/zr/rwii a n d w a i r f f ^ u ) i m i t a t e d s o m e o f t h e s e in t h e o p e n i n g of their sometime after ceding him, works. Kamban, some Kachiynppa the

Kayyas lived he preand even one

who others on

volumes and y e t the short resume q u i t e a t t r a c t i v e m a n n e r , in hook. here The subject does and we to w o u l d say other the

giv^en of

Siva Charyar, though Kavyas

.short of

compa-ss anj

had no k n o w l e d g e of Sanskrit like studied Tamil

not we


criticism great the

Sanskrit and seem

look forward with

model, grasped the knack of p r o d u c i n g a K a v y a , a t laet b y his g e n i u s e x c e l l e d him. his masters,

pleasure subject.



cimtribution? on

rendered obsolete some of the master minds preceding T h e poets, w h o came after K a m b a n , to date has b e a t e n Liin d o w n . which T h e old school of poets " T h e learned gaged Ashtadhyayi Tran.slator in bringing of of Paiiiui, Siva Part X I J I . " T h e has been work enin a n d a l l t o b e his i m i t a t o r s in all r e s p e c t s , a n d n o t o n e of them up His Hamapoets y a n is a v e r y g o o d m o u l d i n cast their poems. The modern subsequent





English at v e r y g r e a t trouble a n d exjiense. book which is indispensable if ho to every

T h i s is a student of the says could

disappeared College. like stands crowned

s o m e t i m e b e f o r e the last d a y s of the M a d u i - a and of this school, Kamban time




to u n d e r s t a n d Max Mnller

school was o p e n e d by Jain .scholars

Vedas and Upanishads.


t h a t " t h e r e i s n o g r a m m a r in a n y l a n g u a g e t h a t vie with the wonderful books inecliaoism rules" of his and he

s u p r e m e , a n d w a s , t h e r e f o r e , in h i s o w n

as " The Emperor of


Panini's) laments translais to be


of grammatical

that h e h a d n o t the benefit of sncli a v a l u a b l e W h a t w a s his a g o What was the tion in the beginning of his studies. It

W h o w a s this E m p e r o r of P o e t s ? and who were his contemporaries?

c o m p l e t e d in 8 V o l u m e s o f 2 , 0 0 0 pai^es R o y a l a n d .") V o l u m e s o f t h i s b o o k o f out. Subscription in ],03.j pages are Us. 20, is or

Octavo, already

l i t e r a t u r e a v a i l a b l e t o h i m , a n d w h a t p a r t o f it s h a p e d his genius? What are the salient poet features of his


R s . .S p e r well woi-th and by





a n d his g e n i u s ? anything


T h e enterpri^^e is o n e our Rnjalis


W h a t were his other w o r k s ? Can w e glean about the the man from his w o r k s ? which,

the patronage of


Zemindars learning.

These are some of as s t a t e d b e f o r e , we

all l o v e r s o f o u r ambient S a n s k r i t

important to




in this d i s s e r t a t i o n w i t h t h e v e r y and to materials b e partial. truth at our disW e from only the

meagi-e and posal. mean We and

scanty means do mean not intend to

"Clironioprttliy." f Swaniiiiiitliii science Public (if Aiynr lienliiisr lias




Mr. on


A. new-


this tract to the







mythical traditions and irrelevent



T l i e r e n d e r i n g is i n s i m p l e p l a i n t a m i l , t h o u g h use could -if i-ertain been gain, English words such avoided. and he The as



repealed kc.,

'case' of the that


object believes

(To be


t r a n s l a t o r is n o t new i-emedy



will b e a

b o o n to all

suffering a b o u t it. several us

m a n k i n d , t h o u g h w e ;ire n o t

(juite s a n g u i n e

" A,hical pamphlet of Study.'" .Mr. Goviiidacliiirlu and Ecstasy -.vitli great subject katchi)




the book

in tiie h a n d s of of tliem has successful that the to

Indian that cases. he little

.Medical men a n d o n e found He the treatment thought got

assured in

sevei-al of the this

however mav have


pleasure a n d profit. of Inspiration, as understood traces the and

H e wislie.s t o d i s c u s s t h e ^Yoga developed

individual effecting

something However, and it i s

do with is




cure. trial


nothing nor

in t h e K a s t a n d i n t h e idea from the

l i k e g i v i n g it a f a i r

neither costly

W e s t a n d b y t h e Theo.sophical S o c i e t y , a n d tlie p r c s e o t part aevelopenient of this to (juite r e c e n t earliest times d o w n timus in Europe. at :),c

injurious as o t h e r n o s t r u m s are.

* Ti-niii:lAti.'a into Kiiv'^i^li '>.v I^Hsli i Vasu, B. A., District Miiiisitf of N. W 1'.. I'a/iini OtKcc. Hciini-c.s Cantonment. t Ti-anslatoil into Txiuil bv Mr. T, of the -.Miulnif. 1897. SHaniinatlia Aivar Price H Air.iaB. " Editor

AVeslejan Mission l'rcs.s, 1897.

"f Mysore, Price (i Annus.


5t> T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H OR S I D D H A N T A D E E P I K A ,



Rl(imiihs(i the ' a r t f o r a r t ' s s a k e ' q u o t e a c o u p l e o f l i n e s f i - c m t h e Paf/Mall

principle, w e will Mdgaziiie.(Jam).

WK a c k u q w l e d g e with thanks the f o l l o w i n g excliaiiges T h e D a w n ( f o r June, J n l y and A n g u s t ) , Theosophio IJleanei- ( A n g u s t ) , ri<abiiddha B h a m t a (September). Astrological Magazine (Ist quarter), Vivekachintaraani ( f o r J u l j - anfl A u g u s t ) a n d S a t w a S a d h a n i ( f o r J u n e a n d July).

' AVe siT.'tlicn, tliiit ill tlic niodt brillinnt of Greece, and of Oi-ook ait RnU lettore, the civic spirit wna the iu8]iirin|r spirit. Hut ns the iiit'ck citics sRiik, one by one before the Macedonian power unci forfeiteil their liberties, this civic epiritdied forlack o f noorishnicni and rxcvcisc, and n literary spirit took its place. In other woi-ds, literatuie was driven to food on itself, which is aboot the woi-sr. tliinft that can over )ia)<(icn ro it " whatever was invented by tliose nion liinl a ]>iiirly litci-ary oriffinj and tbon);li tlicir conipositions liiive a critain interest uf their wn, they no longer rcHect ilie feelings and enei-fricH of free political life." " Asain Tin n til h'onio, iiiid you will Hiid ,very nearly the same storv. A civie Bjiiiit in eiliicatioii and liternluro aeconi)ianieH lior ^'VUH I h ; a literavy. ' art f(ii- art'e sake ' siiirit her decline." .Ami o u r r e a d e r s w i l l n o t f a i l t o s e e t h a t t h i s ' mmu utanj 1 p c a t e d i t s e l f in t h e i-ase o f O r i e n t a l L e a r n i n g a n d l/iii r III lire. T h e O l y m i i i a n . A i i g u s t i i n a n d E l i z a b e t h a n a g e ol' t h e T a m i l l i t e r a t u r e , f o r i n s t a n c e , w a s t h e p e r i o d w h e n its k i n g s a n d p r i n c e s d i d n o t d i s d a i n t o s i t at t h e f e e t o f i t s p o e t s a n d p a n d i t s , a n d w h e n t h e s e v i e d w i t h t h e i r poet.s t o e.vcel in l e a r n i n g , a n d s o m e o f t h e m s u c c e e d e d t o o i n b e c o m i n g the m o s t - accomplished poets, and the poets t J i e m s e h e s d i d n o t d i s d a i n t o s i n g (>f L o v e a n d W a r . If t o - d a y . w e f i n d a n E n g l i s h wi-iter w r i t i n g a g a i n s t t h e p r e v a l e n c e o f t h i s s a m e ' l i t e r a r y , a r t f o r a r t ' s .sake s p i r i t ' in m o d e r n E n g l a n d , w i t h its g r e a t facilities a n d u n d o u b t ed s c o p e f o r t h e e n c o n r a g e u i e n t o f m e t r o f l e t t e r s , t h e l e a r n e d H e a d o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l D e p a r t m e n t w i l l , it is p r a y e d , p a n s e befoi-e a p j M y i n g t h i s n o b l e p r i n c i p l e o f t h e ' Mmiraf M i i i l ' in t h e c a s e o f a d o w n - f a l l e n s i d e o f O r i e n t a l l e a r i i iny: iind l i t c r ' i t n r i - .

THK J u l y n u m b e r o f Vuekachiulamani contains full and intei-esting m a t t e r a n d is p r e f a c e d w i t h a p o r t r a i t of tlio late l a m e n t e d R a o B a h a d u r P r o f e s s o r P . Suudrani Pillai, M. v., a n d c o n t a i n s v e r s e s l a m e n t i n g h i s d e a t h . In au article " T a m i l A Reti-ospect and Prospect." by a distini ^ u i s h e d T a m i l S c h o l a r , t h e f o l l o w i n g s u g g e s s i o n s f o r ini)>i-oving t h e T i i m i l a r e c o n t a i n e d . 1. T o form a committee of really able scholars selected f r o m a m o n g otHcers a n d p e n s i o n e r s a n d t o e n t r u s t t o t h e m a f u n d f u r Hic i m p r o v e m e n t of t h e T a m i l l a n g u a g e . 2. T h e c o m m i t t e e t o u n d e i t a k c t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f c o r i-ect e d i t i o n s (if ; m c i o n t T a m i l w o r k s , w i t h n e w a n n o t a t i o n s Vv. a n d t o n r c r p t iind i m U l i s h w o r k s o f m e r i t f r o m t h e p e n c.f m o d e r n s c h o l a i - s . :ind t o a w a r d s c h o l a r . s h i p s t o i-onlly n b l e nieii d e v o t e d t o l l i o c u l t u r e o f T a m i l . 'J'o i n c r c i i s o tlie p a y iind p r o s p e c t s o f T a n r i l in s c h o o l s iind c o l l c i r c s . 4. 'i'miiil o. rare The university to iiistitute an examination Pandits for of I'iindit-,. n u d t o g r a i n deurees. pandits

T o grant merit.

h o n o i - a i ' y d e g i - e e s be.sides t o

(>. T o c o m p i l e a T a m i l D i c t i o n a r y s i m i l a r t o W e b s t e r ' s Dictionary and to subsidize the pi'inting and publication of hithei'to u n p u b l i s h e d hooks, w i t h a n n o t a t i o n s A c . 7. T o p u b l i s h ti-duslations in T a m i l lish w o r k s . of Standai-d K n g -

8. T o i n s t i t u t e p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s in d i f f e r e n t centi-es .ind t o p l a c e a p a n d i t in c h a i ' g e o f t h e s a m e , w h o s h a l l lie a b l e t o t e a c h .scholars w h o m a y r e s o r t t o t h e m . O u r i - e a d e r s m a y Ije a w a r e t h a t m a n y o f t h e s e s u g g e s t i o n s A e i t a l s o p u t f o r w a r d b y u s in o u r l a s t i s s u e , b n t t o e.xpcKjt t h a t a n y pi-ogress w i l l b e m a d e in t h e s e dii-ections w i t h o u t the h e a r t y c o o p e r a t i o n of G o v e r n m e n t a n d t h e U n i v e r s i t y is p e r f e c t l y f u t i l e . T h e a p a t h y of o u r o w n p e o p l e is v e r y g r e a t a n d t h e f e w w h o m o v e d in tlie m a t t e r o r i g i n a l l y aiB i-ven I j c g i u n i n g t o lose h e a r t . I f a t least o u r o w n clry liones c a n be v i t a l i z e d a l i t t l e , ve c a n f a i r l y e x p e c t ( J o v e r n m e n t t o ' a i d us. B u t the G o v e r n m e n t h a s i t s e l f a ; j r e a t d n t y t o p e i f o r n i b y its p e u j i l e a n d it k p r a y e d t h a t it w i l l n o t s h i r k it. By rt? e f f o r t s a l o n e , ;i gi-eat d e a l h a s b e e n d o n e fm- t h e ju-eserviition of ancient b o o k s a n d ancient learning. A little moi-e o f its w o n t e r l g e n e i - o s i t y will a c c o m p l i s h n i o i f , n o w t h a t t h e r e is a s l i g h t s t i r a m o n g t h e p e o p l e t h e m s e l v e s . .\ueut t h e c r i t i c i s m o f t h e Miuli fin Mnii, t h a t o u r s u g g e s tions m a r k a d e i ) a r t u i e f r o m the p r i n c i p l e of stud)' tor the sake of s t u d y , w e need o n l y ohseFve t h a t it i g n o r e s t h e Stern f a c t s o f o u r e x i s t e n c e a n d t h a t t h i s p r i n c i p l e fits a s o c i e t y w l i e r e all w o u l d f o l l o w t h e n o b l e d o c t r i n e o f Loi-d .lesiis o f n o t c a r i n g f o r t h e m o r r o w a n d t h a t s n c h e n t h u s i a s m w a s n e v e r s u f f i c i e n t e v e n in E u r o p e w i t h o u t i o u n d %tions a n d .scholarships.

W E g a v e p r o m i n e n t insertion t o t h e ti-auslatlon of a n o t h e r H y m n fi^om t h e T i r u v a c h a k a m f i - o m a r e s p e c t e d c o n t r i b t i t o r a n d learned T a m i l S c h o l a r , i n o u r last. The p u r p o r t o f t h i s h y m n is s a i d t o b e Annbara Lakihaua a n d t h e r e is n o o t l j e r h y m n in t h e w h o l e b o o k w h i c h contains the cream of the A d w a i t a - S i d d h a n t a philo.sophy. T h e w h o l e h y m n deserves to be g o t b y heart and the woixis m e d i t a t e d a n d pondered over ever and anon. A translation of ' will a p p e a r in o u r next.

W K h a v e r e c e i v e d the full l e p o r t of the p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e T w e l t h A n n i v e r s i t r y o f t h e S a i v a S i d d h a n t a iSablia of Trichinopoly. T h e .Sablia repre.sents an i n d i g e n o n s e f f o r t o f t h e p e o p l e to i m p r o v e t h e m s e l v e s in t h e i r o w n reli<rion a n d philo.siipliy. Tliey meet every S u n d a y at t h e R o c k f o r t H u n d r e d - p i l l a r e d n i a n t a p a n i f o r pi-ayer a n d r e a d i n g a n d lectui-es. T h e y h a v e a P a n d i t wlni i-eads a n d e x p l a i n s t o t h e m f i w m s o m e .standai-d .saD.serir book. T h e y have a libinry. They perform pnjahs and feed p e o p l e on the days sacred to the T a m i l Saints. T h e fiaancial c o n d i t i o n o f t h e S a b h a is f a i r e n o u g h a n d t h e y c a n s h o w u b a l a n c e in h a n d o f o v e r R s . 2 0 0 . A b o v e a l l , t h e y h a v e , a S u n d a y R e l i g i o u s S c h o o l w h i c h judgins,' f r o m t h e a t t e n d a n c e s e e m s t o b e v e r y p o p u l a r a n d i>ll managed. In t h e first s t a n d a n l , t h e r e a r e 4,") p u p i l s a n d in t h e 2 n d , .">8 p u p i l s a n d in t h e o r d pujiils a n d in the f o u r t h oi- t h e lii^fliest cliiss t h e r e a r e } J pupils. Jiefiire t h e a n n i v e r s a r y , t h e l>oys a n d t h e g i r l s a r e e x a m i n e d a n d c o m p e t e f o r jirizes a n d w e c o u n t ii j less t h a n 8 g i r l s w h o h a v e pas.sed in t h e e x a m i n a t i o n s . T l i e S a b h a i-ecoi-ds w i t h d e e p r e g r e t t h e d s a t h o f Srimnili



Si KAkiNirat a C o n f e r e n c e h e l d a t O x f o i - d n n d e r t h e p r e sidency of the Alarquis of R i p o n , l i f e ill w h i c h peifiional g r e e d such a strong g r i p on private, was the B i s h o p of the so prominent Hereford of his kad An^ and said he d i d not r e m e m b e r ' a period in course

( f m n g w a m i S n i u m , w h o w a s , in f a c t , t h e f u u n d e r uf tlie Srtiva S a m a j , o u t o f w l i i c l i , t h e p r e s e n t S i i b l i a WHS r e s u s c i t a t e d , a n d o f Pi-of. P . S u n d i - a m P i l l a i , v . A., o n e o f t h e p a t i w n s o f tlie S a b h a W e c o n ^ j r a t u l a t e . t l i e nieinbei-s o f tlic S a b h a , o n t h e p i ' o g r e s s , s h o w n b y t h e m . T l i e S a b h i i fills a (fi-eat w a n t a n d t h e r e i s a g i ' e a t n e c e s s i t y f o r siicli institutions e v e r y w h e r e and they are b o n n d to be p o p n l n r jji-oeceding as i t d o e s o n s t r i c t l y n a t i o n a l l i n e s i n n c h n i o i u thnn f o r e i ) ^ impoi'tatior.s and new f a n g l e d institutions.



i n d u s t i i a l l i f e a,s it h a d a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e .

U'K look K.V" BAHAPII; S i r . S a t h u S e s h a y y a , I'.'ihicalional Eei iew a s f o l l o w s : n. A., w r i t e s t o t h e lent edition

f o r w a r d w ith g r e a t p l e a s u r e t o t h e of 'Manimekalai ' utssmQioa^.

forth-connhis Thd excelbbofc

ing publication by Pandit V , Sftminathaier of

" Tlir Ui-nliino Suiiiaj iiiovciiient interested me iiun li. iintl nt one IH'viod lit'my life I w:ig almciet n Bi-nlimu. Again I ^viis one iit'tlie iMi|>|uiriersi I'f tlie Veilasuniuj. In ruiirse of time I foiiiid that tliose iiKiveiiients failed, or imHliiced little inipression njioii the mind iif tlie people, cliieHv because tlicy did not ajuK-al adequately to the hi^liest i-oli}:ioiis iuntinets of man. Social niovenients have always interested me the widow ninrrinsre movement in particular. 1 have 8onietiuicR taken active ]>art in them, and have aUvayB supjiorted the purtieH f ReformerH against social tyranny; liiit niy own conviction is, after tlie experience of years, that it IH iiu easy t.isk to sail safely away from the old moon'n<;i>, which have thu support of religion. A lieiiltliy religions revival is ncces^'.\ry before healthy .social changes can lie s)ifcly established. 1 have always freely eunimunicated my views on these and other <|ucsti0ns to i^'iccessive gioups |of pupils and frirndt^. lit spite of us, changes are coming upon usEnglish education, Knglish coniLiierce, Knglish (iovernment and its ftcconipaninuMits are large educational f a c t o r s ; but they need wise direction at the hands of those who arc responsible for the training of the coming goneration: else we may drift into grievous blunders. Heaven avert them: 1 iiave cautioned'men ai^insc pseudo-polities and pseudopatriotism, that [mtriotism which helps men to help tliemselvcB i lioaply. What the eonutry needs is a body of workers iind not patriotic talkers. Talking, though it is a highly useful function, is luihle to be grossly abused. Heal hunuuilty is love and charity these wc must learn and pnictise. Other things will fulhiw as a matter of cuiirBC. Bnglieh vices, political and social alike, are l e vy easy to imitate; but not the social virtues of Knglishnieii, as a nation of sturdv workers. Jinn's real g l o w consists in work for sell' and ntliers.' A teai hcr's niisaiuu lias nianv sides ami asjiects; and he who would gladly teach mnsi - l a d l y learn, and be unto his pupils an i \ami)le of noble miiitled tnithfiilness, charity and purity. It is a high ideal we jnortals iiinsi striv e to attain il. In thiB liumble spirit I have ivorked. wiili what success I lay at the feet of (iod. I am e\er ami ever reininiled of ni\ serious short-comings. I have always tVlt uiy class of boys before me the most cheering spectacle to me; ami mv work, very imperfcctlv ilone, has been insi.iration.Tli^.su o r e w o r d s o f T r u t h a n d n e e d b e i n g p o n d e r e d u\ c f b y o t h e r s w h o h a v e n o t c o m e u n d e r t h e p o w e r f u l iiiMiieiiL-e o f (hi.s A ' e t e r a i i e d u c a t i o n i s t ' s s t r o n g j i e r s o n a l i t y ami by s u c c e s s i v e gener.atiims o f p u p i l s a n d also t e a c h e r s . A l m o s t e v e r y m a t u r e Indian Tkiuker hus .struggled and foU a n d a c t e d i n t h e s a m e w a y . Ft b e h o v e s t h e r e f o r e 11lu p r e s e n t a n d f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s o f p u p i l s t o p r o f i t b y siicli e x p e r i e n c e a n d t o b e a r i n m i u d e s p e c i a l l y t h e c a u t i o n M^;iiiist t h e w o r s t t e m p t a t i o n s o f E u r o p e a n m a t e r i a l c i v i l i /.iition. W e a l s o t h e l a t e P r i n c i p a l o f K u n i b a c o n a m (-"ullegt", h e a l t h a n d s t r e n g t h atul a l o n g a n d h a p p } ' c a r e e r ut f l u t l i e r u s e f u l n e s s .

o u g h t t o b e o f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o all l o v e i ' s a n d s t u d e n t s o f Buddhism, what and we have here afforded a means of k n o w i n g really was t w o thousand years ago propounded cha.rge of for ' we and nov Buddhism

to c o m p a r e the same with B u d d h i s m as b y variou.s s c h o o l s o f t h i n k e i - s . tion of views. we hear. B u d d h i s t and as such there c o u l d b e n o T h e b o o k is a l m o s t Buildhist have been Hud work has been irretrievably though there must 2 centuries ago, copies the ready Another

T h e a u t h o r w a s an ardent distorpublication Kundalakesi' are afraid, ttws

called lost

extent,, w h e n

c o m m e n t a r i e s o n S i v a g n a n a S i d d h i w e r e w r i t t e n i.e. a b o u t a.s w e commentators giving ((uotations therefrom.


iMr. Bruce-Foote follows :

writes to


' Madnts



In yoiir Tuesday's issuetlie writer of the very interesting l.ond.on l . e u e r refers to the passage in Wir John Evans's presidential speech at the Uritisli A.ssociatiou Jli'cting at Toronto in which the possibility of Southern India being ' t h e ci-ftdle of the human r a c e ' is alluded to, and the reniiirkable i<lciitity in shape of thu implements nnide b y many tribes, in very diffei-ent pacts of the earth, is dwell upon. The special form of implement which Sir John KvaDh had in mind and inentions as almost peculiar to the lateritic deposits of Jladins, but as occuring also in the olil g n i v c l s o f the JIniv /.anares river nt Madrid, is the often large and heavy axe-shapefl implement with a broad-cutting edge, of which 1 figured three examples in plates V, X I and X I I of my original i>aper ' on the occurrence of Sume Implements in Ijntcritic Formations, c o m m u nicated to the JIadras Literary Soeicty, in 18C4, shortly after m y having discovered tjiat type of iniplenients in the lateritic cotiglomerates at Alnmi)akkam, north of Trivellore. 1 have since then found this type of implement in their palicolithie deposits in India and ntitably a very tine example near the Liase of the great alluvial deposits of the Sakarniati river in southern Gujarat. This, which like the majority of the Indian palu-olithic implements is made of quartzite, I had the pleasure of showing to Sir John v a u s and other leading rrehistoricists at the British Assoriution at Oxford in IBM, where it e.xcited great interest. I may add that tliis axe-Bhaped implement belongs to the i-ai-cst t y p e known ill India."



A Monthly Journal Devoted to Religion.
Cmnmenced on the Queen's

Philosophy. Literature, Science, &c.
Commemmation D a y , 1897.



R A N S L A i I O X 8.
e n c l o s e r o f t h i n g s to he. Afar TIRUVACHAKAM. "THK PILIJRIM'S " G I have PI;0(;KE33." u . t " most o r the of the dc-zn I .see the huge always, flrsl

{ No. 5.
and J a m an knuw Notbinir"J and slept tlirom^h rli.- f e t i d linnn f r o m

" I aDi ail a c m e o f t h i n g s a c c o m p l i s h e d ,

I was even I waited unseen

there ; and

lethargic mist, A n d t o o k m v t i m e , a n d t o o k nu carbon. L o n g I was J m g g e d c l o s e l o n g and long. I m m e n s e h a v e b e e n the p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r me. Faithful and friendly the Cycles ferried my cradle, arms that h a v e lielpt-d and t h e i r 'iv.-n me. lik-; niit;-

THIS h y m n is e n t i t l e d S o n g of Praise, the t o t h e praise of G o d . mainly the earlier part


p a r t o f it b e i n g d e v o t e i l omitted

praise g i v i n g o n l y a f e w s p e c i m e n lines, and translated which t l e s c v i b e s tha p r o g r e s s of t h e translation personal pronoun art; not o f t h soul to G o d . Tlio exigencies t h e Hist t'l

h a v e c o m p e l l e d t h e n-se o f having ineaiu a personal


r a t h e r o f t e n e r t h a n ill t h e o r i g i n a l . 'L'.ie v c i s e s , t h o u g h application tn thi' I ' s a l i u i s t . (ypical pilgrimage also to record an experiLMicc (iod,a oftliacof


boatroeu ; kept aside m

F o r r o o m t o un' s t a r s

T h e y sent i n f l u e n c e s to l o o k a f t e i ' what w a s t o liuld u^' Before 1 was guided My embryu overlay Tlie long \ M..ii-tiMiimil bmai me. ha.s it "i-ls -t 1 1 I piinl t I' -U-t.M;: ti-i>.-aun.i.N never been r o r p i d n o t l n U L ' -"iild out uf my inutlicr, ireueiacioii-

e v e r y S o u l in its p r o g r e s s

c o n f i n e d w i t h i n t h e b r i e f s])aii

MI-' oiii; h i i i n a u l i f e b u t The U all

e x t e n d i n g o v e r c o u n t l c s s l i v u s a u d .'vcii e m b r a c i n g t l i c e v o l u t i o n o f m a n o u t o f tlu' p i i m o r d i a l e l e m e n t s . hymn ivcalls the sublime pictiuc di a w n by

I",]!- il t h e ui-lmla CIJIK U t! i..v.-ii'-t J.U"-

\ V h i t m a i i , in l i a n n o n y w i t h m.i.lfi-n - c i L u t i l i i - llitint;lil, of planetiiry d e v e l o p m e n t and o f l i f e t l i p M i g h its sncce.s=ivr a : : ' " it s r a n d < a.s a c'">n-cions h'li iaii -'6 ml. vad ii;il .iiii. r;;C-nci' ^l.lbl





All forces have been steadily employed to complete and delight me ; Now on this spot I staud with my robust soul " To the Psalmist Manikka Vasakar " t h e faithful and friendly arms that helped" were those of the Lord who, having lovingly watched and gnided his path through the seons, came at last upon earth and "held out a helping hand " as " Brahmin Teacher of Truth" in the grove of Tinip-perun-tnrai, way laying him on his errand on the king's business and making him His " vassal." How he became ripe for this crowning mercy is told in the hymn in language whose intense lore and emotion are but faintly, if at all, reproduced in the translation and ore characteristic of the Bhaktiyogi, whose goal and final experience were told in the hymn entitled " The House of G o d " aad translated in the August issue of this Journal, With such sturdy confidence in the security of the whole scheme of things, with this imperturbable optimism and unrestricted faith,the essence of all religions,each of us may, in darkest hours, be sustained and exhilarated and feil his " f o o t t e n o n e d and mortised in granite," for " My rendez-vous is appointedit is certain ; The Lord will be there, and wait till I come, O perH fect terms, The great Camarado, the lover will be there." for whom I pine, P. A.

^Bffierfpjr Qpt^s-r^^


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'Ouji^ODLD iL/iuius OsaerrevinLJ Guirp/S

(geojfififiO^nai wnSkii Qsaesiriq^a Gunpfi Liirihueo QaiUfifi nanem Guirp/S uaiiiuir^ G^afiu uirGesr Gurp/S QuitpjS Guirp/S Lfujiisu OuajLOfta Quttpfi GunpS t-iirira^ snasm Qunp/S Guap/S fujfiu Quap/S. (^df^Qppi^ueeti).') Mighty Vishnu of luminoua crown.,who 'Mid prayers of four-faced Brahma and all The heavenly host, in t\^o paces measured The triple world, the sagea of the four quarters Raising their voice the while in praise and thanks. With joy their senses blossoming, Did once in shape of fierce strong boar Pierce and cleave the erst blended spheres, Yearning to know Tby base and crown. Then in weariness cried ' Victory to Thee, Universal Lord-' Even so he saw not Thy flower-feet, which easily that I might praise, W^s I saved in'faultless wombs On the sea-girdled earth, elephant's womb to ant's,* Saved in womb of human mother, Saved from stroke of sterilizing worm, Saved in the meeting of the seeds in the first moon, Saved in their growth in the second moon. Saved in their struggle in the third. Saved in the gt^at darkness of the fourth month Saved from the|blight of the fifth moon. Saved from th6 mishaps of the sixth. Saved, looking earthwards, in the seventh, Saved in the straits of the eighth moon. Saved in the dangers of the ninth. Saved in the due tenth moon, Together with the mother in a" sea Of agony struggling:
Elsewhere, in the hymn entitled Sivapiirdnain, sung, the Saint has

L/eSQfiiu Li^suirujs (5(5tfl&r Quirp/S uj^eu.^ iSiBasif HL^iififTiLi Guirp/S "0G5 iSis^ p(7}eff&iir Qutrp/S a9(5iiiL/0SBr Lfsia eSesis^i^Ssur Guirp/S ujf-iLipu utSeirp uirais Guftp/S lu^Oujii (j^^iu Qwrp/S ieirOsir(S gfaii/rds isaafieoui L^snmp urs^ unecv J), ujp SQ^efiSuir Quirp/S QeuL^iTfi gjrQs^ Gurrp/S SQfiSn ixfrSsos sieijei) Quirp;S Oiuni^eiip lilanprs^ Qmjnq^ai QuirpjS

qeoeiirSu ^iiriLu LfOgtuaiu umumSilr uoi^Q^SLnnSu upeoeuiunaju unwuirQa' aiteiiauj weS!fiaauju Guujaujs aesamaeirniij eueiisi>sfajn3 QpefienlliriLfi Gfi^andj^ QfsoetmSeirp i^jSfiireujr^imsttififi Osr soeoau iSpuqti) iSlpifiiBn sQ^ OarutQuQ^wn^.
" Grass, herb, worm, tree, animal of sundry kind Bird, snake, rock, man, devil, angel, Titan Of evil might, sage, godling, These and all else in this wide universe Have I been bom, and I am weary, 0 Lord."




Then in the march of years saved. Saved sitting, moving, and in countless ills, Saved in the morning excretions. In the fierce hunger of noon, the darkness of night. Saved at work, in sleep, in w a y f a r i n g ; Saved from the havoc of darts from maidens' eyes, D a r k locks, rosy lips, white teeth, peacock gait, Y o u n g breasts that rise in wanton pride to burst T h e bodice, and, sinking back weary and in pain, Swell and fill, leaving not a hair's breadth s p a c e ; Saved from the furioas elephant desire T h a t roams through this wide world of mad men. Saved from the multitudinoas seas of learning. Saved from the dangers of wealth, Saved from the poison of poverty, Saved f r o m the petty fetters Of divers customs and modes. There arose then the thought of G o d , A n d thinking of the Peaceful Oiie, straight away Sixty million powers of delusion Each its prank began. In troops came T h e atheisms and spake atheism Till their tongues were sore. Kinsmen crowded A n d clung like kine, calling and wailing bitterly. Priests pleasantly, established from the scriptures That fasts and rites were G o d . Sectarians F o u g h t shouting each his religion true. T h e hurricane of Idealism whirled A n d roared and raged. The fierce, bright snake Materialism spat its venom Prom amid the conflict of sciences. Thence delusions great and many encircled me That I might not escape. But letting not g o what had been grasped. Heart in prayer melting like wax in sight of fire, W e e p i n g , trembling, dancing, shouting. Singing, praising, gripping like jaws or babe W h a t was clutched ; as a nail cleaves The tender plant, so with pure, ceaseless love Melting, overflowing, tossing sea-like. Heart auspiciously softening, body quivering, T h e world at me as a mad devil laughing, Lost to shame, the town's ridicule my ornament. Unswerving, of appearance heedless, Mad with yearning to k n o w , M y goal the Supreme W o n d e r , I n pain and wilderment like calf for its mother crying, Even in dream thinking not of other God, Making not li^ht of the gracious coming on earth Of the Supreme Peerless One as Teacher, T o His holy feet clinging like shadow

Inseparable that goes before and after, L o o k i n g ever towards the Peaceful One, Bones melting, heart in agony of suspense. The stream of love its bank bursting, (The senses made one), crying aloud, " 0 L o r d , " words faltering, hair standing on end. Hands clasped in worship, heart blossoming, Eyes filling with tears of joy. Daily" fostering unfading love, To such as these, 0 Lord, art thou mother. A n d them thou dost rear. Glory, (ilory to Thee, Glory, 0 Lord that, in shape of Brahmin Teacher Of truth, to crush my karma didst hold out Helping hand. Glory, 0 King of Golden Madura, Glory, O Gem among Teachers that shonst in its courts Glory, Dancer in the hall of Southern Tillai,* This day unto me thou become hast ambrosia. Glory, L o r d of the-Vedas that age not. Glory, Siva of the Victorious Ox-banner, Glory, 0 ripe fruit peeled from the rock. Save me, 0 mountain of gold. Alas, have mercy on me. Glory, Thou who cieatest, preservest, destroyest. Glory, O Father that rootest out danger. Glory, 0 Lord, Glory, O Sovereign. Glory, O Friend, Glory, 0 Comrade, Glory, my Joy, Glory, my Treasure, Glory, 0 peerless One th it art where speech and thought are dead. Glovy, Mountain of teeming holy grace. Glory, 0 Warrior, that madest a man of even me. A n d degned to place thy feet upon my headThou rubbest away pain from the hand that worshippeth Thee. Glory, Ocean of Eternal bliss. Gloiy, Thou who art beyond death and birth. Glory, Bridegroom of the Ga^lle-eyed, Glory, Mother of the celestials. Glory, Thou who standest as five in. the Earth, Glory, Thou who standest as four in water. Glory, Thou who standest as two in air. Glory, Thou who standest as one iu space. Glory, Thou who art ambrosia in the hearts of the well-ripened ones. Glory, Thou who art inaccessible even in dream to the celestials. Glo.-y, Thou wiio to me, a dog, in waking hours d' it graciously appear. Glory, O Father who art merciful to those that make Thee their refuge Glory, 0 Destroyer i f confusion and doubt in them that worship Thee. Deign to accept this garland of tender words from me, au ignorant dog. Gloi-y, ancient One. Glory, 0 First cause. Victory, Victory unto Thee. ^ ^
* Chidainbaraiii, wUere he is represented iti the .attitude of dancer, the dance representing the operations of the nniverse.










{Continued fniiii pnye 80.) I. 0 Bauddha, you did say without thought that your Lord Buddha knew everythiiip., He could not know everything at all times as the univrt.e is immeasurable. It everything was understood Tiy him one by one, then the^ universe should not be called immeasurable. If this is possible by bis limitless wisdom, Ibcn his wisdoir is not so capable ; he could not know everything a.s Ins intolligence dies and is born from moment to momeut. 2 II' you say that lie will know the rest b y knowing a few of each kin'h, how is this possible, as objects of knowledge are innumerable and one divides itself into innuQierable other species. Besides, as human knowledge implies perception, similarityand difference, how is knowledge of various objects possible, by comparison tScc., when accovding to you we do not Jetain (he consciousness of each previous moment. 3. If your Lord Bnddha gave out his ' Dharma' after attaining Mukti Nirvana, then his speech after Nirvana (annihilation of Skandas) is like that of the person who died by eating ghee and honey together, coining to life a g a i a to say. that to eat honey aiid ghee is bad. If yon say he died after giving out the Dliiirm:!, tlion ilu' luw was given by one who had not athiiiKil lu l\[iilcti and as such it cannot lead one to Mh'.^li. His ^aill do^iro is like that of the person who !: 't l:iio\ving thu depth and breadth of a rushing Uuod desires [) cross and laud all the rest on the other side of tlie i i\-i i 4. You st;U:e that mil ike onr God who, being present ill eaefi as i;;sto in \\'atcr,efl'ects their preservation.
.3. ii' 1 i^ . rtly il .Ic-I iiurioii of all tliu Sksiudas sucli .'lb Itiii-a, X;iiii:i i f . . 111. i- p i.ssililcnftc'i-Xirvuiia. f)f course, Buddlii>i> .vili say ilii'i Dull.I'l i a )ivan .Miikta, bur this will Ijc (.'.Mii^iiliLii..). ill u 1I1I-, 1 1 ;lii- \ii\v ilii-v tiiko (if Jliikti or Xir1 \ II BMIIIIIILI IKUI iiULiiiiril |.1 Ninniiii, liiij luiv cannot piucjLiI J1 ( 1 1 I n;i! L'.ypri .mil <-,iiiiiut be luitlioiitv. The 11 1 ri-. 'lit- I;!'I. Ill l!.u Uiiddliifct iiol r e c o g n u i n ^ a God lio liiis )!' iiiiili i ji) ( voluiion to incrc;i&;.' this experit-iiLf, And ilii. dill iiiiiiii wliifh ill i.-oi(bi'(iiic'iice iirises is beantifiilly jiiir 'I'liu next stun/a roll()\\':> the iHLin: .-iubjcot.

your L o r d undergoes the fiery ordeal o f raiaeMblo birth and getting himself released, saveB oilier lociv. tals. This is like a deer rnshing to save hia kiiid already caaght in the toils of the hunter's net and beittg^ c a u ^ t itself. This law will only lead to gteat Bin. Y o u r doctrino is really incomparable ! If yon say that wishing to create Dharma, he was b o m and h e .created the Dharma, then this also might b e said of e r e i y man that is born. 5. If you say that your Lord entered an ^ndlesB numbsT of wombs for the propagation of Dhamia, then his births must have been caused b y Karma. Nay, if it is said thpt this is b y his mere will, then t h e same can b e said of every man that is b o m . I f it is said that he was born not like ordinary mortal^ h o t came oat of the belly, don t mention me the Dharma of one, who killed hfs mother before he spread bis Dharma. 6. W h e n the L o r d Buddha incarBated himself te beasts of prey, did he not f o t g e t virtue and kill m e n and animals with pleasure ? If he did not kiU and eat their ^esh, did he f e e d on Straw to appease .his h u n g e r ? Y o n sav he took on himself the sorrows of others. RealTy TIIM a ts ot grace shown to thfe woman who had lost her husband iamrf to the bird-catcher are beautiful to behold ! 7. Before you. discover an idea and find words to express the same and put the same in writing, y o u r intelligence would Lave changed ever so oftenHow can you therefore heive any authoritative treatise.
by siicceEsive evolutions. He i a O h e . a a p r e i q e f a b j ^ and cannot become^^he o b j e c t also j wlitch Jie will be whenJHe is born. If.theie is however a Vedic text to tjiat effect, it only means t o emphasize the fact of Qod's supreme nature, that independent o f Him, p o t h i n g can exist ; nothing can act ftnd i othing c a a b e o ^ e d . God w Sarva Swantara, Swamparaprakasa. ,verythi|igelsei8.Paratantra and shines only b y reflected light, c.f. Tha^amanavar,

and verse 52 g i r e n in last numbeir. c. f. St. Karaikalammaiyar,.

^^ ^^atgtihfi^QeoriL^tS.uui^r^l^Tr
iL^S BiMiij/S f^ff^C/air
inu'QuJr^^^ ft-rQar u-Sier.''

5. S;va is called 'AyouijB.' Btiddhiateolaiming a similar Divine attribute for their Loiij, have a story that Gautama's mother on her way to hey mother's house was taken with premature pains in the,beautiful forest of Lumbili (Lunibini) but the fcetus co.uld not be troiight out in the oidinai^' way anti the belly had- tq be cut open to remove the child from the womb. Tlie mother flied after the seventh day. Even to-day, we. Iiear iii T i b e ^ the child iDten4ed 4. Tliii staii/a oiiniliasi/r-s ihc Suii.ciiit: ^iriiiciph: of Siddhonta 03 the future- Lama i.s takihi but similarly. 'This is a m e r e travesty of the noble trnth. that Gii(i f'Of be bijiH in.tli(.' I'.'.^/j, tor any reason, u\"t'u for the (.iirnose ol iiiir all mankinil unit h k .s^ of liia mere wliiin, for his own 7. Association of ideas ( . y i i i i r m ^ ) is of 4- kfnds, Lamp from iiloasiur-, lor reuliziu;^ hiiusell'. frout Karma. I'or iwiinuving himself l a m p ( ^ u ffitri^iL) ail- f r o m ai> light from star


I f yon aay the words follow one another^ tben the SBine Words must get repeated. Y o u say by the change, the intelligence which it succeeds is superior to the preceding one No, it cannot increase, as its duration is only momentary. A true book must be consistent throughout. Is your book of this character ? 8. You said that your Lord performed various drtuous acts in the beginning and became omniscient, and out of Grraco i^aye out the Pitakaa to enable mortals to attain Moksha. If so, who determined what was virtue and vice, before your Lord performed virtue. If one like himself who taught this predecessor of his ; as such you will get no one who gave out-the law in the beginning; a^such, whom do you- hold as your God in your school 'r The fallacy of haviug no beginning (jy^su^,^) is present in your argument. 9. If yon "hold the Lord Gautama as your God And Saviour, then who was his Lord whom he worshipped ? Where is the sanction: of his Guru's words for the law he set forth ? W e dQ not find such sanction a.nywJiei;ja. If you ask for onr final authority, our Paraineihwara, beginningless and of endless knowledge, self-existent when every thing else is d e S t f c ^ d at the last day, He it was who g a w out onr law, which is comprised in our Vedas ftnfl Agamas. The sages who follow this
-r-'.^rf^u!) Pipilika (I-'LTUS*' T h e s e k r e Several kinds of illustrations t o show the passage of living betngs from one body to another and for their final e i t i u c t i o n : The simile of the lamp is as foUowe. ' Tkeepakn SuHfhana.' The life of man, t c ase a. Constantly recurring Buddhist simile or parable, is like the flame di an Indian lamp, a metal or earthaiware saucer in which a cotton wick is laid in oil. One life is derived from another/ as one flame is lit at another; it is not the same 1 ^ e , but without the other, it would not 1 have been. AB flame canntt exist without oil, so life, individual existence, depends on the cleaving bo low and aarthly things, the Bin of the heart. If there is no oil in the l a m p , it will go out, though not until the oil T?hich "the wiok hflB.drawn up is exhausted and then-no new flame can be lighted there. A n d so the parts and powers of the perfect man will be diaiolved, and no new being will b e born t o sorrow. The wimj will p a s i away, will go out like the flame of a'lamp, and' their K a r m E . will be individualized no longfr! Trim mnthana.' Stars, long ago extinci, may be stilh visible tf) ue l;y the light thev emitted before they ceased t o born, but the rapidly vanishing'effect of a no longer active cause \till soon cease to strike upon one's senses ; and where the light waa, will be darkness; so the living, moving body t t e perfect man is visible still, though its c a i s e has ceased to exist but it will roon decay, and die, and pass a w a y ; and as no new body will be formed, where liCe wa.^, will be nothing. Again, the five Skahdas, the bodily and mental properties and tendencies, are like a tree. The tree produces a seed, a fruit, from which will spring another tree ; but if the tree be cut olt at the root, it will be visiblft a little while 5nly whilst it decays, and will not produce any f u r t h ^ seed. PipiUhi ganthnna: Again, Triphna, the yearning thirst, js com pared to a creeper which grows like a pmasite on the sala trees, and eventually destroys that on which it was ii6irrishe<l r (Dr. Rhys David's llaniial of Buddhism).



law also advise control of passions and performance of tapas. Your law enjoining eating before sunrise without washing and eating of flesh wjis made by a glutton. 10. Authorities are of three kinds, the authority of the Ninmala God (ofifieo jprsn), the authority of the sage who provides explanations and exceptions not inconsistent with the original authority {'^jfi jsnin), the authority of the successor who following both authorities, gives his own opinion from experience also Could yon aay to which class of authorities, your law belongs ? As ft cannot come under any of these, your law cannot be true 11. Bauddia, whom do you praise as Uuddha who had attained i^irvana, and why ? If you say that the rituals performed in honour of the dead w i l l confer benefits on the living, then the beings must be eternal. And we require a God who will appreciate your good acts and confer benefits. But you do not assert so. YOUT Jiononng the dead is like supplying oil and wick to a lamp that has been complexly extinguished. 12. You say that to know the cofatents of a book is as good inference as whou we infer an author when we find a book written by him. Well, the existence of a hell and heaven yon postulate could not be ascertained except from some book. Otherwise tell me. But this knowledge of hell and heaven coulil not be by inference. This alone is possible by believiug in Agama Pramana. As you do not postulate Agama Pramana, your Pitakas themselves cease to be authorities. 13. You state that all t h i n g s will s u f f e r a n n i h i l a tion. Is this a n n i h i l a t i o n p o s s i b l e to beiues o r n o n beings or being-non-beings if. to the non-being, it c o u l d If you c t h e n i t i s Q v e r n o n - e x i s t e n t .; I f t o t h e b e i n g , never cease to e x i s t ; of being a being, a s k m e t o ' p o i n t oiit birth, growth and it c o u l d n o t c e a s e to exist an object is whirh the is see u n d e r g o i n g Sthiila

I f to t h e last, f r o m its c h a r a c t e r not capable changes body (a^a

of destruction, what y o u death body;. not the Sukahuma 14.

I f y o u saj- t h a t you have



a u d aiX' r e b o r n i.s p r o d u c e d j-oiii- p o s t u h i t i ;

by of

mere change t h e see'd, t h e n

o f f o r m , a s tlie s i a - o u l forgotten


the Jains.

and hold on to the A.-'ti-un.^f i doctriiu; of

If y o u say I niisuiulor.-tanu y i m , unil e x thiit

p l a i n t h a t , w h a t a p f i e ; u e d a-- s p r n u t , leu\ e.-i, I r e e a r e n o t s t a b l e b u t a r e e;)p:iri!e o f d e s t r u c t i o n , iheii l u a r , it is n o t t h e v i s i b l e f u r m t h a t is d e > t i < i ) e d liut c h a n g e -


T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H OR S I D D H A N T A D E E P I K A ,

are wrouglit on it by reason of its youth, matarity and old age; and after such changes, the subtile (Snkshuma) body remains though the Sthula Sarira is destroyed. 13. If you say bodies arefomied from the mixture of the four elements, then these cannot unite as their natures are opposed to each other. If you say they are formed by the union of blood and semen, tlien account for toads being found in the heart of rocks and worms in the heart of trees. If you say the real cause is good and bad Karma, then these, being opposed, cannot join and form bodies. If food is the cause, then the food which in youth develops the b o d y is not capable of preventing decay in old age. If intelligence is the cause, then that which is formless Chaitauya cannot assume .A.chaitanya (non-intelligent) form. If you assert that bodies are formed from nothing, then we could cull flowers from the sky. )6. If you say that forms can be produced from nothing as the tree from the seed, then we assert that the tree was already in the seed- If you object that we do not find the tree in the seed b y actual observation, then the fact that a paddy seed does not produce a palm tree but only one of its own kind requires explanation. As one species of tree do not groMf out of another species of seed, what does not exist cannot be produced. The seed is the rause and the tree, tlie effect. You also forget what you before asserted that forms as effects) are produced from their the five Skandas, as the Moon is formed b y be-.ims of light.
17. If you'say that the bodies are f o r m e d by means canof tlio f o u r e l e m e n t s a n d their c a u s e s , t h e n t h e s e n o t unite, ns t h e i r a n d eacli of the natures a r e o p p o s e d to each cannot be limited

what is dead ciinnot give rise to a new prodiact. T h e n the new intelligence cannot k n o w objects and p e r f o r m iunctions which the former inteUigonce k n e w a n d performed. If you say that the old iAtelligence eeaaes to exist after creating the new intelligence,' then two such intelligences could not exist at the same moment. If y o u say that the old intelligence does not die wholly before creating the new, then the sentience becomes Sat-asat, and your assertion that it is Asat cannot b e true. I f y o u instance the case of oJj straw o s e d as manure becoming new straw, to prove that the old sentience dies and is reborn, then k n o w that the old straw does not die altogether but is only r e d u c e d to its subtile condition and front thi^ condition, is produced forth as new straw. 20. If you say that sentience is generated b y association of ideas, then this association must b e eternal. If you instance the flow of water in a stream to illustrate your position that the pioioent one sentience dies another takes its place,then, as the things in solution in the first flow of water will flow away with it alone, then all the Good, Bavana &c., attaching to the old sentience will die with it and "will not b e c o m e united to the new on-e. If you say there is no b r e a k in knowledge as there is no break in the waterflow, then this knowledge cannot b e momentary b n t must be eternal. 21. Is this Santana (association) the cause or the effect or the cause-effect ? In either of these cases, it must b e eternal. If you say that succession iovolved in causation is the intelligence, even then it must b e held to be eternal, as it is ever recurfing. If the intelligoiice is separate, then it is different f r o m the extevnat senses and as such it will become an eternal object. The consequence will be that instead of onr undei-standing the intelligence as Sul)ject, and the rest as objects, the senses must be regarded as subject aud intelligence as object. Consider deeply the absurdity of this position.
22. If creation tind d e s t r u c t i o n take place at Ihc same moment of time, then these two be the same. If Time is merely the functions c h a n g e in must the

other; to the


n a t u r e o f nl) O t h e r e l e m e n t s . U n d e r s t a n d a l s o t h a t t h e s e rlenKMits n n d t h e i r c a u s e s ^ a r e all o b j e c t s o f In. sensation.

I f y o u s n y t h a t i t is m a t t e r , in i t s e i g h t v a r i o u s becoming subtile, oil, as then the we as

f o r m s that forms the b o d y , cxtviicts of

medici)i;il h e r h s in m e d i c a t e d

require a G o d w h o c o u l d b r i n g a b o u t this t h e Physici.Tij w h o p r e p a r e s t h e oil.


IF m a t t e r a l o n e i s nature. reallj' again, flethe

t h e c a u s e , t h e n all f o r m s m u s t b e o f t h e <anio B r t , a s t h e i r n a t u r e s a r c d i F f e r c n t , y o n IIMVI; n o t uniierstood show the drift of your wui-ds. of 'i'lieu the

conditions of tliing.s,tlien w h y d o y o u

speak of


I.H' i f y o n c a n t h e f o u r which are




G u n a Ciittributcs),

apart from

l o u r i.'lementR R.L. iiiL'ht, If -ind you ai-

the\)iselvcs. say thnt i :relli...-ence moment is d i o s HT o p e : IP'-



iJ. W c ; u c 1)01111(1 to say w c aiu not C 0 i n iiiCi. J by those argiiiiioiirs. N o d o u b t tlieiv i.s riiicccssion in 'Jinic, but w h e t h e r tliert; is ;i lisUm-t Piitity I ' k o T i m e n p a r t finni things ami rtctioiis s u c c e e d i n g ' o n e :\ii<ithoi',t\v,U is n iiiui n>v of d o u b t n l t o g e t h e r . I t is ivn ab?tiactii>u like many otlir; nntioiis em-li as s p a c c , ito. If there is lo pci-cci.' of snccc.'SKinn, : here will he no p c r c o p t i o n o f T i m e . no poreriitif e o - c x i s t i n t r olijcctn. t h c i - c will bouo I>rivoi.f.oM rRpao'.-. Hill iliat the lliiddhist w h o believes in so




p M t and fntare Timft. If this is BO spoken,^ as thinga m d e r f f o tlie. laooMnTe changes, then 70Q moet not peak of It properly as the present, past'and the fntnfb and<U thb activities of things must b e one and the same. If all-the different activities are comprised within the same point of Time, then this point of Time is capable of division into thi-ee kinds of Time, as for instance, when a irqedle is passed through a pack of 100 lotastpetalfi, though the time taken up is ever so short, yet thte succession of time can very eaSily b e perceived. 23. AccordiBg to you, ond sentience is produced from another sentience ; this* cannot Be, as the sentience you postulate-sufEers momentary death. Sentience if it dies once, in its course once, cannot survive. If the' body, as the causae of sentience makes another sentience, then the body must manifest active intelligence even in deep sleep If the bodily senses are the caos& of inteliigenca, then as the senses are always active, the intelligence also can be eternal (nonmomentary). According^ to you again, Karma is the cause of pentience. Then any particular act performed must be intelligence itself. It is not a fact that any sncli acts are so. 24. If you say that Karma begets sentience and sentience begets Karma, then as memory is an-attribute of sentience. Karma must also possess memory. As Karma is non-intelligent, one cannot producc the other. A s everything is momentary, one cannot produce the other and then die. If sciitieuce after being produced from Karma, destroys Karma, as fire pvoduce'd from a piece of \w6d destroys the firewood, then this is fallacious, as Karma is destroyed the moment sentience is born, and one caimot produce or destroy the other in succession. The fire born of tlie firewood, though it can destroy the firewood, cannot prodace another piece of firewood.
many airy notbinfrs such as liis Karma, )iip Xii-varn ic.^ slioulil dif^lijce time is wonderful indeed ! C. f. Tlic following passajfc from Dr. Hliys Davids' Manual of Buddhism. *' Strange ie it and instructive tlint all thi.s sliouhl )iave bcenicil not nnattractivQ these 2,300 years and more, ti) many despairim; and earnest heartsthat they should have trusted thi-mselves to the so seeming stately hridj^o -vvliich BndOhism has tried to IjuiKl over the river of fhe mysteries of sorrows of life Tliey have been charmed and awed perhaps by the delicate or noble beauty of me of the several .stones of whicli the nrch is built ; they have eep that the whole rests in a more orless solid foundation of fact , that pn the one side of the key-stone is the necessity c>f justice, on tbe other the law of cauiiality. Bnt they have failed to sec thai the ^ery key stone itself, the link between one life and Mnothcr, is a mere wordthis wonderful hypothesis, this airy nuthinir. tlii-i imapnary cause beyond the reach of reason the indi\'id\iali/cd ind indiv'dhalizin^' force of Karma 27

25- Y o u assert that that there are dwellers in astral and Devachanic planes (Devils, CelOrtials, Brahma &c.) and that theqe have bodies b a t n o b b o m of a father and mother ; as a body is merely a product, there mnst be a cause for the same. If the cause of this body, sentience, or the finer matter* (8 kind? of them), or Karma, or was it produced b y some other person. The Truth is causation is of three different kinds, first cau^re, (it'io^f^ti), material cause (Qfifi^), and instrumental c^Luse To perceive this is real wisdom.
26. of the O B a u d d h a , y o u assert that e x c e p t the p r o d u c t five Skandas, t h e r e is n o s e p a r a t e entity like being Y o u a l s o as.sert t h a t t h e r e i s n o that pcrcoives those

A t m a (soul). self.V It is

w h o u n d f i r f i t a n d s t h e five S k a n d a s s e p a r a t e f r o m h i m Buddhi Skandas. Buddhi ? T l i e n , w h o i t is, w h o li.i.s k n o w l e d g e o f t h i s

I f B u d d h i k n o w s itself a n d otlici- o b j e c t s , as t h e l a m p m a k e s i t s o w n j j r o s o n c c f e l t , w h i l e it i l l u m i n e s t h e e y e and other objects ; then simile, that there must understnnd a soul jvlio fiom is the same of conscious

B u d d h i a n d o t h e r s e n s e s a n d o b j e c t s , a.s t h e c e i v e s t h e l a m p , n n d o t h e r oljject'^. 27. Y o u loudly assert that in s l e e p . your The E?o is

'ye per-

merely The scnseis

y o u r b o d y a n d .i?nscs a n d b o d y does not know


(anda^^rana) external

a r c a l s o d o r m a n t in s l e e p , a n d , b e s i d e s , a r e n o f a t U e f o p e r c e i v e t h e sjensiitions o f t"ach o t h e c w o D j y iTiomctit;u-y, j t ctiniiOE p e r c e i v i t the future and m i n d and their the present, function.^, . ^ s y o u r mind.', tljc Kgo itsell' i^ .tno ilie aiiiJ fruiu

o o t h e real

i n t e l l i f f e i i c e w h i c h , p e r c e i v i n < ^ tJie b o d y , discriniiuates


t h e s e , a n d b e c o m e s c o n s c i n i m nf o b j e c t s in c o n t a c t w itli t h e m i n d , throni^li t h e clianMcl <^t'the s e n s e s , iinri n e i f o r m s a c t i o n s with tlic budy.

28. ^'<J^l say tliiil tlii re is no soul Indcpciideiit of the mind as the lattei- jjei'ceivcs object-, whci; it born a?ain after niomeiitarv extinction. 'I'hen when I s a y , ' 1 said so,' dv>es the T mean 'f Is ii uiuivly the mouth tliat ntteied tlie words ? Clearly it means a person dilVer( nt I' tlu mouth ivc. that which ^^ays after knowiii<;-"Vi rything possible to be known by all flie sru-e- ^internal and exterual), J k n o w / this ' T' i- the S.MII, the true % o . That whicl' perceives with tlic ini'id. iitt' i-s with the inoirtli. with the body and at tli" -anie time is f i c MIJIJ; mind &.C., is thr uiir lyi.'",. Sijul.
L'G f. Ill: Sun-l



32 Desire and hate, pleasure and pain, intelligence and action are all qualities of the soul. Desire is th& liking we feel for an object, say a fruit, when we see it again after once we had tasted it. Hate is the. reverse feeling ; and the other qualities also impjy similar previous experience. A s its experience tnua refers to the past and future, the wise postulata an eternal soul and disagree with your theory. 3:3. Akas (Ether), supports and affords room and is in inseparable union with evefything, is n e t h e r darkness nor light and yet gives room to both. Its attribute is sound ; air and fire and other elements are produced forth from it and rettacert into it. W e have already explained om-'position about the soul. Time is divided into morning, noon and evening, dayspast> present and futureand is ever c h a n g i n g and is p r o ductive of g-ood and evjl. The cardinal points are four. East and West,'South and Northand are eternal in their nature and invariable and productive of good and evil.
J . 51. N A .LASWAMI PILLAI, B. A., B. L.

29. T o o say that the Chitta born of the external sensea, and the Chitta btorn of the mental senses are of two and one la -oftrn after the deatu ot the other. If so why don't people feel the same in dreams, as in their waking state; and viciyersa ? Besides, the man bornblind has no knowledge of form and colour. If you say the defective sense is the reason of the defective knowledge, then it must follow, that when the senses, and knowledge, in waking and dreaming are all stilled in deep sleep, nothing will remain to bring these senses Ac., back again to life. The True E g o is the real cause of man's volitional, mental and bodily activities ns"^) and perceives both in waking and in dreaming statesi. 30. If accordinfr to you, a sentient net arises in one external sense at one monient only, then, the sound perceived by the two ears could not be perceived car. Besides it is a fact tliut .it one and the same moment, a person sees another with his two eyes and hears his words with his two ears and knows him. The five extern3,l senses can no more perciove anything when dissociated from the mind. Each of the^senses can only perceive objects one by one. The mind too cannot perceive all the' sensations together. Besides, each sense will n o t perceive what the other perceives. This is what is done b y mind. That which understands everything by means of the senses, internal and external is the True Ego 31. It as you say, t h e f l v o senses wtth the formless as the sixth, become conscious in each origan alter undergoing change every moment; then, as the mind is formless it Cannot unite with the body and underg o change of youth, maturity and old agff. Wiien a man wakes to consciousness when his body is disturbed in sleep, where does his consciousness pioceed from ' IJ: vciii say ironj imnu itselt, uo, it caiiiiot so prooet^l by JjecoTfiuig isoneciauS througiitlte seiwset>; wod the senses .and scu>nd wid ait- cannot ruiisu the nitnd.. as those c e Asat (objective). The light proceeding from the "wich vvill vanish when the wick is exhausted and will not flash up again from the earthen lamp. Tfll luc also where-consciousness dv when a man is UIM''iisjiojjs.
31. Tlic conmifincitor f^ivos auotlnr sii-ai > ' till- Bud1 dliidt. A laniu man aiul Iiis criitcii cnniio It, tl I'V cacli Ijy itself. But tlic one iviili tlie otlicr could. UDt arise wljcn, ilic niiinl. ami i eiiscs anil air i e . ael ln;;(tl' Tlio is that ;i lioiil is ii. ( (.'.-s: rv and even dtli tlie lame niun and liis criiu li unci tl, boat cannot i-eatli tlie oii.i r aliore wiiliout lj(i;iini:in. t:^. illnBtration i.f tl li-iit is couaciovieiie.s.'i. wick is tlio o'.il llio boilv is il ieiiets are Uie <

fTo be


2C32. These versc3 controverts the position that there is no sepa^ate entity called sonl, apart from the body and the senses and the Andakarana. As definition is the most important thing, in these respects, to avoid all misconceptions and confusion in thought and argument, the attention is drawn to the ivay these various senses and organs are distinguished one from the'other. For futher information on the subject, reference may be made-to Sntras Sand 4 and the notes thereon in my Edition of Sivagiianabotliani. Atrria is sonietliiin; otlier than Bnddiii and other Andakarana.s.senses aiid the l)ody : Tiieiv may be no such thin". Ii will be useless to conluniid these one with the other: Tlie ari,'nments herein given tend to (iliiiw that tire phem incna of e.\isti?iice cannot bp fuUv and adp(iiiatcly exjilaiucd without this postulate. ' The test of'u true hyijothe.'^is consists in that the theory ouuht to cover all facts and explain tlicm witliont any self contradiction. Stanza 32, controVL'rrs the opponent's theory that desire is the cause of sentience. S.T. Akas may mean space, in which case it i.s an abstraction no iliiubt. or ftliev wlio. it is a padartlia. The n o r d is used in both ."ensea and is then ofti n the causc of much confusion. As regards time, the belief is an d d one and quite conventional. Compare tlie paf^?aue from MaliHliliarata. N"o oni- can leave thr way marked out for him by Providence. i;.v.i!:tciice and non-e.viii eiice, pleasure and pain, all have Time for ih'. ir root. Time creau th all things and Time destroyeth all crealiiri-^. Il i= Time that bnrneth creatures and it is Time tliat e.'ctinj.nishi-ili the lire. Allstate?, tlie irood and ilie evil., in the vinec worlds, are caiisi-.l by Time. Time ei.ttctli short all thiufrfi anil ' reauili t lii-m Tina-alone is awake h e i a l l thinss are ash op indeed. Tin- is incapable of beiii.i; overcome. Timepasscib oM'r nil thiiiL-s -virl,.,iir hein- retarded. K n o w i n - as thou rii:u aM thin..;>- pisi a.i i lutiire .'ind all that exist at' the pre' are ilie liir-iii - "f Time, it behuvelh ihec not to leasee








from pagn UJ

S>i0t ungiGai fitmQtatir amiirQiu pOmi simpfi Quanmr Oaieireir^fieir aiata(d. aaeroji i^sau uCfso BjbfenuuS eoirari^ iBn^^tSlb mt-a^Qstr. 56. O Supreme Lord of Grace, who dost play the joyous dance in the worthy stage of wisdom f Let me, now, state the virtues of true Gnanis* to whom Thou Wouldst be readily accessible. They are so wise as to foresee that their future is to be meted out according to their tendencies in this life. They are ever intent on benefiting others. They have strict regard to truth and to the fulfilment of their promises. W i t h clemency' !is their watchword, they prove themselves quite hai-nile.s.s to all creatures. When they are thus prepared for Thy Grace, Thou, who art the everlasting witness, dost bestow on them both heavenly and earthly happinesses, just like the tree.s of Heaven such as Kalpataruf and SamtdnakaX &c. May Thou, therefore, be a SarahhalTke f'^e to the lion of my Karma-hhavda,^ and be the solar light to expel the darkness of my cares and anxieties. O Thou art the safety-boat i-egularly plying m the celestial sphere of Thy Grace and anchoring to take me in at the harbour of my undying love of devotion to Thee.



Oai^iiiS m^P mmflsri fifi^hri QuaeiQat Bbjuq^P^I QpmtJItffirtifiu ut-uOim Um^fii uBBfi^jiav uwi^iun iJtJIwjB dpm^^^eo Sestaifeviu L/carcursor LftuSaji'iifi pni^Q^ofii^
mtoiiiariu ossi^'fi^

amOtfftj aiaeH eSeiru uaajfifi^iraur OaierrerrQut iSiSi^ mi^Qiuar aiirifi^^ (Stj^^mi mitlriDa>ifipii^ieriuaidguaeir LfiQaeBeau sarOea-0 f^dQa afieoajGujii (SpreauiiS eDiresr.i^ Sirp^iB aiOfGetr. 55. 0 Supreme Lord of Grace who dost play the joyoas dance in the worthy stage of wisdom! From the flinty nature of niy heart I see that I am not worthy that Thou shouldst make me the object of Thy Blessing. And I know, indeed, that Thou wilt be moved * t Thy devotees only if they at once resort to Thy Help w d render themselves the fit obj'ects of T h y Divine Favour, b y ever praising the boundless flow of T h y Love and by worshippin;? Thee, the inexhaustible spring thereof, with their beautiful liands in great excitement:that is, by dancing and singing Thy Glory with as pleasant a smile as the briglit moon light and with tears gf love springing forth from t h ^ r eyes, with throbbing hearts and choking voices^ and their bodies relaxed with dissolved bones. O for the day, my Lord, when I will bo Thy Bhakta of this description. Qjmiapp uu).tuiEir^ OiieareK^ity miie^^^n adaite4(ipw Qfi^&jajirii ^eirO-fir/Deu,(^iiOutiineinLD luiri&Qfi ^eziirujiin Oair&oa^udSeoirir fdlSflU S^^ireu (/^sheirs

fjssssriDOfr-snGIf. luni^.euQf^ii GsLo'Juniinjjtt (^smQtsi'^ QeuanenGfu

^s^^Q^eu se ^suotr nail

^^hlS^ s-io^j sr ser iS jb SiiaB-J^uSl-ii tLQf'ijiLSQf if^ircr^Lcr

pQtrQf an^ lO a'. a JsDiyti u ( 5 i i . l i S Ljl.,i/r C'^i'<. I&ci^i^'lli^ S.B^nair iLjn'!>^n Csi/^ 6D 1 hi ^'^LC jS PfT&U 'Qp 'ffLD

iSS-i! -cri^t, sni j; Qu. WSCf^'h/ ^(t LD

, * (In.'Uti^ .'If' ffu-it nj l>i\itii- U'i^doMI, + Killp.i Liii II Ml.' wi-liiiiM tier I,r ihc UCO or |iai-u,lisc. J S;uiil;NI;'k;I I.-j IITII'lli R irri-nl' |i;U:I'L)\o. 'I'IH'IH' arc saiil tr5 ri-LM-;^ ol' pai-ailiv \\liirli i]r> \ ii lil .ill wisla-.s. An animal, t^ic >i'i- of ilir liuii, inlialiilii):: tJii snoH'v ifi^JUntaitiy. fr /("' nt I'r'iOn.

^uOD^aS^ LjQfi yifisif&iHiL' Id^tf^B^ Qtun^Qfi^sau utTujsj(f^ (Sfjiis nGen



fimOm-Mtut mmiMi Qaiflrm^ ^^Oupp

uirili-ailfi tapi^eiieiru apusr unfltJIOi a> iroieaifiuiS if



57. O the Host of Siddhas of Divine powers w h o have attained the noblest order of viewing the Vedanta and the Siddhanta alike ! Woiiderfully diverse and manifold are your niddhia or supernataral powers : you can tour ronnd, in no time, over and beyond the regions of the universes; you can expand yourselves to reach the region of Dhriivaf which is as bright as the golden mountain of Meru% and can stand in great splendour and loftiness like the mighty Trivikrama^ ; you can collect and reduce the waters of the seven|| oceans to the size of a black gram and take them in as the small draught of (isamana^ ; you can make a play-ball of both Indra's world and his elephant If; you can compress in a mustard-seed all the heavenly spheres and m",ke a shqw of all the eight** classes of mountains together. In short, you can make a molecule of a universe and a universe of a molecule. O, then, demi-gods, it can never be out of your will and power to favour me with your darsanafi" in full.
Note.The reference in this verse is to tlie wonderful powers of of the Siddhas. These powers will seem supernatural to the material world alone. Those enteriiijf the spiritual plane of existence will t'ccl nothing impossible for man. My Hohj (iuru exhibit* the SiiUlhi of pra-kiniya (Boating in earth). Vide note to 44th verse. Vido notes to aist and 43itl verses. t Dhruva is the polar star. This state of eternity 'vras bestowed npon Dhrova, the sou of a King named Uttana-pada and the f^andson of Manu, for his onsteritj- and penance after his iuitiatiou by Narada liis Teacher. t Mem is the gnldeu mountain in the centre of Gambudvipa round which the planets are said to revolve vitle note to 12th verse. Vishnu is so-called. [The references to Vishnu and his three steps arc frequent in the Hig Veda, but in all these instances it does not mean any other than the Sun. His three strides are his positions at dawn, noon and evcnin)?; for example.

uaiHO^i^ii OpirtfieitreriQuirp GsiLt-jfi Spsmoiu iSaiSfm QmlLU iSeiBt^uQuiTfajriiimi Sfi-u^ luirs^^ir sputri^ Qai^enQuin(^ QaasRuSa)! (^juseatuuiSir ^LLI^SSST QujS^pir tSffpOpLiS u>/rp(ffs s-irsgpi iBSaiuunir Gtuns


luasaid^erner eueoeoS OrekLDoii meoSktiuereit Ou)(tfS.jdS aaaiuu^iflQ^tr

Gojpniip Sppn/Bfi fLDiTfairei' a82s^Qu/bp



58. O the Host of Siddhas of Divine powers who have attained the noblest order of viewing the V e danta and the Siddhanta alike ! L^t me further d e clare your marvellous deeds. Y o u can bring on to this earth the Heavenly tree of Kalpa-taru* with its delightful shade, around which the sweet singing wasps swarm np with merriment; you can make Sanka-nidhif and Padma-nidhiX stand b y and supply all needs and make a poorest beggar a monarch ; you can condense in a well the world deluge at the end of a K a l p a ; and you can convert a tile-stone iuto the purest gold. O Mighty Goda, you would sustain the world on your yoga-danda|| and kindly allow A'dhi-sesha to take breatb. Could it, then, b e any difficulty at all to y o u to melt towards L o v e my solid mind like the bees-wax on fire ?
JS'ofc.In this and the next verse (59) the saint coutinues with pleasure his enumeration of the miracles of the Divine Siddhas to whose school his Guru Monni bolonirs. R. SHANMUQHA MCDALIAE.

Trivikrama means literally ' t.he three steps nf Vi.ilinu.; hence

" Vishnu strode over this universe ; in three places he planted his step: [The world or his step] was enveloped in dust." Bie. i. 22. 17 ff. Sakapnui's interpretation of tlie three steps is, tire on earth, li^htninc in the tirm ament, and enn in the sky. According to Sayana. tliis i-clV'i-s to tliestury of Vaniana Avatara.] Suvrn .icrnns ai-e :Salt-watiTSFrr sli waters - a n d those like milk, fiiv(T [xliro, pnLrar-t-anc. juir" :nid honey. A^ offcrii la is tlif ilrop of WMicr taken in by llie palin at the daily ja-ayrrs.

{To he continued)
* Kalpa-tarn. See notes to the 56th verse.

t Saiika-nidhi is the sjold of thn tigurc of conch. t Pailma-iiidlii i.s tlio hitus-like stem, 'rhi-se two nidhis or trcatiii-.'s nru said ill Kiivi'ra'e or lnilrii'.s wiirlil. Sni-li kinds of Iren6urr- :iru .'aid lo he nine in all. f Kalpa Vide nm. lo ."^Gili vorsr. r<i.rri i/.i./.i r.s ill-v,ioih-ii-ruff uscil Ijy till' Vycrins as a support wlu'ii s e a m ! in a particular .l/Zi^/irf or Sfat in meditation. f AMIii-M'-slia is tV'c S.M |ii-nt-l)i ity siippuriiPL' i lie enrlh roriiiiii;/ IIk' coru-li el" \ i.^l'iui -lui-inL^ 'ii KIcoj^. and

IniliM'ti clepliaut is calk'fl niravarha' or ' airuvaiia.' Ki-]il CM ^ I K of 111011.iiainv ;ii-e I ^S (1) Kailas, (21 llinialoyas,, (1) Vishya. (.')) Ni.latlia, ((11 Vaiii:i-j iiila, (7) X i l - i n s anil (.S) Kliamla Mailaiia. 1 lii> i- .im: cla-iiilifatioii. t+T)ai-saii;i -si'j-ln (Iif Guru i-r s|jiririial Tcachi'i ) ; Our. S:iiM Jniik ,1 Siihllii. ItoiK.'C uhi(> si'c'uial aililri p- to (li'Mii Si' '


" Bij knowUdj/e of God, cenmtion of all londn-



Withtiorroit'sperishing, birth (nid'denfh')! ceai'imj rouia



T R U T H Beepika.

By ctyniemplattng him, with body left behind. All Lordghip. Pure Paeeivnlem i He" (ifantra



How is this knowledge of God to be obtained ? The next verse says, " This is to be known as ever enrely i^ettled in the suCely nooght is knowableat all. W h e n o n e h a t h d w e l t upon what tastes, w h a t i s tasted, a n d w h a t d o t h o r d a i n , a l l hath been s a i d . T h i s is the
(self, soul); b e y o n d this t h r e e - f o l d B r a l i m (.Sat, C h i t a n d A n a n d a ) ( M a n t r a T h e unbelieving may ask, " h o w do you say it. 12)." is at N o ' it God

M A D R A S , OCTOBER 1897.

AN U P A M S H A D T E X T . Atmanam aranini kritia, pranavamchd- uttararanim Gnanit^irmoihanahhyasathj'pasam dahatiyandithah. IN oirp-Xamil edition was appearing an excellent translation of "Kaivalyopanishad by that great Tamil and Sanscrit scholar of JafEna, Srimath Senthinathier, who is now stajing in Benares. His commentary is a most valuable one, tracini? as it does the passages in Kaivalyopanishad to other similar passages in various other Upanishada. This Upanishad is by some called a sectarian and a modern one. This we deny and we will take some other fuller opportunity to expound our views on the age of the.Upi^nishadj. At least this is older than the time of Sri Sankara who includes it among the Pancharudram which he has commented on. The Mantra, Atmanam a-ranim hritva, pranavamcha uttararainm Gnana nirmathanahhyasath,pasamdahatipaiidUhah.
f o l l o w i n g a s it d o e s M a n t r a 1 3 a n d watara completely demolish the t h e o r y of Mrs. Besant, p u r p o s e of his that so the Ishwava evolving 14, P a r t I . 11 above talenti-d and make tho that Swetaswould la'ly sole U p a n i s h a d , a n d with M a n t r a

c o n c e a l e d in o u r s o u l , b o d } % w e d o n o t s e c is n o t t h e r e . "

T h e a n s w e r is g i v e n , i l l u s t r a t i n g it 13. fire,

t h e s a m e t i m e iind e x p l a i n i n g t h e m o d e o f r e a l i z a t i o n , in t h e next Mantra N o .

" -Just a s t h e ( o u t e r ) f o r m o f

withdrawn into

i t s . s o u r c e , c a n n o t b e s e e n , y e t t h e r e is n o d e s t r u c t i o n o f its subtle f o r m , o n c e aud m o r e i n d e e d out of the upper

l o w e r s t i c k i t c a n b e d r a w n , s o both

indeed" (are

to b e f o u n d j b y means of the word's p o w e r within the body." T h i s is m o r e f u l l y e x p l a i n e d i n t h e n e x t Mantra. and for

" O n e ' s b o d y takinu' f o r the l o w e r stick

the u p p e r O m (the w o r d ) , b y meditation's friction well

Bustninc^, let m'-hrhold(ht

were." In tlie next

<rod, there lurking,

as it

Ma'ntra, several similes are h e a p e d t o -

g e t h e r t o i l l u s t r a t e th<.' s a m e s u b j e c t . " A s o i l in s e e d s , b u t t e r i n c r p a m , w a t e r in s p r i n g s , a n d in t h e fire s t i c k s fire, s o is t h a t Self (Paramatma)

f o u n d in the Self ( . J i v a t m a ) b y Him. icho seeks for irith truth (Old meditationThe


Self p e r v a d i n g all, as


b u t t e r m i l k p e r v a d e s , in m e d i t n t i n n a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e rooted, that Brnhmiin, t h e m e sublime of sacred i n t : , o f s;ici e d t e a c l i i n y t l i e m e \Vc will q u o t e b y M r s . i5cs;iiir, sublime-" 1 ci i n part I V , relied

is thiit h e

liiniself . ccui-s As are in Xo has (^e

m a n i f e s t f r o m h i s u n m a n i f e s t c o n d i t i o n l i k e Ijuttei- h o n . c r e a m , fire, f r o m s t i c k s & c . T l i o p a s s a g e us if in h e r l a s t b e a u t i f u l A d j ' a v l e c t u r e is a s s a l t i a t h e w a t e r , i n w h i c h it is d i s s o l v e d V I , 14; a s fire in t h e w o o d b e f o r e l l i e fire as foUi'Ws sticks eream


a s t h e .Manfr:i j i r e c e d i n g it

i Cliii l u l c o \ n,

lief'jre we finish o u r c o m m e n t s . ' S u r e l y is H e t h e j i c i r d i a u o f a l l , in e v e r y tU!o h i d ; a r e (all , c o n j o i i i e d . b o n d s i.)i d e a t h . rarer form) !) tliaii licnio-it a 1' nth.- is iVC' 'I Ims k n o w i i i j ; - H i m , o n e c u t s l l i n i knowinL:' rre ture hid, creathe

r u b b e d t o g e t h e r , a s b u t t e r i n t h e mili< t h a t is b r o u g h t forth by churning, clarified butte: doubt misled the her. form Tie ( S w e t f t s T, 1 4 t o 1 9 ) I b i d I V , 11) s o is B r a h m a n in concealed

i n w h o m t h e ? e e : s i i' l l r a h m , p o w e r s d i v i n e .\!o>l r a r e , l i k e as it w e r e t h a t c - s e n c e lir.'tf i v laiiiic d , (.^iva) in (in^i^ Ih nyh

a s t h e Selt' o f e v e r y i r e a t i n - e " ^ H i n d n i s n i p . li> ^vlii'-li sh.-ha-^ ' l u o t e d lii'r>:-lt p:is>;ii,'e< i IKIII-L'IV.S ; i r ; - f l i ' n d f.-oin

quote fi'OmMr

.Vtcnii's t r a n s l a t i o n


o n e (yel.

k!K,i, ;)i._. JJi,,, ( ; . , ( ! , T. ..i!! (.ver\



" Light of Truth that entering body and soul has melted all faults, and driven away the false darkness, 0 Splendour that rises in my heart, as asking asking I melt." " This day in Thy mercy unto me, thoa didst drive away the darkness and stand in my heart as the Rising S u n . " And let the reader ponder well again on the whole verse 7. Every blind man's heart desire is to regain his eye sight (His owa self-atma) but suppose he regained his eye sight will the darkness be removed, which formerly pressed on his eye. Not surely, unless the Glorious Sun (God),deigns to show to him in His Supreme Mercy (^^ajenrQ^erntdsn eutarisiSj. And the Sun is of course of no use to the blind man so long as his blindness lasted. So he has to reialize himself by ^(SiS^-mQiuirui^ (being balanced ini pleSfsuro. and pain) and msouifluirsii (Removal of his Egoism) and to realize His maker, till now hid in hifr heart. And people have asked and will ask always, whether there is pleasure from th!s passage from bondage to Freedom. A n d Saint Meikanda Deva asks us to consider the case of the bliodman passing from darkness to sudden Light. Will there be pleasure or not ? Did it ever matter to the Sun, in any whit when it^was hid from the blindman and now when it shines fully on his newly opened eyes ? " I t was Thyself Thou didst give and me Thoa didst take. Beneficent Lord, who is the gainer ? Endlessbliss I have gained. gained from me ? O Loi'd, that hast made my heart Thy temple,Siva, dweller in the great holy shrine,_ 0 Father, Sovereign, TJiou hast made Thy abode in my body. For it I have nought to give it in return."* To l e i n o v e all doubts that the Being to be sought after is not one's own self, the passage ' Atmanain Araniin Kritwa' refers to the self (Atma) itself as the lower p i e c e of firewood. Iii the Swetaswatara, it was the body that was the lower piece in which case both. Soul and (Joil could bo realised, but generaUy-the phrases, in my body, in my eye, in my heart, in my mind, and in my soul mean almost the same thing, in ludiiig soul and all below it.
* V , I MC 10.

Any one reading these veraes together as we have read it, will fail not to see that the theory of Mrs. Beaant gets no'footing here at all. This simply explains the way of salvation of the bound Soul (Jivatma) and the nature of the Supreme. The bound Soul which cannot see the ' subtler than subtle Shiva' ( I V 14), by pursuing the Sadana herein indicated, namely the search after Him with all one's heart and with all one's soul in all love and in all truth, with tho aid of the divine word, will surely behold the Supreme, hid in himself, not the Supiemo as himself, and then his bonds will be cut-off, and tlie dsirkness will vanish as the Sun rises in one's horizon. Butter is butter whether it rcjnain-s in the milk or separately. It itself g i i i u s l i t t l e in one condition o r other, but it makes a
vast deal to the person .who has to eat it. No sane

anything t o the Supremej w l i f d i L T lie n ) a i i i f c ' S t or unmanifest but it )]iiitt('rs ;i <,'re;it d e a l t o liis c r e a t u r e s who are wallowing; ill t h e m i l k y d a r k n e s s o f sin and misery. There :i!'e tlio.sf; iiL'iiiii w h o t l i i n k P a s a t c h a y a i s alone that o c c u r s i n A l o k s l i a a n d t h a t t h e freed S o u l is in itself a n d witii n o k n o w l e d g e or enjoyment of any sort. No doubt, the moment of Pasatchaya is also the moment when he recovers his own self (ono of the two Comprised in 'hoth',* of Mantra 13, the other being God) and at the same moment is the Divine Effulgence c a s t full on him, e n v e l o p i n g h i m ou all sides and s w a l l o w i n g him u p w h o l l y . " I kiioic the great Purusha, xHH-like hayoud durJaie-'is, Him and Him only k n o v d n r j o n e c r o s s e t h o v e r d e a t h ; t h e r e is no other
will think that m;itteis


it remains

path a t nil to g o , " ( M a i u v a 8, P a r t I I I ) .

N o t h i n g c a n l)p e l e i r e r t h a n t h i s p a s s a g e , person and No. the the seeking mode it. of salvation, of But this free gone, is the object and powers the attainrnt>nt, one's the all as to t h e search, path in sees, only

What hast Thoa

oF t h e

of .securing heart

sufficient? great (God) doth

" Sinallor than small, yet greater than creatine from the Atina He Isa, That, desire. niighiy

repose (Mantra

(creatnrol by His

w i t h liis g r i e f


]>art III.V ar(> of rcjproduced in wo whicli in the famous a in our

These two mantras verse Xo. 7 in valuable August tianslation number.

" House of ( i o d "

Tinivachiikaiii jiriutod

Mr Mi-;ici .iliiii-(lly e'lnjiosps I luif n r.^fiTs tii I lie low.T Hi-n)n ,11,|| hi'.'lic'r Br:ihin;iri, lljai tin- (in'l of M:imr!i 14 is tliolnwiT Hr.-xl II;:MI IJ:- l"iliw:ir :i. I li" ' ell ' I Ti .liul Ifi rll.' lil-licv Jii;il mTin. li'Ti'liri'^- ;i:.':[in < lies', vit," h tr..r..| lu?r ronlil :inv ilisciiv'. dilTcTcnti; ip 'lie iinl HI-P of Codhi,-;!!! in Hi..^^.',M:imr;.< P

Tl-ivnv.-oh iW:'. 1)\H111. " Tlie HIMI'^C of Gud.'"


Oar Saint Appar puts in beaatifal and unmistake b l e Tamil, the idea conveyed in these Upanishad Teita: uireS/bu<S QfdjQcni^iDtaptJ iSsk^eirem Loiruyzah^ Ota^lufar m.pafSsire -iuSp^^^ QP9* A ' J s f i i smt-u QfitirsiKfitglLD.
(Like the fire latent *n firewood and ghee in milk, Non-apparent is the Great Light f ^ ) With the chomer of love and rope of knowledge One excites friction, He will bccome manifest before liim.)


SYMBOLISM. THE Jane number of the Christian College Magazine ^ ^ i g n s the premier place to a paper^caatribnted "by Mr. O. Kandasami Chetty, B. A., on ' I d o l a t r y : A Retrogregsion.' As in other qne'tions connected with the Religion and Literature ofr the Indian people, the question of Idolatry has advanced a further stage. The Christians, and with them, the then new Indian Reformers, the Brahmos, joined ill denouncing ' I d o l atry* as a most unpardonable crime and sin and as the worst of superstitions. Then it was thought that the custom was not so heinous as it appeared and that it marked only a low morality and religion. It was afterwards admitted that such worship was only adapted to the illiterate mob and the uncivilizedrustic, who could not comprehend these high things; but then it was found that the greatest sages, with the soundest theistte beliefs were siucere worshippers of these forms, and .that these sages themselves had denounced worship pf forms without knowledge and love. Then we arrive at a climax and we quote the words of a Missionary friend of ours. " Educated people may use Symbolism with advantage, the mob are unable to do so. And the conception of the mob respecting God and duty, has nr>t, so f:ir as I could find, been elevated- by the use of idols." And Mr. Chetty thinks that it must be admitted that God ia immanent in everything and overruling the universe and that as such, we might identify God with his creation for purposes of worship, yet this is calculated to confine man to* lower and lower conceptions of God, than to higher and purer conceptions of Him. W e question this; and we point to numerous examples of the best and noblest minds, among us, on ^ h o m this degrading influence has not been felt.

And we may be pardoned if we itake bold to say that Mr. Chetty argues without understanding the real philosophic basis anrl nature nnd purpose and aye, the necessity on which'this worship is based. -Mr. Chetty belieTBs^it wfT-mi.'jtake nSi', on the necessity of Prayer. Will he try, for once think over the words he utters by his lips in prayer, on the sounds produced in his ears by these words, and on the mental image pro'duced by them, and compare these, and then transfer them oa canvas with his pencil'! When he has done llii^:, u ijiild he not find himself a most gross idolator? Why should he think that the images percepticle to his eye, the most intellectunl of all the senses, less precious and less noble than the empty words he had uttered and the sound 'he had listened to. W e say, empty .words, as these could neither describe nor reach Him, whom the mind cannot grasp ('a-errer^ ^sewr^Sjj!^ Qsirevsr suii UITOT') and whom tht senses cannot perceive {' L^so(^p_si'Li^i(LiLSsoQeoit .-'). What, then, is requisite to see Him, to know Him and bow are these words kc. officaeious. They arc eflicacious so long as they open out your heart aud liead, and love can g'ish forth like (' inQutrej') a mighty flood, its bounds withdrawn. I f the form of worship chosen fails to achieve this end, then it is of perfectly no use, whether the worship offered be in the gorgeous cathednils and mosques with gilded spires and minarets or in lowly temples. 'Choose the Form which excites your love most', says sage ileikandan. And the idol of Christians is Christ. Says a Christian writer. "' Christianity is Christ Himself... Let our Christianity be faith in Christ, love of Christ and allegiance to Christ and ha will lead us out of darkness." And we wont say, they are wrong. Let us not however be inisundei'stood into supporting all those monstrosities and abuses and tamasha and fun which has crept into our midst under the name of religion and philosophy But of this, some other time. W e wrote this sometiiiio back but conld not find space for it earlier. In the meanwhile, a noble dissertation on the subject had been appearing in our Tamil edition, from the pen of the great Preacher and writer, Srila Sri S. Somasnndnra Nayagar, under the heading of " eu^un" W e give a summary of it below. " .Among Astikas who hold that there is an Infinite Satchidananda Supreme Being, some hold God as Nirguna, some as Sagana, s o m e a s Nirguna-Sa?uiia,





some, as all these iwnd transcending all these. Of pure, by sin untainted ; n Seer wise, omnipresent, these, the Nirguna Vndis alone do not postulate self existent. He disposed all things rightly for eternal that God has form (Riipa,. The oUicr throo schools years." (Mantra 3; 6. Mantra nine which says all who worship resi>ectively postulate Rupa, and Anipa, these two and Ruparnpa and none of these. \'aishnavas what is Sambhuti (things made) enter into blind and Sivadwaita S!>i\ as postulate only Rupa ; Vedan- Jark-ness. ( The text followed by English translators tis, Rupii and Arupa. The last school represents the give 'Avidyam' and not Sambhuti). Let us consider trae Siddhanta view. Of these again, the Vedantis, these texts. followers of Sri Saukara, agree in most respects in the In regard to the first text from SwetaSwatara, the forms they choose with the Siddhantis, in wliat they Purvapatchi (opponent) translates the neuter word'Tat' call the Vyavahara sta^e. It is iu their Paramar- (It) into ' H e . ' Probably he did so, as he thought thika, their ' mere theory' thej' difEev. The Vaishna- ' Tat' that this Upanishad is considered as one of the vas are divided into two sects ;is Miidliwas and Rama- Paucharudrams and Budra is spoken of as ' one nujas. The other schools, Sivadwaitas, Vedantis and without a second.' " 'i!ka Eva Riithro NathtnlhiyayaSiddhantis (anion<>' whom nro followers of Meikanda thasthah," That the word Rudra is simply Deva and Srikanta Siva Chavya) are Saivite in form. equivalent to Brahm is apparent from the following AS such among those who believe in the Vedas, there verses." Eka mevadvitiyam Brahma," " Sarvo Hyaare none who are pure Nii-gunavadis and as such shu Rudra," " SarvaAn Kalvitham Brahvia." As such postulate no form. Tlie six schools we have mentioned it does not matter to us if God is called ' . H e ' or iibove, use certain forms in their worship Atiuartha ' It.' 'I'here are innumerable t^xts where God is and Parartha) and this worship.of form is only as a called 'He'~ and ' I t . ' * The followiug Vedic texts Havana (a Symbol) and it cannot be otherwise. And show that Rudra is Purusha. " Puruihovai Rtidrah," the necessity for the use of symbols is thus manifest. " Purusham Krishna Pingalam," " T%t-Purnshaya But fhere are some among us who misled by the Vidmahe," " Purathanoham Puruahohamiaam," " Tadoctrines of the Christians, and holdinpf on to acme of miaasanam Purusha," " Sahraairaha Puruaha" as such their doctrines pose as Vaidikis and quote Vedic as we hold that God is ' H e ' and ' It,' and ' Purusha' texts to show that the Vedas and Upanishads ascribe and ' Tat' it does noT conflict with our theory that God no form to God, and that as such the formless God is ' Tatarupam.' Only it must be remembered that should not be worshipped in forms and that there is the same Vedic texts speaks of God as a Person no authority for worship of idols [ji/irfea^) in the Vedas and our opponents always speak of God as ' He'jt and thus mislead the ordinary people. Let us exa- and translate even ' Tat' as ' He.' The Tamil writers mine some of these contentions. also affirm all these characters to God and g o .on to say " a/g^(5 a/fjaj wsieoar" (He is not Kupi nor 1. They quote a Swetaswatara text that God is Arupi), " e.(5ffljjr_(756uair J" " ^eirta^^emisiiu Qgrpp Arupam and Anamayam. ^ l u i t s & a i A " (His nature cannot be described); hold" Thatho Yathuttara taram, Tatarupamanamayam." ing as such that God is all these and not all these 2. A text from Katha Upanishad says that God is and that it cannot be contended one sidedly that God is formless. Aruptim Avyayam.' 3. Mantras 3 to 7 in Kenopanishad are quoted to show that God is what no mind, nor ear, nor eye, nor word can reveal and what revealeth thee and that this is to be known as Brahm and not this which they worship below, and that the last clause prohibits idol worship altogether. 4. A Taittiriya text is quoted which says that God is ' Athrisya Asarira.' 5. A Vajasneya text is quoted according to which God is called 'Akaya.' " Hu hath pervaded all, adia)it, incoi ])oreiil (Akayaj scatheless, wirhout muscles, In regard to the second text, it only emphasizes f he fact that our human senses aud faculties are all born
Profeasor Max Muller points oat h o w oven aa between Jfantras 15 and 16 of 3rd Adhyayn, the Gender changes f r o m Masculine t o Nenter. " 'Jhnt person alone (Pnrnsha) iB all this, what has been nntl what will b e ; He is also the Lord of immortality j H e is whatever grows b y food. (15) Its hand anti feet aro e v e r y w h e r e ; its eyes and head arc everyw h e r e ; i:8 <wrs ore everywhere, it stands encompassini; all the w o r l d " (16). t Christians always speak of God is- Hn, as also Vaishnavas to a great extent, tlioiifrh the Tamil Christians have adopted siicli words ' i'arain,' ' Pariiparam' and ' ParaparavBStu.




Sora, Pandya and Sera kingdoms, to which must be added the Tondai Mandalani, iit times a distinct kingdom. The capital of the Soia kingdom was for the most part Kumbakonam or Ttiiijore. That of the Sera dominion was Karoor; while Madura was the chief city of the Pandiyan territory at the time of In regard to text No. 3, these simply assert that the vents recorded in our legends. The Tondai God is not perceivable by the external and internal Mandalam, which really belonged to the Sora kingdom senses of man " sffiuw,^^ as these is the district between tbe Palar and the Pennar. latter are Asat, and Asat cannot perceive Sat ; and In it was Kalahatti. This region is now divided into Asat receives its play and activity only whe^n the Sat Collectorates, of which Chingleput, North Arcot, moves it. These same sentiments are embodied in South Arcot, Tanjore, Trichinopoly, Madura, Tinnesnch saored Tamil Texts as, " sevaQp^pLien^flaiTLLSiLi velly, Coiffibatore, and Salem, are inhabited by Tamil iHaiQeuirar," " sr^ ^ema^&aSp QsnmenajLcui^ireir" speaking people. The area of these regions extends " OfLLBtueir sir , " " uiao T IS J U JI Q S considerably further, as many of the sacred shrines jfoj^so miJeviTw LDSV^^^SS, amsana uijbjmu), (gsB^ lie to the north a^d west; but, on the whole, it is tSmn with this country that these legends are concerned. suietun^ih." These texts are all quoted by our opponents no donbt but they neyer pause te^consider A great number of temples, some dedicated to whether they support their own case. When the text Vishnu, but many more to -Sfva lie scattered over is quoted, " w h a t reveals the mind, words, eye, ears, this region. Some of these are of great magnificence, A c . " do they hold that what controls the body so, and possess large endowments Others are small, namely Soul (atma) is God and if so, why should not but almost every yillage has its temple; and the the body be worsliipped in which the soul so dwells. stonework of very many of these attests the skill, This could not be their meaning. As the text referred devotion and liberality of former generations of Saiva to the relation of Sat (Paramatma) and Asat (Maya) worshippers. the text b y implication (Parisesha) inclodes the SatBefore the reader is introduced to a few of the sisat rJivatma) as being revealed by Gbd also. Body many poets of Sonth India, it seems desirable to is Asat, non-intelligent. Soul cannot manifest its in^ give a fact or two about the languages in which telligence independent of the body nor can the body they have sung. These constitute the Dravidian, or move without the soul nor either without the Beneficent will of God by pervading them all and being South-Indian family of languages, in which are inindependent of them as the text say.o, " s-enQaeciruiitS cluded Tamil, Telugu, Canarese, Malayalam, Tuliiva, <?u(yii/[_gBfu)/rS " ( H e is in Betha and Abetha and Kurgi Toda, and Badaga. These are spoken by forty-five millions of people, i. e., by all the indigeBethabetha relation with the world). nous inhabitants of India south of the river Kiatna, and by many north of it. To these it has become the fashion to apply the epithet Dravidian; but the Sanskrit term Dravida is applied to a much T H E POETS OF T H E T A M I L L A N D S . larger extent of country, and would include the Mahrattas, and the inhabitants of Guzerat, who are Some readers may ask, which aro the "Tamil of altogether different race and speech. It is said l a n d s " ; and the answer is, the districts of South that the term Dravidian is a convenient appellation : India where the Tamil lapgua^e is spoken. Those but, what is incorrect will be found in the long that wish to know more about this language may run to be inconvenient; and it is used here under study the " Tamil Hand-book."* These districts in protest, and with this explanation. In ancient times, vepy ancient times were divided (though of course before there were any Muhammadans in India, or the divisions varied at different periods) into the indeed in the world, the Southern Hindus knew of two great languagesthe Vada-mori and the Ten t h e Paudiyaii land includeil the preaect liibtricts ol MuJuru nud mori, i. e., the northeni speech and their own soutKern
Tinnevelly. 29

of Maya and God is " Mayarabithan" and as such poBseesea no such fnxjalties and organs This has no connection with the present question whether we cao speak of God in a personal manner and worship Him as a 'Person.'




cording to the genius of its own idiom and etractare. Canarese and Telugu .fell more under the inflaence of the Brahmans, i. e, of foreigners, who tried to reduce everything to the likeness of Sanskrit. Those literatures are, therefore, saturated with Sanskrit. Malayalam is a later development, or corruption, of Tamil, To illustrate the whole subject from the analogy of Greek, Telugu is the Ionic dialect, with a large amount of added Sanskrit - Canarese-is thq Doric, with a somewhat smaller infusion of the same : while Malayalam is modern. Greek, and the Tamil itself is the pure and rpighty Attic speech of South-India. The other southern dialects are almost wholly Uncultivated. Telugu is the moat flexible, harmonions, and, from its illimitable Sanskrit resources, the most sonorous of the family. Tamil obliges all Sanskrit foreigners-to become natuarali.sed, and to conform to its phonetic systemjand it has this great peculiarity, that it is possible to write or speak exhaustively in jt on any given subject without'any introduction of Sanskrit derivatives; or, OP the other hand, a speaker may use Sanskrit notional words almost exclusively, while the particles and inflootions are Tamil, just as an English writer or BpeE(,ker might adopt the Saxon style ot Swift, or the ola?siral pedantry of Johnson. Of course, in Tamil as in English; the tasteful combination of the two is the perfection of style. Tamil poetry, however, as you would expect, is best when it is as nearly pure as possible. And the poetry is a well of Tamil undefiled. South-Indian verse, like all other- Oriental p6etry, pre^nts its special difficulties, and these often repel the English sti^dent, who thinks (often rightly) that the result will hardly repay him for his toil; Yet, it may be affirmed that a foreigner can never really understand a people till he has made himself familiar with the verse in which the soul of the nation gives expression to its deepest convictions, its moatcherished feelings, and most earnest aspirations ; and althongh in prose we do not use the archaic words, the poetic inversions, and the condensed elliptical style of poetry, we can hardly expect to write or speak any language with power and precision unless we have made oarselves familiar with its poetry. It is, therefore, a pity that South-Indian poetry ^eems to the student to be written in a language quite different from that in jrdinary use. The reasons for the exceeding difficulty of South-Indian verse are, partly the fact that almost

gpepch* The northeri? was Sanskrit, with its Prakrits, Qr dependent vernaoularg; the southern w?is Tamil, with its cognate dialects. It hn^ been almost tak^n for granted that the na,me Tamil was derived from the S mskrit DRAVIPA. Native spholav^ deny this ; but it must be allowed that on philological points their authority is not nlway? conclusive. In regard to the derivation of th? word Tamil, I have ventured to suggest that it is a cori'uption of Ten-mori, Temmori, Tamir, which Europeans write Tamil. A parallel derivation may be adduced, ^ h e cocoainut palm was brought into India from Ceylon, and originally, moat probably from the Nicobar Islands. In the Tamilian languages it has no name except Tenna-ma/ram, " t h e southern tree." It? fruit is called Tennankai and Tenkai. In this case the proper narilie for the SouthIndian family of languages would be the Tamilian. They d i f f e r V e r y widely now from one another, though possessing in the main a common stock of roots, and having abundant-signs' in tljeir inflectional systems and idioms of their oomm<?n origin. In later days, after t i e Afghan ai)d other Mnhammadan invasions, and during the long and splendid reipna of t^e Mogul emperors, there ai-ose, and was spread ovei- India, a composite lansruage which is variously called Hindi, Urdu, and Hindustani, in which ^Arabic njttd Persian words are strangely mingled, in different proportions, with Sanskrit and various vernaculars ; and this, in some shape or other, is understood b y vast multitudes of people even in the extreme south. It will be seen, therefore, that for a perfect mastery of the languages of India, three great parent languages have to be
studied, a n d these are SANSKRIT, TAMII, a n d ARABIC.

The Sanskrit is the key to all the oldest Hindu sacred writings, and mingles itself in varying proportions with.well-nigh every dialect in India. Classical (or high) Tamil is the basis of the great languages of the South ; while Arabic is the key to Muhammadai* literature, Km- one of the chief elements in all varieties of the Hindustani. Tamil had the advantage of being cultivated, fixed, and formed chiefly by the Jains, who hated everything Brahmanical, and gave it a highly original and most beautiful grammar, preserving its peculiar characteristics, and developing it ac There has always been a rivalry between North and South. Thns in Kaladi it is said : " Whatever soil you sow it in, the Strychnos nut Grows not a cocoa-paim. Some of the Southern land Have entered heaven ! Man's life deciden hie future state. Full many from the Northern land inhabit hell." See " The four hundred qnatraina. " Clarendon Press. 1893.


referred imall

the whole of it is very old (and most of the verses ^aoted in these chapters are from eight hundred to a thousand years old) ; and partly the fact that Eastena bards, for the most part, regard all that is simple in expression as superficial, and compofie nothing which is not intended to have at least three sets of commentaries. Thence arises the difficulty that commentators mnltiply, and disagree, and the poetical idea is often lost in the inky floods which these literary cuttle-fish pour forth around it. If - we take such a poem as Browning's Bordello, with its infinity of perplexing allusions, its curious inversions and ellipses, and its embedded ger^g, we can form some idea of much of the most esteemed SoutK-Indian verse. Suppose again, that Sqrdello had been written in the dialect o f Chancer, or Piers Plowman, and that all its words were run up together without division or stops, in a character like that of some of the old manuscripts in the Bodleian, and often on stained and worm-eaten palm-loaves instead of paper,and an idea can be formed of the difficulties to be encountered in the study of much Oriental poetry. And the stanzas themselves ave often like some ancient tessellated pavement around which you walk perplexed and pondering until at length its meaning dawns upon yon and you slowly come to recognise a pattern sometimes grotesque, or even repulsive, but sometimes too of rare and suggestive beauty. South-Indian poetry is full of conceits and fancies too often of impurity. It is iodeed hard to distinguish, and it requires the power of the fabled Hamsa* to separate the wisdom and beauty of most of the Indian literature from the inanity and grossness which too often mingle with these. Though, indeed one must say (and educated Hindus are not slow to detect it), that many books in various languagesItalian, French, Latin, Greek, and Englishare nearly as objectionable as anything in Tamil and yet circulate freely among ourselves. In India generally nothing but poetry is allowed to be literature. Everything of any value is in metreTamilians divide all Ijooks into the " Ulakkanam" and " niakkiyam"i.e., (1) grammars and (2) compositions which conform to the laws of the grammars. And all - ^ v e n medical and mathematical treatisesare in verse. This is not unknown in Europe. The reader will remember the Eton grammar :
" Vo fit vi ; ut Volvo, volvi : vivo excipo vijci." See Naladi 135.

A s a specimen the reader of Tamil m a y be t o t h e NannCd, mars. fied in .1 w h i c h is o n e o f which cannot the fail T h i s has a v e r s e in w h i c h way scholars to teachers.

best Tamil

are classiIt may b e


professors, tutors, lecturers, a n d

q u o t e d as e m i n e n t l y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c : " The swan, the cow, the cartli, the parrot pert, Tlie pot with holes, the browsing goat, the b'u'ffalo, 'I'lie straining fibre : these, the first, the middle sort , \ud last of scholars shadow forth." '11 10 a r e t h e s e e i g h t t y p e s o f s t u d e n t s . the middle sort(second He means the the

to Compare the worthiest(first class m e n ) t o " s w a n s or cows " ; class)to " earth a n d t h e p a r r o t " ; the last to the " p o t with h o l e s , " " t h e g o a t , " " t h e buffalo," and the "fibrous w e b of p a l m - t r e e , " w h i c h - is butter. And why ? (the Hanica, a fabulous bird)is and then used to strain ghi or melted

A " swan" mingled

r e p u t e d t o h a v e t h e f a c u l t y , if y o u p u t with water, of drinking l e a v i n g t h e w a t e r in t h e vessel. are emblems of the

before it milk eats a b u n .eflcctivc

only the milk, A "cow" and These two

d a n t l y , a n d t h e n r u m i n a t e s at leisure. discriminating student, t h e best sort of all.

A g a i n , the "earth " yields her increase, but only proportion to the labour bestowed on i t ; and

in the or

" p a r r o t " r e t a i n s ia m e m o r y y o u r i n s t r u c t i o n s , b u t c a n only repeat the lesson taught, without a p p l y i n g it. taneity and Thus these originality. represent are the inferior class of students, w h o expanding second and spon-

d e f i c i e n t in

T h e l o w e s t s o r t o f w o u l d - b e s c h o l a r s is c o n i p a i o d t o a " p o t full of holes what you pour in r u n s o u t us lioiii in it, f a s t a s y o u p o u r i t i n ; t o a " g o a t , " Avhicli g o e s that rushes into stirs u p t h e a n d to the away, and dregs! The ingenious thin the stream, tlouuders "web of about turbid the and

s h r u b to s h r n b , e a t i n g the tips only ; to the " b u l t a l o , " m u d , a n d then drinks the muslin-like water

palm-tree/ worthless of prose this very iu

u s e d as a strainer, w h i c h lets all retains Native trifling.

t h a t is v a l u a b l e p a s s

only the impurities The

graminavs contain much commentaries, India. only really classical


able ones, contain the the l a n g u a g e s of


G. U . POPE, M. A.







T A M I L LITERATURE. Sip/s^n^ erpk^^

etenanit^. Qaaeuih utemiBm Qfssipeer iSlflojIt eurjptLop pglQcj.


IL ]. "i^eattjiT LDoaaeur ui/rifl SJJBUU mimgGiuts aQ^^afis flaifleBL.^ OfsoQeusi Qpsafafa eufluuu i^eiiiimir ^tirssfir p^ii^iuini)
stm kiiifir /B&vd^s .cSuBUlu

2. desert track. The mothei- of the young lady who had so left icith her husband meets some brahmins and asks them and they reply.] She.' 0 Y e Virtuous Brahmins, who art carryiog an umbrella to shade you from the burning rays and a pitcher hung to a pole and the trident, and art so indifferent to this world, that your senses do your bidding and art pursuing the right path, Ye art, not unfamiliar with this dreary road.' ' Did you see my daughter and another's son go this same road ?

Qeioreifi eSarafff iD^uf!^ ^eirui QeiruQfi

ir^ujir^n Quneo eScneuA.^ aj&iei QiuuiestiiiiULh ^ifiirGfi lugpfism ^LoOuj.T rmi^ sssr^eusoeO Qfi6^.Qi-n'Qsuu-S(e,."

1. [Scene, ffushand jtropoximj to start un a pcrilon-y 'Their love was not till now. known to the public journey, having to nns.i a uv-oi, fur tin' .<ah' of pain, eye.' thr fond wife f vposliilntr.^. She.-You vainly tell iiioi'l' tbe dangers of crossing the rainless hilly wastes, so parched that the wild elk is forced to feed oh thorny ulcps and truvellers pierced with arrow heads and fainting from loss of blood and thirst are forced to wet their parched tongue with their bitter tears. Y"oii do not know my real nature, my lord. TO tell me auch things is it meet for you ? Do not sunder our bonds of love an^l leave me. If I caunot cross tlic same sorrowful pnth with you, what is there else that can give me plea.snre gUjBfi^a^ci^ sasQfi Qpsaoen^p
QsjSuuif Q/eO(DB)*@ (IeiiG(^aiT

They.' Not that we did not see. W e did see the pair. May you be the mother of t i e well-bedecked lady who iiccompanied the manly lover through this fearful desert.' ' Except to those who wear them. Of what avail is the fragrant sandal to the Hills, Though the Hills gave them birth. Think well. you. Your daughter will be of equal use to ' Except to those who wear them. Of what avail is the beautiful white pearls to the water, Though the water gave them birth. Consider well. to you. Your daughter\vill be of equal use


QjSuQuiiei OeFiuetfTLCrS^i OsirSsrti^eai lui^esifn Oaj^^eaiff O^ffoeir Loirlec QiijirQfiis^^ /fliaiSsii:t_ Qiueinos Qetrir(^^^iiiijB (Sflt^Los O^^ay^.? fithQfienQeir Lfemniifi ^irm/S Ljcsa irf&uj ' snexfiQeir Quf^co snQeurwiiiQsomi aari^fsnhsL ujiiOmifi eoeirsavQsiir td^^aur Qpaadituj LDirailieai^ Loioia (o^iiSiriSiT Gutt/S^-, uenojjii tjpf^miSfiiii u<Buuania a^tio^^ mitciL/Goir iSputSsu ui^dseaa/filT iS3ar<LiiEisir ^LDS^wnjs) s^esriuGer; 9 AOs Of QaiaaQp^^ wssstlueuira AMevxn^ i(^Qeir iSpuiSgn Mnasesiai^tr
G^a^iian attiu) a'^earujOer;

' Except to those who play on the Vina, Of what avail is the sweet tunes proceeding from seven strings of the Vina, T'lough the Vina gave them birth. Miiiuler well, your daughter will be of equal U3e to

' Do-not be distressed on account of this lady of countless virtue. She has siinplv |ii eFerred hi'r lord and has followed liiin. 'rill? is tile tiiiL path of virtue in this life and for the next too.

er/fii-lamifleireJIeof QfiO^ueuiid lUtrQfQar iSflUiSami ujrjfiiaeaeuOuairO^ii/tt/ igOfiesir gpihuta aSsnrcjQerr;




T R U T H OB S I D D t l A N T A

D E E P I K A . 125




{CmUinued from




In his ludian Empire, Hunter remarks : " Indeed, it is worthy of lemark that several of the best Indian aathors, whether Sanskrit or Vernacular, have left no indication of their names. A s it was the chief desire of an Indian sage to merge his individual existence in the universal existence, so it appears to have been the wish of m;iny Indian men of letters of the highest types to lose their individuality in the school or cyclu of literature to which they beloi^ged. This remark is doubly apt in the case of Tamil sleholars aud poets; from the days of Agasthya down to very recent times. The names of Tamil poets are in the majority of cases after their birth-places or after their family names. Some names denote the distinguishing features and idiosyncracies of .lutliors. Not one out of a hundred is known by the name by which lie was called b y those j e a r and dear to him. It is but natural that our poet shares the same fate. In his own time he was known b y the uame of Kamban or Kambanadan. Poems eulogizing him Lave sihu-ii^^^, sihu aii(i)a>'iij)aiiirenSI) and sLDuitnL-tfifietinsh, The name of his country after which he is called is certainly Kambanadu in the District of Tiinjore. The villuge in which he was born and in which he resided in bis declining years undoubtedly was as stated in the last stanza of d-iQaauo/f^i^" LoeirCSp l / s (tfiii aie> arei) ShC.", and in the ^ailujjp of the Raifaayari" airirearar * * euiri^Qaines."
H i s P a RENTAGE.

for revenging the cause of his son Amb^gapathy who was sentenced to capitl p u n i s h m ^ t by tiie sovereign, because be had a sort of clandestme inpBDMiu^ with the princess, and that Kamban would not have dared to do so, had not the revengeful temper of a Kshatriya been strong in him. If he really came of royal parentage, there could have been no objection for the consummation of marriage between his son and the princess himself, his son or LMandson might hiive become a king, as they every facility of aci I Hiring dominion over at least a sm^ill tract of country under any one of the three great sovereigns of the Tamil country. 'But thfey proved to be only s^cholars and poets. Hence, even iiccordiiiff to the law of heredity this propositiou falls down. That he was an ^ f ^ t i r by birth is a doLrniaticiil statciiKMit. There are also those who hold and belie\ e that Kamban was only a Vellala by birtli, aud that on the death of his father, hi-: mother who was siitferiiiL;- from abject poverty entered as a luutihiiaid in the household service of Sadaiyappa Miiduliyar oT Qemuj / B ^ ^ i f . There is not .sub.-tantial cvuL ricu tiprove this thesis, nor is there any in ti i i;il aiiruiir'nt to disprove it. W h e n Kamban became a famous jxiet he was treated on all equal terms by Ins guardian ;,ud patron and also by the Kings. iJut diis (.-annot be held as an argument to assort that he was a ^'e]lalil, because poets are in all times and ayes adored and treated as more than equals by all nobk-s ami Kings. Otf s D ff^aoj a poeui ill oiiu liiinui-ed stanzas enlogiziug A'ellalas, poets and the cliaiirable nobles of the Vellala conimnnity and their far-famed gifts and valorous deedsall within the local limits of 0^/T6inT6)oi_ujssn_a)ii) which sin^'^: the name aini I'anie of and other poets of -T_ Ali does not praise Kamban except im'ideiita'l\ ih stanzas No. 4") " ues-.uSp 0-auL.iiSp &c., Xo, 5 t
Quaiunuj un^e^ &C.," N o . 87 Ac ," Xo. 8"| " w.rf.-is.n i - J ^ Ac " ^ T ^ p p QT.i^LSi^nui^ii.Ti



This was perhaps he was a native of Q^r^fii^di. l^sit in stanza -No. 50 and from the commentary niii! it calculated by the court astrologers to be productive (viJe page 264 of i?^n6wouL_LD6imi_ei! a. < li Huiioiuted of evil and that on theit- advice the king ordered the by VictoriaPresb, Vellore, ItS?) child to be left in a jungle where he was fouii<l by the there seems to be some reason to conjecture that ff^s-^nT of who was childless. There are K.imban might be a Vellala. Then again on page 24C -othttra who d e c k f o that he was only the sou of an of the same commentary there is related an anecdott jiBT of i^Q^siQf i^n. Those who assert that he came that sT'tiiutiuiiaa (tp^sSajna the famous disciple of of royaT pareutage-TMy iil>W'^''^dition that he killed Kamban visited his teacher one m i d u i ^ t and that he the son of the king while he #BS pursued by a wild rrmained some days in his house. If this anecdote ^ephaut saying, " sirLLL-tiear eflLLi-irjuiui ^sfl j(r4cr which is supported by the : 30

A b o u t the piirentage of Kamban traditions vary aud scholars differ. There are those who assert that he was the posthumous son of a small king who died in battle and that his mother sought tlie refuije of an of Some state that hia birtli was


126 T H E







Gut tor fi^u utmfi ae^efi^f ^tm^snaOu-'tm ^ahr tL-pGajO^ aiiiDi^^^ 0*naD*s sisS^f ^-/ar^ (!uiu>rp jfmi^UGfiit Gu^. is tnie, Kamban should certainly have been a Vellala, because a Vellala even in a time of dire necessity would not even quench his thirst in the house of an pffrfs*. Even if srOi^Qfu^, which every one accepts as the genuine production of Kamban and is certified to thnt effect by the above cited stanza No. 86 of will not convince one that Kamban was a Vellala, for the reason that he would not have extolled the praise of his own class, we declare tliat Kamban, if he had not been a Vellala would not have put the last line of " JtifhuSsssr ^Q^Loar finiii Sic , * * QsiicmOaait^a^ Semuiu^ jD&iOT
iciri^G^I Ca[[(SaaEUl|i& euSiLiGetr qSssnifin^

as it stands. If he had been a K i n g , he would neither bear this line nor the lines in erOnQgu^
" OfnQ^rtc^&i^ii LDoa sirm. a'S

These are the only traditional accounts we possess of the boyhood of Kambaii. W h o his teacher was and who were his school-fellows, how his benius developed and what books he read with interest, what sports he was fond of and how he was regarded by his playfellows, and whether he produced any work in his young days which indicated the future poet, we have no means of rescuing. All are lost to oblivion. This is no wonder considering what one knows of that immortal English Bard of all times, that poet of poets Shakespeare. Tlie exact date of Shakespeare's birth is still a mystery. The exact date of the death of the f;ither of English Poetry-Chaucer is still a problem- Thanks tp the labours of the Indian Archaalogists in this land of myths and traditions, we are at least in a position to fix the nge of Kamban with tolerable approximation, thoiigh we cannot exactly fix the date.s o f his birth and death and of hie compositions.

iSflisfiirQsoelr e.(ifh/rge\is0ib iSpi^sifGa e.60Q;iJiuLi iS^isfiirOa." Kamban is said to have been a Vellala in the niirasi Right (Appendix page X V I ) . /FI-I-HL QiuQguai was written by ^ i h - i ^ ^ ^ i r enlogizing his own caste. So might Knmban have enlogized liis own caste iu aOoQg u ^ and jS(r^sa>saiifiiaijc. From all these premises before us we are led to conjecture that Kamban was a Vellala b y birth.

(To he continued)

R E V I E W S .

VIVEKACHINT.^MANI SERIES * The Secretary of the Diffusion of K n o w l e d g e A g e n c y has sent these to ns for a full review. A n d we have with us iv full review of tliese which the Kev. Dr. G. U Pope has kindly s e n t ; mid we are unwilling to publish the same, as we are afraid such long reviews do not in any way help the author or publisher here, as iu England, and we wisli very much that the utmost help and encouragement shonld be afforded to the learned, patient and hard-working Secretary and the Editor of the VivekacMntamani magazine and the serial publications. H e has been doing in a quiet and an unassuming way a work which ought to command the sympathy of the richest of our Tamil land, and he has been the means of bringing to the front a nuinbef of graduates of our local University who at other times would not have condescended to read a line of Tamil.
(1) Kamalamhal or the Fatal Ritmov.r.' Published by C. V. Saminatha Aiyer, D. K . Agency, Triplicane. Bcautifullv bound. Price Bnpeo 1-8.0. (2) ' Fairy Tell True.' Published by C. V. Swnminatlia, D . K . Agency, Triplicane. Full Cloth. Rs. 0-6-0. (3) ' Story of Colbert.' Pobliahed by C. V. Swaminatha D. K. Agency, Triplicane. Fnll Cloth. BB. 0-5-0. (4) ' (FioefcaraeafftoJartit) (A lullaby) 6 fits. Aiyei-

There are two accounts of his having been inspired as a poet while he was yet a school-boy under ten years of age. One relates to the widely known anecdote of sneSFjsffniurii Q^ean believed to be true by the majority of Tamil Pandits. The other is the one found in erOnQ^uffi Qfiastfeon {Q^nQg^i-Geueonm^QfifieS u-n.i's edition), where it is stated he was inspired by a Brahma Rakshasa. The inspired Kamban at once sang Saiaswathi Anthaihy. After the occurrence of either of these incidents, his gnardian grew closcly attached to the inspired youth and introduced him to the king-and nobles of the court. (Tradition attributes another incident to the origin ol Saraswathi Anihathy-y\Ae eSGitf^3erou3(Qffl). W h a t may b e deduced from these time honored mythical incidents may b e simply thisthat Kamban while yet a boy evinced signs of future greatness and that he was a poet born not made.

Postpje cvfra.




These geatleraen hare struck altogether a new aud fhiitfo) vein of literature in Tamil and with success too, as ii borne testimony to, by most learned Tumi! schqiars ampi^g Indians and Europeans alike. W e have read themstories when they appeared in the magasino and we have re-read them now-to ourselves and what is more importiint to onr ladies nt lioine and the yount^ children,and the stories areas delightful as ever, Kamalambal in one sense is rit)t new. Almost all the words an l thoughts are current coin iimong the people and it is the chief merit of the author that he has used sach av.iilable materials with so nuich dextei-it}- as to afford pleasure and to adorn a talc and point ii moml. The conclusiotvof the poem is truly ovieiit;iI in its imagination, and tonching in the cx(,renie and the author aotly concludes with those divine words from Thiruv?tchakam out of the hymn of which we gave . n translation of in our August number. W e po-intod out that this hymn contained the oreani of the Advaita Siddhanta and we failed to add that this particular stanza in which tlie quotation occurs contains the churned butter and its delight. Thaynmanavar refers to this p:i3sage in the following words. " Clansing it among the greatest sayings of the greatest sagos." " Os^xfaOtfsirQ^u^suTiu^ iSserj^^V^unnr^Qffi Q^uj.i^Q^LniO^n(^S itirQeira ."

couragementto enterprises of theaort so distiaerestcdly undertaken by our friend of the D . . K . A g e n c y . " Snua BodMni." W e have i-eceived the first two numbers of this Tamil Magazine and we are glad to give it,a hearty welcome. A n d this is an additional sign of the times It shows our English educated youtlu and men are slowly waking up to their real duties and responsibilities and gradually losing their indifference to the?ir mother tongue. .Our mother Tamil expects every one of her sons to do his duty, as one of our friends put it. But still n considerable lousing up is necessary all round. The public must come round and do all they can to support and eneournge such things. If as the writer, in this Magazine, lament.s, there :u'e no kings and great potentates to ])arri>ni/.c TiDnil learning as in days of yore, yet in L-oursc of time, Demos must assume Kingship" in this respect, as in the civilized European countries. It is ])V!iyed at the same time that the Govonnnent and the Universities may not be indifferent to the claims of the vernacular languages. The contents of the t^vo imnibers are interesting. And a story called ' u>,ai./rraOTaao^' is well begun by Mr. V . G. Snryanaravana Sastri, i). In the article un the ' Condition of Tamil,' the writer would have done well in giving the history of Tamil to have tr.avcrsed the views of I'rof. M. Seshagiri Sastrigal, in regard to the existence of the three Sangsons. The Pandit who writes on ' some grammar questions,' could aiford to state the questions more fully aud in plainer terms. Of coarse, it is needless to remark that anything in Tamil cannot safely part company from Religion, as these two nnmbors themselves indicate. W e wish the magazine eveiy snccess.

As regards the Lullaby, we need say nothing more about its popularity except that since I put the book into my children's hands I hear nothing but the^e verses repeated ever and anon. ' Lives of great men always remind us' of our dutie.s and oar own possibilities and they serve as a becon of light to guide and cheev us in onr struggles in this life. Life of Colbert is no exception in this respect and insre;id of one siioh life, our Tamil people should be made familiar with scores of such among European men ivud women. The books are printed and bound in the best of styles and unlike our friend who is a Master of Arts who reinarkad that our raaga/.ine was costly and it need uot. be got up so well, we think it a duty to iiitrodnce a good taste in respect of books, we are given to read. ' Good wine needs no bush' but-no merchant desiriug to win his nioacy will dispense with the necessary bush and how would a diamond look, given the'\vorst of setting.' Yesterday we worshipped learnino- as a Goddess and why should we not give her the best dress and appeai ance. W e would only wish that our Tamil land will wake up soon euougli toexi e id tlieir hel)) and er-




THK October iiunil)ci- of the

.\u-akriiPit litdta

iia.- a

sliort a p p i e c i u t i v o notice of uiu- lust t w o issaes and f lec'ds to say, - Am another side a i m s at establisliing t h e p r e f e r e n c e of .Sivite S i d i l h a n t a o v e r the V c d a t i t a . Tlio V e d a n t i n ivelcomov all sucli a t t e m p t s aiul siiys, ' so loii^ as it is a mere m a t t e r of theurv u l i y assume o n l y Ihrti; I)a(lartlias, assume 1 liroo liuiidieJ n.ti well, if b y tliat rueau^-, y.^u c a n siuii.lify the jirulileni .iiul p u t au end t^jall iiic-taphy.sical w r s n g l i i i f f , " U'e .n[ipreoiate no doiiht tin- i,'iit)<,l nattifc u liicli iM-onijited tlie ohsei vation hut we fail Uj n e i t h e r loiric iiur tiutli in ii All s y s t e m s d i v i d e tliems e l v c s into a rotle of p r a c t i c e , m o r a l a n d s p u - i t n a l M d : t b e e x p o s i t i o n of a m e t a p h y s i c a l o r natural T h e o r y ^ a s t o t h e natiiie ' I tlviii;_'-;. and their ultimate ong;in o r Tesolatioi


T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A


It was only in oar last number we quoted him and e x So frr as the former is concerned, in the whole of India, the pressed our hopes and wishes. But such is the nature code i3 the Bame, in spite of difference in forms and names o f h u m a t i stability. " suSaTiSc^uu and the practice is rigid. On this subject therefore there OirsiiOpteieaaGaiirfii-tSiotuiGiLi." Philosophy apart, the need not be any wranpling at any time at all, though on this loss to the country of such a good and noble man at sach a subject, people would fight, whether with sense or without time is a great misfortune. Our heart is fall and the senso, as ou the subject of 'Namam.' But on the subject of words stick at our throat and the pen refuses to write. M a y metaphysics, it has all along been ' mere matter of theory' from the world's beginning and it will continue on, till the All-Merciful Sankara rest his soul in Peace! the world's end. in spite of our contemporary's earnest piutest against metaphysical wi'angling. These endless " B u t wliat was it tli.Tt the apiostic Buddhists worshipped. conti-ovei-.sies have however enrious modes I'f resuiTection, What "-as the concrete form which Gautama's religion took in in new slinpes and forms at different periods in histoiy the early age of which wo are speaking, before vast monasteries sind in ditici'ent-countries. Knt for this metaphysical and np unwieldy preisthood replaced the primtive faith ? What was the actual form of norship which drew aud engaged the wi-aiiglinn; again, the world would possess no literature in multitude who could not all have appreciated or worshipped the philosiiphy, woi'tli having. But for this ' mere matter of abstract idea of a holy life ? The reply is simple. For centnHioory' and 'nietaphj sieal wrangling,' what would be the ries tlic people worshiped holiness and virtue as typified in the size of llie Vudantif literatni-e and what would be the life of Gautama. They revered the memories of the Great special merit of Veilanta a( all h Does not a writer in Te;iclici', they worshipped his invisible presence. The sculptures at Saiiclii, at Amaravaii, at Bliarhut and other places, represent Hii! Si'|ili'iiilier niiniiicr ! An itki iifii htdia ' cliiim j>i I-v!.uMrnii- 1 1 Vediiiita. I' rl uvei nil otliei- .x^ stenis. by lioniau'-L'Jiiiiil Io tree, to serpent, to the wheel, or to the umbrella; 1 Init nliiect represents or relirr:;~.iii II jiostiilales only one P;ul:iiil.ia and that tlii.s giiiu ill cvei v onsc the :I worship " paid to the presence, presence iif Biulilha. It W.TS the invisible I'aiii'.rllia is iiiy.-<ell and that" all Unit we sue Ae., is all ol' tliu Tc.'u'hur, or to tlio power supposod to reside in his teaching May:i. an<'iKll(.'ss delusion and .1 sri:in.r A i c (liese 'matters (the wlifcl.) It is a wdiship of association or of memory. The Kpcits rciidored i'aiiious liy Buddha's presence durin^j his life-time ol' rneic tli(_'i>ry' ur nut. :inil .s'uliji'cts oT "metaiiliysieal arc ci'iisi-i-ratril in ilio mind of liis difjcipli." to sacicd rccollecwian.rllii--. Kill not llie -reat Sankaia estalilisli lliis SIIIM'I-MI ilieii;y allci- girat tionbli- and c.viicnililme oi' tiini. and worship is otTercd on those spots t o the invisible .ilijiM'i o r i a i l l i . ' 'J'hiis early Buddhism was the worship of holiliMi'Mip, Nay dill he 'lol give I'orc-ed i ntei'|)i ei at ions lU's.'i as typilied iii Budillia, aud of his luily invisible presence." to texis. Mccordiiii: to tlic o|iiiiijn of several ^Siirli is the defence of Buddhistic worship by stich b;ii!'.i|M-111 and Indian savaiiN. to cstnlili.-Ii liis tlii'or\- on the iiMot aiu-i.nt ;iNllioiil\ .\ii(l wa.- not IIM'> tlieoi \ a scholar and uncompromising agnostic as ^Ir. RomeshCluiniler 1 )iitt. 'Why could we not defend our symbolic at(.:i :.!l l.ilM tlNni liioMliisin ami d e i h c d ricni il in worship, on similai lines Avlien in fact our symbols are part r A - lor our a\(icle Aiiollu r side. llu> very so jireu'inint with meaning and is non-historical and title was intended to coiiMy- noi :iii iilca oT )nL'-eniii;icin;e (,; jncfereitee. anil ilo nol iinilers(;ind I lu- point purely |iliiloso)'liic. * * 1! our i-oMleiiipoi'ai-y n'rerrii:L;' to it us - Shit,. Sid,lliunta' tlioii-l. our whole artirlo we spoke oi it as Susliwaia THE language of a people has been called a moral Sankliy oi-'I'lieisl ic I'liilo- pliy. und we cuioud l.irj^eh" barometer, that indicates and marks the vice and fall of a from llie Clita. OI eoiirsr. tlie piuasi: in oiu- >rnse is nation's life. Says Bacon ' men conceit that their reason tautulogieal as Siddiianta, nicriiis in llu.- Tamil lunnuaL;x- hath the mastery over their woi-ds, bnt it happens too at any luti- Sm'vum' und .Siililliaiitan. as anv selniol that words react and influence the understanding. Words, 'l-clioiiuiy will show as a Tartar t>ow, do shoot back up on the intellect of the wisest and mightily entangle and pervert the judgment." * * However, it may not be, out of place, to observe here, * * that in our ' metaphj-Bical wrangling', we will conme ' FOEGET' and ' forgive' are the key words t the resourselves most, to human reason and human argnmenis, pective moral standard of the Indian and the Christian, so fai- it is L ifted for man to understand them, and we according to the learned contributor on the Ethics of K u will never appeal to our own individual experience and ral. In ' forgivenees' there is an actiye remembj-ance of intuition, not capable of proof and demonstration, nor the injury done and the sense of your having done a noble would we appeal to anthoiity, except as corroboration of thing in e.xcusiiig your enemy ; who for ought may remain ooi- views, and as showing the historical basis on which your enemy still. Then to love him, maj- be impossible. our views are based. W e m a y b e allowed also to controBut when j-ou forget, nothing can impede yon in yonr vert the position, if possible, of one school of men when duty to love and do good to others. oTliis moral standard they as.sert that such and such an authority favoni-s their has also affected our ideal of God. Our God is not a venge-view only. W e may also observe that in regard to logical ful God. He is '/reoiSea^' (has neither likes nor dislikes). methods, and niles of intei'pi'etation, there is a consensus His name is ' f a f c e n t ' (Doer of Good-Beneficent). A n d of cypinion among the majoi'itv of mankiud^. not one moment passes but He is doing good. Evil and * darkness of mortals are not reflected in His mind. But * * under His Supreme Law, each one reaps good or bad Lt is with the greatest regret and' sorrow, we reooid the according to earli one's -work and deserts. death of Professor Sadhu 8eshayya, n. A., Rao Bahadur.

- OR


Commenced o n tfie Queen's Commf

Literature^ Science- &cD o i j , 1897. t n o r a t i o n

h Monthly Journal Devoted, to Religion. Philcsophv,



Tiiis hi;.'li ;mthnritv ev;ili''ii!v



I ' K A N S L A T I O N S

:-:i_vs tliMt Sivn is lievniid the




I'f iviiril aiKl miriil niitl ilis two lotus fci t .vre sou^lit for liy Vijiiiiu ; :iii(l hcin^ un;iliii- to Hii'l tliem out, \'i>iniu prniaed Siva Willi devotion iiiul wors!.ipfnlnr9S, and Siv;i r;rnoc- lo Him. In tlii.~ conocctioii n\uis.-.i"Tt innji.' ;L tvi'. Ilnilima % IciiiL' I lie liH.-id (if while Visl-.MU lotus fi'ct of Siva. TheBP stories have iin i ni Koekin^ the I'soier if si^jtiilicHnce.

(^Continued from pai/i'7>j). iL^emarm fin^LDS^ QffTaQp^p Qpainit Qerararari fimat iStesriS&ii tSart^eri ^nekp^^ar Qioatsir^ ^jrT^fluvV' AcaroD-ernr Q^'b^^ st^i^Sar mQssr. 13 Vishna who measured out enrtli, and Brahto4 residin-T in tne Ijotus, and tlie otlier Deviip, though they have been tliinkin? of Sivii f,,r i in measurable time, huve not l)eeii al)le to tJiiiik oaf Siva. N'urie has TiieiisurHd out Siva transcending nil Ir-'.avpiis, wirli tho intention of His e y e s ; Siva sees ull nnfi s:ts inb^ivc all, pervi.iling :ili.

( Vuriiittrcto in Purnin Byiifuna Hr

In tlio liutn;in binly. tlir parr le'. v.c-.n upper cxneinirics of I lie tliii^lis. ftifiiiiriL' '.tid liMviij.' four fjic'-?, is the p;irc nsci'ii - il ro lir.-ihtn.iI'll" triatiiruUr part :iijnve i' is tin- p.nrt asi-rili'-ii to Visliriii In the of yoi;apractire, ilie iir:ictil iot-er lias to r o n n i v e iiii),.si'll ns Itinlimain conceiv es Brrilinia \ ho in 8Lib.stance is with liini.'ielf \ and in teekini^ ftir a know-leilL"^ of Siva who is sf .rpfl in Brah.nar.iudlim

'hyctu rnk.^hnyct)


has to rise Mp t.liroiiL'li P.iiiliMia .Vi'.ih or tlu; tube in tlm spinal nervea up lo Brahmar:!iiil!)r;i. Tl;.' .t.:inic jir.'ii;(itioner has ti> dcflccnd from The tiian;.;ular i-piit \'ish!in To i lie si| a;i rn Font of Brahma for the satnr -Mirpnsp I'liut. Visinin h is to ilesccnd and Brahma li-i,s to a.s'-oiid III or.K-r to SIT raraii.atnia. lie, as has been said i.-> Uiin-acliabi'word and iniml, iiat l eachabli* ly onuentmted devotion whic I 8e:-tires F is firaco a^il tlu-roliy revenls Him t'.i 1 This Terse (fives iinothcr reason for Siva's niiperiority. Reference the di'votep. As is observed I-!' spiritual Juanani reiJierein made to ViBhim'iKicufiins the whole eartli with a font siiltipir from yoL:u-practicc is lipoendciit ultimntely or at ifas' of His with a view to crush the Emperor Buii. Snch n i^rcac. beint; in part on IIIH ^race Pnrainatnift. T, I> l.l'u'ii<:l>jnntnj'"r:^h Tishtia coald not find out the fnot^f Siva in spite of effort enumerates the various seats of Dhyana in the body from the toH that direction. This story i.H explicitly referred to in Saruthopui the foot to Brah MKirandlira in the head if] The Hs;-end.'ii<,'- oniei '' ^hfid Thi.s Ftif yidamb^iornga dttuuJiram, mrtgyatc Vishnu yiadliuna, Stut- does not elash with the view we liav.; express, il, Kniime: ation of Dbyaiia-eentres in ;in as. ond.nLT older witli rei\ ri ;n e t va tlittuam mahcsand inavang Trtaririiki goqharam, Bhaktya nam. physiolosrical position does n-it conHict with ur.i ritaiior viimnuh, pvaiada tnakorodvilthuh. development in the course ef yoea-proctiee.








mi^i^.'Stir (yeirmui e\)wwa> jrirfi Q^^s i* aifatremQesnii inirium miifiiA (yarojirm auL/p

The meaning of Jata as reprcsentinif innumerable laminons rays emanating; from Hi in as a central mast of light baa befeu alrendygiven

Hirnni/a Sinii.<ru, Hiiaiii/ttkenu (CItandijigjiopaniiihad),

nation is netdeil of Kuwrai tlo\ver. 1 happened to express in my

Some expla-

contribution to one of thejssaes of the Sidd'tunta Deepika ^probably

the first No.) that the ret'ervnce tn Kowrai flower implies suppression of dosinu:. Tliis viutv was declared wroug in Its Tamil edition, and tlie writer who coiitriljiited the Tamil version observed that iu case :in osoturiu niuariint^ is deemed necessary for the Bower it resembles rranavaiti appearance, and so it may^stand for Pranava. He also timk olijectiini to my explanation, as arroneoua on the ground that the idea has been e\|ii'usn(vl already in a prior verse. He tinally asked ns to accept t!ic cuaclnsioa that Sira wears the flower in it^ physical and literal sense. 1 do not see how the (lower bears any resemblanoe to Pranava.

14. .great) ;

Brahma stands fi- beyond (far mperinr or hir Vishnu further on Bralnnu than buth, (superior to superior lo

Brahma) and Siva further

both ; Siva sees all everywhere.

Am shown in the trHnslatioii this view is capable o( double iaterpretation of tbe senso iudiciited. In ilie Purana there is a repTodnctioD of the VuUic text h-om Sai-i<bhupaiiifhail reg-inling relacire aperiority alromly quoted. Tbe other sense is one

will baaed on Br;iiadara)ii/op.iiii~liad and forma a tliiid re:iiiou !'i>r Ithe be very much oblijicd to him if he can quote a single authoriauthority. root

superiority of Siva. Accunliii^ to the last mentiDiiod L'iMi;i.slm(l. the world of i}rahui:i is siiii.'iti^d ut7oa' the woild of Vislinu, and the world of Vishnu is sicuiiCL"! Mow the world of .Sit'a. .ind i'ui tlier those worlds are related to nue another iu tlie sauie way as Wirp and woof in a cloth. I'iic cross thread rppi-esents the particular world of a particular deity and deva. The lon<;ti:udinnI thread represents the extent of influence and pi-rmeatiou of a particular deity not only in his nwii region liut also in the rc^iim appropriate for deities beinw hlinsrll . I n'l his sense too the region ol' Siva is higher than the reg'on of Vislin ;inil Br^iiima. and His intlu..Mice oxtcndH not only all over His oivii clmniiiion but it also per ineates through the dominions u. Vishnii :MHI lliahnia.

ty in support of his observation. My view is certainly supported by Tlic nnine of the flower is certainly derived from the (to kill). In Sanskrit, the Kower is (Aratji-ndha);

the tree Cn^sm FistnU largely used in medicinal reeipes//injiibAaf. leeijii ami .^pte's San.serit-English Dictionary; and it is called Amgvadha for the two reasons given hi Lingiihkiilleeijii The tl.nver isciilh-d Ant.initllw asit kills skin disease which makes the hand red (iiirludiii^^ I.Jl>rosy;. The flowtsr is called Kujavriksha (king of trees) as it kiMs the i^ing of dIsoascD or the chief Tin; i-hiof disease, is st;acd to \)e Sanisara in i/rtji.fHi.-</i".(. Here i.l.-niilicd witli tin.' (H-';ni nl' SaiiMara. ment or flisi.vnc and fnrtliev on .s.iys Oopalii iniMital diseases and physical disease. are poornalapindiseases

i^.Tjjij- (Ej).Ui__ ^i/BweocflBir,!' Qai^iif ui!T u^'fli ^ny.-^LL iLiTiufOT-jTjiBH^CJ^irfrfisuraaui'^i

.According to Mdliopaniahad spoiled by attachsame Cpaaisbad distribution in

" It is Chittn (Desire) iliat constitutes Samsara, sorrow or misery." Tiie my lirm

conviction is that tlm

diverse alTairs is Sunisara. '

V IUBH VTA in addre.ising his introduc-

tory verse to Isivara ih^scribcs Hini .as tl.e Primeval doctor or Vaidya


He w,is lae Jlej^iiining, is the Haia

^The Des-

lie describ^'s (iiid as the original doctor it-ho kills tho ilisea.e of attaclnncnc iS:e. Notliiog can be a greater disease than Samsara which is necessitated by desire replete with ever re-

troyer), is Bmhuia ot-tlie Beiujj !{TM)\viiiir trijiii witliiu body. He is tlie lis^Lt or <^riico of tli wiii> ;irt! uiitoliie J a n d s e t t l e d lu a c o t i d i t i o i i of peace. H e is mi i< nouc o m p r e s s i i j l e , all-expitudiiiLT n a t u r e embo li-

curring and over crowding mlierius. Desire Ac. is tiio v<)rst disease possible for man, and Kwi-ai flower referred t.i as an effective nii-ilicine lov ihe same, means nothing mure than (he suppression The liiseas'.-

of I)osi:
of Ivitj

>tc. As Mnho/i iiiUliad H.iya, Sii vana is no:i-desire

hand. round of Sanisani is i-alled affecting skin Taramatmaj Implies all the

ment of Justice, and He is etern:il.

Tbe only part ^ernli^in^' cmiinient in thi.i vi [ -,> is 1 is liciiii? a 1 li^ht of grace to those wli.) iue i.nlolcU'd and srtilcd in a conilitiiiii of peace. A yoj^a-praptitinnci- is unloklwl as lie r--,|i:uiils his iila of self, confined to his body, tn i-wrv i hiu ; in the? univmsc, :inil this idea of self as co-c.vtunsivc witi: ilio univiM si- ami raranianna receives a roal :inil practical ttanciion only in tin? prai t-l iil :ind settled cundition ol' S;i,nM,lhi.

.\sa U.ijiiVi-iksha, it kills skin dis<-asc in the which neL'cssitates the infinite with a skin disease as it affects Siva but being in touch without

I'araiaatma. The

senses which ;uv just the niodillOations of the sense of touch, and so it iinplic.s all the desires enjoyable by nil the senses, and then the skin disease Iji-.vinics in fai:c iho disease of desires. skin disease is ( e. or reddening' tht! hauil iis desire anything It is called a Rajaguiia develops

1;, IV tluin ;in > m l,er (r.Min. Desire is crilled a skin dis.-asc in the hand iKiNil vay ot stating which is nmistakabl Upanishads. The Sana Qisso.^SixssFK^u.Tiv'). 'I'his is it.self an Upanishadic eye of Siva is ever

Qjtrjx (^soieSiu Q^srreirsn T ii ix/.T^/ Qsi^ uie'Sesr 'urr^ giwaV tVLnr^r.i- Qgot^ik f^^.T^^i (^cairjiL-'iifoD


iiii a aiiiMiiis ii. exiict fonniei part in om-ol'the w ise under comuKMit tolls us that the forehead

living, thai is. His eye of Jnana (spirit iial) is eve- active, ever asserting iiself, and this is po*il>le only in Samadlii, which, defined

I'.J. Devas praisinj^ liiitt with J:ira (matted Iiair) by Miihi'iinni>li<id rercrence to desires, means an attitude in -.venriiig Kowrai flowers sliiniNif with, witii sakti nl'- .iiiachnieni or desire, hatred Ac., luive dropped. Siva as ncorpti'.-rtt^d with Him, wiIii the fore-lie;id eye ever ;':ii.iinatnia or a personal being absorbed in ever-living spirituu! .Ji cannot be said to wear a physical lloWer. and the idea is living iu Him, will get rid oi" taeir sins and (if (I'lestion at such a sla'-'e. We have authoritative Vedic euce great benefits. : vrcuion for Biha leaves which Siva is said to wear as








BiDch M Kowni floirerAraj^idha fluwer (Vadha-Qgir>), and in ths Ught of thii interpretation by a parity ol reasoning wo miiy bs pvmitted. I think, to p v e an noleric ligDiaoance to Kowrai flower an I had oc(aion to do io n former oootribution and ai I parsiai in so doing in thi* contribjtion. Bilra ii called Trintparna, litemlly of lbre leareii. According to Paia]Mtal-oHmopaiti<hiiil, Uamauli (bieth) internal, all-peradiDg internal, i* the half-form. The word internal is twice repeated in tb^Tedic teit to ihow that it first goes into the liingi and thence it goea further inwards with Ihe blood. Brenth inward alone is recokned the leaf-form Hamsah, and thas it is clear that Bachaka, Pooraka and Kombhnkn processes alone are referred to in the text. These three processes arc the three leaflets in a Trisnparna or Dilra leaf, I shall refer to these processes in full later on in theseqnel. The three leaflets in a Trissparnii or BUa leaf beinff the procesises of Pranayania, the questiun is whether Sira wears them, and if so in what sense. Faramatma is ilpranaA. withont Prena (Pratnopantihady SiTaae identical with Paramatma cannot wear Trisuparna as Re is deroid of Frana. Sira as a personal being has Prana and oonseqnently he wears it. TIBOMOOLAR uses the word Sira both as identical with Paramatma and as identicul with Riitlra. It therefore behorea us to see in what nnse Sira a Paramatma hears or

loaf. IJiit the probability is thai the Pnmnir idoa is more esoteric than eioterlc. Vndra is admitted by the Yogi of Yogis and accordiig to TIRUVOOLAR,- He has an ever-living fore-head eye or the eye of Jnana. Eviilently, such a great yogin cannot derive any pleasure or can have uo incentive io wearing. Kowrai flower or Hilva in a physical sense. Trisuparna is called Bilva as it removes the sins of perrons who have regard for tliem in a reH(;ious way. This is explicitly nxserted in Lingabhatteeya. The Power of rranayama.practice iu removing sins is emphatically asserted in several TTpanishadg, in Sjotaiamhila, in several Sniritis and Puranaa. Trisupan a has several symbolic meanings. For in.stance, Lakshmi is adored as Hilvanihiyam, (or one eented in Bilva). The seat of Lakihnii is Trikoro or a Triangle. Trisuparna represents a triangle. It is needless in this oonnet-tion to give all the symbolic meanings of Dilvi. or Trisnparnii. If Siva can wear Bilva or Trisuparna in an esoteric sense, can ..u not wear Aragvadha in a similar sense

The objection on the ground that* the esoteric idea is simply a repetition is worth nothing if we bear in mind that repetition of sevtiral things iu several places is found in Tirumanira. There is esoteric meaning for Niry a (ifi(rair-Deer)^c., borne or worn by 5iva. The effect of the Upnsnna of Siva is said to be clearance of Main (imparity) and the iittainment of benefit constantly experienced or repeated. This part of the verse will be disi-assed in hnother connection in full.

Wears Prina.

According to Patupata Brahmopanirhad Brahma

Hamsah (Prana) is the form of in so niny pincen in ChandojyopaParamatma can bear his own form Supama, or Bilra. Accrtrdin): to

tvnToopo Barwnk, that is " Paramatma." This is affirmed nitluxd and other Upanishads. which is Hamsah or Prana or

siriu tSffeirdiB snoi^ QffiB iSf ^pa/i

17. it. eut

Osir^iS^ OnmaSgg fiirQer.

and red, boil

PamifHita Brahmopanighad again

Hamia prnnavayoTabhedtth, that

Lttirium m^jrfi tu^iB^ uiaialfi Q^ojOitrar QsfSiB^^' (cer)


is * Hamsah and Pranava are not different fnpni each other". Pr&* nara is the n ime of Paramatma u' Hin nynibol, why Himself (ind<, the very he;;inninirj. Cnnnut Paramatma bear Himaelf or His owt> transfnrni:itii>nB 7 According to BhaBmagabalapanuhad ilie tliree iKatlets in a Bilra or Triinparna represent the three Vc:tls. Vedns arc emhoilimeptsof Jnana, and so Paramatma bears Jnana, fur He is Sat, Cbit and Ananda. Trisaparua, thoagh divided into three IpafletP, is after all one and the same leaf in nature, and in Puranatma is not divided bat continues one anil the same, nnndoalistic in character. In ceremonial Yairii.t implyin;,- ilnaMstio conception, the three Vedas play their own respuCive parts. The Steii employed in inviting the Devas and the presiclinK Deity; ihe Taj** is employed to pr.-iisu them when they arrire in porsnance of our invitation, and the Soma is sung to please them. In iinderatandlng the same with i-eferecce to its esotTic side, the Bie invites the Self buried in the flesh and so afar off from ns; thcfaj'u* praises the Self BS the mnltifurions forms fuund io the univerae, and the Soma phases, it with BrahmHtinnda on altruistic ^onnds. The fanetions of these Vedas are essentially the same. The Ric assKrts the Beality of Atma or Panunitmaalone ; the rojin prtiaeM Hini as egerything and thns conlinns the Ric idea by illiiRrration. and the Soma indicates the bliss attendant "n satli a knowledge. Thus all the three Vedas indicate the same idea of nnity and reality of Atma or Paramatma and the Jnana-form blit') in Him on the faasis.of non-dualistic spiritniiljiiana. It is thus plain that Param^ioa bears Trisuparna indicating the three Vedas. Except in the Xinbhavam period, Paramatma not only lirra as snch but in eeitain forms, with Frana as His body (ride ChandogyopaniaKad). Bo be bears the Bflva or the body of Prana. Siva as identical with Rndia, is a personal Biing. and as soch can bear the physical

Tliongfh pmlicr, w h i t e

t h e s r n e l l oF c i v i c a b o v e t h e i r Binell i n a n d t h r o u g h T h o u g h t l i e r e ia o n l y o n e D e i t y ( o r Atina) pervadinjf all bodit-s, Ohit-^e*pleudis nothing there

e q u a l t o t h e f r i e n d A i p o f I s a , ns SiVa. This verse is intended te show tho snperiority of Siva by means of an analogy. The three smells, viz., the smell of white garlic, that of red garlic and that of civic, correi>pond to Brahma, Vishnu and Bndra. Each smell is strong by itselt and the fragrance of civin (Rasturi) is^so strong as to assert itself above the smell at white or red garlic or both, when smelt iu and through the same. This is in fact the test for tinding cut genuine Kastari. Similarly, though BrahmM and Vishnu are great and powerful, still the greatness of Sivu is ;<reater than that of Brahma or Vishna, or both jointly,and so tliere is nothing equal to the friendship of Siva.TiacM o o r . A K Ill-knowledges thnt the same Faramatnia is found in or p o r v l i l i e s the Diity, and notwithstanding this fact, he tells us that just as the smell of Kusturi which in supercessiou o^ the smell of garlio white and red, appears foremost, the power of ;rrace of Siva stands forth foremost. There is one beaaty in th.< analogy which rannot but be referred to. The color of red garlic represents the Uajognna of Brahma whose color is red.. The color of white garlic represents the Satwaguna (external) ^ Vishna and the color of Kasturi, which is black, represents the Tamagnna (eztemal) of Rudra. The difference in odour represents the internal character of the Trinity.









Siva? No. Brahma and Vislmu are beset with Maya whioh ii the greatest eril so far as their indiTidual selves are ooDcerned. Being QnfiujS Qfii^ Ssoj^ai QtiriS subject to the greatest eril, what avails it to vanqaiih lobOidiData ufiufi tjir^ifl^ ^irimiriL ^irsQ evils ? Visbnn no doubt puts down subordinate erili whiob turned in uninst agzressive directions, bnt He foaten I b y a ia tSfiufi QairmQtnarp OaiuiQu(^ LonQeB, regard to self, when the evil pi-opensitiei are not directed in 18. It is my Lord Sivii wl>o, in view ot the stronjf agpi'casive ways tu the injury of others. For instanoe, Banaaora Tapas by Kabera, the Lord of riches, rnlingtiom A U . WITS overHovi in^ with .\hunkar, and Krishna did not interfere kapnri, supported his kiii^dorn nnd sfrengrhened and with iiim till Anii'iidlia was stolen away and kept in cnttody by him. U'heti tl'i^ wion^'fiil cofiuemeDt took p'.aoe, Sri Krilhna eoriched the sftme and blessed that in liis devotion and took himself to his slau-htcr. The same may be said of Bavana, TEPM, Kubera should continue in iho condition uf JarHsandha, Duryodl.aiia and a host of others within the domain afflnenoe und power. of diiajistic c n c e u r nus. Vinhna fosters them in so far us they are Verse 16 stutea in Beiieral terms thn bencrit ;ircrniTip from the limited to just, aii l pioppv Dhnrmas regulating inteut, will and TTpuans of Si. This verse Rives ii special iii!<tiincc of grace deed in pracl ioni liTe. Lim.lnctod on the basis of daalistio notion!, and hown to Kubera by Uiiii for bis devrtioti rcl tapas. While tlie with this object lie rven incarnates Himself every T n g a ; wbenaa world of the Deraa which is under the special protection of Vislmu is Siva not mindriil of these UbaKmas as really due to Adhrastha(illae r e r o p o n to aepression by Asnras, the world of Knbera full of nQlusion), ever takes Himself to spiritual Jnana and so to the destmction ence and riches is free from aiich ;iti cks,beinf; Mnder the protection of cvervthin^ wiiliin the domain of Adhyastha. The Symbolical of Sia. Even Bmhma and Vislinn have been, it Is said in PuriinHS, forms oF propitiating; these deities indicate the above destmciion. molested by Asums. No dunbt it is said in onr PiinVHOS tht Siva Whereas ViBhmi likes or is propitiated by Tulasi leaves, tiiva like* gave an Asnra the hlessin? Hint on whosoever's head lie (Asura) or ia propitiated by Trienparim or Bilva leaves. The Tulasi leave! placed his hand, his lieai) i^li^iulil hurst and he should die, that on come out in sera of two on parallel axes indication thereby the everletting this blessin'^ lie piirsuuJ Siva Uini^elf to placn his hand on recun-ins )>rallel course of dnalisti^ illnaions, whereas the Bilva His head ill order'.o Kill iliin, ;uid t h i t on His niiiniii^ nway, He leaves indicato the Triune principle eataUlishing unity nmong took shelter under Vishnii.whn by Ilia Miiy.i made the Aaiirri placK seoniinirdiveraities" AVhile Vishim has to vanquish Adharmas (..'evil his hand on his own he<l wliirh tlii^reon split and brou;ht about liis propensities tinned in improper ornnjost directions, for the purpose death. This ftcry is to bp utideratood in its esoteric R"nse and not of inaintHiiiiiis; IJliarmas or evil propensities turned towards good, literally. It meiin,'! that person of murderous pr(i;M.|i8lty, limvSivn diare'.'ards both illii.'ory, and desiies in Himself the Soverever powerful nnV'lit have lieiMi liis r.ii.ns in prior diiys, < jniint eiKiity of Atnia Jnana and freely interprets it to those who seek the catch hold of or Und out Sivii, that Siva i indestructible, that same by Him. He ii? Iluddhi vinndhnna Urana Ungam as the Great Siva recedes fiiiin him wl.nni! "linrnrttT i j Tainnair, who iliinks Saiikara beautifully e.vpresses Himself.' Even for putting down evil that by ilesfroyi;ij^ head, he c;in d e s n o y .Jitina, tlm ;ill pnwErfiil, tnrned towards .^dhanna, Vishnn has tn pnt forth a huge strnggle. ever-existent ami invnInl^r^ll^, ami tliat a p rsou who coiifouiids He ia not able to put it dowi. without such a strnpifle, 1 regret I body wirh Atnia kills hi iiseif ami t.luis lav; Atmuhanhn (eelfdeferred the diaoussion of 1 he effect of practisinp the Upnuana tjf Siva killcr) condemned by /ni(IJ!R(.)PNIM li(i.i. Siv.i TAI.RS SIK-MIT under relatively to that of praetisint; the Upasana of Vjahnu and other Vislinu as He is accoidiii!; to Frifhritpiinifhad an embiidiDevas to a future occaaion. It may be stated in this connecti^m that


Qriufi aiorcB* Qati^aog

ment of Aje<ja Vainhnnvee mnya. The Asiira as an offshore of higher spiritual op Atma Jnana ia soli-ly within the gift of Sivn and
one of the features iif Maya, must, lie vani|uislM-d by the allpuwerful Vaishnaveo-Maya, and regard to siu li an iiulividiial, Siva or Paramatma takes slielicr iitulrr Vaisliiiavee Maya (tlit; allembracinR Maya), hides flimaelf behind the tliitk curtain of this all-comprehendin(j Maya. Is it proper for Siva to e such a gift of power to the Asui-ii who applied for it wirh a view to kill every body on whose head he placeil his li.tnd ? .\surai8 an embodiment of all evil propensities (vide Sankara's commeptaries on Chandojiiopanishnd) and all those who were touehed by these propensitir-s muet meet death und dpstrn^Jtion. Onless .'^ivr. or Parar.iatma ;,-!ive this power of dcetructioii to evil propensities in touch iih individuals or inHuenciL;.' c/icir intefif, will, and lieerl, an evil will cease to b e a n evil, aivl sn the very object of ir.trocljcini; eil iti the universe will bi' .Iffc.unl. Wliy sliciiM Siva Himself run away from tlic si'.'la <if I'.il wi,..-, lli; Himaelf intrc.duced in the world and blessed ivith ,i poivfr of (Ifstrurti'-m iu respect of all aEecte<l bv it V Siva is a P, : al Reins is !iul'i>'ct to all the ills to which Uesh is heir tr order that lie mi^l.t keep Himself from the dan^ors of il, in the from of wicked pronensitien or illusory dualintic Dotinin, eonfoundinfj body with Atma, l i e has to fly away from the sight of evil Can we not apply similar esoterio interpretation in the case of Eruhma and Vishnu and give them pre-eminonct over and abvve

His upasana alone will lead to it. The Up.iaaiia of Vishnu niav secure riches, may gain a seat in the world of Viahnn, may take the disciple near Him, and may give him His form, hut His upasana does not suffice to give him spiritual Jnannm and gain him the h i g ^ s t condition of^ayujya. Aecprding to Chandoiiyojxinishnd there it nothing greater than .Atma, Vidya, and the whole subliinary wealth in this ocean-girt earth is not equal ro it. According to Annapoornopanishad, the profit of Atma is the greatest profilj attainable, and this can be reached only by spiritual Jnana within the gift ot Siva. The Upasana of Vishnu lias not conferred on the disciple the sa 'le extent of influence and affluence as that of Siva. Vishnn's gift of atf!iience to Knchela, tn Indra and others is nothing when eonipared to Siva'. gift to Kubera. In the case of Kubera, not only riches were ep; but also ibe i-reat wealth of devotional Tnpas was given c o n c i - r e n t with the gift of riches. It is on acconnL of Vishtin's ineapaei-y to give us higher Jnanatn and thereby Savujva, gfttiii'.r rid of .'^a nsaia, Sarabhopanifhiid tells u >Tiismat Snrron

ra> IUj.,jyn d/i./ev-

yi<hnmdikan SHTtnit

eva fndadhjie^ah $arva

fimsQia mDfho>>n,v: that is, itaaks us to give np the Upasana of Vsilinu ami irthr r Devas and to carry on the Upasana Siva, it algnc competent to rid us of the rounds of S a m i a r a - C i a n d o ^ o pmniskad, after the motion of the snn and his rising and setting in the citii's of the four Dikpalakas, states that the doratioik of life ill t he city oTl^iibera tboivgh double a much as iu Samyatuaui.









(til* Ottf ef TMDB) ii half M maeh >s ia the cit^ oF Tai-Dna.


the nature of

bodies with life that they grow with I f yoa say that the trees

liMutatiDn ftSects the histoT of thow who are lifted into the world K n b e n for their deeds on earth, bat it does not affect the nonditioD of Knbera ^all. It ihonld be carefnlly borne in mind that the Tfpnwnn of ytflVto M Panmatma is efflcaciona in gaining; the higher qriritnal Jn&na u d t h m b y aaWation in the'Torm of S4ynjya. At tbe BIDS time the Dpaaan ef Viehnu as Paramatnin is different :n fleot from the Upaaana of Tiehna aa a Peraonal Bein^r. jo Puranae and in Itihaaai that Vishnu showed We see His form

food and decay without it.

have no life as they have no external orf:an'<, you f o r g e t that eggs and spawn which contain life have no sense organs. If yon say that when the eggs are hatched at lepat, the animals come out with org ms, but we do not fee this in the case of trees, know that tretfs have flowers.and fruits, they have organs and life.

to His disciples, bnt nowhere do we heal of His having taken His diaeiples in Himrelf. This is one of tlie reasons why Vaiahnavites In Ramfittaratajiinyf give op what is called Sayujya Salvation.

36 If yon ask, whether one life divides itself into many, as when We cur, the branch of a tree and trans^panitl^d, it is said that Riva with a ball-flag, praotiaed the Upasana planf'it, no souls enter int" seeds, ri<ots, branches ( Bama, and Rama nppraring before Him asked Him to request of anil the eyes' oi troe, as tneir womb and are born. H i m any Vara or gift from Him and told Him, He woald give Him the same ; thtffSiva (isked Him the following gift: Mamkarr,If yon say that oviparous and filth-born animals have yam vamaktketre, Ganynyamvu tatepunrh, Mr\yate dehiii'jjniilu. the power of locomotion after birth and the trees M^tiknnfo wuntaram. have not, then why don't lame men aiid animal* walk. S . RAHASAWMI ITKR, B A-, B L. The varia,tii>ns in crea'ion are intiilile. (To he conlinued) 37. 0 Raijildli!!, yon assert tlnit it is no sin to eat killed meat Does not the sin attacli an vour neconBt S I V A G N A N A SIDt)HIAR. to those who kill animiils, knowing that you will eat their m6H,t ? If you were not known to "Jit, no b' dy OF would kill HDitnals and oflVr it to you. It yuu avafn ARUL NANDI SIVA CHARYAR. ffty that it is only those who kill are blamable, where is your charity when you earn sin for your own RWDTATION OF (SADTKAKTIKA) BAUDDHA. kind host. W h y don't you offer meat to your God ? When you despise your own body a.'S unclean, where (Continued from page 106) is your sense when you eat the flf-sh of lower animals.^ 34. A s tlie worid is a product like a p6t, we reqnire a first canse like a potter. Vedas and Agamas are the moat ancient works in Sanskrit, teaching our daticB in regard to the four (treat Pflrusharthas and they enlierhtjBn our understanding and action. A s these woras had at first been promiilgajted b j the greatest go(}f ^ d sem;?, -teaelier should be found- to uaeh-tfJeii ^ i t p i n g s . W e require a witness for lilSeaUng tlte IrutTi. iT the Vedas themselves. Such a person and author the Vedas is the Supreme Siva. 35. Y o u said that trees (Vegetable kingdom) are lifeless. They have life, as they fade when tbey are not watered and grow when they are watered if not, even dead trees must grow by watering them. It ia
35. We know that the Buddhist's logic aod Psychology were faolty euough but never knew ere this, thnt their Biology &o . was also faulty. Hindu philusophers clues the vegetable kingdom wilji living organisms poasesaing only one sense, nomely tooch. European acientists have now no doubt abont the point aod the characteriitica of plant life are most anlogon t(r nnima Ilife, and they ate moat vferied anfl carioua, nay, they manifeat auch adaptations to conditions and ciicupistancee,\d;aplBying the gjeatist intelligence. And if we want lo atpdy God'a bandiwofk, we could no>-,find ajwtter and more beantiful aabject than plut-life. The root and fibre and bark in pla^its correapond to i^he alimentary canal

33. It vou say that sentience iaa^ata boio as the shade of airombrella and the image lu a mirror, toen know, these shadows will disappear with the umbrella or thing itself. S<>, when your five Skandhas die, the sentience will also die and not be born and there wij] be none to attain Nirvana. If you say that the sentience is again generated from the embodiment vf Karmic memory H the walking intoWigence nftei dreamS Bleep : then,the spawn and the opgs and the blind man will indeed attain M'^trtha a/fter losing' their vitrtlity. Hence, the soul will never be separate from the body. 39. O Bauddha you defined your Mukti (Nirvana) as the annihilation of the five Slcandbai and their assoinanimaia; the leaves to the reapiratory organs; flowera (con* taiuing'tbe Pistil (ovarj, style and Stigma), and stamens (filaments anJ anthera) to the reproductive organs. Hoat flowera contain both organs in each flower. In some plants the male and female noweia re different, thp commonest,eiample of whioh are sopplied by the^oord apecies,( SDji There are also separate male and female plBnts,as the female anil male palmyra. Of all the flower shrubs,the orchids are the most Wonderfnl in veation posseaaing every variety of from and adaptation to needs. Then are some moat oeautifnl Speoimena in the Ooty Government eiirdeas one ef whioh is of the exact ahape of an insect w t a ^ u ^ f S which is itself a mimic, hot in moat goi^oas coloxirs. These flowen mim^ birds, doves, pigmies, ftc.,










'iat"fl KpntienCP and tha burning' up of nesire and sorrow as li^lited ckrtiphor. \Ve u s t vPffO U is thpn th'Ul. Httiiins Xirwana? Vou reply chat there is none. Then who fefl< the Hliss of NiVvana J 11 It i"^ the eeirtifence born of the Hve Skhaiidhas, then it cann-.t die, and cannot lose its hody, and you will nevor release yourself from Hnndha uor attain Mokshx. 40 Hr-ar our idea of Makti. Our Purameshwara, wlio is e'erii.illy pure, the supreme, the immutable, alliiitelli^ent. Hll-puwerful. iind Hll-beneticent, appears as ihe Divine Guru to hini who is biiianced equally in j^ood and evil, {^^aS?iivrOujiru(-/) and grants iiis Grace . f^^eefl uiTf^) Kfter burning up all his evil by his Eye i,i Gnau, destn>yii)g thereby his external and intc-rnal senses, and sliowmg them ihe four paths of adoring Itiin, lifts tliL'in by iiis hand of Grace, out of the slough of binli, into eternal Jilisa. ^m.T ^Jjuuffi^ u^eo^S OujwsU Tio a* Qfiiiuai or s^LLii Qfifs^iSun^ LO.-uiitOeir^w/r jumsOmiriQ .^ySiai^eifl .jurint^'Semi enmiuire^ iS'ssflsafleirffi QUIS^^idit^ '^muQpi^i Qmeaaiuuiia emimQp^^ dS^^Qoi

If you say they are ilifferent and the i n t e U i ^ a c e stands apart f r i m the 'body and the anivrRe, n o ; w^ien the b.idy iMteil^o the intedigence, the intelligence will not he apparent,, as the crystal is loat ill the ootonrs renected in it.

(To be contitVued.)






uirQffirfBfse^aifJir^ Qiu-arQ(^QL^reir(>fsQa, upiSa)iuu>iru> Quu^esfiio ujTOaiofiuS^ uiQ^sSeSiT u 7 rs filler S piSrreSs puu>trQ

^etia/u), u i e e t r s u u i C ^



BarQr;eareSanB^e^iT tS.rion^Qpi^eSei eSau Bairfiujr^arir^ecmi^iT StieoireSta p/^ ff^BxruS^^ QuiQ^Qatesra^^ajtrto esf^ Gai^" i^fi^^trrs^ fLUBfrnasreS^Qupp



It The Yogachaia, not throughly learned in Philosophic lore, states that it is Buddhi that is evolved a tJie senses apd the forma of perception and tha( tkis intelligence is manifest only when in union with the w o s e experience (Vadaua) and that intelligence is formtew, and affirms therefore thnt the world is a dream and iAtelliirencH (Buddhi) is alone S^t.

1. TOD asserted the existence of Baddhi and oiBethiog else which you called sense experieuce (Vadana). They must be different according to you. If not, say that Buddhi ai^d sense experienr;e are one and the same. If so, know, that Vndaua is the renewed activity displayed by th Buddhi whan induced by Raga (desire), it once unite's with sound, light ete. Dreaua anse lo tK^'ihirtd after an original perception. If you say that Intelligence i? the bod^^ then These are different.'

59. 0 The Host of Siddhas of Divine powers w h o have attained the noblest order of viewing the V e da nta and the Siddhanta alike ! I would now disclose yuur situati > at the end of a Kalpa : when the elen ments eurth^ater, &c. dissulve and disaappear into one another, you will soar high in the sky ; and if
Cliina f i o m Ceylnii abuiit 120 A. D., by Vajrawati wljose great |iii|iil was A'.no^ii, I'u-kung. Thi.s is cHlled tlie T;intra School and they burrowed tlipir rituals from Brahinaiiiani and Shaivigm combiniiiK iritli the dttrrrine nf Dhvana Biuldhas (of Nepaul) und tha Muhayaiin Philueophy: (Edkios). I'adancf is whac is usually miawritten Text bouks. Veduna iu Bnddhiat

must 6z(iUin) 'I am the body-'

2. The Yogucht IB the follower of the'Mabayana School and called as auch ItabayanilicaD iii Tamil work*. The fguoder of this Pchoul waa AIN(I oi Vajra Satwa aad .it was introduced into

The BtatcDinnt and its refutation sf this school is Teiy brief, as this school virtually accepts all that the Sautrantika ~attirni8 and !iny recnpituUuioii is ihcrefere unnecessary. The points trhereiu they differ ure r.liine set fnrlb here. According to the Sautrantika, Buddhi is a prodiii t and nut independent of the senses. The Voga' hiiru is inclined to think tintt it mnr be independent of the senses lint link.<i it in peculiar manner wit,;, sensations (Vndaiiii). Anyhow this is H aUrancc on tlie Saurriintika nho is a thorou);!! O >'i)iyrtVt)i/ and Mayavadi.








FiiwI M a g * shonid take plaee, yoa will whirl rodn4 iu water like thq 8ea-betlea nd b^ io Sivayotra-t W h e n t b e r e in a . h e a v y d u w a - p o u r o f r a i n hj

AU the &eva cUnds together, yoa will inhabit yoarBelve in tie moon-pUnet. If the Trinity, Brahma Ao. should ceaae t live, y^n will li-Mi by the Grace of Sapj^me Sirat who rides on the white 9ull When tbe eadleia world* or aniver^e roll up and down a^^nat one another by the f o r c e of the Great Storm|| j o a will remain in yof^af unshaken like the M@rn monqtainO Great Siddhas, your glory sui p isses my power of dbaoription. a^fmfliuiSpeSfifiiM uxTg^i^uiSpaSfitrtir

Of mblticiidiDoa!* births, the human birth is taost aluaole un;l nest liacl tor the aUiiiuiumtt of spirituality. O ! I CAtin')t know my future life or plane of existence if any : 0 ! what toils ami t;oubles I should then be subjected tu! May yea, my niaater of perfection, iherefore, grant, me, before I should discard this body, the diviue tate of beiug absorbed in the Gracious Lord of Love ud Blessudne.-'swhoae mercy flows like t h e ' h e a v y showers of rain from the thick clouds in the sky. Aud I will, until then, try to preserve intact the fabric of my present embodiment by Siva's Arul -Sakti Gauri,* .so us to cause ibe inces" Bant flowing of Soma's! nectar in the Cludakas.J QutriiiSmip QfiOisiheoL. QujonQs^ni^^Qm QareirQstrM
"OuiTQf^ftQuiTsQs Q ^ a r e S Q e o n [(Jjr

^tuirfispiw'ji^fi^^antir ^uiSpsSfiuiS^ QiuiS/DaSaiiriiji(g(iij>ir r ^ai^QtoiraifiSQei^ gtmfQuiTQgQ sKstraiiLi^^eS^lpi

'-Ifl^^LSsirsswr^iB'BSo) tam^aiwainLDeSI^ Qfdj^aiB^eteiQai

air 0 l 1 ( _ ( ? u t a g i l i O ai BtflitjiT a j

STenQiLiraian^iu SSQiMeir eaLD^SsQffOfiSsSeir'ii (geroi^S^piSi^uLs^ ufiujiruS^i^Q^su uairtmeSfiSTQafl^dw Qieir^iwr^Qu/r^iuCai QaumdQmiS^LB^i^tOLoujirmr Qaipiri^St^firifi ftngffAe^^Qupp eS^^m^^ ^^rrtemQui. <51. 0 Tlie Host of .Siiidhas ot Divin powers who have attained the rieWest order j f viewini,' the Vedanta and tlie Sidiihauta uliW_ Painful ii is to consider tlie vanities of this worldly life. 'L'o depict the same in linef, it consists, to the detrinieBi of our aims tf eiisceiice, m jiothinp but our struggles for food and, when toed secured, in stiitiiGg up our iellie- therewith HK sleeping a'JVay our IJ preoious tnonifiits. Kveii the lilinu unii it.'ni<r:iiit are alive 10 this fact. O Benefactors, in whom tha Sutvh 'goodnes.s'ever prepondei-ates, I do not know when I will be able to
Gauri is the p,TSOnitie:iinn ,,r S;ikti i,f Siv:t ;n-r female enery of Sivn. (V""'' iiNo ii-i^-cTl ..i'liN ;. my learned brother .Mr. S Rjiitin>vvitnv V-v.t: l ipi.u well on aathority). t Soma MOOD. Vide 3fttli r,-R>- ..RULN.N-S J ChidakiiE Sphere of iviadom in us.

iirMaisajruSar(p^si.9J> Qiuys^eiaL-iQitiisi Qieo^fi^fiLieSc^^afrLLif. Qaii^Qn^tga^ftri^Qff


O The Host of Siddhas of Diviue powers who

have attained the nobleai order of viewini? the Vedanta and the Siddhanta. alike !
Finl Deluge ia the Great deliiit that takes plrtce at the end of s Katpa or Mahn-Kalpa wlieu inelading the Trinity Brnhiaa, Vinhno and Radm are destroyed, tlie Turiya^Mftrti (Siva or Parabrabmaa) alone remainiD);. t Siva-Yojfa ii thtj cooteinplation of SiyA the Turiva M'lrti. J-Sttpreme Siva is the lord over Trinity ahove mentioned. Brahma of the Trinity and Hudra of the Trinity should Ije ilietinr iraiahed from Brahma or Siva or E ewara (the popular name of Siva all over India uaed with refereni-e to Siva-Temple aay Eswara'a Temple (ir*jrsir QmirtSai). He (Siva) is then called Tari^aMArti (i.e., Fourth Marti or Brahm or Parabrahmam bejoud aod abir^ the 'Xrinjty, Brahma, Vishnu and Kudraj. 'Siyu' in used for Radra in many modem publications, which is congisteut with its mennini; and anauthoried b y 'Sriiti' au meant by the Agama f. Notes to :JlBt verse. c. f. Pattanathu Pillai our beloved Saint where he says of Siv;i Thy ridinp on the Bull is to show thai Thou art ilie (iud of rieodI That liieh takes plate ai the end n. the worlds. I _ $ Dhilruna in the teit c. f. Notes to )st verse.

' IT nr







D B E P I K A -



the ties of

these wordly

o V o i ^ l i ) O u ( 5 a "lOaJstflC



May you help nae, O Yopi-tsas* to whom the dark mueses of clouds obey and gather to form at once a beiiutiful parasol overhead mid who distinguish yourselves H wMi-riors in the field of AshtAojfa S Yo({a,t while the bauner of vour Voga-daiidal will be flyinp iHit only over the goliieii Aleru but also orer the Eighty chains of Miountaius. Qsf jpjrsQfifi'- near f j c " imLoenrui T ^ QsiireSiiSssBsafis^^pi-ii Qarfnii^Q^&tan^ss Q^^eS^w^^uj .SarstfT^iBsQenjeSi^f
S ( C j ^ u i aerr.T


0 The Host of Siddhas of Divine powers w h o

have attained the noblest order of viewing the V e d a n t a and the Siddhanta alike ! O SiVa-Raja-Yogins,* I can hardly find space to write in the greatness of your psychic powers. Like a sover eign's four kinds of forcest,war-chariots, horse itc. Your four Antahkaranas ManasX and the rest siibniit theinselves to y,oiir control alwuys. Tlie greatness of yonr Siddhis^ sprends itself o v e r the dominions of the ?ix centres|| and the three Mandulas S you fix yourselves in the lion's seats of yonr liciur.s wherefrorn Ananda^l flows as pleasant as r.ho I riigrance of tlie seasonal flowei s ; while amidst tlio Kiiisic'iil sounds of Dasa-nathamall the Devas Jiidru Sc-, jirai: e you with acclamation and joy, your tSmna's orbi t i ii(li!itii]<;' its bright rays of light in all possible dirt-rfiiiKs0 ! Praise be to your Sivti-Uaja-Yoga of eternity
I!. SirnxiicnHA i\IunAi,tAR.


* A Togi-tsa is a prince of Yogma. t Ajhtlnga T o g a = y o g R of Eight Aliens or parts. Tlie Ei^ht pnrts M best stated by Bwanii Viyekananda are:'(1) Yama,ron-killing, trathfolnes, noD-stealingi continence, and non-receiving of any gifts. (2) iTiyoma,cleanlineBS. oontencment, modiKcation, study. and self-goTTender to God. (3) Atana or A4hana,posture, learning to have a firm erect seat. (4) PraTi'i i/aiiia,learning C rontrol O learning to control tlie mind completely ; this is a difficult tusk requiring a cnntiunous strugrgle for years.' [^HCMCe the true

{'J'o bf


the Prana or vitvl foreets iu one's own liody. (5) rr(iti/f//,-(irfi,- * iSiva-Rjija Vo;a is the cuiu'eiitriitioii nf miinl iiiiiue<li:itel\' i^on-

Saints like our Tha'yumanavar have sunb) and sunpr over and over asrain towards subduing their minds, which may appear to the unwise to be nauseous repetition ) ( ) O
iMiarona is holding the mind ; so snbdued, to ct^rtaiii points. All these 6 steps are necessary to bring us scientifically to Dliyana and Samadhi- (7) When the mind lias been trained to icmiiin lixeil on one point, internal or external, there comes to it the power of flowing in an unbroken current t o ards Hiti/point. This state is called Dhyuna. (8) When this |pnwer is su much inteiieitiBd us to be able to reject the external power of iierception, and remain meditating only on the internal part, t h e meaning, i^liat tate is Samadhi or super-conscioiisnesB' or kiiowled;;e of self. l A f t e r (iTifirinjf Die nclf, one shall be intent on the Divine Arul of Supreme Siva. c. f. the saint's ciiiiplet ' O The Supreme, to know ene's self and lie On Thy Grace e'nr inient helps to know Thee, t Yoga-danda. Vide note to 58th verse. J c. f. Vide notes to 57th verse.

(hu ivc to tin- imp's imiini with I In-Suin emc Sivn ' This voise riefiiie.s (he saiil lluj;i Yoyii wliioli can be only better enjoved tliiiii toUl < 1 (IrsoriUed. Tho initiatt'd uiily cnii uiidi'isiuiiii *it bi'st. It is 1callrd also .Vshtinif^ii-Yo(;ii vidi- filst vprac. t The 4 kinds of t'ori cs are:infantry, cli.Ti ir,l Imrse ami

elephants. The tiiniil oompcinnd is

t iliiiuis, UmUlUi, mvd Abnukiua. vernc 48. Siddhis--- [lOwcrs.

Sfg ^tjrS Ufiir^.'

Vide <.'6 Tatn i:s iiniler

llticei.tioB iMv ( ! ) A'mis. (2) private part. t;5) the ii;i\el, (t^ thr heart, i5) i h e i u u l . i and ( 6 ) the forehead. Vide iK.ies 'su.s|utinn!i' ;intl '.t:<im:i' inulpr ;16tl-. verse. The 3 Jliindiihis or I'rliits iue (1) Solar ciiclo. ( j ) A^ni cin-le .ir ciri'lc oT lii-c or l.ciit :ciid (.T) l.nniir i-ircio,' r lirci.'iTC s;ii(l to ronitn'ii, rcs|i''<-l i\ely. Lctwixt the t^Ao of the six cpiii'es liolo Ijelow. \'idi* iiuu- to Siv:i-llaj:i ^'o<^a abii\o. * Aiiiiiidii liliss. lliisM o:'i<l;iio ^'njiins. + * SoMi:i's orli iibovr). Ic'ii-lolil arc saiil I ir-li i IK;i.|[iij;i

^"SKUiniLiSpu^QQi, ^ast^miufS^^ (^uijiuii u:nuaQiD.

niooii'.s orlj oi' cirrli'.

(Vide noic. to












' T H E Otti KNT A L S I D E . '

The queatioii has Hgain come to the front, in a maoaer anexpected, by the strongly prononnced views of His fizcelleucy Sir Arthur Uavelock. irhich in the langoage of the iiaxl, 'have caused some commotioo among edac:\tioiiisis, and have mystified not a few;' and a regular war of correspondence hiia ensue J in newspapers and magazines, displaying not mach either of reason or of decency ; and the innocent Pandit on the one side and the eductited Indian on the other h a v e also cooieto receive an amount of abuse which, ander the circaoistances, is altogether unmerited and unwarranted. The Pandit is not such an unprogresive creature, as he is supposed to be, believing in milky eaa and jnicy oceans, but on the other hand Pandits are much more intelligent and shrewder than the avera g e educated man turned out by our University, and t h ^ poSBesB M much of general knowledge on scientific lubjectB, as any student of our English schools. Our old school Pandit (uearly 2 decades bacl<) could also lecture to us on Human Physiology and Anatomy. I f j fact we know more than a dozen Pandits of our acquaintance who know English. Many of these belong to the very old-school, and half a dozen of them re actually living the life of recluses, bachelors for life^ deToted only to the cause of truth, religion and learning- W e wish we could feel the joy our Benares Pandit felt on receipt of a rare Sanskrit manuscript we sent him. And our educated friiritJ scorns to live laborious daysin the cultivation of the sciences and the arts, and be talks of these expensive days and his reda((lics>ted wants. B n t i t i s n o t to be supposed that we blame him either. He is merely the creature of hif Environments though departing far from the simple ideals of his ancestors. Taking the matter howveiTout of purely personal considerations, such as the

merit or demerit of one [iHrty or the , nthpr, wu -n-il turn our attention solely to the hifrlinr and truei'HMpects of the queHtiou. 'J'lu pe who have rend our iiist contributions on the subject ' Vol. 1, Nos. 1 ynd 2i. may remeinlier that the quest,ion nr. aiie time was ^lllO^ thnn 50 yenis hack) whether Kiigliuli or the Venmcnlars should lie th^- iMedium of c-omnmmi'iitiiig ihf IpH knowledge, and wliether use shonld be nmde of the exisliDjf vrrnacnUr liieiatuie itseif i rnot ior elTei ting this purpose. Jr, WHS tacitly admitied wiid it is not denied now tiiat there was much in the aits and sciences and civilization of the West which lihd to be imparted to the Indians tu make them tit to taketlieir place in t h e scale of civilized luitirin? ; Hud we have summsvrized ;ill the argurnent.s on the subject in our two previous H r t i c l e s , and nrit one of tlie sevend correspoiideiits to the Mail seeins to bo Hware of such, though thw name of MacaiilBy is frequently dragged in to conjure with VVe will request our readers to go over them again, aud iu the light of Mr. Hodgsoii's views, t t e meaiiiiig of " 'J'he People's Goveinnr," will not be far to seek. What His Excellency actually said was this. " I n iny humble opinion, education in the Madras Presidency has gOne a little too fast, and has been a little too radical. I should peisonally have preferred, if 1 had thw starting of an educational system in this country. to have iiuilt upon what already existed, rather than hav.^ destroyed and began on a new foundation I should havp preferred to expand and improve EHStern ideas, and nntto substitute for them in their entirety our own Western i d e a s " This was at Ernaculam. At the Maharajah's College for Girls alTrivfrndram, His Excellency again observed
t h a t the aim of female education should be to impiHnt

upon existing sociiil and family conditione the im provements and the enlightenment of the West and that there should be no attempt to ilest;roy wht already exi.'^ted. they should try to improve, brighten and perfect it. At page 43, we quoted f r o ^ Mr. Hodgson to the same effect. ! he best and .jrest means of effecting this needed chamje is not by ignoring their past life and jjasi liteiatiire. which are inseparably intertwined a tid inter-reflected, nut lij distroy'n^ the uarp and u-onf nf f heir iiatifinol ezis fence,hat by a process of prep:ir:iii(jri. c o n c i ' i a t ion and comfuomise by finding t h e i n e H n s nf c l o n i n t r tlr^t g u l f which

separates Kuropean ;inii Indian :.ffeL'tion and intellect in ill use ..f that litei a i u r e , winch I s h a l l ven'ure to S i i y crinnot be d i s p e E e d with- and that any other







attt^rnpts t(.> remove the w o o f and w .rp of ciety would disorganize destnictioD " tion. society and This is the liiffliest phasq

l o d i a i i oo-

than whom w e n e v e r possessed a b e t t e r instxri - e of an I n d i a n , cultured in the Ion- of the


insure onr o w n of ( h e q u e s -

iiJusb uun itio We>-t same advice in

so well, c o n v e y e d them to


And Mr- Hodpson s p o k e of a nt-cessir,y arising No d(>ul)t, the calatnir ies but the eviU tii;it

the f o l l o w i n g w o r d s : " Y o u Lave to cultivate t h e s t u d j of y o u r m o t h e r - t o n g u e , and cation of i m p r o v e it to such a n Philosophy. Orator, has ninsses, "to homes, a n d regenerae x t e n t as to nmke it a fitting medium f o r the c o m m u u i W e s t e r n ideas in S c i e n c e and time, every University the million the edanate into a h e l p i n g on A n d time a f t e r carry j o y and

50 year." hence, i n c a s e hii; siipfcrestioDs were not actrd upon, to retrace ciir steps. he foretold h ive not v e t occurred,

have arisen are already serion.s enougli to <leniand the attention of the rulers and the ruled ; and we are glad that the mntter is sittractmjr their attention. o observed then also that we d o not wish to der Jind remedy the defects. done W e have retrace our

dinned into their heads t o gladness b e c o m e a p o t e n t means in

Steps in our present discnssion, but simply f o reconsiAn<l His R x f e l l e n r y has b e un'I"he uow observed that what has b'^eii d^ne cannot bist (if fliPiiiand after all they are not so b a d .

tion of the c o u n t r y , " " to c a r r y t h a t lamp o f l e a r n i n g , of which we s p o k e , into the c a v e s ignorance, casting
c r e v i c e . "

of superstition a n d every cranny and except b y interpretpossible,

its is

b e a m s into all this

must accept things as they are, and mak-e, the

And h o w

possessing the p o w e r of expi essing oneself i d i o m a t i c a l Iv and v i g o r o u s l y in o n e ' s own t o n g u e and i n g t h r o u g h it, o n e ' s new k n o w l e d g e W e are also iflad to add to this at any rate n e v e r and n e w ideas.

next oest thing was, what has been Jittempted till n o w , a combination of European and Indian literatui-'', instead of attempting a medium. languxges n d purely vernacular

the o p i n i o n of an E x questioned the of y o a

Unt the resnlt has not ju-^tifted the e x p e c t a -

G o v e r n o r of M a d r a s , w h o s e s o u n d n e s s of l e a r n i n g c o u l d b e questioned. H e assembled g r a d u a t e s " A r e y o u .satisfied w i t h what y o D are d o i n g f o r y o u r o w n literature ? H o w m a n y are s e e k i n g to obtain a l a r g e and scholarly k n o w l e d g e of the Vernaculars of S o u t h I n d i a ? " Miid he r e m a r k e d that this University will not h a v e its fair share of w o r k till South done a n y t h i n g l i k e India too ha m a n y

tiuTis .Not that the system itsrlf is b a d , bnt the c o u r s e of study has been too much o n e - s i d e d . All the i n d n c e :iients and encouragements for The vernacular subject was only f,ho school and c o l l e g e ciirricuhi. learning have been in vernacnlitrsone out of many in favoiii' of English, and dead agsiinst the

It wa verv easy f o r little to the

the studetits to secure a pass by d e v o t i n g all their attention to the I'liiglish .subjects and very opiioiial lansnage. It won't pay to learn the v o r n a c u And neiid we w o n d e r that things has

A c t o r s ; and a f t e r instancing one or t w o cases o f e n c o u r ajjeinentof native science and native learning b y Indi&D P r i n c e s and nobles, he regretted that ' t h e g r e a t n a m e s of the land liiive o o t y e t b e g u n to take t h e p l a c e t h e j should d o , either of in the ' a c c u m u l a t i o n learning.' And or in the the eucouragement to-day, Aiyar,

lrii-9 at all. N o honour was to b e accpiired by scholarship in the vernaculars. the scliooM^.iy who is very acute in these ii, foMnpcl rhe subject of tlinn the late U -jid of tinGiiLTg, ill hts C'lnvocatioM Hdvising the asseitiblod vei iiiii ii'iiM s, o b s e r v e d , l\ iliaii I do that, if the

eoiiie to neglect his vennioiilars to such ati extent that i-ioiis ((uninent, even within .No less a j)erson Department of LMiication address, alnrnm iiconlesof 'Jie Vf'iT w;ills of the ScMMle H o n - ? ' tills l'ie<, we mean the late

opinions of gentlemen like t h e the Hori'ble Mr. J u s t i c e Bahadur and the UaghunHtha R o w , question have arising

Hon'l^le Dr. the late

Duncan, Dewan


lamented R o best ways of

lamented Mr. H. Bdelivered in J S92, to improve their strone-

B a h a d n r S a d h u S e s h a y y a h a v e tal^en r h e same t r d n d ; as to the .n:'! nn the e f f e c t i n g these t h e first two u e d e d refoi in-improvements, couBider t h e least c o s t l j this. The

No One Can feel n.ore Itidia


with their

least that can he d o n e at presenr and t o boot- F u r t h e r it is actually pinched the lear tied Director

riiiiii.M-..!is veniai iilais, are ever ri) r i o - to a noljler life .'iii'l '.'ii arer weitlih, tiie proiii)ition 'if rhose w h o k n o w I,' must he ten, nay t w e n t y - f o l d of wi;;it it is, and SI I-..ii'.'ly believes tliat the g r e a t mass ot p e o p l e .'^vei be I eL'eiierated until each vernacular is m a d e , )v c a r r y i n g 'in k n o w l e d g e . ' ' T i l e .! ^ leiM '.. c.l.Ka;, !',.JI,II1M' 1..' r l!iin'';N,atha Mu'hiliar b& equally distiibuted a m o n g men and women ; but no

sheet- necessity that has to p r o p o s e

old class of I'andits are s l o u l y d i s a p p e a r i n g ~ a n d t h e r e are none coining to take u p cular


their to

places. T h e v e r n a f o r m e d and m a d e require the unwitii

if they a i e

i n t e l l i g i b l e to f u t u r e rr: KvMt thei ' s t u d y .

genera^bioos. W e are

remitted attention and n n t i r i n g d e v o t i o a of the f e w wlio inclined t o think



T R U T H OB S I D D t l A N T A



oar Ei-OhancrUor and Gh>Ternor that all their l e a m i o ^ ia not rriih nod we are inclined t-i repeat the questions TnMk, whfct ia Trash ? W h o has h right to say that tiU they (old books) have been examined T " Mud this when we find that most nf those who hare joined in the discassion. we beg theirvpardon if we are wrong, are pereona who cannot claim to be iHiy antliority On die vernacular litTature W e have discnssed tht^ nobjoct with a lartre number o ' caltiired men, both Sarupean Hod Indian, bofit inaide and oataide-tha EdiicntioriMl Department, and they all commend Dr. Duncan's proposal, only they think it to be a very small measuM."' W e do not wish to lengthen tue siibj e i further, and now that Dr. Duncan has retaroed from home, may we hope thac the Committee of Senate appointed t consider tho proposal will soon mue^, deliberate and mature a scheme wir h the least possible delay ? EVIDENCES OF NATURAL EELlGION.* I On the Primilire ReUgion uf Mankind. iitstLKnt-x,
I propose conrse gether t o bi-ing f o r w a r d religioD. interewt, for your I consideration which all We a of lctares on sapreme intend t^ e x a i n i o e tomen shall e., relif^inn.

Oentlemen, this e T e n i n g by way of i n i r n d n c t i e n shall s t t c m p t to sarxey from the setene hi|rht ut a i t o r y the opinions of mMnkind oa the existence and aatara of the primitive religion of m a n k i n d . It will be an hisloriaal rather than a philosophiosl lector*. The docnnenta I slisll bring forward are moat trastwortby. I bave dia> carded altogethei- the donbtfnl ones, as troth need not be dresMd ia tbe raeretricions apparel of falsehood. Tbaaa docoment* will msialy eoosist of ancient h y m u , which have ^been handed down to as by ancient peoples abot 2,000 rears B. C. and bear evidence (o the fact that the 6rst rali((ion of mankind was monotheiaa. not polytheisn. 6entletneii> soppose T AQ i n t D O B aronnd me in a great oirde all tbe people that ever ap>
The TFinlict of manof Gad." all the men that Is peered on, s a d passed a w a y from, K^ypnatiaaa, Africa, the e a r t h - t h e old S e m i t i c , tian, C h a l d a i c and A r y a n now live in Europe, and Asia,

A m e r i c a and O c e a n i a a n d propoee t h ' s q o e H t o n t o t h e n . Is there a G o d 9 tbe of there a s o p e n o r of this of tSe aniwer idea, infinite B e s a y , the the father of rewarder the e x i s t rootad tb and c r e s t o - and r o l e r the of good P God. of tbe The This We onivene, w i c k e d and would be We this belief

all men, the ohastiser one. ence Tea, there

nndoehtodly t U a is deeply

is a G o d . cannot

moat admit

in o a r hearts. existence the hy for and a m o n g every of respon is an i a w a r d

be t o foolish as to d e a y of this beantifnl world; aD stages of



man, ia

ciTilisatioa rouaed ia the is a* aa Tha o r an a a t b o r evea

with y o n that great

sobject, f o r

all raoe-s of phenomenon civilisation a eaae. paintina an itii g i g a n t i c

mankind, aad thas A event,

is irresistibiy Kan,

Btertain a

impulse to BSII^A a cansa laaeuna . maaaioa it*

look into it f r o m a pkiloaophical M well as f r o m a theelog i e a l p o i n t of r i e w . mankiod i e n t t s and p h e n of the W e ghall ask the We g c n e r s l opinion of asH philotiotind ia of that and on tlie s a b j e c r . aphorisran of antiquity. shall e a r e f a l l y p e m s e the to search deeply into

iofaney effMt



pre-sappwsea fiirtila

t he greatest s a ) ^ s we

architect, a earth with

artist, a statue a aoolptor. nitianiaiB^

W e fchall t r r

p i s m s , ita

o o r own m i n d i , whether (wrchaDce receAMs of o a r bearts a zlimpae with w h i c h >lmi(;hty trac lig'it this w o r l d . G e o t l e m e n . t o eearch every man'j daty. God

may still

l a k e , it'* rivers ; the sea with its imrnsnsity and ita f o a m i n g w t v e ^ , its ie(;ular e s i T e n l * and its monster lohabitsnte, the heaven.i ahle worlda Hnanre of with their ll reaplendeot, aaornioas aa What i* ionameraad Are ed pre-soppoee ocnnipoUct caaaa ihi* caaae ? Ne, A l l ere

and spark

God, the


Father of nil men, e a l i g h t e a *

e v e r y man t h a i

comes into

ao maoy wondera.

a f f r t n i t b , to will couilemn

f o l l o w the soany no o o to e x e r *

these w o n d e r f u l works their own caaae beiotfs reply

path of t r o t h when f o a n a . Ut ohay the lasting p a o i e h i u e n t f o r the boni in a fal*a religion. raapoiiAible a f t e r the proper to God for cience t o saan^h a f t e r trath, periabable

dictjiteg uf truth is havioK been ha i

ax in their eliMfaeat U n g o a j i e , " I t w i s ^ ' x l Tba earth la not fi.jd. the n < (i'-^ i aiilHMit<Ml aod Ood i[npM>liable, chanires, BCIDK, Qud WH -a r.^tiwill, anJ <><jii I-O latant

who made as and not we o u r a e l r c s " N o . they did o o t m s k e thamaelve*. n o r are t ^ T Goii creature^, are limited and infinite '.bej are tbey are *nl)j<--t to iiBmutable L tbe FIIAT nioet A iitellect d\laed fim'r, a e a i s nut. G o d , the l i e w e n a aia not ( i u d , l>c^a*e all t h e ^ pi>r>shhbie and niaay IMI

mere fact of hi* lo embrace this to God

Hut e r e r y ^ i d y i bouod in ennst r o t k , ami aurld hia eoodoor, ahuold n r n v e at he, l a a i i i n c DeK'aot the n a a ' t last

pleaaoras of


te e n s U e htmaaJf

they h a v

no m l e l l i ^ a e e , ao INDRPEMDENT

e U c a l eMl, e i i . , fiaal anioa with h ^ p i D e e s of heavaa.

in the e \ e H a t i i i

ab<T<JUTE aad

J whuee wi!l raitad

a p ' i jtD

* k geriM of leoMru io ill. \layMtu UaHs| HiK. M l u ^ l o n

all t h e i e ^ in bie t h i c g t .





Gontlemii, this is the hnswer of mankind. All peoples iMTe a name for God, all haie believed iid still believe in th exisUiice of a Supreme Being, who is tine sonrne of all othsr beings. Go to the hniuan race in its cradle follow it tbongh all tbe different regions which it ba.s successively inhabited : let D climte. no iiation/no clas., escape youiO observation: pass from tbe civilized to the baibuioos; search amonp (he degenerate tribes that have planted tbeir tents on the burning sands of Afiica, or the savage hordes that wander over the vast savannahs a n d p i a i i i e s of America, evei j w h e i e yon will hear the nanie of God ; everywhere you will find nations believing in a Supreme Being and dedicating to him temples, nltarsi priestH, festivals, sacrifires yoa shaJl not meet a single tribe, liowever savage it may be, wiiliout some kind of worship. And T hat 11 true now-a-dnys was likewise true, nineteen centuV . ries ago when Plntiirch, a Greek philosopher, wiote as follows. " Y o u may find cities without WI.ll.s, without literatnre, without Uws, without palaces, without money, without schools, without theatres ; but as for a city which has no temples or Gods, which makes use of no prayer or oaths, which coLsnlts no oracles which oSer. no sacrifices tb obtain the blessings of heaven or to avert Ihe evils with which it is threatened, this is what no one has ever seen ; it would be easier to find a city built in the air than a people without some religion (Fhitarch Contra Colote).'' Nor are the conclusions of niodei'n science different * The statement," says Professor T i d e , " that the: e are nations or tribes which possess nO religion rests eitlitr on inaccurate observations o. on a confution of ideas. N o tribe or nation has yet been met with, destitute of belief in any liighiT being, and travellers who asserted their existence have been afterwards lefuted by^ facts. It is legitimate theiefoie, to call religion, in its most (general sense, an iinivHisal phenomenon of hurnanity." (Title, Uutliuea of Hehgn.ns TIist(,r,j, page 6.) Indeed the belief in the existence of God i-< an universal phenomenon of hnmanity, becanB God the crcator of man moulded in such a manner his heait that even when reduced to the condition of an irrational beaxt and wallowing in the niiie of the grosses^ vices, allows nevertheless the name of God to escape him. and raises bis suppliant looks to the abode of this eternal IJeii.-;. Snch is the reniai k made h^ Tertullian to the f'agaiis of his time " Do you desire," he says, that I slioulo prove the existence of God hy the simple testiu.ony oE the sonl alone Well, although hin ie.l in tbe dungeons ot sin, held fast by the ciiuins of prejudice; weakened by passion and coLcnpiBcence. the .slave of false divinities, vf-t, when the soul awakes from its languor, like a man recoverii g frcm drunkenness or feyer, in the ver v first insthnt ot hin heivlth itpiorlaims the name of God Hnd invokts the only Heing wlio i-xn nisixt it. Great God. Good (lod. .lit- the wo.ds that loMi- ni.turally to the lips of

every mati. It is the voice of all. O testimony of th soul naturally Christian. And when it utters this language, it is not to the capital it looks, b t to heaven, the abc'deof the very God from whom itcomes"(^poZo^. 118.> Gentlemen, I shall not dwell any longer on this subject. I am sure the gentlemen who this evening have f voured me with their p:eence are n .t atheisti nay, they are religious people. Atheism could never take root in this land whenever 1 turn, my eyes meet with undisputed monuments of the faith and belief of the Hindu people in a One and Supreme God. '' There is but one Bein-.-, no second." But it being uni^erially granted that God exists, what is the nature of the Moiiorteism or Pol.vwhich ancient nations Him ? History tells worship by hononied us that in

times previous to the Christian Era, all nations w\th tbe exi.eption of the .Jewish people paid devine honours to many and diffe'ent Gods. mankind ? Now, was idolatry the priWas the first religion of Did man soon after own meval religion of

mankind monotheism or polytheism ? debase himself hands ? so as to

his appearance upon earth for^jet his creator and Lord, and worship the works of bis

Now, gentlemen, on this question we hevc the evidence, first of Theopbrastus Greek writers. be says "In worshipped yetm?ideof the one of the moat ancient no material among was Describing the religion of the first men, beginning image

no Woody sacrifices were offered, no use was templeS, alters or of any particular class of

priests. Men had not yet invented the name.s, the genealogies of different Gods. The worship which, at the beginning of mankind, was offered up to God, consisted in acknowledying Him to be the First Principle of all thing?, and in presenting to Him pure heart. the homage and the ar^oration of a up to Herbs, flowers, milk, fruits were offered to

the invisible Deity, and those ancient men lifting God the choicest Jiquors, and tlemen, the traditions of

heaven their innocent hands used to pour out in honour of each one was a piie-t to with H i m s e l f " (Tlieuphrastus In Emebiiis.' StTomatum V.) Genall peoples folly agree Theopbrasttis on tbe primitive religion of mankind, as we shall presently see. Fancy yon are carried on the swift wings of thought to the distant land of the PliHi aohs. to t he land where the remains of the enormous pyiamids, of the stately palaces, of t i e go geous temples fill tlie learned traveller f i o m the West with wonder and admiration. E g y p t is the land of Thebes, of Menphis, of Heliopolis, Tlie Belipion of i In of Abydos, of Philae, of Karnak. Ancient E};.\ pti.iiis. It is the land where abont 26 dynasties of kintis held the sceptre for more than two thoii.sand years liefore the present era. Listen to the high

T H E L I G H T OP T R U T H OB S I D D t l A N T A



priet of T h ' whaoi cUd io iinow.white priefly rohe, he than luldresse)) the Sapreoie Beio); unler the nHme of Ptah^tana : " Hail to tliM Pth-Una. OreHt Ood who conOWilelh hi form tltoa art WHtcbing when at rest the faffaer of all fatheri and of all Gods. W itcher whotTTenj4t the enilleas of eUtrniiv. The heaven was j e t noeraated, nBi;reatd W K the earth, the wati B
flowed D o t ; t h o a haat p a t tfleetbar the e a r t h ,

WlifHt thou hngt fnuml apArt,

thon heai pat ioto it-) place. 0 God, architect of the world, tlioa art withont father, begotten hv thy own bleadng*. Thoa art witiioat a mother, being bora tbi-ough repetition of thywlf. Thoa d^rivest awaj the darknesa-by the beama of thioe eyes. Thon aacendeat into the zenith of heaven, and thoucomeat down even as thoa hast ariaen. When thoo a r W dweller in the infernal world, thy knees are above the earth, and thy head is in tbe npper sky ; tboa saitaineet the snbstancas which thoa hast made. It is by thine own strength that thun raovo'^t. thou art rained np by the might of thy own arma. Tbe roaring of thy voice is in the cload, thy breath in on the mountain tops tbe waters of the inandatiun cover the lefty trees of every region Heaven and earth (obey the commands which thoa haat given , they travel by tbe roads which thou bast laid down for them, tbey traosgress not the path which thoa hast prescribed to them, and wbich tbou hast opened to them Thoa restesti and it is night ; when thine eyes shine forth, we are illarainated...O let us give glory to the God who hath raised the sky, and who caaseth his disk to float over the bosom of Nat, who hath made tbe Gods and men and all their generations, who hath made all lands and countries and the Great Sea in his name of " Let tJie earth be '' (In a papyrus at Turin tranelation by Le Page Beiumyh; Hibbert Lectures, page 22J). Sach were tbe teachings of the ancient Egyptians abont tbe nature aud attribotes of Almighty God, and their worship was therefore monutheiatic not polytheistic, becsuw althoagh we find amoug them a very old belief in numerous divinitien, yet this were rather God'n personified attributes, and were always saboi'dinate to one supt-eme-nncreated and creatine God. But alas tbey soon fell from so high a ootioepliiin of God ; they soon fell from the true kaowlediie ot God. They had kuown God, but they dM not glorify him as God, uor oive him thanks: therefore they became vain in their thoughts and their foolish heart was darkened hy these beautiful things that are seeti, tbey could uot understand him thatis, neither by attending tn the works, they acknowledged who was tbe workman, bat ihey being delighted with their b^aty took either the lire or the wind, Or the swift air or the circle of the stai-H, or the great water, or the sun and moon to bs gods that rule the world ; aod they changed tbe K^ory of the uncorruptible God into the likeness of the image of a corruptible man, and of birds, and of foai ~

footed heasts, and of ci-eeping filings; and changed the truth oF God iiito a lie ; and worshipped and served the creature rather thon the Creator, who is blessed for ever. We may <iitn up the relijioaa belief of tlie Egyptians in the words oftlie eminent scholar Mariette..." On the summit of the Egyptian pantheon hovers a sole God, immortal, onoreate, invisibe, and hidden in the inaccessible depths of his own essence. He ia the creator of heaven and earth he made all that exists and nothing was made without him. Thin is the God, the knowledge of whom was reserved for the initiated, in the saoctnai ies. But tbe Egyptian mind conld not or would not remain at this sublime attitude. It considered the world, its formation, the principles wbich g'lvern it, man and his earthly destiny as an immense drama, in which the one Being is the only actor. All proceeds from him, and all returns to him. But be has agents, who are his own personified attiibates, who.became deities in visible forms, limited ill their activity, yet partaking of his own powers and qualities". Mai^ettp quoted by Max Muller. Lectures on the Science of Heiigion. Ijectaie II[ This is the history of religion in Egypt, and it is likewise the history of religion in Cbaldea, in India, in Persia, in Greece, Rome, in China. Thus may we account for the strange mixture of monotheism and polytheism which is apparent in the religions worship of all nations. The first religion of mankind was monotheistic. Itwas God himself who at the first break of human life, vouchsafed to reveal himself to man as the self-existent, the one, the one withont a second, the father of all men, the rewarder of the good, tlie chastiser ^of the wicked, ^who had instituted from trie btiginning for all men one and the same path of salvation. Bat in the course of time, thejpremitive traditions were altered by tables, the knowledise of the trae God was effaced from the memory of a large part ot mankind ; and idolatry at. once the dsughter and tbe mother of all passions, began her dismal reign. The piimeval re\'elation of a sole God was still flo urishing on the banks of the Euphrates^ The Relii-ion r,f the jj^g ^l^iijerii of the misrhty Ancient Chaldeiuia. A9.< Empire, ^standina, with their hand.s and eyes tainted towards the stany heavens, were wont to close the toilsome day with following prayer for forgiveness : " 0 L'>r(l, lei thii dreailful wrath ot tliv hej.rt be appeaeed. " I feed upon the bread of terror auiJ I drink ilie wmur of '' I nourish iiiyeelf with trespu.sseK ii^ainst. my tinil, >vich.uiit attendini; to them. I wulk in sin and 1 do not mind il. 'OLord, nuineroua are mv tanltii, hoavy ait- nn sins, heavy .ire iny fauJl.s )njvy art^ my O I.ord, thon that knoweiit miin. ivioat y fi'i'It-'. " 1 have faUen into sin, and I do |not 'niimi ii. i li-'v*' siiinrtj, and 1 do uot miud it.







the otherwise abln scholars. The collection, verification and publication of these long forgotten heirloom of literature would have paralysed the energies of many a literary giant. This task, however. wa reserved for Mr. Swaminatha A i y a r o f t h e K n m b h a k o I bare committed many faults. Let; the wind blow tliom .iwa.v iiam Colleije for accomplishment His apprenticem r Blasphemiea am niRiiv, thou () Lord snatch thoin fioni me M a veil. 0 my God, mr sins are .seven time." seven . ship in editing other works previously and the Bcqnit me of mv sins. O God, thon who knowpst what publication of other accessories by other Rcholars none else k n o w s , my sins are seven times seven, acquit me of mv sins: Tbv heart is like that of a mo< licr that is have considerably lightened his task. Nevertheless jiiBt delivered of an infant habe. like that of a father who beeot a child Irt Ihy heart he appeased he deserves the highest credit for the indomitable O Lprd, put an end to niy bowailin^s pardon my fnnlta, my cnnrasre with which he has succeeded in the attempt. wicked works, my ei rors C.niise seven winds to dissipate mysorrowa : let "the birds of the air scatter them to the Hirt masterly edition reveals his vast erudition and winds let the lishine net entau(,'le them and the river scolarship of a rare specimen. Scholars cannot too roll them nwav in hit waters." Lonorniant. Ilixlory of the i<nn><>t Orient. V 304. well thank him (and that other veteran. Mr. D a m o darara Pillai) for the immense bnnefit conferred upon S. J. BVRTOLI, M. *., D.O. them. (To he contitnied). These Idyls are not enjoyable in parts. It is only when you have mastered a whole Idyl and grasped MULLAIPPATTU. its central idea that you can understand what the author wishes to convey in his Idyl. Encumbrance of a number of clauses and fub-clauses, many words ONK OF THE TEN IDYLS IN 'I'/WIL, An Idyl in English is defined to be a short highly and phrases now out of fashion, very stranpe grammatical endings and forms, and the difficulty of finding wrought descriptive poem, or a short pastoral poem the coTinecting links render the mastering of every Idyl This definition ia closely applicable to the Ten Idyls in Tamil, except in that some of them are not 7ery a very eiiduring task. Even mature ackdlars have to abort nor all of them pastorals. Every one of pore over these Idyls as schoolboys over their lessouB. They these Idyls is one highly wrought complex sen- But such patience and labour do not g o amiss. tence in blank verse with one'central idea in each. have their own reward. Some familiarity with these This complexity is rendered still more complex b y Idyls in o n e w a y enables us to understand the inherent Anthe commentator whose linkiog at random the vari- beauties of their ancient classics very easily. other important feature of these Id\]s generally is ous co-ordinate nnd .subordinate clauses puzzle^ ven scholars of the highest type. But for this that the descriptions are life-like and pimple, and not oommeriator; however, these Idyls as well us muny forced and far-fetched like the tremendous exnggei-aother valuable works would have become only for- tions of modern author.'^. Our ancient classics genegotten things of the p.ast ami would never have been rally, excepting in point of diction and style now out of vogue, are very simple and enjoyable They rescued from oblivion. Within our own times we would net repel refined scholars of Europe who abhor know of whole CIMS.S of Pandits who neither knew onr recent poets. nor hesird of any of these Idyls except the first
' The Lord in hit indigiiation has kindled h i . wroth agninst me. God has croshed me in his fiivv. ' I kneH down and no one rniscs me up with hie hand C i r m p . I ulter mv praTer, and ni.nP hflnrkens to me. Bin 1 appmaciv my me'rcifnl Cod, Knd \ Gire vent to my iO|)cntancv.

which, a-s part of the X I Book of Saiva lore, has ever bpen learnt and popular,, though not Wheu even well understood by all. how w^eaa'saiT(^& Pandits of first

was first introduced as H text for the B. A. Elaminaof 1S94, we know grade colleges were priiinblin;^ and miirrauring against it. W e know n l s o o f s o m e cases in whicli some Pandits, ->vhi) ownHrl .^fiay copies (Mss ) o^ some of these Idvls lip in despair all hopes of decifiherin-r what the H';i7'i' r,^ their contents Kftieiit oviy hititi werr. Kvei- i;i print now, so-re of

One half of these Idyls come under that class of literary productions called ^pgiuuenii.e., a poem, the object i)f which is to conduct or introduce one to a superior In ^(SOfit^snps)^uuemL. one who alreadv obtained the favour of the deity Subrahmanya explains the path leading to the abode of the deity and conducts a votary to that place to obtain of HiOi salvation. ID the other four Quir(t^ii7iT/hjt)iuumL-, svuuemi-.], the favourite.'* and adherents of kings and

cy(, in I'tn? hunrl.t of

; O-JIPIS guids the warrior.tho m.uf ician and tiie dramatist




OE S I D D H A N ' T A



t o t h e palacefl a n d maDsions of thoae k i n g s HTIJ n o b l e s t o o b t a i n princely g i f t ? . T h e obj.-ct of these I d y l s is tli praise of the deity o r iioblo w h o s e f a v o r t h e a n t h e r had won. MUU, Of the remainiDg five, f o u r treAfc of l o v e ; a n d J'hese are ^ ^ b u u u t r ^ f f , nnd uiLif-arutiniso. ui^eajri (g/S^BuLuriKS, heroism incidentally)-





jgjjKatii-wpepii)},' Ciiiise. to a(l::pt-

lamentation in any perio l o f their life f o r any the a b o v e five s p c c i e s of soil, as ii.p)ro|)i i:ili-ly ed t o their ijir?6, t o QisiL^^. nature, as to When to i_m) to iind

T h e s e five charJutDeristiriK Mve respectivply iiscii bed

L-Cp^^ to

a d m o n i s h e s worldline!>B on a c c o u n t of its :)raDSi t o n n e s s and t.he P a n d i y a n to w h o m it is addrensed is s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d t o k e e p in v i e w tainintr salvation. ilie m e t h o d of o b W p now p r o p o s e t o revinvv one of

these five disposition.^ or actions

are set in verse, it is but. p r o p e r that, the poet should d e s c r i b e their respective m(T^uQuir0ejr. Now tlien, (jowfetfuufTil, the s u b j e c t of oiir pre.s-'nt r e v i e w , deals of the disposit.inn which the b r i d e , continues solitary. lord return from a military exploit forbears with failing to great patigs the perform or the state in The kmcrher

t h e a b o v e , (joaitwuoffLl, rather briefly here. T o those w h o are net familiar with t h a t part of Tamil g r a m m a r amatory jjoemR, which the l o l l o w i n g brief ^suQuitq^^ for is introduction

draws Rules

requests her t o forbeai' his separation until hi.i His consort accord iniriy rhis separation duties. without This spaci-

necessary ( w h i c h we propose to treat m o r e e l a b u i a t e l y in a separate article iu s o m e subsequent issue), \ jysij Ouff't^ir is d e v e l o p e d in these three coustitueiit.s, viz., primary arrangements of nat.ui-e with five varieties () ( g / B ^ ^ , (e) ( d e s e r t ) , ( f ) Qpei^aotrHCts and r e g a r d to ( i ) rfwii, soil, in aylvan tracts, ( d )


f o r b e a r a n c e is the subject of this p o e m . T h e queen was on her bed in the lofty and o n s seven-storied pulace. of a gold of the a d j o i n i n g vtitue k e p t b u r n i n g ne^r herrivulets r e a c h e d T h e lamp held in tlie hands T h e nnise There The her her ears

hilly tracts, ( 6 ) u/rfcy-arid tracts


O c i i i ^ w - m a r i t i m e tracts and ; ( 2 ) G u i r / ^ ^ - t i m e , iu t w o Ifrand divisions (i)Ot-i(5i(3ij/r^^/rj>/-the six ( a ) r f f - c l o u d y ( \ a g u s c and oold (October September), (b) and November), seasons x-fiir-

was not her lord beside her. sion came o v e r her. pea-hen pierced

Rhe was all alone. She adjusted

t h o u e h t of her husband crossed bangles which w e r e s l i p p i n g <.fT.

her mind. A c o n f u She shivered like B ornsments

She sighed.

(c) ( y w u s o f l - e v e n i n g iStirueiiff-mormDg hot season

d e w (December and Jannary^ (d) aeasoD ( A p r i l a n d

with nn arrow, and her

d e w ( F e b r u a r y a n d M a r c h ) , (e) gitrOaiteFIa) milder hot M a y ) , ( / ) Qfi^QaiaflM ( J u n e and J u l y ) ; (ii) first hoars after Hunset, (ii) t h e six d i f f e r e n t toirttw the (c) iutru>imidnight,

c o n s e q u e n t l y , were <lislocateH. T h e queen however c a n . not help t h i s ; they must forbear separation from their lords; night. otherwise, kingdoms her. Such will falj wiis her down. This were t h o u g h t consoled l o n g and tedious. plight, every

portions of t h e day ( e a c h f o u r h o u i - s ) ( o )

T h e d a y s had no charm.

The nignts

MiaicoDp-ihe Jast hour- of night, {d) s/raw-morniug. (<;) coiruc^-midday, (^ar-natoral ( f ) v/huirQ-eveuinii. IIa^uQuir rhe pecaliarit'ieB incidental, to each of

T h e appointed, time of the nrrival

of her lord is not, y e t c o m e . W h e r e was the king all the w h i l e ? He was in his c a m p in the battle-flold. The scene of action bordered on a wild torrent in a forest tract whose tall trees and thick shrubs were cleared away. the enemy fence. were -.ilso pulled down' Tb^ fortifications of therein of wild clans who eu 'rded the dominions large tract of land encircled on all sides by a po.st9, n d ropes for wires, [rhe b 'lie.s on

divisions of t h e soil n n d e r f o u r t e e n heads ( 1 ) ^ j o v a ^ tntelary deities, (2) .luiisQ^nk chiefs, ( 3 ) gl^iQ^irir, ( 4 ) i - / - b i r d s , (5) a9i/(5-bea8ts, (o) o(r-city or t o w n , ^7) iSfl--water, ( 8 ) y - f l o w e r s , ( 9 ) uijii-trees, (lOl e-joj)food, (11) ua;p-drum, (12) lu/r^ stringed musical instruments, ( 1 3 ) u c v - t u n e , (I i ) Q ^ i r ^ ^ - o c c u p i t c i o n , trade or mode of earning a livelihood. I l l o-ifiu The subformer viz., Ou/r^cr-essential characteristics of lovers. j e c t matter of tions (1) or actions, either

Just imagine a wire wiiich sus-

Substitute bones, spears and bucklers for iron

to which the t w o mental

quivers were suspended resembled the treble stoue of a Brahman hermit with his o u h r e - o l o r e d pended on it. engraved]. such composed entrance 'I'he heads of spears were In tins enciOsiire foi tified cloth beautifully king The

a r e auxiliary or c o n d u c i v e , is d e v e l o p e d in five disposior corporal, union or the state in whic.h husbands and ( 3 ) g|i5,ff^s>-the stute bride.

bv a fence of

w i f e s are together in their family, ( 2 ) Lff/fl^w-separation when f o r l a w f u l purposes, ) in which they continue solitary, especially the

we^ippns was encamped the army of the of warriors of various nationiilities. of the enclosure was g u a r d e d by





leph ints, wliicli stood :if on'^e t'Miinini^ 'lii^ir hr.nris with twig's, curing not '<> pat. fcod or su^'ar-caiies, i-(irii sheaves Mnd sweet tender f^iass, and wi-re fe(] with iiioi-sels rirt' liT iL'Uornut innhoiiuts who thrcatenf-d them to eiit iinS^tti'Mv words fiuniliar to flephimts) with {jfoads in t.Iieir humls. In the middlfi of this eiiciunpinent was pitched tlie tent of the kinif screened apart fron) tlio snrfoiindiiii.' din nnd confusion of the army. After llip dav's exploits are oret-, he enters his tentThe bertutifnl maid spwants snnff np the lumps. His body-puard po round his tent and keep wa^.ch oven at miduij^ht. Every now and then liis time keepers inform him tilp time sliowr, hy his hour-glnss. lie paces into his dormitory adorned by a Yvana servants S'nd lit liy diamonds. The screens of rope are let down. The mute mlechas watch his bed room. He i- ; i ] o . i P on liis hod reconntin^ elephants whose prooosci.s h;ive been chopped off, dntifnl soldiers who Imve fallfii in batile, and horses which stand wofnlly wlthiiiit Ippclino- on ^rass, hnvinp- been wounded by iiiTow.s \'\'ith one hand on hi^ be(i and thi^ other on hiS head, >lepp]o-3 ho sits pondering over his loss and the probiiVilo plans of .sMcce.s. 'I'lie Inst day of llio appointed time is come. Tliere iias been h e a w sliowpr :n the evening. The lady wlioin wp have b It, in the pnlace just now b^^iiis to >veep as her loi'd bus not returned yet, in accordiince with his M'umise. Old womori who'have bnen despatcherl with fiowei's ami saoriliop.s to the trods to cnisnlt f.riimrs retniiipil to her and said " T) beautiful lady, please dispr.nse wit}) vour sorrow, we have had a very yOo<] omen. While we were prayine the gods, a yoniig sheplicrdess, who rlasiied her slioulders with roused arms on arcoiint of the cold bree/e, seeing her -aK-f-A na.liln'^R thf- r'.WS, WHS S"Othing them vilhtl] ' n-iU P,e nr,r, troubbnl, your raothe'ra will in-Iandy this not a. tjood omen? There s iloi'l I ;liat oil)' loi-d will return e'-e long with plet- siii-f:c-;s f-he=e words had no effect

thi'ir domitiioii^. the door-way

Lo I his chHriot staoda in front of

The above is the substance in English of this paetorjil of lOo lines. W e have oniitte'l certain q a a l f f j ing phrases and chnses which may seem awkirard in Knglish. Now, reider, try to put the whole of the aboTTi iti one complex sentence and note the result. We do confess that it was with considerable difficulty that we patched np in parcel.s the above humdrum translation. Even now we nro unable to comprehend how the commentator links the clauses into one whole intelligible strin?. His linking is n habra-eadalra. It may b e that our scholarship is not np to the work to comprehend him. W e retreat this only to show how much patience is required to master every I d y l .






H I S MKTKES roMPARD WITH TR'VARAM. Lceargpi LoirfS^Ofhuj U'T^firw Ljiuis^ u j a v ' ^ C J LDiemsLD^esr Q^fiT ^ismrrk^ o/irQeuiT ihae\)i ^ireirOsirQetfirgiiii oiiQfS eSaisirjii p. According to the Vaishn&.vitos. Tirumangai Alwar is the latest of the Alwars, and was horn in-Kali -398 which isftbout. 3,f;00ypars a?o,at a y\lftcecalled p'Obablv south of the Canvery in the Chola territories near ^(^ifsmri^n, a place celebrated for 4 Q^^irirut. Thev have also recorded, in their short biographical notes of him, thnt in the counie of his travels from shrine to.shrine, be had met Sambahdha'.s diacioles who took him to their master at Shiyali before whom, he K1U7 what was then known as ^(^^^iremri^sui beginning with the following stanza: 9<5P'''''' oji^wemr Oaiei).!^ iqciij^lew"^^ L^jjUf-Hjir Qe\)rrQi8 Qiuar^ii saai^^ ^fTLTetreir ^iisn2eitreS:T ^is Srt^^ uj(5a)an;DiiSssr ^psir/F/reargLD Qai^eS eatukjp ldibsibs err etna/ujrrjn lS staff sO err (igu> Q^Q^iS^uieS eStfitr^ arQpii &jDi(^iB Kirt^ f Sirira, a P e w r c w r s Q f i r t i l a f i Q r .
^(^.cOajcOT) LC.TOJSvffaDiij^ sm/DuS^

!adv sitlin_' iiMiodv p'.stnre, when a unjoling sonnJ tickli. s 1 f^r '' ti Hark ! What is it ? 1 It i-omos from a. distance. Tiie blowing of trumpets Ulue lotus and and concih '- ' Tlip weather is clear tlipji' niller !i; ;iicfl\' Iii.ird. The deer till-' .^iiHrniv

IC'inrai .-irc bios>oniin^^ other forest llower.s are opening ^;DpiMLT 'p^ er plain.'? of "horses is dis-

Then be asked Sambandhar to sing, which he did, but which i.s net preserved by them. This seems to be

rta(.'S. Tiie king

p| ir. lach i u' .villi uplifted the true version of the interview bfetwei-n the two coinniered his enemies and won F^aiuts at Shijali as given in their authei>t'c books.




T R U T H On S I D D H A N T A

D E E P T K A . 145

T h e troth notao


this interriew, it seems, has knowing tlie weighty


grown defective. of

]'erliii))s Tamil tnny h;ive

sciiolfiif contj ibuted



doobred by the late Mr. Sundaram Pillai, th mgh 1 had opportunity of reasons which induced him to suspect the genuineness of the tradition, and it would further appear that the 11th cantnry has been fixed as his period;

altogether to bl:inie ii.s s-veral 'c.nises iu tlie liiftorjTamil liierature KJ liiis deploriibie stato of things.

In the next place, the Tevanim metres ve ucrt marked in the book, as they might have been, by If we rely upon the followin(f stanza giving the isiiiLSujiTiinri_ir,7 wiitS who was in the most favuurkble date ofTHioil Kamayanam, viz. circu'rist-Mices and would have been the fittest person a^tafiiu ffmirufi Qi^fir^urp QpifiatQuip ^aoiiueir atn^ to do it- Nor has any othwr editor attempted to do it, mtmmSiu QaisiirQisiL itai^ir tu>u /^ri^t^ [ a; asatnigVit have been i!ji4')ected, from theeiitieme deffi;!j/iy ariii ciomplicatiou of the task. While on the I mil 1 iiiiffii I eSjirtt airanf uik^esB lu^^isirsff^ other hand great credit i.s due to the ori^rinal editors stiraiBuj aijrikmir Q^mQeer fiSiuj QtpiB^Qeat Kambar rrast have lived towards the end of the yUi of the AlwHr'.s Priibhn<laui.'f for the laudablu wttempt century; and i^andharu must be datrd the 8th ctiutuiy thiy tnude in pointing' out the metre of each uiTjrij>, I regret I am compelled to remark, in the inteif the following stanza in the preface is true. rests of THinillifceralure, with very t;reat deference to Q^^QtcirSI Qaifiirmaiii uaSarj)/ ai^Qtoireir them, that their indications of metre are faulty in too eSifti^mamrfu)(jD6BW/fijpQtLsireau) ^avQi^Tor many places as mny be discerned even by a sHpeVflcial Quir^iAl^ SaiweapQujirar ai^Q^ui reader, and as 1 shall shew fully on future occHsion S^SlL/UU (gJO/ T^Q^A These fault.s mar th excellence the Pr ciphaodam and Lia)aiiT(gi^ir LsSi^ii^ Qunpp the metres therefore shonld either be omitted altoiD^iaeSwir QtifiLi^fi gether as in Tevaiam, and the reader left to grope in the dark as best as he can, or stated correctly liSn^si^ Lfiriramwjra Qafp/H^Xtftr. so far as we can at the present d.n.y. In a work like the Then the resolt would be the AJwar, whose date is Prabhandain, nothing should proceed ijpon conjecture. the 11th century, is about two or three centuries poste- The Alwars thetnselves if they were now alive, would rior to Ratnayanarn and Skandham. be much amuSed at the metrical arranL'ement. I propose at some length to teat this astounding reBut in spite of these difficulties, an investigation of sult by a method which is none the less reliable bethe metres of the Alwar find of Tevaram is not altocause it is novel in Tamil literatuie. I f w e j n - t turn gether a hopeless tusk as it may at first sight appear, our attention to the metres of the Alwar and co^npaie if we only ner.severe in the belief that snbstsntial and them with Srabai)dhar'< and his undoubted conteminteiestingresnlts will be obtained and that porary Appar's Qpaitriiui on the one hand and with ^ / f l i a i ^ jLOLi'^i^IR SIVTSsbT LB^U.jJI Kamayanam, Skandham and other auch work" on the Qu(^iQaireiPGfiT ( j ^ ^ i j f i i Gu.T^Tii; other, we shall arrive at reliable and substantial reBults, inste^id of litHrary conjectures liaz*deii some- a u d ali tjiat I r e q u i r e uf i h e r e a d e r i.i t o L a v e liiw m e times for the mere pleasure of contradiction oi- tlu'ouj^li t r i c a l fortnuhi.' t his fingere' e n d s HS 1 slij>ll s t u d i o u s sectarian animosity ly a v o i ' i t e c h n i c a l i t i e s hnd try r.o b e v e r y s i m p l e lu The application of this method is, I .am awtii e. ijeset with a great many difHculties. In the iii st pluue prosody is considered iin extremely ban-en and uninteresting subject, not only by the yeneral re^dei- but even by men who haye made a special sMi'iy of 'i'amil, including Pandits, aii>d one will be aurpri-ed to hear thatTelug'i proSodians are, in this ie.->'iict, Ear in advAncu of {'a-nil gram-narians, and h ive don>' fnll jntsire to their subject while Tatnil, with a wider and. I believe iDore aucient field in prosody,nor havnu,'-bee'! watched and treated by Tamil writers^ Ims hilleu am! 35
my t r e a t m e n t of tlie subject even at the expense uf ele^rince a n d c o n c i s e n e s s . P e r h a p s it i.s nr)t g e n e r a l l y k n o ^ ^ u t h a t tlie T e v a r a m m e t r e s belontr tn an a n c i e n t p e r i o d o f iHrnil and possess us many metrical peculiarities b> liiciature whicii, n o t the sacred dictates to

h a v i n g s u r v i v e d to us, a p p e H r to t h e s t u d e n t o l riiodern poetry irregularities i n u u l ^ t d in p o e t s l o c h a r a c t e r i s e their p i e t y o r as sci i p l o r i a l e r o jrs a n d s o on, as v r r . jLisly b y modei'ii C ' j n j e c t m ed a* fancy i eiKiei s l hut i-ver iiripfencil

t u r n t h e i r a t i e u c i o u to LLL- m e t r i c a l c o n s t r u c t i o n of t h e









lines. Of course, the ciassiciil works extant upon Thmil provodv fti-e ingularly conspicuous by their sullen silence on these metres, on which, from the extreme importance of the subject, they mipht be expected to be minute even to dispfust, aod cnnnot therefore be appealed to for our help. That sncli indifference on their part, or, whatever it may be, is nol; excusable will appear from slight reference to Teluga prosody, where not only the Sanskrit metres, borrowed in common with Tamil, are fully explained after the San.skrit model, but even the pure Dravidian metres, as I may call them, such as Madhyakkara, MadhuriVkkara, Dwipadn, Taruwoja, Utsahs,Antharaccara Ac-, of which, curiously enough, ns I shall hftve occasion to sh^w. there are counterparts in Tevarsm and other snch nncient works, are fully described and named without the aid of Sanskrit prosody and wilL I b - ] i e v o , lend i"Son>e help in our investigation. nd throw much light on thn subject. Tev'-r^m consists mostly of Vrittas with a few ^aajD herp and there. 'I'hese \^rittas, as we know, are only jglwii) Or subsidiary metres that seem to have entered the language ranch iHter fhan the four main metres Qaisirurr, ^maipuir. seSluuj, and ai^Quuir. but have been so extensively nn l exclusively used as to have thrown the main metres long a ? o altogether into the back ground. With reference to these Vritt4s, Tamil literntnre may he divided into three periods viz, iP The period preceding Vritt.aB. (2) The period of ancient VrittVs (1) The period of modern VrittRs. Aeastyar a n d T o l k i p n i y i r appear tob^long to the 1st period. Tid we may safely assert that Vrittn in Tamil wpre unknown to them and that the spurions works in Vritt'is that pass under tli name of Aeastva are works fathered 'jponhimby modern writers of little or no reputation, and are instances of metrical anachronis>n. Many oM works written in non-Vrittas may also He ussigned to tliis 1st perio ). Tev;iram wu'.ld apppear to belong to the 2nd period, an i. I am inclined to belif've that SH^iriLsmfl is ulso ' this period and that Quift'nt-tjnemua marks the dawn > of th^. modern period. I shall not here digress by stating mv reasons foi' these propositions. I should here july ask the reader to discard the notion that Tamil, 'ipliint^iutr as it is to the so-called unchangeable East, ha-; remained unchange'l ever since Agastva. That it iiH'j hpeii rliangiug, is nowhere more app;^rent than in rhe oricrin aud tri'i^wth of Vi-i'tiis, thonuh it is to b e regretted thai Tamil prosoiiiaus beyond recognising

the advent of" these metres into the language have done no justice to them and have failed altogether for some reasons or other not very evident, to watch them in their growth thi-ough centuries. There is a futile attempt madn in Virasoshiyarn at an explanation of Sanskrit metres, but the subject is not p a r s a ed,"probably as being beyond the scope of thework,beyond indicxting what are long and short letters f o r the purpose of Ghaudas. I am here concerned only with one point, viz., that Tevaram and Quiffiu ^(^QteiryS of Tirnm-^ngai Alwar belong to the same ancient period, and I hope the following investigation will make it clear without more reasons, I may here tell the reader that I entering into shall not disdetails and gust him by too many

taking him into what he may here fitly call a d e e p l a b y rinth of metrical complications. I am aware I am not entitled to a more than passing attention from the therefore intere.sting Tirumat^gai general reader of this Journal, and shall confine myself only to a f e w salient and points, shewing^ that Rambandhar snbject to be treated fully elsewhere. I shall first take a metre which is very common both in Tevariim and modern poetry, viz., what is name is given called ^(^QmiFleaff in Appar which forms the main portion o f his Ist ^CJGOSO^. This now call it by the to it only in ^jfS^im^Qig equally This metre, Appar and the name has not de,scended to us. and w o long sonnding name stanzas. w which is a name applicable t o I do not knowhowmi>ny the ancient ^Q^QisiBemr, is the and

Alwar flouri-'hed aV)0ut the same period, leaving the

identical and the only

metre employed thronghout the twelve parts of SmtmQ). I shall, for the information of the general reader,point ont the identity, by scansion, between the Appar's ^(^C/s'flsnf and t'e SmeSa'9 metre, hoping, however, to be excnsnd for the comparison of two such extremely dissimilar work*. f^anario rjeSarii
or .oSffTii 12. Ouresrgp/sv ^arsgf^u)

L/eSwir or Qfiinir
uiosffq Seiri^


eSp/S(nji uieeSQuJor,


oiirtfijs^ (^L-ir

LpiQsn-i^ QseirLBar {(^i^iTLcsi^ iSimQ, uitdSirii i ) .


O P T R U T H , OE S I D D H A N T A



t^ith this compare the follotviog Q t f i e o f of j f u u i . m(gtSm-ii ot

1, ^ir^stf

uf^^SySiU^ ^eriiQsifl ttJT u,nQp.

Lfofioir Or d^iDir

(jyuu/f Qmnt^pfiQ^Qm^eam stanza). Here, note the underlined word uS^^Qifiuj which IB incapable of division into two iDir^ffir as the rul requires. A modern poet would have ( j t r f i y y i * which is.two feet of each. This line (4th) sonnda rathei- odd to our ear, accustomed to modern poetry, but Tnnst have sounded as H perfect line to the poet and his contemporaries. This pecnliarity of using occasionally an indivisible s^eSmieiTilj or S(^eSerrmsinij or (to use better the other formulae given in Tolkappiyam commentaries) iotroi(^aiiTiu or L/sSlaQ^aiiriu, in the place where we e x pect two is very common to Tfevaram and other ancient works. The followiug are other instances of this peculiarity in jfuu/f ^q^QsiBobv I. Qim iSSQujor (QsiruSpfiSfT^Q^iftemr, uearQsiriieS stanza 3, line I ) 2. uiire^aj^^ (Do. stanza JO, line 1.) ^ ( j a / ^ j . ^ (Do line 2) 4 aiSiff^^sii.TCTr (1st ^(^ai^aas t S t i l j ^ e r u t stanza 6, line 3) 5. isirreisrgnii (Do stanza 9, line 3) 6. Qi^SXeofHir ^Gw/flsotf: stanza I, line 2)

CTOT-M/r 8. miirtBraur miriTQipsk 4. ^Breoir u>ma)s ^nai

eiSetfflw tBsfi^ (7aj/r9u> ^ e i ^




In tbera a t ^ z a s . the 1st foot is either m^eSerw or indifferentlj, so the 2nd is either Lfafli^iT or Qpunr and the 3rd is ODIJ and should not b e L/ofluwr. These three oombine in the same order Again, and the whole six feet from a line consisting of two equal halves. Four suoh Jines from a stanza. If we examine the whole of iSmsir, we shiill find e a c h line running most rigidly in the manner above pointed oat, without a single instance of the slightest deriation fn>m the Ltw above Uid down. This metre is eqaally perfect in ^iittoniuam^, n^ir

&c, &c. Let ns tnrn to Tirumangai Alwar. There this Q u ^ v u r i f a r i i , uinrpiii, Skandham &o., where it is metre which in Appar is called ^Q^QmXIaar is called found dispersed in various places. Sundarakandam at the end and in another place with ^iOmiriLfio) ut-otw, SiieS^iuiriL where it occurs bears uo special name. W e have on ijui_aiti, and (SsireimmireirutemM in uireDstrakriiii, the whole 40 stanzas of this metre in this Alwar. W e commences with it. The lat seven Sutrams of shall scan one of the stanzas >o prove their identity B^fiiuirir are in this metre and aytojsDujLo and SaiuiSirs'rfii for more than one half of them are also with jfuuir ^(^QmiBsBf and t S s m metre. f(^eSeirii Lj&OiDir in this metre and aiiraiSe^^ii and S^kndham abound or or Qfiirnt in it. In fact, there is no modern poem of any ^eSarii G^wir importance without this metre- In all these works, t h e rule of scansion above laid dowu is most rigidly followed. But on turning to Appat ^ ^ Q t r P s o f , whicli is no other than this very same metre,we find p-.'culiarities oiwhat appear to us to be deviations from ctie above l a w m(^eSirw or
S-aSerrii) 1 2. 1. ^liLfODi^u utesriiaDm ^esrjD Qai^ii




aSioso^ ^asi-joreii Ljfg.i^Ouireir

(S0 uoQufr ^ it)

QunsvarB aifftkri

Qaii^iriu Qp^3)iu>

HeUmn or Q^LB/T speap satTL. mpai piiu Q^imr QfiPP^ Qa^areS (cJSBJ.T %ns! fien'iev




2. srrcarmn 3. in^femL.

Aa this scan<)ion shews, this metre i!! uo other than Appar or we are considering. This stanza of the is us perfect to our ear as i^sesr(B and free from any peciiliariry. But when we examine his other scan/.as of this m-tie, we find peoiiliai-ities of tlie same t j p e as has been above pointed out io Appar ^(^Qisifiaof viz., the occasional use of



Oriental manuscripts, lived in the year 4 6 0 of the era of Salivaliaoa, i about 540 A.D. This means that Kamban lived l,3."iO years ago. A s per stanza p r e fixed to the Tamil Ramayanam "eremsBSiuffmir^^QiLeir &C-," Kamban c o m posed his Ramayanam about 895 A.D., and so should have lived 1,000 years a?o. Mr Duraisamy Muppanar of Kapisthalani in his aiiusirwaiueear ^Q^miaeS eSenssu, sa\ s tbiit the above stanza has ulso a reading TSwraBfli fsfTfifi O p i g i r p Q p j ^ ^ Qusppmiium lOi n^ei^ , and this makes Kambn to have lived 1,500 years ago. Bishop Caldwell says thnt there is refer.;nce to Riimanuja in the s^iQanuffi^n^ of Kamban, an d that Kamban should have lived therefore after the age of Ramanuja. Ramaiiuja according to Gnru ParMmpara Prabhftvain was born in the year 939 of Salivahana or about 1018 A D. But authentic bistory points out that Ramanuja converted Vishnuvardhana of Mysore in 111-3 A.D. From this it v^ould appear that Kamban lived about 700 years a g o . The first of the above statements is neither supported by any reliable tradition nor b y facts. W e are led to think that Rajendra is perhaps c o n f o n n d e d with the (father ?) immediate predecessor of Knlotnnga. This is also inconsistent with the approved chronology which places with a degree of certainty 8 m b a n d h a r and Tiromangai Alwar* between the 5th and 7th centuries of the christian era. .Tirnmangai Alwar from his reference to Q s i r f Q ^ m s i ^ d r in )iis Ouifluj ^(^Qwir^: appears to have lived some time after the Inst Madura College as may be understood by aanoiifi mjrp u^. i-ifQi^/sfi, a contemporary of Kambun ha borrowed "Qstuet (guSp Q u a c L - i ^ u 9ji> (gjiii QsLii-iTeS 0/(3 lui^ifiiLi^ireii" evidently from the 7th stanza of ^(^wmeoa ujir^aiirir'& QuirAsniQweir...Qffikaire\)u)Lj.ui-jpaiu> Oucs<_c g u Qusfii (Sfl&i Bi^^fiirAQa." This unvarnished truth refutes the hypothesis that Kamban lived so early. W e are sorry we cannot ulso adopt the statment of that great Dravidian scholar Dr. Caldwell, because we searched through and through the text and commentaries of f i Q s n u ^ i ^ ^ and could not f.nd any allu8ica.;to Ramanuja. Disbelieving ourselves, we enquired of certain elders well versed in Vaishnava liturntere on the pidint, and their answer corroborates our statement. He is in ( F x 11 wliat J'lof. Seliapiii Sasirigal po...L out they could not 1 have Ifpri c(.nrciiipoi:ii ies. Jf Tirumnnoaiyalwar was later than 10U4 .4. II., ilic iitlic whole f'act of our frieod will have to be liauled up fivsh. Kir:'}

miirL or

in the pUice and Bteacl of


oxrjJ.T (1-. e., ior 2nd und 3rd feet or 5th and 6t.h feet). The following are the Alw^r'fl stan/as containing peculiarities :
s ^ j a f i f f li L,srf>LDT

iu this metre

or ^eSarw Qfi^fiOip

or Q^wn

Q^inn QsuektUf-

( 4 - l j ^ ^ , C-aj^, stHDZJi C, line 1 )

1. 2. 3. Q^fQp^ u^fieauii Q^^eaai [saruaBiQiutir^

Q f i ^ a ^ i r i^dl


GujiifiirM ^Qaiar

4. jy^^tfaw'




QenQar. stanza 10.)

Note the underlined words ' and 'uura^Ou)' used for two exactly s in Appar. The words in brackets tniy also be considered as b e longing to this peculiarity unless we consider the letter gj in them to be long, and divide them into tvo I may also mention that this ^Q^Q^flastf or ^ i (5j>'^/Tori_Lo occurs also in isuouin^ann though not sindei' any of those names, with the same peouliarities as we finiJ in jyuu.r and ^(^iniens -^^aiirir. Note the folh)wing peculiarities in nijbwn^ainn 1. (lO-u^ ji. stau/.a 2, line 4) 2. ^eerm^naw {Do.stanza 8, line 3) ']. Ou/r^wgi^ji^'f (Do. stan/.a 11, line 2) 4. (Do. lino 2). 'J'he words hei'e used are Jill f^eSfirianut or xfT^eSeirixinu without a middle coi;stani (ir loiig vowel which would make them divisible Ultt two li.ff^'^'f.

{ C i ' i i l i i i i i i i l f n n n 2iagi 'I'l't A f US.)

(JK Jlll_. luKT ANii HIS CjWTEUl'ORAiilKS.

Sr,me st;ile that IvJimhiin si.c,




time of

I; ijsinl'a I holii, who according to otit- i)iscription as .11 j^iige 4 l 4 , Vol. J l l , of c^talogueKai80Die of








dtiaed to place all the Alwars of Nalajirit Prabhanda ItftRr Bamanojn, nssnming that RHinatinja was the A n t f o a n d c r of Vaiiahnaviiini. This is a^aioat all inttnal .ideDce of the Nalayira Prabhand and a^aiDSt itn evidence of the Sanskrit; anthm^ The verr fi frntn which the Uarned Doctor draws a fajlactal evidence, han in it-i ^8th stanza "
JkUSi, leirjDuOuajirg Omir^tuirietr &c "

Praiie we the TSRT c t o D P ! PraiM we the TUT CLOUD ! Like hia frrmce it ponri down bleasiogi oc the world begiit I 7 the fearaome aea.


Pmsie we flowery Pugar ! Prmiae we flowery Payor ! It iiplifta itself, nnd (preads, end growa together with bia (fke

king't) clsn,
A bore all the world aurrtianded by the awellinp ocean'* tide.

Itaat i h e schoKra, of the Madura College were deprived of their pride b j Sarai^op^. If the .tradition involved in thi itauz>% be ture, then it comes to pass that SatAf^opa lived aboat the age of the Madura Collef^eTkeve were-other Alwars preceding Satagopa- There ia a tradition and there is some truth in itthat Kamban'a RantayHDam was pablinhed and approved presence of Sriman Nadamunigiil who lived at l 9 t a generation or two before Ramanuja. In fact it wa the commentators of the Nnlayira Prabhanda who lived in and after the age of Rarnanuja. All this tfiada t'i refute the bol<l statement of the Doctor.

Of this work a very cotnpiet^ edition has recently been published by that admirable Tamil acholnr, V . Swarainathaiyar, Tamil Pandit of the Kambhtkonvm College. (Madras, 1892). The author was a prince of the Sera royal f a m i l j , hence often called Seraman. H e became an ascetic, and is commonly known as Tlanho-Adigal {the young prince ateetic). There is n cxhauativo commentary by Adiyarkkn Nallar, of whom nothing more is known. The religiou<> idpEs are a strange medley of Jainism, Hindaisin nncl pre-hiptoric J)pmonisra. The poem is divided in three books, which bear the titie of Pugar (Kavori-pattanam) Madura and Ksriir. being the chief cities of the Sora, Panciiya and Sera kingdoms riespectively. In Pugar there lived a merchant whose name was Macattnvan, who had a son called Kovalan, married to a most beautifnl and excellent lady whose was Kannagi. This youog couple lived in a splendid palace, and had great stores of wealth which they employed in acta o f piety and beneficence. Unhappily there was a ereat festival held in Pngar in honour of Indra, which was wont to be celebrated with surpassing pomp by all the citizens. At this fentival there appeared a female mnsician and dancer of anrpassint; beauty find accomplishment". This stranger diverts the affections of Kovalan, and in her societv he squanders away lh whole of his property. When he brnke loose from her he returned to his patient wife pentiiless, and found hpr worn away with sorrow and distress Filled with oompunction he resolves to leave the city, repair tc Miidnra, and try to retrieve his fortunes. Kannngi. whose lovely character is exquisitely dra-wp, lias ar anklet Silamhit fillpd with precious stonp.s of preal valuP, and wlfh this which she crivps him as his capi
tal, h p h o p e s t o lefriiin his l o s t f o r t n n p . S l j p con-^pnt;

{To he continued).
R E V I E W S.

T H E L A Y OF T H E A M K L E l ' . - A


A OlTBioDa Tamil poem called Silappadhikaram : 'the chapter of the Silambu' (an anklet worn b j dancers, "hollow and filled sometimes with pebbles, aometimeo with 'choice gems, which give forth H tinkling sound) liaa long been known to a few Tamil scholars. It is i a three booksi and eighty cantosThis ia an elegant, but comparatively little konwn Ompoaitioo, one of the five ancient Tamil poems, being a rotnantic story like ' The Lady of the Lake,' wad not rising to the dignity of Hn epic- It is often obscure, sometimes very tedious; bat it is full of geniua. The following is a specimen of its style. It is the dedication of the first cant) to the Sora k i n g :
1. Piaise we the MOON! I'raiie we Hie MOON It affnrtl? grace to the fair and spaciouR world, like the co(,>I with umbrella over the fla^raiit-flower-^urlanded head (of the kiHR). ' 2. Praise we the irN ! Prmise we the si'M ! Like the chariot of the Lord of Kariri't domain, It wheel* aroiind Mem x golden heighti. Edited by V. Swaminatha Aiyar, Tamil Pandit, Kiimbhakooam College, 1892. Price Bt. 5 9 - 0 . _ t The river Caaverj. 3Q

to company him. and that verv niffht, in the mid. ni^lit darkness, thpy set forth unknown to ;iny O'
thpir k i n d r e d Mn<), froiiig along the north hank ol

the Kavevi, proceed w(vstward (ill they reach a pnrk The oapiral at ( h i t rime Ptimpattarnm 'S^f mr Val. T..*T),




O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A


like unclosore, where B number of Jain meodicanta were performing penance ; amongst them was an old lady whose name was Gaunthi, who, learning thut they were on their way to the renowned Madura, resolves to accompany them, that she may hear the wonderfu] lessons of virtue taught by the Madura sages. They proceed onward till they rench Arangam, where, in a boat, they pass over to the southern bank o f the Kiivori und enter a thicket full of blooming flower plants. Of course, every portion of this history of their pilgrimage is filled with descriptions and digressions sometimes very beautiful, and often not a little tedious, throwing light upon the life of South India in the olden time. The second book, which is entitled 'Madura,' relates how they passed to Uraiyur. There a messenger finds tbem, giving them tidings of the sorrow which their sudden disappearance had given to their kindred. By that messenger Kovalan sends suitable greetings t o his father and mother and all his relations. They then pass on till they come to the river Vaigai, which they cross on a raft, and arrive at the huts of some ascetics outside the wnllsi of Madura. The next morning, arising early, our mpcchant commits bis wife to the care of Gaunthi, and after a touching fiirewell (one of the gems of Tamil verse) proceeds to Madura to begin his commercial enterprise by disposing of the precioas ankler. In the stree: of Madura he meets a company of goldsmiths, at the head of whom was the King's head jeweller. T o him Eovalan shows the jewelled nnklet, and asks him to estimate its V H I U C . Now this jeweller was an arrnDt rogue, and had recently made away with a similar nkelt belonging to the Queen, and was living under daily apprehension that he might be called to nccount whenever the precious trinket should be missed. To him, therefore, the sight of Kovalau's treasure suggests a way of escape. He made the stranger wuit a while uniil he should show the anklet to the King, who might very probably purchase i t : and then, making his way to the palace, he exhibits it, saying " Tlieie is a thief, whom I have detained yonder, and on whom I found this auklet, which is one missing from your Queen's trinkets.' The K i n g enquired, and found that an ankelt was really missing; and, blinded by the inilueace of unpropitious fate, bade his guards go and bring the thief. T h i s king was called Nedun-Seriyan, and renowned l o r justice : but alas no one least of all a despotic

Asiatic sovereign, is at all times wise. T h e guards went, and s ^ i n g Kovalan, whom the iroldsmith asseverated to be a thief, one of them despatched him with his sword. Soon the intelligence is brought to where his n o happy wife (the virtuous Kannagi) is awiting h i return, and she rushes forth to the city, making the streets resound with her cries. She finally finds her husband and embraces his dead body, when he opens his eyesrestored for a moment to lifeand after tenderly bidding her await reunion, closes them a'gain, and is received into Paradise. She rushes away filled with fury, tears off One of her breasts, and flings it with curses over the guiltv city, and then makes her way to the K i n g . 'ToO have slain my husbann ' she said ' who never did wronp or injustice. What gems were in your Queen's anklet, for in mine are rnbies ?' So saying she broke the anklet, o p e s - and exhibited them to the King. ' A h !' cried he in n i j wife's anklet were only pearls. I have slain an innocent man ^ and am I worthy to be a King ? May T this day perish ! So. saying, he fell dead at her feet. Kannagi, raging in her despair, cries npon the God of fire, who immediately appears. 0 virtuous matron, who hath wronged thee? The instant thine hnsband was unjustly slain, I hsd the command to coDSDme the guilty'Slay not Brahmans or the virtuons, or kine, or women, or the aged, or infants ; bat consume the rest.' 80 the conflagration raged till guilty Madura was wrapped in flames. Then appeared the guardian goddess of the city and thus addressed the raging widow. ' I am the Goddess of the Tity. No king before this was ever guilty of the least injustice, and in this case I will tell thee the secret of thy suffering. In the town of Singapuram there was a Icing who slew a merchant named Sangaman, accused by one Bhoratan of being a spy. His wife was called Nili, and she wandered long on the mountains, praying that he who had caused her grief might in another birth suffer as he had caused her husband to suffer. K o v a lan was that Bharatan, and was therefore born again as you know him, and haa suffered for his crime committed in that former birth. Ou the fourteenth day from this thou shalt join thine husband.' Thus comforted Kannagi left Mudura, went to the mountain country^ and on the hill of Tiru-senkunru under a Vengai tree waited till on the fourteenth day Kovalan appeared in a celestial body, and bore her away to Paradise. Here ends the story as connected with Madura.

T H E L I G H T OP T R U T H OB S I D D t l A N T A D E E P I K A .


The iMt book

c o n n e c t o tlie history with T a o j i

or tbe

k n o w l e d g e and s t u d y , it is a g r e a t we and know directly what t a u g h t , instr-ad of h a v i n g to

destderatam that masters on wrote the And depend

K w n r and ia e v i d e n t l y c o m p o s e d to a c c o u n t f o r t i t n d e of

the great

I M r o h i p of^Kftnnagi, HI it in n o w p e r f o r m e d in a m u l t e m p l e s in the W e s t . H e r imnge is t o b e 1acernte<i of bosom, nnd she is adored iha ' C h a s t Matron Deity.' T h e aeen with the

unreliable version of the pandits, who themselves take their c u e from more modern glosses and tikas. chings. We demoiistrated in a it was a special diflSculty in the case of Sankara's teaf o r m e r issue h o w badly agreed were the several European admirers and followers of Sankara, a m o n g themselves, as to the real meaning of Sankara; and we have met many a pandit, w h o 80ii;^ht to save Sankara from which flowed from his particular could certain or We absurdities that that he now give positions, b y saying

u n d e r the name

i d e a that imy one cruelly w r o n g e d b e c o m e s afrer death p o w e r f u l d e m o n , inflicting tions of the South a n d Went, T h e p e o p l e w h o dwelt a solemn and around fore as calarniti>-s unless p r o p i t i a t e d , is at the v e r y foundatioD of the superstiindeed of all India. hill upon which fortliwiih instituted D i v i n i t y , and ritcB. variety DemonIt is said mnrdered Feast still the

K a n n a g i w e n t np io the chariot, d ^ c e in honour

of the n^w

that Sankara did not say so and so, not have meant so anH so

kaatened t o inform their king, who c a m e to the spot erecteii an altar lind ordained sacrificial He_JiJ>en proceeded t o the north, nad after a

thanks to Eiiropen scholar>^hip and Dr- Thibaiit for a valuable translation of Sankara's f a m o n i S u t r a B h a s h y a and it is a matter for sincere congratulation that an T h e work is as mostly t h e .mportant Indiiin Scholar has b r o u g h t out a careful translation of Sankara's next great c o m m e n t a r y well turned out as it can be. And we noto with pleamost

o f wild nudertakings b r o u g h t buck a h u g e stone fioiii theHiro41ayap, out of which the statue of the ess was cut. Thin worship is s'ill who paid. that the son of the l o n g piiiate t h e Demoness, plague so c r u e l l v

sure tliar. the learned translator has given sanscrit, in brackets or otherwise, of terms, which are more such into original than in the English form. tors freely translate words intelligence as

Kdvalan offerd in sacrifice 1,000 goldsmiths to pro> and instituted the celebrated in her honour. land a g a i o became fertile. grains of historic truth gated.
G U . POPR, 1I.D., D.D.

to ns in the Maheshwara, Lord, bat (one And and Mahadeva words

It was only then that the and the Pandyan very 1'here are doubtless some would be

English transla-

of d r o u g h t was r e m o v e d

Paramesbwara, Ishwara, and Isa as S u p r e m e or L o r d , and Bhava, Reality, and into Great G o d , and Shiva why t h e j don't take such as into the Gracious; and Narajnna Atma h'lS

here, and it

interesting to h a v e the matter scientifically investi-

liberties with sach

Vishnu ( T h e all-pervader) the vice of

Indian IiutiluU, July 18^7.


lying on the waters) w e cannot understand. perhaps, now ly is translating our friend become*

Paramatma into Self and the Supreme Self respectiveineradicable. Atmaguan, And which a new of equivalent for Brahmagnan. Brahmugnan ( S i v a G n a n ) THE title chosen, perhaps, is not quite happy, nnd to the ordinary man educated in English, it conveys the idea of Rituals and the worship of t b e Elements, as set forth io tbe R i g V e d a ; and this in the case of a philosophic work, which repudiates the ritual law, as b e i n g altogether insufficient to affect one's salvation A n d Sankara take.s great not attainable by work or 'Naish karmya Siddhi. pains to establish that the knowledge of Atina whole o b j e c t of Krishna is to teach that perfection is but by S e l f - k n o w l e d g e as the translator puts it, and by H o w e v e r we welcome the becomes knowledge Prof is not the Self, and S e l f - k n o w l e d g e ! No doubt if every body oonid know the reasons which induced Muller to fix these terms, But how many know bis word itself amhigaoas, ordinary pnrlance apply and it may reasons? does And Max the be all very well. not thn word in

more to the lower aspect of Supreme spirit man and God.

man's Egotism than to the High and itself originally meant animal life and In the Upanishads,

to which Atma and raranmtma ;ire applied? The word Atman is used both to mean Jiva

b o o k f o r more than one reason. In these days of critical

Vol. I, Part 1, with the comroeDtary of Sri Sankara ChBrya, trtnaUUd by A. Mabadeva Sastri, A., Canitur, Govpi-nment Libiary, Hysore, 1897, Trice 3 R.Mefwra. TLDIIHWOU .4 Co. -Madraa.

and God indifferently But in the Gita, though Atman is urMid to me m G o d , yet a. deviation in tbe use of tiie word is perceivable, by describing God as the Paraniatrean. Atma in a reflexive sense, equiraleiit to the

152 T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A



is a inncli k t e r

u-e. W h y



therefore import a use uf (he nordf

Uter at^nificalion into au earlier But as we said a b o v e , the v>ce

perhaps 18 now loeradioable, thou(j^h we have thought it our ucy to o u n v e j the w^riiiug. hs eveu now the confudion of tboiigbt arising preMiaiis is plainly from ambigaity of ezat som perceiva,bie W e will g o into

S a n k a i a ' s particular comments ou the Gita future time.


Dr. R. N. CrsT contributes the snh.stance of a Paper on modern Reir^ious conceptini, which he read before the last OrieotHl Congress, to ihe Calcutta Revieiv. He propounds two qnesfions fpi- i^olutiun :
(1) Is the name reliKiont conceptioo good for all time? the.e no rooin for evolution ? In

(2) IB tlie 8Bme relij^iona conception good for all cliniea, races, physical peculiarities and peo^rnphical environments?

He answers that there is room for spiritual and iiitellettnal evolution, and he illosti-aies ij; f:oni the liistory of Judaism and Christianity itself; aud hfralBrms the eifstence of difference in Religious thought as determined by distance aud time and peculiar en vironcnent and he reX iewa the v>ii forms of Religion as e\i?iting in different countries at the preseitt day, by classifying them under two headings ;
(1) The Old syscoms purified, relined aud adapted to the environaieiiC of civilized society ; and (I) Modern conceptions furmcd from the Mending of old sysdocrrinos either consciously ot unconsciously. tems with Cliristi:in

L nde^' t' e first he includes Islamiini, Neo-Judaism, Neo-Hi'iduisnn, Neo-Zoroastrlanisin. Neo-Biiddhism, and Neo-Corifucianism, and utider tlie Utter Litahnianism. 1 he')Pophy, Mormoninm, Positivism, Agiiosticisni, Uiiit.:l ianism and Theism, He notices the A.iya Saniaj movetnetit uniier Ne')-Hindiii-ini, thoujjh he fails to t:ike note of the changes in modern Hinduism itself. He points niii that Buddhism in gaining ground in Kiirope and America, more on account of its Positivi^it aspect and that this does lol Tail in bringing iihout a revival in Buddhism in the resist. But he feels doubt as lo its ultimate success, as it iiilfii- estitnates the power of the liiiiuan heait, in its mate intuitive search after and percept ion of a ,sutiiPnie iiUolliiig Powf-r, and its allegiance to and dependence ou Hirii. It may be true that the Bnddhist Ideal was its -pn ii of mil \ ersnl charity and liene voletico ;ind mercv and, hut 1 1 is fjuite wide of mar k, when lie says th it this 1loi triiie was totally iinltriown till t.hen. We have not tlie itasi doubt io our uiiiid that the Mahuhaiuta W S i|uii,e H

anterior to Buddha and these doctrines nre set forth in it on a mnoh ffiore valid basis than by Baddha. A s nay visitor can see, it had no power for good in Ceylon or Cbina and as Dr. Edkius remarks, ' " T h e Power shown by B i i d dhisra to win the faith of the Burmese, I should rather trace to the superiority of the Hindu race over the monna tain tribes of the Indo-Chine.>ie Peninsula. . . T h e superiority of H-indu aits and civilization helped Buddhism to make this conquest." Bishop Bigandet says ' ' I f the Buddhist moral code in itself has the power to influence a people ao far as to render them Tirtuous and devotional, independently of the elemeut of intellectual supeiiorityi we still lack the etidence of i t . " Col. Olcott published annaal statistics to show the relative criminality of the Hindu and Buddhist populations in Ceylou and Bnrnxab, and the latter class were the mo;-e numerons; while in Candy our Tamil friend informed us that his wife would uot permit him to go lo his estate frequently for fear of the Cingalese rycts. We c m as such possess a perfect mor*l code (a well-known South Indian Priuce puWishedjecently a beauiiful religious alid moral code) on paper, bat whether it possesses all the spiritual and intellectual safeguards to work it well is another matter, and actukt erpe> rience alone can-furnish the supreme test T h e Hjnda nation, howeveri low it may have snnk, is not so bad And utterly ungodly and brutal as the submerged tenth in other countries uf Europe ^nd Asia. Dr. Cust again prdises Brahmanism very much, but why it' is so very unpopaInr in Beogal. end ^aii ing so little ground elsewhere, requires investigation. H e thinks that the position of A g nostics is hardly tenable ; and according to Positivists, G o d or man must be set up as adeitv, and ihey piefer Hnma nity t r God. His criticism of Tneosophy that it is absurd to expect people to believe in Mahatmas, wxirking wonders unseen, in this t>-g end of the 19ih century is quite just, ajid Theosopliy would gain more in India aud everywhere if it b,tndoris tlris sfcret d' Ctrine, as modei n Hinduism did long ago.

As advertisemetK,t in" Tlicusophy' the orgau of the T h a p sopliiual Society iiT America, ^tates tliht that great entha^ hiast Charles Johnston M. it. A. .s., a frequent contributor to the columns of tlie Madraa Mail, has opened school in virious paits of America for the study of Sanscrit, '"The culture lanj^unge of tiie coming epoch, as Latin was of the Middleirges, and (Jreek of the Hetiais-sauce." T h e reference to the Indian Stutiori of the Theosophical Society in the pages of tills Iil:lg:^/rlle is not quite complimeutary to the pjpul;irity aud siicress of Col. Olcotl's mission.
MTRM.IS: I'riiiii'd Ijy I'. C- K A I . L I A N A SINTJARA N A U A E , at the (' S. I'r-I.'ss, 4. (iiiiuv:ippcu Street, Rlack Towrt, and Published M 'J'. Y I^W\MI.\A i'iiA A M AH, Ariniroiau Street, ^FADRUI.



> Monthly 4 Journal Devoted to Religion,

Phihsophy, Literaturd, Science

Commenced on the Queen''s CoinuiemoruHon Day, VOL T

R A N 8 I. V r



No. 7.

0 >


tlic ii.niu-s <'f tl;.' art; causr ol' hliss. TliL-


that U c is lijiss inid and > aii ;-

liesc-nbes rlio linal realization

TAYUMA.VAVAK. A REVEL IN BLISS. A 'anslation of a ])ijeiii of TujainaDavar, His verses m saint iinhin d metriral w h o l i v e d a b o u t 150 Vfins a<j-u.

i ioiiL-e in much tlie same l a n g u a g e a s Mi'mlkkd V'''< !,iil,'ti ill the hymn " T h e House of G o d " Qs-itip^Quu^^^iJ:!]. It also sliows h o w the Bhaldi Love merges with the Jn'ma Knowledge. Yoga or tlie AVay of l^ove, in Yoga or the W'a}- of iiiitiatcd by hiai Ik

The Soul, ripenin? in the path of

w i t h h i g h spiritual expt-neiice :iii<l of rare l a n d , b e i n g o n the lips of y o u n g and o M .

meets tlie Ldnl as Guii; an(i the path of Kiiowledj^^e i-v i'i-.-es (Tiirti. or the Silent 'I'eaclier''

b e a n t y and m e l o d y , enjoy H \vide popnlarity in TamilT h i s p o e m , which may be said to contain thc^ crean; of his writings, is, a c c o r d i n g to a fancy not uiicunnnoii wilh Bhakti-Yogis, cast in the form of a lovt'-song. T h e S o u l IS the female lover and the L o r d like, rid of " I " and " mine the b^.lo^L'd

and o'l) Maimn

TaNUiriHliavar'.s Giiiii, uliem lie nMiaJI_\ ealls here as elsewhei'L^ v. itli the Ler.i. tlie Ligl.i \ liieli \ niiiQ-, wlii II siiines Himselt to liin: iatlii (v. i), old He the sii'^L'i nud'jr llie is the Lui-d tree iruin nil lure. It is Hi- enti jii The S'. nl and the Lei J fact non-dual, Its intellii.'i-nc\ Idi-iii "t Il

is iileiifilifd l,iy liiiu rlie J.uim! .eiiee" luwaled to \ et

till' bei;iiiiimLr and no beirinIS)i.-^ and lute

T h e Soul, cleansed of all taint, rid of like and (lis blends with tli; Luid with bliss, in Kevel l o n g - s o u g h t , long-pined ior, transported

t h e J-.teinal tVuniif-s (.inr, win. ^iheuiii^ly o).|'i ;u\d

rlif '>drnt Teaelirr" V'lL-l'.a. 'i-M"iti a!;-I; n 1'. IJ

she g i y e s vent to it in s o n g and d a n c e , a

Bliss', ^ a r . i f i i ^ a f u i ^ , as the song is called,lu which she pours f o r t h her supreme happiness to a sympathetic friend. T h e w o r d s in the refrain " S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S ' a m b h u "

He is the Ahsuthat aets. but in owing Hi; twinkling

tlie v r a iou- Sa,:ti. lie

apparently disimet, its ow " a n d

thf Soul " not even tor wholly to

o f a n e \ e Ikimul' i utelligence of

Hiui, and finally by




Grace merging in Him and stunding there non-duiU (v. 20), He, all the while reniainiup unaffected as the magnet is unaffected by the iron which it energizes or as the sun by the flower which opens under the geniaJ influence of its rays,this is the doctrine of the Saiva Siddhdiita, that is, the more ancient interpretation of the Vcdanta than that wliich now passes as the Vrd'tnta, the interpretation, in fact by which Masters like T&yumftnavar harmotiize and reconcile the seemingly conflicting positions of the Vediintic and Saiva Siddhantic schools (Ciu^ir/s^
fiiris^ ^LDDSlh).

1. The Light which is the beginning and haa no beginning, which shines in me as Bliss and Intelligence, appeared as the Silent One.* H e spake unto me, sister, words not to be spoken. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu.t Qs-nekesTfO^atk QeiQ^^Ju Qj-neoQeuea - ereirSair^

(^^niu^ ^aSisQeu SruiiMir eSQ^fi^ (TpesraHteo Quj^uS^ eanQfi - SrS 2. The words that were spoken how shall I tell ? Cunningly H e seated me all alone, with nothing before me. H e made me happy, dear, he canght hold of me, and clung to me. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. up/Suj upflpeijsr, GsiT ujnp^Q^irsir Ouppiafi 3. ^aaup/Su uni'^fl ^i^Qfi QajQfimju O^ir^QeusBr - rp^jfin Qfiirifi.

In the Siva-jiuhia-bodham, which is the greatest of the Saiva scriptures in Southern India, the Highest Love (Pari Bhakti) is based on the soul's recognition of the non-duality and of its debt to the Lord. The Lord, standing non-dual with the soul, enables it not only to know external objects but also to know itself and Him. " Therefore must the soul place Highest Love in its benefactor." " By unfading love that forgets not this non-duality will be reached the feet of the L o r d . " This song of Taynmanavar is the expression of that Highest Love and of the bliss of the realization of that non-duality. Only such as he have attained " Liberty, Equality, Paternity", and in a truer sense than is understood b y those who talk of it in the Weet. T o him there are no distinctions, for he e^eeth his Beloved everywhere. smsiSp airamu^eir tiri^S ^s'luirp 0^tfi4i> ueiaair^ ^eas" usirai^ LDie^iriij LDassrQ^eaiiSffiU) eiipiBf^uSriuiTaiOin iL/OTsroCstf iSeaesTQ^en eui^az/rgCJu). " Whatsoever the eye seeth is Thou. Whatsoever the hand doeth is Thy worship. W h a t the mouth uttereth is Thy praise. The earth and other elements and all living things are Thy gracious forms, 0 L o r d . " P. A.

Qufir^ /BirifliLjw QLJ^Q)^ H e said. dear.

" T h y clingings put aside, cling to me within," W h a t I got as I clang to H i m , how shall

I tell ? H e spake things that should never b e spoken,^ S'ankara S'ankara S'ambha S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambba. Qufir eS'SsieausA Quujbs tresisfi fiSiGfitr

urnSu iS^p/S^ ggiu

enri^aSSsara SGip a j i _ 6 s 0 a i r a ^ i _ r a i r t f L .

4. Speaking fearful things that should not b e spoken, jabbering I wandered, jnst a devil-ridden b o d y . Driving away the devil desire, the L o r d held me down at His feet, dear^ S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambha. ^i-d&u Lf^^u iSSfiQfi. - jfeu ^Biu QtneHiS eieireau euerir^Gfidr lot-dSdQsnear t^irQe^eirSsBrfi ^eirgpiLL fp^ih euiriuGu^r euarm lditli^ Qs-iu^tsiaif..

A g-iijSF

REVEL FN BLISS. ffiisir .Fiity -

s^sissr fsistr ^^ u.'i^^iq uiitQ -^erard



* UawM Ouru, "the Silent Teacher" was the name of the Saint's

airea/ifi LLniufi euiriLSesr jSeii^^^ Qs'ir^ OaifrreSiuniij^ Q^aeirjS - jt/Oi^ Qfurh^ir^ a/n-if^anc-reonj^ 0f irfiri^ectri^ O^ir^.^fB")

t I^ame8 of God. S'ankara cansing happiness; S'ambhu bting for happiness, causing happiness; S'iva, anapicions, happy. { " And confessedly great is the mystery of godlinen." Baint Panl's first Epistle to Timothy III, 16.



6. HoUing^ down, withdrawing the Beaaes, I oheriihed lore toward Hia person. Into Himielf He bent me, nater, and blended with me so that I oonld not speak at all. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambha S'iva 8'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. tormui 0LlC?i_ar . g^ao^ miriijtSC.(Br Q*r9tS,^m euir^Qiari Qmtfi . eaiims ^kMBU>s tSsaQar.

Intelligence whioh investigates tj,nd knows."* The words that the Lord said in love are bliss indeed Biater. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. tf er ufFCBT QiDUJujgir - ^Ujar duiifarar eir^ar ^Autr^^ Qftat^iSai tBo/^^iraj- naar/ai Q^annari Q^Oa,


6. Blending, my race He has mined * I am undone. If I aprak of it openly, farewell to happineaa. no leman ia He, sister. Lo, He is my guardian God, the Supreme. S'ankara 5'ankara S'ambha S'iva S'ankara S'ankara'S'ambhn.
i-fic>r msai-aSavi O f i m a r -

11'. To those who love Him, He is lore. He is true, is my Lord. The blissful, silent One, the gracious Master, placed His foot on my head. Lo, I knew myself. I died to thought. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. gl^uL/u cSpuLfih QuiTQj/i^ - cead Oswsjmrw ars^QjSeir Qpasstdiiuaasi unrisQ^ us^UL/ 16^mUL)Itniu Sarjc - ei^f wiriuir wsffi^nm oismrrs^^ G^ni^. 11. Death and birth how came they to join me. I considered. Ihey grew, my dear, from the treacherous, delusive mindt which stands as thought and sleep. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. warGpsen eoirOeiard - Q^iuw Qwsrar Q(^airt8 misfima sadif. erar^nw latpfi - j^aer g)8rrefr Oauarar^ fiQ^^^eaai^ fiiatrif.,
Thou art not " the earth and other elemeota," t. e , the StMla Sartra or groae body composed of flesh, bone, blood to. whioh a n resolvable into these elements. Thon art not (a) the organs of action or (b) of senw or (e) the " internal " organs, which together constitute the sabtle body or

mems^ utnarkfim amtafr LftnS^ u>r - ertsr

^arar Qp^c ^iroiri^.


7. Like aea that has burst its banks, my eyes shedding tears of bliss, the hairs of my body standing on end, my heart melting,thus He contrived, my dear. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambha S'iva S'at^kara S'ankara S'ambha. iBiaea^ wriuQ^sir ttttrff^^ aimilmr gieiraaeari Ofisoeoirui gmQmrerf Qfirea^Qiijar ftgriuor - erdiivfi fir^iSa OsJTji^i fiDi^ea^uuirn G^irifi.


8. " Whatsoever thou seest objectively before thee as real and as onreal, cast away," said my Lord, and He made me Himself. Behold His cleverness, sister. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. ^xX luMastt - t^^eHu ultSi ^ifltuia airtari lu^efeu ojtB-r tiairraiM Qojsii^si' - gujor jfdruir ireu en^arIBfii utrffi 9. " The earth and the other elements art thou not. Reflect. The organs of sense and action and the inner organs thou art not. Thou art the
The Bonl, losing its characteristic tuiiit, hns become divine.

SUkshma Sariro.

(a) Organs of action (Kan.iendriya) are hajid, foot, oi^gau of voice, organ of generation, organ of excretiim. (b) Organs of sense (Jnant'ndn ua) arc^tho organs of eight, hearing, smell, taste and toocb. (c) ' internal organs' (anfahiarana) are ckMa, mind-Btn* ; moMS, the ribration therein caused by the impact of eitej 1 objeeta conveyf'l thronah the organs of sense ; (uidhV, the iaci.un foUowini.'the vibration, the ilMenninative faculty; and oAan-faira the idcft of " I " that flashes with the reaction, the I-m&king facaltj. and (I) are nut the visible organs but brain centres. ( r ) ami ( - 1 together constitute what in English psychology is called, mind,' bciii^ hciii evcr unclerstopd to be a subtle form of matter. fn \ crsc 11 I hsve for wart of a belter word translated M nns as 'mind.' but it is of course not correct. When there is no vibration (1. e , tliought) in the mind-stulT deep sleep snperrenea in ordiuarv mortals, in all save the JnAni. Therefore the manat b there described as ' standing as thought and sleep.' Thou art the SonI, Pnrc Intelligence or Spint, which by the help of (n) and (c) is able to know erteraal objects and e x p ^ n i n a pjiins and pleasures, and stands apart as witness of all these periences in waking state, in drem, in deep sleap, and in the two

further states called Tariyam and Tyriyatitam.




12. O mind, ^vas it not for me that God came under the stone-banyan tree* as Silent Teaoher and with dumb show of hand cnred me of acts called my acts and placed me in the blissful ocean of His Grace ? S'ankara S'ankara, S'ambhn S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. jlQ^etrr Qgosoeuii^iiuir Ofcar^car - Ji^eo^ ^jSiunGfi ^^i^Qujstr arjBaiirOea unir^Q^ar ^(igemrer QuirQ^errseisai ^eoeoirsD - setai^ ereiriariLjB semri9.&> QeofeirGsan^ Q^iri^.

16. Life, the laughing-stock of all, with both our eyes we see it depart. It goes away as in sleep, ^ a t good, what merit, is there in it, say, sister. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu aeoGwfi LD^ojit^ Qeu^San^ (iir^irfB, Qianesrinn isnLLtii^i geoQw^ iSeisiiTLD OeDsveuir j - aimeiaasi (^eirirQsOfir /s&DtS^'H ^irsSi^iir Gfiir^.


13. " By Grace behold all things," H e said. Not understanding, b y my intelligence I beheld, difFerentiating. 1 saw but darkness. 1 saw not even me the seer. What is this, sister ? S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu.
6T501 Ssiffi;/5 ^eBTSsnriLjui Q a i ^ - S-StrsTr^

17. T o foolish me, who know not what is-good. H e granted to seek after the Stillness pure that is beyond the Vibration. He i-id me of all unrest, sister, the all powerful One, with His foot H e struck m y head. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu.

^nsQuio OTirsar/5^ Gfir^ - jygB' ^ekafi/b &/Siu Qea^ssr^^^ astf^eaup Ouiri(^ euirai^ /iSO. ^iremr wns&^m L/^sBUjaffsror tSehQer. 18. The perfect, blissful L i g h t that struck me, made me, w h o am less than atom,made me b y His Grace pure fulness that stands, g o i n g not nor coming. Lo, how wonderful, d e a r ! S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. lueSi^gi^ S'laL.dfS'i - O^f^ ea^fiSar eoeu^^QiDfrr err^^tga Qiugtiis ^nisp ifi/o Lun^i^eh - e.ensrr 19. Making, maintaining, destroying, a grain of all these On this

Q^asf^^ eutstnestr LSraaim O^mirsir^ GwnQmirQ^ QfttilQei - Jtii^i Ofneienaio eSSsrris^ Si-s^ea^Giu^ QgnaiQeuo'.(^^m.') 14. " Of me and thee think not in thy heart as of two. Stand undifferentiating." This one word when He uttered, how can I tell, liny dear, the bliss that straight away grew from that word ? S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu.
Ssutiesi.T^ t^iB Qoi;i_c_ Oa-erfi/sawairf^ jmi^ aSger/r

^SstreKiud S^js^T^tScir umr^Q^em - ^ujiir sSsniusirfi QeiiQ(ifffirgvA <JWifl.aear Q^trjfi 15. The field vvhero grew the bliss of Sivam, that pure space I drew near. W e e d i n g the weeds of darkness, I then looked. Save the Lord'.^ splendour naught saw I, sister. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara Sankara S'ambhu.

acts H e has, yet they touch Him not, the Mighty O n e no, not so much as sesamum. true Witness 'tis meet to meditate, sister. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. Qiseeifi iS^ii^jp lditibGS aSjDii^ O^efli^^ innmGs eris^ /SSsOtfigj LtntrnQs - semi a/H IT em tp LDnisjGa, 20. There* thought was born, there thought died and became pure. All states are there. There too, I the seer stand non-dual. (flB.) S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu.
1. e. in that " tme WitnesB," tho Absolute, Sivam.

^emaiTim S/Es^m -ftrnQL^aiB QiiremtiritQuiifl (7Ljff'(CT)jj'i Guir^i^ (gtroiGtOj,! ^(^ili^ O^nt^.

The manifcBtation o f t h e Lord (known ns tlic eagea Sanaka, Sanatkumara Ac.,hiH-Mirt:) to






^irO^m^ liiiQmmji (jpovCi-f - r^S ftt^kf Qftrfd L-mtiru. aii^mmu Amp^flf statistp - iSfim Qr'tirOfitir jSrtniOi-m jtmsfi^L. emQi^w. 21. Is ihere a there xtr Ahere when thon hast seen tte ^ c e n d o n r of the 8at-Chit-Ananda* rise infinite ad ffl ererywhere. Cnn there be said to be then a ooe' or a two' T Biankara S'ankara S'ambhn S'iva B'ankara S'ankaia B'ambhn. tjajfitfiSi snitut Qu^i^ QunuQiusr fia^/f^ QSeiSi ^firjr Qtt - \uu> 22. Ever perishing is this body. W h y took you it to be real, O ye of the world ? Are ye quite fool^ ? i f the meeeenger of Death comes, have you a reply ready? S'ankara S'ankara S'ambha S'i^a S'ankara S'ankara S/ambhu. n.tmQi-r mannuGursa a/g^if-uieo CfijSfi ( y - " Q-ut^^ QstmiGL^r iSmifiuu^a ^Giur - JK^CGsnm^ea^ OmuQujtirjpi OtiTmtrGwtKnz.rQi*a,{rii) 28. Are there sach traitors as we 7 Alas I taking for real this body soaked and flowing over with filth, can we be safe here ? Ought we not to take as real only the Lord's gracious Form ? S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu'S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn. U&iasr i n LD eS(ui-iij> OojjuuLid - Juis^ fSlaoetiasf dlfanqi^ ^aiani ^eirie- gteatr^^ uif-Guj - fpjBi iDSBffuJiT ^(gisjpQsier eirjSaiaS Ois^Gs' 24. Away with like and dislike. From that bother comes birth.t As the Lord said, be quite still, be pure intelligence,. 0 mind. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhn S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'amhbu.
* a o d who ia Sat, the only Reality; CHt<, pnie intelligence; A'nanda, pure blin. 'Pare' in the n n s e of there being no dietinction of snbJmt and object. t eS. TiravallnTar.

LS^tMOajir soojGiuir - trdiiir OjfOptir aimsGfi mifiQfi stlifi^^iSp 9aQ -<r, QZ/rrirOu/r Qt-gpaQmiir euiiQ^Q^m Gea^. (#.)

25. Oh, is there none who knows ? In this body, this region where none knows WHO I am, caaght alas in the flame of desire, came I hither, sister, to lose the noble prize S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambha. euis^ ameBej - tSis uir^/f Quireir y^iB wiui ^iB^ WujSBBa lujuia - aeai


26. Forgetting wherefor I came hither,t sunk in the delusion of woman and gold and earth,it was to cut off this delusion that my Father gave me the beautifulisword of true wisdom. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. aiaariTQ^m amaAiuii GiDirsLD - ujut euaeet^i sear^ aieritd^Oiniu OiueirGp Oaienir arsugiQutiL eSuLii^ - ereireSar iBiGsirir ^^ueests G^nj^.


27. The love of lance-eyed woman will asuredly feed the fire of hell,thus thinking, even the god of love gave up his body. Ought not others too then to give i t j up, sister ? S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. tSau^s' OLDeimiria - Sr^^ QeiJuS^LD(^f Q err sir sir Q a- Geueta Lomi'sr ui^iQi m^dssr w^u-ini - ^sjir wiriisais^sh LD/rirdstQffei Lon lidsGic ir wirGiSsr. (ffrij ) 28. All the createil niiivevse is but yellow sunshine, say the Vedas and A gramas Those who think not so, their ways are evil ways, are tbpy good ways, dear ? S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu.
Union with God. f i. e. the love of woman. t i. e. unreal.

jfmtQmmu Qmiiajf mitSimfg iSut^^r^^e

I v e r to all Boola denre is the inooessnt seed of birth.'


T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A


^tiruirimswir pii^iuatui - toarw ^luii^u QfsmQam terser fitkuirisa ifi^tL L^riipw - jifO/ir agffk^ LDirm f^irar/sp a-arCgf. 29. The fascination of evil women clings not, I tell The life of king Janaka Was his not perfect, eternal bliss f thee, to the pare in heart. ia witness.*

nal and external), then perception ia possible. A s a u b . both Soul and its Intelligence is Sat.

S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. JltifOpeirjpi wirQuiarjt QpaaQiir - e.eirs sratisfiui Geuemi^ ar/SeunS^ spQp SdstQ^p Qpfitq OwaiQeii_- ldbs>P ig^Oiuii iSsjfi^^^dn Q^a^.

] . A s redness results when saffron and lime mixed together, so the visible world arises w h e a the perceptive intelligence and objects of perception m d t e : TETS is Gnana Darsan. Those who perceive this clearly will attain Nirvana without doubt. S o asaeitfi lovingly the Vaibhashika.


30. Is there a Yes or a No? If thou wilt have bliss, jost stand as pure intelligence' and thou wilt know. So, sister, said our Lord that made the Vedas. S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu S'iva S'ankara S'ankara S'ambhu. P. A . SIVAGNANA

1. The objects are external and the mind internal, as such these two cannot unite. The mind is b ^ d e s formless (Arupa) and the objects have form. Aa ancdi too, they cannot unite, l l i e Vaibhashika who asserts otherwise has no more to say.



{Continued from page 126.)



It is the ten senses that appear as the body.

YThen the senses perish, we cannot point to anything else as body, and as such there is no b o d y at all (as a substance). A s there is no body (substance) there is body. the made by no such thing as Intelligence united to the Such are the ridiculous statements Madhmika.

1. The parts or attributes (jteuinsuiii) present in a pot are not present in a cloth and vice versa; that which is present in each, saving its identity, is substance ^^awiLiafl). These two form the substance or the body, as such not only is there a body, but also an intelligent soul. 2. (In Sushupti) though the senses and sensations and objects are evernrescnt yet no perception (knowledee) is possible as the soul is not in.union with the senses. W h e n the soul unites with the senses (inter i. c. ia pro6f that a man can live amid the luxuries and temptations of a magnificent court, and yet be wise and pure. Janaka W0B king resorted to by even great rishis for spiritual help.

Thanks to the labour of European scholars, the bookd relating to Buddhism occupy considerable space in any oriental Library and no religion has received so much attention in Europe and America and in India, in recent times as Buddhism. I t has attracted the fancy o large classes of Europeans who emerging as they do from a form of gross ^materialism and not being prepared to believe in a future life or God yet wish to have a beautiful fantasy to t.oy with, for the moment. W e won't believe in a Soul or God. We will believe in man, in perfected man; Perfected H u manity shall be our goal. In current modern European thought, there is however a divergence ; and that is because the national ideals of the European and Gautama are different. Gautama's countrymen have always considered life a burden, ' all is Pain, Pain,' and they wait for the first occasion when they can free themselves from the bonds of birth and death. On the other hand, the European tvould not consider his life worth living if there was not some ray of pleasure to be eked out at all e v e n t s ; and his whole aim is in fact to seek and add to the summum of
1. Madhmika ia called Madhyamika in Boddhist Text books. He seeics to be a thoroagh-going Nihilist altogether. This school was originated by Nagatjnna (B. C.43) of the Tibetan Mahsyana school. Hardy says " The philosophers in India had taught either a perpetual duration or a total annihilation with respect to the sool. He chose a nCtddle way, hence the name of this sect." The work which bears his name in China is called "Central Shastra" (chnng-lnn) and was translated into Chinese in the fifth century after Qhrigt. This system reduces everything to bald abstractions and then denies them. The soul has neither existence nor non-existence. It is neither permanent nor non-permanent. Vaibhashika literally means Virvddha BhaAa, (absurd language), one who rejects every other view except his own as absurd, atsoho<d which seems to have only too many followers, even nw.



H a p p i n w , and wo find M a x Nardau preach the new and b'aeGhnpel of Hamanity, according to which v e r y b o d y shorn oft of all aes, shall enjoy the maximatn -of pnre nnalloyed pleaaore, b y means of song and dance and mnsic and other social organizations. This is a nnodnm evolution Ont of the oldTiokayata and Buddha, and the place of Buddhism placed next to the Lokayata b y all Hindu writers is easilv perceived. The order is not a chronological one but purely a psychological one. A n d it will be nseful to remember here generally tfiaf thongh our Hindu boeks old and new very often neglect to record historical dates and events, yet they are valuable, as no histories of any other natiens are, in recording the mental history and evolation of the race and of an individual man. Bame writers have also been misled b y the mere order in arranging the six systems of Philosophy that o^e chool is older than the one sacceediug it. It will be certainly older if we are to count man's age backwards and not forwards as we do. Maturity is not old age. I I is ever fresh. It is old age that is second childhood. The Lokayata is the gluttonous and selfish child, and the Bauddha the thinking and generous youth; when life's troubles and temptations beset, it remains to be seSn whether he will break or grow into robust manhood retaining his generosity and purity. The youth rashly vows that he will remain pare and true, when be does not know what the strength and allurements of vice are. But unless he does, at that very stage, sow in himself good seeds, and w'hat is most important, allow them to take firm root iu good soil, all his labour will be lost. W e now turn to the personality of Btiddha, and we may be allowed to offer our hnmble homage at his sacred feet. W e have the greatest respect for the purity and unselfishness and nobility of his Hfe. W h a t is often forgotten by his admirers and opponents is that he was a Hindu, and a Hindu of Hindus, and as Dr. Rhys Davids puts it, he was the greatest and wisest and best of the Hindus. In his own time, he was honoured b y the piinces and peoples all alike. They did not care what doctrines be preached, provided h k character was pure and answered to their ideal of nghteouHuess. Sri Krishna places the Nirishwara Sankhya, Kapila, among the first of Sages. Is it because he approved of his theory T No, he often takes trouble to refute it. Jamini was an arrant atheist, and he was a great Maharishi. And to-day, we see the same trait in the

Hindu. It does not matter whether he"is a Mahomedan or Christian, if only he leads a saintly life, we know how the Hindus wilt flock round him. A n d what capital, do not impostors make out of this by donning a Kashaya and sitting in ashes, and by pretending mounam, thongh they cannot read and write a syllable. Need we wonder therefore if Buddha Gautama was also regarded as a great Bishi, who had a particular mission to fulfil in life ? The story goes it was Yishnu who incarnated as Buddha to preach his doctrines to the Tripura Asuras. In his own days Buddba was not considered as a heretic b y the Hindus, nor did he regard himself as any other than a Hindu, just so as in the case of the revered Galilean, Jesus Christ. It was in the days of his followers and after the various councils, t(hey seceded completely from the Hindus. Buddha w^s indifferent as to what they ate and when they drank and how they dressed, provided they cleansed themsplves of desire, likes and dislikes, and when this (gaS^Oiu/njL/ is obtained, no one need consider what to go to or attain next. But Gautama calculated without his host when he constructed his beautiful structure on such slender basis. Could any religion be stable which is not built on the rock of a future life and that Bock of A g e s ? W h a t was the result ? The noble brotherhood, so fondly thought of, fell into dissensions even in his own days, and controversies raged hot subsequently on such questions as to the time of eating, kind of food, kind of dress, place of ordination, owning of property &o. &c., and the followers of each school called the others heretics and followers of Mara, and hurled denunciations on their heads. And in spite of Buddha's denunciation of rituals and priestcraft, a close and rigid hierarchy with elaborate rituals came into existence and they have invented more heavens and more hells and Gods than are to be met with in the stories of all other nations put together. And the system had become so corrupt even in its birthplace that it had to be removed out of the coflntrj, root and branch. Dr. Rhys Davids says, " W e hear of no persecutions till long after the time of Asoka, when Buddhism had become corrupt." And we won't say that there were no persecutions in India. But people should not g o off with the idea that a persecution in India was at aU anything like the ones we hear of in European History. It was quite a tame affair. It was more social than political. And a religious revolution was in a sense much more easily accomplished in those days than now. From severaJ


T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A


PenjojjMroiw incidents, it would seem that both on the part of the Baddhists and the Hindus, the sole aim was to convert the king of the country, and when that was accomplinhed, they say the whole people had also been converted. So in either way the conversion could not at best be more than nominal. Our own belief is that the people, the laity, not those who clustered in Monasteries, had never been converted into Buddhism. The king turned a Buddhist and all the people styled themselves also Buddhists. This will account for the boasted spread of Buddhism in all India. However, the conflict c.niiie at last, and it is in Southern India, we have authentic accounts of sucli O'irflicts from the 1st century after Christ, though European Scholars know very little about it. The southern kingdoms were very powerful, in those days :m<l tliey were extending thoir arms north and south. liisc-.'iptioTis record the nniiqucst of Vatapi, the modern Hailanii in Boml :iy Presidency, and Ceylon was con iiu i-oij niori? tli;ui once. And Buddhism seems to have liot'ii introduced into Southern India from Ceylon. A 11(1 if we take the period of Manickavachaka as the Hi st centuiy nfter Christ, in his life indeed we meet with the first conflict between Hinduism and Bud Ihism. And the fight was won by the miraculous cute .)f the dumb daughter of the King of Ceylon at i "lii'liinibMrani. The account is given in full detail in Tirnvadav'urar pnranam, to which reference can be i;uie. In our recont visit to Ceylon we found that rlje tradition of the cure of the dumb Princess is well known to the native Singalese. Later on, Jainism .<ecnis to have been on the ascendant, and the Tamil S:iii)t Appar was a prominent Jain before his rei- jvivorsion, and was styled as Dliarma-sena. After reconversion, he was himself bitterly persecuted l)y the King of Pataliputni at the instigation of the linddliist (Jain) monks. His coiitcniporary was the 'ireat Guana Sambandlia and he reconverted the King Piiiidi, Kun I'andya, by performing various mira1 L-le^, atid trave u complete route to the Bttddhists. riiis uccurred in the early years of the sixth century, .Did ill addition to the arguments adduced by the I'rofe.-sor Sandratn PiiUii and Mr. Venkayya, we nia\ point to the fact that the Chinese traditions and l:i-<fijrv jjoiiit to the fact that in A. D. 520, BodhiDliii. ma, who was a native of Southern India, and laboured long there, had tp leave it for China, and the reason is assigned to bo persecution at the hands of the Brahmans. And it is also related in his life that he was more a Jain than a Buddhist, though

he promulgated a maoh modified form of it in China. A n d neither Buddhism nor Jainism ever reared its head again in Kouihern India, thoagh the few who remained were never molested, bat, on the other hand, were honoured with grants b y kings even in much later times. The stories of Sankara and Ramaauia having roated out Baddhism are more apocryphal than true; they could not have been more than dialectical feats at any rate. There is reason to think however in the case of Sankara that he might have got hold of the few remaining seats of Buddhism in Northern India and established his own Mathams in imitation of the Buddhist Monasteries. W e hear of no Mathams before the days of Sankara at all. The morality of Buddhism has received very high praise from high quarters. Professor MaxMullersays " T h e moral code of Buddhism is one of the most perfect the world hii,s ever known." But the Buddhist moral code is feebleness itself when compared to the Confucianist. But its sanctions are very w e a k ; and its power for good cin various peoples has not been proved. Except in of Burmah, it has-not improved the moral condition of the people. In China, says Dr. Edkins, " What virtue the people have among them is due to the Confucian system." Col. Olcott's own statistics show that the morality of the Singalese is much inferior to that of the Hindus, and a visit to Ceylon will amply demonstrate the fact. Even in B u r mab. Dr. Edkins remarks, " The power shown b y Burmese to win the faith of the Burmese, I should rather trace to the superiority of the Hindu race over the mountain tribes of Indo-Chinese Peninsula The superiority of Hindu arts and civilizations helped Buddhism to make this conquest." Bishop Bigandet says : " The Bunnese want the capability to understand the Buddhist metaphysics. If the Buddhist moral code in itself has the power to influence a people so far as to render them virtuous and devotional independently of the element of intellectual superiority, we still lack the evidence of it." A n d after all, what was Buddhism, but the child, the product of Hinduism ? And " so far from showing," remarks Dr. Rhys Davids, " h o w depraved and oppressive Hinduism was, it shows precisely the contrary: for none will deny that there is much that is beautiful and noble in Buddhism."

(2b be continued.)










0 B

T R U T H Deepika.

0 Thou Imperishable Triple Form, and Formlpss! 0 Thou Supreme, lutelhgenoe working steadfast in the six FornJS of Religion ! W h o could know Thee aft^r raising the curtain of Maya ? Thou dost dance in the think of Thee, hearts of Those who Thou my eye;



'i'hou art the Priceless J e w e l ; Thou, the Supreme Panacea.


Thou the ocean of Cbinrnudra Wisdom, who didst teach the four ancient sons, Mauua Gnana from under the sacred Banyan tree: Thou the Deva of Devas.
T h e first t w o verses w e q u o t e f r o m Saint Periyn.puran the sacred on we and the last f r o m contained that even if we Vedaiita, key to Saint in p r a i s e o f t h e f a m o u s mysteries observed Veda had and the iu elsewhere books vided thus when Sekkilar's and have oui tlu' prois Tayuraauavav, AVe lost evolve

" ^fiajriu ntda/LaiS tJureSsar jtare^iLD/iS^ OsrfiiLiir^ ^aria/LDirSs Ofiirta^u QutfQj^LDliSu Su^'uir d-usiDiiSu Qusm^LDir lU^^LOirSu Qutr^ un SflQi^euSecu Oua^miLD QunpjSQun^^, 0 Thou, the beginning, the middle, the limit. The Lisfht, and the Wisdom, and sill things manifest. The Indivisible One, The female and the male. Glory, Glory to T h y Dance in fhe intellectual Region of Universalism, Tillni. pu^ar SL^k^.Qf'r^ #(5&ar(2aj ^(rKajto/rS
jffli-l^s Qs:iei^uL iu(^LDem ]}<f S r ^ f . S a r ' 3 i c s o r i i

T e m p l e at C h i d a m b a r a m there'n. we have could


w h o l e t h i n g agi^iu f r o m tiny r,hese mysteries.

the syaibols wo possess, unlock these


T h e hoariest and most iincient unniisfcakable



symbols, and which

we understand

them a r i g h t , w e are e n a b l e d to

t e s t a n d k n o w w h i c h is t h e t r n e p l i i l o s o p h y a n d

is t h e t r u e R e l i g i o n , s u i - r o u n d e d a s w e a r e t o - d a y b y a m u l t i t u d e of Hcligious a n d Philosopliies c o n f l i c t i n g in themselves the truest. a n d yet c l a i m i n g to b e the most ancient a n d I t is t h e m o s t n n f o r t u i i a t e t h i n g i n I n d i a , books and the for when the .sanction

Qpuir aSdiuinr


lj^/^^iSfirjpi OuTp^ Ouir/b/S.

Ou.T^qt- esri^'Sf^Sfi^p^iBiJif-^'

a n d i n Jndiari R e l i g i o n t h a t t l u j s n m o s a m e t e x t f n r n i s l i tlie a u r h o i i t y a ^ d

O Thou the Light from -which speceh and thought turn back. The very Foi in of Graco, Thi Wonderful Presence, The Crown i-esting on
the rare Vedasiras, I n t h e b e a u t i f u l Chit, S a b h a o f C h i t P a v a V y o m a , T h o i i dost d a n c e d e l i g h t e d l y . G l m v, (Unpy to T h y tinkling Foot.

e v e r y c.\isting p h a s e of belief a n d tliougiit, a n d is p a s r a n d w h a t is l i i o d e r n , a n d for ajiplyiug when tlje

t h i s f a c r is f n n p l e d w i t h s n c h a b l i n d i g n o i i n g o f w h a t niatonals very cons n c h a n l i i - t n r i e a l f e s t a r e n'lt

s i d e r n U l e , t h e t a s k o f lU-cidin^; w h i c h is tiie t i i i o i n t e r p r e t a t i o n .-ind w l i i c l i is i'al^e is r c n d f i ' d vi.Ty ( l i t h c u l r . thono-li 'i.jt iiii|ios-ili)c_', a n d c.innut be tiie Inst value of a In test as inteiiudicau'd above siglit 'if.

pretiiiL' d o c n m e n t s , tlin r n i e f i n y l i t iiu dunljt t'j b e , tii.'ir w h e r e t h e w o r d s a r e p l a i n a m i unanil)i^n<)ii>, t l : e p i a m meauin,y: o f t h " w o i ' d s o u g h t t o b e ni/ide t o ]ire\ ail a n d n o easni'^tr\' c o n l d b e a l l o w e d t o m a r t h e plain by inenning. It only when as to at the all. ambignon-; any interpreratiun effecr.s ol' it> worcis Then dilKcult ar.' again partiit ;s meaning'

San (^'Guj
/fi-TV & i r l i j II

^.ani.-OT^ - - s ff ^ %j eu " Sic^uQu'iTo.i^fLB, so a.t lULCOJ -

its real

aiwrG.-ar lu ci (5
a^iysS'esr fe'i^.TO.f.^

o t h e r e v i d e n c e IS ] u ' n i i i - < i b ] e

C-'-TrTpngj 27i:

w h e n w e b e g i n t o e i n i n i r i - i n t o tlie triitli o f a n y c u l a r c u s t o m a n d n-adiiion. we 'iad huw

SsitQ^^^c^O ^ 39


T H E L I G H T O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A


to arrive at an uniform conclusion, when we liave to r e l j on mere oral evidence; and any documentary evidence (we use it in the strictly legal sense) if available, is of the utmust importance, and the older the document is, the greater the value thereof. Then again consider the difference between the verbal accounts of a dozen people who witnessed a particular scene all at the same time, and the actual scene photographed by an ordinary Kodak. W e might be sure to discove'- discrepancies and contradictions in the oral testimony, though it might be perfectly honest. Of course, there might be exceptionally trustworthy witnesses, as there might be untrustworthy cameras. The test we have proposed above, may as such b e seen to possess all tW elements of an old'and ancient document and a trusty camera. A n d more so, when we know, as a matter of fact, that the written language of primitive mfinkind consisted of picture only. The most ancient Sumerian, the Chaldean, the E g y p tian and the Chinese were all pictorial languages; and it is well known that these were the people who have tried to leave their highest thoughts on Religion and philosophy behind them in pictures and statnes and monuments. In proceeding therefore to unravel the mysteries connected with our symbolism, we must confess, that the task is not one which we can conscientiously think of adequately discharging. In attempting the impossible therefore, we have no other excuse that! the one which Sage Sekkilar had before h i m :
Jienei^ ffti, < eiteHJu uii

ly differ from them, and they clutch at a word, a phrase, to kick up a dust, with the evident object of besmearing the other aide. No doubt, there is a sort of scepticism which we prize much, a scepticism which will lead one to doubt and inquire into the truth of things and not to scorn and scoS at everything. A n d in our inmost heart, we do not wish to wound the feelings of a single person, of whatever shade of opinion he may be- A n d is not the present inquiry solely devoted to reach ' the region of nniversalism,' " Q u n ^ w A j f i , " where, in the words of our S a g e Taynmanavar, " usieuiDiLi fiAibi uteBrjuC. uti^^ Quirpm^
er^inaHa cD^df^ Q^AffDitLD, OaieSOujOiLieiitr

er^f LDOJ^^aiiia^U), euii^aop^

^iriSflui "

every religionist comes and bows in adoration of the One Supreme, saying they see no symbols of any creed'bat all Akas ? A n d he states in the previous lines that he reftched this region, after looking in vain in every creed and in every path f o r that Pure. Spirit which seeks to reconcile with the path of noblest knowledge, all the bitter conflicting creeds and religions. '* ^^louiaa ^aeeui^A Our^eiriru) fLoiLi riiQs^u Qun(^eiTnie^n ueirmnaa. Q,i/iSiiSeSjjiu> aasrL. A n d the place is worth a~trial visit even to-day, for does not Tayumanavar record his experience, that hia stony heart melted into love and bliss, the moment he saw the holy presence ? " SBrutiffix O/B^^Qfitr Oaisri^u) ^irQesr aeifL-afi ^erifiui ^iresiiii sin^w." This has not been his experience only, of believers alone. A g e s b a c k , scoffers and atheists have felt the power of this Presence, and it is recorded of the great Atheist Guru, Jaimini, that when he approached, all his unbelief left him and he composed his song of Vedapadastavam. A n d though there are thousands of temples all over the land, the heart of every true believer has always turned wich love and longing to this centre spot. A n d it is believed that Chidambaram occupies a central geographical position between the northern and sonthern extremes of India including Ceylon. A n d corresponding to this position in the macrocosm, Arumuga Navalar observes that in the human microcosm also, the place points to the region of Sushumna between Ida and Pingal? nadis. There is another centre of heat and vitality and light in the human b o d y , and that is the heart. And

j)ffiiroSstt/Too* juruu


" Though impossible to reach its limits Insatiate love drives me to the task." Before we do so however, we have to get clear of two sets of men, who pester us often with their cant. One of such will raise the' cry of sectarianism, and the other, with the catchword revivalism. There are some very estimable people belonging to both these classes we admit, as well as their siiicerity, but with most it IS all mere cant, pure and unmitigated cant. They believe neither in the one nor in the other ; they have neither inclination nor wish to study and think, and pause and enquire into the truth of things. They are themselves sectarians, so blind that they will not acknowleflge themselves to be such: They start with the inboin conviction that this is trash and they have no patience with those who will honest-

T H E L I G H T OP T R U T H OB S I D D t l A N T A



tile heart is the most vital and delicate organ in the whole system. Every other organ requires its help for its noarishment and upkeep. It is saved and protected from many an ill, b y its position, which every other organ is exposed to ; but that is because that, whereas life can b e prolosged even after injury to every other organ, the life ebbs out the instant the heart is injured. A n d then, is not the heart, the seat of love, love pure and undefiled? Pity, kindness, mercy, Graoe are all different shades of this one Love, JforLy, Bh&kti, faith. Is there anything else that can conipete with this Supreme Principle? Knowledge, you may exclaim, with-its seat in the brain. W e dare say ' not.' The slightest injury to the heart completely paralyses the brain. And the pulsation in the braiu itself rises andJalls with the beat of the heart., itself.- It is the one organ in the body which is ever active, and kno)vs no rest when everything else including the brain undergoes rest. And in human nature also, what is there which love cannot quicken ? It can give life to the despairing a i d the lifeless, strength to the weak, courage to the coward; nnd instances have not been wanting to show what extraordinary feats of intellect, love has been the cause of. The whole World is bound by the heart much more than by the intellect alone. AndUrs. Humphrey Ward has portrayed in glowing words the difference between the man of intellect and the man of heart in her Robert Elaemere. There the man of intellect pines in secret and in his pride for that very touch which makes the whole world kin. A n d it is in this heart, all mankind have liked to build a temple for the Most UighC'^'And the only requisite is that this heart be pure. And the moment this heart is pure there the light from the Invisible Akas will shine, dispelling the dari^ness that blinds tJie^eye and enabling it to see. " OaiettlujiTai /f oar loot Ooi'SiR^'9 ^ireSSeaitjiJ
f R v g g j r LSJ^U^U QuneHesrjit ev/reyeu^

Ghandogya, also repeats the same instruction. W o u l d you like to know what that one thing is which yon have to search for and to know, and when you have to search for it and how to kuow it ? Hear. " There is the Brahmapura (body) and in it the Dahara (palace), of the lotus (Pundarika) of the heart, and in it that Antar Akasa. Now what exists in this Akas, that is to be sought after, that is to be understood." " As large as this Akas i?;, so large is that Akas within the heart. Both heaven and earth are contained in it; both fire and a i r ; both sun and moon ; both lightning and stars; and whatever there is of Him in this world, and whatever ia.not, all that is contained within it." (VIII, 1. 123 ) In an earlier chapter, this Supreme Being is called " t h e Intelligent, whose body is Prana, whose form is Light (Jyoti), whose thoughts are true, who is like Akas (omnipresent and invisible), from whom aU works, all desires, all sweet odours, and tastes proceed; the Atma within the heart, smaller than a corn of rice, smaller than a c o m of barley, smaller than a mustard seed, smaller than a canary seed, or the kernel of a canary s e e d ; also the Atma within the heart, greater than the earth, greater than the sky, greater than the Heaven, greater than all these worlds" (III. 14. 223). In a later passage, it says that " H e who is called Akas is the ravealer of all forms and names; That within which these forms and names are contained is the Brahman, the immortal, the A t m a . " ( V I I I . 18. 1.) The following verse occurs in the Eatha (I. 2. 20.), Svetaswatara (III, 20.) and Mahopanishad and the same is reproduced in the Sivapurana. " Smaller than small yet greater than great, in the heart (Guha) of this creature, Atma orlsa doth repose : That free from desire, he sees, with his grief gone, the Lord and His might, by His favour." I n the Kaivalyopanishad the same is reproduced, in the following words : " Beyond the heavens, yet shining in the heart (Guha) of his creatures. Him the sages free from desire, reach." Sri Krishna also imparts this most secret of secrets to his pupil, that " Ishwara dwelleth in the hearts of all beings, 0 Arjaua, by his maya, causing all beings to revolve, as though mounted on a potter's wheel," and importunes him to flee to him to secure Supreme Peace by his grace. The manner of occupying this seat or dwelling place is elsewhere referred to in the 13th and 9th discourses, 32nd and 6th verses re.spective]y and these three or four verses bring out the whole of the Upanishad thoughts."As the

sireir." " Blessed are the pure in heart, for they shall see Gk)d" said Lord Jesos. And the sage who composed the Taitriyaka Upanishad sun? long before him: " Satyam Gnanam Anantam Brahma, Yoveda Nihitam Gnhayam, Paramevyoraan." " He who knows Brahman, which is Sat, which is Chit, and which is endless (Bliss), as hidden in the cave (of the heart) in the highest Akas, he enjoys all blessings at one with the Omniscient Brahman." And the most mystical and the oldest of the Upanishads, the









Omnipresent Ahaea

is not soiled, b y

reason of its

snbtlety, so seated everywhere i n the body, tbe Self ia not soiled." " T h e support of b e i n g s and not rooted in Bein-js, m y Atma, their e ^ e n t c a u s e ; as r o o t e d the Ahasa things rest rooted in m e . " in the m i g h t y nir moves e v e r y w h e r e , FO all This Supporter, Permitter

yet azisen to turn out of the heart of those ancient Aryas the belief in, and love of, the one true God. This is the conclusion at which the learned Colebrooke arrived, after having for many years made the Vedic literature his delight. " T h e deities invoked," he sys, " a p p e a r , on a
ancient Hindus.

The religion of the

cursory inspection of the Vedas, to ^s various as the Authors of

the prayers addressed to t h e m : but according to tbe most ancient annotations of the Indian A n o t h e r verse in the Ohandogya says that Gayatri is scripture those numerous names of persons and things are the b o d y and the heart, because in it all the spirits are all resolvable into different titles of three deities, and established. N o w o n d e r therefore that in almost e v e r y ultimately of one God. The Nighanty, or glossary of the p a g e of the Tamil Veda, a n d the writings of the later Vedas, concludes with three lists of names of deities : the Tamil saints, that G o d ' s truest dwelling place, bis first comprising such as are deemed synonymous with fire : house, his palace, his ^eat is universally referred to as tlie second with air, and the third with the sun {Nighanti the human heart. " iBSearuuain iDanii QsitaSsnnsOsiias OTfirst part of the Niructa c. 5). In the last part of the ( _ a / r . " A n d so it is that the famous Shrine w e are Niructa, which entirely relates to deities, it is twice asserted that there are but three G o d s : " Tisra eva speaking of is b y preeminence called " & 0 i O t i r u S a ) * T h e beautiful Housey" inasmuch ns^ it is also called devatah " The further inference that these signify but one " Pundarika V e e d u " L/i_(Pg, the house of lotus, deity, is supported by many passages in the Vedas and is o r Dahara V e e d u also. A n d t o - d a ^ w e will stop, very clearlj'and concisely stated in the beginning of the after i d e n t i f y i n g , this Golden Palace in Chidambaram index to the R i g Veda, on the authority of the Niructa and of the Veda itself It is deducible therefore with the H u m a n heart s p o k e n of in the most from texts of the Indian scriptures, that tbe ancient Hindu ancient writings, and w e will speak of the g r e a t K i n g Religion, as founded on tbe Indian scriptures, recognises a n d L o r d w h o is the Dweller in this Palace and his but one God, yet not sufficiently discriminating the creator characteristics in a future issue. from the creature." (Colebrooke H . I on the Vedas page 26, 27. Madras 1871, Higginbothamand Co.) The same opinion about the Indian scriptures is held by Sir W . Jones. E V I D E N C E S OP N A T U R A L R E L I G I O N . " I t must always be remembered," says he, that the learned Indiana, as they are instructed b y their, own books, in truth acknowledge only one Supreme Being, whom they PRIMITIVE RELIGION OP MANKIKD. call Brahma or the great one, in the neuter gender ; they believe his essence to be infinitely removed f r o m the compre(pontinued from page 134.) hension of any mind but his o w n ; and they suppose him The soul that thus mourns over his past sins, cannot to manifest his power by the operations of his divine be tbe sonl of an unbeliever. This cannot be the sigh nf spirit; whom they name Vishnu, the Pervader in the masa heart debased with the foul worship of idols. No, in culine gender, whence he is often denominated the first the dawn of humanity, in the twilight that preceded male W h e n they consider the divine power historical times, men still kept alive the notion of one exerted in creating, or in giving existence to that which t m e God. existed not before, they call him the deity Brahma, in tbe Tour forefathers marchinif down as in battle array from masculine gender also; and when they view him in the the North-West of ladia into the land of the Seven light of destroyer, or rather, Changer of forms, they give Rivers, into the Sapta-sindliu, made the air ring with the him a thousand names of which Siva, Isa or Iswara, songs of the early Vedic poets. But those hymns, those Rndra, Hara and Mahadeva are the most common. (Sir prayers, still bore the mark of the primeval belief in one "W. Jones, Discourse on the Oods of Greece, Italy and India). sole God. In vain, in those early Vedic poems, you look I fancy myself transported back some three thousand for the Gods that people the present Hindu pantheon. years to the land of the first Aryan settlers in the You fail to rearl there the names of the Gods Shiva and country of the Seven Rivers. I hear the Vedic ,Poet Vishnu; the deified heroes of Puranic literature h i d not " singing his morning hymn to Hiranya Garbha, the L o r d matman and Parama P m asha in verse 22, chapter 13.
It is interesting to note that tlie chief Temple in Mecca is called al Caaba', litprally meaning, 'The House' and the Hebrew word for the great Temple at Jeru.salem also meant simply, 'The H o u s e ' " The house of God."

and Spectator and E n j o y e r i s styled Maheshvei'a, Para-

of Heaven, the Supreme Being, the sole maker of Heaven and E a r t h :

" What God shall we adore with sacridce ? Him let us praise the golden child that rose



T R U T H On S I D D H A N T A



Ib the beginning, who w u born the Lord ! The ime lole Loi^ of all that ia, who made The earth, and formed the iky, who giveth life, Who givee atrength, whoie biddinga Ooda rerere, Whoae hiding-place ia immortality. Whoae ahadow, death, who by hia might ia king Of all the breathing, sleeping, wakhg world. Whererer let loose in apace, the mighty watera Have gone depoaiting a fmitfnl eed

name I call it Great. After calling it Great, I call it Fugitive; after calling it Fagitive I call it Distant. A f t e r calling it Distant, I say it comes back to me." (The Book of the Way and of Virtue, Translated by Stanislas Jnlien, pag. 91. Paris 1842.). Nor were only the Fhilnsopbers that arrived at the right knowledge of God. In the year 2225 B. C. we find the Emperor of China offering sacrifices to Tien, supreme sovereign of Heaven, and in the year 1600 the then Emperor of China declared in an edict that the Chinese adore not the material heavens, bnt the Master of heaven. And the Emperor Khanghi in the latter part of the seventeenth Century, wrote the following inscription on the facade of a Christian Chnrch in Pekin. " T o the t m e principle of all things. He is infinitely good and infinitely just. H e enlightens and sustains. He rules with supreme authority and with sovereign justice. He had no beginning and will have no end. He has created all things from the beginning. It is He that governs them and He is their true Lord.", Cardinal Gibbon. Our Ohriatian Heritage, pag. 30. I f we open the Zendavesta, the sacred book of the Z o roastrians, we shall meet with the " I ask thee, tell me the truth, 0 Ahura. W h o was from the beginning the father of the pure world ? W h o has made a path for the sun and the stars P W h o but thou makest the moon to increase and to decrease F That, O Mazda, and other things, I wish to know. I ask thee, tell me the truth, 0 Ahura! W h o holds the earth and the clouds that they do not fall P W h o holds the sea and the trees ? W h o has given swiftness to the wind and to the clouds ? W h o but thon^s the creator of the good spirits ?"Yecna, 3rd Edit. Brockhans, page ISO, quoted by Max Muller. Introduction to the Science of Religion, page 168. W e need not pass in review the various races which by turn inhabited the far West. BusThe religioD of Nor- GG Scandinavia, Germany, France, J^ them and Southern En- T. , . - . Popo in ancient times. Italy, Spam, and Greece are full of monuments which testify to thn general belief of the first settlers in those countries in one true God. This monotheistic creed wafl handed down to the present generations by oral as well as written traditions, we see traces of it in the early poets of Greece, Italy, Germany and Scandinavia in the philosophers of Greece and in the statesmen and lawgivers of Rome. But in Europe, as everywhere else, we find this early monotheistic belief seen disfigured by fables mixed up with myths, and later on almost entirely lost in the obscene crowd of Gods set up for worship by the worst passiuus of man. It was this sad spectacle that provoked to indignation the best philosophers of Greece. Xenophanes of Colophone acciis-

And generating fire, there He arose,

Who ia the breath and life uf all the Goda, Whoae mighty glance lookH round the vast ezpftnae

Of watery Taponr, source of enervry,

Canae of the sacrificethe only God. Above the Gods." (1) (Monier Williams, Religiou* and Life in India, etc. p. 14').


I am not blind to the blemishes <jf this ancient hymn, t u t I cannot fail to aee its beauty either. I find in this hymn the'sieed of the pantheistic creed whicli later on developed in the Pnranas, but i t the sanjp time I perceive the Ary"." thoughts still holding to the primitive notion of one true God. "There is a raonotheism," I repeat with the learned Adolphe Pictet, "which precedes the polytheism of the Vedas, and even amidst the invocation of their innumerable Gods, the remembrance of a God, one and infinite, breaks through the midst of an idolatrous phraseology, like the blue sky that is hidden by a passing clond." (The European Origins, quoted by Mar Muller as above.) And it is in keeping with this monotheistic feeling that the Brahminical priests in ancient times address^ to God the following authorised prayers : " I adore that Being who is not snbject to change or disqnietude, whose nature is indivisible, whose spiritual substance admits not of component parts: that Being who is the origin and cause of all Beingn and who surpasses them in .excellence, wlio is the support of the universe." Letters Edif. Tome. 10. page 15. Nor are we at a liberty to take a different view of the ^ . . , early religion of the Chinese. In The religion of the ^ . . . anrnent Chinese. the most ancient poetry of China, God is known and worshipped nnder the name of Tien, which, according to the great imperial dictionary of Khanghi, means " the great one, he that dwells on high, the Heaven-Father, who regulates 11 below." It is clear from many passages, that with the philosopher Confocins, Tien was the supreme Deity, and that he looked upon the other Gods of the people, the spirits of the air, the mountains, the rivers, the spirits also of the departed, very much with the same feelings with which Socrates regarded the mythological deities of Greece, (c. f. Max Muller. Lectures on the Science of Religion. Lect. I I I . ) The following is a passage from the great philosopher Lao-tse. "There is an infinite Being which existed befsro heaven and earth. How calm it is, ^ow free ! It lives alone, it changes not. It moves everywhere, but it never sofiers. W e may look on it as the Mother of the Universe. I know not its name. In order to give it a title I call it Jao (.The way.) When I try to give it a



O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A


es indignantly the children of men for having attributed to God, who cannot be bat one, eternal and infinite, the figure, the acts and passions peculiar to haman natore. "Men", he says, " were, as it appears, the inventors and creators of the Gods. If the oxen, or the lions had perchance hands, or if they knew how to work and paint with their hands as men do, they would no doubt paint and fashion the images and bodies of their Gods, all like to themselves, namely the oxen like oxen, the lions like lions," Xenophanes, quoted by Clem. Alex. Stromatom V . page 601. Elsewhere this 'great pliiJosopher declares that Gr>d is one, the greatest among spirits and men, in no way whatever similar to men, either in his form or in his thoughts (Sext empir adv. Mathem 1,219, I X 193). Plato conceives the divine nature as supremely perfect: ... . ^ ' i t is endowed with every conceivZ . .

before, and offered up frankincence to the beautiful idol that lay enshrined under the marble vaults of the magnificent temples of Athens and Corinth. From what I have hitherto said, it is apparent that mankind in the midst of the manifold aberrations of the human passions never lost sight entirely of the true God. whom the And what is most extraordinary, this God, ancestors of the Aryan, Semitic, Teutonic, under

Chinese, Gi-eek and Latin races recognised and worshipped, was called and worshipped by many of them A startling fact. the same name. So much is stated several of hie works by the great

The rebgion of Plato.

able attribute; no perfection is wanting to it. God is therefore the absolute Good, and the cause of all that is good, and of that only which is good ; wickedness, ^vil, cannot be attributed to him as to its cause : He is the Author of good and of good only : When the poets describe the Gods as doing wicked deeds, they are Jishonouring the divine nature. God is furthermore the absolute truth; it is impossible that he should deceive men, or lead them astray; the mythological stories of deceptions practised on men by the Gods ore absurd. God being supremely perfect in his nature is immutable. He does not take one form at one time, another at another as the poets tell u s : He retains throughout eternity one simple immutable from {Be Bepuhl. I I p. 380.) God is a personal spirit and as such is transcendently raised above the World. Aa personal spirit. He rules all things and directs and guides all according to reason and providence. He is a supramundane Being, and is therefore above the temporal order. Time affects only things of earth, Grod is above time. He is the beginning, the middle and the end of all things, the" absolute present. (Timacus, p. 37 De Legibus TV p. 7 1 5 ) S t o c k l . Hand-Book of Philosophy P. I, page 82. As to the Being of God, Aristotle as well as Plato teaches that God excludes all comtoUe^ position of matter and form. He is pure Actuality, pure Entelechy, puie Form, pure Quiddity, pure Energy. God excluding essentially all plurality of parts, is an absolutely simple Being, that is, without parts, and therefore immutable, f i n a l l y , God must be one, because the principle of plurality is matter, and matter is wholly foreign to the Being of God. A . Stockl. Eand-Book of Philosophy. P. I p. 115.Thus reasoned Sibout the nature of God the two greatest philosophers of Greece, Plato and .Aristotle. Thus they thought and spoke about the nature of God, whilst yet the largest part of their countrjTnen knelt down

German Scholar Max Muller. " I wish to bring back to your recollection," the learned Professor says, " the feet that in exploring together the ancient archives of language, we found that the highest God had received the bame name in the ancient mythology of India, Greece, Italy and Germany, and had retained that name, whether worshipped on the Himalaya mountains or amongst th oaks of Dadona, on the Capital or in the forests of Germany. I pointed out that his name was Dyaus in Sanskrit, Zeus in Greek, Jovis in . Latin, Tiu in German: b n t I hardly dwelt with sufficient strength on the startling n a ture of this discovery. These names are not mere names, they are historical facts, ay, facts more immediate, more trustworthy than many facts of Medieval history. These words are not mere words, but they bring before as, with all the vividness of an event which we witnessed ourselTes but yesterday, the ancestors of the whole A i y a n race t h o u sands of years, it may be, before Homer and the V e d a , worshipping an unseen Being, under the self-same name, the best, the most exalted name which they could find in the vocabulary, under the name of L i g h t and S k y . " " A n d let us not turn away, and say that this was, after all, but nature-worship and idolatry. N o , it was not meant for that, though it may have been degraded i n t o that in later times. Dyaus did not mean the blae sky,, nor was it simply the sky personified, it waa meant f o r something else : W e have in the V e d a the invocatioa Dyaus-pitar,?tlie Greek ( ) , the Latin Jupiter : and that means in all the three langnages what is meant before these three languages were torn asnnder: it means Heaven-father. These two words, are not mere words ; they are to my mind the oldest prayer of mankind, or at least of that pure branch of it to which we belong, and I am as firmly convinced that this prayer was uttered, that this name was given to the unknown God before Sanskrit was Sanskrit and Greek was Greek. W e little thought when we heard for the first time the name of Jupiter, degraded it may be b y Homer and Ovid into a scolding husband or a faithless lover, what sacred records lay enshrined in that unholy name. Thousands of years

T H E L I G H T OP T R U T H OB S I D D t l A N T A



Kave p u s e d rinoe tlie AiyaD nations separated to travel te d w North and Sooth, the East and West. They have each formed their langnages, they have each fonnded empiras and philosophies, t h e j have each bnilt temples nd rased them to the fp'oond; they have all grown older, and it may be wiser and better, but when they search for a name for what is most exalted and yet most near and dear to every one of ns, when they wish to express both awe and love, the infinite and the finite, they can bnt do what their old fathers did, when gating up to the eternal ky and feeling the presence of a Being as far as far, and as near as near can be, they can bat combine the self-same words, and utter once more the primeval Aryan prayer, Heaven Fathgr, in that form whicli will endure for ever: "Onr father which tut in heaven." (Max Muller Introd. to the Science of Religion, p. 107.)

civilization was the primal condition, of the human race, and that the origin of states, science, teligion, and the arts was contemporaneous, or rather, one and the same, so that these were not really separated, but interpenetrated each other, as they will again in their final development." Lectures on the Method of Academical Studies, page 167. If therefore God created the first man and woman in a high state of civilization, their religion must have been monotheistic not polytheistic. It is but natural to think that God their Creator, their Father, was also their first teacher and instructor; it is but natural to profess that God revealed to them his own name, his uatnre, his attributes, and the way according to which he wanted to be honoured and worshipped by them: and the only worship which God might have pos.sibly revealed to the first men, was the worship of himself as the Heaven-Father or the creator of everything. In consequence it must be held To the eloquent page of Professor Max Muller I shall that the first religion of mankind w'as monotheistic, and add a few remarks only. The identity of the name and that men, owing to natural weakness and to human passions of the idea under which Chxl was worshipped by the fell from the worship of one sole invisible God to the ancestors of the Aryan, Tentonic.Groek, Latin, and Chinese superstitions of idolatry. The laws that govern the growth, races cannot be acciden^-al, bnt it finds its. explanation only the progress and the civilization of a people are not far by admitting, that the worship of one sole supreme God different from those that preside over the growth, the under the name of Heaven-Father was common to all education and the progress of an individual man in science men in the beginning of mankind. Moreover, that monoor virtue. If he entirely neglects his former studies he theism and not polytheism has been the first religion oi will soon forget the very first principles of science, if he mankind can be clearly proved from the historical fact, gives himself up to all his worst passions he will be veiy that in proportion as the human races advanced in civilisoon degraded to the condition of a brute animal. Look catiou, their Sages and Philosophers approached more and at the present hill tribes of this country. They are in a more to a purer conception of the Deity, namely, to a semi-barbarous state: yet their ancestors attained to a monotheistic belief in one sole God. Now, was man created great civilization and they were able to defeat in many a . . , . in a wild or in a civilized state P bloody battle the ancestors of the present Brahmins. A A Kientific oonclnnon. , , ,_ , . , The followers of Darwin admit the nation is liable to degenerate as well as an individual man, first alternative, nay they maintain that man came direct- and the former may, as the latter, foi^et not only the ly by evolution from a monkey, the real progenitor of knowledge of science and of useful arts but the knowledge mankind. This opinion was prevalent 40 yenrs ago, even of God, and plunge in consequence into all the errors among the scientists of a certain school in England, Ger- of superstition. many, France, and America, but now most scientists hold 1 shall now sum up what I have hitherto said in the with Vinchow, a celebrated biologist of the German school following propositions. that Drawin's theory is impossible, absurd and altogether 1. All Western scholars agree upon recognizing in the untenable on scientific gi ounds. If therefore man's descent is not from an animal form or monkey, bat directly from most ancient religions of mankind, the presence of a moGod, who will be so rash a to say that God created the first notheistic worship of God under the idea of Heavenman and woman in a wild or savage state ? This asser- Lord and Creator of this Univei-se. 2. This monotheistic view of God is found to be mixed tion is coutradictd by the traditions of all peoples who describe the first parents of mankind as endowed with up with a polytheistic belief in nianj' Gods, either as the every possible gift, and actually, in most traditions, they deified foities of nature or as the national heroes to whom I are raised to the rank of Gods or in progress of tirae divine honours were paid. Semigods. -The future task of history, "says Schelling," will be to show by what catastrophies i-aces now living' in a savage state were isolated from intercoui-se with the of the world, and how, when thus deprived of their former means of civilizaiion, they &nk into their present ihjijradcttiou. I maintain that
First man civilized.

3. Infidels or rationalists are not of one mind in assigning the cause of this startling mixture of monotheism and polytheism, and in .stating whether polytheism sprang from monotheism,or the latter from the former. 4. Christian scholars, on the contrary, nniversally and unanimously admit that the primeval religion of mankind




O F T R U T H Oi: S I D D H A N T A


monotheisin, vu., that the hnniBn race worshipped one Bole God who had revealed himself to their first parents. So much they ai^ne from an historical as well as from a philosophical point of view, and, moreover, they maintain that the result of the best modem archieological researches is to show the same thing, of ch. Peech. Der. Ootteshegriff. Volume. I. II. Freibui^, Herder 1885 and 1888. Orimm. German mythology, p. 66. And this is the only possible conclnsion at which impartial search after truth must arrive. There are natoral instincts which man cannot possibly suppress, and prominent amoug them stands forth the natural impulse that prompts man to worship one sole God. In the astounding, variety of creatures that make up this visible universe, man's intellect cannot fail to see the unity of desigQ that clearly points to a maker, to a creator, to an architect of all. To this Supreme Being man's heart natarall'^ turns, as to his first principle and his last end. Let na not stifle this natui-al yearnin<; of our hearts. Let us go to GoJ, to ou Father, to our Creator, to our Lord. I would not do justice to your superior education if I were to say that you still believe in idolatry, that you still cherish in your hearts reverence for the^ods and goddesses of the Hindu Pantheon. But that will not suffice; you should go back to the purer faith of your ancestors : yon should honour, worship, and love that almighty God whom your Aryan forefathers honoured, worshipped and loved. God is Truth and Light: pray to Him to enlighten your understanding, to strengthen your hearts, that, searching after the true religion, yon may find it, you may embrace it, and, living up to its commandments, you may secare your everlasting happiness in heaven.
G . BARTOLI, S. J., D. D.

It is apparent that these poets were coatemporariea. That of supplements the portion composed by Kamban proves beyond all donl}t that these also were contemporaries. Hence it is plain thnt these poets belonged to the same age. When Kamban left the court of his royal patron on account of a misunderstanding that arose between themj be is said to have addressed the king thus : " j^speapiSstio ^eB'm^'ieondsci-^ui ^saiiar itiispaQuj ibmnnpi^." The underlined w o r d of course is (Kulo) tunga. This king confesses himself in the following stanza that he is the pupil of ^lLi4 " ui(Bw u/soi^if ^^pmr ufiiTLD niu^aa^^, (^(SB ^Oeoirg^giBs dfni^ Qear^Gp OiuSsa fQfa^^euGir." The followingstaoza is SAid to have been Jpung by ^ t l i - a f c - ^ ^ / r " srtin t a a t ^ Q ^ n ^ &C. (^a s a i s a r a r ^ ^ ^ e a f i f i ^ a r a sirtaadi (sOfnafi^AsQar." The following stanza of n s G j ^ i f i uSjgph l/m is also addressed to the same king "

Qojffii &c. fp^LD u r ^ g m s i r m t r a ^ w luniar^ O f i u f i A sQesr" and also this " u^mia i-lsQf Ou>euire(g QpasL-iiB fifiu uB^ffora ffi/B*" & c . " st^nj^ amsx OUKVQ^CO seirmisir But All kinds of traditions confirm that these

poets lived in the age of Knlotunpa Cholan.

there were two kinjjs of the same nameKalotunga I alias llajendra Chola II, who ascended the throne in 1063 A.D. and Kulotunga I I in 1127 A.b. (vide October number of the Indian pages 296299). Antiquary the 1894-^

But it is said that Kamban and of Kamban Hence was it

Ottakoottan were reqnired b y Rajendra 1 to comirase the Ramayanam and that the work heard only in the time of Kalotunga I .


follows that Kamban was in the time of Kulotanga I and ihat he lived before and after 141]. Sadaiyappa came late, and 1063 A. D. There is a tradition that when his son was being married,

{Continued from page


no room to sit

From the materials available it appears that the date of the composition and publication of Ramayana 885 A. D. is only a fatrication or some irrelavent readin? adopted by forae anonymous scholar. That there is another reading for fixing the date as ^85 A. D. only substantiates the above statement. From the many traditions about i^sQi^i-^ and ^ J-iss^^^i and frt'in the following stanza No. 21 of Q^irmesti wesBneo

down, was standing near the washing place {^fitm^i seat-.), that the wife of Kamban expressed to her husband her regret on that score, and that Kamban said " I know where to place my L o r d , " iiam. He accordingly found room for him in several places in his RamayaIf this tradition is reliable, it comes to pass that He is said to have died in the 60th From such premises we Kamban composed his Ramayanam at a ripe age, after 40 and about oO. year of his age at Madura.

^sy'aii Q^wiSujon QsiLu OiBiri^.^jniSds of the 11th century. W e will not err much if we state Q-meiit tevQ^iL'se^^^Sair ujsiijpi^/bQtiieiQiuarju GLj:e\)'riisSQ'f irAeSOisiii^ fiirar jnOeutBjiiOairear rather roughly that Kamban wus born about 880 loneunn eetrika^u LjsOjfi.i^iLjiB i2^fftjrer;(_umwi_e\)tju). years ago.

conclude that Kamban was born about the beginniag








We hare some diffionlty in determining whether ^mmaintr was a contemporary of Eambitn. From the word *i*m(tmrifi in " " o v i o . ^ * ^ vrmQsfifi ^t^iD^mtau u/rrf^^" which is soppused to bo the Tamil equivalent of Tarkey, some Anglo-Tamil Scholars affirm that 9r<B/ most haVe lived at a very recent date, at least after the advent of the English in Sonthem India. Winslow in his Dictionary renders this word in English as " a large f o u l . " But it
must b e remembered that this word does not occnr in any one of the Tamil Niganthns nor in the Tivakaram. In Book I, V o l . 1 of the Ethica Tamizica (printed at the Vepery Mission Press, Church Street, V e p e r y , 1860) e d i t e d b y Mr. Thomas Morton Scott, Master of the Salem Zilia School, this word is explained as '(r<a) + ; and the lines paraphrased t h u s " srrtvsfiigQin Q^nems utt^ei)ii(BSp tafiLj urrfi^a^v^ aos^Aeoir eun^mn^i^uj QULLOD^ fueiiLi, Siasr^^ & c . " The followm g note is added thereto. " ^uyin-eH k j^enastsu Qfir aitJItj oifekQ^QaauJiuir ^ ^ ^ O s i r e s i r S QairifiajrLDn^eoii^, jfd tiren^^ea LSsaLij^o!
mmi {..^fi^^mi ; j^SDOS^ g j i j u r i ^ ' i j lS^O O^UJ^ ^ ^

9<ir0/ lived in the beginning of the Christian era t. e. 1,800 years ago. The fact that spme passages from the above said Silappathikaram and the Knral are qnoted in the commentaiy of or Q u t ( g m shows that ^mtami should have lived previous to *8tiT. In nflifirgiirjpi we find that ^amaiiuiri versifies the praises of ^ ^ uunrar^S and his son and that she went on an embassy to the then Q^naiatai U f a a Conjeevaram. There are about 33 stanzas affixing her name in this collection which was made in till' time of the last Madura College. This emphasises the fact that she lived in the days of the last Madura College. From the account given in ^(j^Siaiun^p qv/rovu it appe:>.rs that wireati^saiirs^^i; lived sometime after the close of the last Madura College. Sambandhar, Appar and Suudarar lived sometime after Manikkavachagar. From the reference by Sundarar to u t P in " 0ff(P^e<n!/7^nasijrijuilf Oiuasjpi s^jS^ifii Q-ni9utji; MSsoQil'. " it is plain that the SaivA devotees lived a considerably long time after the last Madura College, because unS is one of the heroical and charitable kings of HP I I spa j t . Now ^meaiai refers to the above ST said four devotees in Qfieuir ^p^ih ji)(Q,iiiar wan

^laS/b Q*iif0arr




O^aijpiii, erargnsi mir^u> ttn'JieuO^ QfiOfSfui, t-trnffn. \Spneu(i9)-\-Q*ir^ ersiru^ mmpQan^ erer^^fiii^ii) ainanQsii^ star QlcsSib^ui GfirmSiS^e^i' muff. ^drfi^L^at airQiD acBir iifhmqsBtiu Ouenr uiaSSsis sesa Qui^eaiw^ Ousmjiw, ^uf. jy^/j^ Caldwell

yiaiit j t i f y i S i ( y a S Q w r ^ a ^ L D G a i i a a i

^(^Q/D ^sQLoeir ^tiesnr. She must therefore have lived also after the time of these devotees i. e., after the 8th c jutury.

9i(tu<iDU CuiJ.<B)i-iL;iTi_irO^Br^ti, ^aw OuiJ-mi-t^ii iBarjfi^QOtneirjtti But Bishop

does not accept this interpretation. this stanza was an interpolation. Reference is made to a canto Sea^Onijfi O^iuejii Q^ifiir^

He believes that

[To be continued).

in Manimekalai, 22nd wi-sQ^'ria.

R E V I E W S .

lines 5761.

fFrom the Indian Magazine and Revieie). Ouul/it/ijs LJOiXaD^ Qiusr/nsuu Qu^iijuSi^Qijir^^ii^esiir

B y TO'LA'MORI DE'VAE. printed by Murugesa Chetti, Book-Peller, THIS is called by Tamil authorities the 'second' great Madras, 1894 pa.gre 7778). Silappatliikaraiu is a contemporaneous work. There is reference in this poetical classic, but for what reason it has this high work to Gajahabu of Ceylon who began to reign in rank learned men have not been able to discover. It 113 A. C. as stated in Mahavamsa. From this it is is however a very remarknble quasi-epic, in twelve plain that the author of Kural should have lived as cantos, containing 2.131 quatrains ; is a Jain composiearly as the 1st century of the Christian era, if not lion, and boars a close resemblance, in many respects, earlier. W e learn from and tradition that to the Jivaga Chintamani, having much of the same ^arsaisj is the sister of er isja/r. This means that fervid spirit of reiil poetry, and something of the same 41



fwiry machinery.* The reader may, in spite of many obscurities, feel that it is even more interesting, as it is certainly more edifying, than the aforeeaid saperb poem. It lias been edited b y tlie veteran Tamil scholar, C. W. Tamotharam Pillai, Rao Bahadur, who has bestowed infinite piiins on the text. The critical apparatus is still, alas! to come. Of the author, T61a-mori-d6var (d^ireoir Q'.oir^ Q^eui) and of the sources of his inspiration, nothing really authentic has been preserved. The story of this poem is exceedingly peculiar, and will lead to some interesting questions, to which it is to be hoped scholars in Jain literature may find the answer. In this earthly world there is a country called Curamai (s^aeai^) ('The Uelightful'j, and its capital is the great city of Bothanam. Here a mighty king called Frajapathi reigned. His two principal wives were Migiipathi and Coca The descriptions of the country, the city, the magnificence of the king and the charms of the ladies occupy very large space, and seem to us more than ordinarily tedious, though each quatrain is faultless according to every precept of Tamil grammar and rhetoric. This kind of verse, consisting of an infinite number of cunningly imagined and executed mosaics, is certainly not adapted for stories possessing any absorbing interest. Petrarch's SoDnets and Canzoni are nearest to oar author's style.

er son, Divittan, is the real hero of the peom. Both princes were of extraordinary beauty, and received the most careful training., Earth could not show their peers. When they had arrived at their eighteenth year, a soothsayer presented himself one day at the court of Prajapathi, and said to him : ' 0 king, from the fairy world an elephant seemed to me in a dream to descend and bring a white wreath, with which it crowned the younger prince and bore him away. The meaning of this dream is, thav a certain king, of fairyland has a daughter who will come to be the bride of the younger prince Divittan within seven days As a sign of the truth of this a fairy messenger will forthwith descend into your flowery park with a letter from that king.' Prajapathi was overjoyed, and commandedone of his guards to await in the pleasure park the arrival of the promised messenger. In all the poetry of South India the soothsayer is a very important person'. He is the interpreter o f omens, sees visions and dreams, and is consulted OQ every emergency. In each rourt there are asfutd councillors, and stalwart warriors, and sacred Brahmans; but the soothsayer, who often lives in a hermitage remote, is more influential than they all.

Now the land of the fairies was away over the mountains in a higher sphere, and there was a city called Irathanupuram (jewelled anklet;, whose king was Culanacadi. H e had a son, Atukka-Kirtti, and a daughter Cuyamprabai. This latter was a y o u n g These two queens became the happy mothers of princess of amazing beauty and accomplishmeiits, u i d sons, of whom the younger, Divittan, son of Caci, was her father held many councils and despatched many in reality an incarnation of Krishna, and bore the same envoys ini hope of finding a fitting bridegroom for her. dark hue as the God. Before him comes a soothsayer, who announces that Of course, the Jaia author of the poem regards the bridegroom for the princess was to be found in the Vishnu in ail his manifestations as possessing supernal earthly world, in the person of the younger son of K i n g powers, no doubt, bat still as not rising to the dignity Prajapathi. 'The sign of this,' he kdded, 'shall be of a real divinity. It is somewhat curious to see the that iu one month you will hear of him as the slayer use these Jain poets make of Hindu mythology, just of a lion.' Accordingly the fairy-king sent a trusty p.s we might sing fairy songs in which Greek, or Latin, envoy called Maruei, with a missive addressed to the or Scandinavian, br Hindu divinities were introduced. monarch of Bothanam. K i n g Prajapathi was utterly The poem before us was written absolutely from a amazed at the reception of such a letter, and replied Jain standpoint. to the messenger, ' W e are but human beings, and you belong to the lands of the genii. W h a t connexion can The elder son, whose name was. Vijayan, was of a fair complexion, and a loauifestation of Bala t The yonng- there b6 between races so dissimilar' ? After a while however he consented, and Maruci returned-to his " The only Tamil word for fairy is ananju This is a master, who now waited for the signviz., the slaughjynViTit form of the Sanskrit auanga (=incorporeal). Comp. Kurral lOSl etc. ter of the lion by the young prince. This was brought f Compare u/cjtgr^ 56. Bala-raman (Bali [ioS], Bala-bhadra), about as follows: in fairy-land there was a mighty was tl! ^ elder brother of Krishna (See Muir'a Sanskrit texts, vol. I V p. 260 etc.) sovereign to whom Culanacadi was tributary. T h e




t of this f n i i y B m p e r o r was Aehuvorkandan.


an incarnation.

Of course, the resnit is that Divittan's

Achuvafatherlands. shar-

i a j the t o o t h s a y e r c a m e t o itim, a n d in the c o a r s e o ( M T n a t i o n said : ' T h e r e is Qpon enrth a man who is y o a r predestioed foe, though bneath yoor swaj.' y o u unite all worlds T h e monarch smiled c o n t e m p consider it ' S o he

knndan is d e f e a t e d and slain, and

in-law b e c o m e s superme ruler of all the fairy IXt-tWau also b e c o m e s k i n g of his own country,

ing the royal authority with his father. T h e astonishing statement is a d d e d that, in addition to his fairy bride, h e took to himself other whom he dwelt in j o y o u s 10,000 spouses, with rapture ! A son is born t o

tnoaslv : ' W h a t c a n a m e r e m^n. d o ? Y e t since y o a , the BoothRayer, say this, 1 must s u m m o n ^ bis c o a n c i l , and it was a r r a n g e d that he ahoald send messengers t o demand payment of tribute from Prajapathi, as a test. T h e messengers terrified were a c c o r d i n g l y d e s p a t c h e d , and the Prajapathi

him called Amirthasenan. On the same day the Queen of the son of the F a i r y K i n g , Arukka-kirtti, w h o was Divittan's .sister, became the mother of fairy k i n g d o m . a daughter the Divittan called Sutharai, and also a son w h o sncceedeil to throne of the Afterwards

immediatoly g a v e orders to make ready the required tribut* of a tl^onsand pieces of g o l d , a thousand damsels, with. abunlTance of pearls, coral and ivory. W h i l e these were b e i n g c o l l e c t e d and about to be e d , the "two p r i n c e s c a m e in and heard story, w h e n DitnY^an angrily interposed despatchthe whole forbade defiaut

had a daughter called Minjothimalai. T o find a fitting bridegroom for this latter, a Svyamvaram nssembly of kingly suitors) was (a general and proclaimed,


lovesick princes thronged in from every corner of the uuiverse. A n elaborate and terribly ornate account of such an event is b o u n d to find a place in every Tamil Epic. of Divittan H e r e the result was* that was married to the son of two pairs of the great daughter

t h e despatch of the tribute, sending back the message, ' W e o w e no fealty to any fairy k i n g !'

T h e messenger returned, and told the .fairy k i n g of this refusal a n d Divittan'a defiance. In order to reempire pov e n g e themsel-ves, a councilloi- of the Fairy

her mother's cousins thus seems sees region

brother Arukka-kirtti,

and that the fairy princess was earthly

aasnmed the form of a lioa, endued with magical

married to Divittan's son and fairy kingdoms.

w e r , and p r o c e e d e d to the forests near to the city of B o t h a n a m , c a u s i n g it to b e made k n o w n to tlie y o u n g p r i n c e that a m i g h t y lion was devastating their approach the p r e t e n d e d lion fled to which there was a real lion, and there and soon despatched it, returning the land. in T h e t w o princes, in wrath, set out to slay the lion. On a cave, disappeared. hia

unitim; quadruply the royal families of the N o w comes what almost to be the main object of the

poem : Prajapathi

sons and grandsons dwelling around him in a

that unjtes all the delights that earth and heaven can give, and begins to reflect;: " All this superabundance of blessing that has fallen in order to secure a into the cation wilderness, aud devout to me and my children is the result of virtuous acts performed in a former birth; continuance of these propitious fates to my race I must renounce my kingdom, retire and spend my d'a^'s iu mortifimeditation." He festival accordingly in honour

Dimttan entered the cave, seized the lion b y its mane, in triumph to city. T h e F a i r y K i n g of Iratha-nupurfim, hearing of the circumstance f r o m his spies, and recognising in it the fulfilment of the soothsayer's words, resolved at once t o set out with his daughter and marry her to the gallant prince. The poem, with a perfectly astounding variety of illnstration, and (we are bound to say) most wearisome minuteness of detail, conducts the bride to the city of Bothanam, and marries her to the youug' hero. Meanwhile, the Emperor of the fairy because of his for Iratha-nupurara lands i.s defiance, allying sorely wrath with Divittan and with t h e K i n g of himself with a human rebel.

celebrate^ a peculiarly imposing his homage, and enlightens his

o ^ i r t r g a n , theJ.iin deity, who appears to liim, receives mind. He is taught all the mystery of the Jain system ; the various c o n d i tions of the departed in the world of the gods, in t' e region nf demoiis, in mortal embodiment, and eveL bestial transformations, are revealed to him. He He passes though Iiiforno, Purgatorio, and Paradiso.

H e accordingly ad varimany tributary lies the

ces with a mighty host, attended by have its conflict.

takes tender farewell of sons luid daughters and their children, rommenJ^ his kiiiijdom, which now seems to embrace the fairy laini also, to their care, and obtains RELEASE. In tlie Saiva-Siddhanta system ten Tlie different theories a b o u t ' rt-lease' are enunciated.

kings, and a great war b e g i n s f o r every epic must The whole interest of tlie war wield.s in the exploits of Divittan, who levels mountains, rides

upon magic horses through the sky, and

weapons of Vishna himselfof whom he is seen to be

release of the Jain is one of thesethe ' victory over









earthly desire.** This Prejapathi obtained, and in the chapter which relates hia renunciation there is a very great deal that ia worth attentive study as illnstcating Jain ideas. Mnch of it is to be fonnd reflected in the Knrral, the Naladiyar and other Tamil gnomic works. Extracta are not here given, principally because tbongh all is elegant, most rhythmical and artificial, there are no passagres of especial force and beanty> A work has been written b y Mr. S. Radhakrishna Aiyar, Professor in the Maharaja's College at Padnkottai, which is entilled " Readings in Tamil," and which is an exceedingly valuable anthology. W e have been indebted to it on this and mauy other occaaiona. The Snlamani {(^ennwemfi) has failed to gain popularity among the Tamil people. In fact, it has become well-nigh obsolete. It remains to be seen whether this, its first appearance in print, will brush away the dust of ages. No lover of Tamil literature will pass it by b u t ' t h e old order changes,' and we trust that the study of ancient Tamil will lead in time to the formation of a new school of poets with wider views, and less fettered b y arbitrary rules than were the undoubtedly great singers of the oldeu times.
G . U . POPE, M A., U.D.


PERHAPS the most useful book that has been published by the Tlieosophicol Society in recent years is the one under review. A s the title page tells us it proposes to give us a complete summary of the Theosophical teachings. Of all the books that have reached the world from the hands of Mrs. Besant, this is the most complete treatise of the subject, professing as it does to deal with the entire subject, to cover the whole ground, at a time. It must be invaluable therefore for any one who wishes to get any notion, however flimsy it may be, of the Theosophica\ creed. '['lie opening chapter institutes a comparison between the various cultured religions of the woild from the .standpoint of ethic.s, philosophy and theology. 'I' ^^


p. 214

CtC. fi 6) f^ . u

f- The Alicicut Wibdoin, vr a.u outline of Theosophical teachings l.y Mrs. Auii.c Besant, I,ondon : Theosophical Publiehins Societv 7 Duke Street, Aclclphi, W. C. 1897. "<-='7.'.

It disposes of, summarily, for reasons which w e d o not clearly understand, the theories pat f o r w a r d "by the Doctors of comparative Religion and M y t h o l o g y as regards the primitive or nomadic origins of varioas religions. The precipitous leap to a superhaman substratum underlying all religions, includes a v e r y hollow and yawning hiatus, to bridge which cool reason does not well inhere. Then come the glorious Brotherhood, the various Manus, relics of a previous or an antecedent Manvantara, w h o are the shapers and teachers of the present dispensation. H o w and why those Manvs and Dhyan chohana managed to find their way to this yuga, and bow they originally began to evolve from the Logos, Mrs. Besant takes up in the concluding chapter. The succeeding 6 chapters are a description of the evolution, the condition, the scenery of " the seven planes " in man and in nature, and their relative bearings upon one another. T h e wonderful description of auric e g g nnravels to us a new method of punishing criminals. Jast as there is a medium extant in Aknsa, which is able to respond to every vibration produced in matter of any condition, and functions like a sensitive phonographic plate, t o an occultist in the matter of studying the Past and the Present, the anric e g g communicates in its own i r i descent language to an occultist the nature of every man in all his aspects. W e refer the readers to the book itself to study more of this and allied things, if not as an instructive and useful b o o k , at l e a s t as an amusing piece of inteUectual or literary curiosity. The seven plnnes of the universe h a v e their counterparts in us, and they are no more than proportionately rarifled media, consisting of chemical elements relatively super-analysed. N o donbt the. whole process of putting forth ideas belonging tothese planes is a d e f t attempt at carrying science to the verge of fancy, or pseudo-scientific f a n c y . T h e answering plane.^ of human system thrill responsively to the vibrations of raacrocosmic levels, when once the Ego is able to function successfully in them. W h e n the ego will b e able to become conscious on the various plan)3, leads her to the chapter on Karma, which is treated with all the precision which a modern scientific intellect will bring in, and the fancy which the best of romantic imagi nation s can originate. Kurma determines on which plane a man ought t o function, what are to be his surroundings and what his end ought to be. Here science must bungle, must equivocate, Mrs. Besant seems to say. Physical heredity, and transmission of purely mental chai-aoters.



i r f l l not e x j d a i n ( h e s a d d e n appearance of i n a family of cooks or an eminent "Weismann's many f a m i l y of o a i ^ n t e r s . m a d e here to snbserre

a genins

and the origin of the seven minor L o g o i f r o m o n e manifested and manvanlartu B r a h m s n , the ties b y w h i c h are b o u n d , the sudden


biologist in a germ-plasm^'is the The preparation



nseful purpoces,

of the Lunar and the Solar jdtris, the w h o l e hosts of Manasa H i e m r c h i e s , Dhyan unknown. chohans

and the w o n d e r f u l H o w and w h y and D e v a c h a n i c and superin-

most noteworthy a m o n g them being- the

Planetary Chains are all very obscure. Putras, and lApika,

f pbyaical conditions f o r the reincarnating e g o .

^nestion of reincarnation as a necessity, Hnd the efficady and p o t e n c y of t h o a s h t - f o r m s gradnally intrude n p o n onr attention. W e h a v e t w o large chapters on nature. and r e i n c a m a t i o n t r y i n g to g i v e a satisfactory answer f o r every apparent f r e a k or p r o d i g y in, human " M a n ' s A s c e o t " then sncceeds in which an explanation is aimed I p r e v e r y differentiation of form -colour; s a t a r e f o r the first time p r o n o u n c e d l y argnmentfttion, analysis, and arises in o a r presentation of and environment, and the difficulty minds facts.

t e n d i n g e g o s were ji/rst made and f o r what enc^are all W h a t the purpose of k o s m i c evolution and involution is, what the need f o r the law of sacrifice is, are left in as miserable a p l i g h t as the violence with which she accuses the biologists f o r not rightly understanding nature when asked to tender reasons f o r the physical phenomena of the Varying vicissitudes of W i t h the ahasic illumine her, rehnman life, of the difEering social status of individuals a m o n g mankind, and the like. cords and the auric egg to Oiiental

disabliBg us t o f o l l o w her all the w a y ij}. the matter of S h e has not at all taken u p sexual differentiation as i m p l y i n g any decided significance in the economy of -nature, and w e d o n ' t k n o w w h y she should have omitt e d it. S p e a k i n g f r o m an ultra-biological standpoint significance This w e are at a loss t o k n o w what psychic

researches, Scientific investigations, Historical information, have no value at all f o r h e r ; and so f o r e v e r y occult student. Drink the Elysi^n bliss of occultism and y o u are e v e r y t h i n g and everything y o u r s e l f ; aud y o u can verily scoff at every b o d y who is not of y o u r feather. leiiee. She does not care to think what Science has She does not seem to take into account what of a hosts in of ova in a new budding young arw two to offer in explaining I d i o c y or I n t e l l i g e n c e p o r excelpart the v a r y i n g environment plays in the successive formation girl, are what to the man conditions whom of climate, temperature spermatozoa

underlay w h e n sexual differentiation first arose.

IB l i o d o n b t a crum f o r the Tbeosophists and it is no w o n d e r that- Mrs. Beaant leaves ns in the entire dark. S h e deserves onr congratulation in so f a r as Che thread o f her reasoning is so dexterously w o v e n that this allimportant question is m a d e to stand thoroughly reverts only when one cares to think karmic ont { the pale of thought, f o r the time, and the difficulty independently. the overtaking T h e L v ^ k a are a out of strange f o l k who keep records, this fate in their case them through karmic justice ! ficance, of the cosmic


into life, what the life of the germ-plasm are mixed suddenly from uterine wal], so

is when two elements

different individuals, how the nature of

T o the next question

the habits and temperament of the mother, her physical surroundings, influence the nascent embryo, and on. Science cannot really provide an account for ' the why ? " of things as Mrs. Besant herself cannot answeithe question why the L o g o s sliould persist. It is a torture when she manages to take the pure teachings of the Vednnta cult, twist it into any shape she likes, colour it as suits her fancy, and cance by putting into its mouth murder its siL;nifihideous iinswevs for to :isk, imd A'edantisc limiiles.s

that must stare us on the face, viz., the purpose, signievolution and involution, Mrs. And respectable. We Besant makes " the L a w of Sacrifice " d o duty. the duty it does is not very rational or

Man living, mam dying, extinction of universe, and incandescence of nebula are all a law of sacrifice. r e made to understand it as a supersenauous act of benevolence, the benevolent element in which we can't at present have even a dim ceeds the floundering limbo, glimpse of. Then sucof the recondite logic

absurd questions which it never drenmt noble Rishis into blatant is, in sending nonsense. Xo

converting the traditional tcachiiisfs of the pure and could ever dream of a.sking wlint the idea of Brahinau out a monadic ray from his splendour, encage it in karmic folds by a curious ( idcess of evolution, ruii it round a tedious cvcli c M births and deaths, and again take it back by a jiuzzlinpr proces.s of involution ;. f c r lie knows, wlirij uncr-

th^ Tbeosophists and for which Mrs. Besant a full chapter styling it as " Building a H e r e we get a regular parody means by particular terms. hopeless expression. 42 upon




phraseology, and we can't make bead or tail of what she ' Solar System' is a most Bvabman, T h e process b y which the U n -

manifested L o g o s becomes the manifested









he asks these questions, he i3 in a maze and must lose sight of the clue. W e take the Vedantic teaching For what it is worth. To ask a Vedantin what the meaning of Kosmic Evolution is, is to ask a Theosophist why Mahatmas should choose to blow from the heights of the Himalayas, across the plains of India, on to the retreats of Adyar only, in Astral, Devachanic, and Nirvanic language, and to ask a Scientist why man should not have 4 eyes or 8, feet, or why the moon should not be made of Green Cheese that people might make use of it whenever a dearth arises in this world for cheese, butter or ghee. A n d here we stop. W e hope that Miss Edger who is to deliver the ensuing Convention-address at .^dyar will take up these points and clear np our obscurities. The all-important point in the Vedantic doctrine, the Maya, plays a very dubious part in Annie Besant's book.

classes of the latter, in., Siro who is Anadi

i4ih Deceviher 1897. J


A Tamil lecture on ' Sivain' was delivered on the evening of the 14th Instant in the marriage hall of the local Meenatchi Temple under the anapices of Mr. A. Uamanadan Chettiyar, Member of the Devasthanam Committee, by the descendtint of the Setupaties of Kamnad whose piety and orthodoxy are only two well known to the world at large by the numerous religious and charitable institutions founded and maintained by them in all the holy placcs of the Indian continent. He began quoting the authority of Srilnntha Sivnchu'nja in support of his position, viz., 'we don't find any difference between the T'edas and SivagamaK. Even the Yedax are SivagamaH'. If they were found to differ in certain respects, they did so on purpose to correspond with the different capacities of tlie students whom they were intended to instruct. He said that it was simply erroneous to regard them as really different; for, they could be very easily reconciled to each other. He illustrated this theory by quoting some verses from thp i u r a f of I'tTtivallumr, wherein the divine moralist has said at one time that fatn is all-powerful and at another tlmt men can defy the decreps of fate by their unrelaxing perseverance, and shewed that the one' admonition ws intended to put a sound check iij)on the advontnroSs enterprise, while the other was meant to .-vroiKSo tiie Biumborin^ fatalist Ir, energetic action. .A-iiotijer illustration hi; gave was tlic' of the medical treatise wliich in one place |ireacril.eil tlie use of curd as wliolcsonie and in another denounced it as unhealthy Here the scientific merit of the book could not bp (lixricd merely on account <if tin: apparent inconsistencv pervading its |.reseri]iri(ins -, for, a deep insight would show that its usefulness as :i iiiifrient was praised in the case of a man of robust healtJi and thai die pernicious proiicity of the substance was condemned in the case of one who suffered from an ague. Since no incongruity .oiild be imputed to the treatise on this score, flimilarly none could lie attributed to the Fcriiu^ nnd Agnmnf. They both took their sources from their common author Siva, and stood in such relation to each other as the context to its commentary and both tended to the same goal. He theft enumerated the 28 Sii-ojamos ,and said (hat only 10 out of them were exclusively related to Siiam while the remaining 18 were devoted to the treatment of various subjects as the Charyu, Kny,i, Yoga, Guana Ac. He showed that the Sinaiius had no other alternative than to mnke Siva Pujah side by Bide with the Sivitps and gave out the names of the different

and included the former among' them. He then diatin^iahed between the schools of Vedanta and Sotuo liddhwnta at oonsidenble length. He described sira as Ariadi Mukta, aukihma Chit i. e., one eternally unbounded subtle intelligence; and Atma the Anadi Baddha sthula Chit i. e., one etemally-bonnd grou intelligence. He said that the sovils were not creaturei; for, they were never created but co-existed with the Supiene Boul. He then explained the necessity for the eternal existence of a third thing n'3., Paaam which encompaBses the soule till they attain beatitude. Hence he said there was justification for the everlMting existence of the 3 things, {Thirupathartha) viz., Port (Lord) Pasu (Soul) and Pasam (Ignorance or Darkness) of the siddhanta school. He took tliis opportunity of condemning in a thorough manner the one arch fallacy of the Vedanta Philosophy vii. a wholesale denial of the existence of every other thing except Brahmam, the all-pervading Supreme Soul. He showed by the way that the Pantheists could not demonstratively and satisfactorily acoMBt for the orgin of Maya to which they ultimately and necessai^y trace the phenomenal existence of the whol^ Universe; for, the Brahmam which they speak of is described by themselvesas being Ifirgima i. ., incapable of motion, emotion, action &c. Then he proeaeded to dwell upon the unanswerability of the question regarding'the sonroe of Maya. He admitted without reserve that not one of the ingenious savants of the Vedantic school whom he had come in contact with was able to satisfy him in that respect. He said that instead of replying they simply derided it as a knotty question; and retorted by observing, if it was said that the Audheenam of TiruTaTado'tkoiai came iiito existence at the time of Namasivaya Mnrthy, how could one expect to have an anBwer to the question. Who was the Audheenaltartn of Tiruvavaduthorai prior to the said Namativaya P Perhaps, the question as to who was the Spiritual Frdceptor of the said Namasivaya might be answered but who anointed and seated him on the gv,dd\i of the Audheenam could in no way be traced out. Next he propounded the law of Karma and the doctrine of leinoamation. He did not let slip the occasion to