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Table Of Contents In The Whole Book
Part I : The Sword And The Shield
Section 1: Identity, Division, Symmetry, Set Theory, Logic,
Numbers and Functions
Chapter 1 : Identity, Division & Symmetry Pages 1 to 19
Topics : Identity, Division, Symmetry, Difficulty identification 1, Example in
Solving Quadratic Equations 3, Cubic Equation 5, Summation Of Series 6,
Constants, Principle of equivalence 11, Conservation Laws, Invariants
11, Fixed Points, Breaking Symmetry to get the roots etc. 18
Chapter 2 : Set Theory, Relations, Functions etc. Pages 1 to 27
Topics : Set Theory 1,
1
Russel’s Paradox 1, Examples of sets, null set,
indexed set, complement, Universal set etc. ,Infinite sets 3, Set Operations 4,
Venn Diagrams 7, De Morgan’s Theorems 8, Power set 12, Relations 12,
Mappings 13, Binary relations 13, Binary Operations 14, Operation tables 14,
Commutative, associative, distributive properties, Identity and inverse
elements, Reflexive, symmetric , transitive Relations, Equivalence Relations
15, Partitions 15, Equivalence Classes 15,21, Countability 18, Euler’s Circle
20, Algebraic structures on sets, such as groups, vector spaces, topological
spaces, metric spaces25.
Chapter 3 : Symbolic Logic, Mathematical Logic, and Logical gates
Pages 1 to 52
Topics : Boolean Algebra for making algebra for set theory and logic 1,
Symbolic Logic, Statements, Conjunction, Disjunction, negation,
contradiction, tautology etc compared to null set, complement, Universal set
etc.2, , Duality in Boolean Algebra and symbolic logic 7, Contradiction
statements 6, Compound statements 4, Truth value of logical statements and
Truth tables 13, Premises, conclusion, Arguments, validity of argument 22,
De Morgan’s laws in symbolic logic 17, Bi-conditional statements 20, Boolean
expressions and functions 26, Arrow Diagram 28, Input- output tables 29,
Signals and logical gates 31, AND gate, OR gate, NOT gate, NAND gate,
NOR gate, XOR gate, XNOR gate, Equivalent circuits 37, Combinatorial

1
The less prominent and unusual topics are marked in bold.
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circuits 41, Rules for making them 42, Use of Boolean algebra in logical gates
44.
Chapter 4 : The Story Of Numbers Pages 1 to 63
Topics : Variable, Constant, Interval 1,Peano’s theory of natural numbers 1,
Principle Of Mathematical Induction ( in two forms) 3, Recapitulation of
permutation, combination and binomial theorem 6, Infinitesimals 9, Natural
numbers, integers, rational numbers, irrational numbers, surds,
transcendental numbers, Real numbers, Complex numbers 11, Hilbert’s
number 32, Scales of Notation, Decimal, binary etc. 13, Why they call a
song or dance as numbers, 17 Division by 0 18, Countability of rational
numbers 19, un-countability of real numbers 27, The Napierian number e
22, 23, examples of transcendental numbers 28, a set of measure 0 29,
Gelfond’s theorem 31, Cardinal numbers, transfinite sets 32, equivalent of
sets 33, Complex numbers 34, Partial order relation, Total order, chains and
lattices 35, Fundamental Theorem Of Algebra 36, Upper bound, lower bound
36, Zorn’s lemma or the axiom of choice 37, Ordered pair representation of
numbers, vectors, quaternions 37, Absolute value of a number and triangle
inequality 40, Continued fractions representing surds and irrational
numbers 43, Conversion into decimal fractions and vice versa, Successive
convergents, Conversion of series into continued fractions, better
approximation of irrational numbers than decimal representation, Fibonacci
numbers and Golden Ratio 59, their natural occurrence and various simple
theorems.
Chapter 5 : Functions and Graphs Part I Pages 1 to 64
Topics : Functions 1, Images and inverse images 2, Single valued Mappings
3, Cartesian products 5, sequences as functions of integers 6, Functions as
index or labels 6, functions of many variables, independent and dependent
variables , Function of continuous variable 7, domain, range Function as
single valued correspondence 9 , Onto, Into, one-to-one and one-to-one onto
functions, bijective, injective, surjective, inverse function 11, Greatest integer
function or step function, or integer function 13, Characteristic function 15,
Norm, modulus or distance function 15, fractional part 18, Least integer
function or Ceiling function 18, , Linear Function 23, Algebra of functions 18,
Composite function, composite operators 20, inverse of composite function
22, monotonically increasing ( or monotonically decreasing)functions 23, 26,
permutation group as a function 24, Periodic function and period 48,
maximum and minimum 27, exponential and logarithmic functions 27, Implicit
functions 28, Functions as Expressions 29, Rational algebraic functions,
Polynomials 30, transcendental functions 36, Zeroes or roots of a function 30,
partial fractions, Rules of decomposition 32 , Function vs operator 39,
Linear Operator 37, homomorphism, Graphs of functions 40, algebraic,
trigonometric , hyperbolic functions, Inverse trigonometric and inverse
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hyperbolic functions, Simple harmonic function 49, wave function 52 ,
Some special curves 56 , Even and odd functions 57, Symmetric and
alternating functions 59 , parametric equations of curves 60.
Chapter 6 : Functions and Graphs Part II Pages 1 to 23
Topics : Examples, Problems, and techniques of functions and their graphs
1, Simple transformations of graphs 10, Addition, Multiplication etc of
functions in graphs of functions 18, points of intersection 22.
Chapter 7 : Functions and Graphs Part III Pages 1 to 32
Topics : Exercises on domain and range 1 , Identical and equal functions,
odd and even functions 17, Odd and even functions 20, Periodic functions
and their composites (LCM and GCD) 22, other composite functions 25,
Inverse functions and fixed points 28,
Section 2: Limit, Continuity, Differentiation and utilities, Theory of Equations
Chapter 8 : The Concept of Limit of a Function Part I Pages 1 to 40
Topics : Concept of Limit in є and δ definition 1, Left handed and right
handed limits 1, concept of limit as division by infinitesimal 2, limit by
substitution 3, limit by rationalization 4, limit when x →∞ 6, Algebra of Limits
7, Squeezing Theorem or Sandwich Theorem10, , Limits of Algebraic
functions 11, Limits of Trigonometric Functions 12, exponential series 14,
Logarithmic series 17, log table 18, many facets of limits 24, control variables
and pre assigned error 24, a limit existing nowhere 25, Sequences and limits
26, convergence of sequences along many paths 26, different limits on
different paths guarantee non existence of limit26, asymptotes as curves
approximating st lines at infinity 30, functions of many variables 32, order of
smallness, largeness 33, comparison of infinitesimals and calculation of
limits 35, Cauchy’s necessary and sufficient condition for existence of a limit
37.
Chapter 9 : The Concept of Limit of a Function Part II Pages 1 to 22
Topics : Miscellaneous exercises on calculation of limits, by substitution, by
rationalization, by comparison of infinitesimals, by use of exponential forms
and many other techniques, triangle of largest area inscribed in any circle
is equilateral 21,
Chapter 10 : Continuity and Theory Of Equations Pages 1 to 38
Topics : The Concept of Continuity in є and δ definition 1, Equivalent
definition of continuity in limit being equal to functional value 1, continuity of
composite functions 5, Dirichlet function 7, Removable and non-removable
discontinuity 9; discontinuity of 2nd kind , piecewise continuous functions,
bounded sequences, limit point, neighborhood, Bolzano-Weisstras theorem
14, supremum, infimum 15, order completeness property 15, Properties of
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continuous functions 15, Continuous functions must be bounded 17,
Continuous function preserves sign in small intervals 18, attains maximum
and minimum 17, continuous function takes every value between the end
points 21, Theory of Equations and The fundamental theorem of Algebra,
Intermediate value theorem and application to theory of equations 19, odd
continuous function has a real root, when 0 is a root 21, continuous function
taking rational values must be a constant function 22, fixed point mapping
22, arithmetic and geometric means of continuous functions, Wavy curve
method to analyse an algebraic function (piecewise continuous) 23,
Monotonic functions and continuity of inverse functions, Inverse function of
polynomials, Monotonic functions 25, Continuous linear operators, Keppler’s
function 31,
Chapter 11 : Furhther theory of Equations and Polynomials Pages 1 to46
Topics : Theory of equations and polynomials 4,The division algorithm,
remainder theorem and synthetic division 5, Evaluation of a polynomial
and other functions 10,synthetic division 11, every polynomial equation of
degree n has n roots 12, a polynomial of degree n cannot have more than n
roots else it must be identity 13, a polynomial of odd degree with real
coefficients has at least one real root and other results 14, Descartes’ Rule
Of Signs and results therefrom16, rational root theorem 19, integer root
theorem 20, location theorem 22, evaluation of a polynomial 24, Horner’s
method 25, Relations between roots and coefficients 26, Finding roots when
one of them is known 28, upper bound and lower bound theorem 31,
transformations of equations 34, reciprocal equation 39, cubic equation 42,
symmetric functions of roots 43
Chapter 12 : More about theory of equations, roots by numerical methods,
Pages 1 to25
Topics : Extended synthetic division 1, symmetric functions of roots 3,
Multiple roots 5, roots of transcendental functions ( cos sin
ix
e x i x   )7, de
Moivre’s theorem 8, Hilbert’s number
i
i 10, equations whose roots are
multiples of roots of given equation 11, comparison with number system 11,
area of a circle 14, Approximate roots, fixed points, Piccard’s method
14,Newton’s method , Newton –Raphson’s method, bisection method
21,secant method 24,
Chapter 13 : Differentiation and applications Pages 1 to43
Topics : Differentiation 1, results from algebra of limits 4, a differentiable
function must be continuous 7, rates of change compared to unity 12,
differential coefficient of inverse function 13, differentiation of implicit
functions 14, Special result from algebra 14 , differentiation of series 16,
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differentiation of trigonometric functions, hyperbolic functions 18, inverse
circular functions 19, logarithmic differentiation 23, inverse hyperbolic
functions 25, differentiation of determinants and matrices 26, introduction to
L’Hospital’s rule, approximation by linearization 32, successive differentiation
33, differential coefficient as an operator 34, introduction to tangents and
normals 35, introduction to maxima and minima 36, The differential concept,
linearization, approximation and sensitivity to change 39, Approximation,
error, accuracy, precision and significant figures40, Role of differentials in
estimate of absolute and relative error 41, Algebra of errors 42, Minimum
error in measuring physical quantities: sum of least squares 43,
Chapter 14 : Mean value theorems and Taylor’s series Pages 1 to43
Topics : Turning points and Roll’s theorem1, Lagrange’s mean value
theorem 5,A derived function cannot have discontinuity of the first kind 7,
Cauchy’s mean value theorem 7, Darbaux’s theorem 8, Taylor’s theorem or
generalized mean value theorem 14, Taylor’s theorem in Remainder Form
15, The philosophy behind Taylor’s theorem 16, Lagrange’s form of Taylor’s
theorem in Remainder theorem 16, Young’s form of Taylor’s theorem 18,
Maxima and minima of a function using Taylor’s theorem 18, Convexity,
concavity and point of inflection 19, Taylor’s theorem from Remainder
theorem in Algebra 22, L’Hospital’s Rule and indeterminate forms 23, its
generalization 25, Indeterminate form


26, Indeterminate form∞- ∞ 27,
Indeterminate form 00, ∞0, 1∞ etc. 28, The indeterminate form ∞ - ∞ 29,
Indeterminate form using Taylor’s theorem 30, Method of undetermined
coefficients 35, McLaurin’s series 36,
Chapter 15 : Miscellaneous problems on differentiation and limits
Pages 1 to25
Chapter 16 : Partial differentiation and curvilinear co-ordinates Pages 1 to 25
Topics : Partial Differentials, linearization and approximation 1, Laplace’s
equation 5, Poisson’s equation 7, Equality of
xy yx
f and f
7, Wave
equation 7, Euler’s theorem on homogeneous functions 11, Converse of
Euler’s theorem 17, The scope of partial differentiation 18, Choice of
independent variables and change of coordinates 19, Orthogonal Curvilinear
Coordinate Systems 20, Cylindrical polar coordinates 21, Spherical polar
coordinates 23, Orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems in general 24,
Angle element compared to distance element 25,
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, St lines and Planes, Determinants and
Matrices
Chapter 17 : Linear equations and determinants Pages 1 to 38
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Topics : Equations, their degree and order 1, Functions vs Equation 2, Linear
equations and their eliminants 2, Determinants 4, Cramer’s rule 8, Addition of
Determinants 16, Additive and multiplicative identities and inverses 18,
Cramer’s rule in Detail 27, Product of two determinants in another form 33,
Elimination 36.
Chapter 18 : Coordinates and Vectors Pages 1 to 97
Topics : Coordinates of a point 1, Coordinate Geometry in three dimensions
2, Distance between two points: In two dimensions2, Distance between two
points: In three dimensions 2, Polar Coordinates 3, Change of Coordinates
from Cartesian to polar or vice versa 4, Distance between two points in polar
coordinates 4, Vector Algebra 6, Addition , subtraction, and resolution of
vectors: polygon method 10, The Parallelogram law 11, Vector difference
12, Rectangular Components and Addition and subtraction of vectors 14,
Components In two dimensions 16, Explaining Position vectors, norm or
magnitude of a vector and coordinates of a point 17, Direction ratios of a line
segment or straight line in three dimensions 18, Projections of segments 20,
Comparison with imaginary numbers 22 , Product of imaginary numbers
24, Meaning of argument 27, Multiplication/ division of a vector by a scalar
28, Multiplication of a vector by a vector. Dot(.) product 29, Commutative,
associative and distributive properties 30, Some examples of scalar and
vector quantities , Mechanics32, Law of conservation of mass, momentum,
energy 36, Free vectors and Localised vectors 37, Angular speed and
angular velocity 38, Multiplication of a vector by a vector. Cross (X) product
39, Moment of any vector about a point Moment of any vector about a
line 40, Vector addition of rotations 42, Uniform circular motion versus
motion along a st line 43, Relation between L and α, Moment Of Inertia 43,
Newton’s laws for rotational motion 44, Conservation of angular
momentum 45, Equilibrium 45, Localised force 46, Stability of equilibrium
47, compound angle formulae in Trigonometry 50, Magnitudes of dot and
cross products, components along any two directions 51, Direction cosines
and dot and cross products, angle between two lines 53, Straight lines
perpendicular or parallel to each other 55, In two dimensions 56, Direction
cosines and projections 56, Shift of axes of coordinates or frame of reference
(linear shift) 58, Rotation of axes and invariants 59, Rotation of axes in 3-
dimensions 65, Section formula in vectors and in coordinate geometry of
two and three dimensions 72, Collinear points and collinear vectors 73,
Internal and external division of a line segment 75, Division formula or section
formula in 3 dimensions without vectors 77, Use of complex number 77,
The Section formula promises an equation for a st line 81, Parametric
equation of a plane 82, More about Linear combinations of vectors in 2-D
and 3-D, Components or resolute 83, When linear relations are independent
of origin 84, Linear dependence and base 86, Centroid, Moments of
mass, centre of mass 87, Centroid of some position vectors is independent
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of choice of origin 88, Centroid of two clusters of points is the centroid of all
points taken together 89, Center of mass 92, More explanation on Moments
of mass, Moment of Force 93, Vector triple product, scalar triple product 94,
Scalar triple product 95, Reciprocal vectors 96
Chapter 19 : Tips, Tricks and Problems on Coordinates and Vectors
Pages 1 to 51
Topics : Problems and problem solving techniques , concurrent st lines nd planes
Chapter 20 : Vectors and Physics Pages 1 to 22
Topics : Problems and problem solving techniques especially in Physics
Chapter 21 : Geometry of St lines in 2D and 3D Pages 1 to 52
Topics : Equation of a St line from a point in a given direction in vector form
1, Intersecting st lines 2, St line through a given point parallel to a given
direction in vector form 3, Length of perpendicular and foot of it on this
line from an outside point P 4, Parallel or perpendicular St lines; angle
between two lines 5, Vector Equation of straight line between two given
points in 2-D and 3-D 6, In complex numbers in 2D 7, Length of a
perpendicular from a point to a st line joining two points 8, In Cartesian form
9, The Straight Line in two Dimensions; Linear function in one independent
variable(Without vectors) 10, Equation of Straight line : y = mx + c form :
(slope and intercept form) 10, General equation of 1st degree in x and y is
a straight line 11, Results from parametric form of st line 12, Distance of a st
line from a fixed point in a given direction in 2D 12, sinψ and cosψ 12,Foot of
the perpendicular in two dimensions 13, Length of the perpendicular from
A(h, k) on
0 Ax By C   
14, Angle between two straight lines 14, When the
st.lines Ax + By + C = 0 and Px + Qy + R = 0 coincide completely 15, When
Ax + By + C = 0 and Px + Qy + R = 0 are parallel or perpendicular 15,
Equation of a st line whose intercepts with axes are given :intercepts form 15,
Equation of a straight line if perpendicular on it from origin is given: Normal
Form 17, Length of the perpendicular from origin 19, Distance between two
parallel lines19, Length of perpendicular from a point to a line 19, Points for
working out exercises 20, Position of a point with respect to a line 22,
Point of intersection of two straight lines in 2D , examples of concurrence of
lines 25,26, Image of a point or a line about a st line in 2D 28, Line at
infinity 31, A straight line passing through intersection of two straight
lines 31, Condition that three st. lines meet at a point 32, Use of complex
number 36, Vector formulation of any st line passing through intersection of
two st lines 40, Equation of a st. line in polar coordinates 41, One
parameter family of st lines in two dimensions 42, Two parameter family of
st lines in two dimensions 43, Bisectors of angle between two intersecting
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st lines 43, Bisectors of angle between to st. lines in 2D (without vector
concept) 44, Alternative methods 45, 46, Equation of a straight line in three
dimensional Coordinate Geometry without vectors 49.
Chapter 22 : Tips, Tricks and problems on Geometry of St lines Pages 1 to 24
Topics : Problems and problem solving techniques on Geometry of St lines
Chapter 23 : Geometry of Planes and st lines Pages 1 to 70
Topics : A plane contains the whole st line passing through any two points on
it 1, Two sides of a plane 2, Vector equation to a plane through three non-
collinear points, A,B,C 3, Equation In Cartesian Coordiantes 5, Parametric
equation 5, Another form 6, Conversion to Cartesian form 7, More about
Triple product and volume 7, Volume of a tetrahedron 9, Volume of a
tetrahedron in Cartesian 10, Volume of a tetrahedron whose faces are given
planes 11, Volume of a tetrahedron in terms of three concurrent edges and
angles between pairs 12, Direct Cartesian derivation equation of a plane
through three given points 13, Coplanar points 14, Coplanar points in dot
product 15, Comparison of normal form of equation of plane with pedal form
17, Pedal form in Cartesian 17, Intercept form 19, Family of planes passing
through a given point 21, Plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing
through a point21, Equation of plane passing through a given st line 22,
Plane passing though the line
1 1 1
x x y y z z
l m n
  
 
and the point
 
2 2 2
, , x y z
23, Equation of plane passing through a point and parallel to two given st
lines 23, Plane containing a given st line and parallel another st line 23,
Angle between two planes 24, Equation to parallel and perpendicular planes
25, Angle between a st line and a plane 25, Distance from a point to a plane
26, foot of the perpendicular 27, Distance from a point to a plane in the
direction of a given vector 29, Family of planes passing through two
intersecting planes( i.e., through one st line) 31, Bisectors of angles between
two planes 34, Intersection of two st lines and joint equation of two st lines
34, Intersection of two planes is a st line 35, Converting equation of a st line
from Unsymmetrical to Symmetrical form 36, Angle Between the Planes 39,
Condition for a line to lie completely in a plane 39, The family of planes
passing though a given line 39, The plane though two given points and
parallel to a given st line 40, The plane containing a st line and passing
through a point 41, Coplanar lines 41, Condition for two st lines to intersect or
to be parallel 42, In unsymmetrical form 44, Perpendicular from origin onto a
st line 45, Shortest distance between two skew lines 47, A pitfall: Shortest
distance between two parallel lines 49, To find the equation of the common
perpendicular to two skew lines 50, The equation of the common
perpendicular in vector form 51, The equation of the common perpendicular
in a simplified form 51, Three non-parallel planes either meet at a point, or
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on a line or make a prism 54, Point at , line at  and plane at  57, One
parameter family of planes 57, Point of intersection of a st line with a plane
58, Line and plane to be parallel, perpendicular or to coincide59, Remember
the results 62,
Chapter 24 : Tips,Tricks and problems on st lines and planes,Vector Equtions
Pages1 to 30
Topics : Problems and problem solving techniques in st lines and planes1,
When a 2nd degree homogeneous equation represents Two Planes 7,
Eqn. of a plane passing through two given points 8, Common perpendicular
to opposite edges of a tetrahedron and volume 9, Image of a point across a
plane10, Image of a point across a st line 12, Image of a line across a plane
20, Surfaces generated by st lines and locus of st line meeting three st lines,
intersections 22, Vector equations 26
Chapter 25 : Linear Equations and Matrices Pages 1 to 38
Topics : Introduction to Matrices as a tool for equation solving1, Different
types of matrices and operations on them , inverse matrix – up to 9,
Crammer Rule 9, Gaussian elimination explained :Alternative treatment for
matrices 16, elementary row operations and column operations 17, Rank of a
matrix and solution and consistency of a system of equations 19, Normal
form, Diagonal form, Triangular forms 23, Of 0 Matrix, Singular and Identity
Matrices 26, as characteristic roots or latent roots or simply eigenvalues 27,
Matrix as a linear transformation 29, Linear transformations 33,
Eigenvectors 34, Reduction to Diagonal form 36, Complex numbers,
vectors and matrices compared 37.
Part II : Conic Sections And Differential Geometry
Section 4: Quadratic Functions, Sections Of Cone , Meanings Of
Eccentricity
Chapter 26 : Conic Sections, circle and sphere Pages 1 to 29
Topics : The circle and sections of a cone 1, equation of a circle 3,
parametric equations 4, circle on a given diameter 7, law of sines 10,
extended law of sines 10, law of cosines, extended Pythagoras’ theorem
11, general equation of circle in polar coordinates 12, parametric equations
14, vector equations 14, equation of a chord 14, chords cutting each other 19,
a formula for tangent 20, use of complex numbers 23, equation of circle
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through 3 non-collinear points 24, sphere 25, diametric form 26, a plane
touches a sphere 26, a plane cuts a sphere 27
Chapter 27 : Co-linearity, concurrence and properties of triangle Pages 1 to 66
Topics : Concurrence of three st lines 1, Co-linearity of three points 2,
Perpendicular Bisectors of Sides of a Triangle are Concurrent 2,
Perpendicular Bisectors of Sides of a Triangle are Concurrent (
Brahmagupta’s formula or Heron’s formula)3, coordinates of circum
centre 4, Brahmagupta's Theorem 6, The ratio’s involving half angles 9,
Apollonius' theorem 15, centroid 15, Another section formula 16, Ceva’s
theorem 19, Ceva’s theorem in vector method 20, Menela Desargues’
theorem us theorem 21, Menelaus theorem in vector method 22,
Desargues’ theorem in vector method 24, Pappus’ theorem 25, Pappus’
theorem in vector method 26, Pascal’s theorem and Brianchon’s
theorem (without proof) 27, Proof of a variant of the Pascal’s Theorem 27,
In-centre 28, ex-center 28, Vector method shall explain the point vividly
and just separating the variables, proves the theorem in coordinate
geometry 34, a challenging problem 38, Orthocentre of a triangle 40, Orthic
triangle, pedal triangles 43, Distance of orthocentre from vertices and from
feet of perpendiculars 45, The feet of perpendiculars from a point on sides of
a triangle 46, equation of the median 47, equation of the angle bisector 47,
Use of complex quantities, some advantage over vectors 49, The three
centres are collinear 55, Distance among the three centres 55, Nine point
circle 64,
Chapter 28 : Concyclic points and quadrilaterals Pages 1 to 16
Topics : A circle passing through four corners of a quadrilateral 1,
Quadrulatral Inscribed in a Circle 3, A Criteria for four points to be Concyclic
3, Brahmagupta’s formula or Heron’s formula is for area of a quadrilateral 4,
cyclic quadrilateral 7, Ptolemy’s theorem 10, Archimedes' Theorem 13,
Newton’s problem13, Gauss’ line 14, Regular polygons 14, Use of
complex numbers 16.
Chapter 29 : Conic Sections – Ellipse Pages 1 to 37
Topics : Equation of an ellipse from compression of coordinates1, Change of
form and Change of origin 2, Change of Axes 3, Auxiliary Circle 3, Outside
and inside of an ellipse 4, Parametric Equations 5, Vector Equations 5, Use
of complex numbers 6, A meaning of eccentricity 6, Visualisation of e 7,
Second focus and second directrix 9, Distance of focus from the center 9,
Sum of distances of any point from two foci 9, Sum of distances of any point
from two foci 9, Equation of ellipse from constancy of sum of distances from
two foci 10, Another method 12, Construction of ellipse 12, Equation of
ellipse from focal distance and directrix distance 12, Determination of focus,
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directrix etc 13, Reduction to standard form 13, Focus and directrix 15, Latus
rectum 15, Focal radii 15, Span of the ellipse and sum of the focal radii 16,
What does division of major axis by ordinate mean 17, Ellipse as shadow of
a circle 18, ellipse in a plane cutting a cylinder 20, ellipse is actually a
section of a cone 20, The value of e 24, Another Alternative derivation of
ellipse 24, Another alternative derivation of ellipse 25, Another derivation of
ellipse 27, Reflection property of ellipse 28, Another alternative 31,
Smashing kidney stones 31,
Chapter 30 : General Conic Sections and Parabola Pages 1 to 25
Topics : Conic sections characterized by their eccentricity, Conic section in
polar coordinates: (origin at focus) 1, Eqn to directrix 3, Conic section in
Rectangular Coordinates: (origin at directrix) 4, Derivation of Eqn of Ellipse in
Cartesian Coordinates 5, Equation of parabola 7, Convex and concave sides
, latus rectum or focal width 8, Parabola whose axis is y axis 8, relationship
between latus rectum and directrix of ellipses 11,
 
2
2 2 0 Ax By gx fy c     
always represents a parabola 11most general
equation of a parabola 12, Any linear and / or angular transformation of axes
keeps a parabola a parabola 13, to find its focus, vertex, eccentricity, latus
rectum, and distance from focus to vertex 13,
1
x y
a b
 
represents a
parabola 15, Derivation in polar coordinates (vector form)15, Derivation
in Cartesian Coordinates 17, Another Derivation 17, Focal distance = x + a if
the origin is at the vertex 20, parabola is actually a section of a cone 21,
Reflection property of parabola 23, Construction of a parabola 24.
Chapter 31 : General Conic Sections and Hyperbola Pages 1 to 31
Topics : Equation of rectangular hyperbola 1, An analogy with the circle 1,
parametric equations 2, equation of hyperbola 5, Alternative :difference of
distances of a point from two fixed points 8, Alternative: center of a circle
squeezed through two fixed circles 8, Second focus and second directrix 9,
Alternative derivation of a hyperbola. Time difference used by sonar to locate
enemy ship 9, Parametric equations 10, Vector equation 11, Use of
complex numbers 11, Focal distance of points on hyperbola 11, latus
rectum of hyperbola 12, geometric mean of product of focal distances 12,
Analogy with ellipse 13, Alternative derivation of a hyperbola 14, Alternative
derivation of a Hyperbola 15, hyperbola is actually a section of a cone 15,
a meaning of e for the hyperbola 17, reflection property 17, Construction of
a hyperbola 18, Alternative construction 19, Alternative derivation of
hyperbola 20, another Alternative derivation 20, another derivation 21,
another derivation of rectangular hyperbola 21, another derivation of
rectangular hyperbola 22, Relation of hyperbola and rectangular hyperbola
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22, Conjugate of hyperbola 23, Asymptotes of a hyperbola 23, Equation of
Hyperbola when Asymptotes are Axes 26, Focus, Directrix and latus rectum
28, Conic Sections compared 29, Another comparison 30, Another
comparison 31.
Chapter 32 : The General Second Degree Equations and Conic Sections
Pages 1 to 35
Topics : 2ND DEGREE EQUATIONS IN TWO variables represent a conic
section 2, condition for circle 4, condition for two st lines 4, Discriminant 5,
condition for two parallel lines 7, two st lines through the origin 8, 9,
imaginary st lines meeting at a real point 10, homogeneous equation
always represents two st. lines passing through the origin 10, Angle between
the two st.lines through origin, of ax2 + 2hxy + by2 = 0 11, What is the
difference between
2
y ax bx c   
and
2
0 ax bx c   
14, The terms of
second degree in
2 2 2
2 2 2 0 a x haxy aby agx afy ac      
15, required
condition to represent two st lines 15, area of the equilateral triangle 18,
rectangles, triangles enclosed, their orthocenter etc up to 23, Bisectors of
angle between the pairs of st lines
2 2
2 0 ax hxy by   
23,in terms of
vectors 25, The general conic represents the following curves 27,
Compression of coordinates 29,
Section 5: Tangents and Normals, Curvature and Meaning Of Parametric
Equations
Chapter 33 : Secants and Tangents Pages 1 tor 59
Topics : what are secants and tangents, tangent to a circle 1, secants to a circle 3,
Tangent to a circle, center at origin 4, Tangent to a circle, center not at origin 5,
Tangent to a parabola, hyperbola 7, UA golden rule for writing tangents , design an
equation for a purpose 8, Important Results 9, Focal chords and harmonic
relations 12, The semi latus rectum is harmonic mean of any pair of focal radii 13,
U Locus of middle points of focal chords of any conic is a conic of th same type 13,
Secant and Tangent to an ellipse if it is in parametric form 14, equation of tangents
to conics at points represented by a parameter 15, Secant and Tangent to a
general conic in polar coordinates 16, Tangent to a conic section in general 18,
Tangent to a conic section at the origin (lowest degree terms 19, Another method to
find Tangent to a conic section in general 19, Tangent to a parabola in general,
another parametric equation 20, Another Parametric Equation 22, geometric mean
Page 13 / 681
2
. FP FQ FR  28, Tangent to a circle in general 29, Another parametric equation of a
circle 30, Tangent to a ellipse in general 30, Another parametric equation of an
ellipse 31, A segment of a tangent to an ellipse cut between the directrices 31,
Tangent to an ellipse in general in polar coordinates 32, many of the properties of
ellipse may be carried over to hyperbola just replacing
2
b
by -
2
b
32, Another
parametric equation of hyperbola 32, Tangent to a rectangular hyperbola 33,
Condition that a given st.line may be a tangent to a conic 33, Pair of tangents from
any point (x1, y1) to the general conic 34, Lengths of tangents to the circle from any
point 35, Remember the following results in the exercises 37, When two circles
touch each other and two alternative criteria 37, Common tangents to two circles
38, Common tangents to parabolas 40, tangents to other curves in exercises 41,
Common tangents to an Ellipse and a Circle, common tangents to ellipses 43,
Common Chords 45, Differentiation for getting slope of tangent 47, meaning of
derivative 49, Total differential and tangent 51, Tangent at the origin( lowest degree
terms equated to 0) 52, Tangents of curves cutting at right angles, director circle &
directrix , case of ellipse, case of hyperbola, case of parabola, 54, Angle between
two curves at intersection 55, Dip of the horizon 57, Vector equation of tangent,
velocity and acceleration58,
Chapter 34 : Normal and curvature Pages 1 tor 50
Topics : Normal to any curve 1, Normal to any curve 2, Intercepts of normals with
axes 2, Reflection property 4, Feet of perpendiculars 4, Auxiliary Circle 6, Feet of
perpendiculars joined to foci 6, Normal to a general conic at the point (r, θ) in polar
coordinates 7, Working rule 8, To find locus of the foot of the perpendicular upon
tangent and normals from center of a hyperbola 8, Another form of a normal for
parabola; another parametric equation 9, : Theorem of three normals for parabola 9,
two of the normal are perpendiculars to each other 10, Feet of the perpendiculars
from foci on any tangent to an ellipse 14, Product of distances of any tangent from
foci 14, AOF = angle BOG and the angle AFO = angle BFO 14, Any normal to an
ellipse 15, Theorem of four normals 15, Geometrical meaning of parametric eqn of
parabola 18, Distance of a curve from a given point 19, Pedal equation of the conic
25, Subtangent and Subnormal and their lengths 27, focal distance, reflection
property, 28, The focus is at middle point of intercepts of tangent and normal with the
axis 28, Reflection property and comparison of conic sections 29, Subtangent and
subnormal of parabola from simple geometry 30, Angle between radius vector and
tangent 30, Angle between two curves at intersection 31, Direct derivation of pedal
equation 32, Radius of curvature and curvature 33, A small part of a curve is a small
part of a circle 33, Curvature at the origin if one of the axes is a tangent or normal
,Newton’s formula 37, Tangents, Normals, Curvature and Torsion 38, binormal 39,
Evolutes 40, Evolutes 41, Evolutes may easily be known as its center and radius are
known 41, Conic sections as real plane sections of cone, Dandelin spheres 45,
Directrix and eccentricity, another meaning of eccentricity 47, Directional derivative
and gradient 47, level curves 49, Gradient in different system of coordinates 49,
Page 14 / 681
Section 6: Parametrization Of Conics and General Problems
Chapter 35 : Parametrization of conics and general problems on circle and parabola
Pages 1 tor 59
Topics : problems on circles 1, general problems on circles and parabolas 9,
Another vector equation of a parabola 50, Another meaning of parameter 51,
semicubical parabola 51,
Chapter 36 : Parametrization of conics , general problems on Ellipse and hyperbola
Pages 1 to 30
Topics : General problems on ellipses 1, . . ' PG PH FP F P  . 14,
2
. OT OG OF 
14,
General problems on hyperbola 17.
Section 7: Further Geometry On Conics
Chapter 37 : Parametrization Central Conics Pages 1 tor 8
Topics : Central conics 1, eqn to the general conic referred to the new axes through
the center 2, Center of a parabola and two st lines as conic sections3, There is only
one pair of conjugate diameters common to any two concentric central conics 4, eqn
of ellipse , with axes parallel to conjugate diameters 4, Central conics referred to
their axes and lengths of the semi-axes 5, Foci of central conics 7 .
Chapter 38 : Asymptotes and Envelopes Pages 1 tor 34
Topics : An asymptote to a curve is a st line which meets the curve at infinity, but it
is not a line at infinity 1, Conjugate hyperbola & Asymptotes 2, Conjugate hyperbola
& Asymptotes; eqn in general form of central conics 3, Another definition 4,
Asymptotes by expansion and its two generalisations 5, hyperbola for given
Asymptotes 7, Theorem of four normals for central conic 7, the feet of the four
perpendiculars from any point (h, k) on a central conic lie on a rectangular
hyperbola passing through the origin. 7, Asymptotes parallel to y-axis 8, A
controversial view of asymptotes 9, Asymptotes of general rational algebraic
equation( with exception) 10, two parallel asymptotes 12, Summary 13, Asymptotes
in polar coordinates 15, Polar subtangent and polar subnormal 17, An asymptote
and the curve at infinity are described by the same equation as it is a tangent at
infinity. If there are two asymptotes , the point at infinity is a double point 18,
Inverse or reciprocal curves 18, Reciprocal coordinates 18, Reciprocal curves in
polar coordinates 19, Pole and polar of circle is a duality relation 22, : Conic
sections may be viewed as reciprocals or inverses of a circle 23, Study of
curves from their asymptotes 24, Asymptotes as guidelines24, Envelopes 26, Some
facts about Envelops29, Pedal curves and pedal point construction,
representing conics in yet another way 32, Pedal curve and pedal point
construction 33.
Page 15 / 681
Chapter 39 : Chord Of Contact, Pole and Polar Pages 1 tor 45
Topics : Location Of Points Relative To a A Curve 1, Location Of A St Line Relative To Curve 1,
Chords Of Contact 2, Working rule and points to remember 4, Pole and Polar 7, Survey Of An
Entire Curve From A Point Outside, On, Or Inside It 8, Working rule and points to remember 10,
Reciprocity of pole and polar 12, Another relation between them 12, Relation between focus
and directrix 13, polar equation of polar of any point (r1, θ1) wrt a conic
1 cos
l
e
r
  
14, pole of a
given line with respect to a given conic 15, Geometrical construction of polar of any given point 15,
Joachimshal’s notation 17, Diameters of conics 22, Locus of middle points of parallel chords is
called diameter 23, another parametric equation of the parabola 25, The tangents at end points
of any chord of a conic meet on a diameter which bisects the chord. But this never means that the
tangents are equal 26, Chords with given middle points 28, equation of a chord bisected at (h, k)
28, Conjugate diameters of ellipse 31, exception 32, Eccentric angles of the ends of a pair of
conjugate diameters differ by π/2 34, The sum of squares of semi-conjugate diameters is constant
and equal to square of radius of the director circle 35, Perpendicular diameters 35, Product of the
focal radii 36, Length of a diameter of the ellipse 36, Equi-conjugate diameters 37, Middle point of
line joining ends of conjugate diameters 37, Intersection of tangents at the ends of conjugate
diameters 38, Locus of foot of perpendicular from focus onto the line joining end points of two
conjugate diameters 38, A parallelogram is formed by four tangents at the ends of a pair of
conjugate diameters 39, Supplemental chords are parallel to a pair of conjugate diameters 39,
Conjugate diameters of hyperbola and parabola 40, Equation of a parabola referred to a diameter
and the tangent at its end as axes 40, Equation of a parabola referred to its axes 42, Diameter of a
General Conic 43, Conjugate diameters of general conic 44, a pair of st lines through the origin 45,
Section 8: Intersection Of Conics
Chapter 40 : Superscribed and Inscribed conics, Confocals, orthogonal trajectorie
Pages 1 tor15
Topics : Confocal conics 1, Touching a given st line 2, Conics Through Intersection
Of ST Lines Or Inscribed within 3, Eqn of a conic passing through four given points
3, A unique conic can be made to pass through five given points 5, Eqn of a
conic inscribed inside four given st lines 5, Three tangents theorem 6, Pascal’s
theorem 6, Inscribed ellipses 7, Orthogonal Circles and Orthogonal Trajectories
7, Radical axes of three circles taken in pairs are concurrent 9, Eqn to family of
circles with common radical axis – coaxial circles 9, Orthogonal circles to a coaxial
system 10, Orthogonal Trajectories 11, Matrix and determinant representation of
conics 14.
Chapter 41 : Intersection of Conics and Use of Partial Derivatives Pages 1 tor33
Topics : Condition that the second degree eqn in two variables represents two st
lines 1, Parallel lines meet on the line at infinity 2, Line at infinity 2, Partial
differentials met in conic sections 2, Tangent and normal , secant, chord of contact,
Polar, the curve itself etc.3, Equation of a chord bisected at any point (s, t) is parallel
Page 16 / 681
to the polar of the point 5, Centre of the curve 6, Conjugates and Asymptotes 7, Axes
of the central conic 7, Foci of the central conic 9, Tracing of parabola, (having no
centre, or centre at infinity) 9, Envelopes 11, four points of intersection 12, conic
passing through intersection of two conics 13, Only rectangular hyperbolas can pass
through intersection of two rectangular hyperbolas 14, : St lines passing through
intersection of two conics 14, : A pair of st lines passing through intersections of two
rectangular hyperbolas are perpendicular to each other 14, When two rectangular
hyperbolas intersect at four points, each point of intersection is ortho-centre of the
triangle formed by the other three points 15, Any conic passing through four points
15, A conic passing through intersection of a conic and a pair of st lines 16, Pair of
tangents on the general conic 18, Imaginary tangents from foci of the general conic
19, Foci of the general conic 19, Foci of the central conic 20, conic with a tangent
and a normal as axes 21, Chords And Harmonic Relations 23, Symmetric
relations like conjugate diameters, pair of tangents etc, 27, Foci of general conic 28,
Circle of Curvature 30,
Part III: Integral Calculus, Differential Equations and Central Forces
Section 9: Integration, Quadrature and Rectification.
Chapter 42 : The Indefinite Integral Pages 1 to 49
Topics : Integration as reverse process of differentiation 1, Algebra of
integrals 2, Integration by substitution; or change of variable 5, Integration by
parts 8, Repeated integration by parts, Order of choice of 1st function 10,
Important Results 10, Functions from Algebra and Logarithm 10, Inverse
trigonometric functions 14, Functions from Trigonometry 15, Inverse Circular
Functions again, using integration by parts 16, Hyperbolic functions 18,
Integrals involving logarithms, ex cos x ,sin x etc 19, Hyperbolic functions
and inverse functions 26, Six important integrals using trigonometric
transformations 28, Combination of trigonometric and exponential functions
and some special types 37, Partial fractions in integration 43, Vector
integration 49.
Chapter 43 : Transformations of integrals for integration Pages 1 to 41
Topics : Integration of rational algebraic functions like
 
2
2
n
Ax Bx C  

reduction formulae 1, INTEGRATION OF TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS 3,
Recursion formulae and some special types 3, Rational Integral functions
of sin x and cos x 15, Integration of hyperbolic functions 23, Integration of
some irrational functions 24, various transformations for integration25, Mean
value theorem for integral calculus 34, Integrals using differentiation 36,
Integrals that cannot be found without numerical integration 40.
Page 17 / 681
Chapter 44 : The Definite Integral Pages 1 to 52
Topics : The definite integral 1, Definite integral as the area bounded by
the curve 1, fundamental theorem of Integral Calculus 2, Results To
Remember 3, Change in variable 5, another form of fundamental theorem of
integral Calculus Definite Integral As The Limit Of A Sum 14, Meanings Of
Area , potential difference, work, volume, moment of inertia etc. 15,
Summation of series 19, Introduction to Improper integrals 26, Revision of
Recursion or Reduction Formula for Definite integrals 33, Transformations for
 
p
m n
x a bx dx 

36, Simple Evaluation of
2 2
0 0 0
sin cos , sin cos sin cos
p q p q p q
x xdx x xdx and x xdx

 
  
47, Simple
Evaluation of
2 2
0 0 0
sin cos , sin cos sin cos
p q p q p q
x xdx x xdx and x xdx

 
  
48,
Chapter 45 : Limits Of Sums Of series By Integration Pages 1 to 9
Topics : Summation of Series 1, Summation of series using Newton Leibnitz
rule 5,
Chapter 46 : Quadrature and Rectification and Mechanics of Rotation
Pages 1 to 36
Topics : AREAS OF BOUNDED REGIONS 1, Area bound by a closed curve
described by one parameter 8, Area in Polar coordinates 11,Rectification:
length of plane curves 13, Simpson’s Rule for finding definite integral 14,
Centre Of Mass, Centre Of Gravity 16, Algebraic sum of moments of
masses about the CM is 0 ;17, Moment Of Inertia And Angular Velocity 19,
Angular velocity vector 19, Relation between L and α, Moment Of Inertia 20,
Newton’s laws for rotational motion 20, Conservation of angular
momentum21, Calculations of moments of inertia 21, Relation between
moment of inertia and centre of mass 22, Theorems of perpendicular axes
and parallel axes 22, Misc. examples 24, Surfaces and Volumes of
Revolution 31, Calculation of Electric fields, Magnetic inductances etc.
32, Magnetic induction due to a straight current carrying conductor 34,
Chapter 47 : Improper Integrals, Beta and Gamma Functions, Differentiation
under integral sign Pages 1 to 38
Topics : Improper integrals in general 1, An Important result 2 , Comparison
Integrals 3, error function 4, The

Function( Also called Euler’s 1st integral)
Page 18 / 681
5, important results 6, Walli’s formula 7, ,
  , m n 
has many alternative
forms 8, The

(gamma) function, also called Euler’s 2nd integral 12,
Graph of Gamma Function 13, Relation between Beta and Gamma Functions
14, Alternative definitions of gamma function 14, Weierstrass Formula for
Gamma function 15, Some special cases of gamma function 16, another
Relation between beta and gamma function 17, multiplication formula due
to Gauss, Euler, complement formula 19, Differentiation under integral
sign 20, Leibnitz formula 25, generalization of Fundamental Theorem of
Integral Calculus 27, Newton-Leibnitz Formula for evaluating limits 35.
Section 10: Differential Equations, Central Forces
Chapter 48 : Introduction to Differential Equations Pages 1 to 42
Topics :DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS: LAWS OF NATURE IN CODES 1,
Population growth 2, Radioactive Decay 3, Approximate age of solar system
4, Carbon Dating 5, Newton’s empirical law of cooling 6, Discharging of a
capacitor 6, Formation Of Differential Equations 8, Wave equation 8, Families
of curves : Order and Degree Of Differential Equations 11, General solution
and particular integral , singular solution , envelope 11, Boundary values and
existence, uniqueness of solutions 13, equations of motion under uniform
acceleration 14, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS OF FIRST ORDER AND
FIRST DEGREE 15, Variable separation method 15, Exact Differential
Equations 16, Integrating Factors 20, Equations of first order and higher
degree 22, Equations solvable for y 23, Equations solvable for x 24,
Equations solvable or p 25, Reduction of order 25, Independent variable
missing 26, dependent variable missing 26, Equations homogeneous in x and
y 27, Clairut’s Equation, singular solutions and envelops 28, The Lagrange’s
equation 34, Orthogonal Trajectories 34, Linear Equations 38, Homogeneous
Equations 42
Chapter 49 : 2
nd
Order Linear Differential Equations and Central forces
Pages 1 to 64
Topics : Linear differential equations with constant coefficients 1, Case of
Repeated Roots 3, Simple harmonic motion 4, Interpretation 4, phase
angle, circle of reference 5, a reverse view of the problem 6,
superimposition of two SHMs 7, phenomena of ‘beats’ 9, Natural
frequency 12, Graphs of displacement, velocity and acceleration and energy
13, Damped SHM 13, Critically damped SHM 15, Forced SHM , coupling 15,
Particular integral and general solution of non-homogeneous linear
differential equations 15, Particular integral of
 
1
mt
e
F D
18, Particular
Page 19 / 681
Integral of
sin mt
or
cosmt
20, Particular integral of
 
1
m
t
F D
21, Forced
oscillations with damping 22 , Particular integral by method of undetermined
coefficients 23, travelling time of a tunnel train 25, Elements of electrical
circuit 26, self inductance, Lenz’s law 27, Examples of Transient current
circuits 28, Example of Use of complex quantities in circuit equations,
Impedance 33, The power factor 35, Planetary motion: A grand example of
2nd order linear diff. eqn in vectors 36, Kepler’s second law 38, Projectile
motion and vector equation of a parabola 38, Kepler’s first and third
laws 39, Total energy a nd eccentricity: physical meaning of eccentricity
42, Areal velocity and angular momentum and moment of momentum 44, An
example Vector integration : Planetary motion (in vectors) 45, Interpretation,
finding the orbit and speed 47, expression for e for planetary motion given
above and criteria for open / closed orbits 48, hodograph 49, Central force as
any function of distance in general 51, Central force directly proportional to
distance 52, semi-conjugate diameter 53, Two simple harmonic motions at
right angles to each other superimposed on a particle result in an elliptical
orbit. 56, Newton’s inverse square law from Kepler’s laws 57, Some more
particular integrals 58, Homogeneous linear equation 62, Bertrand’ s
theorem 63.
Page 20 / 681
FOREWORD
This is an humble endeavour to blend Calculus, Analytical Geometry of Straight Lines, and
Conic Sections, Vectors, Matrices and Determinants, Theory of Equations, and Elementary
Differential Equations through examples of Uniform Motion, Projectile Motion, Rotational
Motion, Central Forces like Uniform Circular Motion, Simple Harmonic Motion, Planetary
Motion, Coriolis Force into a single mammoth concept of Identity – Division – Symmetry, the
ultimate key to unravel the mystery of Nature. This is just like every number, say 5, and its
additive inverse – 5 peacefully coexisting inside the identity of addition 0; or like 5 and its
multiplicative inverse 1/5 peacefully coexisting inside the multiplicative identity 1. Euler’s
celebrated equation the five constants .Identities and constants are treated as same
thing in this book, same thing as invariants like the laws of conservation of mass, energy,
momentums, etc. and we break open these to get the differential equations of motion or the
equation of motion in simple cases.
Breaking 8 into 3 and 5 is a division and a series like is a division
. The vector is a division in the sense ordered pairs or triplets are. Differential
coefficients and integrals are also a remote similarity. Fixed points are some sort of
invariants;(Fixed points of   x f x  are roots of     0 F x f x x   
)
. A locus of a moving point
is a static picture, an equation or a conditional identity. A determinant, matrix, inverse circular
function or logarithm contains all its properties just in its definition, which is just like a personal
identity, just like the name and personality of a real person. As Einstein said, the problem and
the answer lie just side by side; approach near and near the problem and the solution is there
itself, maybe, just give it a symbol ; as in word problems offered by the village school master or
like while taking the limit of
 
 
2
2
3 0
3 9 9
lim lim
3 3 3
x
x
x
 
   

   
.
A division , 3 and 5 of 8 though not
symmetric, a higher level symmetry
8 2 8 2
5 , 3
2 2
 
  is there , well behind it. Every topic of
the book is an endeavour to link it to identity, division or symmetry, which would give the reader
a feeling of rediscovery and confidence of solid fundas which he or she may not forget after
the exams. The writer hopes this view would not put an end to why’s and how’s but definitely
help to peep into the world behind them, to enable the average student to see through the
concepts taught conventionally. An identity like 0 contains symmetrical pairs like +5 and – 5
added together; an identity like 1 contains 5 and 1/5 multiplied together. An identity like
 
2
2 2
2 a b a b ab    
still remains valid if a and b are changed just as someone’s personal
identity which does not change as some one grows up or goes to different places. (not even
when someone changes sex!)
Such condensation of topics, as mentioned earlier, i.e., integrating many concepts shall not
come in the way of rigor; rather it would be a relief in heavy course of curriculum today (some
topics of Physics like Mechanics, Circular motion, SHM, Planetary motions, varying currents and
2
1 0
i
e

 
2 3
1 ..................... x x x    
1
1 x 
Page 21 / 681
transient currents etc. are also covered) and sit would provide an edge for competitive entrance
examinations, both in concept building and problems.
Conic sections are shown to be really sections of cone just with the help of high school
geometry and various meanings of eccentricity are illustrated. They are also derived by
simple compression of coordinate axes, as inversion of circles and such alternative
treatments of topics abound in the book, which would delight students and teachers alike.
Last but not the least, the author would be very thankful to any one who offers some
suggestions for improvement of points out mistakes if any.
The Selection of topics includes courses of Calculus, Coordinate Geometry, Vectors, Analytical
geometry, Mechanics, determinants, matrices, differential equations of first order and first
degree in the +2 curriculums of CBSE, ICSE, and various regional boards, and council s
in India and fundamentals for preparation for IITJEE and other entrance exams. The
celebrated institutions preparing for these entrance examinations expect this knowledge
and they themselves seldom teach the fundamentals. The book is to fill up this gap.
Author.
© Copy right - narayana dash 2011.
Page 22 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 1
CHAPTER 1 : IDENTITY, DIVISION ,SYMMETRY
§1:THE BEAUTY AND POWER OF, IDENTITY, DIVISION AND SYMMETRY
You have a nature and a name, you have your tastes, choices, likes and dislikes, love and hate,
relationships, characteristics and personality – the sum totality of this is your identity. It does not
change, i.e., people still know and recognise you if you grow up in time, change houses or go
abroad. You are still the same person with the same identity. Similarly your family has an
identity, it does not change , for example, if represented by you or some other member of your
family. In the same way the groups or communities or country you belong to, have identities for
that matter. In mathematics you have come across the identity 0, celebrated as the identity of
addition. You know it contains every number and its negative in pairs, for example 5 and – 5 .
The identity 0 does not change any number with which it is added or subtracted from . You
know 1 is an identity, the identity of multiplication, for example 5 and 1/5 both reside in 1
multiplied with each other. The 1 does not change any number it is multiplied with or divides.
Such is the nature of identities. Any number such as 7 is called a constant as it does not vary.
You will see this is also an identity in some sense. Note a class of integers which leave a
remainder 1 when divided by 7, such as 8, 15, 22 etc. We can denote this class with a symbol
[1]. Other such classes of integers are [3], [4] etc. leaving remainder 3 and 4 respectively . Take
any two members, one in each class, say 10 from [3] and 25 from [4] and adding them gives 35,
which belongs to the class [0] or [7]. This is no fallacy and we can call [7] or [0] each as an
identity of addition in these seven classes of integers called congruent modulo 7. An identity
does not change ; so also constants. You know (a + b)
2
= a
2
+2ab+ b
2
is an identity. The
formula holds no matter how a and b may change. An identity is an equation which holds ( =
holds true) for any admissible value of the variable(s). For example, the equation
xy
y x
y
1
x
1 +
= +
holds for any value of x and y except 0. Also
( )( )
2 2
y x y x y x ÷ = ÷ +
is another example. Thus
the identity stands on its own and does not depend upon the symbols though it is convenient to
express them with the help of these symbols. Instead of identities that are evident at sight, like
(a – b ) + (b – c ) +(c – a ) , we can assume or construct identities .
If we assume (X– x )
2
+ (Y – y )
2
+(Z – z)
2
= 0 for all values of the variables X, Y, Z, x, y, and z ;
or in other words if we assume it to be an identity,( call it a conditional identity) we
immediately have the three equations X= x ,Y= y , Z = z. We dwell on this point again and again
to prove beautiful results of use like equality of conjugate surds when given surds are equal;
equality of complex numbers when given complex numbers are equal; proving that conjugate of
a root of a polynomial is also another root of it; so on and so forth.
An identity operation does not change or modify the argument (on which it operates) or
the operand. For example, k = (\k)
2
; an operation like squaring the square root of any number
does not change that number. In other words it preserves the identity of the operand and it is
Page 23 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 2
therefore only that the operator is called so. Please note that the compound operation of first
taking square root and then squaring is not same as first squaring and then taking the square
root; simply because, it does not result in identity. Taking square of a number and extracting the
square root again are thus seen to be not the exactly reverse operations so as to result in an
identity operation. We know reverse operation always takes us farther than we imagined. For
example adding two natural numbers results in a natural number ; there is no restriction in
adding and we cannot get out of the natural number system in the process of addition. The set
natural number is thus said to be ‘closed’ under the process of addition . We would return to
this point a little later. You see the power of identities in the next two examples.
RESULT1; equating coefficients of similar powers in either side of an identity.
One interesting thing about identities is that , If, t rx qx px d cx bx ax
2 3 2 3
+ + + = + + + is
taken to be an identity, we must have, a = p, b = q, c = r , and d = t .(coefficients of
corresponding powers of a particular variable from both sides shall be equal) This can be
easily proved as under :
Since the equation is true for any value of x, putting x = 0, we get, d = t and they
obviously cancel out from both sides. Then we could assume values of x as 1, -1 and 2 say, and
get three equations involving a - p, b - q, and c - r ; and on solving them , we can get, each of
a – p etc., each = 0. Alternatively, after canceling out d and t from both sides, we can get
another identity, or equation which holds for all values of x. Putting x = 0 again in this eqn., we
get c = r . Repeating the process, we get the desired result. The utility of this result is
indisputable as you are aware when apply this result to knotty problems.
RESULT2 ; equating coefficients of similar trigonometric ratio’s in either side of an
identity.
If p cos x + q sin x + r = ì( a cos x + b sin x + c ) + µ (b cos x - a sin x) +  is taken to
be an identity, (in other words, if a given expression in sin x and cos x is changed to
another expression in sin x and cos x , for some desired convenience) then we must
have the coefficients of sin x to be equal in both sides and so also the coefficients of
cos x.
We have, p cos x + q sin x + r = ì( a cos x + b sin x + c ) + µ (b cos x - a sin x )+ v for all x
Or, p cos x + q sin x + r = (aì + µb) cos x + (bì - µa)sin x + (cì + v) for all x, …………(a)
Putting cos x = 1 throughout, ( so that sin x = 0), we get,
p + r = (aì + µb) + (cì + v)………………………………………….……(b)
Putting cos x = - 1 throughout, ( so that sin x = 0), we get,
Page 24 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 3
- p + r = - (aì + µb) + (cì + v) ……………………..……………….……(c)
Adding (b) and (c) and dividing throughout by 2 , we get,
p = (aì + µb) and r = (cì + v) ……………………..…………………...(d)
Putting these values in (a) we get, q = bì - µa ……………………………….....(e)
So we get three independent equations in ì, µ, and v from (d) and (e) which may be
easily solved to find ì, µ, and v in terms of p, q and r. ( the result has many uses in integration
chapter)
It seems at first sight that identities are trivially true and are of little utility. No. Just
like 0 is a trivial nothing , but embodies a world of secrets like a black hole, identities contain a
world of secrets inside them. We give below an example how the concept of identity is used to
reveal the sum of an infinite series hidden in the symbols we define ,to get rid of a difficulty. The
great scientist Albert Einstein perhaps said, if only you could know where exactly the
problem lies, the solution lies there itself. In his times, half of the world believed there was
the all pervading invisible ether and the other half believed there was no ether. He put an end
to the controversy by telling everybody to raise only the questions which probably have
answers, and discard all others. Did he take the cue from a small child he taught, who told,
“there can be another way besides the Earth going around the Sun and the Sun going around
the Earth ? ” If a point of difficulty is pinpointed, and is enclosed in a symbol, the solution lies
nearby, just you have to manipulate with the adopted symbol in set procedures and arrive at the
removal of difficulty. Do the duo of the difficulty and the solution constitute some sort of identity
or invariable ? Maybe. Follow the examples:
Example1 ; Quadratic Equations :an example in ‘difficulty identification’:
First , take the quadratic equation, ax
2
+ bx + c = 0 with rational coefficients.
How easy it would have been, only if the ‘bx’ term had not been there! So the difficulty seems to
be the linear term and let us try to remove it. Now, put bx or x, inside a symbol t, such as t =
x - h or x = t + h, proceed mechanically working with the equation so as to get rid of the linear
term bx , and discard the t and h when x reveals its value and those extraneous symbols have
nothing to do any more.
Our equation becomes,
a(t +h)
2
+b(t +h) + c = 0 ¬ at
2
+ (2ah+b)t + ( ah
2
+bh +c)=0
If we choose, h = -b/2a, to make the second term 0, the equation reduces to ,
at
2
+ 0+(b
2
/4a-b
2
/2a+c)=0 ,(an eqn. in t having no first degree term in t)
Page 25 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 4
or, at
2
= b
2
/4a – c ¬ t =
a 2
ac 4 b
2
÷
± ¬x =
a 2
b ÷
a 2
ac 4 b
2
÷
±
Now the poor things, h and t have been thrown out mercilessly once the difficulty is removed!
The roots of quadratic equation t = f(x) = ax
2
+ bx + c = 0,
are
a 2
ac 4 b b -
2
÷ +
= o and
a 2
ac 4 b b -
2
÷ ÷
= | .
The sum of the two roots is
b
a
o+| = ÷

and the product of the roots
c
a
o| = as may be
verified direct. We know in high school that this solution has been got by completing square
method, either by dividing by a throughout or multiplying by 4a throughout. The ‘difficulty’
identified in this way is to make ax
2
+ bx , a part of a complete square (as this one is not a
complete square, ) The roots are real if discriminant of the equation , ac 4 b
2
÷ is positive,
i.e., b
2
– 4ac > 0 and imaginary otherwise( by imaginary we mean, the roots of a negative
number, if at all we agree for its existence). They are rational if b
2
– 4ac is a perfect square
and irrational otherwise .Actually, the concepts of irrational numbers and imaginary numbers
are gifts of the quadratic equations. The roots are equal if the determinant is 0. The
expression under the square root is called discriminant because it determines the very nature of
roots of the quadratic. If the roots are irrational or imaginary, one is the conjugate of the
other, i.e, if one is p+ √q or p + iq, the other is p - √q or p – iq; ( This is evident from the
structure of the roots , they are already in p+ √q and p - √q form. To prove it, assume m+ √n is
another root, so their product (p+ √q)(m+ √n) = c/a, a rational number .This is possible only
when m+ √n is a multiple of conjugate of p+ √q, say k(p - √q). Now, the sum of the roots is
p + √q + k(p - √q) = p(1 + k) + (1 - k )\q = - b/a. Solving this for \q we see that either 1 – k = 0
or \q = {- b/a – p(1 + k)}/(1 – k), a rational number, which is a contradiction. So 1 – k must be 0
or k = 1 or the other root must be p - √q . ). In another way, we observe that the sum of the
roots is – b/a and the product of the roots is c/a; both rational numbers by assumption. Then , if
the roots themselves do not occur in conjugate pairs, how can their sum and product be rational
? No matter if the reader does not understand imaginary numbers . We would return to the
subjects, quadratic equation and imaginary numbers in detail in later chapters at appropriate
places and this is merely one example how to apply the “Difficulty Pin-pointing Method”.
Actually this is a method how second term in a polynomial equation could be removed. (See
further the chapters on quadratic equations, theory of equations, Cardan’s solution of cubic
equation etc.)
Exercise1 : Remove the second term in the eqn. ax
3
+ bx
2
+ cx + d = 0
Page 26 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 5
Hint : Put
3
b
x t
a
= ÷ in the equation and get the cubic equation reduced to
3
0 t pt q + + = …..(1)
where
2
2
3
3
ac b
p
a
÷
= and
3 2
3
2 9 27
27
b abc a d
q
a
÷ +
= …………..(2)
Does this removal of square term help in solving the cubic equation ? It is not apparent on first
sight. Any playing with (1) sooner or later leads back to the original cubic equation, back to
square one. But Cardano decomposed the new variable t into t u v = + which changed equation
(2) into
( )( )
3 3
3 0 u v uv p u v q + + + + + = ……………………………….(3)
Could we abruptly put
( )( ) 3uv p u v + + equal to 0. Why not ? Who deters us? ( If we are to put a
symbol at the point of difficulty, and there are three unknown roots to search, Cardano might
have been motivated to put two symbols instead of one!)
Since the number of choices of u and v are infinite as t u v = + and since we are not actually
bothered by the relation between u and v, if there be any; we incur no loss assuming a relation
between u and v which would make3 0
3
p
uv p uv + = ¬ = ÷ ……………(4)
with a view just to simplify eqn (3) into
3 3
0 u v q + + = ………………….(5).
And lo, we have got two equations(4) and (5) in u and v and we can immediately solve them.
Of course it is a quadratic equation
3
3 3 3 3
,
27
p
u v q and u v + = ÷ = ÷ in
3
u and
3
v ,i.e.,
3
u and
3
v
become the roots of the equation
3
2
0
27
p
z qz + ÷ = and we get
2 3
3
2 4 27
q q p
u = ÷ + + and
2 3
3
2 4 27
q q p
v = ÷ ÷ + ……………………(6)
And we have not touched the holy cow!
Now just retracing our contrivances u v t + = and
3
b
x t
a
= ÷ , we land ashore quickly,
Page 27 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 6
2 3 2 3
3 3
2 3 2 3
3 3
2 4 27 2 4 27 3
3 2 4 27 2 4 27
q q p q q p b
u v t x
a
b q q p q q p
x
a
+ = ÷ + + + ÷ ÷ + = = +
¬ = ÷ + ÷ + + + ÷ ÷ +
Only a small assumption
2 3
0
4 27
q p
+ > gives us a real number solution of the cubic equation. We
would know later on that any cubic equation has at least a real root. But don’t be swayed away
with this tempting, small and alluring example which reveals mathematics being so easy. Of
course it is, the way you look at it is important.
Example2 ; Infinite Sequences and Series :
Another example in ‘difficulty identification’ or use of ‘equating of coefficients’ : to find out
the sum of a series like the following;
) A .( .......... .......... terms n ).... 1 n ( n .. upto .......... 4 x 3 3 x 2 2 x 1 t
n
÷ + + + = ¿
Difficulty here is that we do not know the sum of the series. But we think that it must involve n
and its powers and some constant, of course, independent of n . So let us assume (like defining
symbols as we often do) ,
) B ....( .......... .......... .......... .......... .......... Dn Cn Bn A t
3 2
n
+ + + = ¿
The t
r
, the r-th term, or the general term for that matter, may be written as r(r + 1).
(Had all of them been equal, we could have simply multiplied ‘n’ with any term to get the sum.
That makes the sum one degree higher in ‘n’, than the degree of ‘n’ in t
n
. So it is safe to
assume that, if n = 6, we don’t require more than 7 terms in the series for Et
n
. So we have
taken terms up to n
3
in (B) when t
n
has no other power of n larger than 2. Similar must be the
things for n+1 terms too; then,
2 3
1
( 1) ( 1) ( 1) ...............................................( )
n
t A B n C n D n C
+
¿ = + + + + + +
1
1 2 2 3 3 4.......... ..( 1)( 2).......................................( )
n
t x x x upto n n D
+
¿ = + + + +
Subtracting(B) from (C), and (A) from (D) , we get,
) 1 n 3 n 3 ( D ) 1 n 2 ( C B ) 2 n )( 1 n ( t t t
2
1 n n 1 n
+ + + + + = + + = = ¿ ÷ ¿
+ +
) E ( .......... .......... )......... D 3 ( n ) D 3 C 2 ( n ) D C B ( n n 3 2
2 2
+ + + + + = + + ¬
Equating co-efficients of similar powers of n from both sides, we get,
Page 28 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 7
3 2 B ... and ,... 1 C ,... 3 1 D
1 D 3 .. and ,... 3 D 3 C 2 , 2 D C B
= = = ¬
= = + = + +
With these values and putting n = 1 (or any integer you like) in (B), which is also an identity, we
get,
¿
= + + + = = = 0 A .. Or ,.. 3 1 1 3 2 A 2 x 1 t t
1 1
3
) 2 n )( 1 n ( n
3
n n 3 2
n t ..
3
n
n
3
n 2
t
2
n
3
2
n
+ +
=
|
|
.
|

\
| + +
= ¬ + + =
¿ ¿
This is not certainly an universal technique for tackling any series whatsoever. But it gives a little
bit of that feeling.
Exercise 2:Try for expression for sum of these series:
1) Sum of 1
st
n natural numbers, Et
n,
t
n
=n, or in other words
( ) 1
2
n n
n
+
=
¿
2) Sum of squares of 1
st
n natural numbers, Et
n,
t
n
=n
2
or in other words
( )( )
2
1 2 1
6
n n n
n
+ +
=
¿
.
3) Sum of cubes of 1
st
n natural numbers, Et
n,
t
n
=n
3
or
( )
2
2
3
1
4
n n
n
+
=
¿
.
Not only we use symbols to ‘avoid difficulties’, often we use them to take their
advantage. Take the example of Trigonometric ratios; these symbols have been aimed at
measurement of heights and distances, but have gone a long way in development of complex
numbers, theory of equations and so on. In a similar manner Calculus is developed to deal with
infinitesimal numbers (infinitely small numbers) by assigning symbols to them .
The process or method is, to identify the ‘difficulty’ or pinpoint it, adopt some
symbol to enclose the difficulty, then proceed with known and standard methods until
the symbol reveals itself or until the difficulty vanishes otherwise and toss away the
symbol mercilessly. Wait. We can throw the symbol out in a particular problem, or well keep
the symbol for future use if it has general importance, like \( - 1) = i or like log
2
8 = 3 for 2
3
= 8
or sin
– 1
½ = 30
0
for sin 30
0
= ½ ., or a symbol for eliminant of equations such as matrices and
determinants which find much use elsewhere. We shall return to the subject.
Throughout the book series, we have adopted this method to develop a topic, adopting a
symbol tacitly carrying its entire properties and characteristics; may it be Matrices and
Determinants, Trigonometric functions, Inverse Circular Functions, Logarithms, Limits, Conic
Page 29 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 8
sections, Differential Coefficients, Integrals etc. etc. Due to this approach the topics appear in a
manner how they were discovered and developed rather than a formal presentation.
There are numerous examples throughout the book where we would be using this technique to
rediscover and redevelop many topics from identities. Before that the reader may try some
identities from high school some of which are given below. The reader can try as many of them
as possible and at ease. Use the fact that if a = b put throughout the expression makes it 0,
then a – b is a factor; similarly if a = - b put throughout the expression makes it 0, then
a + b is a factor.
4) (a – b) + (b – c) + (c – a) = 0;
5) c(a – b) + a(b – c) + b(c – a) = 0
6) c(a – b)
3
+ a(b – c)
3
+ b(c – a)
3
= (a + b + c)(a – b)(b – c)(c – a)
7) c(a – b)
2
+ a(b – c)
2
+ b(c – a)
2
+ 8abc = (a + b)(b + c)(c + a)
8) c
4
(a
2
– b
2
) + a
4
(b
2
– c
2
) + b
4
(c
2
– a
2
) = - (a – b)(b – c)(c – a)(a + b)(b + c)(c + a)
9) (b - c)
3
(b + c – 2a) + (c - a)
3
(c + a – 2b) + (c - a)
3
(c + a – 2b) = 0
10) (b - c)(b + c – 2a)
3
+ (c - a)(c + a – 2b)
3
+ (c - a)(c + a – 2b)
3
= 0
11) (ab – c
2
)(ac – b
2
) + (bc – a
2
)(ba – c
2
) +(bc – a
2
)(ba – c
2
)
= bc(bc – a
2
) + ca(ca – b
2
) + ca(ca – b
2
)
12) bc(b –c) + ca(c –a) + ab(a –b) = - (b –c)(c –a)(a –b)
13) a
2
(b –c) + b
2
(c –a) + c
2
(a –b) = - (b –c)(c –a)(a –b)
14) a(b
2
–c
2
) + b(c
2
–a
2
) + c(a
2
–b
2
) = - (b –c)(c –a)(a –b)
15) a
3
(b –c) + b
3
(c –a) + c
3
(a –b) = - (b –c)(c –a)(a –b)(a + b + c)
16) a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
– 3abc = (a + b + c)(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
– bc – ca – ab)
17) a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
– 3abc = (a + b + c)(b
2
– ca + c
2
– ab + a
2
– bc)
18) a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
– 3abc = ½ (a + b + c)[(b – c)
2
+ (c – a)
2
+ (a – b)
2
]
19) (b – c)
3
+ (c – a)
3
+ (a – b)
3
– 3(b – c)(c – a)(a – b) = 0
20) (a + b + c)
3
= Ea
3
+ 3Ea
2
b + 6abc
21) (a + b + c + d)
3
= Ea
3
+ 3Ea
2
b + 6Eabc
22) bc(b +c) + ca(c +a) + ab(a +b) + 2abc = (b + c)(c + a)(a + b)
23) a
2
(b +c) + b
2
(c +a) + c
2
(a +b) + 2abc = (b + c)(c + a)(a + b)
24) (b + c)(c + a)(a + b) + abc = (a + b + c)( bc + ca + ab)
25) (a + b + c) (-a + b + c) (a - b + c) (a + b - c) = 2b
2
c
2
+ 2c
2
a
2
+ 2a
2
b
2
– a
4
– b
4
– c
4
26) c (a
4
– b
4
) + a (b
4
– c
4
) + b (c
4
– a
4
) = (b –c)(c –a)(a –b)(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
– bc – ca – ab)
27) (a + b)
5
= a
5
+ b
5
+ 5ab(a + b)( a
2
+ ab + b
2
)
28) (a + b + c)
5
= a
5
+ b
5
+ c
5
+ 5(a + b) (b + c)(c + a)( a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ bc + ca + ab)
29) c
2
(a
3
– b
3
) + a
2
(b
3
– c
3
) + b
2
(c
3
– a
3
) = (ab + bc + ca)(a – b)(b – c)(c – a)
30) bc(c
2
– b
2
) + ca(a
2
– c
2
) + ab(b
2
– a
2
) = (b – c)(c – a)(a – b)(a + b + c)
31) (b +c){(r + p)(x + y) – (p + q)(z + x)}+ (c +a){(p + q)(y + z) – (q + r)(x + y)}
+ (c +a){(p + q)(y + z) – (q + r)(x + y)} = 2[a(qz – ry) + b(rx – pz) + c(py – qx)]
32) (a – x)
2
{(b – y)
2
(c – z)
2
- (b – z)
2
(c – y)
2
}+(a – x)
2
{(b – y)
2
(c – z)
2
- (b – z)
2
(c – y)
2
}
+(a – x)
2
{(b – y)
2
(c – z)
2
- (b – z)
2
(c – y)
2
} = 2(b – c) (c – a) (a – b) (y – z) (z – x) (x – y)
and so on and so forth.
Page 30 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 9
All Mathematical formulae read in high school are identities or conditional identities and we
know their utility. As examples of some conditional identities put a + b + c = 0 in expressions
above where a + b + c appears: the result may be taken as a conditional identity.
If a + b + c = 0, prove the following :
33) 2bc = a
2
– b
2
– c
2
34) 8a
2
b
2
c
2
= (a
2
– b
2
– c
2
)( b
2
– c
2
– a
2
)( c
2
– a
2
–b
2
)
35) a
3
+ b
3
+ c
3
= 3abc
36) 2(a
4
+ b
4
+ c
4
) = (a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
)
2
37) 3a
2
b
2
c
2
– 2(bc + ca + ab)
3
= a
6
+ b
6
+ c
6
38) a
5
+ b
5
+ c
5
+ 5abc(bc + ca + ab)
39)
7
c b a
5
c b a
2
c b a
7 7 7 5 5 5 2 2 2
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
40)
|
.
|

\
| ÷
+
÷
+
÷
= |
.
|

\
|
÷
+
÷
+
÷ c
b a
b
a c
a
c b
/ 3 3 /
b a
c
a c
b
c b
a
§2:Symmetry , Anti-symmetry And Asymmetry Are some Aspects Of Beauty.
A look at the previous examples of identities makes us think about symmetry anti-symmetry and
cyclic symmetry of the expressions. Discoverer of electrical generator must have observed the
change in electric field due to motion of chares, i.e., electric current causes a magnetic field;
and it must have occurred to him that a change in magnetic field may generate electric current.
Take the previous example of equalizing coefficients of similar terms from both sides of an
identity equation. This reveals the beautiful feature of symmetry. Take the algebrical identities in
the previous exercises. The hint is to put a = b in the expression. If the expression reduces to 0,
then (a – b) is a factor. This is cyclic symmetry. Analyse any identity and you find some
symmetry. Symmetry reveals the things that are not explicit. It also helps us to write
expressions in brief. For example, Ea stands for a + b if two elements are taken; it stands for a +
b + c or a + b + c + d if 3 or 4 elements are taken. Similarly Ea
2
stands for a
2
+ b
2
or a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
or a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ d
2
if 2 or 3 or 4 elements are taken. The expression a
2
+ b
2
is symmetrical with
respect to a and b in a sense that a and b can be replaced with each other without affecting the
value of the expression. The feature may be termed bilateral symmetry. The expressions such
as a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
or bc + ca + ab are bilaterally symmetrical, as any two of them can be
interchanged without changing the value of the expression. In addition, the latter expressions
are of cyclic symmetry; i.e., if a is replaced by b, b is replaced by c and c is replaced by a
simultaneously, the expression is unchanged.
To illustrate the method of applying symmetry concept in working out problems, consider
factorizing the expression
(a + b + c)
5
- a
5
- b
5
- c
5
.
Page 31 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 10
The value of the expression is unchanged if we put b in place of a , c in place of b and a in place
of c. But the expression becomes 0 if b = - a throughout. Hence b + a or a + b must be a factor
of it. Remember this is due to factor theorem read in high school. Similarly b + c and c + a must
be factors of it. As such the expression contains
(b + c)(c + a)(a + b) as a factor. The latter factor is of third degree whereas the expression to be
factorised is of 5
th
degree. So it contains another factor of 2
nd
degree. As the expression is
symmetric in a, b and c; so also all its factors must be symmetric cyclically. A general
expression in three elements and in 2
nd
degree would be
A(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
) + B(bc + ca + ab)
where A and B have to be determined. So we have complete factorization as
(a + b + c)
5
- a
5
- b
5
- c
5
= (b + c)(c + a)(a + b)[A (a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
)+ B(bc + ca + ab)]
Now since this is an identity, the expression holds for any value of a, b and c. Putting each
equal to 1 and each equal to 2 in turn we get, A + B = 10 and 5A +
2B = 35.
Solving the equations, we get, the values of A and B , both equal to 5 and the complete
factorization becomes,
(a + b + c)
5
- a
5
- b
5
- c
5
=5 (b + c)(c + a)(a + b)(a
2
+ b
2
+ c
2
+ bc + ca + ab)
An expression such as a
2
(b –c) + b
2
(c –a) + c
2
(a –b) is changed to
–[ a
2
(b –c) + b
2
(c –a) + c
2
(a –b)], i.e., its own negative when any two of its variables are
interchanged with each other. Such an expression is said to be alternating or anti-symmetric.
More about symmetry and its uses shall be discussed from topic to topic later on; especially in
transformation of graphs.
Puzzle: In finding out factors of
3 3 3
3 a b c abc + + ÷ one observes that the expression reduces to
0 if a b c = = is put into it. But neither of the expressions , , a b b c c a ÷ ÷ ÷ is a factor of it.
Explain how.
ans. assuming stand alone expression like a b = etc, does not make the expression 0, it
becomes 0 only when all of a b c = = is assumed. So it indicates, neither of
, , a b b c c a ÷ ÷ ÷ is a factor of the expression
3 3 3
3 a b c abc + + ÷ , but a factor of the
expression involves some combination of all of , , a b b c c a ÷ ÷ ÷ at the same time! observe
that ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
{ }
2 2 2
3 3 3
1
3
2
a b c abc a b c a b b c c a + + ÷ = + + ÷ + ÷ + ÷
Page 32 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 11
Some other aspects of beauty are continuity, completeness, compactness,
connectedness, convergence and uniformity. Examples shall follow throughout the book.
The concept of continuity of functions shall be discussed in Calculus in a later chapter.
Convergence concept shall be discussed in the chapters for sequences a, series and limits.
While watching a movie or drama we note a touching sequence of events and keep guessing
what should happen at last. If the end comes of our expectation we feel continuity in the story
line. If the end of the story keeps us guessing still , we must feel something lacking in the story,
e.g., there may not be an end to the drama and it may not be said to be complete. What
happens in this case is a sequence of chosen events leads to a limiting event, a point which is
not included in the story; As such the sequence of events is not continuous and the story is not
complete. The concepts as such, are better illustrated in Topology, which is a set of some
subsets called open subsets with a structure – closed under arbitrary unions and finite
intersections. The topic of topology is an attempt to provide a common platform to Algebra,
Analysis, Differential equations, etc. etc.
The principle of equivalence in mechanics , as propounded by Newton, states that the
laws of mechanics are same with respect to all inertial frames; i.e. , they do not change if we
change frames of reference with a new one moving at a constant velocity with the old one. An
illustration would be given at the appropriate place
+
. It would be shown that acceleration of
somebody measured in one frame of reference will just be same in be same as measured in a
different frame of reference moving at a constant velocity from the initial frame of reference
taken. It would be just child’s play and the reader even might have done the derivation is high
school. Einstein derived the epoch making theory of relativity only from two assumptions; one :
the principle of equivalence with only one word changed ; he wrote Physics in place of
Mechanics. The second assumption is that the velocity of light in empty space does not depend
on ( not added to nor subtracted from) the velocity of its source. The latter assumption is
nothing but wise acceptance of failure to observe the expected result in the famous Michelson
Morley experiment to measure absolute velocity of earth . ( Doesn’t it seem that the theory of
relativity was derived from the very antithesis of relativity ?)
The conservation laws in Physics like conservation of mass, conservation of energy,
conservation of momentum, conservation of angular momentum, conservation of spin etc. tell us

+
for those who refuse to wait until then. Let us measure acceleration a of some object while we stand
still on the ground. Acceleration is
t
v v
a
0 1
÷
= , where v
1
, v
0
are its final and initial velocities and t is
time taken for this change of velocity. If we observe the same from object from a train with velocity u, do
not observe the initial and final velocities, but observe the initial and final relative velocities instead , v
1

u and v
0
– u . Now acceleration observed from the train is a
t
v v
t
) u v ( ) u v (
0 1 0 1
=
÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
, again,
which proves the proposition. One can change all these symbols except for time to vectors and prove the
proposition in case of vector velocities too.
Page 33 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 12
that the totalities of quantities like mass, momentum, energy, spin etc before an event like
collision or explosion remains unchanged after the collision or explosion etc., as the event may
be. So total mass, momentum, energy etc. are invariants .The concept is similar to the
concept of identity. So the totals of these quantities in a system do not change i.e., they are
symmetrical about a point of event like collision or explosion etc. Total mass or energy or
momentum in a system of particles before a collision taking place in the system is conserved
after the process of collision. Similar is the case after a chemical reaction is completed. The new
theory of relativity has combined the laws of conservation of mass and conservation of energy
into one law, conservation of mass and energy together, by showing equivalence of mass and
energy. Not a single instance has been observed violating the these principles of conservation.
We would give an expression to illustrate the principle of conservation of momentum and
conservation of energy at appropriate place .
v
The principle of equivalence in theory of relativity
has led to Lorenz transformation of coordinates which in turn, has led to the result of
equivalence of mass and energy. Some of the invariants in transformation of coordinates we
shall discuss later on in the chapter for transformation of graphs. The starting point in solving
problems involving equations of motion is these conservation laws which give the differential
equations of motion in a particular situation; one equation if got from law of conservation of
momentum, another is got from law of conservation of energy; the latter are then solved by
applying standard Mathematical techniques to get the equations of motion. By differential
equation we mean an equation involving physical quantities such as velocity etc. and their rates
of change; the latter called differential coefficients. A differential equation is solved when we get
equations involving the physical quantities only and not involving their differential coefficients.
Do the phrases “The principle of equivalence”, “The conservation laws in Physics” and “
Constants and invariants in Physics or in Mathematics” sound like the concept of identity
we just discussed. Decide for yourself.
A special mention may be made of Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle which
enunciates that the product of errors of measurements of complementary physical quantities like
position and momentum shall be at least equal to Plank’s constant; h p . s > A A ; This is a

v
Suppose two bodies of masses m
1
and m
2
with velocities u
1
and u
2
respectively collide and their
velocities get changed to v
1
and v
2
respectively. By Newton’s third law the force exerted by one body on
the other should be equal and opposite. Let them be F and – F respectively. Equivalently,
t
) v (u m
t
) u (v m
2 2 2 1 1 1
÷
=
÷
where t is the brief time for which the two bodies are in contact while
colliding, or , m
1
v
1
+ m
2
v
2
= m
1
u
1
+ m
2
u
2
; i.e., the total momentum before collision is the total momentum
after collision , as expected.( vectors may replace scalars throughout, if you please)
Similarly , from the principle of conservation of energy, we can derive an expression of kinetic
energy of a body of mass m, the energy, W say, possessed by it by virtue of its velocity. Surely it would
be equal to the work done by it against a force opposing its motion until it comes to rest. If the body
travels a distance s in the process, then we have, the work done W = Fs = mas = ½ m 2as = ½ m
1
v
2

which is the expression of kinetic energy we sought after.
Page 34 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 13
completely theoretical fact having nothing to do with precision of measuring instruments. If we
set As = 0 to know s or position completely precisely, it requires Ap to become infinite; i.e., the
momentum p shall have infinite error in its measurement and thus cannot be determined at all.
This is nothing but symmetry; just in the same sense as 4/1 and ¼ are symmetrical.
Symmetrical conjugates combine with each other to result in identity ! The way they combine or
associate with each other may be different i.e. (+4) adds up with ( - 4 ) to result in 0, the identity
of addition and 4/1 and ¼ have to be multiplied with each other to result in multiplication identity
1. Break open the identity and you get symmetrical parts; again fit the parts together, you get
the identity. The beauty of the statement lies in the philosophy of quantum theory stating that no
physical quantity can ever be measured deterministically but only probabilities can be expected.
When the notion of exactitude of measurements is lost, the philosophy of cause and effect, the
basic philosophy of all experimental sciences is put at stake. By exactitude of physical laws we
mean the current event is the result of the previous event and the cause of the next. It turns out
that a bigger particle has some chance of tunneling through a smaller particle or simply you
could just pass right through a wall for that matter. The concept of continuum of cause and
effect still thrives, albeit in terms of probabilities though not in terms of exactitude as was in the
good old days of classical physics.
Behind these conservation laws or invariance, there is a grand principle of nature.
Economy of action is the grand principle behind. Events would proceed in the direction in
which the total energy of the system would be the least. Newton was a great integrator. He
integrated the works of Kepler’s, Hooke’s and Copernicus and declared the beginning of the
era of scientific progress giving science a foundation; his three laws , appearing almost
axiomatic. Another great integration or synthesis was achieved with the advent of a new era of
Quantum Mechanics, with its harbingers, Max Plank, Neil Bohr and others. Big controversies
about particle nature of radiation and wave nature of matter were settled by giving matter and
energy a common platform , the wave equation due to Schrödinger. Radiation was accepted to
be effected in quanta, or ‘in packets’ instead of in continuous fashion. Classical Mechanics
predicted that a charged particle shall continuously radiate energy resulting in shrinking of its
orbit and shall fall into the nucleus within very short time and stable atoms were
incomprehensible as such. Neil Bohr used the ‘quantum’ idea of Max Plank and told to the world
to accept that the electrons simply do not radiate while being in their orbits and only radiate in
lump sums while jumping from orbit to orbit. The structures of orbits became complicated to
comprehend of course, but the dual nature of radiation and matter were explained. Classical
mechanics which beautifully predicted celestial phenomena, could be viewed as a limiting case
of Quantum Mechanics and the two domains were unified. Another great integration or
synthesis was brought about , at about the same time by Albert Einstein for explanation of
behaviour of matter approaching the speed of light and the concept of matter, energy, space
and time had to be redefined. He brought about the Special Theory of Relativity , the single
most outstanding discovery and philosophy of the twenty first century, which identified the
century, together with Quantum Mechanics. The simple idea behind was, that the speed light
Page 35 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 14
does not depend on the speed of its source. Mechanics at lower velocities was viewed as a
limiting case of the theory of relativity. Necessary Mathematics was already at hand , developed
by Maxwell in his electrodynamics theory and the simple idea of constancy of velocity of light in
empty space was acceptance of failure of the famous Michelson & Morley experiment aimed to
use difference of velocities of light in moving back and forth to measure absolute velocity of
earth. These great integrators like Newton and Einstein were motivated by the idea of sort of
identity, symmetry and invariance etc. What was fundamental belief driving behind these
principles of invariance and symmetry – it was the principle of economy – the way of Nature’s
doing things. It was as back as the days of Ptolemy and Aristotle when observations were made
regarding angles of incidence and angles of refraction when path of light changed mediums; but
the relationship between them eluded until some three hundred years until the days of Fresnel
who correlated them in the laws of refraction. About a hundred years later, Format gave the law
a firm footing; the law was deduced from the belief that light travels through the path in which
minimum time is taken. It is only through this principle of economy that Hamilton ‘deduced’ the
Newton’s laws again. Euler went further through the problems of maximization or minimization
and created a new discipline in Mathematics which is known as Calculus of Variations
Optimization theory today. The development of these topics are giving rise to Fuzzy Logic
and Neural Networks progressing in the direction of Artificial Intelligence and Industrial
Mathematics at large. Now any idiot can swear that if the grand unification theory is going to be
complete, it would be only through courtesy of belief in nature’s principle of economy – from
which the relative external features like symmetry and identity emerge.
The scientific world today is striving towards grand unification theory of the four
fundamental forces of nature or looking for a common origin of the four forces; namely,
electromagnetism, gravitation, the strong and the weak nuclear forces. It is the sense of beauty
only which enables integration of apparently contradicting theories such as the Classical and the
Quantum Mechanics, the wave theory and corpuscle theories of light, the classical and the
relativistic Mechanics and so on. It is the art and science of Mathematics only which formulates
and guides such endeavors. This is the dream idea of Einstein and we are nearing the idea year
by year.
Newton has given us a comprehensive concept for force, mass, energy, velocity etc.
and explained the gravitational force of universal application with the formula
2
r
Mm
G F =
for
interaction between any two (point masses or spherical bodies of) masses M and m at a
distance r from each other. So gravitational force has been recognized as a fundamental force
in nature. This force is responsible to hold together solar systems and nebulae as well as pieces
of any matter together to have some shape or size. it goes without saying that solids have
definite size and shape only because of small intermolecular distance between them; liquids
have only definite ‘size’ or volume as intermolecular distance is more than that in the solid state
and gasses have no definite size nor shape but for the large intermolecular distances. Similar
Page 36 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 15
is the Coulomb’s law of electrostatic attraction or repulsion, describing the force between two
point charges Q and q at a distance r apart from each other to be
2
r
Qq
k F =
. Electric currents
or moving charges showed magnetization as natural magnets and as such, all magnetism was
ultimately attributed to electric currents. Faraday imagined that , if a motion of electric charges
gives rise to magnetic poles in effect, a motion of magnetic poles must produce some electric
current and it was very much true. This led to the fact that electricity and magnetism are not two
different entities , but are manifestation of one thing, electromagnetism which also included the
Coulomb’s law for magnetic force
2
2 1
r
m m
F µ =
between two magnetic poles
1
m and
2
m at a
distance r apart.. So electromagnetic forces are fundamental forces responsible for binding
electrons to the nucleus to form atoms and are sufficient to explain away chemical properties of
matter. Though the electrostatic attraction and gravitational forces both vary inversely as square
of distances, the magnitude of the latter is 1038 times the former.
EXAMPLE 3: Calculate the forces between a proton and an electron in an hydrogen atom given
r ~
– 10
0.53 x 10 m, charge of one electron as well as that of proton being e =
19
1.6022 x 10
÷
Coulomb. in magnitude; mass of electron m =
– 31
9.1093 x 10 kg, mass of proton M being some
1836 times that of electron; G =
11
6.673 x 10
÷
Nm2/kg2, k = (1/ 4tc0) =
– 19
9.1 x 10 Nm2/Coul2.
So much of data is absolutely not necessary to compare the forces; neither the distance of
electron from nucleus, nor its mass and charge both; only e/m is sufficient for the purpose , it
being
11
1.76 x 10 Coul/kg.
A single electromagnetic force can be understood to act upon a charged particle,
whether stationary or moving, accounting for electrostatic and electromagnetic forces. This is
Lorentz force given by F = qE + qv x B where q is the charge with velocity
v, E is the electrostatic field, and B is the magnetic induction at the point where the charge lies
instantaneously.
What makes protons stay together inside the nucleus when they should have repelled
each other away ? It is the strong nuclear force which should be great enough to overcome the
electrostatic repulsion and in fact it is of the order of 1038 times the gravitational force between
two protons . or of the order of 100 times the electromagnetic force so that it overcomes
repulsive Coulomb forces between protons in the nucleus. But it is short ranged and almost
ineffective beyond a distance of
15
10
÷
m which is in the order of nuclear radius. Beyond the
nucleus the electromagnetic force reigns supreme , but it dies out fast beyond atomic or
molecular radius though theoretically it acts up to infinite distance. Beyond the atomic radius of
10-10m only gravitational force is visible as there are no charged particles to masquerade it. We
see it acts through great distances as known from its formula. The strong nuclear force is said to
Page 37 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 16
act upon quarks and gluons of which the protons and neutrons are made up of, and thus
accounts for formation of nucleus and disintegration of nucleus too, for that matter. Radiation of
o-particles has been successfully explained in terms of this force. An o-particle is equal to
Helium nucleus consisting of two protons and two neutrons. Crudely speaking neutrons are
necessary to bind protons together in the nucleus on the face of electrostatic repulsion and
more and more of them is necessary as atomic number is increased, until the nucleus becomes
unstable and becomes radioactive to emit an o-particle to become stable. For protons and
neutrons cannot be shed off unless they are in an unit of two plus two of each, i.e., an o-particle.
More correct picture is of course, the one involving quarks and gluons, believed to be ultimate
particle of every matter . Protons and neutrons are believed to be made up of 3 quarks each of
different ‘colour’. Colour is a property of quarks and gluons analogous to charge , are of three
types, ‘red’ ,‘blue’ and ‘green’ and quarks with different colour attract each other and quarks of
same colour repel ach other. Gluons carry a colour and an anti-colour charge.. A proton
consists of three quarks of each different colour. Within a distance of less than 10-15m (a femto-
meter)or nuclear radius the strong force is repulsive and keeps the nucleons (protons and
neutrons) apart. Within a distance of 1 to 2 femto-meters the strong force is attractive force
overcomes the electrostatic repulsion being of the order of 100 times the electromagnetic force
Quarks and leptons were believed to be ultimate building blocks of all matter. The
leptons, which include the electron, do not “feel” the strong force. However, quarks and leptons
both experience a second nuclear force, the weak force. This force, which is responsible for
certain types of radioactivity classed together as beta decay, is feeble in comparison with
electromagnetism , of the order of 10
-15
compared to electromagnetic forces and act in very
short range of 10
-15
m, within nuclear radius. In |-decay, the nucleus emits an electron with high
energy and an antineutrino of no rest mass and a neutron is converted into a proton in the
process. Similar is the process of electron capture by a nucleus from the innermost shell and
similar is the process of positive electron or positron emission ; in all the three cases the week
nuclear force is involved. Much is to be done in the area of unification of forces or to have
closer look for symmetries and similarities though much has been done. To remind of history, it
was Sir Isaac Newton around 1687 who ‘unified’ celestial forces with ‘terrestrial’ forces, i.e.,
made it evident that the acceleration due to gravity is nothing but a manifestation of universal
gravitation. All magnetism was traced back to moving electric charges , thanks to the works of
Hans Christian Oersted and Michel Faraday , around 1825. It is J. Clark Maxwell who showed
that visible light was an ‘electromagnetic’ radiation; which paved the way to understand that
heat waves, ultraviolet, microwave, x-rays, ¸-rays, radio waves , cosmic rays all are
electromagnetic radiations. Such unification brought about great confusion about wave nature of
particles and particle nature of waves and confusion about ether, the thinnest wall in the empty
space to lean on. So developed the quantum theory to unify waves and particles; a number of
scientists were involved , over many decades and ultimately the concept of ether was
discarded. Mathematics required it to be of very high density and nobody was prepared to
swallow the idea along the gut anyway. Nuclear physics and radio activity brought newer
Page 38 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 17
phenomena to observation and again we were in the mesh of particles, particles and more
particles. Force, which was not due to contact, or action at a distance, whether gravitational,
electromagnetic, strong or week nuclear forces, were seen to be understood with ‘carrier
particles’ of forces; most successfully electromagnetic forces were explained, with exchange of
‘photon’ as carrier of electromagnetic forces; just as a play ball influencing the behaviour of a
pack of playing children. ( When two children run toward the ball to catch it, they seem to attract
each other). Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity postulated ‘graviton’ , photon-like
particle as carrier of gravitational force although quantum theory for it is yet to be fully
developed. ‘Gluon’ was postulated to be carrier of strong nuclear force or quarks exchanged
gluons on interaction under influence of strong nuclear forces. W-particles and Z-particles were
thought to be the exchange particles for week nuclear forces though big particles they were
indeed, the former with + or – charges and the latter neutral. A single ‘electro-week theory’ was
postulated by Sheldon Glashow, Abdus Salam, Steven Weinberg around 1980 in order to look
for a common origin of electromagnetic and week nuclear forces and it worked very well. It was
verified experimentally by Cario Rubia and Simon Vander Meer around 1984 but the grand
unification is still a far cry. But the efforts in this direction are not discouraging ; Abdus Salam
had said that the unification is expected if proton decays at all, and it was found to be decaying,
with experiments carried out in the deepest mines e.g., the Kolar gold fields in India.± A
significant improvement has been achieved in 2004 towards The Grand Unification Theory or
The Theory of Everything and Nobel prize for Physics has been shared by three physicists; for
the first time for theoretical research.
§3:Super-symmetry and anti-symmetry :
Particles have broadly been divided into two types, fermions having spin quantum number ½ or
– ½, and bosons are the other type, having spin numbers ± 1.The symmetry we have referred in
connection with conservation of momentum etc. means that total momentum after a collision
(say) is equal to total momentum before collision. A similar ‘super-symmetry’ is displayed in
subatomic level. Fermions can be transformed into bosons without changing the structure of the
underlying theory of the particles and their interactions and vice versa ( i.e., back again to
fermions). Super-symmetry provides a connection between the known elementary particles of
matter (quarks and leptons, which are all fermions) and the messenger particles that convey the
fundamental forces (all bosons). Thus it shows that one type of particle is in effect a different
facet of the other type. Super-symmetry reduces the number of basic types of particle from two
to one. This feature has in fact encouraged to look for a grand unification theory. Another
advantage of super-symmetry is that it requires a particular fermions must have a super-
symmetric conjugate boson particle somewhere. This has doubled the number of types of
fundamental particles known and compelled scientists to look for an anti-particle of every
particle discovered or postulated. Super-string theory of 1970’s which assumes strings as

±
Three people shared the 2004 Nobel prize for Physics for a major development in the Grand Unification
Theory (GUT), or Theory Of Everything (TOE), or Quantum Chromodynamics (QC), by successfully
including gravitation into the common fold of the field theories.
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 1 : Identity, Division ,Symmetry In Math
© Page 18
ultimate extended particles to explain all the four fundamental forces has been supported by
concept of super-symmetry, although it has problems to sort out. It works in a field of 10
dimensions, , 6 of which are assumed to be truncated to very short distances within which
quarks have a free play. This is rather strange and asymmetrical considerations to explain the
most recent ‘theory of everything’ TOE. But any asymmetry, as it were, promises of more
subtle symmetry. For example, Higgs suggested ‘ breaking of symmetry’ for explaining week
nuclear reactions where ‘parity’ did not seem to be conserved and this led to the concept of
super-symmetry in course of development. In Mathematics, we come across non-commutative
algebraic structures or operations more often than not. Not only it is tolerated with open mind,
but is sincerely accepted as it gives philosophical insight and is meant for theoretical
development after all.
An example of ‘breaking’ symmetry:
If ,   are the two roots of quadratic equation
2
0 ax bx c + + = , then ,
b c
a a
   + = ÷ = .
The expressions are symmetric as ,   can be interchanged and the sum and product are still
the same. If one tries to solve the quadratic equation from the sum of product of the roots, one
again lands on the same quadratic equation. Same is the case with n-th degree equations, only
the n relations between the roots and coefficients does not help substantially in getting the
roots. But when we get  ÷ from ( ) ( )
2
2 2
2
4
4
b ac
a
    
÷
÷ = + ÷ = . The sum and
difference of the roots gives us the roots immediately. This is called ‘ breaking of symmetry’.
Galois carried further the argument and discovered that such process cannot be possible for 5
th
degree equation and beyond, although an equation of n-th degree must possess n roots. The
roots only could be numerically calculated. Breaking symmetry although did not produce the
roots, it produced valuable knowledge!
To explain symmetry from a different angle , just imagine what would have been the situation if
both the roots of the quadratic
2
0 ax bx c + + =
been equal. Then the expression must have
been a whole square ! And what if the two roots are not equal in general; then we should try to
take out a whole square out of it i.e.
2 2
2
2
2 2 2
b b b
x x c
a a a
| | | |
+ + = ÷
| |
\ . \ .
removing the remaining
terms whatsoever to the other side of the equation. And this is the whole square method taught
in high school. If the roots are not equal, they must differ from the average of the two roots by
the same amount and this is in fact so. The average of the roots is
2
b
a
÷
and the actual roots
differ from it by the same amount , namely
2
4
2
b ac
a
÷
±
. If (3 , 5) is an unsymmetrical division of
8 , then they must differ from the symmetrical division of 8 i.e., 4 by the same amount
1 ±
.
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§4:Division:
Symmetry may be considered as a division of identity. Subtraction may be viewed as a division
into unequal parts and can be represented by ordered pair (a, b) standing for a – b.
A rational number is a division and can be represented by an ordered pair. An irrational number
is a continued fraction, again a division. A complex number can be represented by an ordered
pair, so it is some sort of division. So vectors and matrices are. Quaternions were discovered as
vector division. The sequences and series may be thought of as some sort of division . e.g,
2 3 4
1
1 ............
1
x x x x
x
= + + + + + ·
÷
. The entire Calculus may be viewed as some sort of
division, limits of division. In a locus in Coordinate Geometry the point varies but the scheme, or
the equation represents the entire locus; So it is a concept of entirety ,similar to the concept of
identity, invariants, constants fixed points etc. A function f(x) =0 may be written as x = φ(x); the
roots of the former are fixed points of the later. In short, the writer believes Mathematics and
Physics are visible with the telescope or microscope of identity–division–symmetry . The
difficulty and its removal together constitute a division of knowledge. Symmetry is a division into
symmetrical parts of a whole. Symmetry and identity are only different views of looking at the
same thing. By saying momentum is conserved in a collision is same thing as saying total
momentum before collision is equal to the total momentum after collision. It is the invariance
laws or conservation laws of momentum and energy produce differential equations of motion
which in turn, yield the equations of motion when solved. Thus identity – division – symmetry is
the only formula for ultimate knowledge of Nature.
Thus 'identity' and 'symmetry' are intimately connected with each other and the
connection is 'division'
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CHAPTER 3:SYMBOLIC LOGIC, MATHEMATICAL LOGIC AND LOGICAL GATES
Boolean algebra is a mathematical structure designed by an undergraduate student in America,
with a view to translate descriptive logic into the symbolic language of Algebra, so that large
pieces of logic or multiple pieces of them could be handled mechanically instead of conjuring
everything in mind . This was required before the advent of computer languages where may be
millions of logical files are used in programming. Moreover in the development of electronics,
thousands of tiny electrical circuits are used in integrated circuits or ICs. How they are formed
and joined to one another - the question is addressed by Boolean Algebra, symbolic logic,
Circuit logic, logical gates like 'Or' gate, 'AND' gate,' NOT gate, and gradually complicated
combinations of them. This chapter is aimed at giving the bare fundamentals.
§1:Boolean Algebra
From the study of set theory you must be thinking that the operations like union, intersection,
symmetric difference etc. have some algebraic structure underlying them . In case it is so, we
can work out on them as if doing algebra and we could do some mechanical processing just as
we do with equations with brevity. For example, equal thing added to equal things give equal
results – is the underlying description of the process of transposition in equations. Imagine what
a load of literature we had undergone if transposition had not been used in symbols !. Similarly,
there is Boolean algebra in symbols, which not only takes care of set-theoretic operations but
connects logical whole sentences in an useful manner also. An wonderful application of the
subject is switching logic in electrical circuits.
Definition - A Boolean algebra is non-empty set B with two binary operations defined in it,
denoted by ‘ + ‘ and ‘ . ‘ ( in generalized sense, not always in arithmetic sense) , each having
closure, associative, commutative properties, either operation being distributive over the other,
not only ‘ . ‘ over ‘ + ‘ . but also vice versa. Also the operations assure an identity element , ‘0’ (
a symbol, not zero) of the operation ‘ + ‘ and ‘1’ , ( a symbol, not one), identity of ‘.’; and each
member x in the set has a complement ( or negation of x), denoted by x’ such as x + x’ = 0 and
x.x’ =0.
In other words, a non-empty set B is a Boolean algebra, if,
a) For ¬ ( for all) x, y ∈ B, x + y ∈ B and x.y ∈ B, closure property of + and .
b) For ¬ x, y ∈ B, x + y = y + x and, x.y = y.x Commutative property of + and .
c) For ¬ x, y, z ∈ B, x+(y+z) = (x+y )+z , and (x.y).z = x.(y.z) both + and . associative.
d) For ¬ x, y, z ∈ B, x+(y.z) = (x+y ).(x+z) , and x.(y+z) = x.y + x.z both distributive.
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e) ∃ ( there exists) ‘0’ in B : (such that) x + 0 = x = 0 + x ¬ x ∈ B, ‘ 0 ‘ is called identity of +.
f) ∃ ‘1’ in B : x .1 = x = 1.x ¬ x ∈ B, ‘ 1 ‘ is called identity of ‘.’. (The left identity is the same
as the right identity because of commutative property; this is in case of both the
operations.)
g) ∃ x’ ∈ B for each x ∈ B, called complement or negation of x, : x + x’ = 1 , x . x’ = 0
Examples of the last property is relatively rare; at least it is not true in case B is the set of real
numbers and if + and . stand for addition and multiplication respectively. Remember that the
symbols ‘+’ and “.” are borrowed from Algebra to represent the binary operations they
stand for, and not addition or multiplication. Still then we continue to ‘call’ the operation
“+’ as ‘addition’ and ‘ . ‘ as ‘ multiplication’
Comparing with set theory, the operation ‘+’ is analogous to the set theoretic operation ‘U’ i.e.,
union and the operation ‘.’ Is analogous to the set theoretic operation ‘∩’i.e., intersection. The
symbol ‘1’ in Boolean Algebra is analogous to the universal set in set theory and the symbol ‘0’
in Boolean Algebra is analogous to the null set (Φ) in set theory. Just watch
' , ' A A U A A = · = u
This does not mean that everything in set theory is just translated into algebraic symbols and set
theory may be dispensed with, never. The following examples shall illustrate which are Boolean
algebra and which are not.
Example1
Let ( ) P S be the set of all subsets in S. The operations ‘+’, ‘.’ and “ ’ ” are defined by
, . , ' A B A B A B A B A S A + = = · = ÷ verify that the structure ( ) ( )
, ,., ' , P S S  + is a
Boolean algebra. This is Boolean Algebra of sets.
Take A, B and C any three statements in S and write , for for . · v
And follow the above line of arguments.
For an example which is not a Boolean algebra, see example 8 below.
Not only the many instances of set theory, Boolean Algebra also takes care of a large part or
symbolic logic or mathematical logic ( see example 6 below). First let us be familiar with some
operators associated with symbolic logic or mathematical logic.
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§2:Symbolic logic
Let us see the analogy of union and intersection operations in set theory and the connector
operations disjunction (symbol v , ‘or’) and conjunction (symbol . , ‘and’), joining Statements
(sentences) in mathematical logic or symbolic logic with ∪ and ∩ , joining sets in set theory.
In symbolic logic, the symbol ‘c’ called ‘ contradiction’ plays the role of 0 in mathematics or φ
in set theory. If p denotes any statement, ~ p denotes negation of p which plays the role of
complement A’ in set theory. The symbol t stands for tautology plays the role of 1 in
mathematics or U , universal set in set theory .
REMEMBER
a) ( ) ( ) Associativity A B C A B C = in set theory
is analogous to ( ) ( ) p q r p q r v v = v v in symbolic logic.
b) ( ) ( ) Associativity A B C A B C · · = · · in set theory
is analogous to ( ) ( ) p q r p q r . . = . . in symbolic logic.
c) commutativity A B B A = in set theory
is analogous to p q q p v = v in symbolic logic.
d) commutativity A B B A · = · in set theory
is analogous to p q q p . = . in symbolic logic.
e) ( ) ( ) ( ) distributivity A B C A B A C · = · in set theory
is analogous to ( ) ( ) ( ) p q r p q p r v . = v . v in symbolic logic.
f) ( ) ( ) ( ) distributivity A B C A B A C · = · · in set theory
is analogous to ( ) ( ) ( ) p q r p q p r . v = . v . in symbolic logic.
g) Existence of identities A A  = in set theory is analogous to p c p v = in logic.
h) Existence of identities A U A · = in set theory is analogous to p t p . = . in logic.
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i) Corresponding to complement law ' A A U = in set theory there is ~ p p t v = in logic.
j) Corresponding to complement law ' A A  · = in set theory there is ~ p p c . = in logic.
It should be observed that there is some similar algebraic structure underlying both set
theory and symbolic logic . We can safely say that symbolic logic and set theory are both
instances of Boolean Algebra under proper operation. To further emphasize and illustrate
this point, see these typical examples.
k) De’ Morgan’s Laws : Corresponding to De’ Morgan’s Laws in set theory
( ) ' ' ' A B A B = · and ( ) ' ' ' A B A B · = we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ ~ p q p q . = v , and
( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ ~ p q p q v = . .
Example2
The operations ‘+’ and ‘.’ And “ ‘ “are defined on the set of all logical statements, S say; as
, . , ' ~ p q p q p q p q p p + = v = . = . To show that ( ) , ,., ', , S c t + is a Boolean algebra.
A Boolean algebra is generally written in this manner, writing the set, the two binary operations,
negation, contradiction and tautology in a bracket.
We just verify
a)
. .
p q q p as p q q p
commutative property
p q q p as p q q p
+ = + v = v ¹
`
= . = .
)
b)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) . . . .
p q r p q r as p q r p q p
associative property
p q r p q r as p q r p q r
+ + = + + v v = v v ¹
¦
`
= . . = . .
¦
)
c)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
. .
. . .
p q r p q p r as p q r p q p r
distributive property
p q r p q p r as p q r p q p r
+ = + + v . = v . v ¹
¦
`
+ = + . v = . v .
¦
)
d) A contradiction of every statement is a ‘ no statement’ ; denote it by 0 – it is also a
statement which is in the set S this is precisely our ‘contradiction element’ c. Also there is
a statement which accepts every statement . this is precisely the tautology element t and
may be denoted by 1. Now it may be verified that
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© Page 5
0
existence of identity elements for 0 and 1
.1
p p as p c p
p p as p t p
+ = v = ¹
`
= . =
)
e) For each statement p in S, there exists ' ~ p p = in S such that ' 1 p p + = as ' p p t v =
(tautology) and . ' 0 p p = as ' p p c . = , the contradiction element.
This completes the proof.
In logical statements one thing to note is that contradiction c plays the role of  or null set in set
theory and 0 in arithmetic . One may be confused to reconcile to it in the elementary stage and
may ask how they are the same thing or equivalent. But the fact is, they are neither the same
thing nor equivalent but the corresponding things in proper context. Just remember that 0 and 
are neither same nor equivalent but they correspond. In the same manner, tautology t in logic
corresponds to 1 in arithmetic and universal set U in set theory.
Example3
Take { } 0,1 A= and let the binary operations “+” and ‘.” and “ ‘ “ be defined as on the tables
Table for ‘+’
+ 0 1
0 0 1
1 1 1
Table for ‘.’
. 0 1
0 0 0
1 0 1
Table for “ ‘ “
‘ 0 1
1 0
The tables for ‘+’ and “.” themselves restate the closure laws , for, result of combination of every
member with every other is given and shown to be a member. Verify associative law with the
help of the tables for the two binary operations. Note that “ ‘ “ is not an operation , but tabulates
the existence of negation element for any element. Verify the distributive laws with the help of
both the tables taken together , i.e., like
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1. 1 1 1.1 1 1.1 1.1 1 1 1
1. 1 1 1.1 1.1
and + = = + = + =
+ = +
distributive law for “.”. Similarly distributive law for
“+’ may be verified.
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Also verify that the zero element of ‘+’ is 0 and unit element of ‘.” Is 1.
The last table confirms existence of negation elements of every member, 0’ = 1 and 1’ = 0.
Now everything is verified and the structure given is a Boolean algebra .
Example4
Denote D
4
the set of all divisors of 4, i.e. { }
4
1, 2, 4 D = . Define ‘+’ and ‘.’ as
( )
( )
least common multiple of ,
. greatest common divisor of ,
4
complement ' of any element a is given by ' =
a b a b
a b a b
a a
a
+ =
=
Show that ( )
4
, ,., ', 0,1 D + is not a Boolean algebra
Construct the tables of binary operations and complement list as
Table for ‘+’
+ 1 2 4
1 1 2 4
2 2 2 4
4 4 4 4
Table for ‘.’
. 1 2 4
1 1 1 1
2 1 2 2
4 1 2 4

Table for “ ‘ “
‘ 1 2 4
4 2 1
Verify that criteria of Boolean algebra such as closure, associativity, commutativity are satisfied
for both operations. Verify that the ‘unit element’ or ‘ identity of addition ‘ is 4 and the ‘zero
element ‘ is ‘0’.
To verify distributivity, note that 1 +( 2.4) = 1 + 2 = 2 using tables for ‘addition’ and
‘multiplication’. Also verify similarly (1 + 2). ( 1 + 4) = 2.4 =2; so 1 + ( 2.4 )= (1 + 2).(1 + 4 ). So
the distributive law of + over . are verified.
To verify distributivity of ‘ . ‘ over ‘ + ‘ note that 1.(2+4)=1.4=1 and (1.2)+(1.4)=1+1=1; so we get,
1.(2+4)=(1.2)+(1.4). So both the distributive laws are verified.
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© Page 7
To find out complements, note that 1’ = 4 ( unit element of
4
D ) and 1.4 = 1 (zero element of
4
D ).
So 4’ =1.
From the table for “ ‘ “ we get 2’ =2. But from the other tables 2 + 2’ = 2 + 2 =2 nor 4.
And 2.2’ = 2.2 =2 , not 1. Thus 2’ is not 2. This is a contradictory result . Thus the structure is
not a Boolean algebra.
Exercise1
If
6
D is the set of divisors of 6 and + means lcm of two numbers and ‘.’ means GCD of the
numbers,
6
complement ' of any element a is given by ' = a a
a
, show that the structure is a Boolean
algebra.
Exercise2
Show that
8
D is not a Boolean algebra , D
8
defined as the set of divisors of 8 and the operations
and
complement define as : ‘+’ means LCM, ‘.’ means GCD and complement
8
' = a
a
Exercise3
If { } ( )
1, 2 S P = the power set of { } 1, 2 , the binary operations ‘+’ stands for union, ‘.’ Stands for
intersection, ‘ stands for complement, null set stands for 0 element and the set { } 1, 2 stands for
unit element 1, show that the structure is a Boolean algebra.
Exercise4
Do the above exercise for { } 1, 2, 3 in place of { } 1, 2 .
Exercise5
For a set { } 1, 2, 3,........
n
S = the binary functions ‘+’ is defined as ( ) max , x y x y + = , the ‘.’ Function
is defined as ( ) . min , x y x y = , verify that conditions of closure, associativity, commutativity are
satisfied.
Exercise6 (remember)
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In any Boolean algebra, the identity elements are unique.
Proof :
If not, let 0
÷
be another identity element 0 = . Since both are identities, 0 0 0
÷
+ = and0 0 0
÷ ÷
+ = . Since
‘+’ is commutative, 0 0 0 0
÷ ÷
+ = + . This implies 0 0
÷
= , i.e. the identity element is unique.
Similarly prove 1 1
÷
=
§3:Duality in Boolean Algebra
In Geometry, there are many theorems which still hold good if ‘point’s in the theorem are
replaced by ‘line’s and vice versa. Such a relationship between points and lines is called a
Duality . In any Boolean algebra, if we interchange the two operations and interchange their
identity elements, the result shall still be another Boolean algebra.
As example let us write dual statement of ( ) ( ) 1 . 0 x y y + + = . If ‘+’ is replaced by ‘.’ and 1 is
replaced by 0 and vice versa, the statement shall be simply converted to( ) ( ) 0. 1. x y y + = .
Try finding the dual statements of 1) ( ) 1. 0 x x + = and 2) ( ) 1. ' 0 ' x x = + and verify that the dual
statements are( ) 0 .1 x x + = and ( ) 0 ' 1. ' x x + = respectively.
This simple theorem is the result of commutativity, associativity and distributivity of the
two operations. The reader can work out the details as an exercise.
In fact we may prove dual of any statement in a Boolean algebra to be true.
Exercise 7 (remember)
To prove dual of statement x x x + = i.e. . x x x = to be true
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First understand the validity of x x x + = . In the Boolean algebra B, x x x + = means p p p v = if x
in B stands for statement p and + stands for v . More clearly,
( )
( ) ( )
( )
0 (0 )
. ' . ' 0
. ' ' ' '.'
.1 ' 1
x x being identity
x x x as x x
x x x x distributivity of over
x x as x x
x x
= +
= + =
= + + +
= + + =
= +
Now to prove the dual statement . x x x =
We have
( )
( ) ( )
( )
.1 (1 )
. ' ' 1
. . ' '.' ' '
. 0 . ' 0
.
x x being identity
x x x as x x
x x x x distributivity of over
x x as x x
x x
=
= + + =
= + +
= + =
=
You would be delighted to compare the two proofs; just ‘+’ and ‘.’ Are interchanged and 0 and 1
are interchanged mechanically. This , i.e. symmetry is the beauty of dual statement.
Exercise 8 (remember)
Find the dual statements of the following:(the statements are not necessarily true, however just
work with them) . Hint : Just replace ‘.’ with ‘+’ , and ‘0’ with ‘1’ and vice versa .
a) ( ) ' ' ' . x y x y + =
b) ( ) . 0 x y x + =
c) ( ) . ' ' ' x y x y = +
d) ( ) ' '. ' x y x y + =
e) ( ) ( )
. 1 x x y x + + =
f) . ' x y y x y + = +
g) ( ) ( )
' . ' 1 x y x y + + =
h) ( ) ( ) ' . ' '. ' . x y x y x y x y + + = +
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i) ( ) ( ) ( ) ' . ' . ' ' 0 x y y z x z + + + = (
¸ ¸
j) ( ) ( ) . 1 . x y x x x y y + + = + +
Exercise 9 (remember)
To prove dual of statement 1 1 x + = i.e. .0 0 x = to be true
First understand the validity of 1 1 x + = . In the Boolean algebra B, 1 1 x + = means p t t v = if x in B
stands for statement p and + stands for v
, where
t
stands for tautology
. More clearly,
( )
( ) ( )
( )
1 ' (1 )
'.1 '.1 '
' . 1 '.' ' '
1. 1 ' 1
1
x x being identity and this is law ofcomplements
x x as x x
x x x distributivity of over
x as x x
x
= +
= + =
= + + +
= + + =
= +
Now to prove the dual statement .0 0 x =
We have
( )
( ) ( )
( )
0 . ' (0 )
. ' 0 ' 0 '
. ' .0 '.' ' '
0 .0 . ' 0
.0
x x being identity and it is by law of complements
x x as x x
x x x distributivity of over
x as x x
x
=
= + + =
= + +
= + =
=
Exercise 10 (remember)
To prove dual of statement ( ) . x x y x + = i.e. ( ) . x x y x + = to be true
First prove ( ) . x x y x + = . In the Boolean algebra B, ( ) . x x y x + = means ( ) p p q q v . = if x
,
y in B
stands for statement p
,
q and + stands for v
, ‘.’ stands for
. . More clearly,
( )
( ) ( )
.1 (1 )
. 1 1 1,
. .1 '.' ' '
x x being identity
x y as y as in the previous example
x y x distributivity of over
=
= + + =
= + +
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( ) ( ) . .1 . x y x as x x x x y = + = = +
Now to prove the dual statement ( ) . x x y x + =
We have
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
0 (0 )
.0 .0 0
. 0 ' ' '.'
. 0
.
x x being identity
x y as y by above example
x y x distributivity of over
x y x as x x
x x y
= +
= + =
= + + +
= + + =
= +
Exercise 11 (remember)
To prove dual of statement 0' 1 = i.e. 1' 0 = to be true.
By example 66 above, we have, 1 1 x + =
for all x in B.
In particular , taking
0 x =
and putting it in the above , we have
0 1 1 + =
, so
0' 1 =
.
Now to prove the dual
1' 0 =
, take
.0 0 x =
for all x in B.( by example 66)
Putting a particular value
1 x =
in this, we have
1.0 0 =
By commutativity,
0.1 0 =
, so
1' 0 =
.
Exercise 12 (remember)
It is trivial to note that ( ) ' ' x x =
and this statement itself is its dual statement.
The former may be proved from
' 1 x x + =
, the definition of
' x
.
By commutativity,
' 1 x x + =
, so that
x
is the complement of
' x
.
Exercise 13 (remember)
To prove ( ) ' ' ' x y x y + = and its dual statement ( ) ' ' ' xy x y = + .
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To prove ( ) ' ' ' x y x y + = , it is sufficient to show that ( ) ( ) '. ' 1 x y x y + + = , i.e. ( ) ( ) '. ' x y and x y + are
complements of each other.
Now
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
'. ' '. ' ,
'. ' ,
' . ' , ,
1. ' ' 1,
'
', ,
1, ' 1,
x y x y y x x y by commutativity
y x x y by associativity
y x x x y by distributivity
y x y as x x being complements of eachother
y x y
x y y by commutativity
x as y y complem
+ + = + +
= + + (
¸ ¸
= + + + (
¸ ¸
= + + + = (
¸ ¸
= + +
= + +
= + + = ( )
1, 66
ents
by example above =
Hence ( ) ( ) '. ' 1 x y x y + + = , so ( ) ( ) ' '. ' x y x y + =
Similarly, for proving the dual statement ( ) ' ' ' xy x y = + , we need to prove ( ) ( ) . '. ' 0 x y x y + = , i.e.
( ) ( ) '. ' x y and x y + are complements of each other.
Exercise 14
Prove that
a) ( ) ' ' ' . x y x y + =
b) ( ) . 1 x x y x + + =
c) ( ) . 1 x x y x + +
d) ( ) ( ) . 1 . x y x x x y y + + = + +
e) . ' 0 . x y x y x = · =
f) if 0 . ' '. x y x y x y = · = + for all y.
g) if 0 0 x y x y + = ¬ = =
h) If x y x z + = + and ' ' x y x z + = + , then y z =
Exercise 15: Remember
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Remembering the principle of duality in Boolean algebra De’ Morgan’s laws may be stated in
this form:
a) ( )' '. ' x y x y + =
b) ( ) . ' ' ' x y x y = + dot replacing + and vice versa as per principle of duality.
Prove by showing that truth tables are same for both sides.
X Y X+Y (X+Y)'
0 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0
X Y X' Y' X'.Y'
0 0 1 1 1
0 1 1 0 0
1 0 0 1 0
1 1 0 0 0
You can observe the results are identical for both sides of a) . Similarly prove b).
Exercise 16: Remember
Prove the following with the help of truth tables.
a) 1 1, .0 0 x x + = = (boundedness laws)
b) ( ) ( ) . , . x x y x x x y x + = + = ( absorption laws)
c) ( ) ( ) '. , . ' . x x y x y x x y x y + = + + = (elimination laws)
d) If 1, . 0 x y x y + = = , then ' x y = (Unique complement theorem)
e) ( ) ' ' " , 0' 1 x x x = = = (Involution theorem)
§4:TRUTH VALUE OF LOGICAL STATEMENTS
We have seen how Boolean Algebra handles logical statements in Algebraic fashion. It is now
time to do some mathematics with statements themselves. We have already shown informally
what are logical statements and how they are connected by operators ‘AND’ and ‘OR’,
represented by symbols . ( called Conjunction operator) and v (Disjunction operator)
respectively and also have seen how they are analogous to the set theoretic operations  and
 respectively. Logically, all statements fall into one of the following two categories – True ,
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False. We just want to bring under a structure, all sorts of ethics and beliefs included. Whenever
we accept some statement say p to be true, we assign a ‘truth value, i.e. T’ to it and similarly
when we accept a statement say q to be false, we assign a ‘truth value F’ to it. Sometimes
True is denoted by Yes or 1 and False is denoted by No or 0 also.
For example, let p: Hari is brother of Ram, q: Hari is son of Shiva. Then p. q: Hari is brother of
Ram and Hari is son of Shiva. Similarly pv q: Hari is brother of Ram or Hari is son of Shiva.
As told previously the statements p, q may be accepted as true or false by choice. If both the
statements p, q are true, then p. q is true as well as pv q is true. But in case p is true and q is
false, p. q cannot be true (evidently both are not true). In this case at least one of the
statements is true obviously; i.e., pv q. These facts could be listed in the following table called
‘truth table’ .
Truth table for p. q
p q p. q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F F
Note that .
combination of both statements are false when each of them is false. ( it is
contrary to the notion negative of negative is positive, because here the statements are
joined, not one operating on the other)
Truth table for pv q
p q pv q
T T T
T F T
F T T
F F F
Closely watch the difference between the tables before proceeding from here.
There is another operator “NOT” apart from the operators AND’ and ‘OR’, called negation
operator, the negation of statement p is denoted by  p. If truth value of p if T then that of  p is
F and vice versa.
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The truth table for ~ p is obviously the following one. Here negation of negation of p is p.
p ~ p
T F
F T
Remember
The operator or connector ‘OR’ in mathematics is never used in mutually exclusive
sense. The statement pv q means p, or q or both. It is not either exclusively p or q.
§5:The connector ‘if…….then’ and contrapositive statements
Two statements may be joined with the help of a conditional connector ‘if…….then’; in
symbols
p q ÷
and the statement
p q ÷
is called a conditional statement. In this type of statements, p
is called antecedent and q is called consequent.
For example : ‘If it rains today, the pond cannot be dug’.
We could write p: It rains today; q: the pond cannot be dug.
The same compound statement may also be written in many other ways. For example, the
pond cannot be dug if it rains today. When it rains today, the pond cannot be dug. The pond can
be dug only if it does not rain today. ‘It rains today’ is sufficient condition for ‘the pond cannot
be dug’.
Remember
The order in which the two statements are written is not important , but the writing should be
unambiguous so that p q ÷
. Further , in mathematical logic, statements are viewed objectively.
Even p and q are unrelated statements, one may choose to write
p q ÷
, there is no bar, for we
are studying a structure only. For example one may write p : You see a falling star , and q: you
would pass the exam and one may connect the two such as If you see a falling star, you would
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pass the exam. Still as another example, take p: 2 + 4 =8 and q : Ram would get a hat ; and
connect the two as : if 2 + 4 =8 then Ram would get a hat.
This consideration shall be evident when we study the truth value of p q ÷
.
Remember
a) When p is true and q is true, evidently p q ÷
is true.
b) When p is true and q is false, p q ÷
is false.
(We need not preempt
p q ÷
, only it follows that
p q ÷
is false. Understandably we have
accepted forming of
p q ÷
even if p and q are unrelated subjects. As an example, if p:
Ram is son of Hari and q: Shiva is son of Gopal, the statement
p q ÷
becomes, If Ram is
son of Hari and q: Shiva is son of Gopal. The combined statement should be evidently
false in case the second statement ( q) is false, as the implication q is false.
c) When p is false and q is true, p q ÷
is true.
For example, if p : 9 is not divisible by 3 and q: 45 is divisible by 3, we have the combined
statement p q ÷
: if
9 is not divisible by 3 then 45 is divisible by 3. Since the consequence
of this combined statement ‘45 is divisible by 3’ is true, there is no objection in accepting
the combined statement to be true.
d) When p is false and q is false, p q ÷
is true.
For example p : 2 + 4 = 5 and q: 2 + 3 = 6 both statements are false. If we connect the
two false statements with ‘if…. then’, it would be ‘If 2 + 4 = 5 then 2 + 3 = 6’. It is true that
a false statement shall generate a false statement.
Truth table for
p q ÷
The above facts may easily be remembered by looking at the truth table for p q ÷
.
p q
p q ÷
T T T
T F F
F T T
F F T
Remember
p q ÷
is false only when truth value of p is T and truth value of q is F, otherwise it is true.
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In this way the symbol ÷is different from ¬i.e., “Implies”. The latter whenever connects two
statements, the combined statement is supposed to be necessarily true; but not in case of ÷.
To carry the structure forward, let us work out some more truth tables, so that writing the
statements and connecting them only through symbols would be more facilitated.
( Perhaps now you understand when negative of negative is positive and when it is not)
Truth table for
( ) ~ p q v
This would show how ‘if… then ‘ i.e., ÷ is correlated tov and . . To this end, we copy the truth
table for p q ÷
in the first three columns in the table below, then take
~ p
in the fourth column,
and
q
in the fifth column and work out
( ) ~ p q v
in the last. See for yourself the last column using
table for
v
worked out in the beginning.
p q
p q ÷ ~ p q
( ) ~ p q v
T T T F T T
T F F F F F
F T T T T T
F F T T F T
Truth table for
( ) ~ p q v
~ p q
( ) ~ p q v
F T T
F F F
T T T
T F T
Remember
The truth table for p q ÷
is same as the truth table for
( ) ~ p q v
as evident from above and so we
may write the statements
p q ÷
and
( ) ~ p q v
are equivalent statements;
Remember
( ) ~ p q p q ÷ ÷ v
.
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Let
: p
do not reach the station on time,
: q
you miss the train. Then
p q ÷
stands for “ if
you do not reach the station on time, then you miss the train” and
( ) ~ p q v
stands for
“Either you reach the station on time or you miss the train”. This is a small but powerful result
and is required in many of the problem below.
An equivalent statement of the above is
( ) ( ) ~ ~ p q p q ÷ ÷ .
which would be proved below,
with the help of De’ Morgan’s laws stated below.
§6:
De’ Morgan’s laws applied to statements Remember
Remember De’ Morgan’s laws in set theory,
( ) ' ' ' A B A B = ·
and
( ) ' ' ' A B A B · =
. These
applied to statements become
( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ ~ p q p q v ÷ .
and
( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ ~ p q p q . ÷ v
respectively; as
~ p
in logical statements correspond to
' A
(complement of
A
in set theory).
Remember
If
p q ÷
then
~ ~ q p ÷
, this is called contrapositive statement of
p q ÷
.
This is shown as follows:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ p q p q q p q p q p ÷ ÷ v ÷ v ÷ v ÷ ÷
in view of commutativity and as per
the above result.
For example contrapositive statements are like this :
The contrapositive of “ If you can gather 100 Rupees then surely you could gather 10 Rupees” is
“ If you cannot gather 10 rupees , you cannot gather 100 rupees.
The contrapositive of “ if you can swim across the river then you can swim the backyard pool” is
“if you cannot swim across the backyard pool, you cannot swim across the river”.
Further practice in the following paragraphs shall reinforce your understanding of symbolic
representation of mathematical logic.
Exercise 17
Rewrite the following sentences in symbolic form p q ÷
a) If you study well you would get good results
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b) If you are lucky you win a lottery
c) If you say no to tobacco you would not catch cancer
( The sentences are given only for exercise. Do not connect them to real life situation . for
example in
a) let p: you study well and q: you would get good results. We rewrite p q ÷
. In real life,
studying well is not sufficient for getting good results, it might be luck or situation too. Similarly in
b) if you don’t win a lottery, you might still be lucky otherwise. In c) you may observe that many
non-smokers also get cancer.)
Similarly you might observe that unrelated subjects are connected by ‘if….then’ in the following.
Remember that we are here only studying structure of mathematical logic, not ethics religion or
belief.
Exercise 18
Rewrite the symbolic form p q ÷
in plain language.
a) p: 2 + 3 = 7 , q: 4 + 6 = 14 ( if 2 + 3 = 7 then 4 + 6 = 14)
b) p: 2 + 2 =5, q: Sita would get a chocolate. ( if 2 + 2 =5 then Sita would get a chocolate)
c) p: any integer is divisible by 3, q: sum of its digits are divisible by 3.( if any integer is
divisible by 3, then the sum its digits is divisible by 3)
The following exercises are on truth value.
Exercise 19
In the following the truth value of p is T, that of q is F and that of r is T. Find the truth value of the
logical expressions.
A) ( ) p q r v ÷
. Ans.
( ) T F T T T T v ÷ = ÷ =
,as
( ) T F T v =
and
T T T ÷ =
.( refer truth
value table for
p q ÷
.
B) ( ) p q r . ÷
Ans.
( ) T F T T T T . ÷ = ÷ =
C) ( ) p q r ÷ ÷
. Ans.
( ) T F T T T T ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
, as
F T T ÷ =
and
T T T ÷ =
.
D) ( ) p q r . ÷
. Ans.
( ) T F T T T T . ÷ = . =
, as
F T T ÷ =
and
T T T . =
E) ( ) ~ p q r v ÷
.Ans.
( ) ~ ~ T F T T T T F F v ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
, as
T F T v =
and
T F F ÷ =
F) ( ) p q r ÷ .
. Ans.
( ) T F T F T F ÷ . = . =
,as
T F F ÷ =
and
F T F . =
.
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Exercise 20
Prepare the truth tables of the following statements:
a) ( ) p q r v ÷
b) ( ) p q r . ÷
c) ( ) p q r . ÷
d) ( ) ~ ~ p q q v ÷ (
¸ ¸
e) ( ) ( ) ~ p r q r . ÷ v (
¸ ¸
§7:Truth table method of proving logical statements
Apart from analytical proof, we could also prove a logical statement from truth tables. This would
be evident from the following exercise.
Exercise 21
To prove ( ) ( ) ( ) p q r p r q r v ÷ ÷ ÷ . ÷
We have to make truth tables for a) ( ) , p q and p q v b) ( ) , p q and p q r v ÷ c)
( ) , p q and p r ÷ , d) for ( ) , p q and q r ÷ , e) for ( ) ( ) , p q and p r q r ÷ . ÷ and then show that
the truth tables for b) and for e) are one ant the same by making a common table for all of
the above, combining the above truth tables together.
Remember that This is general method of proving these kind of problems.
We do the common table here for all of a) ,b), c) ,d) and e) above and you can extract the
individual tables from it as an exercise.
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( ) ( ) ( ) p q r p q p r q r p q r p r q r
T T T T T T T T
T T F T F F F F
T F T T T T T T
T F F T F T F F
F T T T T T T T
F T F T T F F F
F F T F T T T T
F F F F T T T T
v ÷ ÷ v ÷ ÷ . ÷
The reader should verify that the last two columns are identical, showing that
( ) ( ) ( ) p q r p r q r v ÷ ÷ ÷ . ÷ .
Exercise 22
To show that ( ) ( ) ~ ~ p q p q ÷ ÷ . Remember
Hint : Just take negative of both sides of ( ) ~ p q p q ÷ ÷ v
and apply De’ Morgan’s laws.
Exercise 23
Show that ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
~ ~ ~ ~ q p p q ÷ ÷ .
(Just the contrapositive of the above)
Exercise 24
Using truth table method, show that p q ÷ and q p ÷ do not imply one and the same thing.
§8:Biconditional statements
Two logical statements may be combined with ·, i.e., “implies and is implied by”. For example
look at the following statements
a) Three angles of a triangle are equal ·three sides are equal.
b) Prakash is son of Ramesh ·Ramesh is father of Prakash.
Either side of each of the statements follow from the other side.
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In logic we generalize the concept as “if and only if” and denoted by ÷, not by ·. The reason
is , the truth value of a combined statement joined by ·is always true; but the truth value of a
combined statement joined by ÷ is true only if both the sides are true and also true if both
sides are false.
Remember.
The truth table for p q ÷ ÷is given below:
p q p q
T T T
T F F
F T F
F F T
÷
It is easy to understand the fourth line, that one false statement follows from another false
statement and vice versa. The second and third line simply say that a true statement cannot
follow from a false one and vice versa.
More generally, ( ) ( ) p q p q q p ÷ ÷ ÷ . ÷ Remember
Again we could make truth tables for ( ) ( ) , , , , , p q p q q p p q p q q p ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ . ÷ separately, draw
the common table from them and show equivalence of the last two table columns as in ex 73
above.
For brevity we are giving here only the common table, the reader should draw individual tables
first and draw the common table from them as an exercise.
( ) ( ) p q p q q p p q p q q p
T T T T T T
T F F T F F
F T T F F F
F F T T T T
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ . ÷
The last two columns show the equivalence as desired.
Exercise 25
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To prove ( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ ~ p q p q p q ÷ ÷ . v . Remember
We can prove this with the help of truth tables. Also see the following for analytical approach.
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
~ ~
~ ~ ~ ' '
~ ~ ~
~ ~ ~
p q p q q p by definition
p q p q q p
p q p q q p by De morgan s laws
p q q p p q
p q p q p q
÷ ÷ ÷ . ÷
¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ . ÷
¬ ÷ ÷ ÷ v ÷
¬ ÷ ÷ . v .
¬ ÷ ÷ . v .
Exercise 26
Show that ( ) ( ) ( )
~ ~ p q p q p q ÷ ÷ . v .
§9:Premises, conclusion and arguments
Sometimes we draw some conclusion from a collection or sequence of statements. The
sequence of the statements along with conclusion together form what is called an argument.
The statements which lead to the conclusion are called antecedents or premises or
hypotheses ( plural of hypothesis). Sometimes the conclusion may be a valid one or may be
invalid also. We would discuss some methods to test the validity of an argument. But remember
that an argument is merely a sequence of statements ending in some conclusion; not
necessarily a dispute. If
1 2 3
, , ,.....
n
S S S S is a sequence of statements leading to a conclusion S ,
then the argument is denoted by( )
1 2 3
, , ,..... ;
n
S S S S S . An argument ( )
1 2 3
, , ,..... ;
n
S S S S S is said to
be valid if S is true whenever all of
1 2 3
, , ,.....
n
S S S S are true.
Example4 ;
Let
1
: S n is a natural number;
2
: S a natural number is an integer;
3
: S an integer is a rational
number;
4
: S a rational number is a real number and : S n is a real number. Here
1 2 3 4
, , , S S S S are
premises or hypotheses or antecedents S is the conclusion and it is valid. The sequence
( )
1 2 3 4
, , , ; S S S S S is an argument and it is valid.
§10:Methods to test validity of an argument
We construct a truth table for the hypotheses and the conclusion. If truth value all of the
hypotheses are true in a row and the conclusion is also true in that row, then the
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argument is valid. Such a row in which all hypotheses are true is called a critical row. There
may be more than one critical row in such a table. The conclusion should be true in every
critical row; otherwise the argument shall be invalid.
The last statement may be differently worded as follow; which gives an alternative test of
validity of any argument. The argument ( )
1 2 3
, , ,..... ;
n
S S S S S is valid if the statement “if
1 2 3
.....
n
S S S S . . . . then S is a tautology” is true, else invalid.
If there is no critical row; i.e., there is no row in which all the hypotheses are true, the
argument is considered invalid.
Example 5;
Test the validity of the following argument. ( )
1 2
:~ , : , : ~ S q S p q S p q v . .
Let us construct the truth table as follows:
hypothesis hypothesis conclusion
p q ~ q p q v ~ p q .
T T F T F
T F T T T
F T F T F
F F T F F
The third row is the only critical row and the conclusion is also true there. So the argument is
valid.
Example6 ;
Test the validity of the following argument.
1 2
:~ , : , :~ S p S p q S q v
Let us construct the truth table as follows:
hypothesis hypothesis conclusion
p q ~ p p q v ~ q
T T F T F
T F F T T
F T T T F
F F T F T
The third row is the only critical row and the conclusion is false there. So the argument is invalid.
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Example7 ;
Show that the following argument is valid. ( )
1 2
: , : ~ , : S p q S p S q v
In the alternative method, we would verify the conditional “if ( ) ( ) ~ p q p v . , then q ” is a
tautology. Let us construct the truth tables for
1 2
, , S S and S as follows.
1
S
2
S
1 2
S S .
1 2
S S S . ÷
S
p p q v ~ p
( ) ( ) ~ p q p v . ( ) ( ) ~ p q p q v . ÷
q
T T F F T T
T T F F T F
F T T T T T
F F T F T F
The fifth column is seen to be a tautology. Hence the argument is valid.
Exercise 27:
Examine the validity of the argument:
1 2
: ; : ; : S If p then q S p S q
Let us construct the truth table as follows:
Hypotheses Conclusion
p q p q ÷ p q
T T T T T
T F F T F
F T T F T
F F T F F
The first row is the only critical row and conclusion is also true. So the argument is valid
Exercise 28:Show that the following argument is invalid:
. ( )
1 2
: ; :~ ; : S p q r S r S p q v v v
Let us construct the truth table as follows:
Hypotheses Conclusion
p q
r
q r v
( ) p q r v v
~ r
p q v
T T T T T F T
T T F T T T T
T F T T T F T
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T F F F T T T
F T T T T F T
F T F T T T T
F F T T T F F
F F F F F T F
The fourth, sixth and eighth rows are critical rows in all of which conclusion is true. So the
argument is valid.
Exercise 29:
Show that the following argument is invalid: ( ) ( )
1 2
: ~ ; : ; : S p q r S q p r S p r ÷ v ÷ . ÷
Let us construct the truth table as follows:
Hypotheses Conclusion
p q
r ~ r ( ) ~ q r v p r .
( ) ~ p q r ÷ v ( ) q p r ÷ . p r ÷
T T T F T T T T T
T T F T T F T F
T F T F F T F T
T F F T T F T T F
F T T F T F T F
F T F T T F T F
F F T F F F T T T
F F F T T F T T T
Mark the critical rows are the third, 6
th
and 9
th
and 10
th
rows. In the sixth row, the conclusion is F.
So the argument is invalid.
Exercise 30:
Show that the following argument is invalid. ( )
1 2
: , : ~ , :~ S p q S p S q v
Let us construct the truth table as follows:
2
S S
1
S
1 2
S S .
1 2
S S S . ÷
p q
~ p ~ q p q v
( ) ( ) ~ p q p v . ( ) ( ) ( ) ~ ~ p q p q v . ÷
T T F F T F T
T F F T T F T
F T T F T T F
F F T T F F T
Since the last column is not a tautology (not always having truth value T) the argument is invalid.
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
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© Page 27
The student should compare the two methods and understand the similar reason behind them.
In one method, all the critical rows must have conclusion T and in the second method, the
conclusion must be always true for being a tautology.
Show the validity or invalidity of the arguments below:
Misc Exercise :
31.
1 2
: ; :~ ; :~ S p q S p S q ÷ (invalid)
32.
1 2
: ; :~ ; : S p q S q S p v (valid)
33.
1 2
: ; :~ ; : S p q S p S q v (valid)
34.
1 2
: ; : ; : S p q S q S p ÷ (invalid)
35.
1 2
: ; : ; : S p q S q p S p q ÷ ÷ v (valid)
36.
1 2 3
: ; : ~ ; : ; : S p q S p q S p r S r v ÷ ÷ (Invalid)
37.
1
: ; : ; S p S p q v (Valid)
38.
1
: ; : ; S q S p q v (Valid)
39.
1
: ; : ; S p q S p v (Valid)
40.
1
: ; : ; S p q S q v (Valid)
41.
1 2
: ; :~ ; :~ S p q S q S p ÷ (Valid)
42.
1 2 3
: ; : ; :~ , : S p S p q S q r S r ÷ v (valid)
43. ( )
1 2
: ; : ; : S p q S p r S p q r ÷ ÷ ÷ . (valid)
44. ( )
1 2 3
: ~ ; : ; : ; : S p q r S p q S q p S r . ÷ v ÷ (
¸ ¸
(Invalid)
§11:Boolean expressions and functions:
If ( ) , ,.,',0,1 B + be a Boolean algebra in the usual sense, where
{ }
1 2
, ,.........
n
B x x x = , a Boolean
expression in these variables would be defined like this:
a)
1 2
0,1, , ,.........
n
x x x , each of them is a Boolean expression.
b) If x and y are Boolean expressions, then
', , ( . . ), . , . ., x x y i e x y x y i e x y + v . are Boolean expressions.
Example6:
Show that ( )
1 2 3
. x x x + is a Boolean expression and find its value if
1 2 3
0, 0 1 x x and x = = =
Page 69 / 681
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The expression is a Boolean expression evidently as conditions a) and b) are satisfied. Its value
becomes ( ) ( )
1 2 3
. 0.0 1 0 1 1 x x x + = + = + =
Exercise45:
Show that ( ) { }
1 2 3
. ' x x x + is a Boolean expression and find its value when
1 2 3
0, 0 1 x x and x = = = . Ans. 0, as 1’ = 0.
§12:Boolean Function:
Functions represented by Boolean expressions are Boolean Functions. In other words, if
( )
1 2
, ,.....
n
X x x x be some Boolean expression in the variables mentioned, then
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
, ,..... , ,.....
n n
f x x x X x x x = is a Boolean function.
Example7
Remember the definition of function from the previous chapter, it is a single valued
correspondence between two sets A and B and is denoted by ( ) : f A B ÷ Its domain is the
subset of A for which the correspondence exists and the range or co-domain is the set of
corresponding values in B. The function { }
( )
{ }
2
: 0,1 0,1 f ÷ , is a Boolean function if
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 2
. . ' f x x x x x = + .
The right hand side expression is evidently a Boolean expression , hence it is a Boolean
function. Its
domain is { } { } { } ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
2
0,1 0,1 0,1 0,0 , 1,0 , 0,1 , 1,1 X = = , the Cartesian product of
{ } { } 0,1 0,1 and . We would use only Boolean functions whose domain is given by { } 0,1
n
,
where n is a natural number, and call it an n-place Boolean function. The structure of the
domain is by the number of variables in the expression. For example, in a function
1 2 3
. ' x x x + , we
see that each member of the domain contains three variables, of the type
( )
1 2 3
, , x x x , which is a
member of { } ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
3
0,1 0,0,1 , 0,1,1 , 1,0,1 , 1,0,0 ,........... = etc. as the variables can take only values
0 or 1.
Exercise46
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© Page 29
a) Find ( ) ( )
1 1 2 3
'. . ' x x x x + if
1 2 3
0, 1, 1 x x x = = = . Ans. 1
b) Find ( ) ( )
1 1 2 3
'. . ' x x x x + if
1 2 3
1, 0, 0 x x x = = = . Ans. 0
c) Find ( ) ( )
1 1 2 3
'. . ' x x x x + if
1 2 3
0, 0, 1 x x x = = = . Ans. 1
Exercise 47:
Construct input-output table for the Boolean expressions as follows:
a) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 2
. . ' f x x x x x = +
b) ( )
1 2 1 2
. '. f x x x x =
c)
( ) ( )
1 2 3 1 2 3
. . . ' f x x x x x x = +
d)
( ) ( )
1 2 3 1 2 3
. . . ' . f x x x x x x =
§12:Arrow diagram for Boolean function
The input-output tables for Boolean functions may be represented by an arrow diagram. For
example, take the following table:
Input Output
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
1 1 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
We can take ordered triplets of the inputs such as (1, 1, 1), (1,1,0) etc. and construct an arrow
diagram connecting the ordered triplets of inputs to the respective output. Compare the arrow
diagram with the input-output table like the one given below:
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 3:Symbolic logic, Mathematical logic and logic al gates
© Page 30
Verify that the arrow diagram is equivalent to the input - output table.
Exercise48
Make an arrow diagram for the following table:
Input Output
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
1 1 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
§13:Boolean function from input-output tables.
The following example would illustrate how do we construct a Boolean function for a given input-
output table.
Input Output
x
1
x
2
x
3
f(x
1
, x
2
, x
3
)
1 1 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
(1,1,1) (1,1,0)
(1,0,0)
(1,0,1)
(1,1,1)
(0,1,1)
(0,1,0)
(0,0,1)
(0,0,0)
0
1
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© Page 31
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
Observe that there is 1 in the output in the 3
rd
, 6
th
and 8
th
row. We can take
1 2 3
. . 1 x x x = when all
input are 1 each. If any input
2
x is 0 in any row, we can put
2
' 1 x = in this case and still get the
result
1 2 3
. '. 1 x x x = . Thus we get
1 2 3
. . 1 x x x = in the 3
rd
row,
1 2 3
. '. ' 1 x x x = in the 6
th
row, and
1 2 3
'. . ' 1 x x x = in the 8
th
row. We can write
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
. . . ' . ' ' . . ' 1 x x x x x x x x x + + = for the rows where
output is 1. ( Note that 1 or 1 is 1, i.e., 1 + 1 = 1). Observe that this represents the complete
table; for it is automatically understood that the output is 0 for all other inputs. Thus
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3
. . . . . ' . ' ' . . ' f x x x x x x x x x x x x = + + is the Boolean function representing the table, as
you may verify that when any member in the bracket in the left side of the equation is 0, the right
side is 0.
We can now list the rules for finding Boolean function for an input output table.
1) Identify all rows having output 1
2) Take the combinations of inputs
( )
1 2 3
. . x x x where all the inputs are 1 and take
complements of inputs if anyone is 0; i.e., put
2
' x in place of
2
x , if
2
0 x = .
3) Then combine all such expressions with ‘OR’ i.e. ‘.’.
4) This is the Boolean function
( )
1 2 3
. . f x x x , we need not write
( )
1 2 3
, , f x x x
Exercise49
Construct a Boolean function for the following input output table.
Input output
x
1
x
2
y
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 1 0
Ans. ( )
1 2 1 2
. . f x x x x =
The other outputs except 1 are automatically taken care of, in the Boolean function thus arrived
at.
( observe)
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 3:Symbolic logic, Mathematical logic and logic al gates
© Page 32
Exercise50
Construct a Boolean function for the following input output table.
Input Output
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
1 1 1 1
1 1 0 0
1 0 1 0
1 0 0 1
0 1 1 0
0 0 1 1
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 0
Exercise51
Construct a Boolean function for the following input output table.
Input Output
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
1 1 1 1
1 1 0 1
1 0 1 1
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 0
0 1 0 0
0 0 1 0
0 0 0 1
§14:LOGIC OF ELECTRICAL CIRCUITS AND SIGNALS
Switches lamp
p q On/off
closed closed on
closed open off
open closed off
open open off
Page 74 / 681
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© Page 33
Look at the electrical circuits above; in the series circuit , first one, the lamp would be on
only when both the switches are closed (on) and the lamp would be off when any one of the
switches if open (off). Compare this with the truth table of p q . denoting truth values 1 for T
and 0 for F. This is same as the Input-Output table for binary operation AND. Also mark here
that performing the operation AND is same as taking minimum of 1 and 0. See the table below.
p q
p q .
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
Switches lamp
p q On/off
closed closed on
closed open on
open closed on
open open off
p
q
battery
lamp
Switches p and q are in parallel; lamp would be
lighted when any one of the switches are closed.
p q
battery
lamp
Switches p and q are in series; lamp would be
lighted when both switches are closed.
Page 75 / 681
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© Page 34
Exercise 52: remember
Show that if p, q etc have values
1 2
, x x , which are Boolean variables 0 or 1, then the input- output
table for AND is represented by a Boolean function ( )
1 2 1 2
, . f x x x x = , the Boolean expression
where ‘.’ represents AND.
Hint : Show that their input-output tables are same.
In the parallel circuit , compare the table with truth table of p q v , using 1 and 0 for T and
F respectively. This is same as the Input-Output table for binary operation OR. Also mark here
that performing the operation OR is same as taking maximum of 1 and 0. See the table below.
p q
p q v
1 1 1
1 0 1
0 1 1
0 0 0
Exercise 53: remember
Show that if p, q etc have values
1 2
, x x , which are Boolean variables 0 or 1, then the input- output
table for OR is represented by a Boolean function ( )
1 2 1 2
, f x x x x = + , the Boolean expression
where ‘+’ Represents OR.
Hint : Show that their input-output tables are same.
In electrical engineering and in electronics, large number of tiny electrical circuits are
integrated to give desired outputs. These are called integrated circuits or ICs. These ICs of chips
are having various uses today, in computers, music systems, cars , calculators, digital watches,
robots and industrial control systems etc. Depending upon their level of integration ( number of
circuit components or logic gates) the ICs are called SSI ( small scale integration, no. of ICs s
10), MSI ( Medium scale integration, no. of ICs s100),LSI,( Large scale integration, no. of ICs s
1000), or VLSI ( very large scale integration, no. of ICs > 1000).
A logic gate means a logical operation is performed on logical inputs and results in a
single output. The logic is commonly Boolean logic.
The AND gate and the OR gate is represented in the following symbols with their
input- output function shown in their side.
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© Page 35
Logic gates are not necessarily series or parallel electrical circuits only. They may be
combinations of them or other electrical contrivances to meant to modify the input values of
currents or signals or bits to desired output. For example there is a NOT gate corresponding to
NOT function in Boolean Algebra, i.e. complement in set theory. This is a logical requirement to
develop logical tools involving gates and may not be represented by a simple series of parallel
electrical circuit. The gate concepts are useful in optical systems, even in mechanical systems.
The diagram or symbol for it is given below along with input-output table.
Such a gate inverts the input signal, 1 to 0 and 0 to 1. In other words T to F and F to T. As such
it is called an inverter. Do not confuse it with home or office inverter which is used to supply
output current even if the input current is cut off; but not does not make out put current 0 when
there is input current in the mains. As an example of a NOT gate we can cite the example of a
burglar alarm or bank safety siren; it buzzes only when the circuit breaks. The small circle in the
symbol for NOT gate ( and in many other we would know later on) is called ‘bubble’.
The logical gates are primarily used theoretically to modify the pulse waveform of signals
apart from carrying out mathematical logical operations. It is explained below:
A and B are two square wave input signals taking values 0 ( at the lower level) and 1 (at the
higher level) at different times as given below. If the two signals are combined by the operation
x x’
1 0
0 1
NOT NOT x x’
NOT gate converting signal x to x’
OR
OR
1
x
2
x
1 2
x x +
AND
AND
1
x
1 2
. x x
2
x
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© Page 36
OR, the output signal Y = A OR B, i.e. A+B is calculated with the help of the two figures for A
and B as given below.
It is
evide
ntly
unde
rstoo
d
that
the output signal Y is clearly A OR B, i.e. A+B.
SIGNALS
1
t t <
1 2
t t t s <
2 3
t t t s <
3 4
t t t s <
4 5
t t t s <
5 6
t t t s <
6
t t s
Input signal A 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
Input signal B 0 0 1 0 0 0 1
Output signal A OR
B
0 1 1 1 0 1 1
Input signal A
Input signal B
Output signal A OR B
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
6
t
6
Page 78 / 681
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© Page 37
It is
evide
ntly
unde
rstoo
d
that
the output signal Y is clearly A AND B, i.e. A.B
Exercise 54:
Construct input-output table for the combination of gates shown in the figure.
If x
1
= 0 passes through NOT gateit becomes x
1
’ = 1, input for AND gate. If the other input for
SIGNALS
1
t t <
1 2
t t t s <
2 3
t t t s <
3 4
t t t s <
4 5
t t t s <
5 6
t t t s <
6
t t s
Input signal A 0 1 1 0 0 1 0
Input signal B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1
Output signal A AND
B
0 0 1 0 0 0 0
x
1
x
2
x
x
1

Input signal A
Input signal B
Output signal A AND B
t
1
t
2
t
3
t
4
t
6
t
6
Page 79 / 681
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© Page 38
AND gate is x
2
= 0, then the output x = 0. Similarly work out output for all possible values of
inputs and complete the table as follows:
x
1
x
1
’ x
2
x
1 0 1 0
0 1 0 0
1 0 0 0
0 1 1 1
Exercise 55:
Find the output x for the above combination of gates if x
1
= 1, x
2
= 0, x
3
= 1.
Ans. x = 0 . Hint : observe that x
4
= 1, x
4
’ = 0, so x = 0. .
Exercise 56:
Complete the input-output table for the above.
Hint.
Complete the table for all possible values of
inputs
Exercise57
Find the input-output tables for the following two circuits and show that they have the same
output s for the same inputs. Such circuits are called equivalent circuits.
x
1
x
2
x
4
x
4
’ x
3
x
1 0 1 0 1 0
1 1 1 0 1 0
0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 1 0 0 0
x
1
x
2
x
3
x
4
x
4

x
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© Page 39
Exercise58:
Find out the input-output tables for the two circuits given below and show that they are
equivalent.
a)
2
nd
circuit
y
x
1
x
2
1
st
circuit
x1
x2
y
x
1
x
2
y
2
2
nd
circuit
x
1
x
2
y
1
1
st
circuit
Page 81 / 681
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© Page 40
Hint: The input-output table for the 1
st
circuit is given below:
Input Output
x
1
x
2
y
1 1 1
1 0 0
0 1 0
0 0 0
b)
2nd circuit
1
st
circuit
Page 82 / 681
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 1
CHAPTER 5A: FUNCTIONS AND GRAPHS PART I
§1:Functions
A function is either one to one relation or many to one relation or mapping. No member of A is
related to more than one member of B. If relation is a subset of the Cartesian product A x B,
function is a relation or mapping from A to B with restriction that no member of A corresponds to
more than one member of B. For example, if
{ } , , , A a b c d =
and
{ } 1, 2,3, 4 B =
and the subset
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
,1 , , 2 , , 2 , , 3 S a a b c =
then S is not a function. Similarly
2 2 2
y p x = ÷
or
2 2
y p x = ± ÷
is not a function of x, but
2 2
y p x = ÷
is a function of x, as it is single valued.
The reverse case is admissible; more than one member of A may correspond to the same
member of B. In that case the mapping is many to one. So, only one to one mappings or many
to one mappings are functions, not one to many nor many to many mappings. Not only the next
chapter, Entire Calculus, most of Analytical Geometry, most of algebra etc. are only study of
functions. A member of B may correspond to even all the members of A, but a member of A
should not correspond to more than one member of B, in a function. We would return to the
subject in the next chapter onwards. A mapping or function f from the set X into the set Y is
written as
: f X Y ÷
.It maps a member
a X e
to a member
b Y e
, written as
( ) f a b =
. The
members of A for which this mapping is defined form a subset D of X, called domain , D of the
function and the subset of Y, called the range R, of the function. Unless otherwise stated we
take
D X _
as the domain. Every member b in the range is image
( ) f a
of some member a in
the domain and a is called inverse image of b. The correspondence
D R ÷
is necessarily
single valued as per definition of function. If the correspondence is also one-to-one we can set
up a single valued correspondence from R to D also just listing
b a ÷
in place of every
a b ÷
.
Evidently this correspondence shall be single valued and a function as such, from Y to X. This is
denoted as
1
: f Y X
÷
÷
and is called inverse function of f. Do not confuse
( )
( )
1
1
f b with
f b
÷
. If Y = R we say the function is onto Y instead of into Y. Note that if
replace Y with R, every one to one function has got an inverse function. Hence every one-to-
one and onto function admits of an inverse function.
Two mappings
f
and
g
are said to be equal i.e.
( ) ( ) f g f x g x = · =
for all x in the domain.
If
X
is a subset of
Y
, a mapping
( ) I x x =
for all
x X e
is called an identity mapping.
Exercise1
Show that if an identity mapping exists, then it must be unique.
Ans. Let
( ) I x x = be an identity mapping and
( ) J x x = be another, It follows that
( ) ( ) I x x J x = = . So
( ) I x is unique.
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Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 2
Exercise2
Show that if an identity mapping
( ) I x x = exists, then
( )
1
I x x
÷
= , i.e.
( )
1
1
I I
÷
÷
= .
The proof is trivial , since,
( ) ( )
1 1
I I x I x
÷ ÷
= ,
since
( ) I x x =
. But ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1 1 1
I I x I x I x I x x I I
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= · = = · =
Exercise3
If
1
f
÷
exists, verify by way of example that
1 1
f f I ff
÷ ÷
= =
Exercise4
If
1
f
÷
exists, show that
( )
1
1
f f
÷
÷
= ; the left inverse is same as the right inverse and it is unique.
Ans.
If
1
f
÷
exists, then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1 1
f f x x f x f x f f
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= · = · = .
And if
( ) f x y = , then ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1
f y x f f y f x y ff I
÷ ÷ ÷
= · = = · = . So
1 1
ff f f I
÷ ÷
= = .
Now
1
f
÷
is not unique, let there be another inverse function of f exist ,
1
g f
÷
= such that
fg gf I = = . Then,
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
g gI g ff gf f If f
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = = , a contradiction.
Exercise5
If : f X Y ÷ for nonempty sets , X Y , be a one-to-one function, show that there is an into
function : g Y X ÷ such that gf I = . Note that X is the domain.
Hint: Take all the inverse images and note that every inverse image is unique in view of the
function being one-to-one.
Exercise6
If : f X Y ÷ for nonempty sets , X Y , be a onto function, show that there is an into function
: h Y X ÷ such that hf I =
Hint : take all the inverse images and choose only one inverse image for any y Y e .
Whether nor not f admits of an inverse function,
( )
1
a f b
÷
= has a meaning,
( ) f a b = ; b is
called image of a and a is called inverse image of b. Similarly
( ) f A B = means the set B is
the set of images of points in the set A and
( )
1
f B A
÷
= means the set of inverse images of the
members in the set B . More conveniently,
( ) ( ) { }
: f A f x x A = e ,
( ) ( ) { }
1
: f B x f x B
÷
= e .
Exercise7
If : f X X ÷ for nonempty sets , X Y , be a one-to one onto function, show that there is a
function : h X X ÷ such that hf I = and also h is one-to-one and onto.
In other words, every one to one and onto function admits of an inverse function.
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 3
Exercise8
If : f X Y ÷ for nonempty sets , X Y , be a one-to one onto function, show that there is a
function : h Y X ÷ such that hf I = and also h is one-to-one and onto.
Example1
There are functions which may not have any ‘formula’ of transformation . Such as
: f X Y ÷
where
{ } { } 1, 2,3 , , , X Y a b c = =
. The function may be defined only by the listing
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 , 2 , 3 f b f c f a = = =
.
Exercise9
If
, A X B X _ _
and
: f X Y ÷
is a function from X to Y, show that
( ) ( ) ( ) f A B f A F B · _ ·
.
Exercise10
Whether the following statements are true of false?
( ) f ¢ ¢ = (true)
( ) f X Y _ for any function : f X Y ÷ (true)
Exercise11
Show that
( ) ( )
i i i i
f A f A = .Consider the following example.
Exercise12
Is it true that
( ) ( )
i i i i
f A f A · = ·
. (false). The true statement is
( ) ( )
i i i i
f A f A · _ ·
.
See the above example. Two disjoint sets A and B may not have disjoint images. So the images
of intersection is not necessarily equal to intersection of images.
1
2
3
4
5
6
a
b
c
d
e
f
A
B
f(A)
f(B)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , f A B f A f B but f A B and f A f B ¢ ¢ = · = · =
c
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 4
No such conclusion can be drawn about relating ( ) ' f A and ( ) ( )' f A
Exercise13
Show that for a function
: f X Y ÷
,and both sets are non-empty
a)
( )
1
f ¢ ¢
÷
=
b)
( )
1
f Y X
÷
=
c) If
1 2
B B Y _ _
, then
( ) ( )
1 1
1 2
f B f B
÷ ÷
_
d) If
i
B Y _
for
i I e
, then
( ) ( )
1 1
i i i i
f B f B
÷ ÷
=
.
e) If
i
B Y _
for
i I e
, then
( ) ( )
1 1
i i i i
f B f B
÷ ÷
· = ·
.
f) If
B Y _
then
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
' ' f B f B
÷ ÷
_
Exercise14
Show that for a function
: f X Y ÷
,and both sets are non-empty then ( )
1
ff B B
÷
_ in general
and if ( )
1
ff B B
÷
= for all B Y _ then
f
is onto and vice versa.
Exercise15
Show that for a function
: f X Y ÷
,and both sets are non-empty then ( )
1
f f A A
÷
_ in general
and if ( )
1
f f A A
÷
= for all A X _ then
f
is one to one and vice versa.
Exercise16
Show that for a function
: f X Y ÷
,and both sets are non-empty and for any
1 2
, A X A X _ _
if ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
f A A f A f A · = · i then
f
is one to one and vice versa.
Exercise17
Show that for a function
: f X Y ÷
,and both sets are non-empty and for any A X _ if
( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' f A f A _ then
f
is onto and vice versa.
Exercise18
Show that for a function
: f X Y ÷
,and both sets are non-empty and for any A X _ if
( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' f A f A = then
f
is one to one and vice versa.
Exercise19
Any idea about total number of relations in A x D ? It must be the total number of subsets of
A x D. The Cartesian product A x D contains m x n members if A contains m members and D
contains n members. Total number of subsets of a set containing mn members is 2
mn
evidently.
Exercise20
Find the total number of one to one onto functions
: f X Y ÷
if X has m elements and Y has n
elements.
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 5
Hint : each member in X, say x
1
can be taken to any member of Y in n ways. So the total
number of functions is n
m
.
Exercise21
Any subset of the Cartesian product XxY
is a relation in general and it is a function only when
no
member of
X
is connected to more than one member of
Y
.If
1 2
, A X A X _ _
and
1 2
, B Y B Y _ _
,show that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2
A xB A xB A A x B B · = · ·
.
Exercise22 remember
Any subset of the Cartesian product XxY
is a relation in general and it is a function only
when no member of
X
is connected to more than one member of
Y
.If
1 2
, A X A X _ _
and
1 2
, B Y B Y _ _
,show that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
A xB A xB A A x B B A A x B B A A x B B ÷ = ÷ ÷ · ÷ ÷ · ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
.
Exercise23
If
{ } , , A p q r = and
{ } 1, 2, 3 B = , determine which of the following are mappings
a)
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
,1 , , 3 , , 2 p q r
b)
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
,1 , , 3 , , 3 p q r
c)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) { }
,1 , , 2 , , 3 , , 3 p q q r
d)
( ) ( ) { }
,1 , , 2 p q
e)
( ) ( ) ( ) { }
, 2 , , 3 , , 3 p q r
Ans. a), b), d) and e).
Exercise24
In the non-empty sets , X Y , s function is defined as : f X Y ÷ . Take
1 2
, ,....... x x and define a
binary relation R such that
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
x Rx f x f x · = . Verify that this is an equivalence
relation.
Exercise25
If
{ } , , A a b c = and
{ } 1, 2 B = , then
a) How many mappings are there in total from A into B?
b) How many of them are one to one?
c) How many mappings are there in total from A onto B?
d) How many one to one and onto mappings are there in total from A onto B?
Hint . there are six ordered pairs in total, and half of them would be dropped from consideration
as the mappings have to be single valued. Then count for each case.
§2:Examples of functions
1) Function of integers( Sequences)
Take a sequence of fractions 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, 1/16……. as an example for covering a given
distance in successive steps. In 1st step, 1/2th distance is covered, in the second step half of
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
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Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 6
the rest is covered ,half of the rest covered in the next step and so on. One reaches the
destination in this manner albeit , but it seems never possible at first glance. We observe that,
’half of the rest’ is always left out, which of course, becomes smaller and smaller indefinitely.
One can neglect it as per one’s wish or purpose .Purposes may differ ,e .g. a grain of rice may
be looked upon as 0 by a grain merchant, but certainly it is not 0 for an ant, or a chemical
analysist. But Mathematics ensures uniform standards of development without bearing on any
individuals or their purposes; so we always talk of ‘ arbitrarily small’ instead of small for
any one or for any purpose. Look at the table
below
Instead of this table, we could write t(n)=(1/2)n, in function notation, where ‘t’ is said to be a
function of ‘n’, varying in the domain , D ={1,2,3,4,5,6,7,….} of natural numbers and the
values of the function form a set range R={1/2,1/4,1/8,1/16…..} of numbers.. thus the
numbers 1/2,1/4,1/8,1/16….. are just labeled by natural numbers 1,2,3,4….etc. This is a
function of natural numbers.
The domain and range need not be or natural numbers even be countable for making functions
in general . They can be intervals like ]2,5] with all the numbers between 2 to 5, 2 not included
,may be completely closed intervals [4,9] both 4 and 9 included or completely open intervals
like ]5,16[ both 5 and 16 not included, etc., may be entire set of real numbers R etc. e.g.,
f(x) = 2
x
., f(x) = cos 2x etc. ,where the domains are entire set of real numbers. The domain
is the set of all values of independent variable ( such as n in the above example)and
the range is the entire set of values of dependent variable(such as t(n)) . For our
purpose , we understand functions as single-valued functions and real-valued (range in
the set of real numbers), viz. , a number in the domain set shall not correspond to more than
one number in the range set. In this sense y
2
= 4x is not a function in ] - ·,·[, but it is a
function in [ 0,·[, but y = 4x
2
is a function undisputedly. The entire edifice of Real Analysis and
Calculus stand on the assumption of single-valued-ness of function.
Such functions whose domain is the set of integers is called a sequence. The domain must be
the set of natural numbers and the range is countable in such functions. You know some
sequences are converging or diverging. An example of a diverging sequence is
1,2,3,4,5,6……….
Series is just a sequence of partial sums ( of first n terms ) of any sequence, like s
1
,
s
2
,s
3
………s
n
……..etc. Again, some series may be converging, diverging, some may also be
oscillating like 1, - 1, 1, -1, 1, -1 ..etc.
Example2:
If ( ) ( ) ( ) 1! 2! 3! ........... 2 ! 1 ! ! f n n n n = + + + + ÷ + ÷ + , for n a being a positive integer, show that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 3 1 2 f n n f n n f n + = + + ÷ + .
Example3:
If the functions , , a x x a x ÷ + are in A.P. find the integer values of a, if 0 a x > > .
n 1 2 3 4
t(n) 1/2 1/4 1/8 1/16
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
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© Page 7
Ans. : We have 2 x a x a x = ÷ + + . By squaring,
2 2 2 2
4 2 2 x a x a x a x x a a x = ÷ + + + ÷ ¬ ÷ = ÷ . Squaring again,
2 2 2 2
4 4 x a ax a x + ÷ = ÷
i.e.,
4
5
a
x = since 0 x = . Then the A.P . , , a x x a x ÷ + becomes, , 2 ,3
5 5 5
a a a
. The
integer values of a must be 5n where n is a positive integer.
2) example of a function of many variables
We meet functions everywhere in all branches of Physics, Economics and Geometry and
in every discipline which would prefer to use a logical framework. Take an example of the
universal law of gravitation - the force of gravitation F between to bodies of masses m and M
at a distance r apart is given by
2
r
Mm
G F =
(gravitation).[
2
r
Qq
πε 4
1
F =
(electric charges)
2
2 1
r
m m
π 4
μ
F =
(magnetic poles) Coulomb’s laws for electric charges and magnetic poles ]
The independent variables are masses of the bodies and distance between them in case of
gravitation , electric charges of the bodies and the distance between them in case of
electrostatic force and the pole strengths of the bodies and the distance between them in case
of magnetostatic force and the force is the dependent variable. We can vary the masses,
charges or poles or distance between the bodies as we wish and measure the force between
the bodies. This is the idea behind independent variable or we can think of them as control
variables.
This small expression has a world if information coded in it. It has occurred to Newton that two
point masses of one unit each at a distance of one unit apart ,attract each other with a force,
which remains the same wherever we place the system and whenever we observe them. This is
given by a constant G, called the constant of universal gravitation whose value depends upon
the systems of units we use. Suppose this arrangement of two point masses of one unit each at
a distance of one unit comprise one force system in which a force equal to G is observed. If we
take one of the point mass 4 units instead of one, we can logically think there are 4 force
systems of force equal to G in each system and the total force observed shall be 4G. in the
second step, if we replace the second mass of one unit by a mass of 3 units, logically the
arrangement shall be equivalent to 4x3 = 12 force systems together making the force 12 G. In
the third step, let the distance of the second point mass from the first point mass be doubled.
One may naturally think the force to be halved this time. But while we have increases the
distance of the second point mass from the first to double, we cannot keep the distance of the
1st point mass from the 2nd fixed and it would be doubled automatically at the same time. So
we should expect the resulting force to decrease to ¼ instead of ½ . The formula is fondly called
the inverse square law of universal gravitation which must have occurred to Newton while he
observed the apple fall. So forever let the apple fall and let our heads roll, roll on and on to
enlightenment. Gauss used simple Euclidean Geometry we all know, to show that the point
masses could be replaced by spheres of masses M and m apart from each other and the
formula still holds. Coulomb, Ampere, Gauss, Wersted, Maxwell thought in the same lines and
showed that the same inverse square law would hold for electric charges and magnetic poles
for forces of attraction or repulsion, with the G replaced by a constant involving permittivity of
the medium for electric charges and masses replaced by electric charges and for magnetic
forces, with the G replaced by a constant involving permeability of the medium for magnetic
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Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
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© Page 8
poles and magnetic poles replaced by masses. Presuming the inverse square law for electric
charges or magnetic poles merely did not suffice though it perfectly stood to reasoning. The
effect of the forces were measured at different distances, taking different charges and pole
values and the results were compared to the assumed formula with values of which the
observations were fairly approximate. Then only the formulae could have been accepted. This is
the way experimental sciences are built up. Experimental observation is made measuring a
large number of different values of a variable upon which the quantity to be investigated is
supposed to depend upon,( here in this case force is measured at different distances) and the
process is carried on, in turn for all the variables that are supposed to be independent ( in this
case the charges and the poles) and then the results are compared to some known function of
the variables. If the measurements are sufficiently approximate to the functional values the
empirical formula is established. If no such function is found, the rates of change of the force
are calculated and recognized as close to a known function. From this function , (called the
derived function) the original function is reconstructed with the help of Calculus through the
process of integration (the inverse process of deriving or differentiation). Most of the time simple
integration is not possible as in case the derived function is presented as a relation among , or
is a compound combination of derivatives, called a differential equation. Solution of the
differential equation gives us the function of course. An entire branch of Calculus is devoted to
differential equations. A function contains infinite, nay, all values of independent variables and
the relationship from which the dependent variable’s value can be obtained. This can be done
with the help of an equation or a set of equations. Alternatively the sets of values of independent
variables combined with values of dependent variable could be presented in the form of a table.
The table becomes infinitely long very often , so a graph of it shows all the values at the same
time in a picture, a point representing a set of values for independent and dependent variables.
For a set of independent variables, the value of the dependent variable can be got easily from
the graph, but not sufficiently accurately for the scale used in the graph. But the interpretation of
a graph reveals much of the behaviour of the function. The equation is the ultimate recourse ;
put any value of independent variable , calculate and get the value of the dependent variable.
Thus it contains all the values of the function in a small code ! More wonderful is the fact that the
differential equation of the function ( an equation which may or may not contain the function
itself often) contains a finer code just like a seed contains the entire code of the tree or a set of
DNAs or genes in every cell contain entire code of the animal or plant. The code or the
differential equation of the tree also contains the information how the tree would grow if some
branches are cutoff at some point of time, or the tree is allowed to grow in a glass case or it is
planted in a pot (boundary values of independent variables or boundary value problems), or how
the tree would grow on different soils and climates and if planted in different seasons (initial
value problems). Now solutions of differential equations build Physics including Quantum
Physics, Astronomy, Economics, and all those sciences which use Mathematics as their
framework. Every branch of Mathematics such as Algebra, Theory Of Equations, Modern
Algebra, Coordinate Geometry Vector Analysis, Tensor Analysis, Topology, Functional Analysis,
etc. etc. aim at solutions of differential equations. What types of differential equations can be
solved, under what circumstances, their different kinds of solutions comprise what is called
existence problems. More often than not, the differential equations give solutions not in closed
and compact forms of algebraic or trigonometric functions but as in forms of infinite series of
functions, necessitating the study of circumstances under which these series converge and are
meaningful.
Functions of many independent variables like the one example, the formula for force
under universal gravitation, or Coulomb’s laws are functions of many variables and are more
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abundant than functions of a single variable. There can be vector functions of scalar variables,
scalar function of scalar or vector variables and all sorts of them. Study of function of a single
variable enables us to study a function of many variables with respect to each of the variables in
turn. But all the while single valued-ness of the functions must be emphasized - the force can
be same for hundred different arrangements of masses and distances but for one arrangement
of masses and distance, there are not two values of force.
3) Function of a continuous variable
Suppose y = sin x , a function from the set of real numbers to the interval [0, 1]. The labels here
i.e., the independent variable are not natural numbers but real numbers.
We know a few values of the function from simple geometry like sin 30
0
, sin 60
0
, sin 90
0
, etc.
if the function is a rule to associate the members between two sets, we should know sin 32
0
, sin
21
0
, as easily as we know sin 30
0
. But this is not so easy. We have to study the nature of
the function from many angles . whether a small change in independent variable 30
0
to 31.2
0
will
result in a small change in the dependent variable so that we can at least have an approximate
idea about sin 31.2
0
; i.e. whether the function is continuous or not. Then another question may
arise whether the function increases at a constant rate in a small interval or in approximately
constant rate . To be exact, suppose you know sin 30
0
and sin 31
0.
. Can you just have
0 0
sin30 sin31
2
+
for
0 0
30 31
sin
2
+
?. For these questions to be answered, we need to study rate of
change of functions or differentiation.
A function is essentially a correspondence between members of a set A, with the
members of the set B, written as f: A B. The members of the set A , related by the function
to B constitute the domain of the function D and the set of values of the function in B constitute
the range R. (We write f(x) = y when x and y are related as per rule(s) of the function f.). Take
an example f(x) = x
2
or y = x
2
. We have been used to think that the variable x has underwent
some process called squaring or has been modified in a very complex manner such as
y = sin x. Though it codifies all the values connected by the relation, we are very much
distracted to interpret the relationship. From simple Geometric considerations we get the values
of sin t/2, t/4, etc. but tend to retreat when asked the value for sin 40
0
. Now the approach is to
discard the notion that the angle is modified in a complex manner by the sin operator and it
would suffice for its study only remembering that y = sin x is only a set of pairs of values
mapped against each other and the tools of Calculus would take care of the function in its
entirety. The limiting process aims at getting value of the function at a particular point,
differentiation decides how rapidly it increases or decreases and Taylor’s theorem prepares its
table. Integration is reverse process of differentiation and attempts to construct unknown original
functions whose rates of change we happen to be known in studying a physical phenomenon. It
would be injustice to claim that Calculus has laid the foundation of Algebra, Theory of Equations
or Geometry, but it has enriched these disciplines; there is no doubt about it. The statement
shall be evident more prominently in the later chapters. Study of functions through the eyes of
Algebra or Coordinate Geometry or Theory of Equations shall be compared with study of the
functions with the help of Calculus and the statement we have made, shall be evident as we
proceed. Further, Algebra has attempted to include Calculus by including the process of taking
limits of functions and Geometry has attempted to complete itself without help of Calculus. But
under the umbrella of Calculus, a lot of simplicity and elegance can be achieved without
sacrificing rigor at the same time. A particular example shall be given under Taylor’s theorem. It
is the correspondence between the variables which is important which takes everything about
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© Page 10
the function in its fold, including dependence of one variable upon the others or vice versa and
including modifications of the independent variables. So we forget about modifications or
dependence and only remember the set of functional values; the independent variables just
serve as labels attached on them.
A function f from a subset D (domain) of A to a subset R (Range) of B is a rule
or a set of rules by which a member of D is associated with a member of R. If no
member of D is associated with more than one member of R, the function is single
valued. If R is a subset of real numbers the function is real valued . In Calculus we are
interested only in single valued real valued functions. If R = B the function is onto .
Example4
Construct a function to express the area of the two portions of a square cut by a st line parallel
to one of its diagonals.
Ans. :
Let AR be x, independent variable. The AQ = AP = 2 x so the area ( ) f x , say, of
2
1
2 2
2
APQ x x x A = = .This is in the first of the two figures above. If PQ cuts BC and DC
instead of AB and AD, as in the 2
nd
figure above , let ( ) f x be the area of the portion ABQRPD
= area of the square – the area of PQC A . Now 2 AC a = , AR x = , 2 RC a x = ÷ ,
( )
2 2 PC CQ a x = = ÷ .So the area of
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
1 1
. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
PQC CPCQ a x a x a x a x ax A = = ÷ ÷ = ÷ = + ÷ .
Now the area of the portion ABQRPD = ( )
( )
2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 f x a a x ax ax a x = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ .
B
C
D
A
P
Q
R
A B
C D
P
Q
R
O O
Page 92 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 11
Combining the results, ( )
2
2 2
, 0
2
2 2 , 2
2
a
x for x
f x
a
ax a x for x a
¦
s s
¦
¦
=
´
¦
÷ ÷ s s
¦
¹
Where , 2
2
a
AO AC a = =
Onto, Into, one-to-one and one-to-one onto functions
A one- to- one into function is called an injective. A onto function is called a
surjective .A one-to-one and onto function is a bijective.
For example, if : f R R ÷ , ( )
2
2
1
x
f x
x
=
+
,then it is not one to one nor onto. In other words, If
the function : f R A ÷ , ( )
2
2
1
x
f x
x
=
+
is onto, Then the range must be | | 0,1 A =
If, for any member in R, there is only one member of D, the function is one-to-
one. When the domain and range are interchanged, the new function got, is the inverse
function of the old one. For the inverse function to be single valued, the function has to
be one-to-one . As we mean functions have to be single valued always, a one to one and onto
function admits of an inverse function.
The point needs a little more clarification. The set B is often called the co-domain of the
function f; The range is always a subset of co-domain. The function is surjective if co-domain
is same as the range, i.e., if every member of the co-domain has a pre-image in A. The
correspondence between the variables (independent and dependent as they are called) may not
necessarily be one-to-one ,but if it is so, the function admits of an inverse function with the
domain and the range interchanged, e.g., y = sin x in the interval [0,900 ] admits of an
inverse function x = sin
-1
y, y = 2x in the domain ]- · ,· [ admits of an inverse function
x= y/2, y= 10
x
in the interval [0,·[ has an inverse function x = log 10 y and so on. (sin
-1
y
should not be confused with (sin y)
-1
;it is the angle whose sine is y ).
We represent a function in the form of a table of pairs of independent and dependent
variables as you have done a table of pairs of values before drawing a graph of a function.
Alternatively we represent a function with the help of an equation or set of equations, rule or a
set of rules. A function could also be represented by its graph. Of the three approaches to
represent a function, the set theoretic approach, is simplest, for it ensures the desired single
valued-ness. Tables would be containing generally infinite pairs and would be of little use except
while drawing the graph of the function. Graph of a function is pictorial visualization and is an
aid to understanding and interpreting the relationship between the variables.
EXAMPLES IN GENERAL
EXAMPLE 5:
A function “father of “ may be constructed between the set H = {All human beings} and
the set H = {All human beings}, denoted by f( H) ÷H, ¬ aeH, f(a) = b, beH.(Figure out the
domain and the range!)You wonder whether objects that are not numbers could be used in
functions; but they can be .Does this function admit of an inverse function ? No. (Why?)
Page 93 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 12
We are rather interested only functions involving numbers only, although functions may be
formed between any two sets.
EXAMPLE6
Which functions are their own inverses? Try f(x) =|x| , x in [ 0,·[. or g(x) = 1/x, x
in R. (Both of them are ) . The function is called ‘modulus function’ or ‘absolute value function’,
to be more fully described later on.
EXAMPLE7
y = f(x) = 3, a constant. It is a straight line parallel to X-axis.
Is it really a function in the sense we defined it? Yes, it is. Whatever may be the value of x, y =
f(x) = 3. The domain is the set of real numbers and the range is the set {3}. It is single valued
too; the function does not take a value of x to more than one value in the range. Does this admit
of an inverse function ? No. It is single valued; but not one-to-one; it is many to one. Its inverse
is one to many and that is not a function, as function is either one to one or many to one.
EXAMPLE8 :
Take another example x = 3 . This is not a function if x is regarded as independent
variable. The domain is the set {3} and there is no range. It can be regarded as a function if
independent variable is taken as y with domain entire set of real numbers and the dependent
variable is taken as x with range {3}. This too does not admit of an inverse function.
Example9
Verify that the function
( ) 2 f x x = in R is one-one and onto. Hint : Take any value of x and find
a unique value of y and vice versa.
Example10
Verify that the function
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 1, 1 2 f f f x x for x = = = ÷ > in N is onto but not
one – to- one.
Example11
Verify that the function
( )
2
f x x = in R neither onto nor one-one.
Example12Verify that the function ( )
1,
1,
x if x even
f x
x if x odd
÷ ¦
=
´
+
¹
in N is a bijective.
Example12
Verify that any onto function
{ } { } , , , 1, 2, 3, 4 a b c d ÷ must be one-one.and any one-one function
{ } { } , , , 1, 2, 3, 4 a b c d ÷ must be onto.
Example13
Give an example showing that the above result may not be true for an infinite set.
EXAMPLE 14 Function with a discontinuity or ‘hole’:
Page 94 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 13
Take another example. y = x, for x e [0,1[, y = 2 – x, for x e ]1,2] and y = 2 for x = 1.
(A single function described by an equation ,or a set of equations or a rule or a set of
rules). A function can also be represented by its graph. Let us draw the graph of the latter
function ( see the first figure below) Observe that when x is very near 1, y is also very near 1,
as seen from either of the two equations y = x, for x e [0,1[, y = 2 – x, for x e ]1,2], but y =
2 when x is exactly equal to 1. This leaves a hole or discontinuity in its graph at x = 1.
EXAMPLE15 : Greatest integer function or step function.(see 2
nd
figure above)
It is denoted by [x] meaning the greatest integer not greater than x. If x= 3.76 , [x] = 3,
if x = 5.999, [x] = 5 etc. From x = 3 to 4 it remains 3 then suddenly changes to 4 when
x=4. The function suddenly jumps in steps and as such, is called a step function.
The step function y = [x] is also written in another notation y = Int(x) ; the integral part of a
number x. This is a simpler concept to understand and one should observe that it is equivalent
to the former definition. One can create as many step functions as one pleases; e.g.,
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
x tan log
x x sin
y
4
or any standard functions or expressions inside the square bracket would be a step
function.
Example16
Show that the greatest integer function is neither one-one nor onto.
Example17
Show that | | kx changes value at every integral multiple of
1
k
, k being a non-zero rational
number.
Example18
Find the domain of ( ) | | | | | |
2
2 3
3
f x x x x x
(
= + + +
(
¸ ¸
if 3 x < . Calculate the number of points in
the
range.
A function represented by a set of
equations.
X
O
P(1.2)
Y
(1,0) (2,0)
.
O X’ X
Y’
Y
(1,1)
(2,2)
(3,3)
Step Function
Page 95 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 14
Hint : Value of | | x would change whenever x increases or decreases by 1; ie, the points at
which the function would change is 0, 1, 2.
Value of | | 2x would change whenever x increases or decreases by 2; ie, the points at which the
function would change is
1 2 3 4 5
0, , 1, , 2,
2 2 2 2 2
= = , as x < 3.
Value of
2
3
x
(
(
¸ ¸
would change whenever x increases or decreases by
3
2
; ie, the points at which
the function would change is
3
0,
2
, as x < 3.
Value of | | 3x would change whenever x increases or decreases by3; ie, the points at which the
function would change is
1 2 4 5 7 8
0, , ,1, , , 2, ,
3 3 3 3 3 3
, as x < 3.
So the total number of points where the value of the function would change is 12
Exercise26
Find x if | | 2 3 x x ( + <
¸ ¸
. Ans. 1 x ÷· < < .
Example19 remember
Verify that a function : f R R ÷ such that
( ) f x ax b = + ,called a linear function is both one-
one and onto.
Example20
Verify that a function : f N N ÷ such that ( )
1
,
2
,
2
n
if n is odd
f n
n
if n is even
+ ¦
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¦
¹

Is a
bijective. Hint. For any n N e , show that
( ) n f m = for some m N e and vice versa.
Example21
Verify that a function : f R R ÷ such that
( )
1
1
x
f x
x
+
=
÷
is one-one but not onto.
Hint. The point x = 1 does not belong to the domain.
EXAMPLE 22characteristic function
If f(x) = 1 when xe A cR, f(x) = 0, when x e A, f(x) is called the characteristic function
of A. Find the domain and the range of the function. Does this has an inverse function?
Ans : The domain is R and the range is {0,1}. This does not admit of an inverse
function because it is not one-to-one.
Exercise27
Page 96 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 15
Find a characteristic function describing your class, college, town.
EXAMPLE 23 :Norm or modulus function or distance function:
A graph of f(x) =
x
is given below.



Properties of modulus function :
)
) ,
) ;
) ;
i x a a x a
ii x a x a or x a
iii x y x y triangle inequality sum of two sides is greater than the third
iv x y x y triangle inequality difference of two sides is less than the third
s ¬ ÷ s s
> ¬ s ÷ >
± s +
± > ÷
Example24
Verify that the mod function is neither one-one nor onto.
Example 25: A function whose range consists of only two symbols, { + , - } is called sign or
signum function. Thus y = signum x or y = sgn (x) means y is the sign of x.
Example26
A function
: f R R ÷
such that
( )
1, 0
0, 0
1, 0
if x
f x if x
if x
> ¦
¦
= =
´
¦
÷ <
¹
is called a signum function. And
can be written as
( ) sgn( )
x x
sign x or x
x x
= =
.Verify that it is neither one-one nor onto.
MISC EXAMPLES
Examine whether the following statements are correct.(Write T for true, and F for false).
27) Every function is a relation
O
X
X’
Y
P
Q
Y = |x|
y = |x|
Page 97 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 16
28) Every relation is a function.
29) Inverse of an onto function is onto always.
30) Inverse of a bijective function is always a bijective.
31) If both g and f are onto , gf is onto.
32) If both g and f are one-to-one , gf is one-to-one .
Ans : a) T, b) F, c) T, d) T, e) T, f) T,
Example 33: A function y = [x] is integral part of x , ( greatest integer not greater than x) or
floor of x. Similarly a function y = {x} is called fractional part of x.
Properties of greatest integer function :(see for yourself)
| |
| | | |
| | | | | |
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
) integer
ii) integer
iii)
) . . cos
) 1
)
i x x x is an
x I x I I is an
x y x y
iv x I x I take e g x ec x
v x I x I
vi x I x I
| | |
| |
| |
= ·
+ = + ·
+ > +
> ¬ > = (
¸ ¸
> ¬ > + (
¸ ¸
< ¬ < (
¸ ¸
( ) ( )
| |
| |
| | | | | |
) 1
) integer
) integer 1
)
vii x I x I
viii x is an x x
ix x is not an x x
x x y x y x x
| | s ¬ < + (
¸ ¸
¬ ÷ = ÷
¬ ÷ = ÷ ÷
+ = + + ÷ (
¸ ¸
Exercise28
Show that
| |
( ) 1
1 sin 2 sin 3 sin ........... sin
2 3 2
n n
x x x
x n
n
+
( ( (
+ + + + + + + + =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
if
0 sin x t s s
Hint: Since
sin , sin2 , sin
2
x
x x
etc are < 1, if
0 sin x t s s
. So
| | 1 sin 1, 2 sin 2,
2
x
x
(
+ = + =
(
¸ ¸
etc.
Exercise29
Evaluate : a)
| | | | 1 2 2 x x x + + =
, b) | |
2
2 3 0, 2 x x x x ( + ÷ = <
¸ ¸
,
Page 98 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 17
Ans : a)
1
1,
2
¦ ¹
÷ ÷
´ `
¹ )
, b)
{ } 0,1
exercise30
Show that
1 1 1 1 2 1 100 1 1
............ 100.
2 2 100 2 100 2 100 2
÷
( ( ( ( (
+ + + + + + =
( ( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Hint :
1 50 51 100
1 1 1 1 2 1 49 1 50 1 51 1 100 1
...... ......
2 2 100 2 100 2 100 2 100 2 100 2 100
0 0 0 .....
st terms st to th term
÷ | | | | ( ( ( ( ( ( (
+ + + + + + + + + + + +
| |
( ( ( ( ( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ \ . \ .
= + + +
 
( ) ( )
1 50 51 100
1
. 0 1 1......1 50 1 50 100
2
st terms st to th term
(
+ + + = × = = ×
(
¸ ¸
 
exercise31 :
Show that | | | |
1 2 1
............
n
x x x x nx
n n n
÷
( ( (
+ + + + + + =
( ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
if n is an integer.
exercise32 :Solve the equations for [x + y]: | | 2 5 y x = + and | | 3 2 7 y x = ÷ +
Hint : We have | | | | | | | | | | 2 5 3 2 7 2 5 3 2 7 0 0 1 x x x x x x + = ÷ + ¬ + = ÷ + ¬ = ¬ s <
So { } x x = , fractional part of x; which gives, | | | | { } 2 5 5 5 5 y x x y x = + = ¬ + = + = (
¸ ¸
.
Properties of fractional part of a function:
{ }
{ }
{ } { }
| | { } | | { }
) ; 0 1
) ; integer
iii) 1 ; integer
iv) , ,
i x x if x
ii x x if x is an
x x if x is an
x x x I f where x I and x f
= s <
=
÷ = ÷
= + = + = =
Example 34: A function ( ) y x x = = (
(
, meaning thereby the least integer greater than x or
ceiling of x. Thus 0.21 1; 2.23 3; 3.25 3; 0.2 0 = = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ( ( ( (
( ( ( (
etc.
Example 35:
Show that 1 x x = + (
(
if | | x x < and x x = (
(
if | | x x = .
Example 36:
Evaluate : | |
2 2
2 x x x = + (
(
. Ans. :
1
0,
2
n
¦ ¹
+
´ `
¹ )
Properties of ( ) y x x = = (
(
:
Page 99 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 18
( ) ( )
) integer,
) integer,
i if x is an x x
ii if I is an x I x I x I
= (
(
+ = + = + (
(
See that | | x converts x to n, where n x s ; but x (
(
converts x to n + 1.
§3:Algebra of functions
If : f R R ÷ and : g R R ÷ be two real valued functions, we define the sum, difference, product,
quotient functions square cube etc. as the functions have to be added, subtracted, etc. point by point.
The domain of definition of the result shall evidently be the intersection of the domains of the two
functions.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2
. . sin cos sin cos
. . sin cos sin cos
. . . . sin.cos sin .cos
/ / . . sin/ cos sin / cos tan
. . . sin sin .sin sin
f g x f x g x e g x x x
f g x f x g x e g x x x
f g x f x g x e g x x x
f g x f x g x e g x x x x
f x f x f x e g x x x x
+ = + + = +
÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
= =
= = =
= = =
Exercise 33
If
( )
3
1 f x x x = + + , find
( ) ( ) f b f a
for b a
b a
÷
=
÷
Ans.
( ) ( )
3 3
2 2
1 1
1
f b f a
b b a a
a ab b
b a b a
÷
+ + ÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + +
÷ ÷
Exercise 34
If
( )
1
ln
1
x
f x
x
÷
=
+
, find the domain and range, Ans. ] 1,1[ D = ÷ and range = R
example 37
If
( )
1
ln
1
x
f x
x
÷
=
+
, find
( ) ( ) f a f b + and
1
a b
f
ab
+ | |
|
+
\ .
. What do you infer?
Ans.
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1
ln ln ln . ln
1 1 1 1 1
a b a b a b ab
f a f b
a b a b a b ab
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
+ = + = =
+ + + + + + +
Page 100 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 19
1
1
1
ln ln
1 1
1
1
a b
a b a b ab
ab
f
a b
ab a b ab
ab
+
÷
+ ÷ ÷ + | |
+
= =
|
+
+ + + +
\ .
+
+
Thus we have
( ) ( )
1
a b
f a f b f
ab
+ | |
+ =
|
+
\ .
The following exercise shall lead you to composite functions.
Exercise35
If : f R R ÷ is such that
( )
2
2
x
f x
x
+
=
÷
,
a) find its domain and range Ans.
{ } 2 D R = ÷ , Range R =
b) find ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2
2 , 2 , f x f x f x and f x (
¸ ¸
Ans.
( )
2 2 1
2
2 2 1
x x
f x
x x
+ +
= =
÷ ÷
,
( )
2 4
2
2
x
f x
x
+
=
÷
,
( )
2
2
2
2
2
x
f x
x
+
=
÷
, ( )
2
2 2
2
x
f x
x
+ | |
= (
| ¸ ¸
÷
\ .
Exercise36
If
1
y x
x
= +
, find
2 3 4
2 3 4
1 1 1
, , x x x
x x x
+ + +
Hint raise the expression to the powers 2,3 and 4.
Example38
If the domain of definition of
( ) f x is ] – 1, 2] what is the domain of definition of
( ) 3 4 f x + ?
We have
5 2
1 3 4 2 5 3 2 ] , ]
3 3
x x x ÷ < + s ¬ ÷ < s ÷ ¬ e ÷
Example39
If the domain of definition of
( ) f x is R and ( ) 0 1 f x < s , ( ) Max f x M = and if
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 f x y f x y f x g y + + ÷ = , show that ( ) 1 Max g y s .
Ans. : ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 2 f x g y f x y f x y f x y f x y M M M = + + ÷ s + + ÷ s + = ,so
( ) ( ) f x g y M s , cancelling 2. Now ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x g y M f x g y M s ¬ s .But ( ) f x M s , as
( ) Max f x M = , so ( ) ( ) 1 1 g y Max g y s ¬ s
§4:COMPOSITE FUNCTION
Page 101 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 20
We may connect two functions
: f A B ÷
and : G B C ÷ such as
2 3 y x = +
and
2
z y =
so that
we can form a composite function
: gof A C ÷
such as ( )
2
2 3 z x = + .This takes a member of
A to a member of C via B. The composite function
fog
shall be defined only when the
intersection of the range of
f
and the domain of
g
. It is not that the domain shall be domain
of
f
and the range shall be range of
g
. The domain of the composite function shall be the set
of inverse images ( some authors say, pre-image) of this intersection. You may verify this
aspect from the examples by finding out the domains and ranges of the functions such as
2
sin x ,
2
sin x ,
2
ax b + , ( )
2
ax b + , ; examples so chosen in pairs like
fog
and
gof
, so as to
show an additional point, the inverse function of
fog
is not necessarily
gof
. When
fog
and
gof
both exist and are equal to each other, and both functions are one-one and onto,
they are inverse functions of each other as shown below.
Composite functions always obey associative laws.( h(g(f(x))) = (hg)(f(x) )
Extras
If you regard composite functions or functions of functions as product functions, note that the
result appears in the reverse order; i.e. for computing g(f(x)), first compute f(x)and then
compute g(f(x)).
Exercise37
If
: f R R ÷
,
: g R R ÷
and
: g R R ÷
be three real valued functions, show that
( ) ( ) ) , ) . . a f g oh foh goh b f g oh foh goh + = + = etc.
First show by way of an example and then in general.
Exercise38
Let there be a function
: f X Y ÷
, both sets being nonempty . We denote an identity function in
X as
:
x
i X X ÷ which takes any member of X to precisely that same member and similarly an
identity mapping in Y is denoted as :
y
i Y Y ÷ .This is just to distinguish identity mappings in
different sets. Then show the following:
a) If
: f X Y ÷
is one to one, there exists a function : g Y X ÷ such that
x
gf i = .
b) If
: f X Y ÷
is onto, there exists a function : h Y X ÷ such that
y
fh i = .
c)
Changing Y to X in the above description, i.e., if there be a function : f X X ÷ , using
the above two results show that this function is one to one and onto ·there exists a
function : g X X ÷ such that
x
gf i fg = = .
d)
In c) above show that gf is also a one to one and onto function from X onto X.
e)
In d) above, show that ( )
1
1 1
gf f g
÷
÷ ÷
=
f)
Show that in general, ( )
1
1 1
gf f g
÷
÷ ÷
=
Page 102 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 21
g) see the graph of the identity function y = x.
Exercise39
Let there be a function
: f X Y ÷
, both sets being nonempty . Take A as a subset of X and B
as a
subset of Y. Then show the following results.
a) ( )
1
ff B B
÷
_
b) If ( )
1
ff B B
÷
= for all subsets of Y, then
: f X Y ÷
is onto and vice versa.
c) ( )
1
A f f A
÷
_
d) If ( )
1
A f f A
÷
_ for all subsets A of X then
: f X Y ÷
is one to one and vice versa.
e) If ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
f A A f A f A · = · for all
1 2
, A X A X e e then
: f X Y ÷
is one to one and vice
versa.
f) If ( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' f A f A _ for all subsets of X, then
: f X Y ÷
is onto and vice versa.
g) Let there be a function
: f X Y ÷
, both sets being nonempty . If
: f X Y ÷
is onto, and
X is countable, show that Y is countable.
§5:INVERSE FUNCTION OF THE COMPOSITE FUNCTION
If both g and f are one-to-one , (gf)
-1
= f
-1
g
-1
Ans : Let f(s) = t and g(t) = u, so that f
-1
(t) = s and g
-1
(u) = t, u = gf(s)
Now f
-1
g
-1
(u) = f
-1
(t) = s = (gf)
-1
(u), hence (gf)
-1
= f
-1
g
-1 .
So that
( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1 f og o g of
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= , or the identity function.
The functions
2
x and x are inverse of each other but
( )
2
2
x x = as the functions are neither
one-one nor onto, if the functions are considered in R. but
( )
2
2
x x = in R
+
.
Exercise40
Find ( )( ) fofof x if ( )
2
1
x
f x
x
=
+
. Ans.
2
1 3
x
x +
.
Example40
Show that if
: f A B ÷
is one-one and
: G B C ÷
is one-one then
: gof A C ÷
is one- one.
Y
Y
O
X X’
y = x
Page 103 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 22
We should show that if
( ) ( ) gof gof o | = then o | = . Now
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) since is one-one.
since is one-one
gof gof g f g f
f f g
f
o | o |
o |
o |
= ¬ =
¬ =
¬ =
Exercise41
Show that if
: f A B ÷
is one-one and
: G B C ÷
is onto then
: gof A C ÷
is onto.
Exercise42
But the reverse is not necessarily true. Take an example
{ } { } : , , , , , , , , f a b c d a b c d e f ÷ such
that
( ) f x x = and
{ } { } : , , , , , , , , , , g a b c d e f a b c d e f ÷ such that
( ) g x x = . Show that gof is
onto but not f
.
Exercise43
Can you find ( ) g x if ( )
n
f x x = and( ) ( ) ( ) gof x ng x = . Ans. ln x
Exercise44 remember
Show that any linear function y ax b = + is monotonically increasing ( or monotonically
decreasing),
one-one and onto and admits of an inverse function. what is the inverse function ? Ans.
x b
y
a
÷
= . This is also linear and monotonic.
Exercise45 remember
Show that the sum and product of two monotonically increasing functions in an interval is
monotonically increasing.
Exercise46
Find the inverse function of
,
,
x x is rational
y
x x is irrational
¦
=
´
÷
¹
.Is it monotonic?
Exercise47
Find the inverse function of
1
1
x
y
x
÷
=
+
. Ans.
1
1
y
x
y
÷
=
+
Exercise48
Show that
l
y
x
= is monotonically decreasing in the domain which does not include the point 0
and has an inverse function
Exercise49
Page 104 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 23
Find the inverse function of
ln
5
x
y =
Example50
Take
{ } , , , A a b c d B C = = =
. Define
f
as
a b c d
b c d a
| |
|
\ .
,taking a to b, b to c, etc.
Define
g
as
a b c d
c d a b
| |
|
\ .
,
a) what is
gof
? Ans.
a b c d
gofA
d a b c
| |
=
|
\ .
b) What is
fog
? Ans.
a b c d
fogA
d a b c
| |
=
|
\ .
c) How many such functions can be defined on A?
Ans. Since each function is a permutation, total number of them is
4
4
4! 24 P = =
d) In the set of these functions
{ } , , , ....... F f g h =
show that the operation of compositing
is closed, associative, and has an identity element and every member
f
has an inverse
1
f
÷
.
Ans. If
f g
are any two functions,
f
takes a member of A to A and
g
takes a member of A
to A, so
gof
takes a member of A to a only. Thus the composition operation is closed.
Now, take any three members
a b c d
f
b c d a
| |
=
|
\ .
,
a b c d
g
d c a b
| |
=
|
\ .
and
a b c d
h
c a d b
| |
=
|
\ .
,find out
( )
a b c d a b c d a b c d
fo goh fo go fo
c a d b a d b c b a c d
| | | | | | | |
= = =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
and
( ) fog oh and show
that they are equal. Thus the operation is associative.
The identity element is
a b c d
i
a b c d
| |
=
|
\ .
, that takes any member to itself. and for any
a b c d
f
b c d a
| |
=
|
\ .
, we have
1
a b c d
f
d a b c
÷
| |
=
|
\ .
as
1 1
fof i f of
÷ ÷
= = (verify)
e) Verify that the left inverse is the right inverse also .
Take an inverse, and verify that
1 1
fof i f of
÷ ÷
= = .
f) Show that if the inverse if it exists, is unique.
If g and
1
f
÷
are two inverses of f , we have
1 1 1
g goi gofof iof f
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = .
Page 105 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 24
g) Define
2 3 2 4 3
, , f fof f fof f fof = = = etc. and find them
h) Show that there is a positive integer m, such that
m
f i = .
If you construct functions
2 3 2 4 3
, , f fof f fof f fof = = = etc., since the
operation is closed, and there are finite number of elements in
{ } f , then some member
would eventually be repeated, i.e., there are positive integers m and n such that
m n
f f = . If n < m, take
1 1 m n
f of f of
÷ ÷
= repeatedly until you get
m n
f i
÷
=
i) Verify the laws of indices
( )
, ,
m
m n m n m n n m m mn
f of f f of f f f
+ ÷
= = =
The set of functions
{ } f on A with the binary operation of composition is called a permutation
group.
Exercise51
Distinguish between the domains of the functions. Are the functions identical?
a) 1,
x
y z
x
= = Ans. latter not defined for x = 0.
b)
2
ln y x = , 2ln z x = Ans. latter not defined for x < 0
c)
( )
2
2
, , y x z x x ¢ = = =
Ans. z is not defined for x < 0, ¢ is not single valued
d)
2 2
1. sin cos y z x x = = + Ans. both are same
e)
( )( ) ln 1 2 y x x = ÷ ÷ ,
( ) ( ) ln 1 ln 2 z x x = ÷ + ÷
Ans. y not defined for 1 2 x s s , z is not defined for 2 x s
Exercise52
The function
( )
2
3 2 f x x x = ÷ + defined in R is not invertible as it is not one-one. But it is
invertible if defined in N or R
+
. Verify.
Exercise53
If : f A B ÷ and : g B A ÷ be two functions
A
gof I = , the identity function in A, and
B
fog I = ,
identity function in B, then the functions : f A B ÷ and : g B A ÷ both are invertible.
Verify taking any invertible function such as
( )
3
f x x = and ( )
3
g x x = , both in R
+
.
Note that you need not find out
1
f
÷
actually.
Exercise54
Page 106 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 25
Find the inverse function of
( ) 1
2
x x
y
÷
=
Exercise55
If : f X Y ÷ for nonempty sets , X Y , be a into function, and
( )
1
ff A A
÷
_ and
( )
1
ff A A
÷
= for
all subsets of X show that f is onto.
Exercise56
If : f X Y ÷ for nonempty sets , X Y , be a into function, and
( )
1
f f A A
÷
_ and
( )
1
f f A A
÷
= for
all subsets of X show that f is one-to-one.
Exercise57
If : f X Y ÷ for nonempty sets , X Y , be a into function,
( ) ( ) ( ) f A B f A f B · = · all subsets
of X show that f is one-to-one.
Exercise58
If
: f X Y ÷
for nonempty sets
, X Y
, be a into function, and if
( ) ( ) ( ) ' ' f A f A _ then show that
f
is onto.
§6:Increase and decrease of functions : preliminary investigation.
Sometimes mere inspection, finding our domain and range and preliminary investigation without
recourse to special tools of Calculus like limits continuity and differentiation etc. helps to take
stock of situation , especially in simple cases. For example, in a periodic function , we can
easily find out the interval of increase or decrease. A few examples would illustrate the point.
Example51
The well known quadratic function
( )
2
f x ax bx c = + + can be written as , taking out a perfect
square, ( )
2
2
4
2 4
b ac b
f x a x
a a
÷ | |
= + +
|
\ .
, we observe that
a) If a > 0, the expression shall decrease as
2
2
b
x
a
| |
+
|
\ .
decreases, i.e. x in the interval of
] , ]
2
b
a
÷· ÷
, and again increase as
2
2
b
x
a
| |
+
|
\ .
increases , in the interval
[ , [
2
b
a
÷ ·
and thus its
minimum value is
2
4
4
ac b
a
÷
at
2
b
x
a
=
if 0 a > . If 0 a < the situation just reverses, the function
Page 107 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 26
increases in the interval
[ , ]
2 2
b b
a a
÷
, is maximumthere at
2
b
x
a
=
and the maximum value is
2
4
4
ac b
a
÷
.
Note: A function is monotonically increasing if
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
0 0 x x f x f x ÷ > ¬ ÷ > . See next
example.
Example52
Show that
( )
3
f x x x = + is monotonically increasing.
We have ( ) ( ) ( )( )
3 3 2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1 2
1 f x f x x x x x x x x x x x ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + + + , or
( ) ( )
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 1 1 1 2 1 1
3 3
2 1 1
4 2 4 2 4
x x x x x
x x x x x x x
¦ ¹
| |
¦ ¦ | |
÷ + + + + = ÷ + + +
´ ` | |
\ .
\ . ¦ ¦
¹ )
.
Since the expression under {} is positive,
( ) ( )
2 1 2 1
0 0 x x f x f x ÷ > ¬ ÷ > . Since this is so for
arbitrary choice of
2 1
, x x , the function monotonically increases in R throughout.
Exercise59
Show that the function
( )
2
log 1
a
y x x = + + monotonically increases.
§7:LOGARITHM FUNCTION
If f(x) = e
x
and gf(x) = 1, show that g(x) = ln x.
Ans : If gf(x) = 1, g = f
-1
. But f
-1
is ln . So g(x) = ln x.
Exercise60
Show that the inverse function of
( )
2
log 1
a
y x x = + + is
( ) sinh ln x y a =
Ans. we have ( )
2 2
1, 1 sinh ln
2
y y
y y
a a
a x x a x x x y a
÷
÷
÷
= + + = ÷ + + ¬ = =
EXAMPLE 53
Find inverse function of sin √x
Ans : If y = sin √x, sin
-1
y = √x, x = √( sin
-1
y ),
EXAMPLE54 If ,
1 1
2
2
x
x
x
x f + = |
.
|

\
|
+ find f(x) .
Ans :
We have 2
x
1
x 2
x
1
. x 2
x
1
x
x
1
x
x
1
x f
2
2
2
2
2
÷
|
.
|

\
|
+ = ÷ + + = + =
|
.
|

\
|
+ , so f(x) = x
2
-2, 2 x > .
§8: The Implicit Function
Page 108 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 27
Take the implicit function
2 2
2 2 0 x ax y by c + + + ÷ = , where x is not expressed in terms of y
nor vice versa. Such is the definition of implicit functions. Sometime it may be possible in simple
cases, to derive y in terms of x. Take no botheration for solving this, only try to know where it
crosses x – axis, by putting y = 0 and where it crosses the y – axis , by putting x = 0. If
1 2
, x x be
the x – intercepts and
1 2
, y y be the y – intercepts , then show that
a)
1 2
1 2
y y b
x x a
+
=
+
b)
1 2 1 2
2 x x y y c + = ÷ c)
1 2 1 2
x x y y =
Exercise61
If
: f R R ÷
be such that
( )
3 4
5 7
x
f x
x
+
=
÷
and
: g R R ÷
such that
( )
7 4
5 3
x
g x
x
+
=
÷
find
( ) gof x and
( ) fog x . What do you infer?
Exercise62
Find the domain of the following.( for which the function has real values)
a) ( ) f x x a b x = ÷ + ÷ Ans. [a, b]
b) ( )
1
sin 1
f x
x
=
÷
Ans. ¢ , for sin 1 x s
c)
( ) ( ) ( ) ln 2 3 f x x x = + + Ans. ] 3, 2[ R÷ ÷ ÷ ,
( )( ) 2 3 x x + + is negative in] 3, 2[ ÷ ÷
d) ( )
2
3
ln
2
x x
f x
÷
= Ans. [1, 2]
Hint. ( )( )
2 2
2
3 3
ln 0 1 3 2 0 1 2 0
2 2
x x x x
x x x x
÷ ÷
> ¬ > ¬ ÷ + s ¬ ÷ ÷ s
e) ( )
2
1
2 3
x
f x
x x
÷
=
+ +
Ans. R = ] - ∞, ∞[
f)
( ) ln 3
x
f x = Ans. ]0,1[ ]1, [ · , not defined for x = 1 or < 0 .
g)
( )
1
sin
1
2
1
x
f x
x
÷
= +
+
Ans. 1 x = ÷ , 1 1 x ÷ s s , so 1 1, . . ] 1,1] x i e ÷ < s ÷
h) ( )
1
sin
1
2
3
x
f x
x
÷
= +
÷
Ans. ¢ , as 1 1, x ÷ < s and 3 x > incompatible.
i)
( ) ( ) ln sin 3 f x x = ÷ Ans.
( ) sin 3 0 0 3 3 3 x x x t t ÷ > ¬ < ÷ < ¬ < < +
j) ( ) ( )
2
lnsin 3 25 f x x x = ÷ + ÷ Ans. ]3, 3 [ 4 ]3, 4] x and x x t e + s ¬ e
Page 109 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 28
k)
( ) ln cos f x x = Ans.
0
cos 0 0 90 ]0, ]
2
x x x
t
> ¬ < s ¬ e
l)
( ) ( ) ( )
3 4 5
log log log f x x = Ans.
( )
4 5 5
log log 0 log 1 5 x x x > ¬ > ¬ >
m) ( )
3 2
f x x x = ÷
Ans. x >1
n) sin x Ans. 0
2
x
t
s s
§9: Functions as Expressions:
We remember the expressions met in high school, like
a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n-1
+ a
2
x
n-2
+……………. a
n
= y………………………….(1)
which is called a polynomial in x defined as a finite power series in x, where the coefficients
a
0
, a
1
, a
2
,……. a
n
etc. rational numbers , not all 0. Some authors insist these coefficients to be
integers and their treatment does not make any substantial difference as one could multiply the
polynomial with LCM of denominators of the coefficients to make them all integers. The
polynomial or the power series may be also written as y =
¿
=
÷
n
0 r
r
r n
x a .if the series is equated to
0, and the equation is satisfied for some value of x, say x = o , then that value o is called a root
of this equation. The highest power n of x here is called degree of the polynomial . We say y
is a function of x or y = f(x) where f stands for some operation or operations to modify x into y.
Expressions like
7
5
3
2
4
x 3 4
x ax
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
÷
=y (say) = h(x) (say), ……………………(2)
which are obtained from x with a finite number of algebraic operations like addition,
subtraction, multiplication, division, raising to power, taking root etc. , are called algebraic
expressions or functions . Comparing the set theoretic definition of function with this meaning
of function in the traditional sense, the set theoretic definition gives an impression that the value
of a function is known as soon as value of the independent variable is chosen, but the algebraic
expression or closed form gives the impression that the functional value for any given value of
the independent variable can be calculated from the expression for the function. Anyway, we
can express a large class of functions ( continuous real valued and infinitely differentiable –
called smooth functions or smooth curves) into polynomials or infinite converging power series ,
and in both cases we can calculate the value of the function for a given value of independent
variable.
As a most general example, an expression ( )
( )
( )
P x
y x
Q x
= ………………………(3)
where P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials and coefficients of P(x) and Q(x) are rational numbers and
degree of P(x) is less than that of Q(x), is called a rational algebraic expressions or
functions. Obviously the values of y are defined for Q(x) = 0. If o,| ,¸,o etc. are real roots of
Q(x) = 0, and ì = minimum of |o|,|||,|¸|,|o| etc., the function is clearly defined in the interval
x = ] - ì, ì[ without any controversy .
Page 110 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 29
To simplify the expressions like ( )
( )
( )
P x
y x
Q x
= ,we need to factorise the denominator and convert
the expression into partial fractions. So that we could expand each partial fraction into an infinite
convergent series and add the serieses together term by term to get a final series
representation of the function. So we need study partial fractions first.
§10: A little explanation about functions
Functions are also mappings as stated in the beginning of the chapter and transformations for
the reason that they transform in the dependent variable. Expressions may be understood as
rules for describing a function, mapping as tabular representation and transformation as a
graph. However the concept of mapping is inclusive of all other concepts of function.
Many functions and many kinds of functions we have met so far confirm to this definition –
single valued mappings between two sets. If the domain is natural numbers, and the range is a
subset of real numbers, the function is what we call a sequence . If the domain is a finite subset
of natural numbers, we can list all pairs a→b and there is no need to give a formula for it or a
verbal description. But if the function is from the set of natural numbers to a subset of real
numbers, obviously we cannot list all the ordered pairs, and have to spell out a ‘rule’ ( or a set of
rules) to describe the function. Same is the case when the domain is an interval represented by
a continuous variable. So the concept of function although seems simple, it embodies a lot of
information, just like a seed has an entire tree hidden in it. Consider an example : let the real
numbers be represented by their decimal expansion in which infinite repetition of 9’s are
avoided, such as, ½ is represented by 0.5 , not by 0.499999……( which is just the same as 0.5).
If this number is x, take y as the integer in the sixth place of its decimal expansion ; (of x). This
is a perfectly respectable function, only described verbally, but sufficiently definitely. In contrast,
y = sin x is a function so useful that it has been given a special symbol! Again, y = x
4
is a
function just described by a formula without any verbal description. However in all the cases, it
is the correspondence which takes care of the listing, the rule or the formula, or the graph of th
function so to say. There is no restriction about what the objects of the domain and the range
would be; they may not be numbers even. For example, let A be the set of all rectangles and B
the set of all circles superscribed on these rectangles. There is a natural correspondence
between the two sets which is obviously a function. What we are interested in algebra is real
valued sequences or integral functions and what we are interested in Calculus or in Analysis is
real valued or complex valued functions.
§11: Zeroes or roots of a function.
It is required now to tell something about zeroes of a function. Look at the function
( ) ( )( ) 1 2 f x x x = ÷ ÷ defined in the domain of real numbers. In other words, take any real
number for x a = , it gives a real number for
( ) f x ,
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 2 f x a a = ÷ ÷ . The graph of the
function is given below.
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© Page 30
The graph does not go below the horizontal line
( ) 0.25 f x y = = ÷ . So the range of the function
is [ – 0.25 , ∞[. Put any value of
( ) 0.25 f x > ÷ you would get two values of x , e.g., taking
( ) 2, f x = ÷ we have
( )( )
2 2
1 2 2 3 2 2 3 4 0 x x x x x x ÷ ÷ = ÷ ¬ ÷ + = ÷ ¬ ÷ + = which gives two
values
3 5
2
±
for x. Now it is clear that the function can take any value 0.25 > ÷ . Only as special
cases when the value of the function is 0, i.e.,
( )( ) 1 2 0 x x ÷ ÷ = , i.e., 1, 2 x or x = = the
function becomes 0, i.e.
( ) 0 f x = . Then the values of x i.e., 1, 2 x or x = = are called roots
of zeroes or solutions of the function
( ) f x . Remember that the function stands for its entire
graph, and the roots are only the points of intersections of the graph with X – axis.
In Algebra we often come across functions of the type
( )
4 3 2
3 5 2 6 7 f x x x x x = + ÷ + +
called
polynomial functions and the fundamental theorem of Algebra guarantees that any polynomial
of finite degree, has at least one zero (solution), real or complex. Further ahead we would know
that a polynomial of n degree has n solutions – an equivalent statement of the fundamental
theorem. It is Abel who pointed out that for a polynomial of degree 5 or more, roots cannot be
found out only by algebrical manipulation in general case, we have to find them out in numerical
method i.e., by algorithms developed for approximation and further approximation. In addition
to algebraic functions, we also come across all sorts of functions in Calculus, such as
( ) sin f x x =
,
( )
x
g x e =
etc. and we have to study limit, continuity, derivative of functions etc in
general for locating the roots, finding their nature etc. A particularly important theorem may be
mentioned – Taylor’s theorem.
Example55
Find the roots of the function ( )
2 2 2
3 7 4 3 2 1
10 2.10 10
x x x x x x
f x
+ + + + ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ .
Ans. : Put ( )
2 2 2 2 2
2
3 7 4 3 2 1 3 7 4 3 2
10
0 10 2.10 10 0 10 2.10
10
x x x x x x x x x x
x x
f x
+ + + + ÷ ÷ + + + +
+
= ¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ ÷ =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
4 1 2 1 3 7 4 3 2
10 2.10 10 10 2.10 10
x x x x x x x x x x + + + + + + + + + +
÷ = ¬ ÷ = .
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-2.16
-1.44
-0.96
-0.48
0.24
0.72
1.2
1.68
2.4
0
Graph of
( ) ( )( ) 1 2 f x x x = ÷ ÷
f(x) = (x-1)(x-2)
y = - 0.25
Page 112 / 681
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© Page 31
Let
( )
2
2 1
10
x
z
+
= , so the above equation reduces to
2
2 10 0 1 11 z z z ÷ ÷ = ¬ = ± . Since
( )
2
2 1
10
x
z
+
= , Z>0, so 1 11 z = + .Hence
( )
2
2 1
10 1 11
x+
= + . Solving again,
( )
10
1
1 log 1 11
2
x = ÷ ± + .
§12: Partial fractions :
Now ratio of two polynomials P(x) and Q(x) where degree of P(x) is less than that of Q(x)
) x ( Q
) x ( P
y = can be regarded as
)... x )( x )( x ( b
) x ( P
0
¸ ÷ | ÷ o ÷
where b
0
is leading coefficient of Q(x)
and (x - o), (x - |) etc. are factors of Q(x). (if degree of P(x) is equal to or greater than that of
Q(x),we can always divide P(x) by Q(x) up to a number of steps as necessary to arrive at a
remainder R(x) whose degree is less than that of Q(x), and take R(x) in place of Q(x) for our
consideration). This further can be written as
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
| ÷
+
o ÷
....
x
B
x
A
b
) x ( P
0
,where A, B ..etc are
constants. The method is called breaking up the function into partial fractions One of its
components |
.
|

\
|
o ÷ x
A
b
) x ( P
0
, or
|
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
o
÷
o
÷
x
1
1
b
) x ( AP
0
which can be expanded into a infinite
converging power series
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
+
o
+
o
+
o
÷ ...
x x x
1
b
) x ( AP
3
3
2
2
0
for |x| < |o|. The reader can verify
........ x x x 1
x 1
1
2 2
+ + + + =
÷
by actual long division. The question whether it has any meaning
at all or not depends on whether the series on the right is convergent or not. The series
converges for |x| < 1.The product
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
o
+
o
+
o
+
o
÷ ...
x x x
1
b
) x ( AP
3
3
2
2
0
would be an infinite power
series in x , convergent for |x| < |o| and this is why we had to define the polynomial for values of
x less than minimum of absolute values of roots of Q(x).Ultimately
) x ( Q
) x ( P
would be a converging
power series in x. Tow special cases are worth mentioning here. When a root of Q(x) say ¸ is
repeated, the corresponding partial fraction shall be
|
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷
+
o ÷
2
0
) x (
C
x
A
b
) x ( P
which again can
be seen to be a converging infinite power series in x, as long as x < |o|. If Q(x) contains a factor
like
Sx
2
+ Tx + V, which is not further reducible to simple factors, then the partial fraction is of the
type
V Tx Sx
N Mx
2
+ +
+
where the denominator is irreducible any further. Nevertheless, the latter
fraction can be turned into an infinite power series in x, converging for a certain range of values
of x to be discussed later ( see quadratic equations). The fact that the partial fractions
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 32
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷ x
A
,
|
|
.
|

\
|
o ÷
2
) x (
C
or
V Tx Sx
N Mx
2
+ +
+
can be turned into infinite power series, can be verified by
actually dividing the numerator by the denominator; only conditions for convergence need be
considered then.
We can summarize the rules of decomposition into partial fractions through evident
examples :
Rule 1:
For a non-repeated factor (x - o) in the denominator, we can take a partial fraction like
o ÷ x
A
where A is a constant. As an example, to break
) x )( x (
t sx
| ÷ o ÷
+
into partial fractions, put
) x )( x (
t sx
| ÷ o ÷
+
=
o ÷ x
A
+
| ÷ x
B
¬ sx + t ÷ A(x - |) + B(x - o) for all values of x
¬A + B = x and A| + Bo = - t. These two equations can be solved to get values of A and B.
Alternatively, putting x = o and x = | in turn we get, so + t = A(| - o) and s| + t = B(o - |) which
gives values of A and B.
Example56
( )( )( )
( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( )
2
2
5 41
Let
3 1 2 1 3 1 2 1
5 41 1 2 1 3 2 1 3 1
x x A B C
x x x x x x
Ax x A x x B x x C x x
+ +
= + +
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
+ + = ÷ ÷ + + ÷ + + ÷
Putting x = – 3 , 1. And ½ respectively , we get
3 47
, , 25
4 4
A B C = = = ÷
Rule 2:
For a repeated factor (x - o)
2
in the denominator, we can take two partial fractions like
o ÷ x
A
and
2
) x (
B
o ÷
where A and B are constants. As an example, to break
) x ( ) x (
v tx sx
2
2
| ÷ o ÷
+ +
, put
) x ( ) x (
v tx sx
2
2
| ÷ o ÷
+ +
=
o ÷ x
A
+
2
) x (
B
o ÷
+
| ÷ x
C
¬ sx
2
+ tx + v ÷ A(x - o)(x - |) + B(x - |) + C(x -
o)
2
.
Equating coefficients of similar powers of x from both sides, we get three equations in A, B and
C , which could be solved easily.
Example57
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© Page 33
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 3
3
2 2 2
2
2
3 3 3
1
Let
1 1
1 1 1
, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
A B C D E F
x x x x x
x x x x
or Ax x x Bx x x C x x
Dx x x Ex x Fx x
= + + + + +
÷ +
÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ + + ÷ + + ÷ +
+ ÷ + + + + ÷
Putting x = 0, 1, – 1, we get, C =1, E = ½ , F = –¼ .
To find A, B and D, we equate the coefficients of x
5
, x
4
, x
3
, in both sides and get,
0
2 0
0
A D F
A B E F
A B C D E F
+ + =
÷ + ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ + ÷ + + =
Solving the equations with the already known quantities ,we get, A = 2, B = 1, D = – 7/4 .
Rule 3:
For an irreducible quadratic factor x
2
+ bx +c in the denominator, we can take a partial
fraction like
c bx x
B Ax
2
+ +
+
where A and B are constants. As an example, to break
) c bx x )( x (
v tx sx
2
2
+ + o ÷
+ +
, put
) c bx x )( x (
v tx sx
2
2
+ + o ÷
+ +
=
o ÷ x
A
+
c bx x
C Bx
2
+ +
+
Simplifying and equating the coefficients of like powers of x from both sides we get three linear
equations involving A, B and c as unknowns which can be solved easily.
Example58
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
1
Let
1 4
1 4 1
A B Cx D
x x
x x x
+
= + +
÷ +
÷ + ÷
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2
2 2
, 1 1 4 4 1 .....................( ) or A x x B x Cx D x a ÷ ÷ + + + + + ÷
Putting x = 1, we get, B = 1/5
Then we equate the coefficients of like powers of x in both sides to get,
0
2 0
4 2 0
A C
A B D C
A C D
+ =
÷ + + ÷ =
+ ÷ =
Solution of these equations with already known quantities give
C = 2/25 , A = - 2 / 25, D = - 3/25 .
Otherwise
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© Page 34
Since
( ) ( )
2
4 2 2 x x i x i + = + ÷ , we can also put x = 2i in (a) above to get,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2 2 1 2 3 4 8 3 6 4 iC D i iC D i C D i C D ÷ + ÷ = + ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ ÷
Equating the real and imaginary parts, we get,
8 3 1, 6 4 0 C D C D ÷ = + = , which give C = 2/25 , D = -3 /25 .
Such examples like (1), (2) or (3) are called algebraic functions and term may be
equivalently defined in one of the three alternative manner as discussed above.
Exercise63
Convert
( )( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 2
3 4
x x
x x
+ +
+ +
into partial fractions.
Hint. Write
( )( )
( )( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
1 2
1 2 1 2
1 1
3 4 3 4 3 4
1 2 3 4
1 1
3 4 3 4
x x
y y y y
y y y y x x
y y y y
A B
y y y y
+ +
+ + + +
= = + ÷ =
+ + + + + +
+ + ÷ + +
+ = + +
+ + + +
Ans. A = 2, B = – 6
Misc.Exercise
Convert into partial fractions
64)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
1 2 3
x
x x x
÷
÷ + ÷
Ans. A = – 1/6 , B = – 1/3 , C = ½
65)
( ) ( )( )
1
1 1 1 2 x x x ÷ + +
Ans. A = 1/6 , B = – ½ , C = 4/3 .
66)
( ) ( )
2 2
1
1 3 x x + +
Hint. Put x
2
= y. Ans. A = ½ , B = – ½
67)
( )
3
2
1
1 x x +
, Hint. Make it
( )
3
1
2 1 y y ÷
, Ans. A = B = C = – 1 , D = 1
68)
( )( )
4
2
1 1
x
x x ÷ +
Hint.
( )( )
2
1
1
1 1
x
x x
= + +
÷ +
Ans. A = ½ , B = – ½
69)
( ) ( )
2
1 1
x
x x + +
Ans. A = - ½ , B = ½ = C.
70)
( ) ( )
2
3 5
3 2 1
x
x x
÷
÷ +
Ans. A = - 27/25 , B = 9/25 , C = 8/25 .
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© Page 35
71)
( ) ( )
2
3 5
1 1
x
x x
+
÷ +
Ans. A = – ½ , B = 4, C = – ½
§13: Transcendental Functions
Now the question is, whether there are any other infinite power series which no doubt converge
but cannot be expressed in one of the three forms as above. Yes there are so many of them,
and those functions are expressed as infinite converging power series which cannot be
reduced to algebraic expressions in closed forms are called transcendental functions.
This is a definition by exclusion or denial of cases or it is a negative definition all right; the
concept must be understood properly in the context of all functions belonging to a certain class
to be discussed later( in the chapter for Taylor’s theorem which expresses f(x + h) in terms of
f(x), h etc as a power series).Such functions belonging to that class (the class of
continuous and infinitely derivable functions) can be expanded to converging power
series and for that class of functions only we make a distinction , whether it is algebraic or
transcendental. There may be both algebraic and transcendental functions both of which are
convergent infinite series in x; the only difference between them is that transcendental functions
cannot be reduced to algebraic expressions.
Some examples of transcendental functions
32. sin x = ........
! 7
x
! 5
x
! 3
x
x
7 5 3
+ + ÷ 33. cos x = ........
! 6
x
! 4
x
! 2
x
1
6 4 2
+ + ÷
34. e
x
= . ..........
! 4
x
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1
4 3 2
+ + + + + 35. tan x = ........
15
x 2
3
x
x
5 3
+ + +
where n! stands for 1x2x3……..n and called factorial n. (The values are arrived at using
trigonometry and De Moivre’s theorem later on).
2 3
1
1 ............inf 1
1
x x x inite terms if x
x
= + + + <
÷
is an Algebraic function in contrast. See
that sin x, cos x, tan x, e
x
etc. cannot be obtained by performing a finite number of operations
on x; but
1
1 x ÷
is obtained by only 3 number of operations on x.
It is not out of place to mention these functions as examples of transcendental functions,
keeping their derivations until Taylor’s theorem. Each of these series taken up to a finite number
of terms is not transcendental function; nor any of these is equal to the function in the left of it,
though it may be regarded as an approximation to the function represented by the “name” given
in the left side. Again, e
x
is not to be confused as an algebraic function of x as it is ‘ a
transcendental number e raised to the power x’ and not ‘ x raised to some power’.
§14: POLYNOMIALS AND ALGEBRAIC AND TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTIONS:
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© Page 36
Polynomials are finite power series . Algebraic functions are obtained from x
(independent variable) by performing a finite number of addition, subtraction, multiplication,
division, squaring, cubing etc. but not extracting roots , otherwise the function is
transcendental. Trigonometric, logarithmic and hyperbolic functions etc. like sin x, ln(1+x),
cosh x etc. are transcendental functions. Since Real numbers are presented to us in many
forms, notably integers, rational numbers, Algebraic numbers and transcendental numbers so
also the functions are presented to us in corresponding forms. A comparative table between
numbers and functions is given below :
NUMBERS FUNCTIONS IN ONE VARIABLE
1 Integers
Positive integers, 0 and negative integers
Rational Algebraic functions or polynomials such as
a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n – 1
+a
2
x
n – 2
+…….+ a
n – 1
x + a
n
where a
0
,
a
1
,a
2
etc. are rational numbers. A polynomial is a finite
power series.
2 Rational numbers – integers, terminating
or non-terminating recurring decimals.
Satisfy yourself that any non-terminating
recurring decimal is a rational number.
Non-terminating recurring decimals can be
represented in closed forms with a line
drawn on the recurring part.
Algebraic functions in the form P(x) / Q(x) where
P(x)and Q(x) are polynomials. Naturally this would be a
polynomial or a converging infinite power series in x.
Converging because the sum of the series is already
P(x) / Q(x)
e.g.
2 3
1
1 ............inf 1
1
x x x inite terms if x
x
= + + + <
÷
3 Algebraic numbers – either rational
numbers or roots of polynomials
a
0
x
n
+ a
1
x
n – 1
+a
2
x
n – 2
+…….+ a
n – 1
x + a
n
where a
0
, a
1
,a
2
etc. are rational numbers.
This can be a rational number or irrational
number expressed as a combination of
finite number of known irrational numbers.
Algebraic functions – obtained from a finite number of
polynomials P(x) , Q(x) etc. by a finite number of
Algebraic operations like addition, subtraction,
multiplication, squaring, cubing, division etc., not taking
roots. This would also be a converging power series in
x . Converging because the sum of the series is already
an Algebraic expression in closed form.
4
3
1 x x
y
x
+ +
=
4 Transcendental numbers – irrational
numbers those cannot be expressed as a
root of a polynomial as above. They cannot
be expressed as a combination of finite
number of known irrational numbers. t, e,
etc. are examples of such numbers,
though Algebraic irrational numbers are
These are converging infinite power series in x which
may be expressed in closed form such as
sin x, e
x
etc. or may not be expressed in closed forms.
A new symbol is required for each new series.
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
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© Page 37
much more in number than rational
numbers and transcendental numbers are
much more than Algebraic irrational
numbers. Each transcendental number has
to be named with a new symbol, or has to
be approximated to a desired degree.
3 5
sin ............inf
3! 5!
x x
x x inite terms = ÷ +
2 3 4
1 .........inf ,
2! 3! 4!
x
x x x
e x inite terms xinradians = + + + +
§15: Rational integral algebraic functions and polynomials :
We have now known linear and quadratic functions in a little detail. Graph of a linear function is
a straight line and graph of a quadratic equation is a conic section.In general a function or
polynomial like ( )
1 2
0 1 2
.................. .....................(1)
n n n
n
f x a x a x a x a
÷ ÷
= + + + ,(where the coefficients
0 1 2
, , ................
n
a a a a etc. are rationals) is called a rational integral algebraic function .
Whereas a function or polynomial like
n
2 - n
2
1 - n
1
n
0
m
2 - m
2
1 - m
1
m
0
.q x q x q x q
.p x p x p x p
) x ( Q
) x ( P
) x ( g
... + +
... + +
= =
…....(2)
is simply called a rational algebraic function or simply algebraic function . If the coefficients of
(1) are simply real numbers, it is simply called a polynomial.(some authors like to restrict the
coefficients to integers and some others assume them to be rational numbers; but for our
purpose, they may be real numbers as well and even complex numbers if explicitly stated
somewhere) The terminology is quite analogous to integers and rational numbers. The
polynomials are analogous to integers and the algebraic functions are analogous to rational
numbers .In the study of functions in general, (perhaps the only purpose of Calculus), a little
special attention need be given to these two types of functions as they are most frequently met
with in Geometry and Physics. To have a closer look at rational algebraic functions consider the
power series
4 3 2
2
( ) .
f g
f z az bz cz d z e
z z
= + + + + + + which can also be expressed as
( )
6 5 4 3 2
2
1
( ) f z az bz cz dz ez fz g
z
= + + + + + + which is in the form ( )
( )
( )
p z
f z
q z
= and consider another
power series
( )( )
( )
6 5 4 3 2
1
( )
1
g z az bz cz dz ez fz g
sz t z
= + + + + + +
÷ ÷
. These are ratios of polynomials
just as rational numbers are ratios of integers , the denominators not being zero of course. The
latter expression g(z) shall be a convergent power series for |sz| < 1 and |z| < |t|, or simply for |z|
< min(|t|, 1/|s|). Expressions of the type 1/q(z) can be factorised into real or complex linear
factors in z like
1
(1 )( ) sz t z ÷ ÷
which can further be broken into partial fractions of the types
(1 )
n
sz ÷
and
( )
m
t z ÷
which would result in converging power series for restricted values of z. Thus the
algebraic functions are analogous to rational numbers which are convergent series of decimals
and the limit of the series is expressible as a ratio of integers.
Irrational numbers are also converging power series of 1/10; but the only
difference is that they cannot be expressed as ratio of integers. Similarly there are
transcendental functions of x which are convergent power series in 1/x but they cannot be
expressed as ratio of polynomials. Examples of transcendental functions are , sin , cos , ln ,
x
e x x x
etc.
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Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 38
It must be noted that values of e
x
may not be a transcendental number always
even if e
x
is always a transcendental function. In fact, any algebraic number, any rational
number and any integer is some power of e, i.e. e
x
for some value of x, which is equal to
logarithm of that number. And certainly this does not mean that every number is transcendental.
If f(x) is put equal to zero, f(x) = 0 becomes an equation , as we know; and the
values of x for which f(x) = 0 are called its roots or its zeroes; zeroes of the equation. The roots
of the equation f(x) = 0 are important .Not only they indicate that at certain points the function
becomes zero, but they are the only thing, out of which the function is constituted; as we shall
see a little later. That is, if o
1
, o
2
, o
3
, ….o
n
etc. are roots of f(x) = 0 , f(x) itself is nothing but a0(x
-o
1
)( x - o
2
)(x - o
3
)….(x - o
n
)which would be proved a just a little after. A polynomial f(x) =P(x) /
Q(x) where P(x) and Q(x) are polynomials of degree (highest power of x) m and n
respectively is called a rational algebraic function of degree m – n
§16: Operators vs. Functions
When we consider expressions in a single variable x such as ax
2
+ 2
x
, sin x, px
4
+ qx + r etc.,
we carry out ‘some operation’ on x , which ‘modifies’ x into the value of expression concerned.
The expressions are called functions of x, as they are nothing but some ‘templates’ or ‘place
holders’ such as a[ ]
2
+ 2
[ ]
, sin [ ], p[ ]
4
+ q[ ] + r etc. , which hold different values of x to give
different values of the expressions on computation . The notion given to us in our early days of
high school appears somewhat complex or intricate and we are seldom able to study the
functions or different sets of operations performed on x in a simple manner. Suppose in these
place holders, one puts 2x + 3 instead of x and thus we arrive at a combination of operations or,
a function of a function ,which further makes the matter difficult to understand. Let us denote px
4
+ qx + r by (x)o and let us denote 2x + 3 by (x)t so that the combined operation may be
expressed by ((x)t)o or (x)(too) which shall stand for p(2x + 3)
4
+ q(2x + 3) + r. Such is the
notation for writing functions as operators – from the right of the argument (x) to further right. In
general case, operators may not be commutative meaning thereby (x)too may not be equal to
(x)oot depending upon the nature of o and t . If the two functions o and t are not commutative
according to the nature of expressions they stand for. It may so happen that (x)too may be
equal to (x)oot for a particular value of x, but that does not make the operators or functions
commutative and we do not say too = oot, if the expressions are such. But succession or
compounding of operators is associative in general. It means (x)(too)ou = (x)to(oou) for all x if
at all the functions are well defined. Different associations of the same operators or functions in
the same sequence of application do not matter.
Hitherto we have loosely used operators and functions synonymously; in fact they are so, to a
large extent. Had we called t, o,u etc as functions, we would have written the notations in a
different manner. Such as (x)t should have been written as t(x); (x)(too) should have been
written as o(t(x)), (x)(too)ou should have been written as u(o(t(x)) and so on; in right to left
manner It follows that grouping of functions in the same order is associative when we consider
function of functions.
To demonstrate a difference between an operation and a function in their inherent nature,
consider the following .
§17: Linear functions vs linear operators:
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Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 39
An operator o is linear if (a © b)o = ao © bo where © is a binary operation such as addition,
multiplication etc. If the operator takes members a, b belonging to set A to members ao and bo
respectively in set B, we say the © operation is preserved in set B as in set A , for the similar
operation can be carried out in set B when the members of set A are taken to set B. Such an
operator is called homomorphic and the relation it stands for is called a homomorphism. A
one-to-one homomorphism is an isomorphismor the corresponding operator is called an
isomorphic. Isomorphism is otherwise defined as a one-to-one and onto correspondence
between two sets. Prove that the latter concept is equivalent to what we have said just now.)
Function notation and terminology are slightly different. A function f:A÷B is called linear
or of first degree, if f(x) = Mx + N for some constants M and N for all x belonging to domain of f
in set A. Graph of this function is a straight line with slope M and intercept on Y – axis N. If the
members of set A can be added to one another in usual sense , we have,
f(x + y) = M(x +y) + N =( Mx + N )+ (My + N) – N = f(x) + f(y) – N = f(x) + f(y) .
So a linear function does not define a homomorphism as a linear operator does.
Exercise 72
If f is a linear function such that f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) , prove that the graph of the function passes
through the origin.
Let f(x) = Mx + N for some constants M and N; ( as it is given to be linear function)
so that we have,
f(x + y) = M(x +y) + N =( Mx + N )+ (My + N) – N = f(x) + f(y) – N
But f(x + y) = f(x) + f(y) as per the question.
So f(x) + f(y) – N = f(x) + f(y) . Hence it follows that N = 0 and thus, f(x) = Mx.
Putting x = 0, we get f(x) = 0 . That means that the point (0, f(0)) is on the graph or the graph of
the function passes through the origin.
Thus it may be understood that operator concept has wider scope and application than function.
It can operate on other algebraic objects not only on numbers, such as differential operators
operating on functions and numbers as well. (The example shall be evident on study of
differential equations).
§18: Graphs of functions:
Let the function be f(x) = 2x
2
+ 3 or let y = 2x
2
+ 3. The expression is equivalent to a ‘rule’ which
states that the function of a variable x is twice the square of the variable added to 3, for all
values of the variable. So a rule can be adopted in exchange of the expression. Still in another
manner, we might explicitly write down all possible cases how the rule works. This is done by
means of a table, listing all possible values of the function for all possible values of the variable.
As example we may use the following table instead of the expression or rule quite in an
equivalent manner. This table we were making before drawing the graph of the function in high
school.
x 0 1 -1 2 -2 3 -3 \2 t .. .. …. ….
y 3 5 5 11 11 21 21 7 2t
2
+ 3 .. … ….. …..
Page 121 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 40
Still in another manner, the function can be represented by its graph as in the following
figure.
Note that we are making sketches of graphs for illustration and not actually drawing the graphs
to scale.
The graph starts from the point (0, 3) on the y – axis, corresponding to the value x = 0, and
extends over to infinite distance along y – axis in two branches symmetrically placed around y –
axis. We can get the value at any point of the variable x by drawing an ordinate parallel to y-axis
at x. That finishes its equivalence with the table representation of the function or representation
by rule or expression. The different representations have their own different utilities and
advantages.
The table representation brings out one important aspect; that the function is nothing but
merely a correspondence between members x and y , symbolically x ÷y of two sets X and Y
all values of x and all values of y in entirety. X and Y are called the domain and the range of the
function f and are subsets of real numbers.
a) Quadratic Functions of a single variable: Parabolas:
O
X X’
Q
Y’
Y
M N
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Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 41
Y
y=x
2
X’ O X


x=y
2
O X X’
Y’
Y





A graph of y = x
2
is given (see Fig.2.4a ).This curve is a parabola as it would be seen
later. Parabolas are curves , any point on which is at equal distances from a fixed point and a
fixed straight line called focus and directrix of the parabola. The graph is symmetrical about the
y-axis as the equation is not changed when – x is replaced by x. it means that if the curve is
rotated about y-axis, it coincides with the original curve. Such functions are called even
functions. To verify its symmetry about x-axis, put –y in place of y. The equation is now
changed and hence it is not symmetrical about x-axis. The graph of x = y
2
given in Fig.2.4b is
also a parabola; but in this case y is not a function of x as a value of x corresponds to two
values of y. However x is a function of y here. Neither of the cases admit of inverse functions as
there is no one-to one correspondence. Quadratic functions in two variables represent conic
sections or
plane sections of cone which is dealt very extensively in latter chapters.
b) The Exponential Function
A graph of exponential function a
x
for cases a>1 and a<1 is given below. .Note
a
0
= 1 in both cases ) (fig.2.5). Exponential function increases for a>1 and decreases for a <1.




Fig.2.4a, graph of y=x
2
, and Fig.2.4b, x = y
2
X
X’
Y
Y’
P(0,1)
y = 2
x
X
X’
Y
Y’
y =(1/ 2)
x
P(0,1)
O(0,0)
O(0,0)
y= a
x
, a < 1
y= a
x
, a>1,
Page 123 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 42

If a > 1, say a = 2, y = 2
x
is shown in above figure. As 2
0
=1,so the point (0,1) lies on the graph.
y increases to · as x increases to · . For x < 0, -x > 0 and 2
x
= 1 / 2
-x
,the fraction goes on
diminishing to 0
If a < 1, say a = 1 / 2, y = 1 / 2
x
is shown in fig.2.5b. As 2
0
=1,so the point (0,1) lies on
the graph. The fraction goes on diminishing to 0 as x increases. For x < 0, -x > 0 and 1 / 2
x
= 2
-x
which goes on increasing to · as decreases to - ·.
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
1
2
4
6
8
10
0
Compare the graphs of y = e^x and the graph of y = e^(-x)
y = e^x
y = e^(-x)
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
-1
1
2
4
6
8
10
0
compare the graphs of y = 2^x and y =(1/2)^x
y = 2^x
y=(1/2)^x
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-9
-7
-5
-3
-1
1
2
4
6
8
10
Compare the graphs of y – e^x and that of y = e ^(-x) meeting at (0, 1)
Page 124 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 43
c) Logarithmic functions
These are inverse functions of exponential functions. This is evidently from definition of
logarithms. For example, if
x
a y = , then log
a
y x = . Thus y is positive for all values of x if a > 1.
If a >1,
x
a has the domain R and range only positive real numbers; so logarithm of a negative
number is impossible ( imaginary).
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
-1
1
2
4
6
8
10
0
y = log x
x = log y
x = log y is is same as 10
x
y = which is inverse function of y = log x
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-10
-8
-5
-2
1
2
4
6
8
10
0
Compare the graphs of( ½)^x,(1/3)^ x, (¼)^x all intersecting at (0, 1) and compare them with graphs of2^x, 3^x, 4^x
y = (1/2)^x
y = (1/3)^x
y = (1/4)^x
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-10
-8
-6
-4
-2
1
2
4
6
8
10
0
compare the graphs of 2^x, 3^x, 4^x all intersecting at (0, 1)
y = 2^x
y = 3^x
y = 4^x
(0, 1)
Page 125 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
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© Page 44
d) The Hyperbolic Function
Graphs of hyperbolic functions
x -x
e – e
sinh x =
2
and
x -x
e + e
cosh x =
2
are given here. cosh x is always positive and increases to · as x ÷(tends to) · or x ÷- · .
cosh x =1 for x =0, so point (0,1) is on the curve . cosh x remains unchanged if x is replaced by
– x . So it is symmetric about y-axis.
Sinh x passes through the origin as it is 0 for x = 0. It tends to · through positive values
of x and it tends to -· through negative values of x. If x is replaced by –x, sinh x becomes - sinh
x ; so it is antisymmetric about y-axis.
Exercise73
Prove that
2 2
cosh x -sinh x= 1 (Prove by just applying their definitions .Just
square up and subtract to prove it.).They are called hyperbolic functions (sinh x is read as sin
hyperbolic x).
X
Y
-2-1.5 -1 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5
0
Compare the graphs of y = ln x and y = - ln x
y = ln x
y = - lnx
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0
Compare the graphs of y = log x and y = log (-x)
y = log x
y = log (-x)
Page 126 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 45
Similarly,
sinh x
tanh x =
cosh x
,
1
coth x =
tanh x
,
1
sech x =
cosh x
, and
1
cosech x =
sinh x
Prove also that
2 2
1 – tanh x = sech x ,
2 2
coth x - 1 = cosech x ,
2 2
cosh x + sinh x = cosh 2x , 2 sinh x cosh x = sinh 2x ,
( ) sinh x + y = sinh x cosh y + cosh x sinh y ,
( ) cos h x + y = cosh x cosh y + sin h x sinh y .
Note that hyperbolic functions are not periodic.
e) Inverse Hyperbolic Functions
Inverse hyperbolic functions are defined in the same lines of inverse circular functions e.g.
·
-1
x = sinhy y = sinh x . Investigate the domains and ranges of the functions.
Verify and remember the following results by just using the definition ·
-1
x = sinhy y = sinh x .
As an example, solve
y -y
e +e
x = sinhy =
2
for y and get the first formula in the following. See it
how. · · =
y -y 2
2y y y
e +e x ± x - 1
x = sinhy = e - 2xe +1=0 e
2 2
. Only the + sign is to be
retained since
2
-1 x x > and ln x function is defined only for positive values of x.
X O X’
Y’
Y
y=sinh
x
y=sinh x, passes through the
origin and is antisymmetric
about y=axis.
X O X’
Y’
Y
y=cosh
(0,1
y=cosh x, graph of uniformly
heavy chain hanging freely
under gravity.
Page 127 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 46
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
-1 2 -1 2 -1
2 2
-1 -1 -1
1 1+x
sinh x =ln x + x +1 , cosh x =ln x + x - 1 , tanh x = ln
2 1- x
1 1- x 1+ 1- x 1± 1- x
coth x = ln , sech x =ln , cosec x =ln
2 1+x x x
Let
1
sinh y x
÷
= ,
so that
2 2
sinh 2 1 0 1
2
y y
y y y
e e
x y e xe e x x
÷
÷
= = ¬ ÷ ÷ = ¬ = ± + ,
or,
( )
2
ln 1 y x x = ± + . But since
2
1 x x ÷ + is negative, its logarithm has no meaning. Also we
have
1
sinh y x
÷
= .So
( )
2 1
ln 1 sinh y x x x
÷
= + + = .
Similarly,
( )
1 2
cosh ln 1 x x x
÷
= ± ÷ . But both values are positive here .
1
cosh x
÷
will not be
single valued , hence not a function, if both values are taken. To modify the definition of
1
cosh x
÷
to make it a function, note that , for 1 x > ,
2
1 1 x x + + > and
( )
2
ln 1 0 x x + + > ; and
2
2
1
1 1
1
x x
x x
÷ + = <
+ +
, for which
( )
2
ln 1 0 x x ÷ + < .Hence the definition of
1
cosh x
÷
is
modified and restricted to its positive values ; i.e.,
( )
1 2
cosh positive values of ln 1 x x x
÷
= + ÷ .
Now, if
1
tanh y x
÷
= ,
2 1
1 1 1
tanh tanh ln
1 2 1
y y y
y
y y y
e e x e x
x y e y x
e e x e x
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ + +
= = ¬ = = ¬ = =
+ ÷ ÷
The function is obviously defined only for 1 x <
Work out the following as exercises
75)
1
1 1
coth ln
2 1
x
x
x
÷
+
=
÷
, defined only for 1 x > ,
76)
2
1
1 1
sec ln
x
h x
x
÷
+ ÷
= only for 0 1 x < < and
77)
2
1
1 1
cos ln
x
ech x
x
÷
± +
= positive or negative sign is taken as x is positive or negative
respectively, for ,logarithm function is only defined for positive values of the argument.
f) Periodic Functions in General
Graphs of periodic or circular functions, sin x, cos x, tan x and cot x are given in Fig.1.9
& 1.10:(Note the domain and range in each case and the values of functions at 0, π/2, π,
3π/2, 2π. and -π/2, -π, -3π/2, -2π The values repeat at each interval of 2π. Such
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© Page 47
functions whose values are repeated at definite intervals are called periodic functions
and the interval is called a period. In general if a function f(x) is periodic with a period τ
if f(x) = f (x + nτ ) where n is any +ve or -ve integer.
Note that the domain of sine or cosine functions is the entire set of real numbers. Each of their
range is [-1,1]; maximum value they can have is 1 and minimum is -1 (sin t/2 =1 = cos 0, sin
3t/2 = -1 = cos t, sin 0 = 0 = cost/2) .Remember the formulae for complementary angles,
supplementary angles etc. from the previous chapter. Similarly cosecant and secant functions
being reciprocals of sine and cosine their domain is entire set of real number and range is ]-·,
1] [1,·[ and their absolute values are never less than 1. no trigonometric function, in fact ,
none of the periodic functions in general, can admit of an inverse function as many points in the
domain are taken to one point in the range by the function. When the domain and range are
interchanged, the correspondence is not single valued and therefore is no function; since we are
interested in single valued function only. If sin
-1
½ = t/6 , 5t/6 , 13t/6 etc, which value should
we take? So sin
-1
can be a function if the domain is taken [0, t/2] , so that there is no periodicity
or repetition. Observe the figures and note suitable intervals in which each of the trigonometric
functions tan, cot, sec and cosec can suitably admit of inverse function.
O
x
=

-
X X’
Y
Y’
x
=

/
2
x
=
3

/
2
x
=
-

/
2
x
=
-
3

/
2
y = tan x y = cot x
X
X’
O

X
=
-

x
=
-
2
 x
=
2

Y
Y’
/2 -/2
y =cos x
X X’
Y’
(0,1)
(/2,0)
(,-1)
(-/2,0)
(-,-1)
(2,1)
O
X X’
Y
Y’
(/2,1) (-3/2,1)
(,0) (2,0)
(-,0)
(-2,0)
y = sin x
Y
Page 129 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 48
Note the distinction between the terms inverse (1/x, reciprocal) and inverse function.
In general, a function ( ) f x is called periodic if the functional values repeat after a definite
interval in the independent variable. In symbols, if ( ) ( ) f x f x T = + , it is a periodic function and
T is called the period.
There is no need to recount trigonometric functions already taught in high school. Only the
domain and range of the functions may be investigated and remembered
Example74
A function ( ) sin y A t e ¢ = + , where t , time is independent variable for the displacement y of a
vibrating body. The displacement repeats back and forth starting from initial position y = 0 to
maximum displacement y = A, ( for maximum value 1 of sine function) , (called the amplitude)
from which point it returns back to the position y = 0 and moves back to a maximum distance
y = – A , (corresponding to minimum value – 1 of the sine function) and again returns back to
the 0 position. Such kind of motion is called a simple harmonic motion or SHM.
The period T is given by
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
sin sin 2 A t A t T t T t T
t
e ¢ e ¢ e ¢ e ¢ t
e
+ = + + ¬ + + ÷ ÷ = ¬ =
T is time taken to make a complete revolution. The reverse of it it number of revolutions per
second
1
T
u = is called frequency. If y =0 is the starting point then 0 ¢ = . Otherwise if we take
any other point as starting point 0 ¢ = . It is called the initial angle or the phase angle.
Exercise78
If T is a period of any periodic function , show that 2T, 3T, – T etc are also periods.
Exercise79
Find the period of the function ( ) cos sin f x a x b x = + .
y=cosec x
X O X’
y=1
y=-1
/2
x
=

x
=
-

-
- 3/2
Y
Y

O X X’
Y
Y’
x
=

/
2
x
=
3

/
x
=
-

/
2
y=1
y=-1
y=sec x
x
=
-
3

/
2
Page 130 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 49
Hint.
( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin
cos cos sin sin cos
a b
f x a x b x a b x x
a b a b
a b x x a b x ¢ ¢ ¢
| |
= + = + +
|
+ +
\ .
= + + = + ÷
As we could take
2 2
cos
a
a b
¢ =
+
and
2 2
sin
b
a b
¢ =
+
, sum of their squares being 1.
Exercise80
Find the maximum and minimum of the function ( ) cos sin f x a x b x = + .
Ans. Since ( ) ( )
2 2
cos f x a b x ¢ = + ÷ , the maximum is
2 2
a b + when the cosine function is
1 and minimum
2 2
a b ÷ + when the cosine function is -1.
Ex81: Show that maximum and minimum of two functions ( ) f x and ( ) g x can be defined as
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
max ,
2 2
f x g x f x g x
f x g x
÷ +
= + ,
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
min ,
2 2
f x g x f x g x
f x g x
÷ +
= ÷ remember
Miscexercise remember
Find the periods of the following functions :
82) sin
n
x , n is even integer Ans : π
83) sin
n
x , n is odd integer Ans : 2π
84) cos
n
x , n is even integer Ans : π
85) cos
n
x , n is odd integer Ans : 2π
86) tan
n
x , n is any integer Ans : π
87) cot
n
x , n is any integer Ans : π
88) sec
n
x , n is odd integer Ans : 2π
89) sec
n
co x , n is odd integer Ans : 2π
90) sin , cos , tan , cot , sec , cos x x x x x ecx Ans. :π
Example75 remember
If two simple harmonic motions of the same frequency are executed on the same body in the
same line, show that their sum is also a simple harmonic motion in the same line.
Suppose
1
sin y A t e = and ( )
2
sin y B t e ¢ = + are two such SHMs on the same body
.Displacements of the same body in the same direction is to be arithmetically added.
Then we have
( )
( )
1 2
sin sin sin sin cos cos sin
cos sin sin cos
y y y A t B t A t B t B t
A B t B t
e e ¢ e e ¢ e ¢
¢ e ¢ e
= + = + + = + +
= + +
Page 131 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 50
Now
( )
( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
cos sin cos sin 2 cos
2 cos 2 cos
A B B A B B AB
A B AB A B AB
¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢
¢ t ¢
+ + = + + +
= + + = + ÷ ÷
We can put
2 2
cos
cos
2 cos
A B
A B AB
¢
¢
¢
+
=
+ +
and
2 2
sin
sin
2 cos
B
A B AB
¢
¢
¢
=
+ +
, as sum of their
squares is 1 and putting
2 2
2 cos A B AB C ¢ + + = , we have,
( )
1 2
cos sin sin cos sin y y y C t C t C t ¢ e ¢ e e ¢ = + = + = +
So this is again seen to be a SHM in the same line with the same period , but with a different
phase
sin sin
tan
cos cos
B
A B
¢ ¢
¢
¢ ¢
= =
+
and new amplitude
2 2
2 cos C A B AB ¢ = + +
If both the SHMs are in the same phase, i.e., if 0 ¢ = , the resulting SHM is also in the same
phase and has maximum amplitude A B + . If both the SHMs are in opposite phase ,i.e. if ¢ t =
then the amplitude is minimum A B ÷ but the resulting SHM is also in the same phase.
Exercise91
Show that sin cos x x + is periodic , and find its period .
Exercise92
Show that the functions
2
) sin , )cos )cos a x x b x c x + are not periodic.
Hint. Assume the contrary in each case and arrive at some impossibility.
Take ( ) sin sin y x x x T x T = + = + + + if possible, derive cos
2
2sin
2
T T
x
T
| |
+ = ÷
|
\ .
, it is a
contradiction since the left side is a variable and the right side a constant.
Similarly prove the other two.
Exercise93
For a periodic function
( ) ( ) f x f x T = +
. Show that
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 f T f f T = = ÷
Exercise37
If ( ) [ ] f x x x = ÷ , i.e. fractional part of x, show that it is periodic and has 1 as the period.
Exercise94
The function ( )
1
0
when x rational
f x
when x irrational
¦
=
´
¹
repeats itself and so it is a periodic
function. But it has no period . verify.
Exercise95
If the functionsin cos x px + is periodic , show that p must be an integer or a rational number.
Hint. Use ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 f T f f T = = ÷ to prove sin 0 T T mt = ¬ = , cos 1 cos 2 aT nt = = ,or,
Page 132 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 51
2
n
am n a
m
t t = ¬ = .
Exercise96
Show that a periodic function cannot have an inverse function unless the domain of the inverse
mapping
is restricted to a suitable half period.
Example76: Wave Functions
Suppose the particles in a medium vibrate in a vertical direction one after another. The
advancing wave propagates in the medium causing the particles farther and farther to vibrate .
Snapshot of a typical advancing wave shall be the graph of a sine or cosine function since not
all the particles in the medium are in same phase at the same time. Displacement of a particle
at a distance x from the origin at any time t may be given by
( )
2
sin y A x vt
t
ì
= ÷ is such a
typical wave equation. The velocity v of the wave is given by
v
T
ì
=
, where
ì
, or wavelength is
the distance of any two adjacent particles in the same phase. The wave has travelled precisely
this distance by the time any particle has completed one revolution in time period T. Also since
the frequency
1
T
q =
, we may write
v
T
ì
qì = =
Exercise97
Verify from the wave equation that ì is the distance travelled by the wave in time period T
g) Inverse Circular Functions
Graph of inverse circular functions is given below ;(One expects X and Y coordinates
are interchanged . Of course, yes. But with one difference; these functions are not periodic and
the pieces of the graphs do not repeat themselves as the graphs of Trigonometric functions)



O
X
X’
Y’
(1,/2)
X
X X’ X’
O
O
Y’
Y’
(-1,-/2)
(1,0)
(0,/2)
(-1,)
Y=sin
-1
x
Y=cos
-1
x Y=tan
-1
x
y =  / 2
y = -  / 2
Y Y Y
Page 133 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 52
( In all such cases, domain of inverse function must be chosen where the function is
one-to-one, so that the inverse function exists).
The formulae for inverse trigonometric functions can be translated easily from the corresponding
trigonometric functions just by using the definition of it e.g. if sin y x = , then
1
sin y x
÷
= .
This is just as you derive the laws of logarithm from the laws of indices by just using the
definition of logarithm. One such example is illustrated below.
Example77
a) To prove log log
n
a a
M n M = , just put symbols, log
a
M p = so that
p
a M = ; now
( )
log log
q
p q pq q
a a
a M a M pq q M = = ¬ = = . Just with the definition and symbols.
b) To prove
1 1
sin cos
2
x x
t
÷ ÷
+ = by using sin cos
2
t
u u
| |
÷ =
|
\ .
. Just from the definition
1 1 1 1
sin sin cos cos sin cos
2 2 2
y x y x y x y x x x
t t t
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
| |
= · = · ÷ = · ÷ = · + =
|
\ .
Similarly try proving the following on your own and remember; in case of difficulty, see any
standard book on trigonometry for inverse circular functions.
Examples78
a)
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
1 1 1
cosec x = sin , cot x = tan , sec x = cos , etc.
x x x
b)
-1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -1
π
sin x +cos x = = tan x +cot x = sec x +cosec x
2
Y=cot
-1
x
Y=sec
-1
x
Y=cosec
-1
x
O
O
X’ X X’ X
X’
X
O
Y’ Y’ Y’
Y Y
Y
(0,/2)
(-1,)
y=/2
(1,0)
y=/2
(-1,-/2)
(1,/2)
Page 134 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 53
c)
2
-1 -1 2 -1 -1 -1 -1
2 2
x 1- x 1 1
θ = sin x = cos 1- x = tan = cot = sec = cosec
x x
1- x 1- x
d)
±
±

-1 -1 -1
x y
tan x tan y = tan
1 xy
,
+ +
+ +
÷ ÷ ÷
-1 -1 -1 -1
x y z
tan x tan y tan z = tan
1 xy yz zx
e)
( )
-1 -1 -1 2 2
sin x ± sin y = sin x 1- y ± y 1- x ,,,
( )

-1 -1 -1 2 2
cos x ±cos y = cos xy 1- y 1- x
f)
( )
-1 -1 2
2sin x = sin 2x 1- x ,
( )
2
1 ÷
-1 -1
2cos x =cos 2x ,
g)
2
-1 -1 -1 -1
2 2 2
2x 2x 1- x
2tan x = tan = sin =cos
1- x 1+x 1+x
Exercise99
Find the domain of
1 2 1 2
tan sin 1
2
x x x x
t
÷ ÷
+ + + + = and solve it.
Hint. We have to restrict
2 2 2
0, 0 1 1 0 0, 1 x x and x x x x x or + > s + + s ¬ + = ¬ =
Ex100: Show that ( ) ( )
1
x y
f x f y f
xy
| | +
+ =
|
÷
\ .
for a function ( ) f x in | | , t t ÷ , if ( )
1
tan f x x
÷
=
h) Cubical Parabola
y = x
3
represents a cubical parabola . The figure below illustrates what it is.
Spiral Equation of a spiral is r = a θ in polar coordinates ,an approximate figure is
given below.
X X’ O
Y
Y’
y
=
x
3
cubical parabola, graph of y = x
3
Page 135 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 54
Only for raising interest in the reader we give below a table of special curves.
§62:Some Special Curves
Name of the curve Who studied it or what it is
famous for / description
equation
Euler’s Spiral or clothoid or
Cornu’s spiral
Euler, Cornu. r
m
=a
m
θ
Spiral of Archimedes Archimedes r
m
=a
m
θ, , m = 1
Fermat’s spiral Fermat r
m
=a
m
θ, , m = 2
Hyperbolic 0r reciprocal spiral Johann Bernoulli r
m
=a
m
θ, , m = -1
Cochleoid a snail-form curve r = a sin θ / θ
Frequency curve, probability
curve, Gaussian curve, and
normal curve of error
Abraham de Moivre, Karl,
Fredrick Gauss.
y = 1 / (2π)
1/2
e
1/2 x
^
2
Catenary, or chainette is the form
that a perfectly flexible chain
assumes when suspended by its
ends and acted upon by gravity
alone
Leibniz, Christian Huygens,
Euler
y = a cosh (x/a)
Logarithmic, or logistic curve y = a log (y/m) or y = me
x/a
Tractrix, or tractory, or
equitangential, curve
Leibniz, Bernoulli x = a (cos θ + logtan [θ /2])
Quadratrix of Hippias Hippias of Elis discovered in
connection with dividing an
angle into any number of equal
parts and squaring the circle
πrsin θ = 2aθ
Semi-cubical parabola (Christian
Huygens)
A path along which a particle
may descend under the action
of gravity so as to describe
equal vertical spaces in equal
times.
x
3
=ay
2
Folium of Descartes Rene Descartes x
3
+ y
3
= 3axy
Strophoid Isaac Barrow x = a sin (a-2θ) / sin (a –θ)
Lemniscate of Bernoulli Jakob Bernoulli (x
2
+ a
2
)
2
= a
2
(x
2
– y
2
)
or r
2
= a
2
cos 2θ
Swastik curve (y
4
–x
4
)=xy or
θ cos θ sin
θ cos θ sin
4 4
2
÷
= r
Page 136 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 55
Error function
2
x
y e
÷
=
( We could eliminate u from the two equations to get a relation between x and y, but the result
won’t be of any practical importance)
Example78 : graph of ‘error function’ (probability curve).
§18:Behaviour of functions when their domains are changed ;
A function : f A B ÷ is defined in the domain D A _ and having the range R B _ . It may be
possible that the same function ( the same rule of transformation for taking a member of A to a
member of B) may be extended to a larger domain ' D , such that ' D D A c _ (the range may or
may not be extended) and we may write if as : F A B ÷ with domain ' D such that ( ) ( ) f x F x = for
all x D e . The function F is called an extension of the function f in ' D and f is called a
restriction of F in D .Give 10 examples of such extensions or restrictions.
We would discuss below some functions changing totally the rule of transformation if their
domain is changed.
a) Even and odd functions:
If the function does not change when x is replaced with -x, i.e. ,if
f(x) = f(-x) the function is called even. x
2
.,x
4
, cos x ,cosh x etc. are even functions. If
f(x) = -f(-x) the function is called odd function. x
3,
x
5
, sin x, sinh x etc. are odd functions
.If f(x) = f(-x) the graph is symmetric about Y-axis.
For example, signum x is an odd function, since signum (- x) = - signum x; as (-x ) is negative
as x is positive and vice versa. ( signum x = 1 for x >0, = -1 for x ,0)
Take another example, ( ) ( )
| |
1
x
f x = ÷ . Note that if | | x is an even number, | | x ÷ is an odd
number and vice versa; so ( ) ( ) f x f x ÷ = ÷ and therefore it is an odd function.
Note that if f(x) = g(x) + g(-x) does not change if x is replaced with -x, and hence, it is
even function.
Similarly f(x) = g(x) + g(-x) changes to -f(-x) when x is replaced with -x, hence it
is odd function. Any function f(x) can be expressed ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
=
2 2
f x f x f x f x
f x
+ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
i.e., as a sum of even and odd functions if defined in an interval like [– q, q] .A function
X
Y
y = e^(-x^2), error function in statistical analysis
Page 137 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 56
may be neither odd nor even e.g. y = ln x. lack of symmetry compels to seek symmetry at a
different level.
Exercise99
a) If f(x) is even, g(x) is even, f(x).g(x) is even.
b) If f(x) is even and g(x) is odd, f(x).g(x) is odd.
c) If f(x) is odd and g(x) is odd, f(x).g(x) is odd.
d) If f(x) is odd and g(x) is odd, fg(x) is odd.
e) If f(x) is odd and g(x) is even, fg(x) is even.
f) If f(x) is even and g(x) is even, fg(x) is even.
Ex100 :
Ans. Putting 0 x y = = in
( ) ( ) f x f y
x y
f
P P
+
+ | |
=
|
\ .
we have,
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )
0 0
0 0 2 0
f f
f f P
P
+
= ¬ ÷ = .
So ( ) 0 0 f = may be one of the options.
Putting y x = ÷ in
( ) ( ) f x f y
x y
f
P P
+
+ | |
=
|
\ .
we have,
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 .0 0
f x f x
f f x f x Pf P
P
+ ÷
= ¬ + ÷ = = = , by above. So ( ) f x is an odd
function.
Exercise101
Express the functions as a sum of even and odd functions.
a)
2
2
1
x
x
+
+
b)
x
a c)
2
x x +
Exercise102
Verify that product of any two odd functions is even, two even functions is even. Product
of an odd function and an even function is odd..
Exercise103
Put – x in place of x in the following and determine which are odd/ even functions.
Page 138 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 57
a)
x
b)
2
x x ÷

c)
2
sin x x

d)
1
2
x
e)
( )
2
log 1
a
y x x = + +
exercise104 :
Given that
( )
1
2
x
f x f
x
+ | |
=
|
+
\ . being an even function, find its domain.
Ans ; Since
( ) ( ) f x f x ÷ =
as the function is even, we have
( ) ( )
1
................(1)
1
2
1 2
...............(2)
2
x
x
x
x
f x f f x
x x
x
x
+ ¦
=
¦
+ ¦ | | +
= = ÷ ¬
´
|
+ +
\ .
¦
÷ =
¦
+ ¹
On simplification,
1 5 1 3
,
2 2
x
¦ ¹
÷ ± ÷ ± ¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
Exercise 105:
If the function
( )
1
1
x
n x
a
x a
÷
+
is symmetric about Y – axis then show that
1
3
n = ÷
.
b) Symmetric and alternating functions:
If the value of a function is not changed by interchanging a pair of variables the function is a
symmetrical function. For example,x
2
+ y
2
+ xy(x+y), x
3
+y
3
+z
3
+3xyz,(x-a)(x-b)(x-c) etc.
Evidently sum, difference, product and quotient of symmetric functions shall be symmetric also.
A function may totally change its sign when two of its variables are interchanged. For example,
(x + y + z){ (x
2
(y - z) + y
2
(z - x) + z
2
(x - y)} will be negative without change in its structure, if x
and y are interchanged. The function is said to be an alternating function with respect to x and
y. This example also shows that product of a symmetrical function and an alternating function
shall be alternating function.
A function may neither be symmetrical or alternating.
But, If b x a s s ,or, a x b ÷ s ÷ s ÷ ,adding a+b to all sides, b x b a a s ÷ + s (and some function f(x)
and f(a+ b - x)are both defined in the domain [a, b] and , then, we can replace any function
f(x) with f(a+b- x) anywhere in a problem by changing the variable x to a + b – x; for
the nature and structure of the two functions remains same and they have same domain
absolutely.
Page 139 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 58

C
Y
cycloid
Z
T U
V

c) Implicit Functions :
A polynomial of second degree ax
2
+2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx +2fy +c = 0 may be solved for y in
terms of x as follows.
ax
2
+2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx +2fy +c = 0 ¬by
2
+2hxy+2fy + ax
2
+ 2gx +c = 0
¬ by
2
+2(hx +f)y +( ax
2
+ 2gx +c) = 0
¬
( ) ( )
b
b f hx f hx
y
c 2gx ax
2 2
+ + ÷ + ± ÷ ÷
= ……………………..(1)
But sometimes such endeavor is not practical or just not possible. Nevertheless, there is no
difficulty in study of the eqn. in Calculus. Standard tools of differentiation and integration would
be sufficient to study the eqn. which we write in the form ¢(x, y) = 0 where ¢ is regarded as a
function of both x and y and the fact that y is a function of x , is understood to be contained
implicitly in the eqn. ¢(x, y) = 0. Such functions are called implicit functions.
The eqn.(1) can be written as ( ) ( ) c 2gx ax
2 2
+ + ÷ + ± = + + b f hx f by hx . In order that it may be a
linear expression in x, the part under the root should be a perfect square so that our eqn. ¢(x, y)
= 0 may be product of two linear factors.
This implies (hx + f)
2
– b (ax
2
+2gx +c) should be a perfect square
· x
2
(h
2
– ab) +2x(hf – g ) + (f
2
– bc) should be a perfect square
· x
2
(h
2
– ab) +2x(hf – g ) + (f
2
– bc) =0 should have equal roots
· its discriminant (hf – g )
2
- (h
2
– ab) (f
2
– bc) = 0.
· af
2
+ bg
2
+ ch
2
– abc – 2fgh = 0
is the required condition that ax
2
+2hxy + by
2
+ 2gx +2fy +c = 0 may be resolved into two
linear factors. Compare the case of quadratic equation in single variable where the discriminant
is not necessarily a whole square.
§64:Parametric equations of curves.
It is often to express the two variables x and y as different functions of a single variable so that
the functions could be worked upon easily with Calculus tools as implicit functions become
explicit in this way. However the economy of variables results in two equations for one.
Example80
Eliminate ‘t’ from the equations to show that they represent a parabola.
a) x = at
2
, b) y = 2at.
Ans : y
2
= 4ax it is equation of a parabola
Example81
Eliminate ‘u’ from the equations to show that they represent an ellipse.
a) x = a cos u b) y = b sin u
Ans : x
2
/a
2
+ y
2
/b
2
= 1 it is equation of an ellipse as we shall learn later on.
Example 82
A cycloid is a curve traced out by a point on the circumference of a wheel which rolls without
sliding ,along a straight path. The parametric equations are,
a) x = a(u - sin u) , b) y = a (1- cos u).
Page 140 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 59
In the picture, let P be the point on the circle which starts from the origin O , describing the
curve OPVS as the circle moves along the X-axis .While the point P moves from O to P along
the curved path OPVS the radius PC turns clockwise about the vertical direction and let it
describe an angle  at the centre of the moving circle , u = angle PCR . The point P is raised
from O on the ground to its present position as the points to the right of it on the circle touch the
ground (X-axis) successively. Thus the distance traveled by the circle OR should be equal to the
arc described by P, i.e., arc PR . If it is not understood, let the circle retrace its path to its
original position and as such, the point P is lowered back to its original position O. Hence OR =
arc PR = r u, where r is radius of the circle. Now x = OQ = OR – QR = OR – PM = ru - r
sin u = r(u - sin u). and y = PQ = MR = CR – CM = r – r cos u = r(1 – cos u) . Taking a =3
what we get from graphing is given below.
Misc Exercise
Eliminate the parameter from the pairs of parametric equations
106)
2
4tan , sin cos
2
t
x y a t b t = = +
107)
1 2
sin , 1 x t y t
÷
= = ÷
108)
( )
2 1
ln 1 , tan x t y t t
÷
= + = ÷
X
Y


Cycloid: x = 3(t-sint), y = 3(1-cost)
x = 3(t-sint), y = 3(1-cost)
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 60
109) ( )
2
1
, tan 2 1
t
x e y t
÷ ÷
= = +
110)
sin cos
,
1 cos 1 cos
a t c t
x y
b t b t
= =
+ +
111)
3
2
2,
3
t
x t y t = + = ÷
112)
( )
1 2 1
sin 1 , cos 2 x t y t
÷ ÷
= ÷ =
Exercise113
Find the range of ( )
3 2 2 3
2 2 2 2 5
x x x x
f x
÷ ÷
= + + + + . Ans. 9 x s < · .
Exercise114
Show that the function ( )
3 2
3 sin f x x x x x = + + + is one-one and onto.
Exercise115
If ( ) : f x A B ÷ , { } { }
1 2 6 1 2 3
, ,..... , , , A a a a B b b b = = is an onto function, and there are
exactly three elements such that ( )
1
f x b = , then find how many such functions are possible.
Ans. 120.
Exercise116
Find the domain of the function
1
2
x
x
÷
÷
. Ans. 2 1 x ÷ < < ÷ and 1 2 x < < .
Exercise117
Express
( ) sin cos
4
f x a x b x c
t
| |
= + + +
|
\ .
as a function of a single trigonometric ratio Sin or cos
and find its domain and range. Also specify when the function is onto, one to one and one to
one and onto.
Page 142 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 61
( ) sin cos sin cos cos sin cos sin cos
4 4 4 2 2
a a
f x a x b x c a x x b x c x b x c
t t t | | | | | |
= + + + = + + + = + + +
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 1
2 2 1
2
sin cos
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
b
a
a b
x x c
a b a a b a
| |
| |
+
|
|
|
| |
+ | |
\ .
= + + + |
|
|
\ .
| \ .
| | | |
+ + | | | |
+ + |
| | | |
|
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
\ .
( )
2
2
1
2
2
2
sin tan sin
2 2
2
b a
a b a
x c A x c
a
u
÷
| |
+
|
| |
+ | |
|
= + + + = + +
|
|
| \ .
\ .
|
\ .
where
2
2
2
cos
2
2 2
a
a b a
u =
| |
+ | |
+
| |
\ .
\ .
and
2
2
2 1
2
sin
2
2 2
b
a b a
u
+
=
| |
+ | |
+
| |
\ .
\ .
,
2
2
2
tan
2
b a
b a
a
a
u
+
+
= =
2
2
2 2
2
2
2 2
a b a
A a b ab
| |
+ | |
= + = + +
|
|
\ .
\ .
. The domain is R and the range is [c – A, c +A].
The function is an onto function if | | : , f R c A c A ÷ ÷ + . The function is one to one in the sub-
domain | | 0 2 ,2 x x u t u t u s + s ¬ e ÷ ÷ . The function is one to one and onto if
| | | | : , 2 , f c A c A u t u ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + .
Exercise118 remember
There is one injective from A to B and one from B to A. If both are finite sets, show that there is
a bijective from A to B . Hint : 1
st
prove that they have same number of elements.
Exercise119 remember
There are two finite sets A and B having m and n number of elements respectively.
Show that the total number of mappings from A to B is
m
n .
Exercise120
Page 143 / 681
This section is not a part of the preview.
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
Section 1: Identity, Division ,Symmetry, Set Theory, Numbers And Functions
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 5: Functions and Graphs Part I
© Page 62
There are two real valued bijective functions ( ) f x and ( ) g x which are mirror images of each
other about the line y = a. Then show that ( ) ( ) f x g x + is neither one-one nor onto.
Exercise121 remember
Show that the function ( )
| | ( )
2
sin
1
x
f x
x x
t
=
+ +
is a constant function.
Exercise122 remember
Show that the total number of distinct functions from A to A is
n
n if the set has n elements.
Exercise123
If ( )
1
,
2 100
n
f n
(
= +
(
¸ ¸
find ( )
151
1
f n
¿
.Ans.104.
Exercise124
How many bijectives : f A A ÷ are there if { } 1, 2, 3 A = and
( ) ( ) ( ) 1 3, 2 1, 3 2 f f f = = =
Ans. 2.
Exercise125
If ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 2 f x f x f x = + + + , ( ) 0 2 f = , ( ) 1 3 f = then find ( ) 5 f . Ans. 7.
Page 144 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 1
CHAPTER 8:THE CONCEPT OF LIMITSOF A FUNCTION PART I
§1:Concept of Limit:
In the figure 2. 1. above, for all values of x less than 1 we have y = x i.e., when x is
very near to 1 remaining less than 1 at the same time, y is also near 1. Similarly when
x is greater than 1, but very near to 1 at the same time, y = 2 – x is also near to 1. So
y is nearing 1 from either side when x is near to 1. We say this fact in Calculus language
as “ limit” of y is equal to 1 when x approaches 1.No matter whether f(1) is same as that
limit or different ; even function at that point may not have been defined. The limit
does not depend upon the value of the function at the point in question.
A function f(x) is said to tend to a limit ‘L’ at x = a, if the value of f(x) can be made
arbitrarily near to L, if x is chosen sufficiently near ‘a’ [ f(a) may or may not be defined).
In symbolic notation,
a x
Lim
÷

f(x) = L. ](The word arbitrarily is stressed upon because, the statement
being true in the other direction may not suffice. Appropriate example shall be explained a little
later.)

In the above example, (fig.2.1) , we can make 1 – f(x) < c if we take the values of x such that 1 –
x < c as long as x <1;(for ,y = x for all x < 1) .This we write
(1 0)
Lim
x ÷ ÷

f(x) = 1 or say, f(x) tends to 1 from left or from below or say left handed limit of the
function at x = 1. Similarly we can see that we can make f(x) –1 < c if we

choose the
values of x such that x – 1 < c ( as f(x) = 2 – x for all x more than 1 but less than 2). We write
this as
(1 0)
Lim
x ÷ +
f(x) =1 and say that the function f(x) tends to 1 from right or from above or
say the right handed limit of f(x) at x = 1 is 1. Imagine what would have been the result if our
function had been defined as f(x) = 3 – x, instead of 2 – x for x values above 2; the right handed
limit would have been 2 instead of being 1.
Page 145 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 2
We say that the limit of a function f(x) exists at a point x = a if the left-handed and the right-handed
limits both exist and are equal, otherwise we say the limit does not exist.(The definition of limit
should be unequivocal and unambiguous, otherwise which one should we choose for our limit?)
Both the above statements of criteria for a limit of f(x) at x = a to be ‘L’ may be combined
in a single statement:
1 x
Lim
÷
f(x) = Lfor every  such that  f(x) – L  <  , however small, we can find a  such
that x – a <  Only one case of failure would ascertain non-existence of limit of f(x) at
x = a . (Two symbols ‘ L’ and ‘a’ are per chance same ( 1 each) in the example taken, they
need not be the same in general).Note also the triangle inequality [ ( p ( < q · – p < q <
p ] for understanding the combined statement.
The phrase ‘however small’ needs some explanation. Different people have different standards of
smallness. For example a grain of sugar may be negligible for a sugar merchant, but it is more than
own weight of an ant. The order of smallness or negligibility can be different for different purposes
too. For example, a small grain of copper sulphate is by no means negligible for spectroscopic
investigation. So, for Mathematics, the standard of smallness must be universal, for all people and
for all purposes; therefore the word ‘arbitrarily small’. ( do not confuse this with order of smallness ,a
totally different concept.)
Note : ε and δ may be thought of as small positive numbers unless otherwise stated.
EXAMPLE 1: Find y Lim
3 x÷
, if
3 x
9 x
y
2
÷
÷
=
Straight putting x = 3 renders the expression in 0/0 form and is useless. One cannot
substitute x = 3 direct here. A great scientist Einstein had said that a problem is solved as
soon as it is correctly known. So let us take x = 3 + o where the latter is a variable small
number near zero which can be made as small as we please .(Imagine this symbol o to be
a box which encloses the arbitrarily small variable , we need not bother about the variable, we
could take the box anywhere we please easily and toss it away mercilessly at last, when
we could do so. This is the beauty of using symbols exactly where difficulty is met with) .
3 x
9 x
2
÷
÷
=
3 3
9 ) 3 (
2
÷ o +
÷ o +
o + =
o
÷ o + o +
= 6
9 6 9
2
The last o can be discarded at last , then the answer = 6. So our arbitrarily small number (+ve
or –ve) has been enclosed within the symbol o and we have chosen no standards of smallness
to be neglected; this can be made as small as one pleases.
The objective of this example is to show that , in working out problems, we may cancel out
common factors from numerator and denominator (for sake of short cut, for , while taking limits,
we may replace zero factors by non-zero infinitesimals, even if the functional value is undefined, as
there is no dependence of limit on functional value). This is by substituting the factor 0 by h,
an infinitesimal. But care must be taken to see that there is no division by 0. See the note below.
NOTE :
Division by 0 is an impossible operation, for example, if you divide a basket containing ten
apples to a number of people giving 0 to each, an infinite number of people you may count. But this
is not a division, since the basket of apples is never exhausted in the process. This is in contrast to
Page 146 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 3
the fact that dividend 20 is exhausted in the process if divided by 6, casting a quotient
0 2
0 3
= .
Division of 0 by 0 also not possible since
0 2
0 3
= is obtained from 2.0 3.0 = ( which is true)and
0 4
0 7
= is
also obtained from 7.0 4.0 = ( which is true again). Thus
0
0
is not unique, and in fact arbitrary. So
this is no division; where as
20 2
3
6 3
= is definitely unique. The process of division must end up with
exhausting the dividend and unique dividend.
Now, instead of tossing away
3 x
9 x
y
2
÷
÷
=
by just saying that x = 3 does not belong to the domain of the
function, we are just scavenging for its possible value by assuming
3 x h = +
or
3 x h = ÷
, taking h to
be very small nonzero values. In the above example, we observe that in both cases
3 x h = +
or
3 x h = ÷
,
2
9
6
3
x
h
x
÷
= ±
÷
. In the last step, we may toss away h to get the limiting value of the function =
6.
Again, if the limit of y for
3 x h = +
is different from the limit of y for
3 x h = ÷
, we do not accept the
limit and say that the limit does not exist. The two limits are referred to as Right handed limit RHL
and left handed limit LHL. The limit exists only if the LHL and RHL are same. It does not exist
when one or both of RHL and LHL do not exist or they are unequal. The whole concept of limit
centers around this idea. A function ( ) f x is said to be continuous at x a = only if ( ) f a is same as
the limit ( ) lim
x a
f x
÷
is same as ( ) f a . This is dealt in the next chapter.
Example2 Find
lim
3
3 3
x
h
h
÷
+ ÷
In this example, we cannot substitute 0 by h direct, as may be done in a variety of problems,
since t involves division by 0. Some manipulation must be done to avoid
0
0
. This is done by
rationalizing the denominator. See below.
( )( )
( ) ( )
lim lim lim
3 3 3
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 1 1
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
x x x
h h
h h
h
h h h h
÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ + +
+ ÷ + ÷
= = = =
+ + + + + +
Example3 Find
lim
0
3 3
x
h
h
÷
+ ÷
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
lim lim lim
0 0 0
3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3 1 1
0 3 3 2 3 3 3 3 3
x x x
h h
h h
h
h h h h
÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ + +
+ ÷ + ÷
= = = =
+ + + + + +
There is a special significance of this problem. This limit is rate of change of the function h near
0.
Page 147 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 4
Example4
Find
0
lim
x
a x a
x
÷
+ ÷
. Ans.
1
2 a
. Hint :Rationalize the exp.
( )( )
( ) ( )
0 0
1
lim lim
2
x x
a x a a x a
x
a
x a x a x a x a
÷ ÷
+ ÷ + +
= =
+ + + +
EXAMPLE5 : Find limit of f(x) = x
2
/x
2
at x = 0,
The function is identically 1 for all values of x = 1 and is not defined for x =
1.The latter fact does not prevent us from taking limit at x = 1. So, 1
x
x
2
2
Lim
1 x
=
÷
For this reason note here that the functions f(x) = x
2
/x
2
and f(x) =1 are different functions. Are
their domains different?
EXAMPLE 6 : Let
x
x
y = .We have x x = for 0 x > and x x ÷ = for 0 x s ¬y = 1 for 0 x > and
y = -1 for 0 x s ¬ that the left handed limit is -1 and the right handed limit is 1 when
0 x ÷ . Hence y
lim
0 x÷
does not exist . (If x
1
and x
2
are any two points in the opposite
sides of 0, we have f(x
1
) – f(x
2
) = 2, which cannot be made arbitrarily small, say < .3
whatever small interval for x
1
– x
2
we may choose. If we assume
2 1
y y ÷ < .03,in which
interval around x=0 which is not possible . Evidently we cannot get a o for this case).
EXAMPLE7 : Consider the step function y = [x] ,the greatest integer not greater than x .
In the interval [2 , 3[ the value of the function is constant and = 2; but at x = 3, y = 3.So
the function’s value suddenly increased by 1, for virtually no increase of x. In other words, if
we imagine arbitrarily y to increase only by 0.01 around x = 3, we find no small interval
around x = 3, in which the function increases only by 0.01.For, however small interval we
take around x = 3, the function increases by 1.(Note also that 2 y
Lim
) 0 2 ( x
=
÷ ÷
whereas 3 y
Lim
) 0 2 ( x
=
+ ÷

and are different and hence the limit does not exist.)
EXAMPLE 8 : Can you construct another step function? Try y = [tan x] . Point out the
points where limit does not exist.
(Ans. x = tan
-1
2, x = tan
-1
3, x = tan
-1
3 etc)
EXAMPLE 9 : Examine limit of sin(1/x) when x tends to 0.
When x tends to 0, 1/x becomes larger and larger and sin(1/x) takes all possible values
from -1 to 1. Hence no limit exists in this case.
EXAMPLE 10 : Examine limit of sin(1/x) when x tends to ·
When . x tends to · , 1/x tends to 0 and sin(1/x) tends to 0 accordingly.
EXAMPLE 11 : If x= 1/y, x÷· as y ÷0.An interesting outcome of this trivial result is as under:
A quadratic equation ax
2
+bx +c =0, is supposed to have two roots anyway. Suppose c = 0, the
case gives, one root x = 0, and the other
b
a
÷ . Putting it in a different way, let
1
x
y
= ; so the equation
becomes
2
0 a by cy + + = .If c = 0, the equation virtually ceases to be quadratic as it becomes
Page 148 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 5
2
0. 0 a by y + + = . But still we cling to the nomenclature and call it trivially quadratic. Repeating the
step again, if we put b = 0, the equation becomes
2
0 ax = so that both its roots become 0. but this
reduces the equation to a = 0. We can still continue to call it a trivial quadratic equation.
Note:
It is not always that we can not substitute the value of the variable direct for calculating the
limit. If the expression does not have indeterminate forms such as
0
0
, ,0 ,1
0
·
·
·
etc, we could
direct substitute the value of variable to get the limit . It is only when the expression involves
indeterminate forms we resort to methods of avoiding indeterminate forms , such as
employing an infinitesimal ( є, δ definition), rationalizing, L’Hospital’s rule and other various
tools.
For example
( )
2 2
2
lim 3 2 3*2 2 3*4 2 10
x
x
÷
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = , as it does not involve indeterminate forms.
§2:Extending the concept of limit; Limit When x ÷·
There may be limits of functions even when the independent variable tends to infinity, particularly
when the independent variable appears in the denominator. A minor modification must be made
in case the function f(x) tends to a definite number L when x tends to · .
For any arbitrary ε , however small, we can find a number M, sufficiently
large, such that for all x, such that |x| > M , we get | f(x) – L | < ε true.
For example, f(x) = 1/x tends to 0 as x tends to · . For |1/x – 0| to be less than 0.00025,
we can find a number 4000 such that , for all x, such that |x| > 4000, we have |1/x
– 0| < 0.00025.
You might think that the definition should have included something like |x - ∞| < δ . The phrase |x| >
M means the very same idea in a presentable manner.
§2a:A further extension of concept of limit; Infinite limits:
In a different situation, if f(x) tends to · as x tends to ‘a’, then for any large positive
number M ,such that , we can find a sufficiently small number o such that |f(x)| > M for
all x such that |x-a|< o . .
(Please do not confuse here if you are a student. You are advised not to confuse
anywhere in fact. If at all you do, leave the point, proceed appreciably further ,then return
to a point prior to the point of confusion and proceed again leisurely . Either your confusion
shall dissolve or you may be able to find mistake/s at that point ! )
Infinite limits are only nominally limits as we do not have much to do with infinity.
EXAMPLE 12 : Examine the
k Lim
x
x
· ÷
when i) k > 0, ii) k = 0, iii) k < 0. i) When k
> 0, for any large number M, x
k
> M · x >
k
1
M . So , for any arbitrary large number M
we can find a sufficiently large number N =
k
1
M such that x
k
> M for all x > N. So in this
case,
k Lim
x
x
· ÷
= ·
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© Page 6
ii) When k = 0 , x
k
= 0 identically, for all x > 0 . So
k Lim
x
x
· ÷
= 0.
iii) When k < 0, -k > 0 ·when x
k
= 1/ x
-k
< c · x
-k
> 1 / c ·
x > ( 1 / c )
-k
= N say, so , for any c such that , x
k
< c , we can find an N such that x >
N. i.e., we can make x
k
arbitrarily smaller by choosing N sufficiently large.
k Lim
x
x
· ÷
= 0 for
k< 0 .
EXAMPLE13: Examine
Lim
p · ÷
z
p
for cases i) z >1, ii) z = 1and iii) |z| < 1
i) for z > 1, z
p
increases indefinitely as p increases indefinitely. Hence
Lim
p · ÷
z
p

ii) for z = 1, z
p
= 1 for whatever p may be. Hence
Lim
p · ÷
z
p
= 1
iii) for |z| < 1, let z = 1/y so that 1/y is either greater than 1 or less than - 1.Then z
p
or
(1/y)
p
decreases to 0 through positive or negative values. Hence
Lim
p · ÷
z
p
= 0.
EXAMPLE 14: Find
2
lim tan



÷
. We know from its graph that tan θ = p/b and p increases indefinitely
and b decreases at the same time so that , for any large number M we can find a δ such that |π/2 –
θ| < δ.
Though the concept of limit is intuitive, it evolved through centuries since Leibniz and Newton
developed Calculus independently, even before that. It did not take shape until the last century and
the present form of definition was contributed by Cauchy and finally Weisstras formulated it. The
concept is so fundamental that it is at the root of all other concepts of Calculus like differentiation,
integration etc.
The concept itself does not give any method or clue to calculate any limit. But if we guess a limit
intuitively or by direct substitution, the definition only confirms whether the number is truly the limit
or not. So far we have had many typical examples and methods of finding limits as given above the
most common method , of course is a cautious guess by direct substitution and by practice only,
you would gain confidence of calculating limits. After the chapter on differentiation, a more formal
method due to L’Hopital would be introduced with wider applicability in
0
0
, ,1 , 0
0
and
· ·
·
·
·
etc.
forms . For which standard technique of differentiation of numerator and denominator is used, such
as rationalization as mentioned above, or changing the variables, considering order of smallness (
explained towards the end of this chapter) or L’ Hospital’s rule ( explained after differentiation
chapter,).
§3:Algebra of limits
Infinitesimals are themselves not of any use (Are they?). But infinitesimally increasing or
decreasing sequences, if have limits, the limits are important and throughout Calculus we are
to only study these limits. So we need Algebra of limits to work with limits.(Proofs or
details may be omitted at first reading ;the results are obvious and useful for working
out problems)
Limits of functions behave like algebraic numbers in a manner (provided they exist) that if the
functions are added, limit of the addition function is addition of their limits and such other
results as follows:
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 7
(a)If
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L and
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = m,
a x
Lim
÷
(f(x) + g(x)) = L+ m =
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) +
a x
Lim
÷
g(x)
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L and
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = m, for each c
1
and c
2
such that │f(x) - L│< c
1
and │g(x) - m│<
c
2
we can find o
1
and o
2
such that │x - a│< o
1
and │x - a│< o
2
or can find a o where o
= min (o
1
, o
2
) such that │x - a│< o
Or for │f(x) – L + g(x) – m │ ≤ │ │f(x) – L │+│ g(x) – m │ │ ≤ c
1
+ c
2
we can find a o
such that │x - a│< o . .And c

should be arbitrarily be small; so we may choose
c
1
= c
2
= ε /2 imposing no restrictions on it arbitrariness.
Hence for every ε arbitrarily small, such that │(f(x) – g(x)) –( L + m) │ ≤ ε we can find a o
such that │x - a│< o
That proves result (a) of Algebra of limits.
(b) If
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L ,
a x
Lim
÷
(p . f (x)) = p . L = p .
a x
Lim
÷
f(x)
If
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L , for each c
1
such that │f(x) - L│< c
1
we can find o
1
such │x - a│< o
1
Or for each │ p│. c
1
such that │p │. │f(x) -L│ < │p │. c
1
we can find o
1
such
│x - a│< o
1
(multiplying by a positive quantity does not change the direction of inequality.
Or for each c such that │p . f(x) – p. L│ < │p │. c
1
we can find o
1
such │x - a│< o
1
where we can choose c
1
= c / │p │.
Or for each c such that │p . f(x) – p .L│ < c

we can find o = o
1
such │x - a│< o setting
c = │p │. c
1
and o = o
1
which does not restrict any arbitrariness. (-ve value of p does
not affect │p │ , and for p = 0 the inequality holds good trivially)
(c) If
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L and
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = m,
a x
Lim
÷
(f(x) - g(x)) = L - m (to prove)
Setting p = - 1 in result (b) above, we get
a x
Lim
÷
((-1) . g(x)) = ( -1) . m or,
a x
Lim
÷
-g(x) = - m
And putting -g(x) in place of g(x) in result (a) above, we get,
a x
Lim
÷
( f(x) – g(x) ) =
a x
Lim
÷
( f(x) + (-
g(x) ) )
=
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) +
a x
Lim
÷
(- g(x)) =
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) -
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = L – m(d)
Page 151 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 8
d) If
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L and
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = m,
a x
Lim
÷
(f(x) x g(x)) = L x m (to prove)
If
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L and
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = m, for any c
1
and c
2
such that, for │ f(x) - L │< c
1
and
│ g(x) - m│ < c
2
,we can find o
1
and o
2
such that │x - a│< o
1
and │x -
a│< o
2
or a o such that o = min( o
1
o
2
) where │x - a│< o
Or │( f(x) – L ) (g(x) - m) + m . ( f(x) - L) + L.( (g(x) - m) )
= │ f(x)g(x) - m f(x) - L g(x) + Lm + m f(x) - Lm + L g(x) - Lm │
= │ f(x)g(x) - Lm │ < │( f(x) - L) (g(x) - m) │ + │m . ( f(x) - L) │ + │L.( (g(x) - m) ) │
< c
1
c
2
+ m c
1
+ L c
2
for │x - a│< o
For any arbitrary c we can choose c
1
and c
2
such that c
1
c
2
+ m c
1
+ L c
2
< c where we
can find a o such that │x - a│< o (proved)
(e) If
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = m,
a x
Lim
÷ ) x ( g
1
= 1/ m (to prove) if 0 m=
Let us prove this by disproving its contradiction .If
a x
Lim
÷
1/ g(x) is not 1/ m let

a x
Lim
÷
1/ g(x) = r Utilizing the result (d)
a x
Lim
÷
( g(x) (1/g(x) ) = m .r , not equal to 1.
But identically,
a x
Lim
÷
( g(x) (1/g(x) ) =
a x
Lim
÷
1 = 1 (Identically means ,independent of x or g(x))
That proves m .r must be = 1, i.e., r = 1/m.
(f) If
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L and
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = m,
a x
Lim
÷
(f(x) ÷ g(x)) = L ÷ m (to prove) if 0 m=
a x
Lim
÷

(f(x) ÷ g(x)) =(f(x) x 1/ g(x)) =
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) x
a x
Lim
÷
1/ g(x) ( by result (d)
=
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) x 1 /
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = L / m
( In the example
x
x
y = if we set y = f(x), x ) x ( g = and h(x) = x, so that
) x ( h
) x ( g
) x ( f y = = ,
) x ( h 0 ) x ( g
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x ÷ ÷
= = but
) x ( h
) x ( g
Lim
0 x÷
does not exist. The situation arises because division by 0 is
not allowed. But nobody prevents us direct calculating the limit which is earlier shown to be 1)
Page 152 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 9
Example
3 2 3 2
1 2 2
4 3 1 4.1 3 2
6 1 6 7
Lim
x
x x
x
÷
+ ÷ + ÷
= =
+ +
(g)
a x
Lim
÷
g(f(x)) = g(f(a)) = g(
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) ) i f
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) exists at all. (Without
proof, for details vide next section)
(h) If the functions f, g, and h in the same domain are such that
f(x) ≤ g(x) ≤ h(x) for all values of x and if

a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = L =
a x
Lim
÷
h(x) . and
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) exists, then
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = L (Without proof)
Some call it Squeezing Theorem or Sandwich Theorem. The result is quite simple to
understand and is useful for working out problems. You can also work out a sketch proof by taking
a x
Lim
÷
g(x) = M = L and then arriving at a contradiction. is to show that limits of rational functions can
be found by substitution provided the denominator is not zero.
Note : Triangle inequality
Before proving these results the following inequalities may be useful
|p+q| ≤ |p| +|q| ……………………………………………....(1)
(Triangle inequality ;Sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than the third.)
| p.q| = │p│. │q│…………………………………..…………. (2)
p.│q │ ≤ │p .q │…………………………………………..…..(3)
│ |p|-|q|│≤ |p-q|………………..…………….………………..(4)
(Difference of two sides of a triangle is less than the third. This is deducible from (1);
put p + q = a, p = a – q. ¬ │a │ ≤ │ a - q │ + │ q │ ; ¬ │a │ - │ q │ ≤ │ a - q │
¬ │ │a │ - │ q │ │ ≤ │ a - q │ ) remember
Example16:
Show that for a > 0, lim 0
!
n
n
a
n
÷·
= .
Hint : If the limit exists, it must be 0 > , being sum of all positive terms. Now take a positive integer
m such that 1 m a m s < + . Now
( )
( )( )
( )
. ....... . .......
. . . ...
! ! 1 2 ..... ! 1 1
n m
a a n m times a a a m times a a a
n m times
n m m m upto n m m m
÷
= s ÷
+ + + +
, as
3 2 1
a a a
m m m
< <
+ + +
etc.
The latter is .
! 1
n m
m
a a
m m
÷
| |
|
+
\ .
. For any m,
!
m
a
m
is constant, but lim 0
1
n m
n
a
m
÷
÷·
| |
=
|
+
\ .
as 1
1
a
m
<
+
. Hence the
result.
The general results given below would serve as examples to illustrate the methods of limit
calculation.
Extend the algebra of limits to any finite number of sums, and products of functions step by step.
§4:Some Important Limits and methods of finding them: Remember the results
a) Find
a x
Lim
÷
[ x
n
– a
n
] / ( x – a )
Page 153 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 10
=
a x
Lim
÷
[ x
n – 1
+ x
n – 2
a + x
n – 3
a
2
+ x
n – 4
a
3
….+… + a
n – 1,
, n terms] (By straight division)
= [a
n – 1
+ a
n – 2
a + a
n – 3
a
2
+ a
n – 4
a
3
….+…. + a
n – 1,
, n terms] = n .a
n – 1
It is worth observing that limits of polynomials are found by substitution. ( in substituting, what
we tacitly do is cancel 0’s from numerator and denominator replacing 0 by h →0.)
Alternatively, we can replace x by a + h where h→0,

h
a ) h a (
Lim
a x
a x
Lim
n n
0 h
n n
a x
÷ +
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷
=
0 h
Lim
÷
[ a
n
+n. a
n - 1
.h + n(n – 1 ) a
n - 2
. h
2
/ 2! +…..….h
n
- a
n
] / h (by Binomial Theorem)
= n . a
n – 1
neglecting h and its higher powers
b)
0 0
sin tan
1 Lim Lim
 
 
 
÷ ÷
= = remember
In the figure1.13, an arc of radius OP = perpendicular drawn on OP meet OQ at S. We
have OQ = r . Let the perpendicular from P on OQ meets OQ at R and
PR ≤ arc PQ ≤ PS ¬ PR / r ≤ arc PQ / r ≤ PS / ¬ sin θ ≤ θ ≤ tan θ
¬
u
u sin
≤ θ / θ ≤
u
u tan
¬
u
u sin
≤ 1 ≤
u
u tan
( PR / r and PS / r both tend to 1 as
θ tend to 0) see the graph below
Page 154 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 11
A variant of the result is often useful .
1 1
0 0
sin tan
lim 1 lim
x x
x x
x x
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= = ,
( ) ( ) sin tan
lim 1 lim
x a x a
x a x a
x a x a
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
÷ ÷
.
So
0
Lim
÷ u u
u sin
= 1 =
0
Lim
÷ u

u
u tan

Compare this with
sin cos
lim lim 0
x x
x x
x x
÷· ÷·
= = .For,
sin
1
0 lim lim 0
x x
x
x x
÷· ÷·
s s = . Remember
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-9
-6
-3
2
4
6
8
10
0
Y(x) = tan(x)/x
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-9
-7
-5
-3
-
2
4
6
8
10
0
Graph of x / sin x
y = x / sin x
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0
Graph of sin x / x
y = sinx /x
Page 155 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 12
Exercise1
Show that
0
sin
lim 1
x
x
x
÷
= ÷ . Hint : x x = ÷ for x < 0.Remember
example 17
a) Which of the two limits exist,
0
tan sin
lim
x
x x
x x
÷
÷ and
0
sin tan
lim
x
x x
x x
÷
÷
Ans. Since
tan
1
x
x
> ,
sin
1
x
x
s , so,
tan sin
0
x x
x x
÷ > . Hence the former exists.
b) Which of the two limits exist,
1 1
0
tan sin
lim
x
x x
x x
÷ ÷
÷
÷ and
1 1
0
sin tan
lim
x
x x
x x
÷ ÷
÷
÷
Ans. Since
1
tan
1
x
x
÷
s ,
1
sin
1
x
x
÷
> , so,
tan sin
0
x x
x x
÷ > . Hence the latter exists.
c)
Li m
x

0
cos. x- 1
= 0
x
remember
0 0 . 1 . 1
2
x
2
1
2
x
.
2
x
2
x
sin
2
x
sin 2
x
0 cos x . cos
x
1 x . cos
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x
= ÷ =
÷
=
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
d) The exponential Series: remember

n
→ ∞
Li m
| |
|
\ .
nx
1
1+
n
= 1+ x + x
2
/ 2! + x
3
/ 3! + x
4
/ 4! + x
5
/ 5! ..upto · = e
x

[ The symbol e

stands for Napier’s number as introduced in Chapter 1.and the series is called
exponential series]
The Napier’s number, the exponential series, the logarithmic series introduced below are
enormously important in the field of Algebra, Trigonometry, Coordinate Geometry, Calculus, Real
and Complex analysis, Physics, etc. The results involving the exponential and logarithmic series are
extremely useful in series summations, preparing logarithmic table etc. It has given Mathematics,
tremendous insight and practical utilities.
· ÷ n
Lim
nx
)
n
1
1 ( + =
· ÷ n
Lim [1 + nx.1/n +nx(nx-1)/2!. (1/n
2
) + nx(nx-1)(nx-2)/3! . (1/n
3
)+..up to · ]
( by Binomial Theorem)
Page 156 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 13
=
· ÷ n
Lim [ 1 + x + x( x - 1/n) / 2! + x(x - 1/n)(x - 2/n) / 3! .. +………up to · = 1+
x + x
2
/ 2! + x
3
/ 3! + x
4
/ 4! + x
5
/ 5! ......up to · neglecting 1/n .1/n
2
etc. as n ÷
·.
Similarly,
· ÷ n
Lim ( 1 + 1/n )
n
= 1 + 1 + 1/2! + 1/3! + 1/4! ....................up to · is denoted by
e (Napier’s number) by putting x = 1. The series definitely converges to a finite limit which is a
transcendental number between 2.71 and 2.80
So
n
→ ∞
Li m
1
1
nx
n
| |
+
|
\ .
=
n
→ ∞
Li m
1
1
x
n
n
(
| |
+
( |
\ .
(
¸ ¸
=
n
→ ∞
Li m
1
1
x
n
n
(
| |
+
( |
\ .
(
¸ ¸
= e
x
Hence e
x
= 1+ x + x
2
/ 2! + x
3
/ 3! + x
4
/ 4! + x
5
/ 5! ......up to · which is called the
Exponential series. remember
Again putting x = -1 in the series for e
x
, we get,
e
-1
= 1 - 1 + 1/2! - 1/3! + 1/4! ....................up to ·
Logarithms to the base e are called natural logarithms .In this manner, log
e
a is written as ln a . e)
· ÷ x
Lim ( x + 1/x )
x
= e
The result has already been proved for x being any positive integer in the previous
section. If x is not an integer, we can find an +ve integer n such that

1
1
1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1 (1 ) (1 ) (1 )
1 1 1
1
(1 )
1 1
1
(1 ) (1 )
1
1
1
1
(1 )
1 1
1
(1 ) (1 ) , ... ...
1
1
1
n x n
n
x n
n
x n
n x n
n x n n x n n x n
n
x n
n
Lim Lim Lim
n
for n when x
n x x n n
n
+
+
+
+
+
s s + ¬ s s ¬ + s + s + ¬ + s + s +
+ + +
+
+
¬ s + s +
+
+
+
+
¬ s + s + ÷ · ÷ ·
÷ · ÷ · ÷ ·
+
+
Page 157 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 14

1
1
(1 )
1 1 1 1
1
(1 ) (1 ) (1 ) (1 ) .1
1
1
1
1
1
(1 )
n
x n n
x
Lim
Lim Lim Lim e Lim
n n
e
Lim
x x n n n n n n
n n
Lim
e
n x
+
+
÷ · +
¬ s + s + + ¬ s + s
÷ · ÷ · ÷ · ÷ ·
+
÷ · +
¬ + =
÷ ·
f) 1
n
Lim
n
x
e
n
÷·
| |
+ =
|
\ .
|
|
.
|

\
|
·
÷ ÷
+
÷
+ + = |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ · ÷
... upto .......
n
x
! 3
) 2 n )( 1 n ( n
n
x
! 2
) 1 n ( n
n
x
n 1
n
x
1
3
3
2
2
Lim
n
n
Lim
n
|
|
.
|

\
|
· |
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷ + |
.
|

\
|
÷ + + =
· ÷
... upto ..........
n
2
1
n
1
1
! 3
x
n
1
1
! 2
x
x 1
3 2
Lim
n
e ... upto ..........
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1
3 2
= · + + + = neglecting 1/n and its higher powers.
g) Prove
1
1
x a
Lim
x
e
x
+
÷·
| |
+ =
|
\ .
We have, , e 1 . e
x
1
1 .
x
1
1
x
1
1
a
Lim
x
x
Lim
x
a x
Lim
x
= = |
.
|

\
|
+ |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ · ÷
+
· ÷
h) Prove
.
1
1 1
x a x
Lim a Lim
x x
a
e
x x
÷· ÷·
| | | |
+ = = +
| |
\ . \ .
We have,
a
a
x
Lim
x
a
x
Lim
x
a . x
Lim
x
e
x
1
1
x
1
1
x
1
1 =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ · ÷ · ÷
Again,
a
a
a
x
Lim
a
x
a
a
x
Lim
a
x
x
Lim
x
e
x
a
1
x
a
1
x
a
1 =
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+ = |
.
|

\
|
+
· ÷ · ÷
· ÷
,
i)
h
1 upto ....
! 2
h
h 1
h
1 e
2
Lim
0 h
h
Lim
0 h
÷ · + +
=
÷
÷ ÷
= 1 neglecting h and higher powers.
Similarly, a
h
1 upto ....
! 2
a h
ha 1
h
1 e
2 2
Lim
0 h
ha
Lim
0 h
=
÷ · + +
=
÷
÷ ÷
i.e.,
0
-1
ha
Lim
h
e
a
h
÷
= remember
j) a
x
= e
xln a
, For let ln a = y ¬ e
y
= a ¬ a
x
= (e
y
)
x
= (e
x
)
y
=e
xy
=e
xln a
Page 158 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 15
So
a ln a ln . 1 a ln .
a ln x
1 e
x
1 a
a ln x
Lim
0 x
x
Lim
0 x
= =
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷
if a > 0, Similarly, if a < 0, -a > 0,
) a ln( ) a ln( . 1 ) a ln( .
) a ln( x
1 e
x
1 ) a (
) a ln( x
Lim
0 x
x
Lim
0 x
÷ = ÷ = ÷
÷
÷
=
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
.So in either case,
| a | ln | a | ln . 1 | a | ln .
| a | ln x
1 e
x
1 a
| a | ln x
Lim
0 x
x
Lim
0 x
= =
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷
So,
0
- 1
ln | |
x
Lim
x
a
a
x
÷
=
Similarly,
| a | ln b | a | ln . b . 1 | a | ln . b .
| a | ln bx
1 e
x
1 a
| a | ln bx
Lim
0 x
bx
Lim
0 x
= =
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷
Remember that
, 1
lim 1 1
0 0 1
x
x
if a
a if a
if a
÷·
· >
¦
¦
= =
´
¦
s <
¹
k)
0
ln(1 )
1.
Lim
x
x
x
÷
+
= , We have . 1 e . ln ) x 1 ( ln ) x 1 ln(
x
) x 1 ln(
x
1
Lim
0 x
x
1
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x
= = + = + =
+
÷ ÷ ÷
l)The logarithmic series: ln (1+x)= log
e
(1+x) = x – x
2
/2 + x
3
/3 – x
4
/4……….up to .
remember
The series converges for 1 x <
To derive it, note that
· + + + + = = .... upto ... ..........
! 4
) a (ln y
! 3
) a (ln y
! 2
) a (ln y
a ln y 1 e a
4 4 3 3 2 2
a ln y y

Putting a = 1+x ,
·
+
+
+
+
+
+ + =
= +
+
.... upto . ..........
! 4
)} x 1 {ln( y
! 3
)} x 1 {ln( y
! 2
)} x 1 {ln( y
a ln y 1
e ) x 1 (
4 4 3 3 2 2
) x 1 ln( y y
But by Binomial theorem, for x < 1,
·
÷ ÷ ÷
+
÷ ÷
+
÷
+ + = + .... upto ..... x
! 4
) 3 y )( 2 y )( 1 y ( y
x
! 3
) 2 y )( 1 y ( y
x
! 2
) 1 y ( y
yx 1 ) x 1 (
4 3 2 y
which is just another way of
expressing the above series, and identical with the first one. Hence, equating the coefficient of y
from both the expressions, we get,
·
÷ ÷ ÷
+
÷ ÷
+
÷
+ = + upto ......... x
4 . 3 . 2 . 1
) 3 )( 2 )( 1 (
x
3 . 2 . 1
) 2 )( 1 (
x
2 . 1
) 1 (
x ) x 1 ln(
4 3 2
, or,
· ÷ + ÷ = + ........ upto ... ..........
4
x
3
x
2
x
x ) x 1 ln(
4 3 2
n ln ) 1 n ln(
n
1 n
ln ........ upto ... ..........
n 4
1
n 3
1
n 2
1
n
1
)
n
1
1 ln(
4 3 2
÷ + = |
.
|

\
| +
= · ÷ + ÷ = + and
n ln ) 1 n ln(
n
1 n
ln ........ upto ... ..........
n 4
1
n 3
1
n 2
1
n
1
)
n
1
1 ln(
4 3 2
÷ ÷ = |
.
|

\
| ÷
= · ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
Subtracting the latter series from the former, we get,
|
.
|

\
|
· + + = ÷ ÷ + .. upto ....
n 5
1
n 3
1
n
1
2 ) 1 n ln( ) 1 n ln(
3 2
which is a rapidly converging series.
Page 159 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 16
Putting n = 3 and using ln 1 = 0, we get ln 4 – ln 2 = ln (4/2) = ln 2. Putting n=9, we get ln 10 – ln 8
and ln 8 = 3 ln 2, we get ln 10. once we get ln 10, we can find log x , (i.e., log
10
x, it is customarily
written in Arithmetic as log
10
x).
m) Hint on preparing a log table:
The logarithmic series provides the clue to prepare a log table, starting at ln 1 =0 and choosing
incremental values of x. But the series is not rapidly converging ,i.e., we cannot have good
approximation values of logarithms of numbers by summing only a few terms from the beginning.
But the logarithmic series provides us designing other series not only for preparing a log table but
opening up a number of possibilities in other areas.
Exercise2
Show that
( )
2
1
lim 1 1
x
x x
÷
+ ÷ =
Exercise3
Show that
sin
lim 0
x
x
x
÷·
= remember
Hint ; Make
sin 1 1
sin .
x
x
x x x
= s
Exercise4
Find
2
cos
lim
x
x
x
÷·
.Ans. 0.
Exercise5
Find
2 2
2 2
sin sin
lim
x a
x a
x a
÷
÷
÷
. Ans. 1 Hint :
( ) ( )
2 2
sin sin sin sin x a x a x a ÷ = + ÷
Exercise6:Find
2
sin
lim
cos
x
x x
x x
÷·
÷
+
.Ans.
2 2 2
sin
sin
1
1 lim
sin 1 0
lim lim 1
cos cos 1 0 cos
1 lim 1
x
x x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x
x x x x
x
x x
÷·
÷· ÷·
÷·
| |
÷
÷ |
÷ ÷
\ .
= = = =
+ + | |
+ +
|
\ .
Exercise7:Find
lim2 sin2
x x
x
÷
÷·
.
Page 160 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 17
Ans. : We have
0 lim2 sin2 lim2
x x x
x x
÷ ÷
÷· ÷·
s s
, as
0 sin 2 1
x
s s
.But
lim2 0
x
x
÷
÷·
=
, so
lim2 sin2 0
x x
x
÷
÷·
=
.
Exercise8Find ( ) 3
1
log
3
1
lim log 3
x
x
x
÷
. Ans.
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
3
1
3
3 3 3
1
1 1 1 lim log .
log 1
log log log
3 3 3 3
1 1 1
lim log 3 lim log 3 log lim 1 log
x
x
x
x x x
x x x
x x x e e e
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + = = =
Exercise9:Find
lim sin
x
x
x
c
e
e
÷·
.
Ans. Since
sin 0
x
c
e
÷
as x→∞, we have
sin
sin
lim sin lim lim
1
x
x
x
x x
x x x
x
c
c ce
e
e c c c
e ce
c
e
÷
÷
÷· ÷· ÷·
= = =
Exercise10: Show that
1
1
lim 2
1
x
x
x
÷
÷
=
÷
Exercise11:For |x| <1 show that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
1
lim 1 1 1 ............ 1
1
n
n
x x x x
x
÷·
(
+ + + + =
¸ ¸
÷
Exercise12: Find
x c
c x x c
Lim
c x
÷
÷
÷
sin sin
.
We have
x c
c sin x x sin c
Lim
c x
÷
÷
÷
=
x c
c sin x x sin x x sin x x sin c
Lim
c x
÷
÷ + ÷
÷
=
c cos c c sin
c x
c sin x sin
c c sin
x c
c sin x sin
x x sin
Lim
c x
Lim
c x
Lim
c x
Lim
c x
÷ =
÷
÷
÷ =
÷
÷
+ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
.
Exercise13:Find
2
2
0
cos
limsin
x
x
x

÷
| |
|
\ .
. Hint :
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
0 0 0 0
2
2
2 2
0 0
sin 1 sin
sin cos sin sin sin sin
lim lim lim lim
sin sin
sin
lim lim
sin
x x x x
x x
x
x x x
x x x x
x
x
x x

   




÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
= = =
= =
Example 17 : Find
x
x sin
1
Lim
0 x
÷
÷
. Put sin-1x = θ, so that x = sin θ, We have θ
÷
0 when sin θ
÷
0.
or x
÷
0. Now,
1
1
1
sin
1
sin x
x sin
Lim
0
Lim
0 x
1
Lim
0 x
= =
u
u
=
u
u
=
÷ u
÷
÷
÷
Page 161 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 18
Exercise14:
Find
0
sin
lim
x
x
x
÷
(
(
¸ ¸
. Hint :
( )
| |
0 0 0
sin sin sinh
lim lim lim 1 0
x h h
h x
x h h
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ( ÷
( (
= = = ÷ =
(
( (
÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¸ ¸
, as
sinh h <
also
0
sin
lim 0
x
x
x
÷ +
(
=
(
¸ ¸
.
Exercise15: Show that
1
lim tan 1
x
x
÷
÷·
( =
¸ ¸
but
1
lim tan 2
x
x
÷
÷÷·
( = ÷
¸ ¸
Hint :
1
lim tan 1
2
x
x

(
÷
(
= =
( (
¸ ¸
¸ ¸
÷ ·
, but
1
lim tan 2
2
x
x

÷
÷÷·
(
( = ÷ = ÷
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
.
Exercise16: Show that
2
0
lim 0
sin tan
x
x
x x
÷
(
=
(
¸ ¸
.
Exercise17: Show that
| | | | { }
1
lim 1 1 1 1
x
x x x
÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ÷
Exercise18: Show that
0 0
tan tan
lim 1 lim
x x
x x
x x
÷ + ÷ ÷
( (
= =
( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
. Hint
tan x x >
, so
tanh
1
h
>
, also
( ) tan h tanh
1
h h
÷
= >
÷
.
Exercise19:
Show that
4
1 sin2
lim
4 x
x
x

 ÷
÷
÷
does not exist.
Hint :
( )
( ) ( )
4 4 4 4 4
1 sin2 1 sin2 1 sin2 1 sin2 1 1 sin2
lim lim lim lim lim .1
4 4 4
4 1 sin2 1 sin 2
x x x x x
x x x x x
x x x
x x x
    
  

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
= = =
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + +
Now
( ) ( ) ( )
4 4 4 4
1 sin2 1 1
lim lim 1 sin2 lim 1.lim
4 4 4 x x x x
x
x
x x x
   
   ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷
. But
( )
4
1
lim
4 x x

 ÷ ÷
does not exist.
Exercise20: Show that
| |
| |
0
sin
lim
x
x
x
÷
| |
|
\ .
does not exist, but
0
sin
lim 0
x
x
x
÷
(
=
(
¸ ¸
.
Page 162 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 19
Exercise21:
Show that
( )
2 2 2
2
1 1 2 2 3 ...... 1
1
lim lim
2
n
n n n n
n
m n
m m
m
÷· ÷·
| |
+ + + + + + ÷ +
|
=
|
\ .
Hint :
( )
2 2
2 2
1 2 1
1 2 1 3 1 ...... 1
1 1 2 3 ... 1 2 3
lim lim lim lim
2 2
n n n
n n n
m n m m
m
m
m m m m
m m
÷· ÷· ÷· ÷·
| |
÷
| | | | | |
|
+ + + + + + +
| | |
+ + + + +
\ . \ . \ . |
= = =
|
|
|
\ .
Example 19 : Prove
b a
x
e e
bx ax
Lim
0 x
÷ =
÷
÷
remember
We have
b a
x
1 e
x
1 e
x
e e
bx
Lim
0 x
ax
Lim
0 x
bx ax
Lim
0 x
÷ =
÷
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
Example 20 :
Examine
) x ( f
Lim
x · ÷
where 0 b , and
b ........ x b x b
a ........ x a x a
) x ( f
0
m
1 m
1
m
0
n
1 n
1
n
0
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
÷
÷
remember
We have,
m
1 m
1
m
0
n
1 n
1
n
0
b ........ x b x b
a ........ x a x a
) x ( f
+ + +
+ + +
=
÷
÷
say ), x ( g x
)
x
b
....
x
b
b ( x
)
x
a
.....
x
a
a ( x
m n
m
m 1
0
m
n
n 1
0
n
÷
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
Now,
0
0 Lim
x
b
a
) x ( g =
· ÷
;So, if n<m,
) x ( f
Lim
x · ÷
=
0 0
b
a
x ) x ( g
0
0 m n Lim
x
Lim
x
= =
÷
· ÷ · ÷
if n=m,
) x ( f
Lim
x · ÷
=
0
0
0
0 m n Lim
x
Lim
x
b
a
1 .
b
a
x ) x ( g = =
÷
· ÷ · ÷
if n> m, it would be
·
or -
·
according as a0/b0 is +ve or –ve.
Similarly
0
( )
Lim n
x
n
a
g x
b
÷
=
.
Exercise22
Find
2
lim
x
ax b
x c
÷·
+
+
when 0 a s . Hint : If a < 0, by above formula, limit is - ∞. If a = 0,
2
0.
lim 0
x
x b
x c
÷·
+
=
+
Exercise23
Page 163 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 20
Find all values of a and b if
2
1
lim
1
x
x
ax b
x
÷·
| | +
÷ + = ·
|
+
\ .
.
Hint : Since
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 1
lim lim
1 1
x x
x a a b x b x
ax b
x x
÷· ÷·
| | ÷ ÷ ÷ + + | | +
÷ + = = ·
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
and degree of numerator >
degree of denominator, then
1
0 1
1
a
a
÷
> ¬ < . The b could be any real number.
exercise24
If
2
1
lim 0
1
x
x
ax b
x
÷·
| | +
÷ + =
|
+
\ .
, find all values of a and b.
Hint :
( ) ( )
2
1 1
lim 0
1
x
x a a b x b
x
÷·
| | ÷ ÷ ÷ + +
=
|
+
\ .
and the degree of numerator > degree of denominator, and
this is only possible only when the degree of numerator < degree of denominator. Both the
statements are possible only when 1 0 a ÷ = and 0 a b ÷ = , i.e., only when a = 1 and b = 1 this
becomes
1
lim 0
1
x
b
x
÷·
÷
| |
=
|
+
\ .
Exercise25 remember
If
2
1
lim 0
1
x
x
ax b c
x
÷·
| | +
÷ + = =
|
+
\ .
, find all values of a and b.
Hint : Since
( ) ( )
2 2
1 1 1
lim 0 lim
1 1
x x
x a a b x b x
ax b c c
x x
÷· ÷·
| | ÷ ÷ ÷ + + | | +
÷ + = = ¬ =
| |
+ +
\ . \ .
and the degree of
numerator should have been equal to the degree of the denominator. This is possible only when
1 0 1 a a ÷ = ¬ = .
Now, putting a =1 in the limit we get,
( ) 1 1
lim
1
x
b x b
c
x
÷·
÷ + + | |
=
|
+
\ .
. But the limit is
1
1
b ÷
, so
1 1 b c b c ÷ = ¬ = ÷ .Example 21 :
Find N n ,
n
nx cos
Lim
n
e
· ÷
We have,
n
1
n
nx cos
0 1 nx cos 0 s s ¬ s s So · ÷ ÷
· ÷
n , as , 0
n
nx cos
Lim
n
remember
Exercise26
Evaluate ( )
0
lim
x
f x
÷
if ( )
1
1
1
1
x
x
e
f x
e
÷
=
÷
Hint : ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
0 0 0 0
1 1/ 1
lim lim 0 lim lim 1
1 1/ 1
h h
x h h h
h h
e e
f x f h
e e
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ = = = ÷
+ +
, as
1 1
1
0 1/ 0
h h
h e e
h
÷ ¬ ÷ ·¬ ÷·¬ ÷
Now, ( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
0 0 0
1 1 1/
lim lim 0 lim 1
1 1 1/
h h
x h h
h h
e e
f x f h
e e
÷ + ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= + = = =
+ +
,
1 1
1
0 1/ 0
h h
h e e
h
÷ ¬ ÷ ·¬ ÷·¬ ÷
Page 164 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 21
So left handed limit = right handed limit.
Exercise27
show that the
( ) 1 cos2
lim
x c
x c
x c
÷
÷ ÷
÷
does not exist.
Hint :
( ) ( )
0 0 0
1 cos2 1 cos2
1 cos2 sinh
lim lim lim 2 lim 2
x c h h h
x c c h c
h
x c c h c h h
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= = ÷ = ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
But
( ) ( )
0 0 0
1 cos2 1 cos2
1 cos2 sinh
lim lim lim 2 lim 2
x c h h h
x c c h c
h
x c c h c h h
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
÷
= = = =
÷ + ÷
. So no limit.
Example 22 : Find
2
x
Lim
0 x
x
x cos e
2
÷
÷
We have,
2
x
Lim
0 x
x
x cos e
2
÷
÷
=
2
4 2 6 4
2
Lim
0 x
x
......
! 4
x
! 2
x
1 .......
! 3
x
! 2
x
x 1
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ + ÷ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + + +
÷

2 2
0 2
1
1 .. .. ..
1 3 2
1
2 2
Lim
x
x higher powers of x
x
÷
| |
+ +
|
\ .
= = + =
Example23
Find
( )
1
1
lim sin sin
x
x
÷
÷
(
¸ ¸ . Ans. : 0. Note that RHL is not required as the function is not defined for
x > 1.
Example24
Show that | |
0
lim cot
x
x
÷
does not exist . Hint : Show LHL = ∞, and RHL = - ∞.
So left handed limit = right handed limit. Mark it as a technique.
Example 25
Show that
1
lim cot 0
x
x
÷
÷·
( =
¸ ¸
. Hint take
1
cot x u
÷
=
Example 26 : Immediate ‘rate of change’ of a function f(x) is given by
x
) x ( f ) x x ( f
Lim
0 x
o
÷ o +
÷ o
and
is called differential coefficient of the function at any point x, where δx is difference in x
between two points x and x + δx .
If potential function in a gravitational field is given by V(r)= - GM/r, find the field strength E
= - space rate of potential. We have,
2
Lim Lim Lim
r
GM
r ) r r (
1
GM
r
r ) r r (
) r r ( r
GM
r
r
GM
r r
GM
E ÷ =
o +
÷ =
o
o +
o + ÷
=
o
+
o +
÷
÷ =
÷ o ÷ o ÷ o 0 r 0 r 0 r
Differential coefficient , the next
Chapter, thus may be seen as an application of Limit calculation.
Page 165 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 22
§5:Many facets of the definition of limit
a) Whether target values are controllable
A function may be regarded as the output of an operation on the independent variable which may
be
regarded as input. For example mixing Ammonia and Hydrochloric acid would produce Ammonium
Chloride gas. The rate of reaction depends upon concentrations of inputs and of course,
circumstantial variables like temperature, pressure etc. in other words, The volume of Ammonium
Chloride at any time t , say, V(t) is a function F, say, of concentration of Ammonia C
A
, that of
Hydrochloric acid C
H
, temperature T, pressure P of the system . In symbols, V(t) = F(C
A
,C
H
, P, T, t),
where F is a function of many variables or may be a set of functions, different for different ranges of
temperature. At any particular time t
1
, with given values of C
H
, P and T, V(t
1
) is a function of C
A
. If
we set a target value L , can we be able to control the input C
A
near a control value C
A1
? In
other words, can we control the output to be within a range of prescribed error ε i.e. (V
A
(t
1
) – ε < L
< V
A
(t
1
) + ε) by controlling the input in a range within (C
A1
– δ < L < C
A1
+ δ) ?. If this is so, we say
that V(t
1
) has a limit L at the point C
A
= C
A1
. If you closely observe the meaning, you would
understand that the actual output does not depend upon this L, which is a result of Mathematical
considerations only; it may be different, or altogether may be absent (when suppose, the factory is
under lock up) . Otherwise, when this L is equal to V
A
(t
1
), we understand that the production
process is smooth or continuous, a concept dealt in the next chapter.
b) For every ε we need a δ
Take the example ( )
2
2 3 y f x x = = + and we are asked to find ( )
5
lim
x
f x
÷
. We guess a limit L at the
point x = 5, by direct substitution , 53 and make back calculation for finding δ for every ε,
such that
2
2 3 53 x  + ÷ < .Proceed backwards as
2 2
50 50 50 50
2 50 , , 50 2 50 , , , , 5 5 5
2 2 2 2
x or x or x or x
   
  
÷ + ÷ +
÷ < ÷ < < + < < ÷ < ÷ < ÷
We can take bigger of the two numbers
50 50
5 5
2 2
and
  ÷ +
÷ ÷ as a δ. We need not
look for
best possible δ but any workable δ would do.
To find a δ is thus solving a problem of inequality. Conversely, if we do not find a δ for any
one ε, the limit does not exist.
Take an example : show that the step function y = [x] , the greatest integer not greater than x does
not have a limit a x = 3. Observe that for values of x such as 2 3 x s < , y = 2 and for x = 3, y = 3.
Take an ε = 0.1 and we try to put all values of y between 2.4 to 2.6 and observe that there is no
δ, which can make [x] lie between 2.4 to 2.6 as it suddenly changes from 2 to 3 at x = 3.
Page 166 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 23
c) An example :a limit that does not exist anywhere : true meaning of definition of limit.
Try a function ( )
1
0
when x is rational
f x
when x is irrational
¦
=
´
¹
for investigating limit at a rational point. Obviously the
function oscillates too much there and has no limit. You may remember that there is a rational
number
between any two irrational numbers and there is an irrational number between any two rational
numbers.
But for every δ > 0 such that x a  ÷ < some ε > 0 for which ( ) f x L  ÷ < , say , for example, ε = 1.1.
The definition of limit is certainly different from this consideration; it says for every ε (such that
( ) f x L  ÷ < ) we can find a δ (such that x a  ÷ < ), and not the other way round. So the statement
that ( )
lim
x a
f x L
÷
= for any δ > 0 such that x a  ÷ < we can find an ε such that ( ) f x L  ÷ < , ε >
0 does not assure existence of limit at x = a.
So also the statement that for any ε > 0 such that ( ) f x L  ÷ < we can find an x near ‘a’ is not
sufficient for guarantying existence of a limit.
Note : The function ( )
1
0
when x is rational
f x
when x is irrational
¦
=
´
¹
is called characteristic function of rational
numbers. It simply separates the rational numbers from irrationals simply by attaching different
labels 1 and 0 to them. It is also called Dirichlet function after the mathematician Dirichlet .
But the reverse of the above statements is always true. If an ε can not be found so that ( ) f x does
not lie near L, i.e. ( ) L f x L   ÷ < < + is not true or equivalently ( ) f x L  ÷ < is not true for when
x a  ÷ < , for some δ, then L is not the limit.
d) Sequences and limits
On first time reading , falsity of the above two statements may appear strange . For any δ we are
finding an ε and still the limit may not exist ! But we see that it is so. Do we have to always check is
backwards whether a suspected limit is actually so and there is no direct method. In fact there is
one, but of a little practical use. See how it is.
The independent variable x may tend to a in many ways, actually in infinite number of ways.
For example if x→0, we may imagine it is along the sequence
1
1 1 1 1 1 1
, , , ....................... , .....................infinite terms
2 4 8 16 2 2
n n+
or
1
1 1 1 1 1 1
, , , ....................... , .....................infinite terms
2 1 4 1 8 1 16 1 2 1 2 1
n n+
+ + + + + +
and through infinite number
of such sequences as you can see to it. And similarly x → a through infinite number of sequences
Page 167 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 24
converging to ‘a’. It may be assured that if all the sequences
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
, , , ,......................infinite terms f x f x f x f x converge to L for every sequence
1 2 3 4
, , , ,......................infinite terms x x x x converging to ‘a’ then ( ) lim
x a
f x L
÷
= . In other words, the
function ( ) f x L ÷ along every path of x leading to ‘a’. Can you practically test a limiting value in
this manner ? How many such paths can you take into consideration ? But there is one practical
utility in this development. If you want to disprove that a number L is not the limit of a function f(x) as
x → a, you can present a sequence
1 2 3 4
, , , ,......................infinite terms x x x x along which ( ) lim
x a
f x L
÷
= .
Only one example is sufficient to disprove a proposition. But before giving examples for such a
method , it should be shown that the two definitions of limit are equivalent – the ε - δ method and
the sequence method, the definition is after the mathematician Heine.
Before that let us see a little closely the meaning of convergence of a sequence. A sequence
1 2 3 4
, , , ,........... ...........infinite terms
n
x x x x x is said to converge to a limit ‘a’ if for every positive δ, we
can find an integer M such that |x – a| < δ for all n > M. The definition is for any sequence ,e.g.
the sequence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
, , ...... .......infinite terms
n
f x f x f x f x is said to tend to the limit L if for any ε >
0, we can find a positive integer N such that ( )
n
f x L  ÷ < for all n > N.
Now the equivalence of Heine definition of limit and that due to Cauchy – Weisstras may be easily
seen to be equivalent, Starting from Heine’s definition , for any ε > 0, for ( ) f x L  ÷ < we can find
a sequence ( )
n
f x such that ( )
n
f x L  ÷ < assures a sequence x
n
such that |x – a| < δ, for some δ
, for some integer > N. Thus it leads to Cauchy – Weisstras definition. Then starting from the
Cauchy – Weisstras definition the Heine’s definition follows easily, for, if ( ) f x L ÷ , it tends to the
limit through every path or through every sequence x
n
leading to ‘a’.
example27: To find
2 1
lim
3 2
x a
x
x
÷
+
+
in sequence method.
The limit would be limit of the sequence
1 2 3
1 2 3
2 1 2 1 2 1
, , ,............
3 2 3 2 3 2
x x x
x x x
+ + +
+ + +
as n ÷ · , i.e.
n
x a ÷ .So
( )
( )
lim 2 1
2 1 2 1
lim
3 2 lim 3 2 3 1
n
n
n
n
x a
n
x a
n n
x a
x
x a
x x a
÷
÷
÷
+
+ +
= =
+ + +
. (But this method is of little practical use; direct substitution
method is preferable).
example28: To show that limsin
x
x
÷·
does not exist.
To evaluate the limit, assuming it exists, let us evaluate it along the path or sequence
n
x n = and
in another way, along the sequence
1
2
2
n
y n 
| |
= +
|
\ .
.
Now, along the path
n
x n = , we have limsin limsin lim0 0
x n n
x n
÷· ÷· ÷·
= = = .
Page 168 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 25
Now, along the path
1
2
2
n
y n 
| |
= +
|
\ .
, we have
1
limsin limsin 2 lim1 1
2
x n n
x n 
÷· ÷· ÷·
| |
= + = =
|
\ .
.
Since the two limits are different, the limit does not exist.
Misc exercises
28. Show that the limit
1
1
limsin
1
x
x
÷
÷
does not exist. Hint see above example.
29. Show that the limit limcos
x
x
÷·
does not exist. Hint see above example.
30. Find the limit of the sequence
1
, 2 1
, 2
2
n
for n m
n
x
n
for n m
n
¦
= ÷
¦
¦
=
´
¦
=
¦
+ ¹
Hint : The sequence is precisely
1 1 2 1 3 1 4
1, , , , , , , ................
2 3 3 5 5 7 5
. Now
1
lim 0
n
n
÷·
÷ , But
1
lim
2 2
n
n
n
÷·
÷
+
.
Thus the limit is not unique hence does not exist.
31. Find the limit of the sequence
1
2
2
1
1 , 2 1
2
1
, 2
2
n
n
n
for n m
x
for n m
+
¦
÷ = ÷
¦
¦
=
´
¦
=
¦
¹
. Ans. No limit exists.
32. For any positive number ‘a’, show that lim 0
!
n
n
a
n
÷·
=
remember
Hint : Take any natural number 2 m a > . Then , for n > m, we have,
( )
1 1
. . ............ . . ...... . . ...... 2
! 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 2 2
n m
n
m
m
n
a a a a a a a a a a a a a
a a
n n m m m n n
÷
| || | | | | |
= = < =
| | | |
+ + +
\ .\ . \ . \ .
Now
1
0
2
n
| |
÷
|
\ .
. So lim 0
!
n
n
a
n
÷·
= .
33. Find lim
n
n
n
÷·
. remember
Hint : Since 1
n
n > , take ( )
( )
2
1
1 1 1 .....
2!
n
n n
n n n n n
n n
n x n x n nx x x
÷
= + ¬ = + ¬ = + + + + , 0
n
x > ,
( ) ( )
2
2 2
1 1 2
1 1 1
2! 2! 2
n
n n n
n n n n nx
n x n x x
n
÷ ÷
¬ > + ¬ ÷ > ¬ > ¬ < . (As n >1)
As
2
lim 0
n
n
÷·
= ,
2
lim 1 lim 1
n
n n
n
n
÷· ÷·
= + =
34. Find lim
n
n
a
÷·
for a > 0. Hint :
1
0
lim lim 1
n n
n n
a a a
÷· ÷·
= = = . remember
Page 169 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 26
35. Find
!
lim
n
n
n
n
÷·
. Hint : Take
!
n n
n
x
n
= , then
( )
( )
1 1
1 !
1
n n
n
x
n
+ +
+
=
+
so that
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )( ) ( )
1
1 1 1
1 ! 1 ! ! 1 1 !
/ . . . 1
! ! 1
1 1 1 1 1 1
n n n n
n
n n n n n n
n
n n n n n x n n n n n
x n n n
n n n n n n
+
+ + +
+ + + +
= = = = = <
+ + + + + +
.
Thus
1 n n
x x
+
< . The sequence is bounded below and has a limit L say.
Now
( ) 1 1 1 1
1 1 . .... 2
n n n
n
n n
n
n n n n
+ +
| | | |
= = + = + + >
| |
\ . \ .
, so
( )
1
1 1
2 2
1
n
n n n
n
x x
n
+
s ¬ s
+
. As both
1
lim , lim
n n
n n
x L x L
+
÷· ÷·
÷ ÷ , So
1
2
L L s , also 0 L s . Thus L =0
36. Show that
( )
3 3 3 3
2
2
1 2 3 ... 1
lim
4
1
n
n
n
÷·
+ + + +
=
+
. Hint :
( )
2
2
3 3 3 3
1
1 2 3 ...
4
n n
n
+
+ + + + = . Divide numerator
and denominator by
4
n .
d) Remember the following five results.
37. Show that lim 1
-
x x
x x
x
a b
a b
÷·
+
= if 1 a b > > . Hint : Divide both numerator and denominator by
x
a .
38. Show that lim -1
-
x x
x x
x
a b
a b
÷·
+
= if 1 b a > > . Hint : Divide both numerator and denominator by
x
b .
39. Show that lim 1
-
x x
x x
x
a b
a b
÷·
+
= if 1 a b > > . Hint : Divide both numerator and denominator by
x
a .
40. Show that lim -1
-
x x
x x
x
a b
a b
÷·
+
= if 1 b a > > . Hint : Divide both numerator and denominator by
x
b .
41. Take n in place of x in above 4 consecutive questions and prove the results again, n +ve
integer.
42. Show that
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
1. 2. 1 3. 2 ............ .1 1
lim
1 2 3 ... 2
n
n n n n
n
÷·
+ ÷ + ÷ + +
=
+ + + +
.
Hint : ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2
2
1. 2. 1 3. 2 ............ .1 1 1 1 2 1
2 6
n n
n n n n n r r n n n + ÷ + ÷ + + = + ÷ = + ÷ + +
¿ ¿
as
the general term is ( ) ( )
2
1 1 r n r n r r ÷ + = + ÷
Now
( ) ( )
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
2
2 2 2 2
1 1 2 1
1. 2. 1 3. 2 ............ .1
2 6
lim
1 2 3 ...
1 2 1
6
n
n n
n n n
n n n n
n
n
n n
÷·
+ ÷ + +
+ ÷ + ÷ + +
=
+ + + +
+ +
( ) ( )( )
( )( )
( )
( )
2
1 1 2 1
3 1 3 3 2 1 2 1
2 6
1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2
1 2 1
6
n n
n n n
n n n n
n
n n n
n n
+ ÷ + +
+ + ÷ ÷ +
= ÷ = = ÷
+ + +
+ +
as n ÷ · .
Page 170 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 27
43. Find
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 ! 1 !
lim
2 ! 1 !
n
n n
n n
÷·
+ + +
+ ÷ +
Ans.: 1 Hint : ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 ! 1 ! 1 n n n + = + + .
44. Find the limit as n ÷ · of the sequence , , .............. a a a a a a n terms + + + .
Hint : Let the lim . ...
n
n
x a a a n terms L
÷·
= + + + = . Squaring
2
2
1 1 4.1. 1 1 4
2 2
a a
L a L L
± + ± +
= + ¬ = = . Since a > 0, and a sequence of positive terms is
positive, the minus sign is avoided. So
1 1 4
2
a
L
+ +
= . Of course the sequence is bounded; that is
to be proved at first to ensure existence of a finite limit if at all. If 0 a > , an upper bound is
2 a a a + = , for , 2, 2 1 2 2 a a a a a a a a a a a a a a s + s + = + + s + s + s and so on
. ... 2 a a a n terms a + + + s .
45. Prove lim 2 2 2 ... 2
n
n
x n terms
÷·
= + + + =
46.
Find
( )
( )
1
lim
1
n
n
n
an
bn
÷·
÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ . Ans. If n is even, n = 2m,
2 1 2 1/
lim lim
2 1 2 1/
m m
am a m a
bm b m b
÷· ÷·
÷ + ÷ +
= = ÷
÷ ÷ .
When n is odd, say n = 2m+1,
( )
( )
2 2 1 / 2 2 1
lim lim
2 2 1 2 2 1 /
m m
a a m am a a
bm b b b m b
÷· ÷·
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
= = ÷
+ + + ÷ also.
47. If
( )
1
1 1
lim
2
sin 2
n
n
x
÷ ÷·
=
+
, then find all the values of x.
Ans. Since
( )
1
1 1
lim
2
sin 2
n
n
x
÷ ÷·
=
+
,
( )
1
lim sin 0
n
n
x
÷
÷·
=
. This is possible only when
1
sin x
÷
is a proper
fraction, i.e., ( )
1
1 sin 1 1,1 x x
÷
÷ s s ¬ e ÷
e) Do the following curves approximate st lines at large distances?
a) Show that for some a and b, remember
2
1
lim - - 0
1
x
x
ax b
x
÷·
| | +
=
|
+
\ .
, Hint.
2
1 1
1 1
x x
x
x x
+ ÷
= +
+ +
, Show that ( )
2
1
lim lim
1
x x
x
ax b
x
÷· ÷·
+
= +
+
for a = 1, b = -1. Evidently y ax b = + is a st line.
Page 171 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
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© Page 28
b)
( )
2
-
lim - 1 - - 0
x
x x ax b
÷ ·
+ = , Hint
1 1
2 2
2 2
2
1 1 1 1
lim 1 lim 1
1 1 1 1
lim 1 ...... 0, 1,
2 2
x x
x
x ax b x ax b
x x x x
x ax b for a b
x x
÷÷· ÷÷·
÷÷·
( ( ¦ ¹
¦ ¦ | | | |
( (
÷ + ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
´ `
| |
( (
\ . \ .
¦ ¦
¸ ¸ ¹ ) ¸ ¸
¦ ¹ | |
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = =
´ `
|
\ . ¹ )
(expanding the binomial
1
2
2
1 1
x x
| |
÷
|
\ .
and neglecting higher powers)
So the curves
2
1
1
x
y
x
+
=
+
and
2
1 y x x = ÷ + are st lines 1 y x = ÷ and
1
2
y x = + when x ÷·or x ÷÷·
respectively.
Those st lines are called asymptotes of the concerned curves.
Example28 :
Prove that limsin
x
x
÷·
does not exist.
Choose a sequence 2
2
n
x n

 = + so that lim sin lim sin 2 1
2 n n
n
x x
x n


÷· ÷·
| |
= + =
|
\ .
Choose another sequence
n
x n = so that
( ) lim sin lim sin 0
n n
n
x x
x n
÷· ÷·
= =
Since the limits are different in two different paths, the limit does not exist.
Exercise48
a) Show that limcos
x
x
÷·
does not exist.
b) Show that limtan
x
x
÷·
does not exist
The use of Heine’ definition is not only useful for proving non-existence of limits. Take the following
example.
Example29 : Find the limit
3
1
lim
2 3
x
x
x
÷
+
+
Let us consider any sequence x
x
converging to 3 in the domain of definition of
( )
1
2 3
x
f x
x
+
=
+
i.e.
avoiding any
3
2
n
x = ÷
which evidently is not in domain of ( ) f x , for, it makes ( ) f x infinite.
Now consider the sequence
1
2 3
n
n
x
x
+
+
, i.e.,
3 1 2
1 2 3
1 1 1 1
, , .................. .........infinite terms
2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3
n
n
x x x x
x x x x
+ + + +
+ + + +
Page 172 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
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© Page 29
Clearly the limit of this sequence is
3 1 4
6 3 9
+
=
+
, which is a constant , i.e. independent of choice of x
n
.
So,
3
1 4
lim
2 3 9
x
x
x
÷
+
=
+
. The Heine’s definition also gives us method of testing a limit. ( you can see it is
no better than method of direct substitution in
( )
1
2 3
x
f x
x
+
=
+
).
exercise49
Find
1
1
lim sin
x
x
÷
÷
(
¸ ¸
. Hint : | |
1
1
2
lim sin lim 1
2
x
t
x t


÷
÷
÷
(
( = = =
¸ ¸ (
¸ ¸
, putting
1
sin x t
÷
= so that
2
t

÷ as 1 x ÷
exercise 50 : Find
1 1
3
0
tan sin
lim
sin
x
x x
x
÷ ÷
÷
÷
.
1 1
1 1
2
3 3
0 0
3
3
0
tan tan
tan sin
1
lim lim
sin sin
lim
x x
x
x
x
x x
x
x x
x
x
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
=
ans.
2
1
2
2 2
1
2 2
2 2 2 2 2
3 3 3
2 0 0 0 0
2 2
2 2
2 2 2 0
2
1
tan
1
. 1 1
tan
1
1
1 1 1
lim lim lim 1.lim
.1
1
1
1 1 1 1 1
lim
2
1 1 1
x x x x
x
x
x
x
x x x
x x x x x x x x
x x
x x x x x
x x x
x x x
x x
x x
x x x
x
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
| |
÷
|
÷
|
| |
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
|
|
+
| |
+ ÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷ \ . \ .
= = =
÷ ÷
+ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ +
= = ÷
+ ÷ ÷ +
Note that
1 1
2
sin tan
1
x
x
x
÷ ÷
=
÷
and
1 1 1
tan tan tan
1
a b
a b
ab
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ =
+
f) Function of many variables
But definitely the Heine’s definition gives good theoretical insight into the problem of existence of
limits. It will help understanding the path concept we have introduced informally in case of function
of two variables ( ) , z x y  = . The domain of such functions is entire xy plane or some part of it. And
the graph of the function gives us a surface in a three dimensional (x, y, z) space as ( ) y f x = gives
us a curve in two dimensional plane. For example
2 2 2
x y a + = gives us the surface of a cylinder of
Page 173 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 30
radius a standing on the xy plane. Another example,
2 2
cot z x y  = + gives us a cone with vertex
at the origin and half vertical angle α. And so on. We can extend the definition of limit for such
functions as follows:
A function ( ) , z x y  = approaches to a limit L as ( ) ( )
0 0
, , x y x y ÷ if, for ε > 0 such that
0
x x  ÷ < ( ) , x y L   ÷ < , we have a δ such that ( ) ( )
2 2
0 0
x x x x  ÷ + ÷ < , or equivalently
0
x x  ÷ < and
0
y y  ÷ < .
The Heine’s definition takes the shape as A function ( ) , z x y  = approaches to a limit L as
( ) ( )
0 0
, , x y x y ÷ if, it approaches to L along every path ( ) y f x = in the domain of definition of z
and vice versa.
It is easy to understand that a curve ( ) y f x = is a path in xy plane and if a function z of two
variables x and y has to have a limit at (x
0
, y
0
), it has to have that limit though every path leading to
the point (x
0
, y
0
).
§6:Order of smallness and order of largeness , comparison of infinitesimals:
So far we are talking about ε and δ tacitly assuming them small positive numbers , but when it come
to a formal statement or definition , we are evidently avoiding the word ‘small’ ; on the pretext that
definitions and tools of Mathematics are independent of ‘order of smallness’ which may vary from
person to person or vary as purposes behind. Remember that a grain of rice is negligible for a grain
merchant but never for an artist who want to inscribe a whole book on it. Let us closely look at what
is meant by order of smallness and then formally proceed towards its definition.
First , by an infinitesimal function ( ) x  as x → a we mean, ( ) lim 0
x a
x 
÷
= . Similarly by an
infinitesimal function ( ) x  as x → ∞ we mean, ( ) lim 0
x
x 
÷·
= . Similarly , by an infinite function
( ) x  as x → a we mean, ( ) lim
x a
x 
÷
= ·. Similarly by an infinite function ( ) x  as x → ∞ we mean,
( ) lim
x
x 
÷·
= ·. Evidently if ( ) x  is an infinitesimal function as x → a or as x → ∞, then
( )
1
x 
is an
infinite function and vice versa.
Intuitively we know the series
3
1
1
n
n
·
=
¿
i.e.,
3 3 3 3
1 1 1 1
.......................infinite terms
1 2 3 4
+ + + is more rapidly
converging than the series
2
1
n
,i.e.,
2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1
.......................infinite terms
1 2 3 4
+ + + , i.e., for a desired
approximation , we can we can do with less number of terms of the former series than the later one.
Let us take two infinitesimal functions ( ) x  as x → a and ( ) x  as x → a. we say that they are
infinitesimals of the same order if
( )
( )
lim
lim
x a
x a
x
c
x


÷
÷
= if c is a non-zero constant. In that case we write
( ) ( ) x x   ~ If
( )
( )
lim
0
lim
x a
x a
x
x


÷
÷
= then we say that ( ) x  as x → a is of higher order than ( ) x  as
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 31
x → a. A similar definition may be given for x →∞. Similarly If
( )
( )
lim
lim
x a
x a
x
x


÷
÷
= ·then we say that ( ) x 
as x → a is of lower order than ( ) x  as x → a. A similar definition may be given for x → ∞.
To verify whether these definitions are in consistent with our intuitive idea, the following examples
may be tried.
Example 30
a) Show that
2
3
1
2 3
x
x
÷
+
as x → 1 is infinitesimal. Evidently so, since
2
3
1
1
lim 0
2 3
x
x
x
÷
÷
=
+
It is easily verifiable that
b) The sum and product of any finite number of infinitesimal functions as x → a are
themselves infinitesimal functions as x → a. Same is true for x → ∞.
c) The product of an infinitesimal function ( ) x  as x → a with a bounded function ( ) x  , (
bounded means it varies within two numbers A and B, may or may not have a minimum and
maximum, e.g., the set {x:
2
2 x < } has no maximum but has an upper bound 2 x = ) is an
infinitesimal function as x → a. Similar is the case for x → ∞.
Example 31
Show that
( ) ( )
3 1
2 cos
2
f x x
x
= ÷
÷
is an infinitesimal function as x → 2.
The ( )
2
lim 0
x
f x
÷
÷ , as
( )
3
2
lim 2 0
x
x
÷
÷ ÷ and
1
cos
2 x ÷
can not be more than 1 or less than– 1 .From the
latter example, it seems that using the concepts of infinitesimal may facilitate calculation of limits ;
yes it is so, we would return to that later on. Look at the following examples for understanding
comparison of infinitesimals.
Example 32
Show that both the functions ( ) 16 4 f x x = + ÷ and ( ) g x x = are infinitesimals for x → 0 and
compare their orders.
Taking limits of the functions for x → 0, we see that both the limits are 0 and hence both are
infinitesimals for x → 0. Now
( )( )
( ) ( )
0 0 0
16 4 16 4
16 4 1
lim lim lim
8
16 4 16 4
x x x
x x
x x
x
x x x x
÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ + +
+ ÷
= = =
+ + + +
, a
non-zero constant. So ( ) ( ) f x g x ~ .
Example 33
Show that the functions ( )
3
2 1 f x x x = ÷ + and ( )
2
2 3 1 g x x x = + + are both infinite functions
as x → ∞ and compare their orders of largeness.
Page 175 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 32
Both the functions are infinite functions as x → ∞ . Now
2
2 3
3
2 3
2 3 1
2 3 1
lim lim 0
1 1
2 1
2
x x
x x
x x x
x x
x x
÷· ÷·
+ +
+ +
= =
÷ +
÷ +
.Hence
( ) g x is infinite function of smaller order than ( ) f x .
§8:Equivalent infinitesimals used in calculation of limits Remember
The following propositions are easily proved and shall enable us to work with infinitesimals freely.
One infinitesimal can be replaced with another one of same order (taking into account the
proportionality constant , of course.)
a) An immediate consequence of the above is that , if ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) , , , and , x x x x     are
infinitesimals
such that ( ) ( ) x x   ~ and ( ) ( ) x x   ~ then
( )
( )
( )
( )
lim lim
x a x a
x x
x x
 
 
÷ ÷
= .Also
( )
( )
( )
( )
lim lim
x a x a
x x
x x
 
 
÷ ÷
= .
b) If ( ) ( ) x x   ~ as x → a and ( ) ( ) x x   ~ as x → a, then ( ) ( ) x x   ~ .
c) If ( ) ( ) x x   ~ as x → a and the constant of proportionality is 1, then their difference is an
infinitesimal of lower order and vice versa.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 lim 1 lim lim lim
x a x a x a x a
x x x
x x x x
x x
  
   
 
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | ÷
= ÷ = · ÷ · ~
| |
| |
\ . \ .
,x →a
d) Sum of two infinitesimals of different order is equivalent to the one of them which is of
lower order; for the other tends to 0 faster and is insignificant.
Example34 :
3
4sin 3 4sin 4     + ~ ~ , since
3
3 is an infinitesimal of higher order.
Misc. Exercise Using the above, prove and remember the following.
51) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) sin tan arcsin arctan ln 1 x x x x x x       ~ ~ ~ = = + (
¸ ¸
if ( ) x  is an infinitesimal
x→ a.
52)
( )
( ) 1 ln
x
a x a

 ÷ ~ as x→ a., a > 0 . Put a = e and
( )
( ) 1
x
e x

 ÷ ~ .
53) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 x x

  + ÷ ~ from ( ) ( ) ln 1 x x   + ~ (
¸ ¸
. If
1
n
 = , ( )
( )
1 1
n
x
x
n

 + ~ +
Misc Exercise Using the above, find the following.
54)
( )
0
sin3
lim
ln 1 5
x
x
x
÷
+
. Hint: usesin5 5 x x ~ , ( ) ln 1 4 4 x x + ~ and on simplification, the limit is 5/4.
Page 176 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 33
55)
0
1 cos
lim
1 cos
2
x
x
x ÷
÷
÷
. Hint :
2
2
1 cos 2sin 2
2 2
x x
x
| |
÷ = ~
|
\ .
,
2
2
1 cos 2sin 2
2 4 4
x x x
| |
÷ = ~
|
\ .
so Ans. 4.
56)
0
arctan 2
lim
arcsin 3
x
x
x
÷
Hint : arctan2 2 x x ~ , arcsin3 3 x x ~ ; So the limit is 2/3.
57) Calculate 1.03approximately and estimate the error.
Ans. Since 1 1
2
x
x + ~ + (using the formula ( )
( )
1 1
n
x
x
n

 + ~ + ), we have
0.03
1 .03 1 1.015
2
+ ~ + ~ .
To estimate the error,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 1 1
1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 .1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
x
x x x x x x ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + + = + ÷ + + = + ÷ .But again 1
2
x
x + ~ ,
so the error is
( )
2
2
2
1 1
1 1
2 2 2 8
x x
x
| |
+ ÷ ~ =
|
\ .
. If x = 0.03,
2
0.009
0.0011
8 8
x
= = , 0.11%.
58) Show that
1
1
1 2
x
x
÷ ~
+
. as 0 x ÷
Hint :
( )
1 1 1 1
1 1 2 1 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 0
x x x
x x
| |
÷ = + ÷ ~ + ÷ =
|
+ + + \ .
59) Show that
3
4
sin x x x ~ . Hint use ( ) ( ) sin x x   ~ .
60) Find the limit when 0 x ÷ of
( )
2
3
3
1 cos 6
5
x x
x
÷ +
Hint : ( )
4
2
3 4 3 3 3
1 cos 6 4sin 6 4 6 6
2 16
x x
x x x x x ÷ + = + ~ + ~ , the one with lower order in the sum of
two infinitesimals. Hence the limit is 6/5.
61) Find
( )
3
2
0
sin
lim
arctan
x
x
x
÷
. Hint :
3 3
sin x x ~ , arctan x x ~ .
62) Find
( )
3
5
0
ln 1 3
lim
1
x
x
x
e
÷
+
÷
. Hint : ( ) ln 1 3 3 x x + ~ ,
3
5 3
1 5
x
e x ÷ ~
163) Show that
3 2
3
1 cos sin
2
x x ÷ ~ .
Hint :
( ) ( )
3 3
3 1 cos 1 cos3 3cos cos3
cos3 4cos 3cos 1 cos 1
4 4
x x x x
x x x x
÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ ¬ ÷ = ÷ =
2 2
2 2 2
1 3 1 1 3 3
3.2sin 2sin .6. .2.
4 2 2 4 2 4 2 2
x x x x
x
| | | | | |
= + ~ + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
. Also
2 2
sin x x ~
Page 177 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 34
Exercise64: research(only if you have time) But remember.
Cauchy’s necessary and sufficient condition for existence of a limit. The earlier discussion that
the limit, if it exists, does not depend upon any sequence along which the limit is calculated. The
idea is formally stated in the form of Cauchy’s necessary and sufficient condition for existence of a
limit of some function ( ) f x .
The ( ) lim
x a
f x
÷
exists if and only if for every ε > 0 such that ( ) ( )
1 2
f x f x  ÷ < , we can find a δ such
that x a  ÷ < whenever
1 2
, ] , [ x x x a x a e ÷ + .
Hint : use triangle inequalities.
Exercise65
Show that the following limits do not exist. a)
0
1
limcos
x
x
÷
b)
1
0
1
lim
2
x
x
e
÷
+
Exercise66 :Miscellaneous questions and Problems :
Work out and remember these frequently used limits. remember the following ten
results
a)
0 0 0
sin tan
lim 1 limcos lim
x x x
x x
x
x x
÷ ÷ ÷
= = =
b)
-1 -1
0 0
tan sin
lim 1 lim
x x
x x
x x
÷ ÷
= =
c)
0
-1
lim ln , 0
x
x
a
a a
x
÷
= > ; in particular
0
-1
lim ln 1
x
x
e
e
x
÷
= =
(Hint – use
lna
a e =
,
ln x x a
a e =
and
expand
ln x a
e
as an exponential series)
d) ( )
1
0
1
lim 1 lim 1
x
x
x x
x e
x
÷ ÷·
| |
+ = = +
|
\ .
also x could be replaced by natural number n.
e)
1
lim 1
nx
x
n
e
n
÷·
| |
+ =
|
\ .
f)
0
cos. -1
0
Lim
x
x
x
÷
=
g)
0
log (1 ) 1
log
ln
Lim a
x a
x
e
x a
÷
+
= =
,in particular
0
ln(1 )
1.
Lim
x
x
x
÷
+
=
(Hint – expand
2 3 4
ln(1 ) - .................
2 3 4
x x x
x x + = + ÷
)
h)
( )
0
1 -1
lim
m
x
x
m
x
÷
+
=
(Hint. take help from (c) and (g)
Page 178 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 35
i)
ln
lim 0, 0
m
x
x
m
x
÷·
= >
k)
-1
-
lim
-
n n
n
x a
x a
na
x a
÷
=
prove by using binomial theorem
( ) 1
n
n
n
h
a h a
a
| |
+ = +
|
\ . for all values of a or
factorize
( )( )
1 2 2 3 2 1
- ..........
n n n n n n n
x a x a x ax a x a x a
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + + +
Exercise67
Using
0
-1
lim ln , 0
x
x
a
a a
x
÷
= > , prove that when x→0 and ( ) 0 f x ÷ , remember
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0
-1
lim ln lim
f x
x x
f x a
a
g x g x
÷ ÷
= if the latter limit is L. remember
Hint.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0 0
1 1
lim lim lim ln .
f x f x
x f x x
f x a a
a L
g x f x g x
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= =
Exercise68 Remember for further problems of form

1
.
If x→0 and ( ) 0 f x ÷ ,and
( )
( )
0
lim
x
f x
L
g x
÷
= then ( )
( )
1
0
lim 1
L
g x
x
f x e
÷
+ = (
¸ ¸
.
Hint.
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
0
0
lim
1 1
lim
0 0
lim 1 lim 1
x
x
f x
f x
g x
g x L
g x f x
x f x
f x f x e e
÷
÷
÷ ÷
¦ ¹
+ = + = = ( (
´ `
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
¹ )
Exercise69: If x→0 and ( ) 0 f x ÷ ,and ( ) ( )
0
lim
x
f x g x L
÷
= then ( )
( )
0
lim 1
g x
L
x
f x e
÷
+ = (
¸ ¸
. remember
example35 :
Show that
tan
2
2
lim 2
x
a
x a
a
e
x


÷
÷
| |
÷ =
|
\ .
.
Ans.
( )
0
0 0
tan tan
2 lim 1 tan lim tan lim tan 2
2 2 2
lim tan lim cot
2 2 2
lim 2 lim 1 1
x a x a h
h h
x x
a h a x x a x h
a a
x a x a a h a
x a x a
h h h h
a h a a h a
a a
e e e
x x
e e e
 
  
  
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ ÷ | | | | | |
÷
| | |
+ \ . \ . \ .
÷ ÷
| | | | | | | |
+ ÷
| | | |
+ + \ . \ . \ . \ .
| | | | | |
÷ = + ÷ = = =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
= = =
( ) 0 0
2
2
lim lim
2 2
tan
.1
2
h h
h
a
a
h a h a
a
a
e e

 
 
÷ ÷
÷
+ | |
÷ ÷ |
\ .
= =
Exercise70 When
( ) lim 1
x a
f x
÷
=
and
( ) lim
x a
g x
÷
÷·
, show that remember
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
-1
lim
lim lim 1 -1
x a
f x
g x g x
g x
x a x a
f x f x e
÷
÷ ÷
= + =
Also its particular cases already proved above, namely,
Page 179 / 681
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 36
( )
1
0
lim 1
x
x
x e
÷
+ =
, b)
1
lim 1
x
x
e
x
÷·
| |
+ =
|
\ .
, c)
( )
1
0
lim 1
x
x
x e


÷
+ =
, b)
lim 1
x
x
e
x


÷·
| |
+ =
|
\ .
,
Ex 71: Show that
( )
log 3
3
1
lim log 3
x
x
x e
÷
=
Ans.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3
3
3
1
1 log
log 3 log 3 log 3
log
log
3 3 3 3 3
1 1 1 1
lim log 3 lim log 3 log lim 1 log lim 1 log
x x x
x e
x
x
x x x x
x x x x e
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + = + =
Exercise 72: Find
lim
x c
x
x a
x b
+
÷·
+ | |
|
+
\ .
.
Hint : As x→∞, we have
x a
x b
+
+
→1, and x + c →∞. So
( ) ( )
( )
lim lim
lim lim 1 1 lim 1
x x
x c x c x c a b x c
x c a b
a b
x b x b
x x x
x a x a a b
e e e
x b x b x b
÷· ÷·
+ + + ÷ + | | | |
+ ÷
| |
÷
+ + \ . \ .
÷· ÷· ÷·
+ | + | | ÷ | | | | | | |
= + ÷ = + = = =
| | | | |
+ + +
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
Exercise73: Find
2
1
2
2
0
1
lim
1
x
x
ax
bx
÷
| | +
|
+
\ .
. Ans.
( )
( )
2
2 2
2 2
0
1
1
1 2 2
lim .
1
2 2
0 0
1
lim lim 1
1 1
x
a b x
x x
a b
bx x
x x
a b x ax
e e
bx bx
÷
÷
÷
+
÷ ÷
| | ÷ | | +
= + = =
|
|
+ +
\ .
\ .
Exercise 74: Find
( )
1
2 2
0
lim 1 tan
x
x
x
÷
+
. Ans.
( )
2
2
0
0
1 tan
1 1 1
lim
limtan .
2
2 2 2 2
0
lim 1 tan
x
x
x
x
x
x x
x
x e e e
÷
÷
| |
|
|
\ .
÷
+ = = =
Exercise 75. Find
( )
cot
1
lim 1 sin
x
x
x


÷
+
. Ans.
( )
1 1
limsin .cot limcos
cot
1
1
lim 1 sin
x x
x x x
x
x
x e e e
  


÷ ÷
÷
÷
+ = = =
Exercise 76: Find
1
0
lim tan
4
x
x
x

÷
| | | |
+
| |
\ . \ .
. Ans.
0 0
1 1 1
2tan 1 2tan 1
lim lim
2 1 tan 1 tan
0 0 0
1 tan 2tan
lim tan lim lim 1
4 1 tan 1 tan
x x
x x
x x x
x x x x
x x x
x x
x e e e
x x

÷ ÷
| | | |
| |
÷ ÷ \ . \ .
÷ ÷ ÷
| | + | | | | | |
+ = = + = = =
| | | |
÷ ÷
\ . \ . \ . \ .
Exercise77:
Show that
1
ln
2
1
lim tan ln
4
x
x
x e

÷
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
Ans.
Page 180 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 8:The Concept Of Limit Of a Function Part I
© Page 37
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) 1 1
1 1
1
tan ln tan ln 1 1
ln ln 2 lim . 2 lim .
ln
1 tan ln ln ln 1 tan ln 2
1 1 1
1 tan ln 2tan ln
lim tan ln lim lim 1
4 1 tan ln 1 tan ln
x x
x x
x x
x
x x x x
x x x
x x
x e e e
x x

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | + | | | |
+ = = + = = =
| | | |
÷ ÷
\ . \ .
\ . \ .
Exercise78 :
If
( )
2
2 3
0
lim 1
x
x
ax bx e
÷
+ + = Show that then
1
2
a = and b may be any real number.
Ans.
( )
( )
2
0
2 2
lim
2 3 3 2 3
0
3
lim 1
2
x
ax bx
a
x x
x
ax bx e e e e e a
÷
+
÷
+ + = ¬ = ¬ = ¬ =
More and difficult problems may be found in the next chapter , the chapter dealing in
L’Hospital’s rule and in the chapter for improper integrals using Newton-Leibnitz formula.
Page 181 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 1
CHAPTER 10:CONTINUITY AND THEORY OF EQUATIONS
§1:The Concept of Continuity.
It is easier to understand
discontinuity than to understand
continuity. We all understand what
continuity and discontinuity
concepts are. But the concepts are
to be formalised for mathematical
use. In Mathematics the concepts
of continuity and discontinuity are
abundantly used. Let us start with
discontinuity. In the accompanying
graph, you may observe that you
cannot draw the graph with a pencil
in a single go, i.e., without lifting its
head out of the paper even for
once. That is exactly continuity of
the graph. Now it remains to translate this idea into language of Mathematics. When x tends to 1
from below, y tends to 1,when x Consider the same graph of the previous section repeated
here and the same equation y = x, for xe [0,1[, y = 2 – x, for x e ]1,2] and y = 2 for x=1.When
x tends to 1 from above, also y tends to 1. But when x is exactly equal to 1, y = 2 ,as if leaving
a ’ hole’ in the graph at x = 1. This indicates two things, 1) the graph would have been
continuous if this ‘hole’ would not have been there and 2) we could make the graph
continuous by ‘plugging’ this hole by defining y = 1 instead of 2 , at x = 1.In other words,
the graph would have been continuous at x=a.
If
0 h
Lim
÷
f(a + h) = f(a) a function f(x) is said to be continuous at x = a. If it is
continuous at all points the function is simply said to be continuous.
The statement
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) = f(a) can be restated as : for every  such that
 f(x) – f(a)  <  ,we can find a  such that  x – a  <  (If definition of limit is applied by
taking L = f(a) as per above statement.
These are the two statements describing the concept of continuity in mathematical language; the
first one describes continuity in terms of the concept of limit . Though this is sufficient for the
*
X
O
X'
Y
Y'
y=x
(1,2)
(x = 1) (x = 2)
y = 2 - x
(Fig.2.1)
Page 182 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 2
purpose of describing continuity, the second sentence above describes the concept of continuity
in a manner similar to the c o ÷ description of the concept of limit. This gives real insight into the
understanding of the concept, while description of continuity in terms of limit is like a formula in
mathematics with which it is easier to work out.
A function which is continuous at any point of an interval is called continuous in the interval.
Example1
Show that
x
e is continuous in R,
sin
tan
cos
x
x
x
= is continuous at 0,
2
t

¸ ¸
.
A function shall be discontinuous at x = a , naturally, if
a) the limit of the function at x = a does not exist ( or the left and right handed limits
exist but they are not equal)
Example2 The function [x], the largest integer not larger than x at x = 3 , or at any
integral value of x is discontinuous, as
2
lim[ ] 2
x
x
÷ +
= , but
2
lim[ ] 1
x
x
÷ ÷
=
b) when the limit exists but not equal to the functional value ,
Example3 The function given in the beginning of this chapter, defined as
( )
, 0 1
2, 1
2 1 2
x for x
f x at x
x for x
s < ¦
¦
= =
´
¦
÷ < s
¹
; Here, ( ) ( )
1 1
lim 1 lim
x x
f x f x
÷ ÷ ÷ +
= = , but ( ) 1 2 f =
c) where there is no functional value defined at x = a.,
Example4 In the function ( )
2
4
2
x
f x
x
÷
=
÷
( ) ( )
2 2
lim 4 lim
x x
f x f x
÷ + ÷ ÷
= = , but ( ) 2 f is not defined.
d) When the limit is infinite.
Example5 ( ) tan f x x = at
2
x
t
= . Here tan x = ±· and tan x = ·
e) When there is a wide gap in the graph ( Horizontal, vertical or both. See the figure:
Page 183 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 3
f) When there are too much oscillations at a point, e.g., the graph of the function
1
sin y
x
=
at x = 0. See the following graph
We can proceed as near as 0 on the graph from both sides but there is no limiting value neither
the functional value there. Another example may be taken
1
sin y x
x
= . Like the graph of
1
sin y
x
= ,
the graph of
1
sin y x
x
= also goes through myriads of oscillations as 0 x ÷ from both sides, but the
oscillations become smaller ever in vertical width as we approach 0. See the graph below. So we
have a limiting value 0 of the function at x = 0. Still the function is discontinuous there as there is
no functional value defined there.
X
Y
-1.8-1.6-1.4-1.2 -1 -0.8-0.6-0.4 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
-2.52
-1.96
-1.4
-
1.12
1.68
2.24
2.8
0
Graph of
1
sin y
x
| |
=
|
\ .
frequently oscillating near x = 0 and not defined there
y= sin (1/x)
Page 184 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 4
The topic of removable and non- removable discontinuity shall be dealt in detail subsequently.
The algebra of limits can be applied to continuous functions without any concern. Thus if f(x)
and g(x) are continuous functions , so also f(x) + g(x), f(x) - g(x), k. f(x) where k is a
constant, f x) . g(x) and f x) / g(x) would be continuous.(if g(x) is not 0)
Example6
Show that ( ) sin cos f x x x = + , ( )
sin
2
x
g x = ,
( )
sin
cos
x
x
x
¢ = are continuous in 0,
2
t

¸ ¸
A pitfall: Example7
Give an example of a function
( )
( )
f x
g x
which is discontinuous at x = a but both ( ) f x and ( ) g x both
are continuous at x = a. Does it contradict algebra of limits? Why?
Ans. Try ( ) f x x a = + , ( ) g x x a = ÷ . Try another ( ) f x x a = ÷ , ( ) g x x a = ÷
it does not
contradict algebra of limits, because Algebra of limits excludes the cases where denominator
becomes 0.
Exercise1
X
Y
-0.82 -0.656-0.492 -0.328 0.32 0.492 0.656 0.82
-0.72
4
-0.36
0.45
0.63
0.81
0.99
Graph of sin(1/ ) y x x = has no value at x = 0. But it is near to 0 near
it. As
1
1
sin x
s , the graph is enveloped between graphs of y =x, y = -x
y = xsin(1/x)
Page 185 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 5
Give an example of a function ( ) f x . ( ) g x which is continuous at x = 0 even if ( ) f x is
discontinuous at x = 0. Does it contradict algebra of limits ?
Ans. Try ( )
1, 0
0 0
for x
f x
for x
> ¦
=
´
<
¹
and ( ) 0 g x =
Algebra of limits says if
( ) f x
and
( ) g x
are continuous at a point so also
( ) f x . ( ) g x
but is it
never says that
( ) f x . ( ) g x
cannot be continuous if one of
( ) f x
and
( ) g x
or both of them are
discontinuous.
Exercise2
What is the difference between
( ) 1 f x =
and
( )
x
g x
x
=
Hint. The second function is discontinuous at x = 0, as it has limit 1 there but no value, not
defined there.
§2: A further result in Algebra of limits: (limit of a composite function)
If f is a function of x (e.g. f(x) = x
2
) and g is a function of f ( e.g., g(f) = sin f, ) the
composite function or function of a function , g(f(x)) = sin x
2
. If limit of f(x) is L at x = a
, consider whether limit of g(f(x)) = g(L) . This at once requires L must be f(a), i.e., f
must be continuous at x = a and (obviously L belongs to the domain of g) .Otherwise,
g(L) might not exist and we arrive at nowhere .
Under this condition
a x
Lim
÷
g(f(x)) = g(f(a)) = g(
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) )
A sketch proof may be given as follows :
For every ε > 0 such that ( ) ( ) g f x g f a c ÷ < ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
, we can find a δ such that ( ) ( ) f x f a o ÷ < , for g
is a continuous function of f. Further for every δ > 0, such that ( ) ( ) f x f a o ÷ < , we can find a ζ >
0 such that x a ç ÷ < , for , ( ) f x is continuous at x = a. This gives, For every ε > 0 such that
( ) ( ) g f x g f a c ÷ < ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
, we can find a ζ > 0 such that x a ç ÷ < which proves the function
( ) g f x (
¸ ¸
is continuous at x = a.
Page 186 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 6
Example8
It won’t be difficult to see that the theorem could easily proved for g = f
2
(
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) .
a x
Lim
÷
f(x) =
a x
Lim
÷
( f(x) )
2
as per a result of Algebra of limits) .
This result also could be extended as continuous function of a continuous function
has to be continuous as it is expected at the point concerned.
A pitfall: Example9
Consider the function tan z y = .Evidently it is continuous at y = 0. Now let sin
2
y x
t
= ÷ . This is also
continuous at x = 0. But tan sin
2
z x
t | |
= ÷
|
\ .
is discontinuous at 0 as it tends to ∞ there. Does it
contradict the above theorem ? . No. because the argument of z is
2
t
there, not 0 as required by
the theorem. Think a little hard.
Exercise3
The function
( )
1
1
f x
x
=
÷
has obviously a discontinuity at x = 1. show that ( ) f f x (
¸ ¸
has no
discontinuity
anywhere. Find the point of discontinuity of ( ) { }
f f f x (
¸ ¸
.
Hint.
( ) ( )
1 x
f f x
x
÷
= and ( ) { }
f f f x x ( =
¸ ¸
(verify)
Concept of continuity is used to study of functions , particularly at points where they are
expected to change suddenly. We are thus able to know whether near such points we
could smoothly extrapolate the curve . Actually ‘rates of change’ of a curve from point to
point is the tool required to extrapolate a curve, as you might have correctly guessed.
But in order to have ‘rate of change’ to exist, or to have any meaning, continuity is the
minimum requirement , as we would see later.
Example 10 : Can you construct a function discontinuous at x = a, x = b, and x = c and
continuous everywhere else ?
Page 187 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 7
Try
c x
) c x (
b x
) b x (
a x
) a x (
2 2 2 2 2 2
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
or

c x
) c x (
.
b x
) b x (
a x
) a x (
2 2 2 2 2 2
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
(Functional values at a, b, c do not exist).
Exercise4
Put the denominator equal to 0 and solve for finding the points of discontinuity.
a)
2
sin
1 cos
x
x ÷
b)
( )
3
2
2
6 11
2 2
x x
x x
+ ÷
+ +
c)
3
3sin
4cos 2
x
x ÷
d)
2 2
sin
cos 2
x x
x ÷
e)
tan
1
cos
sin
x
x
| |
|
\ .
Ans. a) 0 b) denominator has no real root, hence no point of discontinuity. c)
1
1
cos
2
÷
d) no discontinuity as the denominator has no real root. e)
1
2
sin
t
÷
Example 11 : Can you construct a function which is discontinuous everywhere?
Let f(x) = 1 for all rational values of x in [2,5] and Let f(x) = 0 for all
irrational values of x in [2,5] . Try taking limit of the function anywhere in the interval,
say at x = 3.2. The limit does not exist because in any small interval we may please to
take around x = 3.2, the function oscillates infinite times between 0 and 1. Because
between any two irrational numbers, there exists a rational number and between any two
rational numbers there exist an irrational number. So the function has no limit at any point
of its domain. The question of continuity does not arise. (This is called Dirichlet function.)
Exercise5
Show that ( ) f x is continuous if ( ) f x is.
Hint :. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x h f x f x h f x + ÷ s + ÷
Exercise6
Find out the number of points of discontinuity of | | sin cos x x + in the interval 0 2 x t < < , if | | a
denotes integer part of a. Ans. 5 points.
Page 188 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 8
Example 12: Examine continuity at x= 0, of
1
sin. , .. 0,
( )
..0.. .. 0
x when x
x
f x
and when x
¦ ¹
=
¦ ¦
¦ ¦
=
´ `
¦ ¦
=
¦ ¦
¹ )

We have ,
0
x
1
sin x 0
x
1
sin x 0 x
x
1
sin x 0
x
x
1
sin . x x
x
1
sin x 1
x
1
sin
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x
= ¬ = ¬ s s s
¬ < ¬ < ¬ <
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
which is f(0).
Hence f(x) is continuous at x = 0.
Exercise7
Test for continuity of
( )
| | sin cos
,
2
2
1
2
x
when x
x
f x
when x
t
t
t
¦
=
¦
¦ ÷
=
´
¦
¦ =
¹
at
2
x
t
= . Ans. Continuous
Exercise8 If { } b denotes fractional part of b,
Test for continuity of
( )
{ } sin cos
,
2
2
1
2
x
when x
x
f x
when x
t
t
t
¦
=
¦
¦ ÷
=
´
¦
¦ =
¹
at
2
x
t
= . Ans. Discontinuous
Example 13 : Investigate
x
x sin
) x ( f = for continuity. Its limit is 1 as x ÷ 0 and it is
not defined for x = 0 ., so discontinuous there.
Further note that for
x
x sin
) x ( f = x = 0 is a point of ‘Removable
Discontinuity’. For, if we define f(x) such that
sin
, , 0
( )
1, , 0
x
for x
f x x
for x
¦
=
¦
=
´
¦
=
¹
the function
becomes continuous at x = 0.
Example 14 : Find
x
ax sin
Lim
0 x÷
what should be value of the function if the function is made
continuous there?
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We have a 1 . a
x
ax sin
a
x
ax sin
Lim
0 x
Lim
0 x
= = =
÷ ÷
then
( ) 0 f a =
would make it continuous
Example15:Find
a x
a sin x sin
Lim
a x
÷
÷
÷
. How can you make it continuous?
We have, a cos 1 . a cos
2
a x
2
a x
sin
c x
Lim
2
a x
cos
2
a x
2
a x
sin
2
a x
cos
a x
a sin x sin
Lim
a x
Lim
a x
Lim
a x
= =
÷
÷
÷
+
=
÷
÷ +
=
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
by defining
( ) 0 cos f a =
the function could be made continuous.
Exercise9
If
( )
1
1
f x
x
=
÷ , find
( ) ( ) ( )
f f f x
and discuss its continuity.
Hint.
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1
x
f f f x f f f f x
x
x x
x x
| |
|
| | ÷ | | | |
= = = ÷ = =
|
| | |
÷
÷
\ . \ . \ .
|
÷ +
÷ \ .
§3:Removable and non-removable discontinuity; discontinuity of 2
nd
kind.
In a previous example, we have seen what is a removable discontinuity. It is a point at which the
functional value is different from the limit at that point or not defined, leaving a point hole there .
Take another example of 3 removable discontinuities ( )
( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 3 3 5 5
x a x b x c
f x
x a x b x c
÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
.Take
another example ( )
1 1
, 0 , 1 ,
2 2
1 3
1 1, 1 1
2 2
3 3
2 , 1
2 4 2
x for x for x
f x x for x x for x
x
for x and x for x
¦
= < < = =
¦
¦
¦
= = ÷ < < = ÷ < <
´
¦
¦
= = = ÷ >
¦
¹
Find the 3 points of removable discontinuities yourself as an exercise and remove the three
discontinuities by suitably defining the function at those points.
But, instead of point hole, if there is wide vertical gap ( or horizontal gap or a gap in both
directions) in these functions . Examine from its graph and find where it is.
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a) ( )
, 2
1 2
x for x
f x
x for x
< ¦
=
´
+ >
¹
b)
( )
2
2
3 2
1 2
x for x
f x for x
for x
¦ <
¦
= =
´
¦
>
¹
Such a function with finite number of discontinuities is called piecewise continuous functions.
Such piecewise continuous functions have some useful and interesting properties. For example, if
the domain of the function can be partitioned into a finite number of open or half closed intervals,
and if it is continuous inside each of th intervals then we can find the area under the curve
or graph of the function bounded by the two ordinates at the extremities and the x – axis. This is
Riemann integration of the function ; the area is unaffected if a finite number of ordinates are
removed. But if there is a wide horizontal gap such as ( )
1, 2
3 3
for x
f x
for x
< ¦
=
´
>
¹
, the function is
not defined in the interval [2, 3] and this is evidently not a piecewise continuous function. The
area under the curve bounded by two ordinates at the extremities has no meaning.
Example16
To look into the phenomenon of continuity a little closer, let us examine the Dirichlet function
( )
{
1,
0,
if x is rational
x
if x is ir rational
ì = which is everywhere discontinuous for non-existence of limit.
As in case of limits, remember the Heine’s definition the ( ) lim
x a
f x L
÷
= should be unique
through every sequence x
n
converging to ‘a’. Similarly, if ( ) f x is continuous at x = a, if
( ) ( ) lim
x a
f x f a
÷
= through every sequence x
n
converging to ‘a’. Similar statement for limit →
∞.
Example17
Show that ( )
2
2
,
,
x if x is rational
f x
x if x is irrational
¦
=
´
÷
¹
is nowhere continuous.
At any point x = a, rational or irrational, we can find a sequence of rational numbers x
n
converging to a, so that ( )
2
lim
x a
f x a
÷
= ; we can also find a sequence of irrational numbers x
n
converging to a, so that ( )
2
lim
x a
f x a
÷
= ÷ ; since there are two different along two different paths, the
limit does not exist and hence it is discontinuous at x = a, and everywhere for that matter.
Example18
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Can you give an example of a function continuous everywhere except at x = 2, x = 3.75? The
discontinuity should be non-removable.
Ans. Try ( )
{
1, 2
0, 3.75
for x
f x
for x
<
=
>
Example 19: Distinguish between the following discontinuities
a) ( ) | | 2 f x x x at x = = (jump discontinuity)
b)
( )
1
sin 0 x at x
x
¢ = = (oscillating discontinuity)
c)
( )
1
3
3
x at x
x
| = =
÷
(infinite discontinuity)
d) ( )
2
9
3
3
x
x at x
x
¢
÷
= = ÷
+
(removable discontinuity)
Misc. exercise10
a) Whether the following functions ( 1 to 20 under b) are continuous?
b) If not, can you make these functions continuous by suitably defining functional values at the
point of discontinuity if any?
1) ( )
10 1
x
f x
x
÷
= 2) ( )
10 1
x
f x
x
÷
= 3) ( )
sin x
f x
x
=
4)
( )
1
3
2
f x x
x
= ÷
÷
5)
( )
2
cos
x
f x
x
+
= 6)
( )
cos x
f x
x
=
7)
( )
cos
x
f x
x
= 8)
( )
2
2
7 12
x
f x
x x
÷
=
÷ +
9) cos 2 y ec x =
10)
( ) tan
2
x
f x
t
= 11) ( )
2
2
1
1 sin
x
f x
x
÷
=
+
12) ( )
5
2 f x x = ÷
13)
2
1 1
,
2 1
z when y
y y x
= =
+ ÷ ÷
14)
2
1
1
x
y
x
÷ | |
=
|
+
\ .
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© Page 12
15)
2
2
1 tan
1 tan
x
y
x
÷
=
+
16)
1
1
1 2
x
+
at x =0 17)
tan x
x
at x = 0
18)
2
4 3
5
x x
x
÷
at x = 0 19)
1 1 x
x
+ ÷
when x = 0 20)
2
sin
1 cos
x
x ÷
Answers 1), 2), 3),6), 9),17), 18), 19) continuous except at 0 4) continuous except
at 2 5), 7), 20) continuous except at
3
,
2 2
t t
8) continuous except at 3, 4.
10) continuous except at 1, 3. 11), 15), 16) everywhere continuous, 13)
discontinuous at
1
,1
2
x =
14) continuous except at – 1 .
Exercise11
Whether the functions are continuous. If not, what is the type of discontinuity ?
a)
[sin ] x
b)
[tan ] x
c)
( )
2
1 x x
(
÷
¸ ¸
Exercise12
A function is defined like ( )
2
2, 0
2 2
1 2
at x
f x x for x
x for x
= ¦
¦
= + <
´
¦
÷ >
¹
. Find out whether the function is continuous at
x = 0, and at x = 2. If discontinuous, which kind of discontinuity it is?
Henceforth try to understand the statements making mental picture of the same. The
proofs may be omitted at first time reading and the results may be remembered to work out
problems. Thereafter the proofs shall boost confidence gathered by and by in course of
working out problems.
Ex13: Let
2
, 2 y t t t x t t = + = ÷ then define y in terms of x ; i.e. find ( ) y f x = and discuss its
continuity.
Ans. when 0 t > , we have
2 2 2
2 , 2 x t t t y t t t = ÷ = = + = .
When 0 t < , 2 3 x t t t = + = , and
2 2
0 y t t = ÷ = . Thus ( )
2
2 , 0
0, 0
x for x
f x
for x
¦ >
=
´
<
¹
.
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© Page 13
Now verify that ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
lim 0 0 lim
x x
f x f f x
÷ + ÷ ÷
= = = . so the function is continuous.
Ex14. If ( ) 1 2 , 0 4 f x x for x = ÷ + ÷ s s , ( ) 2 g x x = ÷ for 1 3 x ÷ s s , then show that ( ) fog x is
continuous for 1 2 x ÷ s s .
Ex15: Show that the function ( )
2
1, 0,
1, 0,
1, 0
x x
f x x
x x
÷ <
¦
¦
= =
´
¦
÷ >
¹
is discontinuous at 0 x = and the discontinuity
could be removed by defining ( ) 0 1 f = ÷ .
Discontinuity of 2
nd
kind:
When at least one of the limits ( )
0
lim
h
f a h
÷
+ and ( )
0
lim
h
f a h
÷
÷ is infinite ( or both are) the
discontinuity is called discontinuity of 2
nd
kind.
Ex16: Show that the function ( )
1
f x
x
= has a discontinuity of 2
nd
kind. Find 10 examples like that.
§4:A little more about real number sets and sequences., limit points and bounded
sequences
The concepts of limit and continuity of functions are intimately related to sequences. So we must
spend some time investigating sequences which would , of course give further help in
understanding properties of continuous functions.
Informally, a sequence , already intuitively known, may be regarded as a function of positive
integers or the set of natural numbers.
n
T or n-th term of the sequence is actually ( ) T n , the
functional value of T , when x = n, the argument of the function. A sequence
n
T ,
1, 2, 3, 4,............... n = · converges to a limit L, if , for every ε > 0, there exists a natural number M,
such that ( ) T n L c ÷ < , for all N > M. Such sequences are said to be convergent sequences . A
sequence which is not convergent , either may be divergent or oscillatory . For example, the
sequence ( )
2
T n n = is divergent. whereas
( ) sin
3
n
T n
t
= is oscillatory.
A number ξ is a limit point of a sequence ( ) T n if any neighbourhood of ξ , i.e., the open interval
]ξ – δ , ξ + δ[ contains infinite number of members of ( ) T n , for any δ > 0. It is easy to
understand that if only one limit point exists for a sequence, it is convergent to the limit point as
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© Page 14
the limit; if more than one limit points exist, the sequence oscillates between them and it is
oscillatory, if no limit point exists, it is divergent.
Exercise17
a) If ξ is a limit point of a real number set A, show that there is a sequence in A converging to ξ
and vice versa.
b) If ξ is a limit point of a real number sequence t
n
, n = 1,2,3……..∞, show that there is a
subsequence of t
n
converging to ξ and vice versa.
A sequence is bounded if there are real numbers A and B such that ( ) A f n B s s for all n. Next,
any infinite bounded sequence has a limit point- this is called the Bolzano-Weisstras
theorem. Consider the range of the integral function ( ) f n . If the range contains infinite number of
points, there would be at least one point ( ) f m ç = , around which infinite number of points in the
range will remain in the neighbourhood ]ξ – δ , ξ + δ[ ,otherwise the range would not be bounded
if only finite number of points remain around neighbourhoods of all points in the range, as there
are infinite number of points in the range. According to the definition of limit point, this point ξ in
the range is a limit point.
The set of limit points S of a set D is called derived set of D.
There is a theorem on upper bounds and lower bounds ; the set of upper bounds of a set of
real numbers has a smallest number, and the set of lower bounds of a set of real numbers
has a largest number. Let D be a set bounded above and consider two subsets L and U of the
set of real numbers such that L = { x : x is not an upper bound of D} and U = { x : x is an
upper bound of D}. so that L U R =  , the set of real numbers , If x L e and y U e , then x y < . By
order completeness property of R , either L would have the greatest member of L or U would
have the smallest member of U. ( order completeness property of R otherwise means that if
, x y R e ,then either x y > or x y < or x y =
; the two statements may be verified to be same
). Let L
have the greatest number ç of it. Then ç is not an upper bound of D. So there is a number b of D
such that ç < b . Let ‘a’ be a real number such that ç < a < b. the number ‘a’ is greater than the
greatest number of L so a U e . Also ‘a’ cannot be an upper bound of D since it is smaller than a
member b of D. Thus L ç e and not to U. If L has not its greatest number of it, then U must be
having smallest number of it , because of order completeness property of R. Complex numbers
have no order completeness property.
The least of upper bounds of a set S bounded above is called supremum of S or sup S.
And the greatest of lower bounds of a set S is called infimum S or inf S.
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Further, a bounded sequence has greatest and least limit points. For, if S is a bounded set of
real numbers, then [ , ] S a b c . If S’ is the set of limit points of S, then ' [ , ] S S a b c c . Let
sup ' inf ' G S and g S = = . It may be shown that both G and g belong to S’, i.e., they are
themselves limit points of S. Take ]p, q[ a neighbourhood of G ; then there is an ξ in S’ such that
p q ç < < , which says that ]p, q[ a neighbourhood of ç and as such it contains an infinite number
of members of S , as ' S ç e means that ç is a limit point of S. Thus ' G S S e c .similarly g S e .
The above analysis shall facilitate exploring useful properties of continuous functions.
Continuity at end points
If a function ( ) f x defined in the interval [a, b] is said to be continuous at x = a, if ( ) ( ) lim
x a
f a f x
÷ +
=
and similarly it is said to be continuous at x = b if ( ) ( ) lim
x b
f b f x
÷ ÷
= .
§5:Properties of continuous functions
It is needless to say that sum, difference and product of continuous functions are
continuous. This is in view of Algebra of limits. ( prove them as exercises). Also if ( ) f x and
( ) g x are continuous functions in a domain and ( ) 0 g x = then
( )
( )
f x
g x
must be continuous in that
domain. There are further important properties . These properties tell more about roots of
functions, their location and even help in estimating the roots approximately in some cases.
These are not only true for polynomials or n-th degree equations but transcendental
functions which are represented by converging infinite power series which cannot be
expressed in ‘closed’ forms like
2
4
2
3
4
1
5
x ac
x
x
x
÷
÷
+
etc. , such as trigonometric, inverse
trigonometric, exponential and logarithmic functions etc. Closed forms are not like sin x tan
-1
x etc,
they are only names given to infinite converging series they stand for. In contrast a converging
infinite series like
2 3
1 ................ x x x upto + + + · for |x| < 1, can be expressed as
1
1 x ÷
which is a
closed form. Both polynomials ( finite power series) and functions in closed forms are called
algebraic functions in contrast to transcendental functions. An algebraic function or expression
in x is one which is derived from x by a finite number of algebraic operations on it; algebraic
operations means addition, subtraction, multiplication, division , raising to power and extracting
roots. It may be noted in passing that transcendental functions may have algebraic irrational
numbers as roots, even rational numbers and even integers. For example, ln 0 e x ÷ = has solution
x = 1. Only analysis of roots of a polynomial comprise a branch of Mathematics, called Theory Of
Equations. Some properties of functions would be revealed after the differentiation chapter also
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so that something of theory of equations also may be explained thereafter. Regarding solving
polynomial equations, centuries elapsed for finding solution of quadratic, cubic and biquadratic
equations. Then Abel pointed out that equations of degree five or more cannot be solved in
general by standard algebraic methods ( in terms of roots and powers of coefficients) although an
n-th degree polynomial with rational coefficients has n roots. The fundamental theorem of
Algebra is that every equation of nth degree has at least one root, real or complex. Though
known for centuries earlier, this was first proved by a most gifted genius, Karl F Gauss in the last
century once when has 22, then at 44 and then at 82, with further improvement each time. The
attempts to prove the fundamental theorem of algebra has created many branches of
Mathematics, modern algebra, analysis, topology, spectral theory, functional analysis and
differential equations, etc. A polynomial equation however can be solved by numerical methods to
any desired degree of approximation ( also on computer).
To cheer you up, you can at least prove that a polynomial of odd degree with all of its coefficients
positive has a real root. See one exercise after monotonic functions given below.
Exercise18
Show that a polynomial
1
0 1 1
.........
n n
n n
y a x a x a x a
÷
÷
= + + + + of n-th degree is everywhere
continuous.
Hint. Prove that
n
x is continuous everywhere by showing lim
n n
x a
x a
÷
= . Use binomial theorem in
expanding ( ) 1
n
n
n
h
x h x
x
| |
+ = +
|
\ .
for including all real values of x.
§6:Further Properties Of Continuous Functions
A) A continuous real function f(x) in a closed interval [a, b] must be bounded.
Suppose the range is not bounded . So we can have a sequence x
n
in [a, b] and a
natural number M such that ( )
n
f x n > for all n > M. Let ç be a limit point of this
sequence x
n
as the sequence is bounded. Since the function is continuous at ç , there is
a δ > 0 such that ( ) ( ) 1 f x f ç ÷ < whenever x ç o ÷ < . This implies
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x f x f f ç ç s ÷ + for x ç o ÷ < . So ( ) ( ) 1
n
n f x f ç < < + for infinite values of
n as ç is a limit point of this sequence x
n
. This is quite impossible since n→∞. Thus
the ( ) f x must be bounded and ( ) f x for that matter.
A pitfall: example 20
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A function
( )
1
f x
x
= is continuous in the interval ]0, 1] . Is it bounded ? Cite the reason for the
same. ( the domain is not a closed interval!). Does it contradict the above theorem?
(The interval is not closed !)
B) A continuous real function f(x) in a closed interval [a, b] attains its maximum and
minimum values.
By the above theorem, the sup f = M and inf f = m , say both belong to the range of f as
the function is bounded. Then let ( ) ( ) f M and f m o | = = . Suppose the function
never attains the value M so ( ) 0 M f x ÷ = . Thus from algebra of limits we have
( )
1
M f x ÷
is a continuous function in the same interval and hence bounded by the
previous theorem. Since M is the supremum, there is a number ç in [a, b] such that
( )
1
f M
k
ç > ÷ for any given number k. it follows that
( )
1
k
M f ç
>
÷
for any given number
k and hence
( )
1
M f x ÷
is not bounded. This is a contradiction , so ( ) f x must attain its
sup M. Similar argument for m.
A pitfall: Example 21
The function ( )
{
1, 1 0
, 0 1
x for x
f x
x for x
+ ÷ s s
=
÷ < s
attains its maximum and minimum values in the
interval [-1, 1] even if it is discontinuous at a point in the interval. There is no point in thinking
discontinuous functions cannot attain maximum or minimum when the function is discontinuous.
Exercise19
Show that the function ( ) [ ] f x x x = ÷ does not attain any maximum value even if it is bounded.
Hint. It is not continuous. (graph the function to see that it is a ‘saw tooth wave’).
Exercise20
Take a function ( )
2 [ 1, 0]
1
]0,1]
2
x for x
f x
x for x
e ÷ ¦
¦
=
´
+ e
¦
¹
.Find its point of discontinuity.
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Show that the function has both maximum and minimum in the interval, even if it is not continuous.
Exercise21
Show that the function ( )
2 1, 1 0
2 , 0
2 1, 0 1
x
x
x
for x
for x
f x
for x
¦ + ÷ s <
¦
¦ =
=
´
÷ < s
¦
¦
¹
in the interval [–1, 1] is bounded but never
attains bounds or never reaches maximum or minimum values because it has a discontinuity at
x = 0.
C) If the function f(x) is continuous at an interior point ξ of [a, b] , then there is a δ
such that ( ) f x and ( ) f ç have the same sign for all x such that x ç o ÷ < .
Since ( ) f x is continuous at ξ, for any given ε > 0, there is a δ > 0 such that
( ) ( ) ( ) f f x f ç c ç c ÷ < < + whenever x ç o ÷ < i.e., ] , [ x ç o ç o e ÷ + .Take ( ) f ç positive
and ( ) f c ç < , that makes ( ) f x positive in ] , [ x ç o ç o e ÷ + , in view of the inequality
( ) ( ) ( ) f f x f ç c ç c ÷ < < +
Then take ( ) f ç negative and ( ) f c ç > ÷ .This makes ( ) f x negative in ] , [ x ç o ç o e ÷ + .
When these two statements are combined, we can say that ( ) f x and ( ) f ç for one δ
such that ] , [ x ç o ç o e ÷ + . This property is very important and has further applications
in deriving important results, in maxima minima considerations, in mean value
theorems and in limits of indeterminate forms, etc.
D) If the function f(x) is continuous at an end point of [a, b] , then there is a δ such
that ( ) f x and ( ) f ç have the same sign for all x such that x ç o ÷ < .
The argument of the previous proposition may suitably modified to get this result.
Do this as an exercise.
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 19
IMPORTANT NOTE :
The two wonderful properties as above do not require the function to be continuous
throughout the interval
x ç o ÷ <
except at the point ç .
NOTE As a deduction, if
( ) 0 f ç =
then
( ) 0 f x =
in the small interval
x ç o ÷ <
.
E) Intermediate value theorem
When the function ( ) f x is continuous in [a, b] and ( ) f a and ( ) f b are of opposite
signs, there is a point ξ in [a, b] at which ( ) 0 f ç = . Also ξ = sup S, S being the set of
limit points in [a, b] for which ( ) 0 f x >
.
Suppose ( ) 0 f a > and ( ) 0 f b < . By the previous theorem if ( ) 0 f a > , there is an interval
[a, a + δ] in which ( ) 0 f x > . Thus the number of limit points in [a, b] for which ( ) 0 f x >
is infinite and let that subset be S and let ξ = sup S. If possible let ( ) 0 f ç < . Then a ç = ,
for ( ) 0 f a > . Now if ( ) 0 f ç < , then there is an σ such that ( ) 0 f x < for all points in x Є [ξ
– σ , ξ]. Since ξ = sup S, there is an η Є S such that ç o q ç ÷ < < which implies
( ) 0 f q < , but η Є S so that ( ) 0 f q > . We have arrived this contradiction assuming
( ) 0 f ç < . So ( ) 0 f ç < is not possible.
Now suppose ( ) 0 f ç > . So b ç = as ( ) 0 f b < . Then by the above theorem, there is a ρ
such that ( ) 0 f x > whenever [ , ] x ç µ ç µ e ÷ + , so that we have ( ) 0 f ç µ + > i.e.,
S ç µ + e . But this itself is a contradiction as sup S ç = . Thus ( ) 0 f ç > is also not
tenable. This forces ( ) 0 f ç = , which was to be proved. Deduce a similar proof for the
case ( ) 0 f a < and ( ) 0 f b > .
Exercise22
When the function ( ) f x is continuous in [a, b] and ( ) f a . ( ) f b < 0, there is a root of ( ) f x in
[a, b].
Hint. and ( ) f a and ( ) f b are of opposite signs.
Exercise23
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© Page 20
Does the negation of the above result assert that there is not root of ( ) f x in [a, b] ? give an
example.
Ans. consider
2
y x =
So the statement is not true backwards; i.e., the condition is sufficient, but not necessary.
Exercise24 remember
Let a continuous function ( ) f x defined in [a, b] have a finite number of roots in it, say
1 2
, ,......
n
x x x in it arranged in increasing order i.e.,
1 2
......
n
x x x < < < .show that in each of the
intervals ]x
1
, x
2
[,]x
2
, x
3
[,]x
3
, x
4
[,…..the function retains the same sign.
Ans. The occurrence of changing sign in any interval results in existence of another root
there.
Exercise25: Show that the function 1 sin x x = + has a real root.
Hint : take a function ( ) sin 1 f x x x = ÷ + , then ( ) 0 1 f = ,
3 3
2 2
f
t t | |
= ÷
|
\ .
. So there is a root in
between.
Exercise26: Show that cos 0 x x ÷ = has at least a real root.
Hint. cos y x x = ÷ is ∞ as x →∞ and is - ∞ as x → - ∞ as cos 1 x s .
Exercise27: Show that every odd function ( ) ( ) f x f x = ÷ ÷ has at least one real root if it is
continuous.
Hint. ( ) ( ) f f ÷· = ÷ · , so there is a root in ]- ·, ·[.
Exercise 28: Show that any polynomial of odd degree has a real root. Hint : it direct follows
from above.
Exercise 29: Show that any polynomial of degree 3 (cubic equation) has a real root. Hint : it
direct follows from above
Exercise30: Show that an odd continuous function ( ) ( ) f x f x = ÷ ÷ has 0 as a root.
Hint. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 0 0 0 f f f f = ÷ ÷ = ÷ ¬ =
, so 0 is a root.
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 21
Exercise31 : Show that the function ( )
( )
2
2
1 1 0
1 0 2
x for x
f x
x for x
¦ + ÷ s <
¦
´
÷ + s <
¦
¹
is discontinuous at x = 0 and
hence never assumes 0 value in the interval of definition [–1, 2] even if the function has opposite
signs at the end points.
F) When the function ( ) f x is continuous in [a, b] and ( ) ( ) f a f b = , ( ) f x takes every
value between ( ) f a and ( ) f b .
Take any value k between ( ) f a and ( ) f b and design a function ( ) ( ) x f x k ¢ = ÷ so that
( ) ( ) a f a k ¢ = ÷ and ( ) ( ) b f b k ¢ = ÷ are of opposite signs as k is between ( ) f a and
( ) f b . By the previous theorem, there is an ξ in [a, b] such that ( ) 0 ¢ ç = . That is,
( ) ( ) ( ) 0 f k f k ¢ ç ç ç = ÷ = ¬ = . So assumes the value k in [a, b].
G) When the function ( ) f x is continuous in [a, b] and ( ) Maxf x M = , ( ) min f x m = the
function takes every value between M and m. In fact, [M, m] is the range of the
function.
( do it as an exercise)
H) A continuous rational function ( ) f x ( which takes only rational number values)
must be a constant function.
If no, let ( ) f a A = , ( ) f b B = , and A B = . As the function is continuous, it would assume
every real number value. We can find an irrational number , A B ç ç s s , such that ( ) f c ç =
,and a c b s s .This is a contradiction since the function takes only rational values. To reconcile the
contradiction we must have A B ç = = . Thus the function is a constant function.
Exercise32: There is one real root of
3
3 1 0 x x ÷ + = in [1, 2]. Divide the interval into smaller
subintervals and approach the root correct up to two places of decimal. Hint : apply the criteria of
odd function having a root, repeatedly to smaller and smaller subintervals.
Ans. 1.53
Exercise33: Design a function ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
f x x a x b x = ÷ ÷ + so that ( ) f a a = and ( ) f b b = . Find at
what point the function attains the value a)
2
a b +
.b) ab
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 22
Exercise34:
Show that the function ( ) [ ] f x x x = ÷ attains minimum value in any interval of length greater than 1.
Exercise35: If ( ) f x is continuous in [0, 1] and | ( ) f x | < 1, Show that ( ) f x has a fixed point
in [0, 1], i.e. ( ) f x x = there.
I) A fixed point mapping ( ) x x ¢ = may be arrived in many ways from an implicit function
( ) , 0 g x y = . A solution of ( ) , 0 g x y = is a fixed point of ( ) x x ¢ = and vice versa, whereas
the former is easier to solve in some cases. The variables in ( ) , 0 g x y = may or may not
be separable in ( ) , 0 g x y = and that does not affect choice of ( ) , x y x ¢ = , out of
( ) , 0 g x y = . In fact many choices may be available, some may be better than others in
finding the solution and even some may not lead into a solution. Details are dealt in a
separate section after differentiation including Piccard’s method of successive
approximation to a root of not only polynomial equations but any well behaved
function.
The results obtained above have far reaching consequences. For example, the intermediate
value theorem guarantees existence of a root in an interval at the ends of which the function has
opposite signs. The last theorem is used in proof of Rolle’s mean value theorem which is the
basis of a number of mean value theorems leading to Taylor’s theorem, which is reconstruction of
smooth functions as power series.
Exercise36: If a spring is stretched, each point of the spring in the old position is carried though a
mapping to a point in the new position. Show that there is a point on the new position of the spring
which is the image of the same point in the old position. ( fixed point mapping)
Exercise37: Show that the equation
5
6 3 0 x x ÷ + = has a root in [0, 1]
Exercise38: Show that the equation
5
18 2 0 x x ÷ + = has a real root. Does it belong to [–1, 1].
Exercise39: For the function ( ) ( )
2
1 1, 1 f x x x = + ÷ > ÷ , show that the fixed points given by
( ) ( )
1
x f x f x
÷
= = are {0, - 1 }
Exercise40: The cubic equation
3
15 1 0 x x ÷ + = has three roots as you know.
Show that all the three roots lie inside [–4, 4 ].
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 23
Exercise41: Solve the equation
3
3 1 0 x x ÷ ÷ = by finding values of x for which 3 1 y x = + crosses
3
y x = or by finding the x values for which
3
3 y x x = ÷ crosses 1 y =
Exercise42: Solve the equation 2sin x x = ( three roots)
J) Wavy curve method to analyse an algebraic function
As an application of intermediate value theorem. Take a function ( ) ( )( )( ) 1 2 3 f x x x x = ÷ ÷ ÷ .
Plot the points x = 1, x =2, x = 3 on the number line, where the function takes 0 values. If x <1, all
three factors ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 , 2 , 3 x x x ÷ ÷ ÷ are negative, so the value of the function is negative. For 1 < x <
2, the factor x – 1 is positive, but both of x – 2 and x – 3 are negative so that product of the three
factors ( ) f x is positive. If the values of x are between 2 and 3, x – 1 and x – 2 are positive but x –
3 is negative, so that ( ) f x is negative. For values of x beyond 3, All the three factors are positive
and so the value of the function is positive. This is a consequence of intermediate value theorem.
The rational function is continuous and it takes positive values for x > 1 and negative values for x
< 1,( in whatever small interval you take around x = 1 ), it is bound to have 0 value at x = 1 . Of
course, before applying the rule, we must see that all the coefficients of x be of the same sign.
This does not mean that a continuous function which does not change sign around a point should
not have a zero at the point. For example, look at the figure :
X
Y
-3-2.5-2-1.5-1-0.5 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7
-6.6
-4.2
-2.4
0.6
1.8
3
4.8
6
0
Graph of the function ( ) ( )( )( ) 1 2 3 f x x x x = ÷ ÷ ÷ .
f(x) - (x -1)( x- 2)(x -3)
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
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© Page 24
If the function is piecewise continuous, such as ( )
( )( )
( )
1 2
3
x x
f x
x
÷ ÷
=
÷
, or a point where the
function does not exist, these points of discontinuity must be excluded from consideration and the
analysis should be separately done for each continuous piece. Look at the graph
§7:Monotonic functions and continuity of inverse functions.
The function
2
y x = is monotonically increasing in the interval [0, ∞[ as
2 2
2 1 2 1
0 x x x x > > ¬ >
and monotonically decreasing in the interval [0, - ∞[ as
2 2
2 1 2 1
0 x x x x < < ¬ > . There are
abundant examples of monotonic functions . They occupy a special place in analysis since they
always have inverse functions. As two different arguments
1 2
x and x do not lead to same value
of the function ( either
1 2
y y > or
1 2
y y < ) so that the function ( ) y f x = admits of an inverse
function ( )
1
x f y
÷
= as ( )
1
f y
÷
does not have two values for same value of y. This is precisely
requirement of or necessary criteria of a function. Constant functions are trivially monotonic
functions also and therefore we sometimes make a distinction between them by calling them
X
Y
-
10
-
9
-
8
-
7
-
6
-
5
-
4
-
3
-
2
-
1
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1
0
-
9
-
7
-
5
-
3
-
1
1
3
5
7
9
0
Graph of ( )
( )( )
( )
1 2
3
x x
f x
x
÷ ÷
=
÷
, having a discontinuity at x = 3; 2 continuous pieces.
f(x) = (x -1)(x -2)(x -3)
X
Y
-10 -9 -8 -7 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
-9
-7
-5
-3
1
1
2
4
6
8
10
0
Graph of the function y = sin x +1 having zeroes even all values of it are positive
y = sin x +1
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 25
strictly monotonic. Monotonic functions are continuous in the interval of their definition and so
also their inverse functions – a fact from Real Analysis we can freely use. The proofs are not
difficult and rely on the fact that monotonic functions are bounded and have a maximum and
minimum in the domain of definition.
Exercise43: If all the coefficients in the function
2 1 2
0 1 1
...................
n n
n n
y a x a x a x a
+
+
= + + + + are
positive. Show that it has a unique solution for x for every given value of y.
The function is monotonically increasing and thus admits of an inverse function, ( ) x f y = .
This is a small step towards visualising the fundamental theorem of Algebra – every polynomial
has a root. it is by and large a consequence of continuity of polynomials although generally we
read theory of equations in Algebra. The beauty of properties of continuous functions is that
existence of roots of not only polynomials but transcendental functions are also found out, albeit
under certain conditions. Another small step in the direction is - a polynomial of odd degree with
real coefficients has at least one real root; see a problem given below in theory of equations.
Another small step in this direction is - Every polynomial of even degree
( )
2 2 1
2 0 1 2
........... 0
n n
n n
p x a x a x a
÷
= + + + = whose absolute term is negative , has at least two real
roots following the above problem.
Exercise44: A sequence
n
n
a
b
is monotonic and 0
n
b > . Show that the sequence
2
1 2 3
2
1 2 3
.........
...........
x
n
n
n
a a x a x a x
b b x b x b x
+ + + +
+ + + +
is monotonic.
Hint. Let
n
n
a
b
be increasing , then
( ) ( )
2 2 1
1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3
1
2 1 2
1 2 3 1 1 2 3
2 1 2
1 2 3 1 1 2 3
......... .........
......... .........
......... .........
i
i n n i n
n n n n i
i i n
n n
n n
n n
n n
a x
a a
b a a x a x a x a b b x b x b x
b x b b
a a x a x a x a a x a x a x
b b x b x b x b b x b x b x
a
+
+ +
+
+
+
+
+
= < ¬ + + + + < + + + +
+ + + + + + + +
¬ ÷
+ + + + + + + +
=
( ) ( )
( )( )
2 2
1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3
2 1 2 1
1 2 3 1 1 2 3 1
......... .........
0
......... .........
n n
n n n n
n n
n n
b b x b x b x b a a x a x a x
a a x a x a x b b x b x b x
+ +
+ +
+ +
+ + + + ÷ + + + +
>
+ + + + + + + +
.
Exercise 45: Prove that a linear function ( ) f x ax b = + must be monotonic, either increasing
or decreasing.
Page 206 / 681
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 26
Hint : A st line is increasing for +ve slope and decreasing for – ve slope.
§8:Continuous linear operators
Exercise46: remember
A linear operator f (function)is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = + . If it is continuous we
would show that it must be a constant multiple of x, i.e., there is some α, such that
( ) f x x o = . (This is a st line and passes through the origin).
First, it may be seen easily that the operator carries additive identity and inverse to those
elements in the range. Taking x = y = 0, we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 f f f f f + = + = ¬ = .
Similarly putting y = – x , we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 f f x x f x f x f x f x = = + ÷ = + ÷ ¬ ÷ = ÷ .
Now, if x is a positive integer n, then the result follows for positive integral values of x , as
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1....... 1 1 ....... 1 1 , f x f n f n f f n terms nf xf x say o = = + = + + = = = ,
It also follows for negative integral values of x also, as, if x is a negative integer, put y = – x , so
that ( ) ( ) ( ) f x f y f y y x o o = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = .
If
p
x
q
= , a rational number, then
( ) ....... ....
p p p p p p
f p f q f q times f f q times qf
q q q q q q
| | | | | | | | | |
= = + + = + + =
| | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ .
.
Or
p p
f q qf
q q
| | | |
=
| |
\ . \ .
. Thus the result is true for rational values of x also. Lastly, if x is a real
number, let
1 1
, ,.................
n
x x x be a sequence of rational numbers converging to x .
Then ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
, ,.................
n n
f x x f x x f x x o o o = = = Since ( ) f x is continuous,
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
, ,.................
n
f x f x f x converge to ( ) f x . So ( ) f x x o = for all real numbers, x.
The importance of the result is quite wide as far as spaces with concept of open sets in
topological spaces, not only real numbers. The result is repeatedly applied below to find other
similar results useful to solve problems. There it means that the continuous mappings are
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
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© Page 27
structure preserving and carry identity and inverse elements to the identity and inverse
elements of the target space respectively.
Exercise47 remember
If a function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = + is continuous at z = 0, show that it is
continuous everywhere.
Hint. ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0 0 0 0
lim lim lim lim lim
z a h h h h
f z f a h f a f h f a f h f a
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + = + = + = (
¸ ¸
.
Exercise48 remember
If a function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = + is continuous at z = a, show that it is
continuous everywhere.
Exercise49 remember
If a function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = + is continuous at x = 1, then ( ) ( ) 1 f x xf =
.Exercise50: If ( ) f x is a continuous function , ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = + and ( ) 1 1 f = show that
( ) f x x = .
Ex51: If ( ) f x is a continuous function , ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = + and ( ) 1 1 f =
show that
( ) ( )
( )
tan sin
2
0
2 2 ln 2
lim
sin 2
f x f x
x
x f x
÷
÷
= .
Exercise52: remember
If a continuous function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = , show that ( )
kx
f x a =
.
Hint.
If
( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + =
,
( ) ( ) ( ) log log log
a a a
f x y f x f y + = +
. So, by a result above
( ) ( ) log
kx
a
f x kx f x a = ¬ =
Exercise53: remember
If a continuous function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f xy f x f y = + , show that ( ) log
a
f x k x = or 0.
Hint. Taking y = 0, we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 0 0 f f x f f x = + ¬ = ; this is one of the possibility
Page 208 / 681
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 28
If ( ) ( ) ( ) f xy f x f y = +
, then we can prove in the lines of a problem above
( ) ( )
n
f x nf x =
for
positive integer, negative integer, rational number or real number, whatever is n. So
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
n n
f x
nf x f x
a a a = =
. But this is possible when
( ) f x
a x =
and
( )
n
f x
n
a x =
. This tantamount to
( ) log
a
f x x =
,
( )
log
n n
a
f x x =
.Also
( ) log
a
f x k x =
would lead up to the same result
( ) ( ) ( ) f xy f x f y = +
.
Exercise54: remember
If a continuous function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) / f x y f x f y ÷ = , show that ( ) ln f z z =
Hint : Just try in the above lines.
Exercise55: remember
If a continuous function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f xy f x f y = , show that ( )
a
f x x =
for some
real number a.
We have,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
n
n
f xy f x f y f x f x = ¬ =
. ( starting from positive integer, go to negative
integer, rational number and real number as done in problems above).This implies
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) log log log
n
n
a a a
f x f x n f x = =
. But
log log
n
a a
x n x =
from law of logarithms. Subtracting,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1
log log
n n n
n
n
a a n n
f x f x f x
f x f x x
x
x x x x f x x
÷
= ¬ = ¬ = =
.Thus
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 n n n n n n n n z z
f x f x f x f x x x f x f x f x x f x f x x f x x
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = ¬ = ¬ = ¬ =
Ex56: If
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y z f x f y f z + + = + +
, is a continuous , derivable real valued function on R,
and if
( ) 2 4, f =
and
( ) ' 0 3 f =
, then find
( ) ' 2 f
.
Ex57: Given
( )
1
lim 1
n
n
f x n x
÷·
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
for x >0, Show that
( ) ( ) ( ) f xy f x f y = +
for y >0.
Exercise58:
If
( ) ( )
1 1
f x f f x f
x x
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
and
( ) f x
is a cubic expression only, then show that
( )
3
1 f x x = ±
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 29
Hint : Let
( )
3 2
f x ax bx cx d = + + +
. Then
( )
2 3
3 2 3
1 1 a b c
f d a bx cx dx
x x x x x
| |
= + + + = + + +
|
\ .
.
( ) ( ) ( )
3 2 2 3 3 2 2 3
3 3
1 1
ax bx cx d a bx cx dx ax bx cx d a bx cx dx
x x
+ + + + + + + = + + + + + +
. Expanding and
comparing the coefficients of
3 5 4 3
, , , .... x x x x
etc. From both sides, d=1, c=0, b=0, a =
1 ±
. So,
( )
3
1 f x x = ±
.
Exercise59: remember
If
( ) ( )
1 1
f x f f x f
x x
| | | |
+ =
| |
\ . \ .
and
( ) f x
is of n-th degree polynomial, then show that
( ) 1
n
f x x = ±
Exercise60: remember
If
2
2
1 1
f x x
x x
| |
+ = +
|
\ .
find the function.
Hint : we have
( )
2
2 2
2
1 1 1
2 2 f x x x f x x
x x x
| | | |
+ = + = + ÷ ¬ = ÷
| |
\ . \ .
Exercise61 remember
If a continuous function ( ) f z is such that ( ) ( ) ( ) f x y f x f y + = = , show that ( ) f x k =
for some
real number k.
We have
( ) ( ) 0 f x y f x + ÷ =
for any x, y. Putting x = 0,
( ) ( ) 0 0 , f y f k say + = =
or,
( ) f y k =
for any
y.
Exercise62: Show that
1
2
x
x = has a root in [0, 1].
Miscellaneous exercises remember
Exercise63
Would a function ( ) ( ) f x g x ± or ( ) ( ) . f x g x or ( ) ( )
f g x necessarily be discontinuous at some point
is one of them is so? Give examples to support your answer.
Exercise64
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 10:Continuity And Theory Of Equations
© Page 30
a) Show that sum and product of two discontinuous functions may be continuous.
b) Show that sum and product of two functions one of which is discontinuous may
be continuous.
Exercise65
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 1
CHAPTER 14: MEAN VALUE THEOREMS AND TAYLOR’S SERIES

§1: Turning points and Rolle’s theorem
Continuous functions assure small changes in the function for small changes in the independent
variable. Again , if the function is continuously differentiable in an interval, i.e., it has no sharp
points, that small change in the function is approximately proportional to the small change in the
independent variable and is the product of the small change in the independent variable and the
slope of the graph or derivative at that point. This linear approximation is only a first approximation;
having a bearing on the fact that a small part of a curve is a straight line. Though this is true for all
smooth curves, we need better approximations of the function for curves or functions which are a
little too much curved. Since the first approximation is in terms of the first derivative of the function,
better approximations must be in terms of higher derivatives. In fact we assume that a function
should be derivable as many times as we please in order that we may find out a derivative of any
order we desire for analysing approximation. For example, a polynomial in x ( a finite power series
with real coefficients) or a sine or cosine function are infinitely derivable. That is what we mean by
smooth curves.
When we have conjured up that curves approximate st lines in small intervals, we have to look for
turning points so that they become really curves in a finite interval. The Rolle’s theorem is towards
this end.
First let us consider a continuous derivable function ( ) f x which has a value ( ) f a at x = a, and
returns to the same value at x = b; i.e., ( ) ( ) f b f a = . Explicitly we have assumed, continuity of the
function in the entire interval [a, b], derivability in the interval, may be except for the end
points, and equality of the functional value at the end points. Derivative at the end points have
no meanings unless the function extends beyond the points on either side, for we have to take
X O
Y
y = f(x)
(a,
f(a))
(b, f(b))
(c, f(c))
F’(c) = 0
y = f(c)
Rolle’s Theorem; al least one tangent is parallel to the x – axis.,
O
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 2
( )
lim
0 x
f x
x
÷
A
A

from both sides and the two limits need be equal for the limit to exist. Same thing about
the exclusion of sharp points from our consideration. For, around a sharp point, the quantity
( )
lim
0 x
f x
x
÷
A
A

tends to different limits from opposite sides and thus this limit does not exist, and for that
matter the derivative at that point. Under these conditions, equal values at the end points ( of the
interval) of the curve assure that the curve turns downwards while going up or turns upward while
going down at least at one point in the interval.
Now, the continuous function might have been constant throughout the interval [a, b] ; in that case
its derivative must be 0 throughout. Else, the function might have increased up to some point and
then decreased to return to the value ( ) f a . In that case, the derivative has been positive for the
portion the function has increased and negative for the portion the function has decreased. Loosely
speaking, the derivative may be expected to be zero somewhere as it changes from positive values
to negative values ( or vice versa) . But this expectation is an assurance only when the derivative is
continuous; for, a continuous function must attain every value between an upper and lower bound.(
the positive value an upper bound for the derivative and the negative value , a lower bound , say, so
that it must be zero somewhere). But we do not assume continuity of the derivative; but even then
the derivative takes the zero value at least once. Interestingly, this is how it is proved. The function
being continuous in the closed interval ( a consequence of its derivability) is bounded and assumes
least upper bound M, say,
( ) f c M =
and greatest lower bound m , say and
( ) f d m =
. As
( ) ( ) f b f a =
both M and m cannot be equal to ( ) ( ) f b and f a them in general. (If it happens
anyway,
( ) ( ) f b f a M m = = =
reducing the function to be a constant throughout the interval, as a
result of which
( ) ' 0 f x =
for all points in the interval.) Now, if ( ) ( ) ( ) f c M f b f a = = = , then
a c b = = so that a c b < < .For this point, ( ) f c M = , ( ) ' 0 f c = .Otherwise, if ( ) ' 0 f c > , there is a
0 o > for which ( ) ( ) f x f c > for ] , [ x c c o e + , in short, the function is increasing there, which is a
contradiction as
( ) f c M =
is the supremum. So ( ) ' 0 f c > is impossible. Then if possible, let
( ) ' 0 f c < . Then the function is decreasing in some interval i.e., there is a 0 o > for which
( ) ( ) f x f c > for ] , [ x c c o e ÷ . This is also impossible since
( ) f c M =
is the supremum. This forces
( ) ' 0 f c = .
Thus the tangent to the graph must have been al least once parallel to the x-axis, or the derivative
must have a zero or a root in the interval. If the function has several cycles of increase and
decrease during the interval [a, b] then there would be several zeroes of its derivative; but at least
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 3
one is assured. The same is the case if the function first decreases and then increases to return to
its value at a. This is Rolle’s theorem which has very far reaching consequences. For, existence of
a root of a given function may be tested theoretically by analysing its integral. If the integral of the
function satisfies Rolle’s theorem, the function has a real root !
Actually the middle part of the proof may be stated as what is called Fermat’s theorem. It goes like
this, if a function ( ) f x is defined on a certain interval, and has a maximum or minimum at an interior
point x
0
, and if derivative of the function exists at this point , then ( )
0
' 0 f x = . Actually a maximum or
minimum may exist at the point, without existence of derivative at the point. For example, ( ) f x x =
has a minimum at x = 0, but it has no derivative at that point. Another example, the function
( )
( )
1
, 0
2
1
1 , 1
2
f x x for x
f x x for x
¦
= s <
¦
¦
´
¦
= ÷ s s
¦
¹
has a maximum at x = ½ , but has no derivative there. The proof is
already elaborated in the middle part of Rolle’s theorem and is left to the reader as an exercise.Now
you understand why the points of a function at which 0
dy
dx
= are called turning points of the curve.
( There may be other turning points of the curve apart from the points at which 0
dy
dx
=
,
and we would
discuss about them later) the points where the function is maximum or minimum are included in the
set of x – values for which 0
dy
dx
= . For other points at which 0
dy
dx
= , where the function is neither
a maximum nor minimum, condition of Roll’s theorem is not satisfied in an interval containing the
point i.e. ( ) ( ) f a f b = for any interval [a, b] containing the point . At such points the function is
stationary i.e. neither increasing nor decreasing around the point or the horizontal tangent crosses
the curve at the point (a point of inflexion) . See figures below.
Stationary point as a turning point
Tangent crossing the curve at a turning point
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 4
The following two exercises relate to theory of equations.
Exercise1
Show that a polynomial of n-th degree has at most n – 1 turning points.
Hint. The derivative of the polynomial is of degree n – 1 and thus can have at most n – 1 zeroes.
Exercise2
The curve (parabola)
2
y x bx c = + + , or the quadratic polynomial has two roots; those are roots of
the equation
2
0 x bx c + + = , the points where
2
y x bx c = + + crosses the x – axis or y = 0. The
roots are real distinct if there are two points of intersection; coincident if x – axis is a tangent to the
curve and imaginary if the parabola lies entirely above or entirely below the x – axis. Show that
the vertex of the parabola is the point
2
4
,
2 4
b c b | | ÷
÷
|
\ .
.if the roots are complex , p iq p iq + ÷ , say,
the vertex of the parabola is
( )
2
, p q .
Hint. Vertex of the parabola would be at a point where 0
dy
dx
= , i.e.,
2
2
4
2 0 ,
2 2 2 4
b b b c b
x b x y b c
÷ | | | |
+ = ¬ = ÷ ¬ = ÷ + ÷ + =
| |
\ . \ .
. If the roots are complex , p iq p iq + ÷ ,
then sum of the roots 2 2 b p iq p iq p b p ÷ = + + ÷ = ¬ = ÷ and product of the roots
( ) ( )
2 2
c p iq p iq p q = + ÷ = + . So the vertex
2
4
,
2 4
b c b | | ÷
÷
|
\ .
becomes
( )
2
, p q .
point of Maximum as a turning point point of Minimum as a turning point
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 5
§2: Lagrange’s mean value theorem.
Why Roll’s theorem and following others are called mean value theorems shall be evident from the
following theorem due to Lagrange. Now suppose that , of all the three conditions for Rolle’s
theorem, the function does not satisfy the condition ( ) ( ) f b f a = . Then
( ) ( ) f b f a
b a
÷
÷
is the slope of
the secant of the function through the end points of the interval [a, b]. We take a function
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
f b f a
g x f x x a
b a
÷
= ÷ ÷
÷
. It may be easily seen that ( ) g x satisfies all three conditions of
Rolle’s theorem ( verify) , so that ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
' 0 '
f b f a
g x f x
b a
÷
= = ÷
÷
for at least
one point in the interval [a, b]. That is, ( )
( ) ( )
'
f b f a
f x
b a
÷
=
÷
for al least one point in [a, b]. This is
Lagrange’s mean value theorem.
After all what do you mean by
( ) ( ) f b f a
b a
÷
÷
? It is nothing but the slope of the secant joining the
points ( ) ( ) f b and f a .The function ( ) g x is nothing but the function ( ) f x rotated anti-clockwise
through an angle so that the secant joining the points on the graph at the end points of the interval is
parallel to the x-axis. In other words, there is al least one point in the interval [a, b] where the slope
of the function ( ) f x is parallel to the secant joining the end points. This is the reason these
theorems are called mean value theorems. Remember the average speed defined to be total
distance divided by total time whereas instantaneous speed was slope of the tangent of the distance
X O
Y
y = f(x)
(a,
f(a))
(b, f(b)) (c, f(c))
Lagrange’s Theorem:
( ) ( )
tan
f b f a
b a
÷
=
÷
o
, just a rotation of axes through an angle α in Rolle’s theorem
f’(c) =
( ) ( ) f b f a ÷
= o
α
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 6
– time graph. If
( ) f x
stands for distance travelled and x stand for time duration then
( ) ( ) f b f a
b a
÷
÷
is
easily seen to be average speed
.
Justification to first approximation of function as discussed above
is evident if we put b = a +h. The Lagrange’s theorem becomes ( ) ( ) ( ) ' f a h f a hf x + = + ,for some
x in the interval say , 0 1 x a h where u u = + s s ,which is a first approximation to ( ) f a h +
i.e.
a linear approximation. For small values of h, we may replace ( ) ' f x by ( ) ' f a in view of its
assumed continuity.
Also you may understand ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
f b f a
g x f x x a
b a
÷
= ÷ ÷
÷
in this manner.. At any point x between
the points a and b, proportional part of difference of ordinates
( ) ( ) f b f a ÷
, i.e.,
( ) ( )
x a
f b f a
b a
÷
÷ (
¸ ¸
÷
is deducted from
( ) f x
., in effect, the graph of the function
( ) f x
is rotated
through an angle whose slope is
( ) ( ) f b f a
b a
÷
÷
.i.e., it makes
( ) ( ) g b and g a equal.
§3: A derived function cannot have discontinuity of the first kind. remember
This is a very powerful result jumps from Lagrange’s mean value theorem unexpectedly and is very
useful. We have to show that if ( ) f x is continuous at a point x = c, and ( ) lim '
x c
f x l
÷
= then
( ) ' f c l = This means that ( ) ' f x has to be continuous at x = c if it exists.( however if ( ) ' f x does
not exist at x = c, then ( ) f x can have a discontinuity of second kind; e.g., at a sharp point on the
graph of a function, say two st lines intersecting at a point, ( ) ' f x does not exist at the point of
intersection and it is a constant , different at different sided of the point, i.e. a jump discontinuity
there)
Let us take ( )
0
lim '
x c
f x l
÷ +
= ; so there is an interval ]c, c + h], h > 0, at every point of which
( ) ' f x
exists and therefore
( ) f x
is continuous in the interval ]c, c + h[. In addition,
( ) f x
is continuous at
x = c also as given, then we have
( ) f x
is continuous in the closed interval [c, c + h]. Applying
Lagrange’s theorem to this closed interval [c, c + h] we have a point ] , [ c x ç e for which
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ' '
f x f c
f x f c x c f f
x c
ç ç
÷
÷ = ÷ ¬ =
÷
, for | | c, c h x e + .Taking
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 7
0, . . 0 x c i e x c ÷ ÷ ÷ + , we have ( ) ( )
0
lim '
x c
f x f ç
÷ +
= which is equal to l as given. Similarly we
could proceed to show ( ) ( )
0
lim '
x c
f x f l ç
÷ ÷
= = also. Thus ( ) ' f c exists and l = .
§4: Another mean value theorem :Cauchy’s mean value theorem.
If two functions ( ) f x and ( ) F x are continuously derivable in the interval [a, b], and ( ) ' 0 F x = in
that interval, then there is al least one point in the interval where
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
'
f x f b f a
F x F b F a
÷
=
÷
when
( ) ( ) 0 F b F a ÷ = Let us take a function ( ) ( ) ( ) g x f x AF x = + where A is a constant to make ( ) g x
satisfy Rolle’s theorem. Evidently continuity and derivability of ( ) g x in the interval is assured. The
condition ( ) ( ) g a g b = gives ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
,
f b f a
f a AF a f b AF b or A
F b F a
÷
+ = + = ÷
÷
so that
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
f b f a
g x f x F x
F b F a
÷
= ÷
÷
.and by Rolle’s theorem there is at least one point in the interval
[a, b] where ( ) ' 0 g x = , or
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
'
f x f b f a
F x F b F a
÷
=
÷
.
The fact that ( ) ( ) F b F a ÷ is never 0 is assured by
the fact that A is finite and ( ) ' 0 F x = in the assumption ; otherwise ( ) F x would satisfy conditions of
Rolle’s theorem and ( ) ' 0 F x = for some point in the interval.
(Compare this to L’Hopital’s rule
( )
( )
( )
( )
lim lim
'
'
x a x a
f x f x
F x F x
÷ ÷
= if the limits exist. To be treated later on.)
Cauchy’s mean value theorem may also be understood as Lagrange’s theorem taking parametric
equations ( ) y f t = and ( ) x F t = . (left as an exercise).
Cauchy’s mean value theorem may also be expressed in a different form. If two functions ( ) f x and
( ) F x are derivable in the interval [a, a + h], and ( ) ' 0 F x = in the closed interval, then there is at
least one θ such that 0 < θ < 1, for which
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
'
'
f a h f a f a h
F a h F a F a h
u
u
+ ÷ +
=
+ ÷ +
.
A pitfall :Two functions ( ) f x and ( ) F x are derivable in the interval [a, a + h], and ( ) ' 0 F x = in the
closed interval, then each one satisfies conditions of Lagrange’s theorem and there is a θ such that 0
< θ < 1, for which ( ) ( ) ( ) ' f a h f a f a h u + ÷ = + and ( ) ( ) ( ) ' F a h F a F a h u + ÷ = + so that
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
'
'
f a h f a f a h
F a h F a F a h
u
u
+ ÷ +
=
+ ÷ +
. What is the mistake in this statement?
Page 218 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 8
Evidently both ( ) ( ) ( ) ' f a h f a f a h u + ÷ = + and ( ) ( ) ( ) ' F a h F a F a h u + ÷ = + may not be true for
the same value of θ.
§5: Another mean value theorem : Darbaux’s theorem.
Suppose that ( ) ' f x is continuous in the interval [a, b] including those at the end points, we are
looking beyond the end points and ( ) ' f x is continuous throughout before entering and after leaving
the interval also, then if ( ) ( ) ' ' f a f b = then for any number ì between ( ) ( ) ' ' f a and f b would
also be ( ) ' f c for some number c in the interval [a, b]. This is evidently so, as a continuous function
( ) ' f x varies between ( ) ( ) ' ' f a and f b , it would take every value between them, so also ì .
Then ( ) ' f c ì = for some [ , ] c a b e .The theorem may also be differently worded as follows: if the
function is continuously derivable in the closed interval [a, b] and if ( ) ( ) ' ' f a and f b
are of
opposite signs, then there is at least one point c between a and b such that
( ) ' 0 f c =
.
We can dispense with the assumption ( ) ' f x is continuous in the interval [a, b] with the help of
a previous result that if a derivative exists in a closed interval, it is continuous too.
Exercise3
Verify whether the following functions satisfy all the conditions of Rolle’s theorem.
a)
x
in [-2, 2] b)
( ) ( )
2
3
x
f x x x e
÷
= +
in [– 3, 0]
c)
1 x y + =
in [-1 , 1] d)
2
3
1 x y + =
in [-1, 1]
e)
ln sin y x =
in
5
,
6 6
t t (
(
¸ ¸
f)
2
ln
x ab
a bx
+
+
in [a, b]
g)
( ) ( )
m n
x a x b ÷ + ÷
in [a, b] for m, n positive integers.
h)
sin
x
x
e
in [0, Л] i)
( )
1 1
1 1
f x
x x
= +
+ ÷
in [-1, 1]
Exercise4
Show that the equation
3
3 15 8 0 x x + ÷ = has only one real root.
Exercise5
Verify whether conditions of Lagrange’s mean value theorem is satisfied by the following and solve
for ( ) ' 0 f x = if so.
a) ( )
2
3 5 f x x = ÷ in [– 2 ,0] b) ( ) ln f x x = in [1, e]
c) ( )
2
f x lx mx n = + + in [a, b] d) ( )
x
f x e = in [0, 1]
e) ( )
2
9 f x x = ÷ in [3, 4] f) ( ) ( )( )( ) 1 2 3 f x x x x = ÷ ÷ ÷ in [0, 4]
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 9
Exercise6
Show that the function ( )
1
1
1
x for x
f x
for x
x
< ¦
¦
=
´
>
¦
¹
does not fulfill the conditions of Lagrange’s
theorem.
Ans. The function is not differentiable at x = 1 as there is a sharp point there.
Exercise7
We know the logarithmic series ( )
2 3 4
ln 1 ..................
2 3 4
x x x
x x + = ÷ + ÷ , where 1 x < .
In this manner we cannot have any idea of ( ) ln 1 e + as 1 e > . But we have Lagrange’s theorem to
help.
Apply Lagrange’s theorem
( ) ( ) ( ) ' , , 0 1 f x h f a hf a h for some such that u u u + = + + < < to ( ) ln f x x = in the
interval [ , 1] e e + , ( i.e., , 1 a e h = = and show that
( )
1
ln 1 1 , 1 e for some such that e e ç ç
ç
+ ~ + < < +
Similarly apply Lagrange’s theorem to ( ) ln f x x = in the interval[1,1 ], 0 x x + > and show that
( ) ln 1 , 1 1
x
x for some such that x q q
q
+ ~ < < +
Hence show that
( ) ln 1 , 0
1
x
x x x
x
< + < >
+
Exercise8
Show that
1
1
2
n n
N
+ ÷ <
if
2
n N >
Hint. Apply Lagrange’s theorem to ( ) f x x = in the interval [n, n+1],
to get ( ) ( )
1
1 1
2
f n f n n n
ç
+ ÷ = + ÷ = for some ç such that 1 n n ç < < + .
Now , if
2
n N > , then
2
N ç > and
1 1
2 2 N ç
< , i.e.,
1
1
2
n n
N
+ ÷ < .
Exercise9
Applying Cauchy’s mean value theorem to the following pairs of functions, show that the arithmetic
mean of a and b i.e.,
2
a b +
is a point in ]a, b[ where
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
2
'
2
a b
f
f b f a
a b F b F a
F
+ | |
|
÷
\ .
=
+ ÷ | |
|
\ .
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 10
a)
( ) ( ) ,
x x
f x e F x e
÷
= =
b)
( ) ( )
2
, f x x F x x = =
c)
( ) ( ) sin , cos f x x F x x = =
.
d)
( )
2
f x ax bx c = + +
in an arbitrary interval [m, n]
Hint.
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2
'
' 2
b a c
a b c
b a c
f c f b f a
e e e a b
e e e c
F c F b F a e e e
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ +
= ¬ = ¬ ÷ = ¬ =
÷ ÷
Exercise10
Show that
2
1
cos 2
2
0
lim sin
2
bx
x
e
ax
t
t
÷
÷
| |
=
|
÷
\ .
.
Hint :
2
0 2
2 2
1
1 1
limcos .
2
cos
cos cos 2 2
2
2 2
0 0
lim sin lim 1 cos
2 2
x ax
bx
bx bx
x x
e
ax ax
t
t
t t
t t
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
| | | |
= ÷ =
| |
÷ ÷
\ . \ .
( )
( )
( )
( )
2
2
0
0
sin
2
2
lim . .
2
2
sin lim
2
2
2 sin cos
2 2
2
2 sin cos
2 2
2
x
x
bx a
ax
a b
ax
bx b
a
ax ax
ax
e e e
a
bx bx
bx
t
t
t t t
t t t
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
| || |
| |
÷ ÷
\ .\ . ÷
= = =
| || |
| |
÷ ÷
\ .\ . ÷
Exercise11
Applying Cauchy’s mean value theorem to ( ) ( )
1
, f x x F x
x
= =
in [a, b] , a > 0,
show that
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
'
f ab
f b f a
F b F a
F ab
÷
=
÷
, i.e.,
, c ab =
the geometric mean of a and b.
Exercise12
Applying Cauchy’s mean value theorem to
( ) ( )
2
1 1
, f x F x
x x
= =
in [a, b] , a > 0,show that c is the
harmonic mean of a and b.
Exercise13
A function is continuous in [a, b] and derivable in ]a, b[ show that there is at least one c in ]a, b[ such
that
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
'
2
f a f b f c
a b c
÷
=
÷
Exercise14
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 11
A function has continuous derivatives of 1
st
, 2
nd
,………..(n – 1) th order in [a, b] i.e.,
( ) ( )
( )
( )
1 1 2
, ,....................
n
f x f x f x
÷
are all continuous in [a, b] and
( )
( )
n
f x exists for ]a, b[. Also for
1 2 1
..............
n
a x x x b
÷
< < < < < we have ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1
........
n
f a f x f x f x f b
÷
= = = = = .
Show that there is at least one point θ in ]a, b[ such that
( )
( ) 0
n
f u = .
Hint. Since every subinterval
1 1 2 1
[ , ],[ , ]..............[ , ]
n
a x x x x b
÷
satisfies conditions of Rolle’s theorem,
we have a certain set of points
1 2
, ,..............
n
ç ç ç such that
1 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 1
[ , ], [ , ],.............. [ , ], [ , ]
n n n n n
a x x x x x x b ç ç ç ç
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
e e e e for which
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
' ' .............. ' 0
n
f f f ç ç ç = = = = , by. Rolle’s theorem Now ( ) ' f x is a function satisfying
conditions of Rolle’s theorem in
1 2 2 3 2 1
[ , ],[ , ],................[ , ]
n n
ç ç ç ç ç ç
÷ ÷
, so that there is a certain set of
numbers
1 1 2 2 2 3 2 2 1
[ , ], [ , ],................ [ , ]
n n n
q ç ç q ç ç q ç ç
÷ ÷ ÷
e e e such that
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
'' '' .............. " 0
n
f f f q q q = = = = . Thus the argument can suitably be repeated to ultimately
have at least one ] , [ a b u e , such that
( )
( ) 0
n
f u = .
Exercise15
Find
( )
1
0
1
lim
tan
x
x
e x
x
÷
÷ +
.Ans.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1
1
0 0 0 0 0
1 1 0 1 1
lim lim lim lim .1 lim
tan tan 1 1
x x x x
x x x x x
e x e x x x x
e
x x x x
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + ÷ + ÷ + +
| |
= = = =
|
+
\ .
§6: Meaning of sign of derivative Testing for monotony: Greatest and least values
Exercise16
Show that a)
( ) ' 0 f x =
in [a, b] means
( ) f x c =
, a constant.
b)
( ) ( ) ' ' f x g x =
in [a, b] means
( ) ( ) f x g x c ÷ =
, a constant
c)
( ) ' 0 f x <
in [a, b] means
( ) ( )
2 1
0 f x f x ÷ <
when
2 1
x x >
the function is monotonically decreasing.
d)
( ) ' 0 f x >
in [a, b] means
( ) ( )
2 1
0 f x f x ÷ >
when
2 1
x x >
the function is monotonically increasing.
Exercise17
If
( ) ( ) F x and f x
are continuous in [a, b], and
( ) ( ) ' ' F x f x >
in ]a, b[ , then show that
( ) ( ) F x f x >
in ]a, b[
Exercise18
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 12
Show that
ln 0
a b a a b
for b a
a b b
÷ ÷
< < < <
Exercise19
Show that the function
( )
sin x
f x
x
= monotonically decreases in the interval [0, Л/2]
Exercise20
Using the above problem, show that
2
sin
x
x x
t
< < in the interval 0
2
x
t
< <
Exercise21
Show that ( ) 1 1
p
p
x x + s + for x > 0 , and 0 1 p s s
Hint. Take
( ) ( ) 1 1
p
p
f x x x = + ÷ +
. Then ( ) ( )
( )
1
1
1 1
1 1
' 1 0
1
p
p
p p
f x px p x p
x
x
÷
÷
÷ ÷
(
= ÷ + = ÷ > (
+
(
¸ ¸
, as
1 0 0 p and x ÷ > > .
So,
( ) ( ) 1 1
p
p
f x x x = + ÷ +
is increasing and positive since
( ) 0 0 f =
Exercise22
Prove the inequality ( )
k
k k
a b a b + s + for a, b > 0 when 0 1 k s s .
Hint. use the above putting
a
x
b
= , and
1
p
n
= , n a natural number.
Exercise23
If p > 1 and 0 < y < x, show that ( ) ( )
1 1 p p p p
py x y x y px x y
÷ ÷
÷ s ÷ s ÷
Exercise24
Using derivative of the function
( )
3
1
tan
6
x
f x x
÷
= ÷
, show that
3 3
1
tan
3 6
x x
x x x
÷
÷ < < ÷
Exercise25
Find out the intervals in which the following functions are increasing and decreasing:
a) 5
x
e x + b) ln x c)
2
2 ln x x ÷ d) sin cos x x +
e) cos x x ÷ f)
( )
2
ln 1 x ÷ g)
2
ln
x
x
h)
2
2
1
x
x +
i) cosh sinh x x ÷ j)
sin x
x
k)
1
x
e l)
1
tan x
÷
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 13
Greatest or least values of a function in an interval [a, b] only at the critical points i.e., where
derivative is 0, or at the extreme points a or b. In an open interval ]a, b[ ( ) f a and ( ) f b are not
available.
Exercise26
Find the greatest and least values or both in the following in the specified intervals
a)
x
xe
÷
in [1, ∞] b)
2
ln x x in [1, e] c) sin sin 2 x x in ]- ∞, ∞[,
d)
( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 x x + ÷ in [– 1, 1] e) x x + in [– 1, 1]
Exercise27
Show that the function ( ) cos f x x a + ÷ increases monotonically and has one positive root for a >
1 and has no positive root for a < 1.
Exercise28
Show that the equation
2
x
e
x
= has only one positive root in ]0, 1[.
§7: Taylor’s theorem or generalized mean value theorem:The Lagrange’s theorem
( ) ( ) ( )
1
' f a h f a hf a h u + = + +
gives first approximation to
( ) f a h +
. We can repeat this for
( ) ' f x
,
( ) '' f x
,
( ) '" f x
as we have assumed continuous differentiability of these functions to any order we
please. Thus
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
1 2 1 2
2
1 1 2
2 3
1 1 2 1 2 3
2 3
1 1 2
4
1 2 3 1 2 3 4
' ' ''
' ''
' '' '''
' '' '''
'''' .............
f a h f a hf a h f a h f a hf a h
f a hf a h f a h
f a hf a h f a h f a h
f a hf a h f a h f a
h f a h up to
u u u u
u u u
u u u u u u
u u u
u u u u u u u
+ = + + = + + + (
¸ ¸
= + + +
= + + + +
= + + +
+ + ·
and so on up to infinity , provided the infinite series converges. (this is the only weakness of this
proof, we have to prove convergence for any particular function at hand.) the coefficients
1 1 2 1 2 3 1 2 3 4
, , , u u u u u u u u u u etc. can be determined by comparing it with expansion of a known function
( )
x
e for f x .The convenience is that
x
e is unchanged under successive differentiation .Now,
compare the above series with
2 3
.....................................................
2! 3!
h h
a h a h a a a a
e e e e e h e e up to
+
= = + + + + ·
Page 224 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 14
remembering that ( ) ' f a , ( ) '' f a , ( ) '" f a etc are all
a
e , we have
1 1 2 1 2 3
1 1 1
1, , ,.............
2! 3! 4!
etc u u u u u u = = =
Finally, ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 4
' '' ''' '''' .............
2! 3! 4!
h h h
f a h f a hf a f a f a f a up to + = + + + + ·.
This is expansion of ( ) ( ) f a h near f a + in terms of small h. The series would converge as
h →0 under assumed conditions as coefficients of powers of h are constants.
The result has far reaching consequences in analysis of functions particularly expanding closed form
functions into converging infinite series or summing of infinite converging power series called
transcendental functions, preparing tables, and solving differential equations. Finite power series
is called a rational algebraic function in contrast.
§8: Taylor’s theorem in Remainder Form.
In course of Tailor’s expansion of a function f(x) around x = a, i,e, while writing terms of f(a +h) it
often so happens that the derivatives of f(x) are all zero at x = a , after a number of terms,
particularly when f(x) is itself a finite power series . If it does not happen, i.e., if infinite number of
terms have to be taken in series expansion of f(a +h), we may be interested in stopping the process
at some point, say we do not want to go beyond nth step. Then the n-th term shall not in general be
the n-th term of the corresponding infinite series unless the further derivatives of f(x) are 0. To find
the last term we want to stop at, say n-th step, we can design another function g(x) related to f(x) in
the following manner , designed to satisfy Rolle’s theorem.
Let
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 1
1 2 1
.............
2! 1 !
n
m
n
a h x a h x
g x f x a h x f x f x f x K a h x
n
÷
÷
+ ÷ + ÷
= + + ÷ + + + + + ÷
÷
So that ( ) ( ) g a g a h = + may be true to satisfy Rolle’s theorem for some value of constant K.
We have ( ) ( ) g a h f a h + = + and
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 1
1 2 1
.............
2! 1 !
n
n m
h h
g a f a hf a f a f a Kh
n
÷
÷
= + + + + +
÷
for any arbitrary pre-assigned number m.
The condition ( ) ( ) g a g a h = + implies
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 1
1 2 1
.............
2! 1 !
n
n m
h h
f a h f a hf a f a f a Kh
n
÷
÷
+ = + + + + +
÷
Page 225 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 15
The function ( ) g x is continuous in [a, a + h] and derivable in ]a, a + h[ and ( ) ( ) g a g a h = + , so
satisfies all conditions of Rolle’s theorem , so that for some 0 < θ < 1, ( ) ' 0 g a h + = u .
But
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
'
1 !
n
m
n
a h x
g x f x mK a h x
n
÷
÷
+ ÷
= ÷ + ÷
÷
all other terms cancelling out.
Now ( ) ' 0 g a h + = u means
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
1
1
1
1
0 ' 1
1 !
n
n
m
n m
h
g a h f a h mKh
n
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
= + = + ÷ ÷
÷
u
u u u
i.e.,
( )
( )
( )
1
1 !
n m
n m
n
h
K f a h
n m
÷
÷
÷
= +
÷
u
u
.
This gives
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 1
1 2 1
.............
2! 1!
1
1 !
n
n
n m m
n m
n
a h x a h x
g x f x a h x f x f x f x
n
h a h x
f a h
n m
÷
÷
÷
÷
+ ÷ + ÷
= + + ÷ + + +
÷
÷ + ÷
+ +
÷
u
u
Putting x = a + h, ( ) ( ) 0 g a h f a h + = + + and ( ) ( ) g a h g a + = gives,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
1 2 1
............. 1
2! 1 ! !
n n
n m
n n
h h h n
f a h f a hf x f x f x f a h
n n m
÷
÷
÷
+ = + + + + + ÷ +
÷
u u
Since m is any arbitrary pre-assigned number, we may put m = n and get the following.
§9: The philosophy behind Taylor’s theorem
A tiny part of a curve about a point is a segment of a straight line. We find the slope of this straight
line to expect in what direction the curve would turn next when we leave the point. Also we get
approximate length of this tiny segment from Lagrange’s mean value theorem. Better approximation
would be if we regard a tiny part of the curve at the point of consideration as part of a circle, a
second degree approximation. A point a little ahead of the point under consideration and another
point behind it, form a triangle and a unique circle passes through these three points. The radius of
this circle is the radius of curvature of the curve at that point. We can generalize this thinking by
taking a general second degree curve , i.e., a conic section instead of a circle. This is done by taking
the first three terms of the Taylor’s series, as it is a second degree equation. But this is after all a
second degree approximation of the function of the curve at the point under consideration trying to
know , of what conic section our tiny segment of the curve may be. If this does not give us a fair view
of the tiny segment of our curve, or if we require better approximation for some purpose, we may
take more number of terms in the Taylor’s series to any desired degree of approximation( then the
comparison curve taken between any three adjacent points shall not be merely a conic section i.e.,
of 2
nd
degree, but a curve of higher degree equation, ensuring a better approximation). If we want to
exactly plot the next infinitesimal segment or a neighboring point in the curve, Taylor’s infinite series
is there, if the curve is smooth at all, whatever may be the scheme of the function for which the curve
stands. Since the Taylor’s infinite series coincides with the function exactly, after the Taylor’s series
for the particular function is worked out, we no more need any other forms in which the function
might have been expressed( we do not need any comparison curves, as the curve itself is accurately
described, i.e. to any degree of approximation). Thus a professor explained to the writer many years
Page 226 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 16
back, when the two had a rendezvous in a train journey. He compared the role of a tailor who fits an
outfit to your body contours by taking only a finite number of measurements !
§10: Lagrange’s form of Taylor’s theorem in Remainder theorem
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 1
1 2 1
.............
2! 1 ! !
n n
n n
h h h
f a h f a hf a f a f a f a h
n n
÷
÷
+ = + + + + + +
÷
u
.
We could well have assumed this from the beginning, and arrived at the derivation in a much simpler
way; but in that case we could not have derived what is known as
§11: Cauchy’s form of Taylor’s theorem in Remainder theoremfor m = 1.
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 1
1
1 2 1
............. 1
2! 1 ! 1 !
n n
n
n n
h h h
f a h f a hf x f x f x f a h
n n
÷
÷
÷
+ = + + + + + ÷ +
÷ ÷
u u
The method may look somewhat artificial to the student at first reading in comparison to infinite
series form.
But an elegant proof without use of Calculus would be given below which follows from simple
concept of a power series. The theorem is extended to include functions which are converging
infinite power series only through methods of Calculus such as one given above. Before that, a few
more important and interesting facts. First, the Taylor’s theorem in remainder form does not assume
that the function f(x) is infinitely differentiable( it should be only as many times as the number of
terms taken before the remainder) . In Mathematics, if a result is obtained with fewer assumptions
it broadens the scope of applicability of the result. The theorem in remainder form can be
applied to functions which are not infinitely differentiable !
One more interesting and useful result about Taylor’s theorem. If we take a = 0 and h = x, the
theorem assumes
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 1
1 2 1
0 0 0 ............. 0
2! 1 ! !
n n
n n
x x x
f x f xf f f f x
n n
÷
÷
= + + + + +
÷
u
which
is Maclaurin’s series in remainder form, expansion of a function around the point x=0.
And the infinite convergent Taylor’s series reduces to ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
0 0 0 ................
2!
x
f x f xf f = + + +
,i.e. estimation of any function in terms of its derivatives! Suppose we take a function
( ) sin f x x = . Apart from a few values of sin x like when x = 0, x = 30
0
, 60
0
etc. all of us must have
wondered in high school why should not we know sin 1
0
, sin 22
0
etc. Now for small angles say for
.012
0
Maclaurin’s series would give value of sin .012
0
and Taylor’s series would give the same for
further increments of the angle. in fact we could construct a whole sine table with the help of these,
formulae, at least in principle. And why sine values, values of all smooth functions may be got in the
same way. (by smooth functions we mean, continuously derivable functions, i.e., neither the function
has any sharp point nor its derivatives – this is not a too costly assumption) Of course better
methods are available for rapidly converging series (power series); however the Taylor’s an
Maclaurin’s series is the baseline. A few examples may be worked out easily enhancing your
confidence. Just you have to find out the derivatives at x = 0 in each case.
Misc Exercises remember
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Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
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29)
( )
2 1
1 ............. ........................
2! 1 ! !
n n
x
x x x
e x up to terms
n n
÷
= + + + + + ·
÷
, value of each
derivative is 1, the exponential series.
30)
3 5 7
sin ........................
3! 5! 7!
x x x
x x up to terms = ÷ + ÷ + ·
31)
2 4 6
cos 1 ........................
2! 4! 6!
x x x
x up to terms = ÷ + ÷ + ·
32)
3 5
2
tan ........................
3 15
x x
x x up to terms = + + + ·
33) ( )
2 3 5
ln 1 ........................ , 1
2 3 5
x x x
x x up to terms x + = ÷ + ÷ + · < , the logarithmic
series
34) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
1 1 1 1 2 ........................ , 1
2! 3!
m x x
x mx m m m m m up to terms x + = + + ÷ + ÷ ÷ · <
Binomial theorem for negative or fractional index
35)
3 5 7
sinh .......
3! 5! 7!
x x x
x x up to terms = + + + + · hyperbolic sine series.
36)
2 4 6
cosh 1 ..........
2! 4! 6!
x x x
x up to terms = + + + + · hyperbolic cosine series.
37)
2 3
1
1 .............................. 1
1
x x x up to terms x
x
= + + + · <
÷
38)
Find
2
1
, 1
1
for x
x x
<
÷ +
39)
3 5
1
1 1 3
sin . . . ........................
2 3 2 4 5
x x
x x up to terms
÷
= + + + · and carry on and
on.
§12: Young’s form of Taylor’s theorem
if
( )
n
f a
exists for
( ) f x
and M is defined from the equation
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2 1
1
' '' ...............
2! 1 ! !
n n
n
h h h
f a h f a hf a f a f a M
n n
÷
÷
+ = + + + + +
÷
then
( )
0
lim
n
h
M f a
÷
=
.
Peano’s form of Taylor’s theorem
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
2
' 0 '' 0 0
0 ...............
1! 2! !
n
n
n
f f f
f x f x x x o x
n
= + + + + +
, where
( )
n
o x
stands for an
expression of order
n
x
.
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Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 18
§13: Maxima and minima of a function using Taylor’s theorem
If c be an interior point of domain of definition [a, b] of the function ( ) f x and if
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 1
..................... 0, 0
n n
f c f c f c f c f c
÷
= = = = = = and n is even, then ( ) f c is a
maximum if ( ) 0
n
f c < and minimum if ( ) 0
n
f c > and not an extreme value if n is odd.
The condition ( ) 0
n
f c = implies that ( )
n
f a exists for n = 1, 2,3……….n in a small neighborhood of c
i.e., in ]c – δ
1
, c – δ
1
[ which results in the statement :
If ( ) 0
n
f c >
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
0
] , [
0
n n
n n
f x f c for c x c
for c c
f x f c for c x c
o
o o
o
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
( < = ÷ < <
÷ +
(
> = < < +
¸
for some 0 o < <
1
o …(i)
And if ( ) 0
n
f c < ,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
1 1
0
] , [
0
n n
n n
f x f c for c x c
for c c
f x f c for c x c
o
o o
o
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
( > = ÷ < <
÷ +
(
< = < < +
¸
for some 0 o < <
1
o ……(ii)
Taylor’s theorem gives,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( )
2 1
1 1
' '' ............... ,
2! 1 ! !
n n
n n
h h h
f c h f c hf c f c f c f c h h
n n
u u o
÷
÷ ÷
+ = + + + + + + <
÷
Or, ( ) ( ) ( )
1
,
!
n
n
h
f c h f c f c h h
n
u u o
÷
+ = + + < as ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1
....... 0
n
f c f c f c
÷
= = = = …(iii)
Now if ( ) 0
n
f c > and n is even, from (i) and (iii), ( ) ( ) f c h f c + > for ] , [ h c c o o e ÷ + , so ( ) f c is a
minimum in this interval. Otherwise, if ( ) 0
n
f c < and n is even, from (ii) and (iii), ( ) ( ) f c h f c + < for
] , [ h c c o o e ÷ + , so ( ) f c is a maximum in this interval.
If n is odd, and ( ) 0
n
f c < , then
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
f c h f c when c x c h c
f c h f c when c x c h c
o
o
+ > < = + < + ¦
¦
´
+ < ÷ < = + <
¦
¹
, hence ( ) f c is not
an extreme value. Similarly, ( ) f c is not an extreme value if n is odd, and
( ) 0
n
f c > .
§14: Convexity, concavity and point of inflection
Everybody has an intuitive idea of what is a convex portion of graph and what is a concave portion.
To be a little more specific, if a portion of a graph is convex upwards or convex as seen from
above, evidently the graph first increases and then decreases as x increases in that interval of
consideration (with tacit assumption of the continuity and differentiability of the graph in the interval,
of course). Albeit the interval includes a maximum and the established condition for this is
2
2
0 0
dy d y
and
dx dx
= < , for some point in the interval. But this is situation at some point in the
interval. The concept of convexity is for a small interval chosen around the point in question. From
this rough intuitive idea we may proceed toward formal concept. It is clear that a function or curve
is convex upwards around a point if every point on the curve in a small interval around the
point lies below the tangent line at the point and concave upwards vice versa. Also convex
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Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
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upwards means concave downwards and vice versa. Now we have to translate this statement to
mathematical language.
First, consider all the y – coordinates in the interval are positive .
Let P be the point ( ) ( )
, P x f x , Q be the point ( ) ( )
, Q x h f x h + + on the curve and R be the point on
the tangent where the ordinate QN meets the tangent at P. PM is evidently ( ) f x , QN is ( ) f x h + .
The equation of the tangent PR is ( ) ( ) ( ) ' Y f x f x X x ÷ = ÷ , if ( ) , X Y is any point on the tangent. If
Y is ordinate of R whose abscissa is ON = X = x + h, putting this value in the equation of the
tangent, we have ( ) ( ) ' Y f x hf x ÷ = , or, ( ) ( ) ' Y f x hf x = + From Lagrange’s theorem,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
' '' , , 0 1
2!
h
f x h f x hf x f x h for some u u u + = + + + < <
i.e., ( ) ( )
2
'' , , 0 1
2!
h
QN f x h Y f x h for some u u u = + = + + < < .Since Y RN = ,
( )
2
'' , , 0 1
2!
h
RQ RN QN f x h for some u u u = ÷ = ÷ + < <
The point Q shall lie below the tangent line if ( ) '' 0 f x h u + < , which is assured if ( ) '' 0 f x < in a
small interval around x. So the function or the curve of ( ) f x is convex upwards at x = a, if
( ) '' 0 f x < in a small interval around x = a. Similarly the function or the curve of ( ) f x is
concave upwards at x = a, if ( ) '' 0 f x > in a small interval around x = a.
Note 1: In the above consideration, we are excluding the cases where the curve the curve is convex
or concave as seen from x – direction, i.e. convex from right or concave from right. For, in those
cases a vertical line crosses the curve at two points and this is not included in definition of function,
which should be single valued. Nevertheless , such situation can be analysed by considering x as a
function of y, i.e., by considering
2
2
d x
dy
instead of ( ) '' f x .
O
P
M
Q
N
R
Convex upwards Concave upwards
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Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 20
Note 2: Also the cases where the tangent is parallel to the y – axis, i.e.,
dy
dx
= · is excluded from the
above analysis. In that case,
dy
dx
is not single valued and as such, not a function.
All the above consideration will change suitably if all y – coordinates in the interval are
negative. But ( ) ( ) " f x f x would be negative when the curve is convex upwards and vice
versa.
Exercise40
The criteria can be extended to nth derivative: if ( ) ( )
( )
( ) " 0, '" 0............... 0
n
f x f x f x = = =
and n is even and
( )
( )
1
0
n
f x
+
< then the curve is convex upward at the point, and concave if
( )
( )
1
0
n
f x
+
>
In the above analysis, the tangent at the point where we consider convexity or concavity does
not cross the curve there, i.e. all parts of the curve in the interval are on one side of the tangent. You
may wonder – does a tangent ever cross the curve, that too, at the point of tangency. After all the
tangent is supposed to intersect the curve at two coincident points. But see the figure and convince
yourself that this is also possible when the curve is concave upwards on one side of the tangent and
convex upwards on the other side.
Such a point is called point of inflection . If ( ) '' f x at the point is 0, the Taylor’s theorem gives
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
3
3 3
' ''' , , 0 1, '' 0
3!
''' '''
3! 3!
h
QN f x h f x hf x f x h for some as f x
h h
QN RN f x h QN RN f x h
u u u
u u
= + = + + + < < =
¬ = + + ¬ ÷ = +
which is of opposite signs corresponding to whether h is positive or negative.
The criteria for the point of inflection is ( ) ( ) " 0 '" 0 f x and f x = = at the point.
Note : If
dy
dx
= ·, then consider
2 3
2 3
d x d x
and
dy dy
instead of ( ) ( ) " '" f x and f x .
§15: Taylor’s theorem from Remainder theoremin Algebra
Point of inflection
P
M
R
Q
N
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Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 21
The above treatment holds for all sorts of functions, rational algebraic ( represented by a finite power
series) or transcendental functions as infinite converging power series, with only restriction of infinite
times derivability or perfect smoothness of the curve. However the theorem might not have been
discovered or designed in that manner. Rather, some one might have noticed it by unlocking an
algebraic function when the argument is given a small increment. This is a point of interest as well as
an easy application found in some algebra books and is being given below.
Let ( )
1 2
0 1 2
.......................
n n n
n
f x a x a x a x a
÷ ÷
= + + + , a power series in x. Replacing x by x + h,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
0 1 2
.......................
n n n
n
f x h a x h a x h a x h a
÷ ÷
+ = + + + + + + . Simply expanding term by
term, according to binomial theorem and rearranging terms in ascending powers of x, we have,
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
0 1 2 1
1 2 3
0 1 2 1
2
2 3
0 1 2
.......................
1 2 ...........
1 1 2 .........2
2!
................................................
n n n
n x n
n n n
n
n n
n
f x h a x a x a x a a
h na x n a x n a x a
h
n n a x n n a x a
÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
+ = + + + +
( + + ÷ + ÷ +
¸ ¸
( + ÷ + ÷ ÷ +
¸ ¸
+
( ) ( )
0
.................................
1 2 ................2.1
!
n
h
n n n a
n
+ ÷ ÷ (
¸ ¸
The expressions in the square brackets are easily seen to be ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
, , .............
n
f x f x f x + and the
expression outside the bracket on the right side is seen to be f(x).
Hence ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
.........................
2! !
n
n
h h
f x h f x hf x f x f x
n
+ = + + + + .
Actually the argument is extended to all smooth functions; as they all are convergent power series
only, transcendental functions included.
Thought for you: write Taylor’s theorem for x = 0 . it would give
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
0 0 0 ......................... 0
2! !
n
n
h h
f h f hf f f
n
= + + + +
So that you can get values of the function near x = 0. More surprises wait for you. Now h to x and get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
1 2
0 0 0 ......................... 0
2! !
n
n
x x
f x f xf f f
n
= + + + +
What does this mean ? you get the value of a function in terms of its value at 0, of course under
the assumptions of the Taylor’s theorem. This is not only true for polynomials also true for
transcendental functions also.
§16: L’Hopital’s Rule: limit of indeterminate form
0
0
When both the limits ( ) 0
Lim
x a
h x
÷
= and ( ) 0
Lim
x a
g x
÷
= again,
if ( ) 0 h x = and
lim
( )
0
x a
dh x
dx
÷
= and
) x ( h
) x ( g
) x ( f = where g(x) and h(x) are continuously and
successively differentiable in some domain and h(x) not 0, then
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Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 22
2
2
lim lim lim
2
2
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
x a x a x a
dg x d g x
dx dx
f x
dh x
d h x
dx
dx
÷ ÷ ÷
= = when
2
2
( ) ( )
0
dh x dh x
dx dx
= = and the argument can suitably be
extended further forward; also backwards, i.e.,
lim lim
( )
( )
( )
x a x a
g x dx
f x
h x dx
÷ ÷
=
}
}
etc.(remember
lim
lim
lim
( )
( )
( )
x a
x a
x a
g x
f x
h x
÷
÷
÷
= cannot be written when ( ) ( ) 0, 0 g a h a = = )
This is useful for finding limits of indeterminate forms
0
0
which meet blind end while calculating with
standard techniques. Proof is obtained with the use of Lagrange’s mean value theorem
( ) ( ) ( ) ' , 0 0 1 a a a for x a x a means for some + = + + = + ÷ ÷ s s | c | c| uc c c u .
(Remember
( ) ( )
( )
lim
0
'
a a
a
a a
÷
+ ÷
=
+ ÷
c
| c |
|
c
)
We have ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
' , , 0 0 1 g a g a g a for x a x a means for some + = + + = + ÷ ÷ s s c c u c c c u
and
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
' , , 0 0 1 h a h a h a for x a x a means for some + = + + = + ÷ ÷ s s c c u c c c u
so that
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
1
2
1
1 2
2
'
'
'
, 0 0 0 , 1
'
g x g a g a g a
h x h a h a h a
g a
as g a h a when for
h a
+ + +
= =
+ + +
+
= = = ÷ s s
+
c c u c
c c u c
u c
c u u
u c
On taking the limits ,
lim lim
( ) '( )
( ) , '( ) 0
( ) '( )
x a x a
g x g a
f x if h a
h x h a
÷ ÷
= = =
This is of course assuming
( ) ' g x
and
( ) ' h x
are continuous at
x a =
Example1 :
2
lim
1
15 4
1
x
x
x
÷÷
+ ÷
+
If x = 1, this is
0
0
and cannot be calculated. But
( )
2
2
2 1
15 4
4
2 15
d x
x
dx
x
+ ÷ = =
+
and
( ) 1 1
d
x
dx
+ = ,
for all values of x, and hence 1 for x = - 1 also. So
2
lim
1
1
15 4 1
4
1 1 4
x
x
x
÷÷
+ ÷
= =
+
, a finite number even
if both numerator and denominator →0.
Exercise41
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Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 23
Try to prove the result by applying Cauchy’s mean value theorem.
Exercise42
Find ( )
2
lim
x
x
x t
÷·
. Ans. if ( )
2
lim
x
x
K x t
÷·
= , then
( )
( )
2
2
2ln
ln limln lim lim 0
1
x
x x x
x
x
K x
x
t
t
t
t
÷· ÷· ÷·
= = = = differentiating numerator and denominator.
Exercise43
Find
1
ln
0
lim
x x
x
e
÷
. Ans. If
1
ln
0
lim
x x
x
e K
÷
= , then
1
2
ln
0 0 0 0
1 1
1
ln limln lim ln ln lim ln lim
1
ln ln
x x
x x x x
x x
K e e e e
x x x
x
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
= = = = = ÷·,So 0 K e
÷·
= = .
Exercise44
Find
1
lim
x
x
x
e
t
÷·
| |
|
\ .
. Ans. Let
1
lim
x
x
x
e
K
t
÷·
| |
=
|
\ .
, then
( )
1
ln ln
1 ln 1
ln limln lim ln lim lim
1
x
x x
x
x x x x
e
e e x
K
x x x
t
t
t t
÷· ÷· ÷· ÷·
÷
| | | | ÷
= = = = =
| |
\ . \ .
, differentiating numerator
and denominator
·
| |
|
·
\ .
form. So K e = .
Exercise45
If , o | are roots of
2
0 ax bx c + + = , then show that
( )
2
2
2
lim 1
a
x
x
ax bx c e
o |
o
o
÷
÷
÷
+ + + = .
using ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
0
lim
0
lim 1
x
f x g x g x
x
f x e
÷
÷
+ = (
¸ ¸
when
( ) 0 f x ÷
.
Hint. :
( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
0
2 2 2 2
lim
2 2
0
lim 1 lim 1 lim 1
h
ah h
a
h x x h
x x h
ax bx c a x x ah h e e
o |
o |
o o
o o
o | o |
÷
+ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + + = + ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ = =
Exercise46
Find
( )
1
2
0
1
lim
tan
x
x
e x
x
÷
÷ +
. Ans.
( ) ( )
1 1
1
2
2
0 0
1 1
lim lim
tan sec
x x
x x
e x x
x x
÷
÷ ÷
÷ + +
= differentiating both numerator and
denominator., i.e.,
( )
( ) ( )( )
( )
1
2
0
1
lim
1. 1 0 1 1 tan
x
x
x e
e
x x
÷
+
= =
+ + +
.
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Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 24
Ex47: Discuss continuity of the function
( )
cos
,
2
2
1,
2
x
if x
x
if x
f x
t
t
t
=
÷
=
¦
¦
=
´
¦
¹
Ans.
( )
2 2 2
cos sin
lim lim lim sin 1
1 2 2
2
x x x
x x
f x f
x
t t t
t t
t
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
| |
= = = = =
|
÷
\ .
÷
applying L’ Hopital’s rule. So continuous.
§17: A generalization of the above theorem
When both the limits
( ) 0
Lim
x a
f x
÷
=
and
( ) 0
Lim
x a
g x
÷
=
and
( )
( )
'
lim
'
x a
f x
l
g x
÷
=
then
( )
( )
lim
x a
f x
l
g x
÷
=
.Prove it in
the same lines. This is particularly useful when
'( ) 0
Lim
x a
f x
÷
=
and
'( ) 0
Lim
x a
g x
÷
=
do not separately
hold.
§18: Indeterminate form 0.∞
lim lim lim lim
( ) ( ) ( ), ( ) 0 ( )
x a x a x a x a
f x g x H x when g x and H x
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷·
can be found as a corollary
to the above result by putting
1
( )
( )
H x
h x
= so that
lim
( )
x a
H x
÷
÷·
means
lim
( ) 0
x a
h x
÷
÷
and if
'( ) 0 h a = , then
lim lim
( ) ( ) ( )
x a x a
f x g x H x
÷ ÷
=
takes the form
( ) ( )
lim lim
( ) ( )
( )
x a x a
g x g a
f x
h x h a
÷ ÷
= =
Example2 :Find
lim
2
4 3sin
7cot
x
x
x
t
÷
÷
This is in 0.· form i.e., in
0
0
form. So,
( )
( )
lim lim lim
2
2 2 2
4 3sin
4 3sin 3cos
0
7cot 7cos
7cot
x x x
d
x
x x
dx
d
x ec x
x
dx
t t t
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
= = =
÷
§19: Indeterminate form
·
·
When both the limits ( )
Lim
x a
h x
÷
= · and ( )
Lim
x a
g x
÷
= · and
lim lim
( ) ( )
0
x a x a
dg x dh x
dx dx
÷ ÷
= = and
) x ( h
) x ( g
) x ( f = where g(x) and h(x) are continuously and
successively differentiable in some domain and h(x) not 0, then
2
2
lim lim lim
2
2
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
x a x a x a
dg x d g x
dx dx
f x
dh x
d h x
dx
dx
÷ ÷ ÷
= = when
( )
0
dh x
dx
= and the argument can suitably be extended
further forward; also backwards, i.e.,
lim lim
( )
( )
( )
x a x a
g x dx
f x
h x dx
÷ ÷
=
}
}
etc.(remember
lim
lim
lim
( )
( )
( )
x a
x a
x a
g x
f x
h x
÷
÷
÷
=
Page 235 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 25
cannot be written).Let us apply Cauchy’s mean value theorem to the problem. Let
lim
( )
( )
x a
dg x
dx
l
dh x
dx
÷
= .
This means that, for any pre-assigned small +ve number ε, we can determine a corresponding small
+ve number δ, so that
( )
( )
dg x
dx
l l
dh x
dx
÷c < < +c for a x a ÷o < < +o . Now , if λ be a fixed number such
that a a ÷o < ì < + o , we can find another number β, such that
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
'
'
g g x g
h h x h
÷
=
÷
ì |
ì |
where
x < | < ì i.e., a a < | < + ì by Cauchy’s mean value theorem. Also
lim
( )
( )
x a
dg x
dx
l
dh x
dx
÷
= implies that both
'( ) g x and '( ) h x both are defined in the interval a a ÷o < ì < + o and '( ) 0 h x = there. Now,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
'
'
1
g
g x
g x g g x g
h h x h h
h x
h x
| |
÷
|
÷
\ .
= =
÷ | |
÷
|
\ .
ì
ì |
ì | ì
, or
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
' 1
' 1
h
g
h x g x
h x g
h
g x
| |
÷
|
\ .
=
| |
÷
|
\ .
ì
|
ì
|
.On taking limits x →∞, the
expression becomes
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )( )
( )
( )
lim
' 0 1 '
' 0 1 '
x a
g x g g
h x h h
÷
÷
= =
÷
| |
| |
as
( )
( )
( )
( )
lim lim
0
x a x a
h g
h x g x
÷ ÷
= =
ì ì
, ( ) h ì , ( ) g ì are
constants and the limits ( )
Lim
x a
h x
÷
= · and ( )
Lim
x a
g x
÷
= ·.We can make
( )
( )
'
'
g
h
|
|
as near to
lim
( )
( )
x a
dg x
dx
l
dh x
dx
÷
= , by suitable choosing ε as discussed in the beginning. Hence the theorem.
Generalization follows by repeatedly applying the theorem
The proof could have been much simpler by writing
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
g x h x
h x
g x
= in
0
0
form as conditions of
L’Hopital’s Rule would have been applicable, but the difficult route was taken to demonstrate an
application of Cauchy’s mean value theorem
Example3 :Find
2 3
lim
1 2 3 4
x x
x x x
e
÷·
+ + +
Page 236 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 26
This is in
·
·
form . Then
2 3 2
lim lim lim lim
1 2 3 4 2 6 12 6 24 24
0
x x x x x x x x
x x x x x x
e e e e
÷· ÷· ÷· ÷·
+ + + + + +
= = = =
by repeatedly applying the theorem.
§20: Indeterminate form∞- ∞
When both the limits ( )
Lim
x a
h x
÷
= · and ( )
Lim
x a
g x
÷
= ·,for calculating ( ) ( )
( )
Lim
x a
h x g x
÷
÷ , we may write
( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) { }
2
1 1
( )
1
g x h x
h x g x
g x h x
÷
÷ = and see if L’Hopital’s rule apply.
Example4 :Find
( )
lim
2
1 1
ln 1 2
x
x x
÷
(
÷
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
Just a simplification reduces it to
0
0
form. We have
( )
( )
( )( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
lim lim
2 2
lim
2
lim
2
lim
2
2 ln 1
1 1 0
ln 1 2 ln 1 2 0
1
1
1
0 . .
1
ln 1 .1 2
1
1 1
1 ln 1 2
1 1 1
1
1 . 1.ln 1 1
1
x x
x
x
x
x x
is now in form
x x x x
x
on differentiating both numm and denum
x x
x
x
x x x
x x
x
÷ ÷
÷
÷
÷
( ( ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ =
( (
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
(
÷
÷
(
=
(
÷ + ÷
(
÷
¸ ¸
(
÷ ÷
=
(
÷ ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
÷ ÷
=
÷ + ÷ +
÷
lim
2
, 0 .
1 1
1 ln1 1 2
x
again on differentiating both numm and denum
÷
(
(
(
¸ ¸
÷ (
= = ÷
(
+ +
¸ ¸
§21: Indeterminate form 0
0
, ∞
0
, 1

etc.
Let ( ) ( )
( ) g x
y x f x = and we have to consider ( )
Lim
x a
y x
÷
when ( ) 0
Lim
x a
f x
÷
= and ( ) 0
Lim
x a
g x
÷
=
We have ( ) ln ln ( ) y g x f x = . Since ( ) 0
Lim
x a
f x
÷
= , ln ( )
Lim
x a
f x
÷
= ÷·. So our ( ) ln ln ( ) y g x f x = is in
0.∞ form and ln
Lim
x a
y
÷
may be calculated if conditions of L’Hospital’s Rule apply. Once this is done,
Lim
x a
y
÷
is known.
Example5 :
Find ( )
0
Lim x
x
y x x
÷
= . This is in 0
0
form
Page 237 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 27
We have ln ln y x x = , so that
0
0
0 0 0 0
0 2
0
1
ln
ln ln 0
1 1
Lim
Lim
x
Lim Lim Lim Lim x
x x x x
Lim
x Lim
x
x
x
y x x x
x x
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷
= = = = ÷ =
÷
. Don’t stop
here. Now ( )
ln ln 0
0 0 ln 0
1
Lim Lim y Lim y
x x y
y x e e e
÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = (verify whether conditions of L’Hopital’s Rule apply
at each step)
Example6 :
Find ( )
tan
2
sin
Lim x
x
y x x
t
÷
= . This is in 1

form.
We have ln tan lnsin y x x = , so that the last expression is in ∞.0 form. Now
2 2
2
2 2 2 2 2
2 2
1
lnsin .cos
sin
ln tan lnsin cos sin 0.1 0
cot cos
Lim Lim
x x
Lim Lim Lim Lim Lim
Lim Lim
x x x x x
x x
x x
x
y x x x x
x ec x
t t
÷ ÷
t t t t t
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
t t
÷ ÷
= = = = ÷ = =
÷
So ( )
0
2
1
Lim
x
y x e
t
÷
= =
Example7 :
Find
lim
1
1
x
x
x
÷·
| |
+
|
\ .
in the form 1

.
Previously we have calculated it to be e
x
. Now, let
1
( ) 1
x
y x
x
| |
= +
|
\ .
so that
1
ln 1
ln ( )
1
x
y x
x
| |
+
|
\ .
= is in
0
0
form. Then
1
lim lim
2
lim
lim lim
2
1 1 1
ln 1 1
ln ( ) 1
1 1
x x
x
x x
x x x
y x
x x
÷
÷· ÷·
÷·
÷· ÷·
| | | | | |
+ + ÷
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
= = =
| |
÷
|
\ .
Hence ,
lim
1
1
x
x
x
÷·
| |
+
|
\ .
= e, confirmation of our derivation earlier.
Example7 :
Find
sin
0
limln sin 2
x
x
x
÷
. Ans. Evidently the limit exists only when x >0.
sin
0 0 0 0 0 0
1 2 2
2cos2 cos2
lnsin2 cos2
sin2 sin2 sin2
limln sin2 lim lim lim lim lim 1.1 1
1
lnsin cos
cos cos
sin sin sin
x
x x x x x x
x x
x x
x x
x x x
x
x x
x x
x x
x x x
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = = =
Example8 :
Page 238 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 28
Find
sin
0
lim
x
x
x
÷
for x > 0. Ans.
( )
( )
2
0
0 0 0
1
sin 0
ln
lim 1
lim lim lim sin ln
sin ln sin 0 cos 1
cos cos cot
0 0
lim lim 1
x
x x x
x x
x
x
x x
x x x x x
ecx ecx x
x x
x e e e e e e e
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
| | | | | |
÷ ÷
| | |
\ . \ . \ . ÷
÷ ÷
= = = = = = = =
§23: The indeterminate form ∞ - ∞
To find
( ) ( ) lim
x a
F x f x
÷
÷ (
¸ ¸
when both
( ) ( ) lim lim
x a x a
F x f x
÷ ÷
= · =
we can calculate
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1 1
lim
lim
1 1
lim
x a
x a
x a
f x F x
F x f x
f x F x
÷
÷
÷
(
÷
(
¸ ¸
÷ = (
¸ ¸
which is in
0
0
form.
§24: Indeterminate form using Taylor’s theorem;
Often it is convenient to use power series expansion to fix indeterminate forms.
Example 9:
Find
( )
( )
Lim
x a
f x
g x
÷
, when ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1
, , ,........................... 0, 0,
n n
f x f x f x upto f x f x
÷
= = ,
and ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 1
, , ,........................... 0, 0,
n n
g x g x g x upto g x g x
÷
= = and ( ) ( )
1 2
, f x f x denote
derivatives of f(x) of 1
st
, 2
nd
etc. order
By Taylor’s theorem in remainder form
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
1 2 3
1
.............
2! 3! !
n
n
h h h
f a h f a hf a f a f a f a h
n
+ = + + + + + +u and
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 3
1 3
2
.............
2! 3! !
n
n
h h h
g a h g a hg a a g a g a h
n
+ = + + + + + +u for some 0<
2
u <1.
So that,
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
1
1
2
2
!
!
n
n
n
n n
n
h
f a h
f a h f a h
n
h g a h g a h
g a h
n
+
+ +
= =
+ +
+
u
u
u
u
. Taking the limits 0 h ÷ both sides and
remembering x a h = + we have,
( )
( )
( )
( )
n
Lim
x a n
f x f a
g x g a
÷
=
Example10
Analyze continuity and differentiability of
( )
2
1
1
sin 0
x
f x e for x
x
÷
| |
= =
|
\ .
and
( ) 0 0 f =
Differentiating,
( )
2
1
3
1 1
' 2sin cos 0
x
e
f x x if x
x x x
÷
| |
= ÷ =
|
\ .
and
( )
2
1
0
1
sin 0
' 0 lim
x
x
e
x
f
x
÷
÷
÷
=
Page 239 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 29
Since
2
1
2
1
x
e
x
>
, then
( )
2
1
2
1
sin 0
.1
' 0 0
x
e
x
x
x f
x x
÷
÷
< = ¬ =
When
0 x =
,
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 1
3 3
1 1
' ' 0 2sin cos 2
x x
e e
f x f x x
x x x x
÷ ÷
| |
÷ = ÷ s +
|
\ .
As
4
1
4
1
2
x
e
x
>
, we have,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
0
' ' 0 2 2 lim ' ' 0 0
x
f x f x x f x f
÷
÷ s + ¬ ÷ =
so that
( ) ' f x
is
continuous at x = 0. So the function is continuous and derivable at every point.
Now, for
( )
2
2 1
x
n t
=
+
,
( ) ' f x
is positive or negative according as n is even or odd, it must vanish
at least once between
( )
2 1
,
2 1 n n t t
(
(
+
¸ ¸
.i.e., it vanishes infinite times in any small interval around 0.
Example11
Show that
lim 0
m
x
x
x
e
o
÷·
=
for m > 0, α > 0.
Take
( )
m
f x x =
,
( )
x
g x e
o
=
and [m] = n , the greatest positive integer not greater than m.
And see that
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) lim , lim ' , lim '' ,.......... , lim , lim ' , lim '' ,..........
x x x x x x
f x f x f x all g x g x g x all
÷· ÷· ÷· ÷· ÷· ÷·
÷· ÷·
And
( )
( )
1
1
lim 0
n
n
x
f x
g x
+
+
÷·
÷
, so,
lim 0
m
x
x
x
e
o
÷·
=
Example12
Show that there is one and only one positive root of cos x = 0 between x = 0 and x = 2 and it is π/2.
We know
cos 0 0
2
x for x
t
> s s
,
cos0 1 =
and
2 4 6 2 2 6 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1
cos 2 1 ............... 1 1 1 ......... 1 1
2! 4! 6! 2! 3.4 6! 7.8 2! 3.4 3
| | | | | |
= ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ < ÷ ÷ = ÷
| | |
\ . \ . \ .
, So
there exists one number α between 0 and 2 so that
cos 0 o =
evidently
2
t
o =
.
Page 240 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 30
To prove uniqueness, let
cos 0, , 0 2 and | | o | = = < <
. Applying Rolle’s theorem for cos x
in [α, β] , there is a point in the interval for which the derivative - sinx = 0. But this is impossible and
hence there is no other root of cos x = 0 other than
2
t
o =
in [0, 2].
Exercise48
Show that a)
( ) ln
lim 0
m
x
x
x
o
÷·
=
b)
( )
0
lim ln 0
m
x
x x
o
÷ +
÷
Exercise49
Show that the function
( )
2
1
x
f x e
÷
=
possesses continuous derivatives of every order at x = 0, but still
cannot be expanded in Maclaurin’s series.
(hint . all derivatives are 0)
§25: Value of n-th derivative at x = 0 without differentiating repeatedly
Exercise50
Find
( )
1
sin
0
n
m x
n
x
d
e
dx
÷
=
.
Let
1
sin m x
y e
÷
= . Then
( )
1
sin 2 2 2 2
1 1
2
1
1
m x
m
y e x y m y
x
÷
= ¬ ÷ =
÷
. On differentiation,
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2
1 2 1 1 2 1
1 2 2 2 1 x y y xy m yy x y xy m y ÷ ÷ = ¬ ÷ ÷ =
Applying Leibnitz’s theorem,
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 1
2 2 2
2 1
1 2 1
1 2 1 0
n n n n n n
n n n
x y nxy n n y xy ny m y
x y n xy m n y
+ + +
+ +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
¬ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + =
At x = 0, ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
0 0
n n
y n m y
+
= + . Also
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 3 1
0 1, 0 , 0 , 0 1 0 1 y y m y m y m y m m = = = = + = +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )( )
2 2 2 2 2
4 2
2 2 2 2 2
5 3
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
6 4
0 2 0 2
0 3 0 1 3
0 4 0 2 4
y m y m m
y m y m m m
y m y m m m
= + = +
= + = + +
= + = + +
So, in general
( )
( )( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 2 2 2
2 4 ....... 2
0
1 3 ............ 2
n
m m m n m for n even
y
m m m n m for n odd
¦ (
+ + ÷ +
¦ ¸ ¸
=
´
(
+ + ÷ + ¦
¸ ¸ ¹
Exercise51
Page 241 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 31
Find the limits applying L’ Hopitals’ rule as many times as applicable and as necessary.
Hint. Take out of them
0
sin
lim 1
x
x
x
÷
= of
0
tan
lim 1
x
x
x
÷
= if necessary; it would sometimes save from
repeated differentiation.
a)
0
sinh
lim
cos sin
x
x x
x x x
÷
÷
÷
b)
2
1
1 2
1
lim
2tan
x
x
e
x t
÷
÷·
÷
÷
c)
( )
1
3
1
1 1 2
lim
2
x
x
x x
÷÷
+ +
+ +
d)
( )
2
0
lim
ln 1
ax ax
x
e e
x
÷
÷
÷
+
e)
( )
2
2
0
sin 3
lim
ln cos 2
x
x
x x
÷
÷
f)
2
1
1 ln
lim
1 2
x
x x
x x
÷
+ ÷
÷ +
( )
0
2ln 1
lim
sin
x x
x
e e x
x x
÷
÷
÷ ÷ +
g)
0
2
lim
sin
x x
x
e e x
x x
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
h)
2
1
1 2
1
lim
2tan
x
x
e
x t
÷
÷·
÷
÷
i)
( )
2
0
ln 1
lim
cos3
x
x
x
x e
÷
÷
+
÷
j)
( )
2
0
ln 1
lim
x
x
xe x
x
÷
÷ +
k)
( )
2
0
ln 1
lim
lncos
x
x
x
÷
÷
l)
( )
0
lim
ln 1
ax ax
x
e e
bx
÷
÷
÷
+
k)
2
2
1
2
cos
lim
2
x
x
x
e ex
t
÷ ÷
l) ( )
2
0
1 1
lim ln 1
x
x
x x
÷
(
÷ +
(
¸ ¸
m)
( )
2
2
0
sin
lim
ln 1
x
x
e x x x
x x x
÷
÷ ÷
+ ÷
n)
0
cosh cos
lim
sin
x
x x
x x
÷
÷
o)
2
2
0
2cos 2
lim
sin
x
x x
x x
÷
+ ÷
p)
2 2
2 2
0
tan
lim
tan
x
x x
x x
÷
÷
q)
( )
0
sin ln cos
lim
sin
x
x
x e x
x x
÷
÷
r)
2
2
0
sin2 2sin 2sin
lim
cos cos
x
x x x
x x
÷
+ ÷
÷
s) ( )
0
limln 1 cot
x
x x t
÷
÷
t)
( )
2
0
1 sin cos ln 1
lim
tan
x
x x x
x x
÷
+ ÷ + ÷
u)
( )
2
1 1
lim
2 ln 1
x
x x
÷
(
÷
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
v)
2
0
1 1
lim
1
x
x x
÷
| |
÷
|
÷
\ .
w) ( )
2
1
0
lim cos
x
x
x
÷
x) ( ) lim
x a
x a
x a
÷
÷
÷ y)
0
lim
x
x
x
÷
z)
1
1
1
lim
x
x
x
÷
÷
A pitfall
Apply L’ Hospital’s rule in the following to fall in a loop. Calculate the limits direct otherwise.
a)
2
sec
lim
tan
x
x
x
t
÷
b)
2
sin
lim
1
sin
x
x
x
x
÷·
c)
2
0
1
sin
lim
sin
x
x
x
x
÷
d)
2
tan
lim
sec
x
x
x
t
÷
Exercise52
For what values of a and b the
( )
3
0
1 cos sin
lim 1
x
x a x b x
x
÷
÷ ÷
= ?
Page 242 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 32
Exercise53
Find the following limits:
a)
ln
1
lim
ln
x
x
a x
x
÷
÷
b) ( )
sin2
0
lim cot
x
x
x
÷
c)
tan
0
1
lim
x
x
x
÷
| |
|
\ .
d)
1
0
2 1
lim
1
x
x
x
x
÷
÷
+ | |
|
+
\ .
e)
( )
2
2
2
ln 3
lim
3 10
x
x
x x
÷
÷
+ ÷
f) ( )
cot
0
lim 1 sin
x
x
x
÷
+ g)
1
lim 1 , 0
x
x
a x a
÷·
| |
÷ >
|
\ .
h) ( )
tan
2
lim sin
x
x
x
t
÷
i)
1
1
lim
ln ln
x
x
x x
÷
| |
÷
|
\ .
j)
2
0
sinh
lim
x
x
x
x
÷
÷
| |
|
\ .
k)
2
0
lim cosh 1
x
a
x
x
÷
| |
÷
|
\ .
l)
2 1
1 ln
lim
1 2
x
x x
x x
÷
÷ +
÷ ÷
m)
2
1
lim ln 1
x
x x
x
÷·
( | |
÷ +
| (
\ . ¸ ¸
n) lim 1 1
x x
x
a a
x
x x
÷
÷·
(
| | | |
÷ ÷ +
(
| |
\ . \ .
(
¸ ¸
o)
2
2
0
1
lim cot
x
x
x
÷
| |
÷
|
\ .
p)
( )
( ) ( )
'
1
lim
x a
f x
f x f a x a
÷
(
÷
(
÷ ÷
¸ ¸
q) ( )
2
0
lim cos
n
x
x
mx
÷
r)
1
1 2
0
............
lim
x x x
x
n
x
a a a
n
÷
| | + +
|
\ .
s)
0
tan
lim
sin
x
x x
x x
÷
÷
÷
t) ( )
tan
0
lim lncot
x
x
x
÷ +
u)
( )
1
limsin cot
x a
x a
x a
a
÷
÷
÷
÷ v)
( )
1
0
1
lim
x
x
x e
x
÷
+ ÷
Exercise54
Show that
( )
( ) 0 0
n
f for all n =
if
( )
( )
2
1
0
0 0
x
f x e for x
f
÷ ¦
¦
= =
´
¦ =
¹
Exercise55
Compare the order of largeness between the two functions ( )
n
f x x = and ( ) log
a
F x x = when they
tend to infinity.
Hint. Show that
log
lim 0
a
n
x
x
x
÷·
= , so that ( ) log
a
F x x = tends to infinity faster.
Exercise56
Prove the Taylor’s formula if ( ) f x is continuous and has continuous derivatives of order 1, 2,….upto
n -1, in the interval [a, b], then
( ) ( ) ( )( ) ( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 n-1 n
n-1 n
x - a x - a x - a
f x =f a +f' a x - a +f'' a .......f a +f a +
θ
x - a
2! n- 1 ! n!
where0 1 u < <
This is expansion of a function ( ) f x around a point ‘a’.
Page 243 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 33
Hint. use Taylor’s theorem and put x – a = h .
Exercise57
Applying Taylor’s formula as above in Lagrange’s form expand ( )
5 4 3 2
2 2 1 f x x x x x x = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ in
powers of 1 x ÷ .
Hint. Find ( ) ( ) ' , '' .......... . 1 f x f x etc for x = and use above formula to get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
3 4 5
3 1 3 1 1 f x x x x = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ (other terms are 0 each)
§26: Method of undetermined coefficients.
Apart from Taylor’s method of expansion, a quite simple and general method is the method of
undetermined coefficients. See the following example.
Example14
To expand
( ) ln 1 x +
, where
1 x <
Assume
( )
2
0 1 2
ln 1 .............. x a a x a x + = + + +
where we have to determine the coefficients.
By differentiation,
2
1 2 3
1
2 3 ...............
1
a a x a x
x
= + +
+
, i.e.,
( ) ( )
2
1 2 3
1 1 2 3 ............... x a a x a x = + + +
which is nothing but an identity and coefficients of similar
powers of x in both sides should be equal. Multiplying and equating the coefficients, we see that
1
1 a =
, being coefficients of
0
x
both sides. Since other terms on the left side are all 0,
By making the coefficient of x equal from both sides ,
1 2 2 2
1
2 0 1 2 0
2
a a a a + = ¬ + = ¬ = ÷
. In this
process we can proceed step by step and find the series expansion of
( ) ln 1 x +
if
1 x <
.
Also we can arrive at a recurrence relation
( )
1
1 0
n n
na n a
+
+ + =
, putting coefficient of
n
x
equal to 0,
as each term except the 1st on the left side is 0, and successively solving the recurrence relation we
can construct the entire series as
( )
2 3
ln 1 1 ...................... x x x x + = ÷ + ÷ +
if
1 x <
.
Exercise58
Find expansion of
sin
tan
cos
x
x
x
=
Hint. let
2
0 1 2
tan ..... x a a x a x = + + + where we have to determine the coefficients.
We have
3 5
2
0 1 2 2 3
.........
sin
3! 5!
tan .....
cos
1 .........
2! 3!
x x
x
x
x a a x a x
x x x
÷ +
= + + + = =
÷ + +
Or,
( )
2 3 3 5
2
0 1 2
..... 1 ......... .........
2! 3! 3! 5!
x x x x
a a x a x x
| |
+ + + ÷ + + = ÷ +
|
\ .
Now you could equate the coefficients of similar powers of x from both sides,
And get
3 5
2
tan ................
3 15
x x
x x = + +
Page 244 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 34
Instead of method of undetermined coefficients, you can expand functions by algebraic method also,
e.g., using binomial theorem, simple division, partial fraction, reversal of series etc.
Exercise59
If
n
s is the sum of 1
st
n natural numbers, show that ( )
3
2
1 2 3
1 ................ 1 x s s x s x if x
÷
÷ = + + + <
Exercise60
Expand
2
2 4
1
3 9
x x
÷
| |
÷ +
|
\ .
, or otherwise find out coefficient of
8
x in the expansion of
the same and find on what condition the series so obtained is convergent.
Exercise61
Given that
( )
2 2
0 1 2
1 .......... ................
n
p np
np
x x x a a x a x a x + + + = + + +
Show that ( )
0 1 2
................ 1
n
np
a a a a p + + + = +
Show that
( )
1 2 3
1
2 3 ................ . 1
2
n
np
a a a np a np p + + + = +
Exercise62
Using Maclaurin’s series in remainder form, expand ( ) ln 1 x + upto 9
th
power of x and remainder
involving
10
x in the domain [0, 1]. Give an idea of the error if remainder is ignored.
Hint. Find the derivatives of ( ) ln 1 x + of orders 1, 2, 3,……upto 10 at x = 0. Then as per
Maclaurin’s formula,
( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
10
2 3 9
10
10 10
ln 1 ......... , , 1
2 3 9 10!
f x x x
x x R x where R x x
ç
ç + = ÷ + ÷ + = <
( )
( )
( )
( ) ( )
10
10
10 10
10 10 10
9! 1
10! 10
10! 1 10 1
f
x
R x x x
ç
ç ç
= = ÷ = <
+ +
.
Exercise63
Expand the following functions in the ascending powers of x , and find the region of convergence.
a)
( )
2
1
sin x
÷
, b) ( ) sin
x
e bx c)
x
a d) sinh x e) cosh x
f)
2
1
1 x +
g)
x
e in powers of 1 x ÷ , h)
2
1
1 x x ÷ +
Exercise64
Show that
2
1 1
1 1 1
2 2 8
x
x x x + > + > + ÷ , Hint. expand ( )
1
2
1 x + as
( )
2
1
1
2
x R x + + and
( )
2
3
1 1 1
1 1
2 2 2
x x R x
| |
+ + ÷ +
|
\ .
and compare.
Exercise65
Verify the following identities.
a)
( ) ( ) ( )
2 3 1 1
ln 1 1 1 .............
2 3
x x x x = ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
Page 245 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 35
b)
2 4
1 5
sec 1 .....................
2 24
x x x = + +
c)
3
2
sin ................
3
x
x
e x x x = + + +
d) ( )
2 3
1
ln 1 ................
2 6
x x x
x x
+
+ = + ÷
e)
( )
2 3 4
2
2
ln 1 ................
2 3 4
x x x
x x x ÷ + = ÷ + + +
f)
( )
3
2 3
3.4 3.4.5
1 1 3 ..............
1.2 1.2.3
x x x x
÷
÷ = + + +
Hint, Differentiate ( )
1
2 3
1 1 ........ x x x x
÷
÷ = + + + twice.
Exercise66
A power series of finite number of terms may represent
x
e approximately. Estimate how many terms
of the power series may be retained for
x
e so that it is accurate to three decimal places in the
interval [ –1, 1].
Hint. Calculate ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 , ' 0 , " 0 ........ f f f etc. all are 1 . now consider the remainder ( )
n
R x in
Maclaurin’s series
( )
3
0.001
! ! !
n
x
n
x e
R x e
n n n
u
= < < <
as per requirement of the problem , where
1, 1 x and u < < . Now
3
0.001
! n
< gives n > 7.
Exercise67
Show that :
a) ( )
1
2 3
1 11 7
1 1 .........
2 24 16
x
x e x x x
| |
+ = ÷ + ÷
|
\ .
b)
3 5
2
1 1 3
ln 1 ........
2 3 2 4 5
x x
x x x
(
+ + = ÷ + ÷
¸ ¸
c)
2 4 6
2 16
lnsec ..........
2! 4! 6!
x x x
x = + + + d)
2 3
lnsin .....................
2 6
x x
x x = ÷ + ÷
e) ( )
2
sin sin cos
2!
h
h h o o o + ÷ ÷ < hint. ( )
2
sin sin cos sin , 1
2!
h
h h o o o ç ç + = + ÷ <
Exercise68
Show that
3
tan 0
3 2
x
x x for x
t
+ < s s
Exercise69
Calculate approximately
a)
0
cos 5 up to 5 places of decimal.
Hint. Use ( ) ( )
2 4 2
cos 1 ..... 1
2! 4! 2 !
n
n
n
x x x
x R x
n
= ÷ + ÷ ÷ + . Now
0
cos5 cos
36
t
= ,
2
36
0.003808
2!
t | |
|
\ .
=
Page 246 / 681
This section is not a part of the preview.
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 36
( )
2
4 2
6 1 36 36
2.4 10
4! 6 2!
t t
÷
| |
| | | |
|
| |
\ . \ .
|
= =
|
|
\ .
. So
( ) ( )
4
6
4
4
cos
2.4 10
4! 4!
x x
R x x
u ÷
= < <
So
0
cos 5 cos 1 0.00381 0.99619
36
t
= ~ ÷ =
b)
0
sin 20 upto 5 places of decimal
Exercise70
Find the range in which the approximate expansion
2 4
cos 1
2! 4!
x x
x = ÷ + would have an error less than
0.00005.
Hint.
( )
6
6
6
cos
0.00005 0.575
6! 6!
x x
R x x x
u ÷
= < s ¬ s
Exercise71
Expand the functions and show that
a)
2 3
1 1 1
1 ...........
1 2 12 720
x
x
x x x
e
= ÷ + ÷
÷
b)
2 3
tan
1 .............
2 6
x
x x
e x = + + ÷
c)
2 3
sin
1 .............
2 8
x
x x
e x = + + ÷
d)
( )
2 4
5
sin 1 ........
2 24
x
x x
e x ÷ = + ÷
Hint. Use the known series
2 3
1 ..........
2! 3!
x
x x
e x = + + + , so that , let 1
x
e y ÷ =
So
3 5
2 3 2 3
3 5 2 3
2 4
..... .....
2! 3! 2! 3!
sin ...... .......... ...........
3! 5! 2! 3! 3! 5!
5
..............................
2 24
x x x x
x x
y y x x
y y x
x x
x
| | | |
+ + + +
| |
| |
\ . \ .
= ÷ + ÷ = + + ÷ +
|
\ .
= + ÷
e)
( )
2 2 3 5
1 1 1
1 cos ln 1 ..........
2 3 5
x x x x x x x ÷ + = ÷ ÷
exercise72
Expand
lnsin x
in ascending powers of
3 x ÷
Hint. ( ) ( )
lnsin lnsin 3 3 x x = + ÷
Exercise73
Find the limits of the following by expanding the functions, or applying L’Hopital’s rule or otherwise,
combining the methods and show that:
Page 247 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 37
a)
cos
0
lim 3
sin
x x x
x
e e
x x
÷
÷
=
÷
b)
sin
0
lim 1
sin
x x x
x
e e
x x
÷
÷
=
÷
c)
2
0
2
lim
x x
x
e e
x
÷
÷
+ ÷
d)
2
4
0
1 1 cos
lim
tan
x
x x
x
÷
÷ +
e)
3
0
sin 1
lim
6
x
x x
x
÷
÷
= f)
( )
sin
3
0
1
lim
x x
x
e x x
x
÷
÷ +
g)
2
2
4
0
cos
lim
x
x
x e
x
÷
÷
÷
h)
3
2
0
1 3 1 2
lim
x
x x
x
÷
+ ÷ +
Exercise74
Show that
( )
2
ln 1 0
2
x
x x x if x > + > ÷ >
Hint. Use Maclaurin’s formula
( )
( )
2
2
ln 1
2 1
x
x x
ç
+ = ÷
+
and
( )
( )
2 3
2
ln 1
2
3 1
x x
x x
q
+ = ÷ +
+
for 2nd and
3rd term approximation.
Exercise75
Show that
( ) ( )
0
ln 5 ln 5 2
lim
5
x
x x
x
÷
+ ÷ ÷
= . Hint expand the functions.
Exercise76
The polynomial
1
0 1 1
......................... 0
n n
n
a x a x a
÷
÷
+ + + = has a positive root. Show that
( )
1 2
0 1 1
1 ......................... 0
n n
n
na x n a x a
÷ ÷
÷
+ ÷ + + = has also a positive root less than
0
x
Exercise77
Find
( )
2
0
tan2 2 tan
lim
1 cos2
x
x x x x
x
÷
÷
÷
.
Ans. : Expanding the functions,
( )
( )
2 3 5 5 3 5
2 2
2 0 0
2 2
2 2 ... 2 2 ...
3 5 3 5 tan2 2 tan
lim lim
1 cos2
2sin
x x
x x x x
x x x x
x x x x
x
x
÷ ÷
| | | |
+ + + ÷ + + +
| |
÷
\ . \ .
=
÷
4 6 2
4
4 4
3 5 2 4 0 0
4
8 2 64 4 8 2 64 4
8 2
.... ....
1
3 3 15 15 3 3 15 15
3 3
lim lim
4 2
4 ...... 4 1 ......
3 5 3 5
x x
x x x
x
x x x x
x x
÷ ÷
| | | | | | | |
÷ + ÷ + ÷ + ÷ +
÷ | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
= = = =
| | | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
| |
\ . \ .
Exercise78
If
( )
2 3
2 3 4
0
sin 2
lim
2 ln 1 2
x
a x bx cx x
x x x x
÷
÷ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ +
is finite, find a,b, c, .
Page 248 / 681
4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 38
Hint :
( )
( )
3 5
2 3
2 3
2 3 4 2 3
0 0
2 3 4
5
2 3
0
5 6
... 2
3! 5! sin 2
lim lim
2 ln 1 2
2 .... 2
2 3
2 ....
3! 5!
lim
2 1
.....
3 2
x x
x
x x
a x bx cx x
a x bx cx x
x x x x x x
x x x x
a x
a b x cx x a
x x
÷ ÷
÷
| |
÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷
|
÷ ÷ ÷
\ .
=
+ ÷ + | |
÷ + ÷ ÷ +
|
\ .
| |
÷ ÷ ÷ + +
|
\ .
=
÷ +
.
If this is finite, then, taking
5
x common in the denominator, we have,
0, 0, 2 ,
3!
a
a b c ÷ = = + i.e., 12, 0 a b c = = = .
Exercise79
Show that
( )
0
lim cos 1
x
x
ecx
÷
=
.Ans. Let
( )
0
lim cos
x
x
ecx K
÷
=
,
then
( ) ( )
( )
0 0 0
2
0 0
2
cos
limln cos ln lim ln cos ln limln ln
1
1 cos cot
lim ln lim 0 ln 1
1
cos tan
x
x x x
x x
ecx
ecx K x ecx K K
x
ecx x x
K K K
ecx x
x
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= ¬ = ¬ =
÷
¬ = ¬ = = ¬ =
÷
Exercise80
Show that
( )
0
lim sin 1
x
x
x
÷
=
.Ans. If
( )
0
lim sin
x
x
x K
÷
=
,
then
( ) ( )
( )
2
0 0 0 0 0
2
1
cos
ln sin
sin
ln limln sin lim ln sin lim lim lim 0 1
1 1
tan
x
x x x x x
x
x x
x
K x x x K
x
x x
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = = = = = ¬ =
÷
Exercise81
Find the derivative of the polynomial ( ) ( )( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1 2 3 f x x x x x = + ÷ ÷ ÷ and show that it has three
real roots.
Ex82: Given that
( )
0
lim 1
x
f x
x
÷
= and
( )
( ) ( )
3
0
1 cos sin
lim 1
x
x a x b x
f x
÷
+ ÷
= , find a and b.
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4Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D Section 2: Limit, Continuity And Differentiation
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams)
Chapter 14: Mean Value Theorems And Taylor’s Series And Applications of Differentiation
© Page 39
Ans.
( )
( ) ( ) ( )
2 4 6 3 5
3 3
0 0
3
1 1 ... .......
2! 4! 6! 3! 5! 1 cos sin
lim 1 lim
x x
x x x x x
x a b x
x a x b x
f x f x
x
x
÷ ÷
| | | | | |
+ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷
| | |
+ ÷
\ . \ . \ .
= ¬
| |
|
\ .
using
( )
0
lim 1
x
f x
x
÷
=
2 2
2
0
1 9
lim 1
2! 3! 4! 5!
x
a b a b b
x higher powers of x
x
÷
| + ÷ | | | | | | |
= + ÷ + + ÷ + =
| | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ .
( Given)
For the limit to exist , we must have 1 0 a b + ÷ = and 1
2! 3!
a b
÷ + = , comparing coefficients in LHS and
RHS.
Solving the equations, we get,
5 3
,
2 2
a b = ÷ = ÷ .
Exercise83
If ( ) ( ) f x and F x are two continuous functions equal to each other at all rational points, show
that they are equal to each other at all points.
Hint. between any two rational numbers there is an irrational number and vice versa.
Exercise84
If ( ) ( ) f x and F x are two continuous functions whose derivatives are equal to each other at all
rational points, show that they are equal to each other at all points.
Thought for you
A transcendental function such as cos x , sin x etc. is an infinite converging power series, as
visualized through Taylor’s series or from lessons of Trigonometry. Can a polynomial i.e., a finite
power series approximate it ? In other words can a given transcendental function and a polynomial
of degree n , agree at a number of points. The answer seems to be yes. Not only an ‘yes’, the
polynomial so found shall be unique, for a particular n; and the process is called interpolation.
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 1
CHAPTER15: CO-ORDINATES AND VECTORS
§1: Coordinates of a point.
Rene Des’ Cartes’ , an ailing boy, developed Coordinate Geometry while lying confined to bed
and watching a spider moving about its cobweb to catch its trapped prey. Although , according to
some, Fermat had proved many results of Coordinate Geometry earlier , the time was that of a great
social turbulence known as the renaissance period in the History of France or the French revolution
and Des’ Cartes’ came to be known as the inventor of Coordinate Geometry. However, details of
History is not our point and we should have enough respect for either of them.
In the plane of the paper we fix a point for reference O, called the origin of coordinates and
two intersecting straight lines XOX’ and YOY’ intersecting at O at right angles. Such a system of
reference is called a rectangular
©
Cartesian system of coordinates. If a particular point P in this plane
is reached by going through a distance ‘a’ from the origin towards X-direction (towards the right) from
the origin O and then going through a distance ‘b’ in Y-direction (upwards from there), then the
coordinates of the point P with reference to the set axes and origin are denoted by the ordered pair
(a, b) and b are called x-coordinate (called the abscissa) and y-coordinate (called the ordinate) of
the point P. The point P is written as P(a, b).The point is unique if and b are given numbers. and b are
lengths of perpendiculars from the point on the x-axis and y-axis respectively.
§2: Coordinate Geometry in three dimensions:
A point in three dimensional space can be represented by an ordered triplet (a, b, c) where a,
b and c are lengths of perpendiculars from the point on the yz plane, xz plane and xy plane

©
If the angle between them is not a right angle, the system is called oblique Cartesian coordinate system. Majority of results of rectangular
system also hold good in oblique coordinate system with suitable modifications.
Y’
Q(c, d)
T
Y
Fig. 1.4.1a:rectangular coordinates
X’
P(a, b)
O R S
X
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 2
respectively. The point can be reached by proceeding through a distance a (= OR) from the origin O
of reference system along the rectangular Cartesian coordinate x-axis in the direction of X, then
through a distance b (= RQ) in the direction of Y, parallel to Y-axis and then through a distance c (=
QP) in direction of Z parallel to Z axis where the three axes perpendicular to each other meeting at O.
The convention is that the axes are mutually perpendicular in the sense that, if fingers of right hand
point straight in the direction of X, then turned towards the direction of Y making a fist, then the thumb
pointing upwards from the fist should be in the direction of Z.
In contrast with two dimensional Coordinate Geometry, if perpendiculars are dropped from the point
on the axes of X, Y an Z their lengths are not the lengths of the coordinates ! (verify from the figure
1.5a that PT, the perpendicular from the point on z-axis = OQ = \(OR
2
+RQ
2
) = \(x
2
+y
2
) = z). Actually,
the perpendicular from the point on xy-plane, is the z-coordinate if this plane passes through the
origin. Similar statement may be made for x and y coordinates.
But the distance of the point from the origin OP = \(PQ
2
+OQ
2
) = \(PQ
2
+OR
2
+RQ
2
)
= \(x
2
+y
2
+z
2
), similar formula as in two dimensions.
§3: Distance between two points: In two dimensions
In the figure above, in a typical rectangular Cartesian coordinate system two points P(a, b)
and Q(c, d) are shown joined to each other and to the Origin O.
a = OS, b = PS, c = OR , d = QR = TS. The moduli (plural of modulus) of P and Q are
OP = \( a
2
+b
2
), OQ = \( c
2
+d
2
),
the distance PQ =(( a – c)
2
+(b – d)
2
).
§4: Distance between two points: In three dimensions:
Let P(x
1,
y
1
, z
1
) and Q(x
2,
y
2
, z
2
) are any two points with coordinates (x
1,
y
1
, z
1
) and
(x
2,
y
2
, z
2
) respectively as in fig. Fig.1.5b . Drop perpendiculars PT and QS on the
xy-plane and let PR be the perpendicular on QS. Drop perpendiculars TU and SV on the x-axis and
let UW be the perpendicular on SV.
We have RS =PT = z
1,
QR = QS –SR = QS – PT = z
2
– z
1
and PR = TS
= \{(x
2
– x
1
)
2
+(y
2
– y
1
)
2
} as in two dimensions.
So PQ
2
= PR
2
+ RQ
2
= TS
2
+RQ
2
= [\{(x
2
– x
1
)
2
+(y
2
– y
1
)
2
}]
2
+ (z
2
– z
1
)
2
Or , (x
2
– x
1
)
2
+(y
2
– y
1
)
2
+ (z
2
– z
1
)
2
So the distance = {(x
2
– x
1
)
2
+(y
2
– y
1
)
2
+ (z
2
– z
1
)
2
}.
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 3
§5: Polar Coordinates :
In the same figure, instead of the X and Y axes of coordinates, if we keep the fixed point O
(called the pole) and the fixed line OX, called the initial line, we can reach the points P by advancing
through a distance r from O in X direction, and then turning through an angle u anticlockwise = angle
XOP. Thus the point P is uniquely determined here also with polar coordinates, (r , u) , the system of
coordinates being called polar coordinate system. In this system the line OX is called the initial line
and the angle is called the vectorial angle.
If (x , y) be the coordinates of some point in rectangular system and (r , u) be the coordinates
of the same point in polar system, we can easily change the system of coordinates from one to the
other easily.
You never need cramming the equations in the study of Calculus, nor the process which
generated it. It is just needed to understand that a curve is the locus or path of a point changing
according to a given equation and is completely described by the equation involving the coordinates x
and y, which is arrived by applying the criteria describing the curve..
§6: Change of Coordinates from Cartesian to polar or vice versa:
There is nothing holy about Cartesian coordinates or polar coordinates or any particular system of
coordinates in particular. One can easily note the relations
r = \(x
2
+ y
2
) and tanu = y / x
or u = tan
-1
(y / x)
to replace (x, y) with (r,u) . Or the relations
x = r cos u, and y = r sin u as would be evident from the Fig.(1.4.2).
Y’
Q(c, d)
T
Y
Fig. 1.4.1a:rectangular & polar coordinates
X’
P(a, b)
O R S
X
θ
Page 253 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 4
Thus (r,u) can be replaced by (x, y)
(For any point P(x, y), x =OQ = r cos u, and y = PQ = r sin u where OP = r and angle POQ = u and
as such the above relations are evident .)
§7: Distance between two points in polar coordinates:
Suppose the two points are ( )
1 1
, P x y and ( )
2 2
, Q x y respectively. By changing to polar coordinates,
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos , sin , cos , sin x r y r x r y r u u u u = = = = . Then,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
2 1 1 2
2 2
2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
cos cos sin sin
PQ x x y y
r r r r u u u u
= ÷ + ÷
= ÷ + ÷
On simplification this gives, ( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 2 1
2 cos PQ r r r r u u = + ÷ ÷
Direct application of cosine formula from trigonometry also could have given this result. Join P, Q to
the origin O and apply cosine formula to ∆ OPQ to get PQ.
Example 1:
To understand how equations of curves are derived, consider the locus (path) of a point always at
same distances from two given points.

P
Fig.(1.4.2)
O
Q
X
Y
Page 254 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 5
Denoting the point by P(x, y) which is equidistant from both fixed points A(a, b) and B(c ,d) we have
the distances of P from A and B ,
\(( x – a)
2
+(y – b)
2
), and \(( x – c)
2
+(y – d)
2
) respectively
which should be equal to each other as desired.
Hence, \(( x – a)
2
+(y – b)
2
) = \(( x – c)
2
+(y – d)
2
) , which, on simplification shall give us the desired
equation of the locus of the point equidistant from A and B.
2x(a – c) + 2y(b – d) = a
2
+ b
2
– c
2
– d
2
.Or,
¬2x(a – c) + 2y(b – d) = (a + c)(a - c) + (b + d)(b - d) .
Note the symmetry of expressions in both sides and correspondence of 2x to a + c and that of 2y to
b + d. Any one can see that this is a straight line bisecting the segment AB.
Example 2:
To find the locus of a moving point and equation to the corresponding curve, when the moving point
is at a fixed distance r from a fixed point (h, k). The distance between the moving point (x, y) and the
fixed point is ( ) ( ) r k y h x = ÷ + ÷
2 2
or ( ) ( )
2 2 2
r k y h x = ÷ + ÷ The locus is a circle at (h, k) as we
understand and this is its equation. Any one can see that this is a circle with radius r and having its
centre at (h, k).
Example 3:
Consider two fixed points (a, b) and (h, k). To find the locus of a point whose distances from these
two points is always in a given ratio, ì/1. If the coordinates of the point be denoted by (x, y), we have,
\(( x – a)
2
+(y – b)
2
) = ì\(( x – h)
2
+(y – k)
2
)
B(c, d)
S
Y’
Fig. (1.4.1b),deriving equation of a curve
P(x, y)
A(a, b)
X X’
O
S’
Y
Page 255 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 6
or, ( x – a)
2
+(y – b)
2
= ì
2
(( x – h)
2
+(y – k)
2
) = ì
2
( x – h)
2

2
(y – k)
2
or, (1 + ì
2
)x
2
+ (1 + ì
2
)y
2
+ 2(ì
2
h – a)x + 2(ì
2
k – b)y + (a
2
+ b
2
– ì
2
h
2
– ì
2
k
2
) = 0
is the required equation which would be seen to be a circle later on.
§8: Vector Algebra : Numbers were basically used for counting. Then we derived another major
utility of numbers – measurement of quantities. In this process we had to define units of measurement
for all quantities we wanted to measure. In Physics, we defined only three fundamental units . They
are, units of length, mass and time in metric system (or length, weight and time in British system)
and expressed other units as multiplication or division of these fundamental units, although each
different unit has a different name. e.g., force has dimensions (mass) x ( length)x(time)
-2
and so on.
Thus the measurable quantities are expressed with a number and a unit combined.
Mathematics designs concepts and tools for different purposes, for Physicists, Economists and all
others. Some quantities in Physics required a direction to be mentioned along with a number and a
unit to express certain quantities. These quantities are called vectors. For example, force is one
such quantity , because, force in one direction is not equal to another force of equal magnitude
(number and unit) in another direction, as the two would have different effects when applied on a
body. Displacement is on such quantity. If one starts from a point A and straight moves up to another
point B, the line segment in that direction is displacement from A to B. If one proceeds the same
distance even, in another direction, one does not reach at point B. So displacement in one direction is
not same as an equal distance in another direction .
Explanation
Suppose you have to fly down from New Delhi to Chennai to attend a meeting at 2.00 p.m. Direct
morning flight is available at 7.00 a.m. and it takes 4 hours. But it is too early at Delhi to rise and
catch a flight at 7.00 a.m. Rather you decide to take a 2 hours’ flight to Kolkata at 8.30 a.m. and go
for the connecting flight from Kolkata to Chennai at 11.00 a.m. and reach Chennai by 1.00 p.m. , still
well in time for the meeting. This you have decided because
1) You were a late riser
2) You do not care for money and time
3) You had nothing to do from 11. a.m. to 2 p.m. at Chennai
4) The direct flight was cancelled
5) Combination of some of the causes above
6) For none on the above causes
Whatever may be the cause, you have reached Chennai in time and that has served your purpose.
You may take the decision out of compulsion or merely by choice, the purpose is served, i.e.
displacement from New Delhi to Chennai has been achieved. The two displacements , New Delhi
to Kolkata and from Kolkata to Chennai together is equivalent to displacement from New Delhi to
Chennai .And you don’t care for the distance travelled extra. his is the story of vector quantities.
Page 256 / 681
Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 7
As another example, consider you reach your school when you travel straight ½ miles in North-East
direction. Would you reach your school if you travel the same ½ miles in any other direction, say in
the direction of East ? Evidently no. so the two displacements are different.
Boldface type letters like a, b, A , B (ref. fig. 1.9a, 1.9b)or arrow superscripted letters such as
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
B A b a , , , etc, or arrow headed line segments such as . , , etc CD AB
÷ ÷
(ref. fig. 1.9c,1.9d etc) are used in this
book to indicate vector quantities at relevant places. Plane letters such as a, b, A, B etc. or Italics like
a, b, A, B etc. are used to denote magnitude of the vectors a, b, A, B etc. respectively. If PQ or PQ is
a line segment,
÷
PQ denotes the vector and PQ denotes its magnitude. Symbols like aˆ , b
ˆ
etc. are
used for vectors of unit magnitude, called unit vectors in different directions. Bold faced letters could
not be handwritten, so in writing we use arrow headed letters or segments for vectors.
If an unit vector aˆ
is in the direction of the vector
a
÷
, the unit vector has magnitude 1 and the vector
a
÷
has magnitude a. So

a aa
÷
= , or ˆ
a
a
a
÷
=
To know what is the nature of vector quantities and for what purpose they were designed
consider the following. Suppose a body of weight F is raised from a lower level to a higher level see
figure below.
We have to lift the body by applying a force equal and opposite to its weight in the upward direction
.We require to calculate the work done on the body while lifting if from the point the point O to the
point N through the path ON. If we lift the body straight from the point O to the point N through the
path ON, we have to multiply F with only the vertical part of the distance moved ON’, which is the
difference of heights between the initial level and final level. For , this is the distance through which
A
B
Polygon method of addition : R=A+B+C; R is called
resultant of A, B, and C (From the tail of the first to
the head of the last when drawn from head to tail
manner). Then A, B, and C are called components of
R
P = Px+ Py
Px = P cosu, Py = P sinu,
x-component and y-components of P
u
C R

P
Px
Py 
Px
P Py
O
L
M
N
M’
L’
O’
N’
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 8
the point of application of force has moved in the vertical direction, i.e., in the direction of the force.
The point of application of the force, i.e., the body has also simultaneously moved through the
distance N’N while moving through the distance ON’ so that it has reached the point N. But no work is
done in moving though the distance N’N, as work is done only when the point of application of the
force moves a distance in the direction of force. Now, if we suppose that the body, instead of
moving direct through the distance ON, has moved to the point N through three stages, first, from O
to L, then from L to M and finally from M to N. To calculate the work done, we have to multiply force F
with the vertical parts of the distances moved, namely, O’L, L’M and M’N in turn and add them up.
They evidently add up to ON’ , exactly as in the previous case, and calculation of work is same in
both the cases, as we expected. Calculation of work done by moving a body between two points does
not depend upon the path through the body is moved. Now the point to ponder is, what symbols
should we adopt and what rules we have to design in order that we may add them so that their
vertical and horizontal parts are added up simultaneously (we are discarding the horizontal parts
here, that is a different thing) and what sort of multiplication process we have to design so that only
vertical parts of the distances moved are multiplied to the force and added up together and horizontal
parts are discarded. The answer is cutely provided by the concept of vectors, their addition and dot(.)
product perfectly fit for these requirements as to be seen in the lines below. We note that the sum of
the distances OL, LM and MN is equivalent to the distance ON for our purpose (of calculating the
work done) even if they are not equal arithmetically.
X O
Y
Q
P
R



X O
Y
Q
P
R



÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+ = = + PR OP OR OQ OP
Parallelogram method of addition.
OR
2
= OP
2
+ OQ
2
+ 2OP.OQ cos (|- o)
tan | =(OPsino+OQsin|)/(OPcoso+OQcos|)
from tail of 1st, OP to head of the last,PR (=OQ)
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ QP OQ OP
Parallelogram method of subtraction.
OR
2
= OP
2
+ OQ
2
- 2OP.OQ cos (|- o)
tan| =(OPsino-OQsin|)/(OPcoso-OQcos|)
from head of 2nd,OQ to head of 1st ,OP
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 9
§9: Addition , subtraction, and resolution of vectors: polygon method
As in figure above, if one moves from the point O to point L, from L to M and M to N
successively, one undergoes displacements A, B and C in succession. This is , in effect, same as if
one has direct reached the point N from O undergoing straight through displacement R. Here only
reaching the point N is concerned, and time, distance, cost or labour do not matter. This
consideration gives us the cue to vector addition. If two or more vectors are drawn successively in
tail-to-head order, the resultant would be represented by joining the tail of the first vector to the
head of the last, completing the vector polygon. This is in the same way as we add two real
numbers 7 and 2. (mark off a length of 7 units from origin of the real line, then proceed two units
further and finally measure the whole length from the origin (from the tail of the first segment) to the
farthest point (head of the last segment). Here R is called the resultant of A, B and C while A, B and
C are called the components of R. Similarly, if one subtracts 2 from 7, one marks off 7 units from
the origin, then marks off two units again from the origin and then measures length from this point to
the end of 7 units marked off earlier.. Same is the case for subtraction of vectors, ref. fig. above; the
difference of vectors O P
÷
and
O Q
÷
is the vector
Q P
÷
from Q to P, from the head of the second to
the head of the first. Otherwise, to subtract,
O Q
÷
from
O P
÷
we can add the negative of
O Q
÷
toO P
÷
,
as in fig. where
P R O Q
÷ ÷
= ÷
. This is just like proceeding 7 units from the origin, then returning two
units backwards and measuring how far one is now from the origin, as in the case of subtracting 2
from 7.While adding or subtracting vectors, it must be remembered that they must be of
similar types; i.e., a displacement may be added to a displacement of the same body, a force may
be added to another force acting on the same body. There is no point in adding a displacement of
one body to that of another body or a force acting on one body to that acting on another body or
adding a displacement to a force.
Q
P
X O
Y
Q
P
o
|
R
O
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ QP OQ OP
head of 2nd to head of 1st.
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = ÷ OR PR OP OQ OP OQ OP
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 10
In short you can say AB BC CD DE AE + + + =
    
even without making any figure and in the
same way AB AC CB ÷ =
  
with your eyes closed. Just remember and verify drawing a figure that the
process obeys the polygon method of addition of vectors.
§10: The Parallelogram law
With a view to further clarify vector addition let us see what is called parallelogram law of addition.
(see fig.) above. The vectors OP

and OQ

are drawn from a common origin O , the origin of a two
dimensional rectangular coordinate system ( Suppose they are forces on a boat going downstream in
a river, exerted through ropes by two persons, L and M, on each bank of the river both running
upstream, balancing the force of water on the boat OS

downstreem. Since the two forces are acting
upon the same point, the boat, we can draw a vector OP

and another PR OQ =
 
and OR

is the
resultant as per polygon law or triangle law. But we can complete the rectangle OPRQ so that OR is
the diagonal of this parallelogram. Thus the vector sum of OP

and OQ

, can be represented by OR

,
the diagonal of the parallelogram included between the two vectors, when they are drawn from a
common origin instead of head to tail manner. This is parallelogram law of addition of two vectors. For
more than two vectors , e.g. forces acting on the same mass point, the process may be repeated , but
it is cumbersome. A powerful method is the component method explained below.
A pitfall
Electric current is a quantity which has magnitude and direction also, as a current has the direction of
the conducting wire carrying it. But suppose three conducting wires , carrying different currents in
different directions are joined at a point from where a single output wire emerges. The resulting
current would be only algebraic sum of the component currents irrespective of whatever directions the
M
L
O
R
P
Q
S
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 11
wires have. Hence the quantities having magnitude and direction not obeying the polygon law
of vector addition are not vectors !
Exercise1
Find unit vectors in the directions of the vectors , 2 3 i j k i j k + + + +
     
and the sum of them2 3 4 i j k + +
  
.
Also the sum of the unit vectors in the directions , 2 3 i j k i j k + + + +
     
. Ans.
3
i j k + +
  
,
2 3
14
i j k + +
  
,
2 3 4
29
i j k + +
  
.
Sum of the 1
st
two unit vectors is
2 3
3 14
i j k i j k + + + +
+
     
. So the sum of unit vectors may not be the
unit vector of the sum of two vectors.
§11: Vector difference
What about the other diagonal in the figure i.e. the vector QP

? Note that as per the triangle
law of vector addition OQ QP OP QP OP OQ + = · = ÷
     
. So it happens that the other diagonal,
joining the head of the second vector to the first is the vector difference between the two
vectors. This also can be visualized in yet another manner, the vector difference between
OP and OQ
 
is nothing but the addition of OP and OQ ÷
 
, i.e. OP and QO
 
, as expected. To
give an example of vector difference imagine a boy running in the rain straight on the ground and the
rain drops just fall vertically downwards . But the boy sees or feels the direction of rain at a slanted
angle towards him and the front side is drenched more than the backside. What he sees of feels is
the relative velocity of the rain deducting his own velocity from that of the rain, for, what we
observe is relative velocity only, i.e., treating our own velocity as 0, i.e. deducting our own velocity
from what we observe. This is just the case similar to light post and trees moving backwards when
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 12
traveling in a train , or observing difference of velocities of the trains when both are running in
opposite directions and crossing each other. See the figure.
Before giving the component method of vector addition, it may be observed that the vector
addition is associative, i.e. A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C=A+B+C and commutative i.e.
A+B=OP PQ OQ + =
  
, B+A = OR RQ OQ + =
  
. It would be clear from the figures below.
Zero vector
A zero vector 0 is one of magnitude 0 and having any chosen direction. ( so that the difference of any
two equal vectors in any direction is a zero vector )
§12: Rectangular Components and Addition and subtraction of vectors.
A
B
C
A+B
B+C
A+B+C
Associativity of vector addition
A+(B+C)=(A+B)+C=A+B+C
A
B
A
B
A+B
Commutativity of vector addition A+B=
OP PQ OQ + =
  
, B+A =
OR RQ OQ + =
  
Again,
P
Q R
O
A-B
P
O
Q
Rains strike at an angle
PQ OQ OP = ÷
  
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 13
Any vector P as in fig. 1.9b can be thought of as resultant of its rectangular components (they add
up to give rise to original) P
x
and P
y,
the projections of

P along a chosen set of x-axis and y-axis , as,
the vector P joins the tail of P
x
to the head of P
y.
If u be the angle of inclination of P with x-axis, magnitudes of P
x
and P
y
are given by,
P
x
= P cosu , P
y
= P sinu ., P
x
/ P
y
= tanu .
X O
Y
P Q
S




(Left):Component method of addition (or
subtraction) of vectors .
P + Q + S = R,
Px = P cos o, Py = P sin o,
Qx = Q cos|, Qy = Q sin | ,
Sx = S cos ¸, Sy = S sin ¸ .
R
Resolution into components of vectors
P
X O
Y
Q
P


R
÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ QP OQ OP
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= + =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + = ÷ OR PR OP OQ OP OQ OP
O
Q
O
X
Y
Z
P
(
A
B
C
B’
Px
Py
Pz
Vector
 
x y z x y z
OP P P i P j P k P P P
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = + + = + +


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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 14
In three dimensions, P = P
x
+ P
y
+ P
z
If i = i

, j =

j and k =

k be unit vectors in x-direction ,y-direction and z-direction respectively, we have,
 
x y z
OP P i P j P k = + + P =


.
Length or magnitude of the vector P is OP is given by
2 2 2
x y z
OP P P P = + +
Example4
The velocity of a boat on a very wide river is

2 3 i j +

relative to the stream and the velocity of the
stream is

3 2 i j ÷

relative to the ground. What is the ground velocity of the boat ?
Ans.

5i j +

.
Exercise2
A cyclist races towards East at a speed of 10 kmph and observes the wind blowing from North to
South. On doubling his speed, he observes that the wind direction has changed and it is blowing
from North East. Find the ground speed of the wind.
Let the velocity of the cyclist be 10i

and the velocity of the wind be

ai b j +

, where i

and

j are unit
vectors due to East and due to North respectively.
The relative velocity of the wind is
 
10 ai b j i j ì + ÷ = ÷
 
as it appears to flow from North to South.
Equating the coefficients of i

from both sides, 10 0 a ÷ = i.e. 10 a = .
An unit vector in the direction from NE to SW is

( ) ( )

2 2
2 2
1 1
i j i j ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷
÷ + ÷
 
.
On doubling the speed the relative velocity of the wind becomes,


10 20
2 2
i j
i b j i µ
| |
+ ÷ = ÷ ÷
|
|
\ .

 
.
Equating the coefficients of i

from both sides 10 2 µ = , so that 10 b = ÷ .
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 15
The velocity of the wind is

10 10 i j ÷

, which is 10 2 units from NW (verify).
Exercise3
A airplane is travellint towards South at a ground speed of 15km per minute and experiences the wind
velocity appearing to come from the West. Changing the ground speed of the airplane to 25 km per
minute the pilot notes that the direction of the wind changes from West to South West. What is really
its direction ?
Ans: at an angle
1
3
tan
2
÷
North of West.
§13:
Components In two dimensions
Rectangular components may be taken advantage of, in case of addition of two or more vectors. We
can add two or more vectors by adding their x-components and y-components and the sums thus
arrived at, shall be x-component and y-component of their resultant. See fig.1.7g. If P,Q, and R are
drawn from a common origin, and P + Q + S = R, and o,|,¸ respectively are their angles with chosen
x-axis,
P
x
= P cos o, P
y
= P sin o,
Q
x
= Q cos|, Q
y
= Q sin |,
S
x
= S cos ¸, S
y
= S sin ¸ .
So R
x
= P
x
+ Q
x
+ S
x
, R
y
= P
y
+ Q
y
+ S
y
,
R
2
= R
x
2
+ R
y
2
, and tan | = (P
y
+ Q
y
+ S
y
) / (P
x
+ Q
x
+ S
x
)
If S is to be subtracted and P + Q - S = T, then no problem, simply add –S instead of S.
In case of two vectors only P an Q, take the X – axis and Y –axis in the plane containing the two
vectors and get, for R = P + Q,
R
2
= (P cos o + Q cos |)
2
+ (P sin o + Q sin |)
2
= P
2
(cos
2
o + sin
2
o)+Q
2
(cos
2
o + sin
2
o)+2PQ(cos o cos |+sin o sin |))
R
2
= P
2
+Q
2
+2PQ Cos(-) which gives square of magnitude of resultant
and tan  = (P sin  + Q sin ) / (P cos  + Q cos ), gives its direction.
Similarly, for S = P – Q , we have,
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 16
S
2
= (P cos o - Q cos |)
2
+ (P sin o - Q sin |)
2
= P
2
(cos
2
o + sin
2
o)+Q
2
(cos
2
| + sin
2
|) -2PQ(cos o cos |+sin o sin |))
S
2
= P
2
+Q
2
-2PQ Cos(- ). which gives square of magnitude of difference.
and tan | = (P sin o - Q sin |) / (P cos o - Q cos |), gives its direction.
The magnitude and the direction of the resultant, or that of any vector for that matter, shall be same
whatever may be the axes, two dimensional or three dimensional in whatever direction you choose,
only the axes should be mutually perpendicular . If the axes chosen are changed, the
components are changed, but not the vectors.
For sake of simplicity, for sum and difference of two vectors P an Q, take a two dimensional
Cartesian coordinate axes , taking the direction of P as X – axis. If the angle between the vectors is u
, putting 0 o = and | u = in the above formula, the magnitude of R = P + Q is
2 2
2 cos R P Q PQ u = + + , direction is given by
-1
cos
tan
sin
Q
P Q
u
¢
u
=
+
if ¢ is the angle made by the
resultant with the first vector.
Similarly for S = P – Q , the magnitude of vector difference S is given by
2 2
- 2 cos S P Q PQ u = + ,
direction is given by
-1
cos
tan
sin
Q
P Q
u
¢
u
=
+
if ¢ is the angle made by the resultant with the first vector.
§14: Explaining Position vectors, norm or magnitude of a vector and coordinates of a point.
Taking any fixed point O as the origin, we could specify the position of any other points A , B, C etc by
a, b, c etc. ( bold letters indicate vectors ) i.e. a OA =

, b OB =

, c OC =

, etc. They are called
position vectors of points A, B and C respectively. These are Clarendon symbols and the main
advantage of this convention is exhibited as AB OB OA = ÷ =
  
b – a. We could straight write BC =

c –
b, etc. Also we understand a a OA = =
 
etc. called magnitude of length or norm of the vector a i.e.,
OA

. Magnitude of the vector a is
2 2 2
x y z
a a a a = + + and it may be noted that , ,
x y z
a a a are
components of vector a , as well as coordinates
( )
, ,
x y z
a a a . We prefer usually writing( )
1 2 3
, , a a a
as components of a instead of
( )
, ,
x y z
a a a
.
An advantage with position vectors is , you can choose any origin O , O’ whatsoever, and the position
vectors of the points A, B and C change as a, b, c etc. change; but there is no difference in a – b ,
b – c, and c – a as they represent vectors , , BA CB and AC
  
respectively.(verify) . The vectors a – b
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 17
, b – c, and c – a are displacement vectors , , BA CB and AC
  
whereas a, b, c etc. position
vectors of points A, B, C. Even without figure it can be easily written and understood that
AB BC AC + =
  
the vector joining the tail of the first to the head of the last in addition process and
AB AC CB ÷ =
  
; the vector joining the head of the second vector to the head of the first.
Just as we understand P(x, y, z) as the point P in Cartesian coordinates having coordinates (x, y, z)
we could also write
( )
P a

for the point P whose position vector is ( )
 
, , a x y z xi y j zk = = + +


. Also a

is usually denoted by ( )
 
1 2 3 1 2 3
, , a a a a a i a j a k = = + +


.
In two dimensions, we could also write ( ) P z for the point z a ib = + in complex plane ( Argand plane)
Though the position vectors of two points may be added together vectorialy, it has no physical
meaning. But the difference of position vectors of two points is the displacement vector
between the two points.
§15: Direction ratios of a line segment or straight line in three dimensions.
Transformation of coordinates from rectangular Cartesian coordinates is easy in two
dimensions. In three dimensions we have many types of polar coordinates like cylindrical polar
coordinates , i.e., polar coordinates in two dimensions, r and θ in place of x and y and z remaining as
it is. Many more systems of coordinates are used in three dimensions e.g. spherical polar coordinates
like you have seen in a globe, the radial distance from center, longitude and latitude angles. These
and some other coordinate systems shall be discussed later on. But we need a mechanism right now
to know the x, y and z coordinates of any point at a distance r from the center, or the origin of
coordinates in terms of r.
If P is any point P(x, y, z) draw PQ parallel to z axis and , QR parallel to y-axis meeting the x –
axis at P and let OP make angles o, |, and γ with the axes respectively.(above figure). Note that the
O
X
Y
P(x, y, z)
Q
R
α
β
γ
Direction cosines,
cos , cos , cos l m n o | ¸ = = =
Z
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 18
sum of any two of these angles is not t/2 as in case of two dimensions. But we do have a simple
relation among them which would prove useful as we proceed. We say
cos , cos , cos l m n o | ¸ = = = to be the direction cosines of the vector OP

. Taking OP r =
 
,
i.e., OP = r, we have
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
cos cos cos cos cos cos 1 r x y z r r r o | ¸ o | ¸ = + + = + + · + + = ,
cancelling r
2
from both sides. i.e.,
2 2 2
l m n 1 + + =
Thus l, m an n determine direction of a line or line segment in a three dimensional space and as such
are called direction cosines. When the direction cosines of a line are given its angles with lines
parallel to the axes through any point on it are known hence its direction with respect to the axes of
reference are known. Any line parallel to it would have the same direction cosines; so a further
data, such as a fixed point on this line is needed to be known to completely determine the line. Along
with the direction, any line has also a sense i.e., forward or backward in its direction. Direction
cosines do uniquely determine the sense of the line, for if it makes an angle u with z-axis in forward
direction it makes an angle t - u with z-axis in backward direction and cos u = - cos (t - u).
In two dimensions, the same relations as above hold. There, if o and | are angles of a
straight line with the x-axis and y-axis respectively, so cos sin | o = ; so thatcos
2
o+ cos
2
| =1 for , in
this case, | = t/2 - o.
Any three numbers proportional to direction cosines of a line also are sufficient to determine the
direction of a line . let a, b and c be any three numbers proportional to l, m and n respectively, i.e.,
k
c
n and
k
b
m
k
a
l k
n
c
m
b
l
a
= = = ¬ = = = .. , ;and
1
c b a
n m l
c b a
k
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
+ +
=
+ +
+ +
=
so l, m and n are known.
So any three numbers proportional to the direction cosines are called direction ratios. A further
advantage with direction ratios is that they need not be each less than 1 with their squares adding up
to 1. But we face another caution while working with direction ratios. Suppose if both b and c are 0 for
a line, we have a/l = a or l = 1, which results in the fact that the line is parallel to x-axis. When one of
them say c = 0, we have, n = 0 /k = 0 which results in the fact that the straight line is parallel to z-axis.
All of them cannot be 0 at the same time for l
2
+m
2
+n
2
= 1 .
For any two lines to be parallel, they must make same angles with lines drawn parallel to the
axes drawn through any one point on the either line. Hence they must be having same direction
cosines for being parallel. In other words their direction ratios should be proportional as each set of
them are proportional to the same set of direction cosines.
Exercise5
Find the direction cosines of a st line making equal angles with the coordinate axes
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 19
Ans.
2 2 2
2 2 2
, 1
1
1 1 1 3
l m n and l m n
l m n
l m n
= = + + =
+ +
¬ = = = =
+ =
Exercise6
For any line with direction cosines ( ) , , l m n show that
2 2 2
sin sin sin 2 o o o + + = .
Ans.
2 2 2 2 2 2
sin sin sin 1 cos 1 cos 1 cos 3 1 2 o o o o | ¸o + + = ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = ÷ = .
Exercise7
If ( ) , , l m n are direction cosines of a line equally inclined to three mutually perpendicular st lines with
direction cosines ( ) , , , 1, 2, 3
i i i
l m n i = , then show that , ,
3 3 3
i i i
l m n
l m n
| |
= = =
|
|
\ .
¿ ¿ ¿
.
Hint : Use
2 2 2
1
i i i
l m n + + = and 0
i j i j i j
l l mm n n + + = to deduce
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
3
i i i
l m n + + =
¿ ¿ ¿
§16: Projections of segments:
In the figure, PQ, QR and RS are line segments. Drop perpendiculars from P, Q, R and S being
respectively PP’,QQ’, RR’ and SS’ on the x-axis and drop perpendiculars PT, QU and RV on QQ’,
RR’ and SS’ respectively from P, Q, and R. PT, QU and RV are respectively equal to P’Q’, Q’R’ and
R’S’ and are called projections of the segments on x-axis. If o, |, and ¸ be the angles QPT, RQU and
SRV, and the lengths of the segments PQ, QR, and RS be respectively r
1
, r
2
, and r
3.
Let the
projections P’Q’, Q’R’, and R’S’ be denoted by p
1
, p
2
, and p
3
respectively,
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 20
We have
1
1
α cos
r
p
= etc. or, , γ cos , , β cos , , α cos
3 3 2 2 1 1
r p and r p similarly r p = = =
If the projection of PS, i.e., P’S’ and denoted by p, we immediately see that
P’S’ = P’Q’+Q’R’+R’S’¬p = p
1
+p
2
+p
3
or, projection of segment joining initial and final points of consecutive segments on x-axis is sum of
their projections on x-axis. Similar considerations for projections on y-axis and z-axis. Had OX not
been the x-axis but any other st. line, there would not have been any change in the situation; (verify;
proceed as in the above proof from the beginning by supposing OX being any line instead of x-axis
and follow the same steps exactly).
1) So in general, if there are a number of consecutive line segments starting from a point
P and ending at a point Q , the sum of their projections on any other line is equal to the
projection of PQ on that line
2) Further , if O’X’ be another line || to OX, it can be proved easily that the
projection of PS on O’X’ would be equal to its projection on OX. (Extend the
perpendiculars PP’ and SS’ upto P” and S” respectively on O’X’ so that PP” ± O’X’ and
SS” ± O’X’ and hence P’S’ = P”S”)
3) This immediately yields the result, Projection of PQ on RS (see
fig.1.5.4b) is projection of PQ on OS’ where PS’ || RS and is equal to RS cos u, where
u is angle between PQ and PS’. Angle between PQ and RS is also defined as angle
between PQ and PS’, a line drawn from P || RS. (This holds even if PQ and RS are
skew, i.e., they are on different planes parallel to each other and as such do not meet
to define an angle between them. )
4) If a straight line PQ makes an angle u with another st.line RS or PT, the
latter makes an angle - u with PQ. And since cos u = cos (-u),
5) Projection of PQ on RS = Projection of RS on PQ
O
Q
R
S
X
P’ Q’ R’
S”
P
T
U
V



Fig.1.5.4a: Projection of PQ = sum of
projections of PQ, QR and RS
O’
X’
P” Q” R”
S’
P
Q
R
S
S’
 T
Fig.1.5.4b: Projection of PQ on RS =
PT= RS cos  projections of PQ, QR
and RS
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 21
§17: Comparison with imaginary numbers:
Coordinate geometry is comparable to vector analysis on one hand and comparable to complex
analysis on the other. To obtain the full advantage of complex analysis , let us recapitulate some
formulae.
Complex numbers were devised with a view to solving
2 2
0, 0 a b a b + = = = , a, b being real
numbers. It was done by adopting the symbol 1 i = ÷ , so that
2 2
1 a b a b ib = ÷ ¬ = ± ÷ = ± . It is
acceptance of the fact that there is a number whose square is negative. In effect, it solved all
polynomial equations in one variable.
The reader is advised to work out the following to brush up memory and remember the same.
(Assume all non-zero numbers)
1) , a ib c id a c b d + = + · = =
2) , z a ib z a ib z z = + · = ÷ =
Note - if
a b c
z l m n
p q r
=
where all are complex numbers,
a b c
z l m n
p q r
=
.
3) ( ) ( ) cos sin , cos sin
i i
z a ib r i re z a ib r i re
u u
u u u u
÷
= + = + = = ÷ = ÷ =
(Polar form)
4)
2 2 2 2
, , tan
b
z a ib z a ib a b r a ib a b r
a
u = + · = + = + = + = + = =
Also ( )
2
2
, z a ib a ib r z z = ÷ = + ÷ = =
5) ( )( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
Re Im z a b a ib a ib zz z z = + = + ÷ = = + ( (
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
6) ( ) 2Re , 2Im z z z z z z + = ÷ =
,
arg arg z z = ÷
7) , 0 , z z z purely real z z z purely imaginary = · + = ·
8)
1 1
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2
2 2
, . . , , 0
z z
z z z z z z z z if z
z z
| |
± = ± = = =
|
\ .
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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© Page 22
9) if ( )
( )
( ) , u f z u f z f z = = =
10) De Moiver’s theorem ( derived in differentiation chapter)
( ) ( ) ( )
1
1
cos sin cos sin , cos sin
cos sin
n
n
i in n n i i
e e i i e e i
i
u u u u
u u u u u u
u u
÷
÷
= = + = + = = = ÷
+
17) Distance formula – Distance between the points ( )
1
A z and ( )
2
B z is given by
( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
AB z z x x y y = ÷ = ÷ + ÷ .
11) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
2 cos z z z z z z u u ± = + ± ÷
, so that complex numbers are added or
subtracted just as vectors.
Note that
( )
2 2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
2Re z z z z z z z z z z z z ± = + ± = + ± +
12) If
1 2 1 2
z z z z + = ÷
then
( )
2 1 2 1
cos 0
2
t
u u u u ÷ = ¬ ÷ =
, the radius vectors of
1 2
z and z
are
perpendicular to each other.
On the other hand, if
1 2 1 2
z z z z + = +
then
( )
2 1 2 1
cos 1 u u u u ÷ = ¬ =
, the radius vectors of
1 2
z and z
are parallel to each other.
16) Triangle inequalities – a)
1 2 1 2
z z z z + > +
,b)
1 2 1 2
z z z z + > ÷
c)
1 2 1 2
z z z z ÷ > ÷
.
The same old thing – sum of two sides of a triangle is greater than the third and difference of two
sides is less than the third. ( the latter is a deduction of the former, got just by subtracting a side from
both sides !)
A(x
1
,y
1
)
B(x
2
,y
2
)
C(x
1
+x
2
,y
1
+y
2
)
O
X
Y
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 23
Exercise8
Show that
( )
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 z z z z z z + + ÷ = +
which is Appoloneous theorem.
Exercise9
If a abd b are real numbers,show that
( )( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
1 2 1 2 1 2
az bz bz az a b z z + + ÷ = + +
.
§18: Product of imaginary numbers:
The complex numbers are expressed in the following manner in polar form.
Let
,
i i
a ib re c id se
u ¢
+ = + = then( )( )
i i
a ib c id re se rse
u ¢ u ¢ +
+ + = =
.
Simply multiplying by a complex number
,
i i
c id
a ib re e
s
u ¢
+
+ = =
results in just rotating the radius
vector by its argument
¢
, for
( ) i i i
re e re
u ¢ u ¢ +
=
Division by a non-zero complex number yields a complex number whose magnitude is division of the
magnitudes of the two numbers and its argument is difference of the two. We have
( ) i i
i
a ib re re
c id se s
u ¢ u
¢
÷
+
= =
+
.In ordinary form
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
a ib c id ac bd i bc ad a ib
c id c id c id c d
+ ÷ + + ÷ +
= =
+ + ÷ +
So,
1 2 1 2
z z z z =
, and
1
1
2 2
z z
z z
=
,
1 2 1 2
arg arg arg z z z z = +
,
1
1 2
2
arg arg arg
z
z z
z
| |
= ÷
|
\ .
.
To see clearly,let
1 2
1 1 2 2
,
i i
z re z r e
u u
= =
,then
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 1
1 2 1 2
2 2
i i
z r
z z r r e e
z r
u u u u + ÷
= =
§19:
Work out and remember
1) If
2 2 2
1 2 1 2
z z z z ± = +
then
1 2 1 2
0 z z z z + =
so that
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
0 0
z z z z
z z z z
| |
+ = ¬ + =
|
\ .
1
2
z
is imaginary
z
¬
.
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 24
2) If
1 1 2 2
z r z r = = =
then
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2 1 1
2 2
i i
z r
e e
z r
u u u u ÷ ÷
= = . i.e.,
1
z is obtained by giving
2
z a rotation
through an angle
( )
1 2
u u ÷ . Similarly, if
3 1 2 1
z z z z r ÷ = ÷ =
and the line segments
3 1 2 1
, z z z z ÷ ÷ are
drawn from
1
z then
3 1
z z ÷ is obtained from
2 1
z z ÷ by rotating the latter through an angle u , the angle
between
3 1 2 1
, z z z z ÷ ÷ ,i.e., if
3 1
2 1
i
z z
e
z z
u
÷
=
÷
Explanation
If a + ib and c + id are two complex numbers, their sum and difference are
(a + c) + i(b + d) and (a - c) + i(b - d). This is just the way as if two vectors P and Q having their x-
components and y-components (a, b) and (c, d) respectively and we see that the complex numbers
are just added (or subtracted) in the same way as two vectors are added; x-component
with x- component and y-component with y-component. This component analogy (real and imaginary
parts) also leads parallelogram rule as in vector addition ‘from head of the second to the head of the
first’ rule of vector subtraction. The only thing specially to note is that there were many different types
of vectors such as force , displacement etc. but only same type of vectors could be added or
subtracted; there is no meaning of addition or subtraction of two vectors if they are of different types.
But complex numbers are numbers only and as such any two complex numbers can be added to or
subtracted from each other. Fig. 1.7c and 1.7d can just be reproduced by assuming the line segments
OP and OQ to be representing the complex numbers a + ib and c + id ; The sum would be
represented by OR representing the complex number (a + c) + i(b + d) ;where (a + c) and (b + d)
are its real and imaginary parts and tan| = (b + d) / (a + c) is its angle of inclination with the x-
axis.
Also they could well be represented by Points P and Q with co-ordinates P(a, b) and Q(c, d)
as in Coordinate Geometry and there is no meaning of addition or subtraction of points in Coordinate
Geometry . Mathematics has seldom invented or discovered anything .It has designed different tools
of logic and developed different frameworks for different purposes and requirements in other fields
which Mathematics supports. All the three considerations as above, Complex Numbers, Vectors and
Coordinate Geometry are abstractly the same thing in essence. But the subjects are developed
differently because they were designed for different purposes. Complex numbers were developed for
Algebra, Theory of Equations , Analysis etc. whereas Coordinate Geometry was developed for
Geometry etc. Vectors were developed for both Geometry and Physics. Still in another manner, the
points P(a, b), Q(c, d) ;or the vectors P, Q ;or the complex numbers a + ib , c + id , can be
represented by just the ordered pairs (a, b) and (c, d) in a way very similar to matrices (they are array
of independent numbers arranged in rows and columns behaving as a single block . Some operations
can be done on them collectively; but they are not single numbers ). (These ordered pairs could have
been thought of as one row and two column matrices. But no. Rule of products do not allow.
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 25
Because when two matrices are multiplied, rows of the 1
st
are multiplied into columns of the 2
nd
and
then added. Had there been a complete correspondence, it would have been great indeed. For,
vectors would have been easily replaced with matrices and there would have been no more
necessity of any diagrams!) Let us see in detail as below how complex numbers are multiplied..
For two complex numbers a + ib, and c + id, their product is
(a + ib)(c + id) = ac + aid + ibc + i
2
bd = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc) as i
2
= -1.
If a + ib = r cos o + ir sino and c + id = s cos |+is sin |,
(a + ib)(c + id) = (ac – bd) + i(ad + bc)
= (rs coso cos| - rs sinosin |) + irs ( cos o sin | + sin o cos|)
= rs ( cos (o+|) + i sin (o+|)) , which is in same form as a + ib or c + id .
So it is a complex number whose modulus rs, is the product of moduli ( plural of
modulus) of the two numbers a + ib and c + id , and whose argument (the angle of inclination with the
x-axis o+| is the sum of the arguments o and | of the two numbers.
Meaning of argument
A) The triangle ABC formed by the points ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3
, , A z B z C z is congruent to OB’C’ where the
origin ( )
1 1
O z z ÷ , ( )
2 1
' B z z ÷ , ( )
3 1
' C z z ÷ , because
2 1 2 1
, ' 0 AB z z OB z z AB = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ,
3 1 3 1
, ' 0 AC z z OC z z AC = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = and ( )
3 2 3 1 2 1 3 2
, ' ' BC z z B C z z z z z z BC = ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ = .The
A(z1)
B(z2)
O
X
Y
B’(z2 – z1)
C’(z3 –z1)
C(z
3
)
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 26
angle ' ' B OC Z is given by
3 1
2 1
'
arg arg
'
z z OC
OB z z
÷
=
÷
. But ' ' B OC BAC Z = Z ; so
3 1
2 1
arg
z z
BAC
z z
÷
Z =
÷
.Thus ( )
3 1
2 1
'
cos sin
'
iA iA
z z OC AC AC
e e A i A
z z OB AB AB
÷
= = = +
÷
remember.
Note - if the points A, B anc C are collinear, 0, cos 1, sin 0 A A A Z = = = , so
3 1
2 1
z z
z z
÷
÷
is real
number.
Note - if AB and AC are perpendicular to each other,, , cos 0, sin 1
2
A A A
t
Z = = = , so
3 1
2 1
z z
z z
÷
÷
is
imaginar number.
B) Using the above, it may be shown that the angle u , of the intersection of AB and CD where
their coordinates are ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2 3 4
, , , A z B z C z D z is given by
1 2
3 4
arg
z z
z z
÷
÷
.
Hence the two st lines are parallel if
1 2
3 4
z z
z z
÷
÷
is a real number and perpendicular if
1 2
3 4
z z
z z
÷
÷
is
imaginary.
Exercise10
Show that the equation of perpendicular bisector of AB, is
1 2
z z z z ÷ = ÷ .
§20: Multiplication/ division of a vector by a scalar.:
A scalar is a quantity meaning a number and with a measuring unit only without having any
directional properties; e.g., mass, speed, density etc. Let a be acceleration of a body or change of
its velocity with time , a vector quantity, which has components a
x
, a
y
along any chosen mutually
perpendicular x-axis and y-axis. Let m be mass of the body, a scalar, and let a force F, a vector be
A(z
1
)
B(z
2
)
O
X
Y
C(z
3
)
θ
D(z
4
)
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 27
acting on the body producing the acceleration a, then as per Newton’s 2nd law, F = ma, an example
of product of a vector with a scalar. If F is represented by (F
x,
F
y
) and a is represented by (a
x
, a
y
), or
ma is represented by (ma
x
, ma
y
), we see that F
x
= ma
x ,
and F
y
= ma
y.
So multiplication by a scalar,
multiplies all its components by the same scalar in effect, whatever components it might have. This is
the same situation when a complex number say a + ib , multiplied by a real number say t, which
gives ta +itb , another complex number as the product. But the difference is that the complex number
a + ib can also be multiplied with t when t is a complex number, and give the same result, ta + itb,
which is also a complex number; but two vectors cannot be multiplied in the same fashion even when
they are of same type. Two special multiplications are designed for vectors ,for two different
purposes. These are described as dot product and cross product as explained below. We multiply two
complex numbers with each other easily as they are numbers only. But vectors are not only numbers,
they are quantities. A quantity has a number and a unit associated with it. This is the distinction.
Again, a vector may be multiplied by a complex number exactly as it may be multiplied with a real
number or a scalar quantity, which is of rare use.
Note that multiplication by a scalar is distributive over addition/subtraction of vectors, i.e.
( )
m a b ma nb + = +
   
, which is evident from the figure,
, ' , , ' , ' ' ' ' OA a OA ma AB b AB mb ma mb OA AB OB mOB OB = = = = + = + = = =
              
as the triangles
OAB and OA’B’ are similar. Similarly scalar multiplication is associative and commutative i.e.
( )
( )
( )
m na mn a n ma = =
  
. Prove this as an exercise by drawing an appropriate figure. This gives
much freedom in working with vectors.
§21: Multiplication of a vector by a vector. Dot(.) product:
In this case, two vectors are multiplied to give a product which is a scalar. Let F be the force
(vector) ,equal to the weight of a body which is pulled up against gravity(vertically upwards) through a
displacement vector s which is at an angle u with the direction of force (at an angle u with the vertical)
.Work is done on a body only when the point of application of force moves in the direction of the force
and no work is done when the point of application does not move or when it moves in a perpendicular
O A
A’
B
B’
( )
m a b ma nb + = +
   
Page 277 / 681
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 28
to the direction of force, Since the work done on the body W (say) is force times the distance moved
along the line of force, then work done
= F . ( component of s in the direction of F) = F . (s cos u) ,where s cos u is component of s in the
direction of F; we write W = F.s = F(s cosu) = (F cos u) s = s.F = magnitude of one vector
multiplied by magnitude of the component of the other in the direction of the former vector.
Suppose a body has undergone a number of successive displacements from a point at a
lower level to arrive finally at another point at a higher level. For calculating the work done, we need
add up only vertical components of all such displacements algebraically and discard the horizontal
components. This in turn is equal to the vertical component of the total displacement vector joining
straight the stating and the end points. It would have been cumbersome had we calculated work done
at each step . Vector notation, its concepts of components and its rule of addition has enabled us to
calculate the total work done in one step (when the successive distances are vectorially added, no
matter even if their Arithmetic sum happens to be much bigger than the vector sum) . Perhaps this is
one of the important reasons for which vector analysis was designed and developed .
This work done against the direction of gravity is supposed to be stored in the body when it is
raised to higher altitude so that it can fall automatically . While falling the gravitational field does the
work automatically spending the energy stored. So the convention is that work done against the field
is positive work, thus capable of being stored, and spent afterwards. Similarly work done on a body
by a field e.g. by gravity when it falls down , or say a charge is being repelled by another charge , the
field does the work , i.e., spends the work already stored by some external agent and this work is
negative. Work done is zero when no component of force is parallel to the displacement. e.g. a body
taken round the world without any work being done on it , if only gravity is considered.
Not only work, but if any two vectors are perpendicular to each other, no one of them has a
component along the other, and hence their dot product is zero.
More generally, if F = F
x
+ F
y
+ F
z
(sum of its components in x, y, z directions) and if
s = s
x
+ s
y
+ s
z
then F.s = (F
x
. s
x
) + (F
y
. s
y
) + (F
z
. s
z
) = (F
x
.s
x
)+(F
y
.s
y
)+(F
z
.s
z
) = F s cos u
since F
x
. s
y ,
F
x
. s
z
etc are all 0 as F
x
has no component in y or z direction . In short, if i, j and k
be unit vectors in x-direction ,y-direction and z-direction respectively, we have, 1 = I . i = j . j = k . k
and 0 = I . j = I . k = j . k as cos 0 1 =
We may take products of vectors of different types; like displacement and force etc. but sum and
difference of dissimilar types of vectors has no meaning.
§22: Commutative, associative and distributive properties
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
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(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 29
Prove the following by breaking up into components in
 
, , i j k

and remember.1)
 
( )
 
( )
. .
x y z x y z x x y y z z
AB A i A j A k B i B j B k A B A B A B == + + + + = + +
 
 
3)
( )
. . . C A B C A C A distributive law of scalar product + = +
      
as
1 = I . i = j . j = k . k and 0 = I . j = I . k = j .k
4)
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2
2 . a b a b a b ab + = + = + +
    
If a and b
 
are perpendicular to each other,
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2
. . . . . a b a b a b a a a b b a b b a b a b + = + + = + + + = + = +
               
,as . . 0 a b b a = =
   
.
But
( )
a b +
 
is the diagonal of the right angled triangle with sides a and b
 
. So this is another
proof of Pythagoras theorem .
5)
( ) ( )
2 2
. a b a b a b + ÷ = ÷
   
6) The cosine law or the generalized Pythagorean theorem for any triangle which is also
known as generalized Pythagorean theorem, which was used to derive magnitude of sum or
difference of two vectors can be an interesting consequence of dot product. See how it is.
If we denote
, , BC a CA b AB c = = =
     
, since
0 BC CA AB + + =
  
completing the polygon, or
0 a b c + + =
  
,or, a b c + = ÷
  
.Squaring both sides, . . 2 . . a a bb ab c c + + =
       
, or
( )
2 2 2
2 cos a b ab C c t + + ÷ =
( since the angles of inclination are measured counterclockwise) .or,
2 2 2
2 cos a b ab C c + ÷ =
which is precisely the cosine law.
We can have cross product of two vectors 0 even if neither of them is a 0 vector, obviously if they are
parallel and dot product of two non-zero vectors may be 0 if they are perpendicular to each other.
2) . . A B B A commutative law of scalar product =
   
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7) If a b a b + = ÷
   
, then prove that they are mutually perpendicular; i.e. the diagonals of the
parallelogram with sides , a b
 
are equal in magnitude.
We have
( ) ( )
2 2
a b a b + = ÷
   
gives ( )
2 2 2 2
2 cos 2 cos a b ab C a b ab C t + + ÷ = + + which shows
2
2
C C C C
t
t t ÷ = ¬ = ¬ = .
8) If , , a b c
  
are any three non-zero non-coplanar vectors, any vector p

can be expressed in
terms of them in a unique way.
First let us see that any vector q

in the plane of vectors , a b
 
can be expressed as a unique linear
combination of , a b
 
, if , a b
 
are not parallel to each other, since we can draw a parallelogram whose
sides are scalar multiples of , a b
 
say a b ì µ +
 
respectively and q

is the diagonal. So q a b ì µ = +
  
.
Now, c

is not in the plane of , a b
 
. So any vector p

can be expressed as a unique linear combination
of c

and q

. So we may have a unique resolution of p

as
( )
p q c a b c a b c v ¸ v ì µ ¸ o | ¸ = + = + + = + +
        
in a definite way.
9) The result has the following consequence – if . . . 0 p a p b p c = = =
     
for any vector p

, when
, , a b c
  
are any three non-zero non-coplanar vectors, then prove that 0 p =

.
Hint. by the above result, . . . 0 0 0 0 p aa p bb p cc p + + = = + + =
      
.
10) If 0, , , , a b c p a b c p o | ¸ o o | ¸ o + + + = + + + ·
       
are coplanar
Another difference between product of complex numbers and vectors is that if
a ib +
is a complex
number, its modulus is given by
( ) ( )
2
a ib a ib a ib + = + ÷
, product of the number with its conjugate;
but in case of scalar product of two vectors, but square of a vector is its product with itself.
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ
. . . . .
x y z x y z x y z x y z
p p p p i p j p k p i p j p k p i i p j j p k k p p p p = = + + + + = + + = + + =
   
§23: Some examples of scalar and vector quantities: mechanics.
To distinguish displacement vis-à-vis distance take the example of a runner who has just taken a
complete round of the field of 300 m. The displacement is a clean 0 whereas the distance travelled is
a good 300 m.
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Then velocity is time rate of change in displacement, again a vector quantity. We must distinguish it
from speed which is time rate of distance travelled. The word has accompanied from good old
childhood. It seems ‘speed’ may be the magnitude of ‘velocity’. The statement sometimes true and
sometimes false. Understandably the two are same , nay, equal in magnitude if the motion has been
all through in a straight line. But take the example of running around the field, there is no
displacement, hence no average velocity, which is total displacement upon total time taken. The
average speed is however, 300m upon the real time taken.
In Physics we are more concerned with instantaneous velocity and instantaneous speed.
A freely falling body travels distances 10m, 40m, 90m, 160m,… at the end of 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
, 4
th
,…
seconds respectively. Certainly it does not travels in uniform or constant velocity. How do we
determine velocity at the 3.5
th
instant ? this instantaneous velocity is found by measuring the distance
travelled between the instants of 3
rd
and 4
th
seconds and dividing by 1 sec. but this is not correct. If
we take a smaller time interval of 0.05 sec. both sides of 3.5 sec and measure the distance travelled
during that small time interval, we would have better approximation. Actually we require excellent
approximations when a rocket dashes up @ 18000 miles per hour to escape the earth’s gravitational
field. Literally we have to take instantaneous speed
0
lim
t
s ds
v
t dt
÷
A
= =
A
and instantaneous velocity
0
lim
t
d
t dt
÷
A
= =
A
s s
v . Where s is the displacement, s is the distance travelled and t , the time taken.
Though both the equations are different from case to case, they are written side by side for
comparison and as we are discussing motion is a st line only, s is magnitude of s, and hence there
should be no confusion.
Magnitude of instantaneous velocity is now instantaneous speed .and there can b no difference
between the two , except that the direction of instantaneous velocity should be specified. But
magnitude of average velocity is never magnitude of average speed. For example, let a point move at
constant speed in a circle. By the time it reaches the starting point again, the average velocity is 0, for
there has been no displacement. But the average speed is same as the constant speed. Thus it is a
case where the distance travelled is a perimeter of a circle, but displacement is 0.
Acceleration (instantaneous) is time rate of velocity
0
lim
t
d
t dt
÷
A
= =
A
v v
a . We generally meet constant
acceleration ( e.g., acceleration due to gravity g = app. 10m/s
2
within small distances from the surface
of the earth) or constant in magnitude ( uniform circular motion) so that we do not have to distinguish
instantaneous and average acceleration at the elementary level and can safely use the word
acceleration for both vector acceleration and magnitude of it.
If velocity is uniformly increasing or decreasing from v
0
to v
1
over a time interval t, we can write
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1 0
1 0
t
t
÷
= ¬ = +
v v
a v v a , also
1 0
1 0
v v
a v v at
t
÷
= ¬ = + in scalar terms. Such motions are
necessarily in a st line as a is constant the direction too, must be constant) and are called uniformly
accelerated motion.
Another term we use in uniformly accelerated motion is average speed
0 1
2
v v
v
+
= or in vector terms
0 1
2
+
=
v v
v . Remember in an AP series, average term is the average of only the first and the last
term. The distance travelled is product of average speed and time , so s vt = . This is also true in
vector form since distance is magnitude of displacement in motion along a st line.
So t s = v is the corresponding vector equation.
Taking product of
0 1
2
v v
v
+
= and
1 0
v v
a
t
÷
= we have
2 2
1 0
2 2 avt v v as = ÷ =
In vector form, we take the dot product of
0 1
2
+
=
v v
v and
1 0
t
÷
=
v v
a and we have
2 2 t
2 2
1 0
a .v = v - v = a. s using the fact 2 2as a . s = , as s, v and a are in the same direction (
in the same st line) and ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1 0
. . . . . v v + ÷ = + ÷ ÷ = ÷ = ÷ v v v v v v v v v v v v v v as we
have , from rule of dot product,
1 1 0 1
. . = v v v v and
2 2
0 0 0 0
. v = = v v v . The complete equation is
2 2
1 0
2 2 v v as = ÷ =
2 2
1 0
v - v = a . s . If v
1
= 0, a is negative acceleration , s gives stopping distance
of a vehicle on road which varies as square of initial velocity.
The last equation in the row is
2 0 1 0 0
0
1
2 2 2
v v v v at
s vt t t v t at
+ + +
= = = = + .in vector form
2
1
2 2 2
t
t t t t t
0 1 0 0
0
v + v v + v + a
s = v = = = v + a . Make an one stop shop for equations
for uniformly accelerated motion i.e. motion with constant acceleration
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0 1 0 1
1 0 1 0
2 2
1 0
2 2
0
2 2
.................................(1 )
2 2
1 1
2 2
s vt t
v v
v
v v
a
t t
v v as
s v t at t t
¹
¦
=
¦
¦
+ +
= =
¦
¦
`
÷ ÷
= =
¦
¦
÷ =
¦
¦
¦ = +
)
For Distance For Displacement

2 2
1 0
0
s = v
v v
v
v v
a
v - v = a. s
s = v + a
Note here that we could convert the scalar equations to vector equations immediately because the
displacement, the velocity and the acceleration are on the same st line.
Acceleration of a body does not take place without an net external Force and this is Newton’s
first law, i.e. ,inertia of rest or inertia of motion. There is no change in velocity either in magnitude
or in direction without any net external force. The requirement of force to change the velocity is
because of inertia.
Then acceleration produced by applied the force is proportional to the force and inversely proportional
to mass of the body. This is Newton’s 2
nd
law. In symbols,
and k km m
m m
· · ¬ = ¬ = =
1 F
a F a a F a a , units of length, mass and time are designed to
make 1 k = .Evidently force cannot be applied on something having no mass. This fact is used in
problems, e.g., net force on a pulley of negligible mass is 0, as F must be 0 when m = 0. So the
mass is the cause which requires an external force to change motion; the more the mass, the more is
requirement of force to produce a given acceleration. So mass is the measure of inertia.
Thus the Newton’s 1
st
law gives the definition of force and the second law gives the measurement of
it. We can use
d
dt m
= =
v F
a in problems. which is also
1 0
t
÷
=
v v
a
The force on the body may be whatever force, force of collision, gravitational, electromagnetic,
strong nuclear or weak nuclear, etc.
If two interacting bodies exert some kind of force on each other and if we consider both of them
together as one system of bodies, then there is evidently no external forces . Then the mutual forces
are only internal forces. Evidently they must balance each other so that there should be no external
force. This is Newton’s 3
rd
law , two interacting bodies exert only equal and opposite forces on
each other.
1

1
There are exceptions to Newton’s third law, or so called exceptions, one is in the case of mutual forces of
currents on each other, though they are equal and opposite, they are not along the same lines. No doubt the
Vector sum of the action and the reaction is 0 in this case. Another apparent case is when a door is pushed or
pulled with a force perpendicular to itself. The equal reaction is given by the hinge in the opposite direction and
the vector sum is also 0 here. Further both the forces are on the same body, i.e., the door which does not move
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We have the law of conservation of mass of any body .i.e., mass cannot be created or destroyed.
In a chemical reaction , such as burning, the matter changes form, but total mass of the reactants is
same as that of the products. In chemical reactions, the equations are balanced, for this reason, for,
the total number of atoms of an element in the reactant, must be same as that in the final product.
Suppose two bodies of masses
1 2
m and m with velocities
1 2
u and u ÷ in
opposite directions collide and rebound with
1 2
v and v ÷ respectively. They are in contact
for a very short while and exert large forces ( equal and opposite as per Newton’s third law ) on each
other. The force on the first body is
1 1
1
v u
m
t
÷ ÷
A
and that on the second body is
2 2
2
v u
m
t
+
A
Since the two
should be equal and opposite,
( ) ( )
2 2 1 1
2 1 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 2
v u v u
m m m v m v mu m u
t t
+ +
= ¬ + ÷ = + ÷
A A
. The
inference is that the algebraic sum of products of masses of the bodies with their velocities is a
constant or invariant , i.e., same as before the collision and after the collision. The same thing could
be proved for the vector sum instead of algebraic sum, just considering the velocity components
separately. This led to a concept momentum p = mv, a vector quantity. This is known as law of
conservation of momentum.
The Newton’s 2
nd
law could now be redesigned as
1 0 1 0
m m
m
t t
÷ ÷
= = = =
v v p p
F a time rate of
change of momentum .or
dm d
m
dt dt
= = =
v p
F a instantaneously. Net external force 0 means
0
d
dt
= ¬
p
p is a constant. Which is called the principle of conservation of momentum.
The concept of momentum also enables us to write the same Newton’s 2
nd
law when the mass is
variable, as in Einstein’s special theory of relativity. ( for, mass is bundled into it). Mass was
observed to be destroyed and converted to energy as per Einstein’s formula E = mc
2
( c being
velocity of light in empty space) in nuclear chain reactions and mass was observed to be created
when cosmic rays (energy) were destroyed when they strike the Earth’s atmosphere ( an electron
and a positron are created). In case the law of conservation of mass broke down, in case of nuclear
reactions, for example, still we have a conservation law at a higher level – law of conservation of
mass and energy in the system. For, the lost mass has appeared as energy or vice versa.
Conservation laws are concepts like invariants or identities.
We have seen the dot product of force and displacement , two vectors is work a scalar quantity and
need not repeat the discussion. One of the purposes of designing vector concept . Mechanical work is

out of its place; only it experiences a rotation. Therefore this case is not strictly taken as an exception of
Newton’s law. The case of electromagnetic forces should also not be considered as exception . Rather
Newton’s third law should be formulated so as to include this case; such as, the third law could have been just
stated as the vector sum of any force and its reaction is 0.
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converted to other forms of energies like electromagnetic energy, e.g., rotating a coil inside a magnet
produces electric current, electrical energy is converted to light energy in a bulb and so on. So it is
like a currency of exchange . Energy, a scalar quantity may be termed as capacity for doing work
and may be regarded as work itself. Principle of conservation of energy is an important concept
that ruled Physics until the advent of special theory of relativity of Einstein which renewed the concept
with the concept that mass is also a form of energy.
Let us calculate kinetic energy , KE say, of a body being uniformly accelerated from rest to final
velocity v , e.g. take a freely falling body from a height H.
( )
2
1 1
2 2
KE m m mv = = = =
2
F.s a.s v - 0 , a
scalar quantity. Similarly potential energy at a height h from the ground is mg.h = mgh, positive if
raised by somebody because it would fall automatically consuming this energy. Therefore the
convention is - work done by the field is negative and that by some external agency is positive. The
principle of conservation of energy can be demonstrated by saying that at any height h, if the body
has velocity v or speed v, the total energy is
2
1
2
mv mgh + , which is a constant equal to mgH just
before falling or
2
1
2
mV where V is the velocity when it strikes the ground.
The principle of conservation of momentum give a differential equation and so also the principle of
conservation of energy. Solving these two differential equations we solve general problems in
mechanics , fluid dynamics, acoustics, etc. Solving the differential equation means getting the
equations of motion.
§24: Free vectors and Localised vectors
Unless any vector is localized, i.e., not bound to a point , we assume that any vector parallel
to it and of same length is equal , at least for sake of vector addition or subtraction. Such vectors are
called free vectors. Localised vectors (bound to a point )are also no problem. See the
figure.
O P
Q
R
S
A localized vector OP

at O can be replaced by an equal vector QR

at
another localized vector QR

and a couple of 0 vector sum OP QS +
 
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Suppose a vector OP

is localized at O. There is no harm adding two vectors
QR OP and QS QR = = ÷
   
at any other point Q. Now we can think the vector OP

, in all its effects, is
equal to QR

and a moment due to OP and QS
 
, whose vector sum is 0. A zero vector is of
magnitude 0 and may be taken to be in any direction that does not matter. If the vector is a force, the
moment has a rotating effect or torque as we would discuss later on. But here at least, it may be
noted that a bound vector can be shifted to another point if a moment is also taken into account. The
moment is proportional to product of the vector and the perpendicular distance between the original
and shifted vectors as we would see later.
Do not confuse - a position vector of a point is not a localized vector, since it is different for different
origins chosen.
The following is a good example of localised vector.
§196: Angular speed and angular velocity
A particle moving around a circle of radius ‘a’ in constant speed
lim
0 t
ds s da d
v a a
dt t dt dt
o
o u u
e
o
÷
= = = = = where δs = aδθ is the arc travelled during time δt , and ω is
angular speed
d
dt
u
. Since the particle faces every direction in the plane of the circle, if we make
angular velocity a vector quantity, it cannot be represented by any vector in the plane of the circle. So
the direction of the angular velocity vector is taken perpendicular to the plane and conventionally, in
the direction of advancement of a right handed screw. Similarly if a rigid body rotates about an axis,
every point of the body moves around a circle of radius equal to its distance from the axis of rotation
and every point is moving with the same angular velocity, the direction of which is along the axis of
rotation per right hand rule. It is represented by a vector in the direction of the axis of rotation and
magnitude equal to angular speed ω. For rotational motion we have
0
s s r u ÷ = and speed
0
s s
v r r
t t
u
e
÷
= = = and
0 0
v v r r
a r
t t
e e
o
÷ ÷
= = = may always be used only if
0
s s r u ÷ = is
considered arc length travelled. For rotation around a fixed axis, we can safely use
0
,
, ....................................................(2 )
,
s s r
v r
a r
u
e
o
÷ =
=
=
With these the equations of motion can be developed similar to the equation of linear motion from first
principles and they would be as follows.
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A pitfall - Do not try to derive these equations from the corresponding equations for linear motion.
Derive them in the process just given above, i.e., from 1
st
principles, just as it is done for linear
motion.
0
0 1
1 0
2 2
1 0
2
0 0
,
,
2
, ................................................................( 3 )
2 ,
1
2
t
t
t t
u u e
e e
e
e e o
e e ou
u u e o
÷ =
+
=
= +
÷ =
÷ = +
the vector notations are avoided as all the vectors involved , , u e o are along a st line.
Note that the similarity with the equations of unifomely accelerated motion is because, the angle
travelled, the angular velocity and the angular acceleration are all in the same direction.
§25: Multiplication of a vector by a vector. Cross (X) product:
When a rigid body is being acted upon by a force with a fixed straight line inside it or outside it
but rigidly connected to it, called the axis., there is no net force on the body . Because according to
Newton’s third law, the axis gives an equal and opposite reaction on the same body as it is rigidly
fixed and the vector sum of the forces is 0, as the body is not displaced due to the rigid axis. But the
two equal and opposite forces are along parallel lines and the applied force turns the body into
rotation. For example when a door is opened or closed note that a force is applied on it having a
perpendicular to the plane of the door at a distance from the hinge. More the force the easier it is to
turn the door, or more the distance of application of force from the hinge the easier it is to turn the
door. The effect is proportional to magnitude of the force and also the distance of the point of
application of the force from the hinge (axis).
When two equal and opposite forces F and - F act on a body with displacement s between them
(from F to –F acting at different points on the body), the arrangement gives the body a rotational
acceleration  due to
a torque or moment of force or couple L = s x F
Thus if L = s x F, - L = F x s . If F and s happen to be in the same direction, there is no rotating of s
in the direction of F and hence s x F = 0 in that case. For example, when the door is straight pulled
away from the hinge, there is no rotation and no displacement also since both applied force and the
reaction by the hinge are along one straight-line
If s has two components s cos | in a direction parallel to F and s sin |
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 38
in a direction perpendicular to F, then magnitude of s x F is Fs sin | . No work is done by a torque
and as such, Fs cos | does not contribute anything to it. In short, if i, j and k be unit vectors in x-
direction ,y-direction and z-direction respectively, we have,
i x j = k, j x k = i, k x i = j, j x i = -k, k x j = - I, i x k = - j, 0 = i x i =j x j =k x k
§26: Moment of any vector about a point Moment of any vector about a line.
Moment of any vector F about a point O is r x F where r is the displacement vector joining
the point of application of the vector Z from O. It is a vector perpendicular to both r and F and is in the
direction of the tip of a right handed screw perpendicular to both r and F and rotated in the circle of
radius r turning towards F. It may still be better understood by right hand rule; Align the fingers of
your right hand in the direction of r and curl them in the direction of F the thumb pointing upwards.
The pointing thumb gives the direction of r x F. If the vector F represents a perpendicular force
on a swing door to open or close it ( changing its rotational speed from 0 to something) and r
represents the distance of point of application of this force from the hinge, r x F is in the direction of
the hinge, giving the door a rotation and is called torque on the door.
Moment of any vector F about a line l is component of r x F along the line l where r is the
displacement vector joining the point of application of the vector F from O, O being any point on the
line l. Thus it is ( ) . a r x F

, where a

is a unit vector along the line l. Thus the moment of a vector
along a line l is a scalar quantity.
In the figure,
( ) ( )

( )

( )

. . . rxF OQ QP F OQ F QP F r F a OQ F a QP F a = + × = × + × ¬ × = × + ×
              
where

a is a unit vector in the direction of OQ

. Now
 
( )

. . OQ F a a F a µ × = ×
  
,where

OQ a µ =

as they
are in the same direction. But

( )

. 0 a F a µ × =

,since

a F ×

is perpendicular to

a , as the cross product
is perpendicular to both of the vectors

a and F

. This renders
( )

. r F QP F a × = ×
   
, the component of
O
Q
P
r
Angular velocity vector
α
F
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 39
QP F ×
 
along the line OQ

, or along

a . So moment of force F

along a line l is the component of
cross product QP F ×
 
along the line , where PQ is perpendicular from the point of application
of force on the line.
§27: Angular velocity vector;
Suppose a rigid body rotates anticlockwise in the direction represented by the circle in the figure
above. The angular velocity vector is represented by  .If O be any point on the axis of rotation OQ
,is taken as the origin and
r
is the position vector of a point P on the rotating body, drop a
perpendicular PQ from P onto OQ. Velocity of the point P is a vector perpendicular to the plane of the
paper and its magnitude is given by PQω = r sin α ω. Then evidently v =  x
r
……………………….( 4 )
This is the vector form angular velocity.
With a slight modification, v = -
r
x  ..…………………………………….( 5 )
just the negative of moment of angular velocity.
Consider a point P on a rigid body with position vector r

relative to origin O. If the angular velocity of
the body relative to O is A

and the velocity of the origin O is v

, the velocity of P is
.........................( ) V v A r a = + ×
   
.
Consider another point O’ having s

position vector relative to O then its velocity is given by
' v v A s = + ×
   
. Now ' r s r = +
  
( see the figure) and so
( )
' ' ' ' V v A r s v A s A r v A r = + × + = + × + × = + ×
            
.If ' A

is angular velocity of P with respect to O’ about a parallel axis, then ' ' ' V v A r = + ×
   
. Comparing
the two, we have, ' A A =
 
.
The angular velocity of any point is same about any point around parallel axes………. (6)
Because of this fact a body can have simultaneous angular velocities added up as vector addition.
o’
o
P
r’
r
s
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 40
§29: Vector addition of rotations
Suppose a body has two angular velocities
1 1
Ae and
2 2
A e at the same time about two parallel axes,
through two points with position vectors
1
s

and
2
s

respectively. The vector sum of velocities produced
by the two angular motions for the point with position vector r

is,
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1 2 2
1 1 2 2 1 2
1 2
s s
A r s A r s A A r
e e
e e
| | +
× ÷ + × ÷ = + × ÷
|
+
\ .
        
(proceed from right to left if not understood)
This tells that the resultant motion is a angular velocity
1 2
A A +
 
in the same plane through a parallel
axis at
1 1 2 2
1 2
s s e e
e e
+
+
between the two axes. Evidently this divides the distance between them in the
ratio
1 2
: e e .
However, when the angular velocities are equal and opposite, their sum is found from the left side (ab
initio) to be
( ) 1 2 1
A s s × ÷
  
for all particles in the body and it is a translational velocity perpendicular to
the plane containing both axes.
§30: Uniform circular motion versus motion along a st line.
If 0
dr
r
dt
× = ¬


the radius vector and the velocity vector are parallel to each other and the motion
takes place in a st line.
If . 0
dr
r
dt
= ¬


the radius vector and the velocity vector are perpendicular to each other and the motion
takes place in a circle (to be proved later).
§31: Relation between L and α, Moment Of Inertia:
Using
d
=
r
v
dt
and r =
v
e , ( r =
v
 )
L = r xF
,
and taking
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ L, r, F, v
as unit vectors in respective directions, and noting that
ˆ
ˆ ˆ rxv =L,
and
ˆ
ˆ e
L =
,for
a rotating body about a fixed axis, (being unit vectors in the same direction),we have,
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Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 41
( ) ( ) ( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ ˆ
, ;
m
m m m m
m m m m say
e e
e
e o o o
= = = = =
= + =
v v v
v v
L = r x F r x r x r x r x r x
v
r x v r x
d v d d
d d
dt dt dt dt dt
d d
L +0 = L =I L
dt dt
2
2 2 2 2
r
r r
r r r r
as
ˆ dv
dt
is parallel to
ˆ -r
, and , .
e
o =
d
dt
angular acceleration
Thus
ˆ
o L = I L...........................................(6)
This is the relation between L and α we were looking for, to compare it with F = ma.
In parlance, m
2
r =I
……………………………………………………………..……..( 7)
I is called rotational mass or moment of inertia or rotational inertia.
Since it is a scalar quantity, for rigidly connected mass points we can take summations and write16(a)
as m
¿
2
r =I
………………………………………………………..(8 ).
Integrals would replace summations for continuous distribution of matter in a rigid body rotating
around a fixed axis. Thus, m
}
2
r d =I
……………………………………………………….....( 9 )
Drawing the analogy with translational motion further,
ˆ
d
I I I
dt
e
o o =


L = L =
may be written as
dH
dt

where H Ie =
 
may be called angular momentum of the system, evidently a vector quantity.
Now,
d H d
dt dt
= =

L
H
combined with =
L r xF
gives
d d d d d d
m
dt dt dt dt dt dt
= = = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
r x r r x r x r x
L r x F r x x v x v x v
p p p p p
p p as m
v x v =0
being
cross product of the same vectors.
So that =
r x
H p…………………………………………………………………….……..( 10 )
In words, angular momentum is moment of momentum.
§32: Newton’s laws for rotational motion.
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Series : REDISCOVER MATHEMATICS FROM 0 AND 1 , PART 1:THE SWORD AND THE SHIELD
Section 3: Linear Functions, Vectors, Matrices And Determinants
Book : Calculus And Analytic Geometry Of 2D and 3D
(Concepts and fundas for IITJEE and other competitive exams) Chapter 14: CO-ORDINATES ANDVECTORS
© Page 42
The meaning of inertia is clear from Newton’s laws for rotation, a rigid body shall continue to rotate
with a constant angular velocity around a fixed axis until acted upon by a net torque. The axis would
not also be disturbed without a net torque. This is the reason when the trainer tells a bicycle rider to
pedal hard when the bicycle is tilting; to maintain the angular velocity eroded by friction, so that the
axis of rotation is not disturbed by gravity.
What about Newton’s second law? This is
ˆ
o
L = I L
for fixed axis. We can also include small
rotations of the axis also in this equation. Large rotations are beyond the scope of this book as they
cannot be exactly vector quantities. Angular displacements and velocities for that matter cannot
be regarded strictly as vectors even if they are assigned magnitude and direction. In fact they do
not obey the rule of vector addition. For example, take a parallelepiped , give it two 90
0
rotations, first
, about a horizontal axis, then about a vertical axis; the resultant position would not be same if the two
rotations are given first about the vertical axis and then abou