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TREMATODES Scientific name Fasciola hepatica Common Name Common liver fluke Sheep liver fluke Tropical liver

fluke Habitat Liver MOT Ingestion Diagnostic stage Infective Stage Treatment Host Pathogenesis Fascioliasis Distinct Characteristics Cephalic cone, branched intestinal ceca No cephalic cone, shoulders less evident Fasciolopiasis Unbranched intestinal ceca, largest fluke Yellow diarrhea, vit. B12 malabsorpti on Peripheral blood eosinophili a Clinical Manifestati on bile inflammati on, hepatomeg aly

Fasciola gigantica

Liver

Ingestion

Fasciolopsis buski

Giant intestinal fluke

Small intestine

Ingestion

Unembryonated metacercariae praziquantel 1st inter: snail egg (Fossaria modicella) Def: Human, sheep cattle Unembryonated metacercariae praziquantel 1st inter: snail egg (Radix auricularia) Def: Human, sheep, cattle Unembryonated metacercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail egg (segmentina spp) 2nd inter: aquatic vegetation Unembryonated metacercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail egg (Oxytrema silicula) 2nd inter: salmonid fish def: dog, cat, red fox Unembryonated metacercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail egg Gyraulus spp 2nd inter: snail Pila luzonica Unembryonated metacercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail egg Helicorbus coenusus 2nd inter: aquatic vegetation

Nanophyetus salmincola

Small intestine

Ingestion

Nanophyetiasis

Echinostoma ilocanum

Spiny fluke Garrisons fluke

Small intestine Large intestine, colon

Ingestion

Echinostomiasis Circumoral disk w/ alternating rows of spines Gastrodiscoidia sis Spindle shaped ova, large acetabulum, pyramidal shaped adult

Catarrhal inflammati on Mucosal inflammati on of cecum & ascending

Gastrodiscoides Colonic hominis fluke

Ingestion

Alaria spp

Lung, small intestine

Ingestion

Unembryonated metacercariae Praziquantel egg

Heterophyes heterophyes

Metagonimus yokogawai Dicrocoelium dendriticum

Von siebolds fluke/ intestinal fluke Yokogawais fluke Japanese fluke Lancet fluke

Small intestine

Ingestion

embryonated egg

metacercariae Praziquantel

Small intestine Liver

Ingestion

embryonated egg embryonated egg

metacercariae Praziquantel

Ingestion

metacercariae Praziquantel

Clonorchis sinensis

Oriental fluke, Chinese fluke

Biliary duct, liver

Ingestion

embryonated egg

metacercariae Praziquantel

Opisthorchis viverrini

South east asian fluke

Biliary duct, gall bladder, liver Lungs

Ingestion

embryonated egg

metacercariae Praziquantel

Paragonimus westermanii

Oriental fluke

Ingestion

unembryonated egg

metacercariae Praziquantel

Def: Human 1st inter:snail Helisoma spp 2nd inter: tadpole (rarapipiens) Def: Human 1st inter: snail (Pironella conica) 2nd inter: fish Def: fish eating mammal&birds 1st inter:snail (semisulcospira spp) 2nd inter: 1st inter: snail (Cochlicopa lubrica) 2nd inter: black ant (Formica fusca) 1st inter: snail (Parafossarulus manchouricus) 2nd inter: fish (pseudorasbora parva) def: human 1st inter: snail (Bithynia siamensia) 2nd inter: cyprinoid fish def: Human 1st inter: snail (Brotia asperata)

Alariasis

colon Severe enteritis

Heterophyiasis

Tissue reaction causing heart failure

Metagonimiasis

Dicrocoeliasis

Flat and have tapered anterior & post. Ends

Hepatomeg aly, cirrhosis

Clonorchiasis

Vase-like shaped Obstruction ova boxers glove of biliary appearnce duct, pyogenic cholangitis Cirrhosis, obstructive jaundice

Opisthorchiasis

Paragonimiasis

Disease similar or

2nd inter: crustacean (Parathelphusa spp) Def: human Paragonimus mexicanus Lungs Ingestion unembryonated egg metacercariae Praziquantel 1st inter:snail Aroapyrgus costaricensis 2nd inter: Pseudothelphusa Def: Human cercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail (Bulinus/Physops is Def: Human cercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail Biomphalaria alexandrina Def: Human cercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail ( Oncomelania hupensis) Def: Human cercariae Praziquantel 1st inter: snail (Neotricula aperta) Def: Human Paragonimiasis

often mistaken w/ mycobacter ium tuberculosi s

Schistosoma haematobium Schistosoma mansoni Schistosoma japonicum

Schistosoma mekongi

Blood fluke, Venules vesical blood surrounding fluke urinary bladder Mansons Venules blood fluke surrounding the large intestines Oriental Mesenteric blood fluke veins draining small intestines Mekong Venous schistosoma plexus of small intestine bloodstream

Skin embryonated penetration egg Skin embryonated penetration egg Skin embryonated penetration egg

Schistosomiasis or bilharziasis Schistosomiasis mansoni Schistosomiasis japonica or oriental schistosomiasis Mekong schistosomiasis

Terminal spine in egg Lateral spine in egg

Bloody urine

Have a greatest egg laying capacity, eggs with small spine on 1 side No spine in egg Cercarial dermatitis or swimmers itch

Skin embryonated penetration egg