English for Academic Study Writing SB | Essays | Critical Thinking

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Definition

Introduction
Organising your ideas
Concluding sentences
Conclusions
Early human development
Microskills: Organising your ideas
Paragraph leaders
Microskills: Organising essays: Sifuation, problem, solufton, implications, evaluafion
Contents
Extracts from 'Global Transformations: Politics,
Economics and Culture', Heldet al, eds. (1999)
reprinted by permission PolityPress Ltd.
Buzan, T. (1971) 'Speed Reading USA', David and
Charles. Reprinted with the Registered Trademark of the
Buzan Organisation used with enthusiastic permission of
Buzan Centres Ltd, 54 Parkstone Road, Poole. Dorset
BH15 2PG. www.buzancentres.com
Extract (page44) from 'World Politics, Trend and
Transformation' (with International Relations Interactive
CD-ROM and In/oTrac) 9'"edition by KEGlEY/WITIKOPE
© 2004. Reprinted with permission of Wadsworth, a
divisionof Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com.
Pax 800 730-2215.
'The crime that dare not breatheits name', The Times.
© NI Syndication, London(October l S", 2000)
Extract from 'Crime figures so easilymislead' reprinted
with permission of James Morton.
'Don't Panic' & 'Crime in Britain' © TheEconomist
Newspaper limited, London (March 21" &June 20'1" 2002)
'Statistics Without Tears: A Primer for Non-Mathematicians'
by Derek Rowntree (Penguin Books, 1982). Copyright ©
Derek Rowntree, 1982, Pages 14-21 reproduced by
permission of Penguin Books Ltd.
'Beyondthe bubble' © The Economist Newspaper
limited, London(October 9\", 2003)
'Ring in the new' © TheEconomist Newspaper limited,
London(October 7'", 1999)
'DoesClass Size Matter?' reprinted with permission.
Copyright © 2001 by ScientificAmerican, lnc.
All rights reserved.
Atkinson, R.L. et et., Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology,
13\h edition (1999). © 1996. Reprinted with permission
of wadsworth. a divisionof Thomson Learning:
www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800 730-2215
Theauthors and publishers wish to acknowledgethe
following useof material:
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the
permission of the controller of HMSO and the
Queen's Printer for Scotland.
'Common Questions about ClimateChange'
(pages 4-12), reprinted with permission © United
Nations Environment Programme and World
Meteorological Organization.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in
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Publisher. Any person who does any unauthorized act in
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prosecution and civil claims for damages.
First published 2004
Reprinted with corrections 2004
Second edition published2006
Reprinted 2008
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Published by
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Copyright © 2004 University of Reading's
Centrefor Applied Language Studies.
Theright of Anne Pallant to be identified asthe author
of this work hasbeen asserted in accordance with the
Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988.
All rights reserved.
Credits
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ISBN-1O: 1 85964 838 X
ISBN-13: 978 1 85964 838 4
British Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A cataloguerecord for this book is available from
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, Printed and bound
in Lebanon by International Press
'The Global Village: Challenges for a Shrinking
Planet', reprinted with permission from The Global
Viffage: Challenges for a Shrinking Planet (Understanding
GlobalIssues 98/7).
'The New Linguistic Order' in ForeignPolicy, Winter
1998-99 (pages 26-39), Joshua A Eishman
RI Enqlish for academic study
Wrilillg
Acknowledgements
Reference to Source Book texts
page
page
page
page
The influence on academic achievement
Acase study; Shining star
The Asian p'aradox: Hugeclasses, highscores
Early humandevelopment
Text2-1: interaction between natureand nurture
Text 2-2: Capacities of the newborn
Text 2-3: Hearing, taste and smell
Introduction Reading only
Text i-l: Economics focus: Onthemove
I would like to acknowledge the important contribution of Ros Richards as the author of a report
on the research literature on academic writing. Many of the principles of the course are based
on the observations and recommendations in this report. I would also like to thank her for her
valuable evaluative comments on the early versions of the material.
I would like to thank John Slaght for his collaboration on activities linked to the Reading
material in the Reading and Writing Source Book.
I would also like to acknowledge the many teachers and students at the Centre for Applied
Language Studies who have contributed to the process of trialling and evaluating this material,
in particular Beverley Fairfax, Mary Ferguson, Helen Fraser, Belinda Hardisty, Clare McClean,
Pete McKichan and Jane Short. I would like to thank Clare McClean for her contribution to
Unit 1 of phrasesfor making polite suggestionsfor Peer Feedback.
I would also like to thank the teachers and students at the Language Centres of the University
of Surrey and Robert Gordon University who have also used this material and given feedback.
The author and publishers would like to thank Ron White for the contributions to some of
the questionnaire on pp.11-16, and for the expressions of comparison and contrast, adapted
from pp. 6-9 and 68-69, respectively, in Ron White and Don McGovern Writing, Hemel
Hempstead: Phoenix ELT (1994).
The task on page 73 istaken from McGovern, Don Reading, Hemel Hempstead: Phoenix ELT (1994).
Anne Pallant, Author, May 2004
Statistics without tears
Text 4-1: Making sense of experience
Text 4-2: What is statistics?
Text 4-3: Descriptive andinferential statistics
Iimate chan
<:\",-<
Common questions about c1iniate'change
. Arehumanactivities contributing to dim'ate change?
Whathumanactivities arecontributing fo climate change
The global village
Text6-1: Introduction
Text 6-2: Theshrinking pionel
Text6-3: Economic globalisation
Text 6-4: Community& conflicl
Text 6-5: The sharing of sovereignty
Text 6-6: Converging or diverging?
The newlinguistic order
Text 7-1: The newlinguistic order
'C'{Kfll
':1.11 English for cccoemlc slvdy
Read the following information about these four aspects and the way they will be presented
during your course.
The process approach to writing has now been used widely for a number of years on writing
courses in Britain, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand. It has proved a successful
approach by which learners have effectively improved their academic writing skills. The basic concept
of this approach is that good writers go through a number of processes while composing a text
before they produce their final product. The main underlying principles are:
G Writing is a recursive process. Effective writing results from rewriting and revising at each
stage of the composing process. A good writer goes back and thinks again before continuing
to write. You will be asked to:
c brainstorm ideas, i.e. think quicklyto get ideas for your essay;
e organise your ideas into a plan;
e write your first draft;
• revise and edit your first draft, according to peer feedback and your own developing ideas;
c rewrite it to produce a second draft;
e revise and edit your second draft, according to teacher feedback and your own
developing ideas;
Q rewrite it to produce a third draft.
It helps to share and discuss the writing process with others. Your work improves if you
talk to others about your ideas and problems. Simply by talking to a friend, you can clarify any
aspect of your work that you are not sure about. Another person will have an objective view
as your reader, and so will be able to make useful suggestions about your writing.
When you write, you write for an audience, and you need to think about how you structure
your message in order to communicate your ideas in the clearest way. It therefore helps to
show your writing to other people so that you can learn how to adapt your writing to
different audiences.
During your writing course, you will have the opportunity to discuss your writing at each
stage of the process.
A good writer is critical of his/her own work. You should read your work carefully and
consider both the strengths and weaknesses of your writing.
The development of critical thinking skills
At the advanced level necessary for your studies, academic writing should express the critical
thinking and reasoning which has been used to develop the main ideas in your writing. This is a
fundamental skill which is increasingly necessary for successful academic study in higher education.
It could typically involve:
assessing information in order to show how it relates to an understanding of the
truth in a particular context;
/
identifying problems;
seeking solutions to these problems;
evaluating the solutions;
assessing the implications (or effect) if those solutions are applied.
Research has shown that working for a period of time on one particular topic provides a basis
for developing and expressing critical thinking skills. This is one of the reasons why your writing
tasks are based on specific reading texts.
Many of the tasks that you will do during the course will contribute to the development and
expression of your critical thinking skills. You will discover how writing of this kind in English in
higher education may differ from writing in your own language.
This Writing cou,rse will also deal with other important aspects of writing, such as:
how to write an effective introduction and conclusion;
how to communicate the main idea of a paragraph to the reader;
how to support your main ideas with examples;
how to express yourself in writing using more complex sentences;
how to write accurately and fluently.
It will also help you to expand your use of language appropriate to the task.
The microskills of writing.
Your teacher will read the second draft of your essays, and will respond with comments and
suggestions. His/her feedback will focus ·on:
task achievement, i.e. how well you have responded to the title of your essay;
organisation and development of ideas;
content;
language.
He/she will give you feedback on language problems through the use of symbols, which will indicate
the type of error you have made, such as using the wrong word (WW) or wrong form of the word (wF).
Your teacher will explain this system in more detail and refer you to a key to the symbols. You will
be asked to correct your language errors as well as improve other aspects of your essay; this will be
your final editing work.
al Self-evaluation: To help you develop your critical ability, you will be asked to consider a
series of evaluation questions, which you will use to evaluate your own writing.
b) Peer evaluation: You will also be asked to consider a series of evaluation questions
which you will use to evaluate the writing of another student. You will carry out peer
evaluation by reading another student's essay, offering suggestions and commenting
on it in a way that is helpful, as well as receiving comments from him or her. When reading
another student's essay, you will focus on the organisation of the ideas and the overall
argument of the text. At this stage, this is more important than the accuracy of the
language, spelling and punctuation, unless errors make the essay difficult to understand.
t\Hhough some of i'f18Se oliO,proad,es rnay be unfammal" )'0you, the aim is 1'0
skills with which you wm be Ob!8 YO wrltfr'en withouTdeip811d,mceon ·Ci
teacher. T h ~ s is imporrcnt for your future studies.
In diagrammatic form, the process looks like this:
Write
third draft
Brainstorm
ideas
Organise ideas
Planning
ss
! ~ The importance of genre
The Writing coursewill, to a certain extent, look at how different academic subjects require different
styles of writing, i.e. genre. For example, an essay written in a science subject will typically be
in a more concise style than one written in a social science subject. In the Writing course, a variety
of ways of organising writing will be analysed and practised. These will include:
essays of cause and effect;
situation, problem, solution(s), implication(s) and evaluation;
comparison and contrast.
You will also increase your awareness of the type of language most appropriate to express these
patterns of organisation. By the end of the course, you should be able to write effectively and
appropriately for your individual purposes, and be able to make choices as to the most appropriate
way to approach a writing task. In your writing, you will be expected to show clear development
of a topic through good organisation and language use.
Write
first draft
Evaluate
(Self & peer)
.-
/', -;'>
·v' v
Teacher
Write Evaluate
evaluation
• • •
andmarking
second draft (Self &peer)
Evaluate teacher
feedback
~ the aims of academic study;
~ ways of achieving the aims of academic study;
1IiI the nature of academic writing;
e the relative importance of different aspects of writing;
~ how academic writing can be seen as communicating with another person;
@ the different stages of the writing process and how you can approach them;
~ identifying and coping with difficulties in academic writing.
It will then give you practice in:
@ writing about the achievement of academic success;
~ considering the knowledgeand expectations of your reader;
@ thinking about different approaches to the organisation of your ideas;
. .
@ sharing the writing process through:
- discussion of its different stages with another person; and
exchanging drafts with another person and giving constructive criticism;
@ rewriting to correct and improve your first draft.
Some practical points
Research has shown that an integrated approach to the teaching of writing contributes to the
development of one's critical thinking skills. For example, Carson views critical thinkingas 'the ability
to transform information for their own [students'] purposes in reading andto synthesise their prior
knowledge with another text in writing ... Together, reading andwriting facilitate the development of
critical thinking'. (Carson, EJ, & Leki (1993), Reading in the Composition Classroom, Heinle and Heinle:
p.100.) Hence, the implication of the research for teaching academic writing is that there should be
an integrated skills approach, which includes the specific development of critical thinking skills.
The structureof the Writing material reflects this approach. Each unit has a writing topic that is based
on the relevant reading text in the Reading and Writing Source Book. This follows the principle that, as
a student, you read an academic text for a particular purpose on your academic course. Oneof the main
purposes of thetexts will beto provide relevant information to support yourideas inthewrittenassignments.
You will need to process and critically analyse that information before incorporating it within your own
argument; you will, thus, be engaging in problem-solving activities. It is important to reflect this process
on an academic writing programme.
For manyof you, onceyou start your chosen degree course, written examinations will be a major
method of formal assessment. To be successful in examinations, you will need to be ableto write
quickly and concisely in your answer to a question. Writing to complete an essay within a time
limit will be practised on the course as an integral component of your writing classes. You will
also develop your technique in quickly analysing an examination question, in order to respond
to the task appropriately.
The link between reading and· writing
I":Timed writing
You should type your first drafts on the word processor because:
c it is easier for your classmates to read;
it is easier to makecorrections and revisions to your work;
/
" you will be required to submit word-processed essays in your future studies.
Please use Times NewRoman font size 12and one anda halfspacing for the main body of your
text. However, if you have little or no experience in word processing, you should discuss with your
teacher when you should begin typing your essays.
When you give your teacher the second draftof your essay, you will also give him/her your plan
and your first draft. This will enable him/her:
to assess the effectiveness of the process; /
to assess your response to evaluation;
to help you further.
Similarly, when you give your teacher the third draftof your essay, you will also give him/her
your second draft.
Completethis questionnaire.
.. What isthe aimof academic study? (Please tick (.I) one or more.)
D to meet intelligent people
D to ensure having a career or future job
D to discover moreabout theories and certain known facts
D to discuss philosophy
D to enjoy learning
~ English for academicstudy
~
o to enable members of society to exchange ideas which are intellectually stimulating'
o to develop personal growth
o to contribute to the social and economic development of society
o to pass examinations
o to gain a higher-level degree
o to improve cooperation between different members of world society
, intellectually stimulating: encouraging the mind to develop further
How important is it for you as a student to develop the following characteristics while
studying at university? (Tick (,/) H for High importance, M for Medium importance,
L for Low importance.)
H M L
000 knowing your strengths and weaknesses
000 thinking about how to develop your abilities further
000 thinking about how to approach a particular task
000 using a logical, reasoned approach to study
000 approaching your subject in depth
000 being interested in finding things out
000 learning how to study
000 communicating results successfully
What is academic writing? (Please tick (,/) one or more.)
o a mechanical exercise
o groups of grammatically correct sentences
o the clear expression of ideas, knowledge and information
o a form of self-expression
o a way of exploring, addressing and expressing academic issues
o a way of communicating results or information
Towrite well academically, how important are the following? (Tick (,/) H for High
importance, M for Medium importance, L for Low importance.)
H M L
000 readingalot
000 studying grammar
000 studying vocabulary
000 imitating other writers
000 writing a lot
000 inviting others to comment on your writing
000 going back and thinking again about what you have written
00 rewriting repeatedly until you are satisfied
000 understanding the process of writing
000 meeting the needs of your reader
How important do you think the following are when writing academic texts? (Tick (,/)
H for High importance, M for Medium importance, L for Low importance.)
H M L
000 grammatical correctness
00 spelling and punctuation (using full stops and commas, etc.)
o 0 an appropriate style
000 overall organisation
000 vocabulary
000 good ideas
000 good use of sources (appropriate citation, bibliography)
000 relevance of subject content
000 response to the task
mm • I.English foracademic study

- ~ -
In which of the following ways can you support your ideas when writing academic texts?
using personal anecdotes'
When persuading your tutors or other members of your academic community that your
argument is valid, how important are the following? (Tick (.I) H for High importance,
AA for Medium importance, L for Lowimportance.)
reasoning your argument logically from facts
explaining key terms
L AA H
I 11 11 I analysing questions
stating facts
Ill> 11> I using language appropriate to a particular subject area
I> 11> Ili I using other points of view to strengthen your argument or research
I> 11< II1 demonstrating the weaknesses of other people's arguments
I > 11 >11\ I acknowledging the limitation of your own argument or research
I> Ili> 11> I supporting your argument with examples
111\\ 11> I frequently summarising your argument
I> 11< 11> I referring to well-argued conclusions
presenting information clearly and precisely
using facts
1< I using statistics
I> I using examples
El using the news
El using information from books, articles, reports, the Internet
El using analogies"
using the views and attitudes of others
El using research data
• anecdote: a short, amusing account of something that hashappened
•• analogy: to make or draw an analogy between two things is to show they are alike
insome way
.. Which of the following contribute to successful academic writing?
El analysing questions and issuesclearly and precisely
El distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant material
El recognising key assumptions'
El identifying competing points of view
El demonstrating excellent reasoning and problem-solving abilities
El adopting a critical stance'·
El understanding the context for which you are writing
• assumption: if you make an assumption that something is true, you accept it is
true without anyreal proof or evidence
•• critical stance: to take a critical stanceis to have a strongviewpoint on something
afterexamining andjudging it carefully
Should you always think of academic writing as communicating with another person?
WhylWhy not?
What do you do or what do you concentrate on when you are given a writing task:
al while you are still writing your first draft?
bl when you have finished your first draft?
cl before you hand in your final draft?
____ English foracademic study
WriJing •
_ What type of academic writing have you done in the past?
What difficulties do you have with writing in English or in your own language?
The essay that you will prepare in this unit is on the following topic:
Whatarethe aims of academic study andhowcanthey be achieved?
Before you begin writing, you should spend some time:
Ij) thinking about exactly what the question is asking you to write about;
Ij) generating ideas about the topic; this is called brainstorming;
e organising your ideas into a plan.
Read Texts 1-1, 1-2 and 1-3 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 7-11, entitled
The influence of classsize on academic achievement and The Asian paradox, and identify
information which is relevant to the title of your essay.
L
11IIII Discuss with another student what you think are the key words in the essay question.
_ Now discuss what you think are the key words with the whole group and your teacher.
What do you do when you have difficulties?
Spend five minutes writing down all the ideas you can think of that are relevant to the
essay topic. Write notes, not complete sentences, so that your ideas flow. The order of
your ideas is not important at this stage.
_ Discuss your ideas with another student.
Decide which of your ideas you are going to use in your essay.
a) To help you, ask yourself these questions about your readers:
• What knowledge about academic study do they already have?
• What do you think they are interested in reading about in your essay?
b) When you have decided which ideas you are going to include, organise them into
a logical order in a plan. You may want to develop some of the ideas further and
you may want to add a new idea.
• Group together ideas which seem to belong to the same paragraph.
• Think carefully about the order in which you will arrange the paragraphs.
Discuss your ideas with the whole group and your teacher.
..
..
Do you enjoy academic writing? WhyNVhy not?
When you have finished the questionnaire, compare your answers with those of other people in
your group. Discuss your answers, and keep notes of the discussion. Do you find that you all have
very similar views and experiences? Or are your views and experiences very different? Are there any
general trends among students in the group?
Material adapted from CAlS pilot version of White, R.V., Writing English for Academic Study Series (1994), and
Richards, n.. Presenting critical thinking as a study strategy for UKhigher education (2001).
11III Discuss your plan with another student. When you look at your partner's plan, ask yourself:
Ij) What is the overall idea in the essay?
Ij) Does the plan follow a logical sequence of ideas?
\1il Are the ideas grouped effectively into paragraphs?
Ij) Is the main idea clear in each paragraph?
e How many paragraphs will the essay contain?
If the answers to these questions are not clear from looking at your partner's plan, ask him
or her to explain. Perhaps the plan needs to be changed or developed more.
I
) ,
• English for academic sludy Writing •
------------------
.- Think about your partner's comments on your plan and try to improve it.
_ Write the first draft of your essay.
.. When you have finished your first draft, find someone else who has also finished.
Exchange drafts.
Quickly write down what you think are the important points to include in an introduction
to an academic essay.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - _ . _ . _ ~ .•.•._ .._.-
---------•......~ ....•.. ------_.•...__..
._------ ..•~ . ~ .•.._- ---------_....•.~ •...~ . ~ •.
BIll Discuss your ideas with a partner. Say why you have chosen these points.
... Discuss your ideas with the rest of the class.
... Answer the following questions:
a) What function or purpose does the introduction of an essay have?
Read your partner's draft carefully. Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation
Sheet for Unit 1 on page 64 of this book.
When commenting on your partner's draft, remember that constructive criticism is more
helpful when giving advice. The phrases below for making polite suggestions should help
you to express your comments in a constructive manner.
. ...~ . ~ _ .._.••..._--------------
_.•_•....~ - - - - - -
- ~ - _ .•.•..•.._-----------------------
--..~ •...- ..._--------_._--------
_ ..~ . _ ...•_•._ - - - - - - - - - ~
b) What should an introduction contain?
Summary: Fromyour discussion, you will have found that introductions to academic essays
can have a variety of patterns depending on: the length of the essay, the topic of the essay,
the purpose of the essay and the conventions of the subject specialists (or discourse community).
However, there are certain core elements in an introduction for an academic essay that you
may find useful to adopt during the ore-sessional course, while you are developing your
awareness of the different possible patterns. Thesecore elements are commonly taught
as being appropriate for academic writing in western-based cultures.
--_.._•.•...-------------------
e It might be a good idea if you ...
~ It might be a good idea to ...
@> I agree with you, but you could ...
@> Right, but you could ...
e This is/That's good, but you could ...
@ My advice would be to ...
@> Do you think a better approach might be to ... ?
@ Why don't you ... ?
<Ill How about this?
@ Perhaps you could ...
@ Maybe it would be better to ...
@ I think it would be better if you ...
e Can I/May I make another suggestion?
e I would recommend that you ...
@ Have you thought about (verb + ing) ... ?
@ What about ... ?
Remember: Peer feedback should be supportive and helpful - constructive criticism.
• English for academic sludy
____wrilin
g
.L-_-,-__
Look at the following sentences from an introduction to an essay on Theproblems
of population growth.
al Decide which would be the most logical order of these sentences:
~ This growth has created many problems, especially in the capital cities.
~ This essay will discuss the situation that has led to the development
of these problems and describe some of them.
e The population of the world has been growing rapidly over the
last thirty years.
e It will then suggest some possible solutions to the problems and
evaluate their viability.
e The problems include housing, pollution, unemployment, and
food and water shortages.
bl Comparewhat you think with a classmate, and alsosay why you decided on the order you did.
cl Together with your classmate, try to identify an obvious pattern to the introduction
and decide what the function of each sentence is.
Read carefully the following five introductions for an essay entitled Academic success in
one's own culture and try to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses.
o There are different programmes for education in different countries.
Every country has a special education system that is adapted to each
country. In Iran, the education system is organised from primary school
until university. This essay is about the academic success in Iran.
~ Academic success is one of the most important goals of many students
in Thailand. There are some relevant factors to obtain this goal. In
Thailand, if you can enter the university it means that you succeed in
your life. Every year, most final-year students try to enter the university;
however, some students prefer to study in small colleges. This essay
will describe some factors that are closely related to academic success
in Thailand.
~ Everybody wishes to achieve success in society. 'Success' in Chinese
society is not only for one's own honour, but also the whole family's.
Furthermore, for most Chinese students, in the first stage, our
academic success might be that required to gain a good score and
enter a higher school to study. In the second stage, it might be that
needed for a student to find a good job or contribute to specific
academic fields. It could be called 'academic success'. In addition, our
education system and concept of traditional culture always affects our
students' success. Therefore, this essay will describe academic success
in Taiwan and indicate the related factors.
o Education is one of the basic factors contributirig to the development
of a society. The educated or literate people could realise their potential
livelihood. By introducing education into Africa, the people may
improve their cultural attitudes. This essay will describe the education
system in Africa.
e What is academic success in our country? Many factors to describe it
can be found. As this topic mentioned, its importance depends on the
following: intelligence, teaching methods, the policy of the government,
.
the system of education, support system and facilities. At first, I would
like to define the meaning, before answering this question. When this
question - what kind of fact is regarded as academic success in Japan -
is asked, most Japanese will answer that it is to graduate from a high-
grade university. There is a good reason to say so. In Japanese society,
there is the fact that an academic career decides a students' future life.
If they obtain a high grade in their school career, probably it will mean
success in their future. After graduating, most of them will be able to
enter a prestigious company. Generally, this is a useful occupation and
its conditions are good. Therefore, many people take much time to
prepare for passing school examinations. Some children have to study
hard before they attain the school age. Under these circumstances, it
seems that they forget the meaning of studying subjects. This essay
mentions motivation to study and tries to clear up the meaning of
academic success in our culture.
• English for ocodemic slucJy
The essay that youwill prepare in this unit is on the following topic:
Nurture strongly influences earlyhumandevelopment. Discuss.
arly
... Imagine that you are writing an essay on the following three topics. Write a suitable
introduction for each one of them.
Note: You are not going to write the whole essay.
al The education system in one's own country.
bl Travelling broadens the mind. Discuss.
cl The rapid development of electronic communications may mean that people will
have fewer social skills. Discuss.
When you write the second draft of your essay What are the aimsof academic study
and how can they be achieved? make appropriate changes to the introduction, and
other parts, according to your peer feedback session.
This unit will help you to develop the following skills:
making decisions about what the essay title is asking you to write about;
making decisions about the most appropriate way of organising your ideas;
making decisions about what information in a text is useful to support your ideas;
incorporating that information in your own writing;
effectively introducing your reader to the main idea in each paragraph
by writing paragraph leaders.
Task 1: Microskills: Organising your ideas
[1 1.1 Some words in essay titles are more important than others, because they contain the main ideas
of the topic. These words can be called keywords, because they generate the main ideas that
you need to include in your essay and, to a certain extent, control the content of your essay.
Which are the keywords in the essay title for this unit?
Why do you think they are the keywords?
1.2 Discuss your ideas with another student.
1.3 Spend five minutes writing down all the ideas you can think of that may be relevant to
this essay. Remember you do not need to write complete sentences.
1.4 Discuss your ideas with two other students. Together, decide which ideas are particularly
relevant to the topic and the best ones to use in your essay.
.. English for academicstudy
b
Which of the following do you think the essay is asking you to do?
al Explain all the influences on early human development to your reader.
bl Persuadeyour reader that one kind of influence is the strongest.
cl Write a historical description of all theories concerning early human development.
dl Explain to your reader that research has shown there are different influences on
early human development, and persuade him/her that one of these influences is
stronger than the others.
Discuss your choice with one or two other students and explain why you made that choice.
Discuss your ideas with the rest of the class.
What would be an appropriate way to organise your ideas for this type of essay? Why?
Discuss possible ways to organise your ideas with one or two other students.
Read Texts 2-1, 2-2 and 2-3 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 12-15, entitled
Early human development. What ideas and information from the texts could help you to
develop your own ideas and provide academic evidence to support your argument?
Discuss your decisions with a partner.
Organise your ideas into a logical order in a plan which clearly shows the structure of your
essay. Remember that time spent planning now can save you time later, when you are
actually writing.
Group together ideas which seem to belong to the same paragraph.
Give enough information to show how you will support your ideas.
Think carefully about the order in which you will arrange the paragraphs.
Read another student's plan and answer the following questions about his/her plan:
What is the overall idea in the essay?
Is it obvious from the section on the introduction what the writer's thesis is?
Does the plan follow a logical sequence of ideas?
Are the ideas grouped effectively into paragraphs?
Is the main idea clear in each paragraph?
How many paragraphs will the essay contain?
If the answers to these questions are not clear from looking at your partner's plan, ask
him or her to explain. Perhaps the plan needs to be changed or developed further.
Consider your partner's comments on your plan and try to improve it.
Write the first draft of your essay.
When you have finished your first draft, find someone else who has also finished.
Exchange drafts.
Read your partner's draft carefully. Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation
Sheet for Unit 2 on page 65 of this book.
Look at the following sentences from the text Early human development again (Reading and
Writing Source Book pages 12-15) and underline the key (important) ideas:
al Motor development after birth also illustrates the interaction between genetically
programmed maturation and environmental influence. (paragraph F, page 13)
bl Although early studies suggested that the answer was no (McGraw, 1935/1975;
Dennis & Dennis, 1940; Gesell & Thompson, 1929), more recent studies indicate that
practice or extra stimulation can accelerate the appearance of motor behaviours to
some extent. (paragraph G, page 13)
cl The development of speech provides another example of the interaction between
genetically determined characteristics and experience. (paragraph H, page 13)
Discuss your ideas with another student and together decide what information you might
expect to follow each of the above sentences.
Discuss your ideas with the whole class.
These sentences are the first ones in paragraphs F, G and H. Look at these three paragraphs
in the text and see if you were right about what information might follow the sentences.
What function do these sentences have within the paragraphs?
Discuss your ideas with another student.
The first sentences in paragraphs can be called paragraph leaders. Paragraph leaders can have
a number of functions within the paragraph, but in this unit you are going to focus on the
function of anticipating and directing the ideas that follow. (This type of paragraph leader
is often called a topic semence.s This type of paragraph leader is one of the most important
sentences in the whole paragraph, as it explains the main idea of the paragraph, It helps the
reader to understand the focus and direction of the paragraph.
Imagine you are going to write a paragraph on 'the use of e-mail in companies'. Which of
the following sentences would make a suitable paragraph leader?
al E-mail is useful in the office.
bl One of the most useful functions of e-mail is to communicate efficiently with
colleagues abroad.
cl There are many uses made of e-mail in the office environment; each of these has
attached to it both advantages and disadvantages.
English for academic: stucv
Discuss your answer with another student and give reasons for your choice.
Imagine you are going to write a paragraph on the benefits for international students of
studying in an English university. Which of the following sentenceswould make a suitable
paragraph leader?
al Studying in an English university is useful for many reasons.
bl Studying in an English university provides students with a number of benefits.
cl International students prefer to study in England.
Discuss your answer with another student and give reasons for your choice.
The paragraph leaders of the following paragraphs have been removed. Read the
paragraphs and write a suitable paragraph leader for each one.
Since English has become the most widely used international language in
most fields, many employers require their employees to have a high level
of English. It is especially useful for those in academic posts, as so many
academic papers are published in English. Those working in financial
markets also need English in order to be able to talk to their English-
speaking clients and to work effectively in the international market. Other
fields for which it is useful to know English include business, commerce
and diplomacy. Thus, one of the advantages of being competent in the
English language is that there is a wider range of career opportunities.
When you write an essay in an examination:
al What is the first thing that you do?
bl What is the second thing that you do?
Discuss your ideas with another student.
cl What are the next stages that you go through?
Write down three differences between writing in an examination and writing a
course assignment.
The first option of building more roads needs to be examined very
carefully, as one of the possible effects of further construction is an
increase in the volume of traffic, which happened when the motorway
around London was built. The second option, that of limiting the number
of cars on the road at one time, will not meet with the approval of the
general public. The third option, that of providing a more extensive, more
efficient and cheaper transport system, seems to bethe most viable one.
It would encourage people to leave their cars at home, as they would
benefit more from using public transport. So the third option should be
examined in more detail in order to establish a new system.
Make appropriate changes to your essay for Unit 2, considering the work on paragraph leaders
that you have developed in Task 2.
Discuss your ideas with another student.
At the beginning of the unit, you read that this unit would help you develop five specific skills.
Look back and decide at what stage in the unit you practised these.
English for ccodeuuc ';lue1y
- - - - - - - ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Tick the appropriate boxes in the following table to show which stages in the processof
writing academic essays apply to examinations, and which apply to course assignments.
Stage inthe process
Writing essays in Course
examinations assignments
Analysing the title
Brainstorming ideas
Organising your ideas/plan
Self-evaluation
Peer evaluation
Writing a first draft
Self-evaluation
Peer evaluation
Revising your draft
Writing a second draft
Teacher evaluation/feedback
Evaluation of teacher feedback
Revising your second draft
Writing a third draft
Writing a final draft
.
Discuss your views with another student.
As you will have seen, writing essays in examinations is similar to writing course assignments
in a number of ways, but different in other ways. The main difference is the time constraint,
which means that you do not have time to completely revise your essay in a second draft.
However, you should always leave five or ten minutes at the end of the examination to check
your work for spelling and grammar mistakes, and also for adding any information you may
wish to include to improve your answer. Despite the time constraint, it is still important that
you spend time:
@ analysing the title for the key words and to seewhat the essay is asking you to do
(two or three minutes should be enough). The words have been chosen very carefully
by the examiners to get the appropriate answer;
@ brainstorming your ideas (three minutes should be enough);
@ organising your ideas into a plan (five minutes should be enough).
Remember: As you do not havetime to write more than one draft of your essay, it is important
to have a good plan which can guide you in the structure and direction of your argument.
Read the following essay questions from past examination questions of the University of
Reading and decide what they are asking you to do (for example, do you have to describe
a process, compare two viewpoints?)
Food Science
1 a) What properties of microorganisms lead to their being major causes of
food spoilage? (7 marks)
b) Explain what you mean by food spoilage and describe the mechanisms by
which microbes cause food spoilage. (7 marks)
c) How, in practice, may microbial food spoilage be reduced or prevented? (6 m"ks)
Animals inAgriculture
2 Discuss reasons why keeping livestock may be particularly important to the
welfare of the poorest people of developing countries.
3 Define what is meant by "breed" in domestic animals. Genetic change in
a population may be achieved by breed substitution, crossbreeding and
within-breed selection. Define these terms, giving examples.
4 Compare and contrast the characteristics of typical feed resources for ruminant
and non-ruminant livestock. Bearing in mind these different feed resources, why
does current thinking predict a major expansion for non-ruminant animals in the
next 20 years?
Politics of the International Political Economy
5 'Freetrade is essential for international economic growth.' Discuss.
6 'International aid is the key to global development.' Discuss.
7 Does the prevailing structure of north-south relations prevent the effective
development of the less-developed countries?
Advanced Software Engineering
8 01 Software Quality Systems usually contain quality control, quality assurance
and quality management components. Give a brief explanation of the need
for these three components and examples of their usage. (10 marks)
bl Discuss the role and importance of software inspection for quality systems. (5 marks)
cl Explain how 'quality standards' relate to Software Quality Systems. (10 marks)
Horticulture
9 What techniques can be used to minimise the wastage of irrigation water
in horticultural production?
Animal Sciences
10 Write an essay entitled: 'Ecological implications of global warming'.
Environmental Hydrogeology
11 Describe the problems that subsurface drainage from impermeable surfaces
may pose to groundwater, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
using such drainage.
Discuss your ideas with another student.
• English foracademic sludy
Look at the following essay title and decide:
a) what the key ideas are;
b) what the question is asking you to do.
With the development of extended, quicker and more efficient services
of 3G (third-generation) mobile telephones, their importance in society
continues to rise.
Describe the developments in mobile telephone services, and explain
the impact of this phenomenon on society in your country.
account
analyse
apply(to)
comment (on)
a) e.g. give an account of/a brief account of - describe
b) e.g. account for - give the reasons for
consider very carefully/examine to find out what something consists of
put something to use, show how something (e.g. a theory, certain findings,
data, research results) can be used in a particular situation
give your views on something, say what you think about something. It is often
used with a quotation, with which you should agree or disagree
Discuss your ideas with another student.
compare
consider
describe the main aspects of two or more things to show their similarities
describe and say what you think about something
Brainstorm your ideas on this topic. To stimulate your thoughts further on this topic,
read the articles from The Economist entitled Ring in the new and Beyond the bubble
(Texts 3b-l and 3b-2 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 21-26).
contrast
define
describe the main aspects of two or more things to show their differences
give an explanation of the meaning of a term
Organise your ideas into a plan. describe give an explanation of something in detail (what it is like, how it works, etc.)
Adapted from wellace, Mol. 09S0}, Study Skills in English. C.U.P. and aralne, G. and May, C. (1996), Writing from Sources. Mayfield
Write your essay.
@ Read the question very carefuily. Underline key terminology; this will help you understand
the type of answer required.
(ll Brainstorm the topic; quickly write down every idea you have that could be relevant to
the question.
(ll Read the question again to check you haven't forgotten anything. Evaluate your ideas,
crossing out irrelevant ones.
(ll Organise relevant ideas in a plan.
(ll Write your answer, starting with a very brief introduction which contains a thesis
statement that responds to the question and anticipates the main ideasof youranswer.
(l) Divide your essay into paragraphs, each beginning with an appropriate paragraph leader
which is linked to the main idea in your paragraph.
e Support your leading sentences with details and examples.
® Use linking words to guide the reader through the essay.
III leave five to ten minutes at the end to reread your essay to check the clarity of your ideas,
and your spelling and language.
• English loracademic study
discuss
evaluate
explain
identify
illustrate
outline
prove
relate
summarize
support
state
write in detail about all the different aspects of an issue or statement. including
reasons for a particular viewpoint (give your own viewpoint or evidence that
you have thought about a topic)
write about something in detail from the point of view of its strengths and
weaknesses, advantages and disadvantages, and importance
write to express the issue or idea clearly; a) explain why - give the reason for,
cause of something, b) explain how - describe (a process) clearly
describe items that belong to a particular group/category
include many examples
give the main ideas
show that something is true
show the connection between two or more things
write the main points of a topic
give evidence to strengthen your point
say clearly
Read Texts 4-1, 4-2 and 4-3 in the Reading and Writing Source Bookpages 27-35, entitled
Statistics without tears, in order to develop further ideas for your essay, This essay is asking you
to consider the different ways that statistical data can be interpreted and analysed, Different
people can look at the samestatisticsand make completely different statements about them
Read the two articles below, adapted from The Economist, and decide what the main
focus of each article is,
Article 1: Crime in Britain
From economistcom, June 20"', 2002
making decisions about what the essay title is asking you to write about;
making decisions about organising your ideas;
making decisions about what information in a text is useful to support your ideas;
incorporating that information in your own writing;
effectively ending a paragraph with a concluding sentence;
"J effectively ending an essay with a conclusion,
Labour was elected in 1997 thanks, in part, to Tony Blair's claim that the
party would be "tough on crime and tough on the causes of crime." But
in 2000 Jack Straw, then Britain's home secretary, admitted that crime was
rising. The government responded by investing more money in fighting
crime, which appeared at first to work: at the 2001 election, official figures
showed crime was down. Yet violent crime - driven in part by the fad for
pinching mobile phones - has rocketed.
ilYAi"!'lliFie;>; 2: Don't panic
From The Economist, March 21", 2002
Bmain is not quite ClS
dClngerous Cl plece ClS the
home secretCli)! SCl\lS it is •.•
The Home Office estimates
that robbery will have risen by
29% in London in the year to
March 2002.. " The street-
crime statistics reinforce the
impression of anarchy created
by a string of muggings and
car-jackings. But the truth is
that overall levels of crime are falling: robbery, while distressing, represents
only a small fraction of the total. Over the last decade, the levels of car
theft and burglary have declined (see chart). Criminologists speculate that
improved home and vehicle security may have displaced some criminals on
to the streets: the ecology of crime may be becoming more like that in
some American cities, where robbery plays a proportionally bigger role
than it does in Britain.
Writing
Discuss possible ways to organise your ideas with one or two other students,
What would be an appropriate way to organise your ideas for this type of essay? Why?
What is this essay asking you to do?
' - - - ' - ' ~ " - " " - - - . - . - . - , - , , - ~ , , - - - - - - - ' " _ . _ ~ , - - - , - - - - ~ ~ ~ - - ~ - - ~ , , - - " ' - -
Discuss your ideas with one or two other students,
Spend five minutes writing down any ideas you have that are relevant to this essay,
Discuss your views with another student
What are the key ideas in the essay title?
English for academic study
AMide 2: Don't panic (cont.)
And the headline robbery statistics themselves may not be quite so
mortifying as they seem. There has indeed been a particular explosion
of robbery in the past year. But the longer-term trend is not necessariiy
evidence of a new plague of delinquency. As weil as the closing of
off-street opportunities, it reflects the advent of new on-street ones-
specifically the temptation of mobile phones.
Two down, one 10 go Robbery invoiving mobile phones is
Recorded crime', 1992-2001 growing faster than robbery overall;
(number of offences, 2001)
Robb'''!I'',68'} ,/ 180 robbery in which the phone is the
'''010''!1836,0271 l 160 only thing stolen is growing faster
......... Theft of or from airs (957,688) 0"
,/A, / 140 still. Home Office research suggests
,(// 120 that if all robberies involving phones
were disregarded, the overall figure
I '::
1992 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 extortionate bullying, of a kind
• 'racrs ending March from 1998, change in methodology 1999
Source Home 011,,, that previously would have gone
unreported. Of course, these are traumatic for the victims - but they
bear little relation to the ultra-violence that preoccupies the tabloids.
Copyright © 2002 The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group. AI! rights reserved.
With one or two other students, discuss in what situations, and by whom, statistics
are manipulated, so that the complete truth is hidden.
As you have discussed in 1.8, crime is one area in which statistics are used to present a
particular situation. They may, or may not, represent the true situation. In the following
extracts from The Times, what is the point that the journalists are trying to make?
It may be said that a survey shows that rapes are up. What it really means
is that more are reported, and given that more are reported, there must be
an increased number that have not.
its name
Crime is down, cheered the home secretary yesterday. Hurrah,
said Jack Straw. No, crime is up, replied his dark shadow, Ann
Widdecombe, in reply. No, crime is definitely down says the British
Crime Survey. No, it is up, reply the police. Crime is big politics. So
what is going on? Crime statistics are proof positive that, with a bit
of art, you can fool all the people all the time.
Only half the crimes which the public claim to have reported to the
police are recorded by them. The rest vanish. Ail car thefts are recorded,
because insurance requires it. But only a third of assaults came to
police attention, and only a quarter of those appear in police records.
fJJ Plainly any shift in the manner of reporting crime (by the public) or
recording it (by the police) can have a big effect on the police figures.
In the 1980s, when police numbers were rising, so did recorded crime.
When police numbers fell in the 1990s, so did recorded crime. Cynics
might even suggest a link ...
The Times: October 18, 2000
Discuss your ideas with one or two other students.
Can you think of situations in your own subject area when statistics on the same
subject are reported, but can suggest different viewpoints? Exchange your ideas
with two other students.
Now, including ideas of your own and ideas from the texts in the Writing Source Book,
organise your ideas into a logical order in a plan which clearly shows the structure
of your essay.
Read another student's plan and answer the following questions about his/her plan:
What is the overall idea in the essay?
Is it obvious from the section on the Introduction what the writer's thesis is?
Does the plan follow a logical sequence of ideas?
Are the ideas grouped effectively into paragraphs?
Is the main idea clear in each paragraph?
How many paragraphs will the essay contain?
If the answers to these questions are not clear from looking at your partner's plan, ask
him or her to explain. Perhaps the plan needs to be changed or developed more.
English for academicsludy
Consider your partner's comments on your plan and try to improve it.
Write.the first draft of your essay.
When you have finished your first draft, find someone else who has also finished.
Exchange drafts.
Read your partner's draft carefully. Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation
Sheet for Unit 4 on page 66 of this book.
Read the following paragraphs, adapted from Held, D. et aI., Global Transformations,
Polity Press (1999).
What function does the final sentence in each paragraph have?
Ii:!! The rapidity or velocity of migration can be assessed in two ways. First,
the movement of people across regions in given time periods can be
considered, assessing the length of time a mass migration takes from its
inception to its conclusion. Second, velocity in individual terms can be
considered - the amount of time it takes a migrant to get from his or her
original locale to a new host country. Clearly, changes in transportation
technology have made a major difference in this respect. (p. 284)
If!j) Trade in the sense of the exchange of goods and services between
people over distance has a long history. Great trading empires have
arisen periodically ever since regular long-distance travel became
possible. But international trade, the exchange of goods and services
between nations, by definition only emerged with the establishment of
the nation state. Trade has been entwined with the rise of the modern
state and its fortunes: states required revenues, above all to wage
military campaigns, and trade offered an obvious source of funds.
Identifying historical patterns of trade globalization is the primary
objective of this chapter, and this entails deploying the analytical
framework developed in the introduction. (p. 149)
'i!ll Rapid demographic growth is a key factor in explaining the increasing
immiseration of sub-Saharan Africa and processes of desertification and
soil decline. This has contributed to the growing economic problems of
the region and its mounting international debts. Thus environmental
problems in single African states have spilt over into the international
politics of banking. The resolution of these international issues has
involved political contests and struggles between Western governments
and their financial sectors. In the future, the demographic and
environmental squeeze on the South may contribute towards political
instability and outward migration, both of which will affect a widening
pool of other nations, internationally and domestically. (p. 379)
In the last twenty years, a series of technological and political changes
have transformed the televisual landscape and have contributed to the
globalization of television as a medium and as an industry. First and
foremost, the number of countries with broadcasting systems and
number of televisions available on which to watch their output has
steadily risen. From its Western core, television has spread in the
postwar years across Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, into Latin
America, Asia and Africa. Second, first within the West, but later in
other areas as well, the number of terrestrial channels has steadily
climbed. In part, this has been because governments have been
prepared to enlarge the funding base for television companies, for
there is clearly a limit to the numbers of channels and programmes that
can be funded by subsidy/licence fee alone. By allowing advertising
revenue and sponsorship into the television funding mix - be it through
public corporations taking advertising or wholly private stations - the
potential output and funding base of national TV has risen. However,
the expansion of output has rarely, if ever, been matched by a
corresponding increase in the capacity of national audiovisual
industries to supply all of the potential broadcast slots. Thus the
expansion of television output across and within countries has
fuelled the demand for television imports. (p. 357)
Discuss your ideas with another student.
English for academic sludy
Writing
In Unit 2, we saw how paragraph leaders, or topic sentences, can help your reader
understand the main idea in a paragraph more clearly. Similarly, a concluding sentence
can help the reader understand more clearly how you have developed the main idea
in a paragraph.
The concluding sentence in a paragraph can have a number of functions. Complete
the following box with some ideas of your own, and then discuss them with your teacher.
concluding sentence in a paragraph can:
Discuss with your class and teacher whether the concluding sentences in the paragraphs
in 2.1 have any of the above functions.
The concluding sentences from the following paragraphs from student essays have
been removed. Can you write a suitable one for each paragraph?
Global warming has had a number of negative effects on the environment.
Agricultural crops have been damaged; for example, last year's rice
production decreased, so many people are suffering from famine. Many
African countries, especially, have a much lower yield of agricultural
production. Furthermore, the sea levels are rising around the world, which
has led to the disappearance of many islands. Global warming can also
affect people's health, in particular, extremely hot temperatures can increase
the number of people who die on any given day. In hot weather the heart
needsto work harder, for example. It can also affect the immune system.
~ There are two major reasons for the declining quality in the teaching.
One problem is the pressure of the increasing population on the demand
for school places. This situation has placed excessive strain on the system
as it tries to meet these demands, and it has also led to a declining quality
in the teaching. As a result, although a large proportion of students may
enter the school system, only a small percentage proceed to high school
level, and an even smaller number finish high school. The other reason is
that teachers' salaries are low. Watson (1980) states that 'teachers in
Thailand remain ill paid'; until more money can be injected into teachers'
salaries, thereby attracting better staff, the quality of teaching will remain
low, and continue to be one of the causes of poor performance. ._..
The development of information technology has meant that many
businesses have been able to reduce their running costs. This revolution
has helped reduce the need for paper-handling operations and other
routine work. However, it has also enabled companies to dismantle
their main offices, and thus cut overhead costs, as many employees
can now work at home or in satellite offices, using computers and
telecommunication devices _._ _ _ ~ .._ _..~ _..~ ..~
The concluding sentence in a paragraph can:
summarise the main ideas of your paragraph;
restate the main topic;
make a conclusion from the information given in the paragraph;
predict the future;
suggest possible solutions;
link the ideas of the paragraph to the ideas of the following paragraph.
English Jor academic study
Wrillng
To conclude, it is important to stress that developing countries need help,
but it is difficult to decide which is the most effective and appropriate help
for any given situation. The countries which want to help are wise to
include local people in the early stages of planning an aid project, asthis
cooperation results in the continuity of the programme, and ongoing
interest in and maintenance of the project over a long period. Soa logical
outcome of viewing development aid as a right and not as a gift, is that
development cooperation should be based on a genuine partnership, with
programme ownership and implementation anchored in the developing
countries. However, in spite of all these possible solutions, it is the
responsibility of developing countries to choose the best way because
they know their own situation. They need only to be shown the direction
in which to go in order to solve their problems, and then they will be able
to achieve their goal.
. ~ - _ .. _..~ ~ .. ---
- ~ . ~ ... - - - - ~
Discuss your ideas with another student
What is the function of a conclusion or concluding paragraph?
Read the following conclusions to an essay with the title Is It better to help
developing countries to help themselves than to give them food and machinery?
Identify the function(s) of these paragraphs.
To conclude, searching for an ideal world is the main thought that
occupies the minds of most people in developing countries, because
they are living in such a difficult situation compared with the developed
countries. These people know that it would not be an impossible
achievement, if there were no debts and no unfair constitutions with
no interference in their internal problems. They consider that there will
be a day when money and power will not be considered the most
important aspects of life.
® In conclusion, it seems that the roots of the current crisis from which
the third world suffers are centuries old, as some of them date from
the nineteenth century and are directly linked to colonialism. In spite
of all the efforts that have already been made in the economic and
social fields, the problems still exist, and if no action is taken within
the next few years, the situation will inevitably deteriorate, and even
affect the interests of the developed countries, as they will lose the
extensive markets that the developing countries represent.
The conclusion should signal to your readers that you have finished your writing and should
leave them with the clear impression that the purposes of the essay have been achieved.
The most common types of conclusions may include:
@I It seems that in countries with misguided policies, where conventional
aid is known to fail, those who want to help should concentrate not
on lending money, but on the policy of education. They should advise
the governments and help to provide different kinds of training; they
should act as vehicles for transferring knowledge. Other types of aid
are not useful, as they often support the ineffective economic policies
of a government, increase a country's dependence on aid source, and
contribute to a waste of money on projects that are not viable. In some
cases the consequences of such aid are not prosperity and economic
development, but stagnation and an increase in poverty. Before giving
financial aid or machinery, the people should be educated in how best
to use them, which is the most useful contribution developed countries
can make to developing countries.
a summary of the main points (being careful not to repeat exactlywhat you have written before);
concluding statements drawn from the points made in the main body;
recommendations of action to be taken, or suggestions;
predictions formed from information in the main body;
solution(s) to a problem or problems described in the main body
It should not include any new important ideas. These ideas should have already been
discussed in the main body. Just as an effective introduction progresses from a general statement
to a specific thesis statement, so an effective conclusion might progress from a specific statement
to a general statement.
English for academic study Writing
-
Writing 11
You are a pre-sessional student writing for a
non-specialist readership.
You are a sociologist writing a first-year undergraduate
textbook.
You are a pre-sessional student writing an essay on
Which form or forms of education contribute to the
social and economic development of a society?
You are a university lecturer writing an article on the
impact of economic globalisation on developing countries
for an international relations journal.
c) migralion
writing clear definitions;
supporting and developing your ideas.
How suitable is the following as a definition of a teacher? WhylWhy not?
Ateacher isa person who teaches.
Here is a list of words and a context. Which of these words do you think you need
to define? Why?
a) gene You are a genetic engineer writing an article for
a biotechnology journal.
When do you need to define a word, or some terminology, in academic life?
Discuss your ideas with another student.
Discuss your ideas with another student.
b) nurture
e) globalisalion
d) educalion
Read Texts 5-1 to 5-4 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 36-43, entitled Human activity
& climate change, and identify information which is relevant to the title of your essay.
You will now practise some useful skills which you can incorporate in the first draft of your essay.
However, as most people recognise, many developed countries use
international organisations as a curtain to achieve their purposes, as by
far the biggest beneficiaries of tobacco production are the developed
countries, which gain $100 billion a year from taxes on tobacco.
To conclude, it is known that there are so many possible solutions to
tobacco consumption's problems that it would be impossible to
consider them in an essay of this length.
On the other hand, they often respond to tobacco problems by
suggesting alternatives that benefit their interests, but not those of
the developing countries, as discussed in this paper, and they use
international organisations to introduce them.
However, more should be done to ensure further improvement and
participation of those bodies in the development process, for instance
the cancellation of tuition fees, or at least a reduction.
To conclude, it seems that the universities and higher education
establishments have been of widespread importance in the
improvement and developments realised in modern societies.
This is why a consideration of this situation should lead to a ban on
tobacco consumption being introduced, resulting in fewer casualties.
However, there are many who believe that, despite repeated efforts to
instigate change, the present situation will remain indefinitely.
In that sense, the educational level is more likely to be improved
and more efficient.
Now look at the conclusion of your essay on statistics and revise it, according to the
tasks that you have completed in this unit.
How would you rearrange the following sentences to form a more effective conclusion?
The following sentences form the conclusion to an essay about the benefits of higher education.
How would you rearrange the following sentences to form a more effective conclusion?
Engiish tor ocodemrc S l u d ~ i
1
+ verb
3
+ who/which
that/where
2
The three elements that make up a formal definition can be put in a different order to
give a naming definition.
You are a journalist writing an article for a quality newspaper.
You are a geography lecturer writing a university textbook
about the changing climate in Central Africa.
You are an English-language teacher writing a book on
How to read efficiently.
h) skimming
Discuss your ideas with another student.
f) parlicle physics
g) deserlification
Choose four of the words in 1.4 and write a definition of them.
As you will have discussed, the amount and nature of the information
that a writer gives in a definition will depend on:
@ whether the concept is considered to be new for the readers;
e how much knowledge of the concept it is thought the readers
will already have.
In a naming definition, the verb is passive, e.g. may be called or may be named.
For example:
A geometric figure which has three straight sides and three angles may be ca/led a triangle.
In 1.8 you wrote three formal definitions. Now write three naming definitions for
the same words.
Note: In formal definitions, the special features are emphasised, while in a naming definition
it is the name of the thing being defined that is emphasised.
Are the following definitions formal or naming definitions?
How could you rewrite the following definitions to make them more honest?
aJ Globalisation is the intensification of economic, political, social and cultural
relations across borders.
b) The developing countries are those countries which were previously colonised.
c) Subsistence farming is when rural communities have grown their own food.
o The period after independence is sometimes called neo-colonialism - the
continuation of colonial exploitation without formal political control. This
concept also covers the relationship of the third world with the United
States, which (with a few exceptions) was not a formal colonizer in the
first place, And it covers the North-South international relations of Latin
American states that have been independent for almost two centuries.
The definitions given in 1.7 are known as formal definitions. This means that they follow
a particular pattern of sentence structure.
1 2 3
e Biodiversity is the tremendous diversity of plant and animal species making
up the Earth's (global, regional and local) ecosystems.
+ verb
+ who/which
that/where
e The massive transfer of agricultural technology coordinated through
international agencies is called the green revolution.
Note: If you use an expression like may be defined as or can be defined as instead of the verb
to be, you are being more honest and accepting that there can be alternative definitions.
For example:
A triangle may be defined as a geometric figure which hasthree straight sides and three angles.
Write a formal definition for the following words:
~ r e television dictionary
e Refugees are people fleeing to find refuge from war, natural disaster
or political persecution.
(Goldstein ],5., International Relations New York, Harper Collins (1996) pp. 484, 434, 531, 496)
Find two definitions in the reading text in the Reading and Writing Source Book page 37.
Are they formal or naming definitions?
• English for academicSludy Wriling
...
How has the following definition of psychology been extended and how do you expect
the writer to continue?
What are some of the ways a definition can be extended?
How have the definitions in the following paragraphs been extended?
o Technological transfer refers to a third-world state's acquisition of
technology (knowledge, skills, methods, designs, specialized equipment,
and so on) from foreign sources, usually in conjunction with direct
foreign investment or similar business operations. For example, a third
world state may allow an MNC to produce certain goods in the country
under favorable conditions, provided the MNC shares knowledge of the
technology and design behind the product. The state may try to get its
own citizens into the management and professional workforce of
factories or facilities created by foreign investment. In this way not only
does physical capital accumulate in the country, so does the related
technological base for further development. However, MNCs are
sometimes reluctant to share proprietary technology.
(Goldstein p. 5311 (MNC=multi national corporation)
Psychology may be defined as the sciencethat studies the behaviour of man
and other animals. For this definition to be useful, it is necessary to specify
more clearly what psychologists mean by behaviour. An idea of the meaning
of behaviour can be gained if the topics covered by psychology are examined:
the behaving organism, growth and development, motivation and emotion,
perception, learning and thinking, individuality and personality, conflict,
adjustment and mental health and social aspects of psychology. The behaving
organism is important because, as a science rooted in biology, psychology is
interested in the bodily processes that make activity possible ...
(Buzan, T., Speed Reading USA, David and Charles (1971))
Now write an extended definition of your subject.
You are probably aware of how important it is to support the idea(s) expressed in your topic
sentence with examples and details. In this task you will look at ways of doing this.
e In the field of International Relations governmental loans are funds given
to help in economic development, which must be repaid in the future
out of the surplus generated by the development process ... unlike
commercial loans, government-to-government development loans are
often on subsidized terms, with long repayment times and low interest
rates. Although still an obligation for the recipient country, such loans
are relatively easy to service and thus do not hold back the country's
accumulation of surplus in the short term.
(Goldstein p. 541)
If you are in an academic environment with other students who are goingto study a
different subject to yours, you may find that you need to explain your subject to them.
You would find it useful to define your subject. Read the following definitions.
a) Anthropology may be defined as a branch of both science and sociology in which
people, society and culture are studied.
b) Physics may be defined as a branch of science in which forces such as heat, light, sound,
pressure, gravity and electricity, and the way that they affect objects are studied.
What definitions do you think would be useful to use in your essay on climate change?
Write those definitions.
The following paragraphs come from student essays entitled Is it beneficial or detrimental
to a country to have more than one ethnic group? Read them and then decide whether
you are satisfied that you have completely understood the writer'S idea(s).
a) If so, why? b) If not, why not?
o After the Meiji Revolution, a revolution of democracy, every Japanese
citizen is considered equal, as there is supposed to be no class system
now in Japan. The people called 'burakumin' are the offspring of the
former cattle slaughterers, tanners and grave diggers, jobs which are
considered as impure, bad and dirty. Discrimination towards them exists
and most of them are unemployed. Unemployment is not the only
problem; intermarriage with other ethnic groups is seen to be undesirable.
11 English tor academic sludy Writing 11
$ A country's power structure seems to be linked with its multi-ethnic
struggle, because nowadays a multi-ethnic structure in a country seems
to create racism, For instance, in Turkey, the ethnic group of the Kurds
continues its conflict over their sovereignty with the Turkish, Iranian and
Iraqi governments, which are ruling by military force, Each ethnic group
has its own culture, such as language, traditional lifestyle and social
discipline; however, a country's policy naturally tends towards offering
maximum benefit to the majority groups, Thus, a minority group like the
Kurds feel that their rights have been infringed, Considering this aspect,
a multi-ethnic structure in a country can be said to be detrimental,
Discuss your ideas with another student
There are different ways of supporting a main point. In the following paragraphs,
how have the writers illustrated/supported their main points?
$ In the last twenty years, a series of technological and political changes
have transformed the televisual landscape and have contributed to the
globalization of television as a medium and as an industry, First and
foremost, the number of countries with broadcasting systems and the
number of televisions available on which to watch their output has
steadily risen, From its Western core, television has spread in the postwar
years across Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, into Latin America,
Asia and Africa, Second, within the West, but later in other areas as well,
the number of terrestrial channels has steadily climbed, In part, this has
been because governments have been prepared to enlarge the funding
base for television companies, for there is clearly a limit to the numbers
of channels and programmes that can be funded by subsidy/licence fee
alone. By allowing advertising revenue and sponsorship into the television
funding mix - be it through public corporations taking advertising or
wholly private stations - the potential output and funding base of
national television has risen. However, the expansion Of output has rarely,
if ever, been matched by a corresponding increase in the capacity of
national audiovisual industries to supply all of the potential broadcast
slots. Thus the expansion of television output across and within countries
has fuelled the demand for television imports.
(Held, D. et al., Global Transformations, Polity Press(1999»
$ Indonesia has a population of approximately 200 million, among which
there are many ethnic groups, According to the research of Smith and
Wallis (1996), Indonesia has 365 ethnic groups, of which four are major
groups, They are Javanese (about 45%), Sundanese (about 14%),
Madurese (7.5%) and Malay (7.5%). The other ethnic groups make up
about 26%. The main group, the Javanese, do not only live on Java
Island, but are spread among other islands. Thissituation has been
caused by the government's 1977 emigration programme by which many
Javanese left Java to live on other islands, such as Sumatra, Kalimantan
and lrian Jaya. They found jobs mainly in government positions or as
business entrepreneurs in all the main cities of Indonesia. Thus, as the
majority group in each city, the Javanese became very influential.
Discuss with another student the different ways you can support and develop your ideas.
Read the following sentences from 2.1 e and 2.3 e. Do they contain a statement
of fact or opinion?
A country's power structure seems to be linked with its multi-ethnic struggle, because
nowadays a multi-ethnic structure ina country seems to create racism.
Indonesia hasa population of approximately 200 million, amongwhich there are
manyethnic groups.
As you have seen, you can use examples, figures or statistics to add support to and
develop an idea, whether it is fact or opinion, You may also have studied how you can
use direct and indirect quotations to support your writing. It is important to develop
your ideas in these ways, so that the reader can understand fully and can follow
your line of argument.
Supporting with examples. What expressions can introduce an example into your writing?
- ---- -- -- - - - - - - - - - - - - . - - - - - - - - - - - ~
.---.---_.__ ._.- ...- ._- --------_.-.-------------------
-------_•.._ . ~ . -
Complete the following texts using one of the expressions that your teacher has given
you, Do not use an expression more than once. There is one expression which you
will not use.
G Nowadays, tobacco is grown in more than a hundred countries, and it
is the chief product and commodity of exportation for many countries,
especially those in the global south; is in Africa,
where the crop is grown on millions of hectares and the industry
employs a large amount of the local manpower.
_ . : ~ ~ ~ _ ~ for acodemic study Writing.
6 In addition to the limitations on advertising and promotional campaigns,
some governments requiretobacco companies with significant sales to
develop national multimedia campaigns to educateyoung people about
the real health dangers associated with tobacco u s e . ~ ~ .... _
in the USA, a company had spent $150 million on such a campaign by 1999.
e Even though there are many reports that, on average, regular smokers
are more likely to develop lung and heart disease, tobacco is still being
produced in, and exported from, many countries..
In 1990, China produced 40% of the total world output of about
six million tons, the USA produced 223 thousand tons, Brazil produced
188 thousand tons and Italy produced 138 thousand tons.
e However, sometimes the fax machine and e-mail are used in a negative
way, the delivery of junk and abusive mailas it is
difficult to discover the sender.
e One advantage of having an open market is the fact that new
companies can enter the market. so the customer can have a wider
choice of product. There will also be more competition between the
companies to create the best product, thus eliminating low-quality
products from the market. is the
growing market for mobile phones in Colombia. Two companies
are trying to enter the market by offering free mobile phones.
Supporting with chronological markers. Read the followinq first sentence of a paragraph.
It is the paragraph leader. Continue the paragraph, supporting the idea in the paragraph
leader in an appropriate way.
The communications revolution has affected the lives of ordinary citizens in a
number of ways. . . ~ . ~ . ~ .. ~ _ ....__..
Supporting with statistical facts. Using the following statistics, write a paragraph which
develops the following topic sentence:
The weekly expenditure on travel and leisure of single moles and females is very different.
Weekly expenditure on travel and leisure in the United Kingdom by gender, 1999-2000
Men' Women'
£ per week £ per week
Motoring, fares and other travel costs 47.80 36.70
.
Alcohol and tobacco 2230 11.00
.. ..
TV, video, computers and audio" 1050 5.60
Clothing and footwear 9.10 14.20
Holidays 5.70 6.30
Books and magazines 3.00 2.80
Sports admissions and subscriptions 2.90 1.20
-----
Gambling 2.70 1.40
....
Toiletries and beauty products 1.80 5.80
Other leisure 4.30 5.60
All expenditure on travel and leisure 110.10 90.60
• households headed by a single non-retired person, aged 16 and over with no children
•• includes rental
Source: Family Expenditure Survey, Office for National Statistics (http://www.statistks.gov.uk/statbase!xsdataset.asp)
How could you improve the quality of your essay for this unit by incorporating definitions
and support for your ideas?
Now write the first draft of your essay.
When you have finished your first draft, find someone else who hasalso finished. Exchange drafts.
Read your partner's draft carefully. Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation
Sheet for Unit 5 on page 67 of this book.
t English lor aCCldemic study
writing.
The essay that youwill prepare in this unit ison the following topic:
Discuss thepositive ond negative effects of globolisation ontheworld todoy.
choosing appropriate patterns of organising the content of your essays;
incorporating ideas from your reading into your writing.
First you are going to look at possible ways of organising information for an essay which
examines cause and effect.
._w ' __ ' __ ' " __ ' __._' ~ ' " __" -.m""-""'"''-''''''',w" ",,
Task 1: Microskills: Organising essays of cause and effect
,- '--" . . " . ~ .
One common approach to problem-solving in academic life is to examine the causes and effects
of situations. When expressing these in writing, you need to use appropriate patterns of content
organisation, and appropriate language, which make the link between the cause and effect very
clear and explicit. You will explore some of these ways in this unit.
U Read the following student essay with the title Discussthe positive and negative effects of
tourism on people and the environment and decide what is the purpose of each paragraph.
@ Since the end of World War 11, the developed countries have made very
significant leaps in progress. Owing to this development, the populations
of these countries have seen their standards of living enhanced year after
year, until they have reached a situation in which most of the people are
living a healthy and comfortable life. Parallel to the rise in standards of
living, many people developed a strong desire to visit different parts of
the world, and hence foreign tourism was born. Nowadays, it is common
for people to take a holiday in a foreign country rather than in their own
native country. This essay will attempt to discuss the effects of tourism on
people and the environment.
English for ococeroic slUdy
@ Most people tend to take a holiday at least once a year; for some
people it is almost a duty. Due to the higher standard of living, people,
especially from the developed countries, do not hesitate to spend large
amounts of money on the pleasure of having a break far from their
permanent residence. Travel agencies and tourism companies have
capitalised on this trend; they display advertisements and attractive
pictures, and offer affordable prices with the aim of enticing more
people to travel the world on holiday. This has caused the number of
people who travel for their holidays to multiply many times over the
last few decades. In addition, holidaymakers tend to travel to tropical
and coastal towns where they can enjoy permanent sunshine, beaches
and extensive forest areas. Thus, it would seem that there is no part of
the world that has not been touched by tourism.
~ The millions of holidaymakers who travel the world looking for new
places have caused serious problems for the local population and for
the environment of the destination countries. In fact, due to the rising
numbers of tourists visiting developing countries, a certain proportion
of the local population has developed illegal activities. For instance,
the trade of ivory-made products has increased at the expense of
elephants, especially in the Ivory Coast and Kenya. Another example
is the trade in Siberian tiger furs which is threatening the species with
extinction. Above all, particularly in South Asia, the population suffers
from the rapid proliferation of prostitution, mainly due to the large
number of people operating sex tourism. Thailand, where minors
and young girls are occasionally sold by their parents, is a case in point.
@ Another harmful effect of tourism is the damage it causes to the
environment. In fact, owing to the large number of tourists visiting some
parts of the world, environmental damage has reached serious
proportions and natural resources have been degraded. An example of
this is the Mediterranean Sea, which is reported to be the dirtiest sea in
the world because of sewage contamination; German coasts have also
been polluted by effluent from the many cruising boats; in France, where
sewage is discharged directly into streams, most of those in the Pyrenees
are polluted. Above all, the dense aerial traffic created by the active
movement of holidaymakers hascaused an alarming rise in air pollution;
this gives rise to acid rain that, in turn, contaminates soils and causes
serious damage to forest areas. For example, 60% of the Alpine forests
in France are reported to be experiencing serious degradation. So it would
seem that mass tourism hascaused very serious problems for both the
people and the environment of the countries of destination.
Writing
-
An essay which involves an explanation of, and an analysis of, the causes and effects of
a situation can be developed in a number of ways. The two simplest ways are as follows:
al Which of these two structures is most similar to the one in the essay you have just read
in its pattern of organisation?
bl Discuss your answers with another student.
cl What arethe advantages and disadvantages of each pattern?
Introduction (which introduces thesituation to thereaderl
Causes
Causes
Causes
Evaluation
Conclusion
Transition paragraph
Effects
Effects
Effects
Introduction
Conclusion
Cause/Effect
Cause/Effect
Cause/Effect
Evaluation
the deterioration of sea water has already caused the extinction of
some sea species, and the world is losing a forest the size of Britain
every year. If nothing is done in the next few years, the worst possible
outcome is to be expected, and more destruction is likely to occur to
nature and humanity. The underlying causes of these problems require
more serious attention, and greater consideration should be paid to
the initiatives introduced to solve the problems.
Look again at the title and decide whether the writer has achieved the task. For example:
Are all the paragraphs necessary?
Are all the relevant points appropriately developed?
What other questions can you ask to evaluate the success of this essay?
This essay has provided an illustration of the problems generated by
mass tourism nowadays, outlined the laws and initiatives adopted by
governments and international non-governmental organisations to
abolish these problems, and evaluated the solutions. At present, a
variety of wild animals and flora is seriously threatened with extinction,
e The rising intensity of the threat that mass tourism represents has
prompted some governments and non-governmental organisations to act
swiftly. In fact, some governments have made considerable effortsto
sensitise their population to the threat that tourism represents to the
environment, socampaigns have been launched and money has been
spent to protect the environment and to counteract the environmental
damage that has been caused already. In France, for example, the
government spends billions of euros on ways to protect the national
nature reserves and tidy the beaches and mountain villages from tourist-
related waste. It is also engaged in creating tree plantations to replace
trees destroyed by acid rain. In York, in England, many residents wear anti-
tourist badges in protest against the increase in the number of tourists.
Access to many monuments, such as the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy
and the Parthenon in Athens, is extremely restricted. In addition, local
governments in Africa, with the help of non-governmental organisations
like Greenpeace, have declared war on the illegal trade of elephants' ivory
and the fur of wild animals that are currently menaced with extinction. It
therefore seems that significant efforts have been made in different parts
of the world where nature appears to bethreatened.
o The solutions that have been adopted by governments have not shown
much effectiveness or efficiency. Although governments have made serious
efforts to deal with the problems, sometimes by enacting strict newlaws,
mass tourism is still causing many problems, and the intensity of
degradation that has been registered in the environment has not declined.
Also, the traffic of ivory and rare animal furs has considerably increased,
and gangs are becoming more organised because of the potential profits
that can beobtained from this traffic. The strict laws do not seem to
dissuade the gangs from carrying out these illegal and destructive activities.
In addition, in spite of the huge efforts made bythe international courts
and the organisations for the protection and promotion of children's rights,
there are still hundreds of thousands of tourists who are reported to
practise sex tourism and to abuse poverty. In addition, there is a marked
deterioration in the behaviour of young people associated with tourism,
such as alcohol-related problems and violence, which governments have
been unable to prevent despite their efforts to do so.
English for academic s\udy
In paragraphs 1 and 2 there are some underlined expressions in italics. What purpose
do these expressions have within or between the sentences?
a) Find similar expressions with the same function in paragraphs 3, 4 and 5.
b) Do you know any more such expressions?
c) Compare your answers with another student.
Here are some useful expressions commonly used when expressing cause and effect:
A using cause as a noun
Write ten sentences, using some of the expressions discussed in 1.4 to connect
the ideas given.
Example: thirsty - drink water, Since I was thirsty, I drank a glass of water.
a) infected mosquitoes - malaria
The
direct
likely
major
main
cause of death was a serious bacterial infection.
b) rain - floods
c) globalisation - cultural convergence •.. .
The cause of the damage was not known.
Structure: The + +cause + of + noun + verb to be + ..__.. ....
using reason as a noun
d) fear - adrenalin ----_.._..•....._--- The Ifmatfin dlth' d Ireason for choosing a university is its academic reputation.
ns secon Ir
e) inflation .. unemployment
--_...
Students] key I reason for entering higher education isto improve
employment prospects.
Structure: The + + reason + for + ... __ ing + noun +
verb to be + __ ..._
f) arid climate .. irrigate fields
g) absenteeism .. Iow productivity
h) lack of plants - soil erosion
i) satellites .. mobile phones
j) high birth rate - overcrowding

.._.

Many young couples are not able to buy their own house.
The reason for this situation is the rising price of housing.
Structure: The + + reason + for + noun + verb '/-0 be + ... ... _
C using cause as a verb
may
Student loans can cause financial problems for some categories of graduates.
will
Falls in the Asian stock market may cause significant damage to markets in
the United States and Europe.
Structure: noun +(modal auxiliary verb) +cause + noun
English for ococenac study
-_.:.-_----------
Writing.
D using result as a verb
The rise in house prices has resulted in fewer young people buying
their first home.
Structure: Noun Phrdse +haS resulted + in + noun Phrdse
H using the first conditional
When there is a dense accumulation of pollutants in the air, people
often become ill.
When a reduction in the research funds available occurs, there is a decrease
in the number of medical research projects.
E using effect (noun) pattern 1
The effect of loan sales is an immediate improvement in the public finances.
The effect of greenhouse gases is to warmthe atmosphere.
Structure: The + +effect of noun +verb to be + __,.__,, _
F using effect (noun) pattern 2
Sirllcture: When + cause +effect
You are going to write an essay on the following topic:
Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalisation on the world today.
Quickly decide with another student what the question is asking you to do.
Loans may have a disincentive effect on the willingness of individuals
from low socio-economic groups to participate in higher education.
Sirllcture: notAr +(modal dlAXiliary verb) + have +a/an +(*tivel +effect +on+ .._--
Violence on television can have a(n)
of children.
substantial
adverse
strong
effect on the behaviour
Read Texts 6-1 to 6-6 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 44-55, entitled
The global Village. Then brainstorm ideas in order to develop further ideas for your essay,
considering the information you read in the text.
Decide which pattern of organisation is most appropriate for your essay. Organise your
ideas in a plan.
Exchange plans with another student and evaluate each other's plans.
Write your first draft.
G using affect (verb)
The increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere significantly affects some
of the continental scale patterns of climate change.
Adverse weather conditions can affed the psychological state of human beings.
I
adverb I
Sirllcture: noun + mod I '1' + affect<s) + noun phrase as direct
. a auXJ lary
Exchange drafts with another student and evaluate each other's drafts using Peer Evaluation
Sheet for Unit 6 on page 68 of this book.
Write your second draft.
Wrilin9
In this unit you will choose an essay to write based on the topic of either
globalisation or the rise of English as a world language.
This unit will help you develop the following skills:
choosing appropriate patterns of organising the content of your essays;
incorporating ideas from your reading into your writing.
Here is an example of this pattern in a short paragraph.
I am a foreign student /Mrg in Britain. I fird rt V€{y drffeuJt to rreet Britl5l,
students and 50carnJt make Britl5l, fnerds and practise my Erg/ish. I willjoin sore
uriversiIy clubs 50as to rreet 50rre students. This sJ.aJd help to Fd rre in contact
w'rI-h Britl5l, students. I sJ.aJd then be able to make fnerds and improve my Erg/ish.
Think of a situation that you are in, different to the one above, which has led to a problem.
Write a short paragraph which shows the situation and the problem, and suggests a solution
to the problem. Then state the implication(s) and evaluate them.
Read the following article about global migration. Thisarticle uses the pattern of organisation:
WrHinq.
-
The movement of populations across borders has increased to such an extent as to
produce a global migration crisis. As a result of this development, a number of ethical
issues have arisen, such as the proportion of ethnic groups within a country, the national
identity of a country, racism, the effect of a multicultural society and the distribution of
wealth. It is mainly the governments of the host countries that seek to solve these
problems by establishing language programmes, cultural exchange and awareness-raising
programmes and, where possible, employment opportunities. However, if this pattern of
migration continues, there needs to be more openness and willingness on behalf of the
native population to accept and receive migrants into their society, and to realise the
benefits that a multicultural society can bring. The implications of this suggestion are
wide, and not without problems: many older people are resistant to change, and the
working population are resistant to outside competition for employment opportunities.
There also needs to be a much higher level of cooperation between the host country
and the country of origin in order to establish a clear identity for the migrants.
It is obvious that any solution to the problems mentioned above will involve much
greater cooperation at the levels of citizens, ethnic groups and political bodies; it will
also take many years for any adjustment to take place. However, it is hoped that over
time and with greater understanding of the global picture and the possibility of a global
governing body that is fair to all global citizens, the problems resulting from the issues
of global migration will be minimised.
It is a very common way of organising ideas in academic writing and can be used for:
a paragraph;
a section of a longer document;
a complete article;
a complete book.
Another common approach to problem-solving in academic life is to examine the problems that
have arisen from a specific situation, suggest solutions to the problems, look at the. Implications
of the suggested solutions and evaluate these. When expressing this approach In writing, you need
to make choices as to the most appropriate way of organising the information In your writing and
the most appropriate language to use to express your ideas. You will explore these In this unit, and
will find it useful to use them in the essay you will write.
The following pattern of organisation is often found in texts which present problems and explore
what can be done about them:
Situation
Problem(s)
Solution(s)
Implication(s)
Evaluation/comment/assessing the implications
~ Task 1: Microskills: Organising essays: Situation,
; problem, solution, implications, evaluation
I£j
Complete the flow diagram below on the basis of the text in 1.2.
Situation: _ ~ .
Choose one of the following essays:
o The process of globalisation has given rise to a number of problems.
Identify one of these problems, explain the situation which gave rise to the
problem and offer some solutions. You should also evaluate your solutions.
o It could be said that globalisation has increased the gap between the
'haves' and 'have nots', and that this is a problem. Explain how this
situation has arisen and offer some solutions to this problem. You
should also evaluate your solutions.
Solution(s):
Implkation(s):
Evaluation: _
- - - - - ~ ~ _ . - - - - - ~ .
o There are a number of problems associated with the rise of English as
a world language. Outline some of these problems, explain how they
arose, offer some solutions and evaluate your proposed solutions.
Brainstorm your ideas.
Plan your essay, thinking about the order and grouping of your ideas.
@ Try to arrange your ideas in a logical order.
@ Decide how your points can be grouped together, so that each group has one main
or unifying idea.
€) Decide how your groups of points can be arranged effectively in a
SihJation .. Problem .. Solulion .. Implication .. Evoluation pattern.
Exchange plans with another student and evaluate his/her plan.
Compare your answers with another student.
Is there a further problem created by the proposed solution in the text?
What language do you think it is appropriate to use when giving an evaluation?
Write your first draft.
Exchange drafts with another student and evaluate his/her plan.
Write your second draft.
Read Text 7-1 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 56-64, entitled The new linguistic
order, and reread the texts entitled The global village on pages 44-55. These will help you respond
fully to the following task. You should use the information from both texts, and any of your own
texts to support the ideas in your essay.
English for academic study
Writing •
ESSAY: What are the aims of academic study and how can they be achieved?
ESSAY: Nurture strongly influences early human development. Discuss.
Argument:
a) Is the writer's argument clear
throughout the essay?
b) Is the writer's argument well
supported with evidence?
c) Has the writer given opposing
viewpoints?
d) Does the writer's argument
convince you?
Conclusion:
Do you feel, as the reader, that there is a
suitable conclusion to the essay which
refers back to the main ideas of the essay?
Now discuss each other's drafts. Try to
comment on both the strengths and
weaknesses in your partner's draft.
Consider your partner's comments carefully.
Which comments do you agree with? Why?
Which comments do you disagree with? Why?
Rewrite your draft, incorporating all the
improvements you have discussed and
considered.
Introduction:
a) Does the introduction start with a
general statement related to the topic
and gradually become more specific?
b) Is there a thesis statement which
tells the reader what the essay will
be about?
c) Does the essay explain what the
thesis statement said it would?
d) What could the writer do to
improve it?
Paragraphing:
a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped
effectively into paragraphs?
b) If not, does the writer need to
change the order of ideas?
c) Does each paragraph havea paragraph
leader which tells the reader what
the main idea of the paragraph is?
d) Underline what you think the
paragraph leaders are.
e) Doesthe writer explain enough about
the main idea in each paragraph
to make it clear to the reader?
f) If not, does the writer need to add
further information or examples to
make a point clearer?
g) Does the writer need to remove
unnecessary information?
Read your partner's draft carefully. Then read
the following questions and reread the parts of
the essay which will enable you to answer them:
Consider your partner's comments carefully.
Which comments do you agree with? Why?
Which comments do you disagree with? Why?
Rewrite your draft, incorporating all the
improvements you have discussed and
considered.
Now discuss each other's drafts. Try to
comment on both the strengths and
weaknesses in your partner's draft.
Ask each other questions like:
C;; Why did you begin as you did?
C;; Why did you organise the ideas in the
way you did?
@ What is the most important idea in
your draft?
@ What do you mean by this point?
If points are not clear, or if the writer's main
ideas are riot clear, discuss these and suggest
ways of making them clearer.
Conclusion:
Do you feel, as the reader, that there is
a suitable conclusion to the essay which
refers back to the main ideasof the essay?
Additional Information:
What additional information from the
text you have read on academic success
could be incorporated into the second
draft of the essay?
Paragraphing:
a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped
effectively into paragraphs?
b) If not, does the writer need to
change the order of ideas?
c) Does the writer explain enough
about the main idea in each
paragraph to make it clear to
the reader?
Introduction:
a) Does the essay' have an introduction?
b) Does the introduction explain clearly
to the reader what the topic of the
essay is? If so, how has the writer
achieved this?
c) What could the writer do to improve it?
Read your partner's draft carefully. Then read
the following questions and reread the parts
of the essay which will enable you to answer
the questions below.
ESSAY: Statistics should be interpreted with caution as they can be misleading;
they can both lie and tell the truth. Discuss.
ESSAY: What role has human activity played in causing climate change?
d) Underline what you think the
paragraph leaders are.
e) Doesthe writer explain enough about
the main idea in each paragraph
to make it clear to the reader?
f) If not, does the writer need to add
further information or examples to
make a point clearer?
g) Does the writer need to remove
unnecessary information?
h) Does each paragraph havea
concluding sentence which
appropriately endsthe paragraph?
i) Find two concluding sentences and
write down what you think their
function is.
Conclusion:
a) Does the essay have an appropriate
conclusion?
b) What is the particular function of
the conclusion?
c) What could the writer do to
improve it?
Now discuss each other's drafts. Tryto
comment on both the strengths and
weaknesses in your partner's draft.
Consider your partner's comments carefully.
Which comments do you agree with? Why?
Which comments do you disagree with? Why?
Rewrite your draft, incorporating all the
improvements you have discussed and
considered.
Introduction:
a) Does the introduction start with a
general statement related to the
topic and gradually become
more specific?
b) Is there a thesis statement which
tells the reader what the essay will
be about?
c) Does the essay explain what the
thesis statement said it would?
d) What could the writer do to
improve it?
Definitions:
a) Underline any definitions of
important words or expressions that
the writer has made.
b) Has the writer used appropriate
language in his/her definitions?
c) If the writer has not included any
definitions, do you think he/she
should have? If so, what words
should he/she have defined?
Paragraphing:
a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped
effectively into paragraphs?
b) If not, does the writer need to
change the order of ideas?
c) Does each paragraph have a
paragraph leader which tells the
reader what the main idea of the
paragraph is?
Read your partner's draft carefully. Then read
the following questionsand reread the parts of
the essay which will enableyou to answer them.
h) Does each paragraph have a
concluding sentence which
appropriately ends the paragraph?
i) Find two concluding sentences and
write down what you think their
function is.
Conclusion:
a) Does the essay have an appropriate
conclusion?
b) What is the particular function of
the conclusion?
c) What could the writer do to
improve it?
Incorporation of sources:
a) Is information used from the text
appropriately incorporated and
paraphrased?
b) If not, what should the writer do
to improve it?
c) Underline two examples where
information has been incorporated
from the text.
Consider your partner's comments carefully.
Which comments do you agree with? Why?
Which comments do you disagree with? Why?
Rewrite your draft, incorporating all the
improvements you havediscussed and considered.
Now discuss each other's drafts. Try to
comment on both the strengths and
weaknesses in your partner's draft.
Paragraphing:
a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped
effectively into paragraphs?
b) If not, does the writer need to
change the order of ideas?
c) Does each paragraph have a
paragraph leader which tells the
reader what the main idea of the
paragraph is?
d) Underline what you think the
paragraph leaders are.
e) Does the writer explain enough
about the main idea in each
paragraph to make it clear to
the reader?
f) If not, does the writer need to add
further information or examples to
make a point clearer?
g) Does the writer need to remove
unnecessary information?
Introduction:
a) Does the introduction start with
a general statement related to
the topic and gradually become
more specific?
b) Is there a thesis statement which
tells the reader what the essay will
be about?
c) Does the essay explain what the
thesis statement said it would?
d) What could the writer do to
improve it?
Read your partner's draft carefully. Then read
the following questions and reread the parts
of the essay which will enable you to
answer them.
ESSAY: Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalisation on the world today.
APPENDIX 1: Example of an essay plan for Unit 2
TiTLE: NURTURE STRONGLY INFLUENCES EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. DISCUSS.
Read your partner's draft carefully. Then read
the following questions and reread the parts of
the essay which will enable you to answer them.
Introduction:
01 Does the introduction start with a
general statement related to the
topic and gradually become
more specific?
bl Is there a thesis statement which
says what the essay will be about?
cl Does the essay explain what the
thesis statement said it would?
dl What could the writer do to improveit?
Definitions:
01 Hasthe writer used appropriate
language in his/her definitions?
bl If the writer has not included any
definitions, should he/she have? What
words should he/she have defined?
Overall organisation:
a) What pattern of organisation has
the writer used?
b) Is it clear that the writer is writing
about cause and effect?
cl How could the writer improve
his/her overall structure?
dl Does the writer explain enough
about the main idea in each
paragraph to make it clear?
12.1 If not, doesthe writer need to add
further information or examples?
fl Does the writer need to remove
unnecessary information?
gl Does each paragraph havea
concluding sentence which
appropriatelyendsthe paragraph?
Incorporation of sources:
01 Is any information used from the
text appropriatelyincorporated
and paraphrased?
bl If not, what should the writer do?
cl Underline two examples where
information has been incorporated?
Conclusion:
a) Does the essay have an appropriate
conclusion?
b) What is the particular function of
the conclusion?
c) What could the writer do to improve it?
Now discuss each other's drafts. Try to
comment on both the strengths and
weaknesses in your partner's draft.
iNTRODUCTiON:
Thesis __
J;eeo._...r:glJirJg.for

essay. € € .. _....
!i<ldy...butr>arLdevelopQJ!iDL ..,. ._----.-._.__.----..
PARAGRAPH ONE
Main idea: S!r.Q!JginfltJe.OC&Qf.r:l\JrWr€
Supporting idea 1:LoQ.k?Jt'.QeoWry
Examples: ._.._. .._,_,
Supporting idea 2: __"Dd__ s/si.OIJ?r 1'i,3Q
Examples:. ._.____.____ . __
Supporting idea 3: ZeJ,g,Q.il__oo.Ze/<i<:-.o.,"-ml:\.Qlb_
Examples:pr:..di{;,;;-==to.r:..delLdopQJ!itJr._....
Supporting idea 4: K"g<>tL. .,__..' . .__.... ____________' ..,.__.._
Examples:;jf2€!i!:-h_level ;;JjmtJJslioD._.. ___ . __ ._
PARAGRAPH TWO
Main idea:2I-rQrJgJn:f1lJ€tX-e of rn:I:lJ.re. .... ._.. __ . . ..
Supporting idea 1: . .. . . __ .__..__ . __ . . _
Examples: . .______ .. . .
Supporting idea 2: .. _ . ._. _
Examples:. .... . . _
Supporting idea 3: ..
Examples: .. _'' . ..._.,,_._. w ••." •• .- ._ '''_'' __ ''''''.' __' .•W .• • • ..
Paragraphing:
al Are the ideas in the essay grouped
effectively into paragraphs?
bl If not, does the writer need to
change the order of ideas?
cl Does each paragraph have a
paragraph leader which tells the
reader what the main idea is?
Consider your partner's comments carefully.
Which comments do you agree with? Why?
Which comments do you disagree with? Why?
Rewrite your draft, incorporating all the
improvements you havediscussed and considered.
'i
i
PARAGRAPH THREE
CONCLUSION:
• English for acodemic study
Writing IIL_-,-__
APPENDIX 2: Organising essays of comparison &contrast
Now write a short paragraph comparing the food in your country with the food in another
country you know. Choose either the vertical or horizontal pattern.
A description based on comparison and contrast can be developed in two ways:
Diagram 1: Vertical pattern
. _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - - . _ - .._ - - ~ ....._.
- - - . ~ ~ ~ ..- .. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .
...•._•...-.__.._-------
Subject B SubjectA
Ideo4
Ideo 3
Ideo 2
Ideo1
You can group the main ideas about
Subject A in one paragraph or section
and the main ideas about Subject B in
the next paragraph or section, in a
vertical movement, as in the
following diagram.
Diagram 2: Horizontal pattern
Alternatively, you can treat the
corresponding ideas on Subject A
and Subject B as a pair, and compare
and contrast them one after the other
in a horizontal movement, as in
the following diagram:
, r-
Ideo 1
Ideo 2
Idea 3
Ideo 4
Subject A Subject B
- - - - - - ~ . __•. _--_.• _ - ~ ~ - _ ..•.•_..• _-------
Read another student's paragraph and saywhether it is written with a horizontal or
vertical pattern.
Rewrite the paragraph using the opposite pattern. There are a number of useful
expressions and markers which are commonly used when comparing and contrasting.
Most of them are given below.
Comparison within sentences
I they are both large/expensive.
Whether you choose the vertical or the horizontal pattern depends on the kind of text you
are writing, its purpose and your own preference. Some writers and readers find the horizontal
pattern clearer because it repeatedly reminds them of the comparison or contrast relationship.
Others prefer the vertical pattern because of its relative simplicity. The horizontal pattern is
often more suitable for a longer piece of writing. Both patterns are commonly used in
descriptions involving comparison and contrast.
X is
X and Yare
X is
,
Xresembles Y
very
quite
rather
like Y
similar
similar to Y
in that
in terms of
with respect to
with regard to
quality/size.
expense.
Does the paragraph below follow a vertical or horizontal pattern of organisation?
Apples are generally oval in shape. They range in colour from green to yellow to
red. Their tex.ture is usually firm and 50metimes even hard. Most oranges, however,
are more round in shape. Their colour range is more limited - from vermillion to
pale orange. In terms of tex.ture they are relanvely 50#.
Xis exactly
precisely
just
virtually
almost
nearly
the same as Y.
Rewrite the paragraph so that it follows the opposite pattern of comparison/contrast.
X is costly to buy I and it is (also) costly to maintain.
11English for academic sludy Writing 11
Comparison between sentences
APPENDIX 3: Assessing my progress
In this section, you will assess the progress in your academic writing that you have made so far on
this courseby evaluating the essays you havewritten and deciding on your strengths and weaknesses.
Complete the table on page 74 with relevant comments in the appropriate columns.
Thinking about the input that you have had on this course on developing your academic
writing, reread your essays and the feedback that the teacher has given you; look for
strengths and weaknesses that occur in more than one essay. Ask yourself these questions:
® Is the content in my essays consistently relevant and well developed?
@ Do I have consistent problems with organisation?
® Do I make repeated mistakes with certain language areas?
® If so, can I identify exactly which areas I need to work on?
(e.g. agreement of subject and verb; present perfect tense)
with respect to size/expense, etc.
with regard to
in terms of
in that x is smaller/more expensive, etc.
Similarly, it is expensive to maintain/operate.
Likewise,
Moreover,
Furthermore,
In addition,
X is unlike Y
X differs from Y
X and Y differ
X is different from Y
X contrasts with Y
X is expensive to buy.
Contrast within sentences
X has four aspects, whereas
while
but
yet
although
Y has three.
What action are you going to take to ensure you continue to develop your academic
writing skills?
X is considerably
a great deal
(very) much
rather
somewhat
a little
slightly
only just
scarcely
smaller than y.
Contrast berween sentences
X is expensive to buy. However,
Conversely,
By/In contrast,
On the other hand,
it is cheap to
operate/maintain, etc.
English for academic study v\!riting
I What I've been
I
What I'vebeen taught, I Overall strengths
i
Overall weaknesses My main areas to
I taught and can apply but havedifficulty in I focus on in the
In my essays applying in my essays I future
I
i
I
I
Task achievement
,
I
Irelatingthe essayto the
i
title or topic and overall
i
I completion of essay) I
I
I--
I
,
i
Organisation
L-
I
I
,
I
-1---
-t-
I
i
i
I
,
I
I
Content
I
I
i
I
I
,
i
I
,
I
- ~
I
-- ---
I
I
I
I
Language
I
I
I
I I
-
My progress in academic writing Name:

Credits
Published by Garnet Publishing Ltd.
8 Southern Court

Contents
The authors and publishers wish to acknowledge the following use of material: 'Does Class Size Matter?' reprinted with permission. Copyright © 2001 by ScientificAmerican, lnc. All rights reserved. Atkinson, R.L. et et., Hilgard's Introduction to Psychology, 13\h edition (1999). © 1996. Reprinted with permission of wadsworth. a divisionof Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Fax 800 730-2215 'Ring in the new' © The Economist Newspaper limited, London (October 7'", 1999) 'Beyond the bubble' © The Economist Newspaper limited, London (October 9\", 2003) 'Statistics Without Tears: A Primer for Non-Mathematicians' by Derek Rowntree (Penguin Books, 1982). Copyright © Derek Rowntree, 1982, Pages 14-21 reproduced by permission of Penguin Books Ltd. 'Don't Panic' & 'Crime in Britain' © The Economist Newspaper limited, London (March 21" & June 20'1" 2002) Extract from 'Crime figures so easily mislead' reprinted with permission of James Morton. 'The crime that dare not breathe its name', The Times. © NI Syndication, London (October l S", 2000) 'Common Questions about Climate Change' (pages 4-12), reprinted with permission © United Nations Environment Programme and World Meteorological Organization. Extract (page 44) from 'World Politics, Trend and Transformation' (with International Relations Interactive CD-ROM and In/oTrac) 9'" edition by KEGlEY/WITIKOPE © 2004. Reprinted with permission of Wadsworth, a division of Thomson Learning: www.thomsonrights.com. Pax 800 730-2215. Buzan, T. (1971) 'Speed Reading USA', David and Charles. Reprinted with the Registered Trademark of the Buzan Organisation used with enthusiastic permission of Buzan Centres Ltd, 54 Parkstone Road, Poole. Dorset BH15 2PG. www.buzancentres.com Extracts from 'Global Transformations: Politics, Economics and Culture', Held et al, eds. (1999) reprinted by permission Polity Press Ltd.
Microskllls~.

Introduction

page

SouthStreet
Reading RG1 4QS, UK Copyright © 2004 University of Reading's Centre for Applied Language Studies. The right of Anne Pallant to be identified asthe author of this work has been asserted in accordance with the Copyright, Design and Patents Act 1988.

All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the
Publisher. Any person who does any unauthorized act in

Early human development
Microskills: Organising your ideas Paragraph leaders

page page page

relation to this publication may be liable to criminal prosecution and civil claims for damages. First published 2004 Reprinted with corrections 2004 Second edition published 2006 Reprinted 2008 ISBN-1O: 1 85964 838 X ISBN-13: 978 1 85964 838 4 British Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from

Organising your ideas Concluding sentences Conclusions

the British library
Production

Project manager: Richard Peacock Project consultant: Rod Webb Lucy Thompson, Angela Langridge, Editorial team: Francesca Ptnaqli Design: Mike Hinks Mike Hinks, Doug Nash Illustration: Corbis: Robert Essel NYC, Photography: Jeremy Horner, Caroline Penn, Michael Prince, Franco Vogt; Mike Hinks; The United Nations. Every effort has been made to trace the copyright holders and we apologize in advance for any unintentional omission. We will be happy to insert the appropriate acknowledgements in any subsequent editions.
, Printed and bound

Definition

Exernpl'ific9fjon--an'(rS~p_'p~#_:-

in Lebanon by International Press

Microskills: Organising essays: Sifuation, problem, solufton, implications, evaluafion
Crown copyright material is reproduced with the permission of the controller of HMSO and the Queen's Printer for Scotland. 'The Global Village: Challenges for a Shrinking Planet', reprinted with permission from The Global Viffage: Challenges for a Shrinking Planet (Understanding GlobalIssues 98/7). 'The New Linguistic Order' in Foreign Policy, Winter 1998-99 (pages 26-39), Joshua A Eishman

RI

Enqlish for academic study

Wrilillg

Acknowledgements
I would like to acknowledge the important contribution of Ros Richards as the author of a report on the research literature on academic writing. Many of the principles of the course are based on the observations and recommendations in this report. I would also like to thank her for her valuable evaluative comments on the early versions of the material. I would like to thank John Slaght for his collaboration on activities linked to the Reading material in the Reading and Writing Source Book. I would also like to acknowledge the many teachers and students at the Centre for Applied Language Studies who have contributed to the process of trialling and evaluating this material, in particular Beverley Fairfax, Mary Ferguson, Helen Fraser, Belinda Hardisty, Clare McClean, Pete McKichan and Jane Short. I would like to thank Clare McClean for her contribution to Unit 1 of phrases for making polite suggestionsfor Peer Feedback. I would also like to thank the teachers and students at the Language Centres of the University of Surrey and Robert Gordon University who have also used this material and given feedback. The author and publishers would like to thank Ron White for the contributions to some of the questionnaire on pp.11-16, and for the expressions of comparison and contrast, adapted from pp. 6-9 and 68-69, respectively, in Ron White and Don McGovern Writing, Hemel Hempstead: Phoenix ELT (1994). The task on page 73 is taken from McGovern, Don Reading, Hemel Hempstead: Phoenix ELT (1994).

Reference to Source Book texts
Introduction Reading only
Text i-l:
Economics focus: On the move
page

The influence on academic achievement A case study; Shining star The Asian p'aradox: Hugeclasses, high scores

ci{~i~;~:~;::~·i~~

Early human development
Text2-1: Text 2-2: Text 2-3: interaction between natureand nurture Capacities of the newborn Hearing, taste and smell
page page page

Anne Pallant, Author, May 2004

Statistics without tears
Text 4-1: Text 4-2:
Text 4-3:
Making sense of experience What is statistics? Descriptive and inferential statistics

umcma~fl

i~'~t~~'~t~~ua infor;~~'fi~:g:: <:\",-<

Iimate chan

Common questions about c1iniate 'change . Are humanactivities contributing to dim'ate change? Whathumanactivities are contributing fo climate change

The global village
Text6-1:
Text 6-2:

Introduction
The shrinking pionel

Text6-3:
Text 6-4:

Economic globalisation
Community & conflicl

Text 6-5: Text 6-6:

The sharing of sovereignty Converging or diverging?

The new linguistic order
Text 7-1: The new linguistic order

':1.11 English for cccoemlc slvdy
'C'{Kfll

A good writer is critical of his/her own work. according to peer feedback and your own developing ideas. revise and edit your second draft. you write for an audience. and so will be able to make useful suggestions about your writing. You should read your work carefully and consider both the strengths and weaknesses of your writing. think quickly to get ideas for your essay. write your first draft. The basic concept of this approach is that good writers go through a number of processes while composing a text before they produce their final product. c e rewrite it to produce a second draft.e. • revise and edit your first draft. During your writing course. i. according to teacher feedback and your own developing ideas. Canada. organise your ideas into a plan. and you need to think about how you structure your message in order to communicate your ideas in the clearest way. the United States. Your work improves if you talk to others about your ideas and problems.Read the following information about these four aspects and the way they will be presented during your course. The main underlying principles are: G Writing is a recursive process. Australia and New Zealand. you will have the opportunity to discuss your writing at each stage of the process. You will be asked to: c e e brainstorm ideas. rewrite it to produce a third draft. When you write. Simply by talking to a friend. . It has proved a successful approach by which learners have effectively improved their academic writing skills. A good writer goes back and thinks again before continuing to write. Effective writing results from rewriting and revising at each stage of the composing process. Another person will have an objective view as your reader. The process approach to writing has now been used widely for a number of years on writing courses in Britain. you can clarify any aspect of your work that you are not sure about. Q It helps to share and discuss the writing process with others. It therefore helps to show your writing to other people so that you can learn how to adapt your writing to different audiences.

His/her feedback will focus ·on: task achievement. Your teacher will read the second draft of your essays.al Self-evaluation: To help you develop your critical ability. In diagrammatic form. These will include: essays of cause and effect. / identifying problems.- Evaluate (Self & peer) /'. genre. which you will use to evaluate your own writing. . the aim is 1'0 skills with which you wm be Ob!8 YO wrltfr'en withouT deip811d. solution(s). t\Hhough some of i'f18Se oliO. By the end of the course. an essay written in a science subject will typically be in a more concise style than one written in a social science subject. offering suggestions and commenting on it in a way that is helpful. how well you have responded to the title of your essay. He/she will give you feedback on language problems through the use of symbols. Your teacher will explain this system in more detail and refer you to a key to the symbols. In your writing. This is a fundamental skill which is increasingly necessary for successful academic study in higher education. how to write accurately and fluently. unless errors make the essay difficult to understand. evaluating the solutions. You will carry out peer evaluation by reading another student's essay. You will discover how writing of this kind in English in higher education may differ from writing in your own language.e. assessing the implications (or effect) if those solutions are applied. language.e. you will be expected to show clear development of a topic through good organisation and language use. i. Write third draft Brainstorm ideas Organise ideas Planning !~ The importance of genre The Writing course will. such as: how to write an effective introduction and conclusion. This is one of the reasons why your writing tasks are based on specific reading texts. seeking solutions to these problems. The development of critical thinking skills At the advanced level necessary for your studies. For example. look at how different academic subjects require different styles of writing. which will indicate the type of error you have made. In the Writing course. implication(s) and evaluation. ·Ci This Writing cou. to a certain extent. When reading another student's essay. content. It will also help you to expand your use of language appropriate to the task. ·v' v Teacher evaluation and marking • Write second draft • Evaluate (Self & peer) • comparison and contrast. you will focus on the organisation of the ideas and the overall argument of the text. this is more important than the accuracy of the language. Write first draft You will also increase your awareness of the type of language most appropriate to express these patterns of organisation. Research has shown that working for a period of time on one particular topic provides a basis for developing and expressing critical thinking skills. academic writing should express the critical thinking and reasoning which has been used to develop the main ideas in your writing. organisation and development of ideas. It could typically involve: assessing information in order to show how it relates to an understanding of the truth in a particular context. how to communicate the main idea of a paragraph to the reader.rse will also deal with other important aspects of writing. a variety of ways of organising writing will be analysed and practised. such as using the wrong word (WW) or wrong form of the word (wF). spelling and punctuation. ss Evaluate teacher feedback . the process looks like this: The microskills of writing. how to support your main ideas with examples.proad. Th~s is imporrcnt for your future studies. problem. you will be asked to consider a series of evaluation questions. as well as receiving comments from him or her. b) Peer evaluation: You will also be asked to consider a series of evaluation questions which you will use to evaluate the writing of another student. you should be able to write effectively and appropriately for your individual purposes. this will be your final editing work. You will be asked to correct your language errors as well as improve other aspects of your essay. -. and will respond with comments and suggestions. At this stage.mceon teacher.es rnay be unfammal" )'0 you. and be able to make choices as to the most appropriate way to approach a writing task. i.'> situation. Many of the tasks that you will do during the course will contribute to the development and expression of your critical thinking skills. how to express yourself in writing using more complex sentences.

(Carson. identifying and coping with difficulties in academic writing. which includes the specific development of critical thinking skills. One of the main purposes of the texts will beto provide relevant information to support yourideas in the written assignments. ~ @ @ . When you give your teacher the second draft of your essay. This will enable him/her: / to assess the effectiveness of the process. the implication of the research for teaching academic writing is that there should be an integrated skills approach. considering the knowledge and expectations of your reader. written examinations will be a major method of formal assessment. You will need to process and critically analyse that information before incorporating it within your own argument. as a student. how academic writing can be seen as communicating with another person. It is important to reflect this process on an academic writing programme. EJ. sharing the writing process through: . Writing to complete an essay within a time limit will be practised on the course as an integral component of your writing classes. Together. / to assess your response to evaluation. Carson views critical thinking as 'the ability to transform information for their own [students'] purposes in reading and to synthesise their prior knowledge with another text in writing . the different stages of the writing process and how you can approach them. if you have little or no experience in word processing.The link between reading and·writing Research has shown that an integrated approach to the teaching of writing contributes to the development of one's critical thinking skills. 1IiI e ~ @ I":Timed writing For many of you. . Complete this questionnaire. you will also give him/her your second draft. when you give your teacher the third draft of your essay. & Leki (1993). Heinle and Heinle: p. Each unit has a writing topic that is based on the relevant reading text in the Reading and Writing Source Book. in order to respond to the task appropriately. D D D D D to meet intelligent people to ensure having a career or future job to discover more about theories and certain known facts to discuss philosophy to enjoy learning ~ ~ English for academicstudy . reading and writing facilitate the development of critical thinking'. Reading in the Composition Classroom. and exchanging drafts with another person and giving constructive criticism. it is easier to make corrections and revisions to your work. ~ It will then give you practice in: @ writing about the achievement of academic success. You will also develop your technique in quickly analysing an examination question. you will be required to submit word-processed essays in your future studies. the relative importance of different aspects of writing. . be engaging in problem-solving activities.. rewriting to correct and improve your first draft. you should discuss with your teacher when you should begin typing your essays..I) one or more. you will also give him/her your plan and your first draft.100. To be successful in examinations. you read an academic text for a particular purpose on your academic course. the nature of academic writing.) Hence. you will need to be able to write quickly and concisely in your answer to a question. ways of achieving the aims of academic study. This follows the principle that.discussion of its different stages with another person.) Please use Times New Roman font size 12 and one and a halfspacing for the main body of your text. once you start your chosen degree course. The structure of the Writing material reflects this approach. However. thinking about different approaches to the organisation of your ideas. . For example. thus. What is the aim of academic study? (Please tick (. to help you further. you will. Some practical points You should type your first drafts on the word processor because: @ c " it is easier for your classmates to read. Similarly. ~ ~ the aims of academic study.

o o o o to enable members of society to exchange ideas which are intellectually stimulating' to develop personal growth to contribute to the social and economic development of society to pass examinations to gain a higher-level degree to improve cooperation between different members of world society To write well academically. L for Low importance.) an appropriate style overall organisation vocabulary good ideas good use of sources (appropriate citation. L for Low importance. M for Medium importance./) H for High importance. English foracademic study . bibliography) relevance of subject content response to the task o 0 o o o o o o What is academic writing? (Please tick (. M for Medium importance./) H for High importance.) grammatical correctness spelling and punctuation (using full stops and commas. knowledge and information a form of self-expression a way of exploring. etc. addressing and expressing academic issues a way of communicating results or information mm • I./) H for High importance.) a mechanical exercise groups of grammatically correct sentences the clear expression of ideas.) 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 M L knowing your strengths and weaknesses thinking about how to develop your abilities further thinking about how to approach a particular task using a logical./) one or more. how important are the following? (Tick (. reasoned approach to study approaching your subject in depth being interested in finding things out learning how to study communicating results successfully 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 00 000 000 000 00 000 000 000 000 000 000 H M L H M L readingalot studying grammar studying vocabulary imitating other writers writing a lot inviting others to comment on your writing going back and thinking again about what you have written rewriting repeatedly until you are satisfied understanding the process of writing meeting the needs of your reader How important do you think the following are when writing academic texts? (Tick (. intellectually stimulating: encouraging the mind to develop further How important is it for you as a student to develop the following characteristics while studying at university? (Tick (. L for Low importance.) o o H . M for Medium importance.

articles. reports. . you accept it is bl when you have finished your first draft? true without any real proof or evidence •• critical stance: to take a critical stance is to have a strong viewpoint on something after examining and judging it carefully cl before you hand in your final draft? _ _ _ _ English foracademic study WriJin g • . the Internet using analogies" using the views and attitudes of others I 11 11 I analysing questions stating facts reasoning your argument logically from facts explaining key terms I> I El El El El Ill> 11> I I> 11> Ili I I> 11< II1 using language appropriate to a particular subject area using other points of view to strengthen your argument or research demonstrating the weaknesses of other people's arguments using research data • anecdote: a short. Which of the following contribute to successful academic writing? presenting information clearly and precisely El El El El El El El analysing questions and issues clearly and precisely distinguishing between relevant and irrelevant material recognising key assumptions' identifying competing points of view Should you always think of academic writing as communicating with another person? WhylWhy not? What do you do or what do you concentrate on when you are given a writing task: demonstrating excellent reasoning and problem-solving abilities adopting a critical stance'· understanding the context for which you are writing al while you are still writing your first draft? • assumption: if you make an assumption that something is true. amusing account of something that has happened •• analogy: to make or draw an analogy between two things is to show they are alike I > 11 >11\ I acknowledging the limitation of your own argument or research I> Ili> 11> I supporting your argument with examples 111\\ 11> I frequently summarising your argument I> 11< 11> I referring to well-argued conclusions in some way . AA for Medium importance.) H AA L 1< I using statistics using examples using the news using information from books.In which of the following ways can you support your ideas when writing academic texts? using personal anecdotes' using facts When persuading your tutors or other members of your academic community that your argument is valid. L for Lowimportance.I) H for High importance. how important are the following? (Tick (.

I Writing • • English for academic sludy . • Group together ideas which seem to belong to the same paragraph. Discuss your ideas with the whole group and your teacher. a) To help you... 1-2 and 1-3 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 7-11. ask yourself: Ij) Ij) What is the overall idea in the essay? Does the plan follow a logical sequence of ideas? Are the ideas grouped effectively into paragraphs? Is the main idea clear in each paragraph? How many paragraphs will the essay contain? \1il Ij) Material adapted from CAlS pilot version of White. Presenting critical thinking as a study strategy for UK higher education (2001). n. compare your answers with those of other people in your group. not complete sentences. ask yourself these questions about your readers: • • b) What knowledge about academic study do they already have? What do you think they are interested in reading about in your essay? When you have decided which ideas you are going to include._ What type of academic writing have you done in the past? The essay that you will prepare in this unit is on the following topic: Whatare the aims of academic study and how can they be achieved? Before you begin writing. Writing English for Academic Study Series (1994)..V. this is called brainstorming. e What difficulties do you have with writing in English or in your own language? Read Texts 1-1. When you look at your partner's plan. Discuss your answers. and e Richards. 11IIII _ Discuss with another student what you think are the key words in the essay question. and keep notes of the discussion. organising your ideas into a plan. What do you do when you have difficulties? Spend five minutes writing down all the ideas you can think of that are relevant to the essay topic.. You may want to develop some of the ideas further and you may want to add a new idea. organise them into a logical order in a plan. you should spend some time: Ij) Ij) L thinking about exactly what the question is asking you to write about. R. Perhaps the plan needs to be changed or developed more. ) . • Think carefully about the order in which you will arrange the paragraphs. Do you enjoy academic writing? WhyNVhy not? . _ Discuss your ideas with another student. Now discuss what you think are the key words with the whole group and your teacher. The order of your ideas is not important at this stage. If the answers to these questions are not clear from looking at your partner's plan. and identify information which is relevant to the title of your essay. 11III When you have finished the questionnaire. Do you find that you all have very similar views and experiences? Or are your views and experiences very different? Are there any general trends among students in the group? Discuss your plan with another student. Decide which of your ideas you are going to use in your essay. Write notes. generating ideas about the topic. so that your ideas flow. entitled The influence of class size on academic achievement and The Asian paradox. ask him or her to explain. .

......~•.... but you could .. Exchange drafts......._.. . BIll Discuss your ideas with a partner.•... Can I/May I make another suggestion? I would recommend that you ..•.- _. but you could .. Maybe it would be better to .... _ •.._ . remember that constructive criticism is more helpful when giving advice. _ ...~...•..• _ •. _- .........._... .- e e @ @ . the topic of the essay. It might be a good idea to .._.-~-_ .~•.._. .. ... but you could . Answer the following questions: a) What function or purpose does the introduction of an essay have? ---------------_.•_ •.. I agree with you. there are certain core elements in an introduction for an academic essay that you may find useful to adopt during the ore-sessional course. When you have finished your first draft._ . . ? Why don't you ..~... The phrases below for making polite suggestions should help you to express your comments in a constructive manner.. the purpose of the essay and the conventions of the subject specialists (or discourse community). Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation Sheet for Unit 1 on page 64 of this book..•... _ .constructive criticism._ .... ~------ e @ b) What should an introduction contain? @> @ <Ill @ _ .. Quickly write down what you think are the important points to include in an introduction to an academic essay....•..~..... _ .....-. .. ....... Right..... __.... When commenting on your partner's draft.~•. Do you think a better approach might be to . while you are developing your awareness of the different possible patterns. .. find someone else who has also finished... Read your partner's draft carefully.•._-----... Say why you have chosen these points.~..- Remember: Peer feedback should be supportive and helpful .••.. . _---------~ @ @ ... _ Write the first draft of your essay....... .~. This is/That's good.. _ ...........•~. Discuss your ideas with the rest of the class...- ........•......~_ ._. • English for academic sludy _ _ _ _wrilin g ..•._ ... ....L-_-... ? What about . . ? How about this? Perhaps you could .. My advice would be to . I think it would be better if you .. . Have you thought about (verb + ing) ......•.. you will have found that introductions to academic essays can have a variety of patterns depending on: the length of the essay..•.-__ ....Think about your partner's comments on your plan and try to improve it. These core elements are commonly taught as being appropriate for academic writing in western-based cultures.•... However.. ? Summary: From your discussion.........._~ ..- e ~ @> @> It might be a good idea if you .

if you can enter the university it means that you succeed in your life. e e e Everybody wishes to achieve success in society. ~ This essay will discuss the situation that has led to the development of these problems and describe some of them. At first. By introducing education into Africa. This essay is about the academic success in Iran. before answering this question. teaching methods. the policy of the government. cl Together with your classmate. The population of the world has been growing rapidly over the last thirty years. it seems that they forget the meaning of studying subjects. probably it will mean success in their future. for most Chinese students. our academic success might be that required to gain a good score and enter a higher school to study. try to identify an obvious pattern to the introduction and decide what the function of each sentence is. unemployment. it might be that needed for a student to find a good job or contribute to specific academic fields. When this question . its importance depends on the following: intelligence. ~ Academic success is one of the most important goals of many students in Thailand. There is a good reason to say so. In Japanese society. . Therefore. our education system and concept of traditional culture always affects our students' success. this essay will describe academic success in Taiwan and indicate the related factors. especially in the capital cities. many people take much time to prepare for passing school examinations. most of them will be able to enter a prestigious company. In Thailand. In the second stage. Therefore. o There are different programmes for education in different countries. but also the whole family's. most final-year students try to enter the university. the system of education. and food and water shortages. • English for ocodemic slucJy . This essay will describe the education system in Africa. the education system is organised from primary school until university. Read carefully the following five introductions for an essay entitled Academic success in one's own culture and try to evaluate their strengths and weaknesses. o It will then suggest some possible solutions to the problems and evaluate their viability. some students prefer to study in small colleges. If they obtain a high grade in their school career. e bl Compare what you think with a classmate. Every year.what kind of fact is regarded as academic success in Japan is asked. in the first stage. support system and facilities. This essay will describe some factors that are closely related to academic success in Thailand . Some children have to study hard before they attain the school age. As this topic mentioned. There are some relevant factors to obtain this goal. In addition. and also say why you decided on the order you did. What is academic success in our country? Many factors to describe it can be found. I would like to define the meaning. The educated or literate people could realise their potential livelihood. the people may improve their cultural attitudes.Look at the following sentences from an introduction to an essay on Theproblems of population growth. this is a useful occupation and its conditions are good. Education is one of the basic factors contributirig to the development of a society. Under these circumstances. Generally. there is the fact that an academic career decides a students' future life. This essay mentions motivation to study and tries to clear up the meaning of academic success in our culture. Furthermore. In Iran. however. pollution. al Decide which would be the most logical order of these sentences: ~ ~ This growth has created many problems. 'Success' in Chinese society is not only for one's own honour. Every country has a special education system that is adapted to each country. most Japanese will answer that it is to graduate from a highgrade university. After graduating. The problems include housing. It could be called 'academic success'.

. bl Travelling broadens the mind. This unit will help you to develop the following skills: making decisions about what the essay title is asking you to write about.3 Spend five minutes writing down all the ideas you can think of that may be relevant to this essay. Imagine that you are writing an essay on the following three topics.4 Discuss your ideas with two other students. Remember you do not need to write complete sentences. because they generate the main ideas that you need to include in your essay and. according to your peer feedback session. Task 1: Microskills: Organising your ideas [1 1. making decisions about the most appropriate way of organising your ideas.arly .1 Some words in essay titles are more important than others. cl The rapid development of electronic communications may mean that people will have fewer social skills. to a certain extent. al The education system in one's own country. because they contain the main ideas of the topic. effectively introducing your reader to the main idea in each paragraph by writing paragraph leaders. Note: You are not going to write the whole essay.2 Discuss your ideas with another student. decide which ideas are particularly relevant to the topic and the best ones to use in your essay. and other parts. Discuss. . Discuss. making decisions about what information in a text is useful to support your ideas. 1. When you write the second draft of your essay What are the aims of academic study and how can they be achieved? make appropriate changes to the introduction. English for academicstudy b . These words can be called key words. control the content of your essay. Discuss. Together. The essay that you will prepare in this unit is on the following topic: Nurture strongly influences early humandevelopment. 1. . . Write a suitable introduction for each one of them. incorporating that information in your own writing. Which are the key words in the essay title for this unit? Why do you think they are the key words? 1.

What is the overall idea in the essay? Is it obvious from the section on the introduction what the writer's thesis is? Does the plan follow a logical sequence of ideas? Are the ideas grouped effectively into paragraphs? Is the main idea clear in each paragraph? How many paragraphs will the essay contain? If the answers to these questions are not clear from looking at your partner's plan. Give enough information to show how you will support your ideas. Discuss your choice with one or two other students and explain why you made that choice. (paragraph H. find someone else who has also finished. Paragraph leaders can have a number of functions within the paragraph. When you have finished your first draft. What ideas and information from the texts could help you to develop your own ideas and provide academic evidence to support your argument? cl Discuss your decisions with a partner. Read your partner's draft carefully. as it explains the main idea of the paragraph. but in this unit you are going to focus on the function of anticipating and directing the ideas that follow. Write a historical description of all theories concerning early human development. (paragraph G. What function do these sentences have within the paragraphs? Read another student's plan and answer the following questions about his/her plan: Discuss your ideas with another student.s This type of paragraph leader is one of the most important sentences in the whole paragraph. al bl Motor development after birth also illustrates the interaction between genetically programmed maturation and environmental influence. Perhaps the plan needs to be changed or developed further. each of these has attached to it both advantages and disadvantages. Consider your partner's comments on your plan and try to improve it. There are many uses made of e-mail in the office environment. page 13) What would be an appropriate way to organise your ideas for this type of essay? Why? Discuss possible ways to organise your ideas with one or two other students. Imagine you are going to write a paragraph on 'the use of e-mail in companies'. 1929). Which of the following sentences would make a suitable paragraph leader? The first sentences in paragraphs can be called paragraph leaders. Remember that time spent planning now can save you time later. Explain to your reader that research has shown there are different influences on early human development. page 13) The development of speech provides another example of the interaction between genetically determined characteristics and experience. 2-2 and 2-3 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 12-15. Look at the following sentences from the text Early human development again (Reading and Writing Source Book pages 12-15) and underline the key (important) ideas: Discuss your ideas with the rest of the class. Think carefully about the order in which you will arrange the paragraphs. Organise your ideas into a logical order in a plan which clearly shows the structure of your essay. Exchange drafts. It helps the reader to understand the focus and direction of the paragraph. One of the most useful functions of e-mail is to communicate efficiently with colleagues abroad. Read Texts 2-1. Dennis & Dennis. 1935/1975. G and H. al bl cl E-mail is useful in the office. ask him or her to explain. Look at these three paragraphs in the text and see if you were right about what information might follow the sentences. and persuade him/her that one of these influences is stronger than the others. Gesell & Thompson. more recent studies indicate that practice or extra stimulation can accelerate the appearance of motor behaviours to some extent. Discuss your ideas with another student and together decide what information you might expect to follow each of the above sentences. 1940. entitled Early human development. (This type of paragraph leader is often called a topic semence. Persuade your reader that one kind of influence is the strongest. (paragraph F. page 13) Although early studies suggested that the answer was no (McGraw.Which of the following do you think the essay is asking you to do? al bl cl dl Explain all the influences on early human development to your reader. Discuss your ideas with the whole class. when you are actually writing. These sentences are the first ones in paragraphs F. Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation Sheet for Unit 2 on page 65 of this book. Write the first draft of your essay. Group together ideas which seem to belong to the same paragraph. English for academic: stucv .

Read the paragraphs and write a suitable paragraph leader for each one. bl cl Studying in an English university provides students with a number of benefits. as they would benefit more from using public transport. Discuss your ideas with another student. It would encourage people to leave their cars at home. one of the advantages of being competent in the English language is that there is a wider range of career opportunities. that of providing a more extensive. Thus. So the third option should be examined in more detail in order to establish a new system. Write down three differences between writing in an examination and writing a course assignment.Discuss your answer with another student and give reasons for your choice. The second option. as one of the possible effects of further construction is an increase in the volume of traffic. commerce and diplomacy. more efficient and cheaper transport system. It is especially useful for those in academic posts. Those working in financial markets also need English in order to be able to talk to their Englishspeaking clients and to work effectively in the international market. considering the work on paragraph leaders that you have developed in Task 2. as so many academic papers are published in English.lue1y . Discuss your answer with another student and give reasons for your choice. Make appropriate changes to your essay for Unit 2. Imagine you are going to write a paragraph on the benefits for international students of studying in an English university. The third option. cl What are the next stages that you go through? Discuss your ideas with another student. will not meet with the approval of the general public. seems to be the most viable one. you read that this unit would help you develop five specific skills. At the beginning of the unit. which happened when the motorway around London was built. Which of the following sentences would make a suitable paragraph leader? al Studying in an English university is useful for many reasons. When you write an essay in an examination: al What is the first thing that you do? bl What is the second thing that you do? The first option of building more roads needs to be examined very carefully. International students prefer to study in England. The paragraph leaders of the following paragraphs have been removed. Since English has become the most widely used international language in most fields. Look back and decide at what stage in the unit you practised these. that of limiting the number of cars on the road at one time. Other fields for which it is useful to know English include business. English for ccodeuuc '. many employers require their employees to have a high level of English.

Tick the appropriate boxes in the following table to show which stages in the process of writing academic essays apply to examinations. The words have been chosen very carefully by the examiners to get the appropriate answer. Define these terms. in practice. and which apply to course assignments. Horticulture 9 What techniques can be used to minimise the wastage of irrigation water in horticultural production? (10 marks) (5 marks) Animal Sciences 10 Write an essay entitled: 'Ecological implications of global warming'. you should always leave five or ten minutes at the end of the examination to check your work for spelling and grammar mistakes. Remember: As you do not have time to write more than one draft of your essay. (7 marks) c) How. • English foracademic sludy . which means that you do not have time to completely revise your essay in a second draft. giving examples. Discuss your views with another student. it is important to have a good plan which can guide you in the structure and direction of your argument. it is still important that you spend time: @ bl Discuss the role and importance of software inspection for quality systems. Compare and contrast the characteristics of typical feed resources for ruminant and non-ruminant livestock. @ @ brainstorming your ideas (three minutes should be enough). and also for adding any information you may wish to include to improve your answer. crossbreeding and within-breed selection. analysing the title for the key words and to see what the essay is asking you to do (two or three minutes should be enough). cl Explain how 'quality standards' relate to Software Quality Systems.' Discuss. However. Environmental Hydrogeology 11 Describe the problems that subsurface drainage from impermeable surfaces may pose to groundwater. do you have to describe a process. Bearing in mind these different feed resources. Stage in the process Writing essays in examinations Course assignments Read the following essay questions from past examination questions of the University of Reading and decide what they are asking you to do (for example. Define what is meant by "breed" in domestic animals.' Discuss. Despite the time constraint. Does the prevailing structure of north-south relations prevent the effective development of the less-developed countries? Advanced Software Engineering 8 01 Software Quality Systems usually contain quality control. compare two viewpoints?) Food Science 1 a) What properties of microorganisms lead to their being major causes of food spoilage? (7 marks) b) Analysing the title Brainstorming ideas Organising your ideas/plan Self-evaluation Peer evaluation Writing a first draft Self-evaluation Peer evaluation Revising your draft Writing a second draft Teacher evaluation/feedback Evaluation of teacher feedback Revising your second draft Writing a third draft Writing a final draft Explain what you mean by food spoilage and describe the mechanisms by which microbes cause food spoilage. writing essays in examinations is similar to writing course assignments in a number of ways. why does current thinking predict a major expansion for non-ruminant animals in the next 20 years? 4 Politics of the International Political Economy 5 6 7 'Free trade is essential for international economic growth. quality assurance and quality management components. may microbial food spoilage be reduced or prevented? (6 m"ks) Animals in Agriculture 2 3 Discuss reasons why keeping livestock may be particularly important to the welfare of the poorest people of developing countries. (10 marks) . Discuss your ideas with another student. organising your ideas into a plan (five minutes should be enough). and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using such drainage. 'International aid is the key to global development. As you will have seen. The main difference is the time constraint. but different in other ways. Give a brief explanation of the need for these three components and examples of their usage. Genetic change in a population may be achieved by breed substitution.

g. Write your answer. and your spelling and language . advantages and disadvantages. starting with a very brief introduction which contains a thesis statement that responds to the question and anticipates the main ideas of your answer. research results) can be used in a particular situation give your views on something. Divide your essay into paragraphs. and May. Support your leading sentences with details and examples.give the reasons for consider very carefully/examine to find out what something consists of put something to use. Underline key terminology. including reasons for a particular viewpoint (give your own viewpoint or evidence that you have thought about a topic) write about something in detail from the point of view of its strengths and weaknesses. Describe the developments in mobile telephone services. account for . show how something (e. and aralne. account a) e.g. consider Brainstorm your ideas on this topic. It is often used with a quotation. say what you think about something. Mol. this will help you understand the type of answer required. G. analyse apply (to) comment (on) compare Discuss your ideas with another student.describe (a process) clearly describe items that belong to a particular group/category include many examples give the main ideas show that something is true show the connection between two or more things write the main points of a topic give evidence to strengthen your point say clearly With the development of extended. quicker and more efficient services of 3G (third-generation) mobile telephones. a) explain why . with which you should agree or disagree describe the main aspects of two or more things to show their similarities describe and say what you think about something describe the main aspects of two or more things to show their differences give an explanation of the meaning of a term give an explanation of something in detail (what it is like. each beginning with an appropriate paragraph leader which is linked to the main idea in your paragraph. • English loracademic study . and importance write to express the issue or idea clearly.describe b) e. cause of something. Adapted from @ explain (ll identify illustrate outline prove relate summarize support state (ll (ll (ll (l) e ® wellace. contrast define describe discuss Organise your ideas into a plan. Study Skills in English. Organise relevant ideas in a plan. C. C. certain findings.g. and explain the impact of this phenomenon on society in your country. read the articles from The Economist entitled Ring in the new and Beyond the bubble (Texts 3b-l and 3b-2 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 21-26). Use linking words to guide the reader through the essay. give an account of/a brief account of . a theory. (1996). Mayfield III leave five to ten minutes at the end to reread your essay to check the clarity of your ideas. data. b) what the question is asking you to do. etc. how it works. b) explain how . 09S0}.give the reason for. evaluate Read the question very carefuily. Evaluate your ideas.) write in detail about all the different aspects of an issue or statement. their importance in society continues to rise. Writing from Sources. Read the question again to check you haven't forgotten anything. quickly write down every idea you have that could be relevant to the question.P. crossing out irrelevant ones. Brainstorm the topic.Look at the following essay title and decide: a) what the key ideas are. To stimulate your thoughts further on this topic. Write your essay.U.

official figures showed crime was down.• From The Economist. English for academic study Writing . ilYAi"!'lliFie.driven in part by the fad for pinching mobile phones ..has rocketed.-~. Yet violent crime .- Discuss your ideas with one or two other students. " The streetcrime statistics reinforce the impression of anarchy created by a string of muggings and car-jackings._~. adapted from focus of each article is. The Economist. making decisions about organising your ideas. The government responded by investing more money in fighting crime. But the truth is that overall levels of crime are falling: robbery. --. Discuss possible ways to organise your ideas with one or two other students. in part. to Tony Blair's claim that the party would be "tough on crime and tough on the causes of crime. "J effectively ending an essay with a conclusion. and decide what the main Article 1: Crime in Britain From economistcom.-. Over the last decade. where robbery plays a proportionally bigger role than it does in Britain. 2002 making decisions about what the essay title is asking you to write about." But in 2000 Jack Straw. 2002 What are the key ideas in the essay title? Discuss your views with another student Spend five minutes writing down any ideas you have that are relevant to this essay.. -------'"_.----~~~--~--~. represents only a small fraction of the total. What is this essay asking you to do? What would be an appropriate way to organise your ideas for this type of essay? Why? The Home Office estimates that robbery will have risen by 29% in London in the year to March 2002 . then Britain's home secretary. while distressing. incorporating that information in your own writing. Different people can look at the same statistics and make completely different statements about them Read the two articles below.. 4-2 and 4-3 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 27-35.--"'-'---'-'~"-" "---. in order to develop further ideas for your essay.Read Texts 4-1. June 20"'. Labour was elected in 1997 thanks. Criminologists speculate that improved home and vehicle security may have displaced some criminals on to the streets: the ecology of crime may be becoming more like that in some American cities. This essay is asking you to consider the different ways that statistical data can be interpreted and analysed. effectively ending a paragraph with a concluding sentence.-. 2: Don't panic Bmain is not quite ClS dClngerous Cl plece ClS the home secretCli)! SCl\lS it is •. the levels of car theft and burglary have declined (see chart). entitled Statistics without tears. admitted that crime was rising. March 21". making decisions about what information in a text is useful to support your ideas. which appeared at first to work: at the 2001 election.-..-.>.

what is the point that the journalists are trying to make? Now.. reply the police. But the longer-term trend is not necessariiy evidence of a new plague of delinquency. ask him or her to explain.(// '\. replied his dark shadow. and only a quarter of those appear in police records . Theft of or from airs (957. because insurance requires it. you can fool all the people all the time..=. Can you think of situations in your own subject area when statistics on the same subject are reported.8. In the 1980s. crime is up. 1992-2001 (number of offences. that previously would have gone The Times: October 18. Discuss your ideas with one or two other students. Perhaps the plan needs to be changed or developed more.~.~//' .. Plainly any shift in the manner of reporting crime (by the public) or recording it (by the police) can have a big effect on the police figures./ 180 160 140 120 ... AI! rights reserved. and by whom. the overall figure fJJ Only half the crimes which the public claim to have reported to the police are recorded by them. said Jack Straw. Read another student's plan and answer the following questions about his/her plan: What is the overall idea in the essay? Is it obvious from the section on the Introduction what the writer's thesis is? It may be said that a survey shows that rapes are up. As you have discussed in 1. but can suggest different viewpoints? Exchange your ideas with two other students. there must be an increased number that have not. and given that more are reported.. Cynics might even suggest a link . What it really means is that more are reported. So what is going on? Crime statistics are proof positive that.~/ ~ :~ ~~~::~a:~e::~i~:ia~~~:~~~~n~~i~~:si: I ':: 1992 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 2000 01 extortionate bullying. of a kind • 'racrs ending March from 1998. or may not. change in methodology 1999 Source Home 011. statistics are manipulated. Copyright © 2002 The Economist Newspaper and The Economist Group. it is up.. Of course.. Two down. They may._ Robb'''!I''.. cheered the home secretary yesterday./A. The rest vanish. . .. But only a third of assaults came to police attention. English for academicsludy . discuss in what situations. these are traumatic for the victims . Does the plan follow a logical sequence of ideas? Are the ideas grouped effectively into paragraphs? Is the main idea clear in each paragraph? How many paragraphs will the essay contain? If the answers to these questions are not clear from looking at your partner's plan.0271 .688) ~ 0" l robbery in which the phone is the only thing stolen is growing faster still. so that the complete truth is hidden..) its name Crime is down. so did recorded crime. Crime is big politics. one 10 go Recorded crime'. No. crime is definitely down says the British Crime Survey. No. In the following extracts from The Times. With one or two other students. so did recorded crime. crime is one area in which statistics are used to present a particular situation.. When police numbers fell in the 1990s. Home Office research suggests that if all robberies involving phones were disregarded. Ail car thefts are recorded.. As weil as the closing of off-street opportunities. 2000 unreported.. including ideas of your own and ideas from the texts in the Writing Source Book. There has indeed been a particular explosion of robbery in the past year.AMide 2: Don't panic (cont. No.. organise your ideas into a logical order in a plan which clearly shows the structure of your essay. represent the true situation. it reflects the advent of new on-street onesspecifically the temptation of mobile phones. in reply. ~ And the headline robbery statistics themselves may not be quite so mortifying as they seem. with a bit of art.. Ann Widdecombe.but they bear little relation to the ultra-violence that preoccupies the tabloids. Hurrah.. when police numbers were rising. 2001) Robbery invoiving mobile phones is growing faster than robbery overall. / .68'} '''010''!1836.

D. the movement of people across regions in given time periods can be considered. assessing the length of time a mass migration takes from its inception to its conclusion. by definition only emerged with the establishment of the nation state. First and foremost. First. into Latin America. By allowing advertising revenue and sponsorship into the television funding mix . Read your partner's draft carefully. et aI. However. both of which will affect a widening pool of other nations. From its Western core. adapted from Held. 357) Discuss your ideas with another student. if ever.the amount of time it takes a migrant to get from his or her original locale to a new host country. 'i!ll Rapid demographic growth is a key factor in explaining the increasing Write. television has spread in the postwar years across Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Identifying historical patterns of trade globalization is the primary objective of this chapter. (p. Second. immiseration of sub-Saharan Africa and processes of desertification and soil decline. 149) In the last twenty years. and this entails deploying the analytical framework developed in the introduction. 379) Read the following paragraphs. Trade has been entwined with the rise of the modern state and its fortunes: states required revenues. the number of terrestrial channels has steadily climbed.Consider your partner's comments on your plan and try to improve it. Thus environmental problems in single African states have spilt over into the international politics of banking. been matched by a corresponding increase in the capacity of national audiovisual industries to supply all of the potential broadcast slots.. find someone else who has also finished.the potential output and funding base of national TV has risen. Second. When you have finished your first draft. this has been because governments have been prepared to enlarge the funding base for television companies. This has contributed to the growing economic problems of the region and its mounting international debts. changes in transportation technology have made a major difference in this respect. What function does the final sentence in each paragraph have? Ii:!! The rapidity or velocity of migration can be assessed in two ways. The resolution of these international issues has involved political contests and struggles between Western governments and their financial sectors. the expansion of output has rarely. a series of technological and political changes have transformed the televisual landscape and have contributed to the globalization of television as a medium and as an industry. above all to wage military campaigns. In part.the first draft of your essay. but later in other areas as well. the demographic and environmental squeeze on the South may contribute towards political instability and outward migration. for there is clearly a limit to the numbers of channels and programmes that can be funded by subsidy/licence fee alone. the number of countries with broadcasting systems and number of televisions available on which to watch their output has steadily risen. and trade offered an obvious source of funds. first within the West.be it through public corporations taking advertising or wholly private stations . In the future. Thus the expansion of television output across and within countries has fuelled the demand for television imports. internationally and domestically. Polity Press (1999). velocity in individual terms can be considered . Great trading empires have arisen periodically ever since regular long-distance travel became possible. (p. (p. Global Transformations. Clearly. Exchange drafts. Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation Sheet for Unit 4 on page 66 of this book. English for academic sludy Writing . Asia and Africa. But international trade. 284) If!j) Trade in the sense of the exchange of goods and services between people over distance has a long history. (p. the exchange of goods and services between nations.

~ _._. As a result. and thus cut overhead costs. can help your reader understand the main idea in a paragraph more clearly. Complete the following box with some ideas of your own. Agricultural crops have been damaged. the sea levels are rising around the world. Many African countries.. suggest possible solutions. This situation has placed excessive strain on the system as it tries to meet these demands. predict the future. only a small percentage proceed to high school level. In hot weather the heart needs to work harder. for example. for example. which has led to the disappearance of many islands. Can you write a suitable one for each paragraph? Global warming has had a number of negative effects on the environment. especially._ _ _ ~. The concluding sentence in a paragraph can have a number of functions. or topic sentences. although a large proportion of students may enter the school system. One problem is the pressure of the increasing population on the demand for school places. the quality of teaching will remain low.. link the ideas of the paragraph to the ideas of the following paragraph._ _ . make a conclusion from the information given in the paragraph. and continue to be one of the causes of poor performance.. and it has also led to a declining quality in the teaching. It can also affect the immune system.~ Discuss with your class and teacher whether the concluding sentences in the paragraphs in 2.. a concluding sentence can help the reader understand more clearly how you have developed the main idea in a paragraph. The concluding sentences from the following paragraphs from student essays have been removed. The concluding sentence in a paragraph can: summarise the main ideas of your paragraph. have a much lower yield of agricultural production. Furthermore. However. as many employees can now work at home or in satellite offices. we saw how paragraph leaders. extremely hot temperatures can increase the number of people who die on any given day. This revolution has helped reduce the need for paper-handling operations and other routine work. until more money can be injected into teachers' salaries.In Unit 2. The other reason is that teachers' salaries are low. English Jor academic study Wrillng .1 have any of the above functions. Similarly. so many people are suffering from famine.~ . Watson (1980) states that 'teachers in Thailand remain ill paid'. and then discuss them with your teacher. and an even smaller number finish high school. in particular. . using computers and telecom mu nication devices _.. The development of information technology has meant that many businesses have been able to reduce their running costs. thereby attracting better staff. it has also enabled companies to dismantle their main offices. Global warming can also affect people's health. ~ concluding sentence in a paragraph can: There are two major reasons for the declining quality in the teaching. last year's rice production decreased. restate the main topic.

They need only to be shown the direction in which to go in order to solve their problems. In spite of all the efforts that have already been made in the economic and social fields. . and if no action is taken within the next few years. with programme ownership and implementation anchored in the developing countries. Before giving financial aid or machinery. they should act as vehicles for transferring knowledge. so an effective conclusion might progress from a specific statement to a general statement. if there were no debts and no unfair constitutions with no interference in their internal problems. it seems that the roots of the current crisis from which the third world suffers are centuries old.~ ----~ . These ideas should have already been discussed in the main body.. the situation will inevitably deteriorate.. it is important to stress that developing countries need help. solution(s) to a problem or problems described in the main body It should not include any new important ideas.. which is the most useful contribution developed countries can make to developing countries. and then they will be able to achieve their goal. Read the following conclusions to an essay with the title Is It better to help developing countries to help themselves than to give them food and machinery? Identify the function(s) of these paragraphs. The most common types of conclusions may include: a summary of the main points (being careful not to repeat exactly what you have written before). The conclusion should signal to your readers that you have finished your writing and should leave them with the clear impression that the purposes of the essay have been achieved. as some of them date from the nineteenth century and are directly linked to colonialism. @I It seems that in countries with misguided policies. but it is difficult to decide which is the most effective and appropriate help for any given situation. increase a country's dependence on aid source. but stagnation and an increase in poverty. English for academic study Writing . In conclusion. and ongoing interest in and maintenance of the project over a long period.~-_ . However. and contribute to a waste of money on projects that are not viable.What is the function of a conclusion or concluding paragraph? -~. recommendations of action to be taken. because they are living in such a difficult situation compared with the developed countries. So a logical outcome of viewing development aid as a right and not as a gift. as they often support the ineffective economic policies of a government. but on the policy of education.. ~~ . where conventional aid is known to fail. These people know that it would not be an impossible achievement. or suggestions. _ . the people should be educated in how best to use them.. In some cases the consequences of such aid are not prosperity and economic development. and even affect the interests of the developed countries. concluding statements drawn from the points made in the main body. in spite of all these possible solutions. They consider that there will be a day when money and power will not be considered the most important aspects of life. --- Discuss your ideas with another student To conclude. predictions formed from information in the main body. it is the responsibility of developing countries to choose the best way because they know their own situation. Just as an effective introduction progresses from a general statement to a specific thesis statement. as they will lose the extensive markets that the developing countries represent. searching for an ideal world is the main thought that occupies the minds of most people in developing countries. ® To conclude. those who want to help should concentrate not on lending money. Other types of aid are not useful. the problems still exist. is that development cooperation should be based on a genuine partnership. The countries which want to help are wise to include local people in the early stages of planning an aid project. They should advise the governments and help to provide different kinds of training. as this cooperation results in the continuity of the programme.

You are a sociologist writing a first-year undergraduate textbook. many developed countries use international organisations as a curtain to achieve their purposes. However. However. and they use international organisations to introduce them. On the other hand. as discussed in this paper. as most people recognise. or some terminology. How would you rearrange the following sentences to form a more effective conclusion? In that sense. it is known that there are so many possible solutions to tobacco consumption's problems that it would be impossible to consider them in an essay of this length. the present situation will remain indefinitely. entitled Human activity & climate change. but not those of the developing countries. supporting and developing your ideas. Engiish tor ocodemrc Slud~i Writing 11 . they often respond to tobacco problems by suggesting alternatives that benefit their interests. e) globalisalion Now look at the conclusion of your essay on statistics and revise it. according to the tasks that you have completed in this unit. despite repeated efforts to instigate change. more should be done to ensure further improvement and participation of those bodies in the development process. How would you rearrange the following sentences to form a more effective conclusion? Read Texts 5-1 to 5-4 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 36-43. To conclude. resulting in fewer casualties. You are a pre-sessional student writing an essay on Which form or forms of education contribute to the social and economic development of a society? You are a university lecturer writing an article on the impact of economic globalisation on developing countries for an international relations journal. This is why a consideration of this situation should lead to a ban on tobacco consumption being introduced. How suitable is the following as a definition of a teacher? WhylWhy not? A teacher is a person who teaches. Here is a list of words and a context. or at least a reduction. there are many who believe that. To conclude. writing clear definitions. When do you need to define a word. for instance the cancellation of tuition fees. However. which gain $100 billion a year from taxes on tobacco. You will now practise some useful skills which you can incorporate in the first draft of your essay. the educational level is more likely to be improved and more efficient. and identify information which is relevant to the title of your essay. You are a pre-sessional student writing for a non-specialist readership. Discuss your ideas with another student. in academic life? Discuss your ideas with another student. it seems that the universities and higher education establishments have been of widespread importance in the improvement and developments realised in modern societies. as by far the biggest beneficiaries of tobacco production are the developed countries.The following sentences form the conclusion to an essay about the benefits of higher education. Which of these words do you think you need to define? Why? a) gene b) nurture c) migralion d) educalion You are a genetic engineer writing an article for a biotechnology journal.

You are a geography lecturer writing a university textbook about the changing climate in Central Africa. 434... Note: If you use an expression like may be defined as or can be defined as instead of the verb to be. The definitions given in 1. 484. natural disaster or political persecution. International Relations New York. you are being more honest and accepting that there can be alternative definitions. c) Subsistence farming is when rural communities have grown their own food. regional and local) ecosystems.5. 1 2 3 + who/which e Biodiversity is the tremendous diversity of plant and animal species making up the Earth's (global. which (with a few exceptions) was not a formal colonizer in the first place. This means that they follow a particular pattern of sentence structure. 531. For example: A triangle may be defined as a geometric figure which has three straight sides and three angles. 2 3 1 h) skimming + who/which that/where + verb Discuss your ideas with another student. e how much knowledge of the concept it is thought the readers will already have. 496) television dictionary Find two definitions in the reading text in the Reading and Writing Source Book page 37. As you will have discussed. e.g.. Now write three naming definitions for the same words. + verb that/where e The massive transfer of agricultural technology coordinated through international agencies is called the green revolution. In a naming definition. social and cultural relations across borders. For example: A geometric figure which has three straight sides and three angles may be ca/led a triangle. Are the following definitions formal or naming definitions? How could you rewrite the following definitions to make them more honest? aJ Globalisation is the intensification of economic. the verb is passive. Write a formal definition for the following words: e Refugees are people fleeing to find refuge from war. Harper Collins (1996) pp. b) o The developing countries are those countries which were previously colonised. . the special features are emphasised.4 and write a definition of them.f) parlicle physics g) deserlification You are a journalist writing an article for a quality newspaper. The period after independence is sometimes called neo-colonialism . And it covers the North-South international relations of Latin American states that have been independent for almost two centuries. This concept also covers the relationship of the third world with the United States. the amount and nature of the information that a writer gives in a definition will depend on: @ In 1.7 are known as formal definitions. may be called or may be named. You are an English-language teacher writing a book on How to read efficiently. Note: In formal definitions. Are they formal or naming definitions? • English for academicSludy Wriling . ~re (Goldstein ]. Choose four of the words in 1. whether the concept is considered to be new for the readers.the continuation of colonial exploitation without formal political control. The three elements that make up a formal definition can be put in a different order to give a naming definition. while in a naming definition it is the name of the thing being defined that is emphasised.8 you wrote three formal definitions. political.

. a) Anthropology may be defined as a branch of both science and sociology in which If so. as there is supposed to be no class system now in Japan. unlike commercial loans. You are probably aware of how important it is to support the idea(s) expressed in your topic sentence with examples and details. perception. bad and dirty.. (Buzan. conflict. jobs which are considered as impure. adjustment and mental health and social aspects of psychology.. The people called 'burakumin' are the offspring of the former cattle slaughterers. tanners and grave diggers. government-to-government development loans are often on subsidized terms. a third world state may allow an MNC to produce certain goods in the country under favorable conditions. You would find it useful to define your subject. After the Meiji Revolution. individuality and personality. and so on) from foreign sources. 541) What definitions do you think would be useful to use in your essay on climate change? Write those definitions. The following paragraphs come from student essays entitled Is it beneficial or detrimental to a country to have more than one ethnic group? Read them and then decide whether you are satisfied that you have completely understood the writer'S idea(s). why? b) If not. a revolution of democracy. skills. which must be repaid in the future out of the surplus generated by the development process . e In the field of International Relations governmental loans are funds given to help in economic development. Discrimination towards them exists and most of them are unemployed. The behaving organism is important because. 11 English tor academic sludy Writing 11 . David and Charles (1971)) Now write an extended definition of your subject. Although still an obligation for the recipient country. psychology is interested in the bodily processes that make activity possible . it is necessary to specify more clearly what psychologists mean by behaviour. with long repayment times and low interest rates. (Goldstein p. a) If you are in an academic environment with other students who are goingto study a different subject to yours. provided the MNC shares knowledge of the technology and design behind the product. why not? o people. For this definition to be useful. Read the following definitions. intermarriage with other ethnic groups is seen to be undesirable.How has the following definition of psychology been extended and how do you expect the writer to continue? What are some of the ways a definition can be extended? How have the definitions in the following paragraphs been extended? o Technological transfer refers to a third-world state's acquisition of technology (knowledge. Unemployment is not the only problem. T. specialized equipment. you may find that you need to explain your subject to them.. An idea of the meaning of behaviour can be gained if the topics covered by psychology are examined: the behaving organism. For example. 5311 (MNC=multi national corporation) Psychology may be defined as the science that studies the behaviour of man and other animals. every Japanese citizen is considered equal. as a science rooted in biology. MNCs are sometimes reluctant to share proprietary technology. so does the related technological base for further development. such loans are relatively easy to service and thus do not hold back the country's accumulation of surplus in the short term. growth and development. However. light. motivation and emotion. learning and thinking.. In this task you will look at ways of doing this. b) Physics may be defined as a branch of science in which forces such as heat. Speed Reading USA. gravity and electricity. sound. and the way that they affect objects are studied. (Goldstein p. society and culture are studied. pressure. methods. designs. usually in conjunction with direct foreign investment or similar business operations. In this way not only does physical capital accumulate in the country. The state may try to get its own citizens into the management and professional workforce of factories or facilities created by foreign investment.

Indonesia has 365 ethnic groups. _. the number of terrestrial channels has steadily climbed.---_. Do they contain a statement A country's power structure seems to be linked with its multi-ethnic struggle. .5%) and Malay (7. . do not only live on Java Island. as the majority group in each city. into Latin America. the expansion Of output has rarely. According to the research of Smith and Wallis (1996). if ever. because nowadays a multi-ethnic structure in a country seems to create racism. been matched by a corresponding increase in the capacity of national audiovisual industries to supply all of the potential broadcast slots. Second.. is in Africa. Discuss your ideas with another student Discuss with another student the different ways you can support and develop your ideas. For instance.be it through public corporations taking advertising or wholly private stations . Madurese (7.5%). so that the reader can understand fully and can follow your line of argument. $ Indonesia has a population of approximately 200 million.3 e. __ . whether it is fact or opinion. It is important to develop your ideas in these ways._- --------_. the ethnic group of the Kurds continues its conflict over their sovereignty with the Turkish. First and foremost.------------------- . a minority group like the Kurds feel that their rights have been infringed. Indonesia has a population of approximately 200 million. There is one expression which you will not use. because nowadays a multi-ethnic structure in a country seems to create racism. You may also have studied how you can use direct and indirect quotations to support your writing. Thus.. Considering this aspect.:~~~_~ for acodemic study Writing. tobacco is grown in more than a hundred countries. Global Transformations. among which there are many ethnic groups. They are Javanese (about 45%).---. a series of technological and political changes have transformed the televisual landscape and have contributed to the globalization of television as a medium and as an industry.-----------~ .-. Thissituation has been caused by the government's 1977 emigration programme by which many Javanese left Java to live on other islands. Kalimantan and lrian Jaya.. Iranian and Iraqi governments. Thus the expansion of television output across and within countries has fuelled the demand for television imports. within the West. but later in other areas as well. however. such as Sumatra. . As you have seen. of which four are major groups. D. et al. (Held. In the following paragraphs.- . G Nowadays. From its Western core._. where the crop is grown on millions of hectares and the industry employs a large amount of the local manpower.~. this has been because governments have been prepared to enlarge the funding base for television companies. Supporting with examples. the Javanese. which are ruling by military force. Each ethnic group has its own culture. how have the writers illustrated/supported their main points? $ In the last twenty years. Asia and Africa.. There are different ways of supporting a main point. The other ethnic groups make up about 26%.1 of fact or opinion? e and 2. In part. a country's policy naturally tends towards offering maximum benefit to the majority groups. but are spread among other islands. Thus. for there is clearly a limit to the numbers of channels and programmes that can be funded by subsidy/licence fee alone.. Polity Press(1999» Read the following sentences from 2. such as language.the potential output and funding base of national television has risen. among which there are many ethnic groups. television has spread in the postwar years across Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. _. the Javanese became very influential. especially those in the global south. traditional lifestyle and social discipline.._•. you can use examples. However.- . Do not use an expression more than once. and it is the chief product and commodity of exportation for many countries. figures or statistics to add support to and develop an idea. Sundanese (about 14%)..- Complete the following texts using one of the expressions that your teacher has given you. By allowing advertising revenue and sponsorship into the television funding mix ..$ A country's power structure seems to be linked with its multi-ethnic struggle. the number of countries with broadcasting systems and the number of televisions available on which to watch their output has steadily risen. What expressions can introduce an example into your writing? ------ -----------. in Turkey. They found jobs mainly in government positions or as business entrepreneurs in all the main cities of Indonesia. The main group. a multi-ethnic structure in a country can be said to be detrimental.

How could you improve the quality of your essay for this unit by incorporating definitions and support for your ideas? Now write the first draft of your essay. Read the followinq first sentence of a paragraph. t English lor aCCldemic study writing.80 1. There will also be more competition between the companies to create the best product.30 110. The communications revolution has affected the lives of ordinary citizens in a number of ways. write a paragraph which develops the following topic sentence: The weekly expenditure on travel and leisure of single moles and females is very different. find someone else who has also finished..__.00 2. on average.80 5. thus eliminating low-quality products from the market. the USA produced 223 thousand tons. Using the following statistics. 1999-2000 Men' Women' £ per week £ per week e Even though there are many reports that. and exported from..statistks.. _ in the USA.6 In addition to the limitations on advertising and promotional campaigns.20 ----- TV.60 e One advantage of having an open market is the fact that new companies can enter the market. a company had spent $150 million on such a campaign by 1999. so the customer can have a wider choice of product. regular smokers are more likely to develop lung and heart disease. many countries ...uk/statbase!xsdataset. video.80 2230 .. the delivery of junk and abusive mailas it is difficult to discover the sender. Supporting with statistical facts.90 2.gov.70 3. .~~. aged 16 and over with no children •• includes rental Source: Family Expenditure Survey...~.70 .00 5.40 5.60 • households headed by a single non-retired person.~. fares and other travel costs Alcohol and tobacco . supporting the idea in the paragraph leader in an appropriate way.~ . sometimes the fax machine and e-mail are used in a negative way. Continue the paragraph.60 14. Respond to the questions on the Peer Evaluation Sheet for Unit 5 on page 67 of this book. .. tobacco is still being produced in. Exchange drafts. computers and audio" Clothing and footwear Holidays 1050 9..20 6. e However.70 . Toiletries and beauty products Other leisure All expenditure on travel and leisure 1.. Office for National Statistics (http://www. is the growing market for mobile phones in Colombia.10 90. Brazil produced 188 thousand tons and Italy produced 138 thousand tons. Weekly expenditure on travel and leisure in the United Kingdom by gender.30 2. In 1990.asp) Supporting with chronological markers. Motoring. Read your partner's draft carefully.. 47. Two companies are trying to enter the market by offering free mobile phones. 36.. China produced 40% of the total world output of about six million tons.80 4.. 11. When you have finished your first draft. ~_ . Books and magazines Sports admissions and subscriptions Gambling 1.. It is the paragraph leader. some governments require tobacco companies with significant sales to develop national multimedia campaigns to educate young people about the real health dangers associated with tobacco use.10 5.

An example of this is the Mediterranean Sea. for some people it is almost a duty.w" ". incorporating ideas from your reading into your writing. environmental damage has reached serious proportions and natural resources have been degraded. the population suffers from the rapid proliferation of prostitution. Due to the higher standard of living. Nowadays. in France. is a case in point. the trade of ivory-made products has increased at the expense of elephants. do not hesitate to spend large amounts of money on the pleasure of having a break far from their permanent residence. most of those in the Pyrenees are polluted. In fact. it is common for people to take a holiday in a foreign country rather than in their own native country. especially in the Ivory Coast and Kenya. When expressing these in writing. beaches and extensive forest areas. many people developed a strong desire to visit different parts of the world.m""-""'"''-'''''''. you need to use appropriate patterns of content organisation. until they have reached a situation in which most of the people are living a healthy and comfortable life. In fact. the developed countries have made very significant leaps in progress. Most people tend to take a holiday at least once a year. they display advertisements and attractive pictures. Thailand. contaminates soils and causes serious damage to forest areas. In addition. 60% of the Alpine forests in France are reported to be experiencing serious degradation. @ English for ococeroic slUdy Writing . Above all. This essay will attempt to discuss the effects of tourism on people and the environment. You will explore some of these ways in this unit. it would seem that there is no part of the world that has not been touched by tourism. the dense aerial traffic created by the active movement of holidaymakers has caused an alarming rise in air pollution. and hence foreign tourism was born. @ choosing appropriate patterns of organising the content of your essays. the populations of these countries have seen their standards of living enhanced year after year. For instance. The millions of holidaymakers who travel the world looking for new places have caused serious problems for the local population and for the environment of the destination countries. due to the rising numbers of tourists visiting developing countries. which make the link between the cause and effect very clear and explicit. and appropriate language. where minors and young girls are occasionally sold by their parents.. Another harmful effect of tourism is the damage it causes to the environment. @ Since the end of World War 11. Another example is the trade in Siberian tiger furs which is threatening the species with extinction. Thus.~. So it would seem that mass tourism has caused very serious problems for both the people and the environment of the countries of destination. which is reported to be the dirtiest sea in the world because of sewage contamination. ". people. a certain proportion of the local population has developed illegal activities. where sewage is discharged directly into streams. and offer affordable prices with the aim of enticing more people to travel the world on holiday. Travel agencies and tourism companies have capitalised on this trend.- '--" . in turn. especially from the developed countries. For example.The essay that you will prepare in this unit is on the following topic: Discuss thepositive ond negative effects of globolisation ontheworld todoy. Parallel to the rise in standards of living. This has caused the number of people who travel for their holidays to multiply many times over the last few decades. particularly in South Asia. Above all. owing to the large number of tourists visiting some parts of the world. Owing to this development. holidaymakers tend to travel to tropical and coastal towns where they can enjoy permanent sunshine. One common approach to problem-solving in academic life is to examine the causes and effects of situations. German coasts have also been polluted by effluent from the many cruising boats. First you are going to look at possible ways of organising information for an essay which examines cause and effect. ~ ._w '__ '__ ' " __ '__._' " __" -. this gives rise to acid rain that. mainly due to the large number of people operating sex tourism. ' . U Read the following student essay with the title Discuss the positive and negative effects of tourism on people and the environment and decide what is the purpose of each paragraph. ~ Task 1: Microskills: Organising essays of cause and effect .

and greater consideration should be paid to the initiatives introduced to solve the problems. some governments have made considerable efforts to sensitise their population to the threat that tourism represents to the environment. and the intensity of degradation that has been registered in the environment has not declined. Also. local governments in Africa. in spite of the huge efforts made by the international courts and the organisations for the protection and promotion of children's rights. a variety of wild animals and flora is seriously threatened with extinction. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each pattern? English for academic s\udy . In fact. and the world is losing a forest the size of Britain every year. for example. The two simplest ways are as follows: Introduction (which introduces the situation to the readerl Causes Causes Causes Transition paragraph Effects Effects Effects Evaluation Conclusion o Introduction Cause/Effect Cause/Effect Cause/Effect Evaluation Conclusion al bl cl Which of these two structures is most similar to the one in the essay you have just read in its pattern of organisation? Discuss your answers with another student. At present. mass tourism is still causing many problems. is extremely restricted. in England. and evaluated the solutions. For example: Are all the paragraphs necessary? Are all the relevant points appropriately developed? What other questions can you ask to evaluate the success of this essay? An essay which involves an explanation of. such as the Leaning Tower of Pisa in Italy and the Parthenon in Athens. such as alcohol-related problems and violence. In addition. have declared war on the illegal trade of elephants' ivory and the fur of wild animals that are currently menaced with extinction. the government spends billions of euros on ways to protect the national nature reserves and tidy the beaches and mountain villages from touristrelated waste. the worst possible outcome is to be expected. many residents wear antitourist badges in protest against the increase in the number of tourists. It therefore seems that significant efforts have been made in different parts of the world where nature appears to be threatened. If nothing is done in the next few years. and gangs are becoming more organised because of the potential profits that can be obtained from this traffic. so campaigns have been launched and money has been spent to protect the environment and to counteract the environmental damage that has been caused already. outlined the laws and initiatives adopted by governments and international non-governmental organisations to abolish these problems. The strict laws do not seem to dissuade the gangs from carrying out these illegal and destructive activities. which governments have been unable to prevent despite their efforts to do so. the causes and effects of a situation can be developed in a number of ways. Access to many monuments. In addition. there is a marked deterioration in the behaviour of young people associated with tourism.e The rising intensity of the threat that mass tourism represents has prompted some governments and non-governmental organisations to act swiftly. In York. Look again at the title and decide whether the writer has achieved the task. with the help of non-governmental organisations like Greenpeace. and an analysis of. and more destruction is likely to occur to nature and humanity. there are still hundreds of thousands of tourists who are reported to practise sex tourism and to abuse poverty. In addition. In France. This essay has provided an illustration of the problems generated by mass tourism nowadays. The solutions that have been adopted by governments have not shown much effectiveness or efficiency. Although governments have made serious efforts to deal with the problems. The underlying causes of these problems require more serious attention. the deterioration of sea water has already caused the extinction of some sea species. It is also engaged in creating tree plantations to replace trees destroyed by acid rain. sometimes by enacting strict new laws. the traffic of ivory and rare animal furs has considerably increased.

Structure: noun + (modal auxiliary verb) + cause + noun English for ococenac study Writing.._. Iow productivity Many young couples are not able to buy their own house.. _--- The fmatfin dlth' d reason for choosing a university is its academic reputation.vel + cause + of + noun + verb to be + .soil erosion C using cause as a verb i) satellites . mobile phones j) high birth rate .- I I I e) inflation ._.In paragraphs 1 and 2 there are some underlined expressions in italics... _ . ~. Structure: The + (a~ective) + reason + for + noun + verb '/-0 be + . irrigate fields ----. unemployment Structure: The + (a~ectivel + reason + for + verb to be + __ . . b) rain .. will Falls in the Asian stock market may cause significant damage to markets in the United States and Europe.cultural convergence ... a) infected mosquitoes .•. ...4 to connect the ideas given.. .... c) globalisation .....~- g) absenteeism .floods Structure: The + (a~ect. may Student loans can cause financial problems for some categories of graduates.~ •._~... _ _ ing + noun + f) arid climate . I drank a glass of water.._~.. Example: thirsty .._ .. Since I was thirsty. ..adrenalin . A using cause as a noun Write ten sentences.. _ h) lack of plants .drink water. 4 and 5._~._ . What purpose do these expressions have within or between the sentences? a) Find similar expressions with the same function in paragraphs 3..__ . b) Do you know any more such expressions? Here are some useful expressions commonly used when expressing cause and effect: c) Compare your answers with another student._--~ ----~ .overcrowding -_. The reason for this situation is the rising price of housing. using some of the expressions discussed in 1. ns secon Ir Students] key reason for entering higher education is to improve t~eir employment prospects. . using reason as a noun d) fear .. ._ . main The cause of the damage was not known.malaria direct likely The major cause of death was a serious bacterial infection.

entitled The global Village.. Structure: The + (d~eetivel + effect of noun + verb to be + __. F using effect (noun) pattern 2 Read Texts 6-1 to 6-6 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 44-55. I a auXJ lary '1' I affect<s) + + noun phrase as direct o~ect Wrilin9 . Loans may have a disincentive effect on the willingness of individuals from low socio-economic groups to participate in higher education. people often become ill. Then brainstorm ideas in order to develop further ideas for your essay. Sirllcture: notAr + (modal dlAXiliary verb) + have + a/an + (*tivel + effect + on + . When a reduction in the research funds available occurs. _ You are going to write an essay on the following topic: Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalisation on the world today. Organise your ideas in a plan. considering the information you read in the text. Structure: Noun Phrdse + haS resulted + in + noun Phrdse Sirllcture: When + cause + effect E using effect (noun) pattern 1 The effect of loan sales is an immediate improvement in the public finances. there is a decrease in the number of medical research projects. Write your second draft..__._-Write your first draft. The effect of greenhouse gases is to warm the atmosphere.. Decide which pattern of organisation is most appropriate for your essay. Quickly decide with another student what the question is asking you to do. The increase in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere significantly affects some of the continental scale patterns of climate change. When there is a dense accumulation of pollutants in the air. Adverse weather conditions can affed the psychological state of human beings. substantial effect on the behaviour Violence on television can have a(n) adverse strong of children. G using affect (verb) Exchange drafts with another student and evaluate each other's drafts using Peer Evaluation Sheet for Unit 6 on page 68 of this book. Exchange plans with another student and evaluate each other's plans. adverb Sirllcture: noun + mod I .D using result as a verb H using the first conditional The rise in house prices has resulted in fewer young people buying their first home.

I am a foreign student /Mrg in Britain. However. a number of ethical issues have arisen. fnerds and practise my Erg/ish. a section of a longer document. it will also take many years for any adjustment to take place. The following pattern of organisation is often found in texts which present problems and explore what can be done about them: Situation Problem(s) Solution(s) Implication(s) Evaluation/comment/assessing the implications It is a very common way of organising ideas in academic writing and can be used for: a paragraph. WrHinq. This article uses the pattern of organisation: ~ Task 1: Microskills: Organising essays: Situation. This unit will help you develop the following skills: choosing appropriate patterns of organising the content of your essays. evaluation Another common approach to problem-solving in academic life is to examine the problems that have arisen from a specific situation. I sJ. As a result of this development. suggest solutions to the problems. The implications of this suggestion are wide. and the working population are resistant to outside competition for employment opportunities. students. However. it is hoped that over time and with greater understanding of the global picture and the possibility of a global governing body that is fair to all global citizens. implications. cultural exchange and awareness-raising programmes and. I£j . It is mainly the governments of the host countries that seek to solve these problems by establishing language programmes. and suggests a solution to the problem. such as the proportion of ethnic groups within a country. the effect of a multicultural society and the distribution of wealth. where possible. You will explore these In this unit. which has led to a problem. solution. Then state the implication(s) and evaluate them. employment opportunities. The movement of populations across borders has increased to such an extent as to produce a global migration crisis. and not without problems: many older people are resistant to change. Think of a situation that you are in. students and 50 carnJt make Britl5l. a complete book. a complete article.Here is an example of this pattern in a short paragraph. There also needs to be a much higher level of cooperation between the host country and the country of origin in order to establish a clear identity for the migrants. different to the one above. . I fird rt V€{y drffeuJt to rreet Britl5l. It is obvious that any solution to the problems mentioned above will involve much greater cooperation at the levels of citizens. I willjoin sore uriversiIy clubs 50 as to rreet 50rre students. This sJ.aJd help to Fd rre in contact w'rI-h Britl5l. Write a short paragraph which shows the situation and the problem. In this unit you will choose an essay to write based on the topic of either globalisation or the rise of English as a world language. and will find it useful to use them in the essay you will write. When expressing this approach In writing. racism. look at the. and to realise the benefits that a multicultural society can bring. problem. there needs to be more openness and willingness on behalf of the native population to accept and receive migrants into their society. incorporating ideas from your reading into your writing. the problems resulting from the issues of global migration will be minimised. if this pattern of migration continues. the national identity of a country. Read the following article about global migration. you need to make choices as to the most appropriate way of organising the information In your writing and the most appropriate language to use to express your ideas. Implications of the suggested solutions and evaluate these. ethnic groups and political bodies.aJd then be able to make fnerds and improve my Erg/ish.

. English for academic study Writing • .-----~. Explain how this situation has arisen and offer some solutions to this problem. You should use the information from both texts. SihJation . explain how they arose. Solution(s): o There are a number of problems associated with the rise of English as a world language. Decide how your groups of points can be arranged effectively in a Evaluation: _ €) -----~~_. Evoluation pattern.. Decide how your points can be grouped together. @ @ Try to arrange your ideas in a logical order. Problem . and that this is a problem. Implication .. Solulion . These will help you respond fully to the following task. thinking about the order and grouping of your ideas. Implkation(s): Plan your essay. o The process of globalisation has given rise to a number of problems. Choose one of the following essays: Situation: _~ . explain the situation which gave rise to the problem and offer some solutions. and any of your own texts to support the ideas in your essay. Compare your answers with another student. What language do you think it is appropriate to use when giving an evaluation? Write your second draft. o It could be said that globalisation has increased the gap between the 'haves' and 'have nots'. Write your first draft.. Identify one of these problems. Read Text 7-1 in the Reading and Writing Source Book pages 56-64. You should also evaluate your solutions. Is there a further problem created by the proposed solution in the text? Exchange drafts with another student and evaluate his/her plan. offer some solutions and evaluate your proposed solutions. You should also evaluate your solutions.2. entitled The new linguistic order. and reread the texts entitled The global village on pages 44-55. Brainstorm your ideas.Complete the flow diagram below on the basis of the text in 1. so that each group has one main or unifying idea. Exchange plans with another student and evaluate his/her plan. Outline some of these problems.

does the writer need to add further information or examples to make a point clearer? g) Does the writer need to remove unnecessary information? . Now discuss each other's drafts. or if the writer's main ideas are riot clear. Try to comment on both the strengths and weaknesses in your partner's draft. Then read the following questions and reread the parts of the essay which will enable you to answer the questions below.ESSAY: What are the aims of academic study and how can they be achieved? ESSAY: Nurture strongly influences early human development. Ask each other questions like: C. as the reader. incorporating all the improvements you have discussed and considered. Paragraphing: a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped effectively into paragraphs? b) If not. how has the writer achieved this? c) What could the writer do to improve it? C. as the reader. e) Does the writer explain enough about the main idea in each paragraph to make it clear to the reader? Now discuss each other's drafts. Discuss. Argument: a) Is the writer's argument clear throughout the essay? b) Is the writer's argument well supported with evidence? c) Has the writer given opposing viewpoints? d) Does the writer's argument convince you? Read your partner's draft carefully. does the writer need to change the order of ideas? c) Does each paragraph have a paragraph leader which tells the reader what the main idea of the paragraph is? d) Underline what you think the paragraph leaders are. Conclusion: Do you feel. Which comments do you agree with? Why? Which comments do you disagree with? Why? Rewrite your draft. Which comments do you agree with? Why? Which comments do you disagree with? Why? Rewrite your draft. Additional Information: What additional information from the text you have read on academic success could be incorporated into the second draft of the essay? f) If not. discuss these and suggest ways of making them clearer. that there is a suitable conclusion to the essay which refers back to the main ideas of the essay? @ If points are not clear. @ Conclusion: Do you feel. a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped effectively into paragraphs? b) If not. Then read the following questions and reread the parts of the essay which will enable you to answer them: Why did you begin as you did? Why did you organise the ideas in the way you did? What is the most important idea in your draft? What do you mean by this point? Introduction: a) Does the introduction start with a general statement related to the topic and gradually become more specific? b) Is there a thesis statement which tells the reader what the essay will be about? c) Does the essay explain what the thesis statement said it would? d) What could the writer do to improve it? Introduction: a) Does the essay' have an introduction? b) Does the introduction explain clearly to the reader what the topic of the essay is? If so... does the writer need to change the order of ideas? c) Does the writer explain enough about the main idea in each paragraph to make it clear to the reader? Paragraphing: Consider your partner's comments carefully. incorporating all the improvements you have discussed and considered. Try to comment on both the strengths and weaknesses in your partner's draft. Read your partner's draft carefully. that there is a suitable conclusion to the essay which refers back to the main ideas of the essay? Consider your partner's comments carefully.

Introduction: a) Does the introduction start with a general statement related to the topic and gradually become more specific? b) Is there a thesis statement which tells the reader what the essay will be about? c) Does the essay explain what the thesis statement said it would? d) What could the writer do to improve it? If not. Then read the following questions and reread the parts of the essay which will enable you to answer them. Discuss. does the writer need to change the order of ideas? c) Does each paragraph have a paragraph leader which tells the reader what the main idea of the paragraph is? d) Underline what you think the paragraph leaders are. they can both lie and tell the truth. Then read the following questions and reread the parts of the essay which will enable you to answer them. Which comments do you agree with? Why? Which comments do you disagree with? Why? Rewrite your draft. e) Does the writer explain enough about the main idea in each paragraph to make it clear to the reader? f) Incorporation of sources: Introduction: a) Does the introduction start with a general statement related to the topic and gradually become more specific? b) Is there a thesis statement which tells the reader what the essay will be about? c) Does the essay explain what the thesis statement said it would? d) What could the writer do to improve it? a) Is information used from the text appropriately incorporated and paraphrased? b) If not. what should the writer do to improve it? c) Underline two examples where information has been incorporated from the text. incorporating all the improvements you have discussed and considered. Which comments do you agree with? Why? Which comments do you disagree with? Why? Rewrite your draft. Try to comment on both the strengths and weaknesses in your partner's draft. If not. i) Find two concluding sentences and write down what you think their function is. Consider your partner's comments carefully. Now discuss each other's drafts. Try to comment on both the strengths and weaknesses in your partner's draft. does the writer need to change the order of ideas? c) Does each paragraph have a paragraph leader which tells the reader what the main idea of the paragraph is? Paragraphing: a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped effectively into paragraphs? b) If not. does the writer need to add further information or examples to make a point clearer? Consider your partner's comments carefully. b) Has the writer used appropriate language in his/her definitions? c) If the writer has not included any definitions. Read your partner's draft carefully. do you think he/she should have? If so. what words should he/she have defined? Paragraphing: a) Are the ideas in the essay grouped effectively into paragraphs? b) If not. ESSAY: What role has human activity played in causing climate change? h) Does each paragraph have a concluding sentence which appropriately ends the paragraph? Read your partner's draft carefully.ESSAY: Statistics should be interpreted with caution as they can be misleading. incorporating all the improvements you havediscussed and considered. d) Underline what you think the paragraph leaders are. does the writer need to add further information or examples to make a point clearer? g) Does the writer need to remove unnecessary information? h) Does each paragraph have a concluding sentence which appropriately ends the paragraph? i) Find two concluding sentences and write down what you think their function is. e) Does the writer explain enough about the main idea in each paragraph to make it clear to the reader? f) b) What is the particular function of the conclusion? c) What could the writer do to improve it? Now discuss each other's drafts. g) Does the writer need to remove unnecessary information? . Conclusion: a) Does the essay have an appropriate conclusion? b) What is the particular function of the conclusion? c) What could the writer do to improve it? Conclusion: a) Does the essay have an appropriate conclusion? Definitions: a) Underline any definitions of important words or expressions that the writer has made.

. ~''''_ . "'~.. .• • • ~~ ~. ..____ ._. doesthe writer need to add further information or examples? ~h·Qog~r:Jr[fl~_Qo.Q._QbQtJr...di{. Examples: . ~~ _ Overall organisation: a) What pattern of organisation has the writer used? b) Is it clear that the writer is writing about cause and effect? .. " •• . Supporting idea 4: K"g<>tL._ '''_'' __ ' ' ' ' ' ' ._. . does the writer need to change the order of ideas? paragraph leader which tells the reader what the main idea is? Consider your partner's comments carefully. Examples:. what should the writer do? information has been incorporated? cl Does the essay explain what the ZeJ. Which comments do you agree with? Why? Which comments do you disagree with? Why? Rewrite your draft._ cl Underline two examples where Examples:pr: .__.__. Definitions: 01 Has the writer used appropriate language in his/her definitions? bl If the writer has not included any definitions..btJ()')Qo. ._. . Examples:.dJiveJopQJ!ialDJi£nd:iQIJ. ___ ._.__ ~ . .t~. _'' ~ . ..butr>arLdevelopQJ!iDL ..o. Then read the following questions and reread the parts of the essay which will enable you to answer them.eeo.1 If not..____________' . Now discuss each other's drafts....?2<'.. .._ .APPENDIX 1: Example of an essay plan for Unit 2 ESSAY: Discuss the positive and negative effects of globalisation on the world today... DISCUSS.Qlb_ .m-~QtJ__"Dd__ s/si.il__oo.__. ..~~. Try to comment on both the strengths and weaknesses in your partner's draft. Supporting idea 2: W. TiTLE: NURTURE STRONGLY INFLUENCES EARLY HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.. ' _ _ ' .g.-. Supporting idea 1: .r:.r:l\JrWr€ Supporting idea 1:LoQ.S&flWrie:.re. Supporting idea 3: . should he/she have? What words should he/she have defined? Conclusion: a) Does the essay have an appropriate conclusion? b) What is the particular function of the conclusion? c) What could the writer do to improve it? PARAGRAPH TWO Main idea:2I-rQrJgJn:f1lJ€tX-e of rn:I:lJ._._."r:ll"_bl. .__._~ Supporting idea 2: . __~ . ._. ..:.~ .-==to.QeoWry Examples: ±<i:.QJ!iIL . ._..3Q Examples:.- .. w ••...for ()')Qoy.. _ ."-ml:\.---._----._.. __. 12.~:rhi5 essay . .~_ . . PARAGRAPH THREE Paragraphing: al Are the ideas in the essay grouped effectively into paragraphs? bl If not.!€!JCe5_. .\YJI. _ cl How could the writer improve his/her overall structure? Examples: ~_~...Ze/<i<:-.'LoLrnttJrJi_"lJcL !JkLdtJr:.JjmtJJslioD..• W . . 'i i CONCLUSION: cl Does each paragraph have a • English for acodemic study Writing IIL_-. incorporating all the improvements you havediscussed and considered.-__ . fl Does the writer need to remove unnecessary information? Introduction: 01 Does the introduction start with a general statement related to the topic and gradually become more specific? bl Is there a thesis statement which says what the essay will be about? thesis statement said it would? dl What could the writer do to improve it? gl Does each paragraph have a concluding sentence which appropriately ends the paragraph? PARAGRAPH ONE Main idea: S!r.~dy.____________.. _ . __ .k?Jt'. . __ ._..~ha~db(L Read your partner's draft carefully..\Yb~tb~crn:l:lJ._._. iNTRODUCTiON: dl Does the writer explain enough about the main idea in each paragraph to make it clear? Thesis statement:~!JerqL<ib..' .J.!Q'klILdevebpQJ!iot~L~_l"Ccber:. ._.______ .bq)!~ __ ~ J..3mitJ. . _..Q!JginfltJe. __ Supporting idea 3: Incorporation of sources: 01 Is any information used from the text appropriately incorporated and paraphrased? bl If not.._..jf2€!i!:-h_level . ..r:glJirJg.._.. .__...____.._._..QlJt...._....OIJ?r 1'i.delLdopQJ!itJr.. .reQr:rudtJr._.d:~__d€gr??JQ_yvbjch_wdtJr:ein£ll..OC&Qf. !i<ldy.._.

._. as in the following diagram:r. Rewrite the paragraph so that it follows the opposite pattern of comparison/contrast. Most of them are given below..•. X is Does the paragraph below follow a vertical or horizontal pattern of organisation? Apples are generally oval in shape. Comparison within sentences Whether you choose the vertical or the horizontal pattern depends on the kind of text you are writing. _--~.• _-~~-_ .. _•. however.ture is usually firm and 50metimes even hard.• _ . Now write a short paragraph comparing the food in your country with the food in another country you know._ _. are more round in shape...._ . its purpose and your own preference..APPENDIX 2: Organising essays of comparison &contrast A description based on comparison and contrast can be developed in two ways: You can group the main ideas about Subject A in one paragraph or section and the main ideas about Subject B in the next paragraph or section.._~~~~~~~--. ~~~~~~~.. Rewrite the paragraph using the opposite pattern.. X resembles Y in that I they are both large/expensive. .•. There are a number of useful expressions and markers which are commonly used when comparing and contrasting. Choose either the vertical or horizontal pattern. and compare and contrast them one after the other in a horizontal movement. .. Both patterns are commonly used in descriptions involving comparison and contrast. Diagram 1: Vertical pattern SubjectA Ideo 1 Ideo 2 Ideo 3 Ideo 4 ---. X is costly to buy I and it is (also) costly to maintain. 11 English for academic sludy Writing 11 .. you can treat the corresponding ideas on Subject A and Subject B as a pair. Their colour range is more limited .... In terms of tex._- ..-... in a vertical movement. Some writers and readers find the horizontal pattern clearer because it repeatedly reminds them of the comparison or contrast relationship. They range in colour from green to yellow to red. Their tex. The horizontal pattern is often more suitable for a longer piece of writing. very quite rather like Y similar similar to Y in terms of with respect to with regard to quality/size..from vermillion to pale orange.. Others prefer the vertical pattern because of its relative simplicity.ture they are relanvely 50#. expense. Alternatively. exactly precisely just virtually almost nearly the same as Y.. _--_.. as in the following diagram. Most oranges. Diagram 2: Horizontal pattern SubjectA Ideo 1 Ideo 2 Idea 3 Ideo 4 X is X and Yare X is __•.• _------- Subject B Read another student's paragraph and say whether it is written with a horizontal or vertical pattern.~~~ Subject B . ------~.

agreement of subject and verb. it is cheap to operate/maintain.g. reread your essays and the feedback that the teacher has given you. etc. By/In contrast. X has four aspects. Moreover. you will assess the progress in your academic writing that you have made so far on this course by evaluating the essays you have written and deciding on your strengths and weaknesses. What action are you going to take to ensure you continue to develop your academic writing skills? X is considerably a great deal (very) much rather somewhat a little slightly only just scarcely smaller than y. look for strengths and weaknesses that occur in more than one essay. can I identify exactly which areas I need to work on? (e. ® ® in that x is smaller/more expensive. Thinking about the input that you have had on this course on developing your academic writing. Furthermore. In addition. On the other hand. X is expensive to buy. present perfect tense) Contrast within sentences @ X is unlike Y X differs from Y X and Y differ X is different from Y X contrasts with Y with respect to with regard to in terms of size/expense. Conversely. Likewise. Complete the table on page 74 with relevant comments in the appropriate columns. Contrast berween sentences X is expensive to buy. However. etc. In this section. it is expensive to maintain/operate. whereas while but yet although Y has three. Ask yourself these questions: ® Is the content in my essays consistently relevant and well developed? Do I have consistent problems with organisation? Do I make repeated mistakes with certain language areas? If so.Comparison between sentences APPENDIX 3: Assessing my progress Similarly. English for academic study v\!riting . etc.

I . -- I Language -~ --- I I I I I I I I I - I . i i I I I I Organisation I-- I i I . i I i I . but have difficulty in applying in my essays I I I I I i Overall strengths Overall weaknesses My main areas to focus on in the future I i .My progress in academic writing I I Task achievement Irelating the essayto the title or topic and overall completion of essay) What I've been taught and can apply In my essays Name: What I've been taught. I I i I . Content L-tI I I i I I -1--I .

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