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Tasks of Communication

Data representation Interface, Signal generation Synchronization Exchange management or Protocol Error detection and correction Flow control
November 24, 2010

Addressing Routing Recovery Message formatting Security Utilization Network management

S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

Transmission Media
Physical path between transmitter and receiver Carries analog/digital signals Connectivity Point-to-point link - Ring Network - Star network - Interconnection Network - Bus, Tree

Classification

Multipoint link

Transmission of electromagnetic waves

November 24, 2010

S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

- Guided Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber - Unguided Atmosphere (Outer Space)
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Characteristics of Guided media


Characteristic Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber

Physical - 2 insulated wires Description arranged in regular spiral pattern - Copper or steel wire - Twisting minimizes electromagnetic interference

- Inner conductor - Insulation material - Outer conductor - Jacket or shield

- To conduct optical ray - Glass or plastics - Cylindrical shape - core - cladding (coating) - jacket

November 24, 2010

S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

Characteristics of Guided media Contd.


Characteristic Transmission Twisted Pair - Analog + digital - Amplifiers +Repeaters Analog Data Coaxial Cable Optical Fiber - Total internal reflection - Higher index of refraction - 1014 to1015 Hz
Modes Multimode Singlemode - Different - Core radius = path lengths order of wave (Stepped) - Single angle - If refraction index is raised, rays can be focused - Multimode graded index Light Source - LED, IED (Injection Laser Diode) Detector - PIN- photodiode - APD (Avalanche PhotoDiode) - ASK used, Gbps, WDM can be used

50 cable - Digital signaling - Manchester - Voice channel encoding 300-3400 Hz - 10 Mbps - 24 channels multiplexed 75 cable - 4 kHz separation between - Analog + digital channels signaling - Capacity 268 kHz - Upto 400 MHz (24*(4+3.1+4)) - FDM Digital Data - ASK, FSK, and - Modem @ 19.2 Kbps PSK - PSK - 24 Channel; 230 Kbps Thumb rule - 1Hz/ 1bps for max. above 5 Mbps Digital Signaling - 2Hz/ 1bps < 5 - Bell T1 circuit Mbps - 24 PCM ch -> 1.544 - 50 Mbps if digital Mbps signaling is used - Max. of 4 Mbps
S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

November 24, 2010

Characteristics of Guided media Contd.


Characteristic Connectivity Geographic Scope Twisted Pair Mostly Point to Point Upto 15 Km Coaxial Cable Both PP + MP - Few Km -baseband - 10s of Km. broadband - < a Km. for high data rates (50 Mbps) Optical Fiber Only PP lines - < 10 Km

Noise Immunity

- Susceptible to electromagnetic interference - Crosstalk - Reduced by Shielding Twisting Different twist length Cheap

Superior to twisted - Nil electromagnetic pair cable for interference frequency > 100 kHz - High data rate - High security

Cost
November 24, 2010

Medium
S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

High
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LAN TECHNOLOGY
Terminologies
Baseband transmission (Original form without modulation) (Digital, Single channel, Bidirectional, Bus topology, few Km distance) Broadband transmission (Analog, Multi channel, Unidirectional, Bus & Tree topology, tens of Km)

Baseband
Ethernet
Transceiver Isolates the signal ground from station and cable Transceiver cable Two twisted pair Controller Interface to the station
Data encapsulation, Link Management, Encode, and decode

50 coaxial cable 50 terminators To prevent refection by absorbing signals

Repeater Hub Intermediate hub Header hub


S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy 6

November 24, 2010

Baseband Standards
Standard Data rate Max. Seg. Length Network Span Nodes per Node Segment Spacing Cable Diameter

10 Base 5

10 Mbps

500 m

2500 m

100

2.5 m

0.4 inch

10 Base 2

10 Mbps

200 m

1000 m

30

0.5 m

0.25 inch

November 24, 2010

S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

LAN TECHNOLOGY Contd.


Broadband
Unidirectional Unfeasible to use single frequency for sending and receiving Two configurations
Dual Split
Transmit (f1) Receive (f2)

Frequency Converter

Head end
Frequency translator (Analog) Re modulator (Digital) S1 S2 S3

Dual Cable
Two separate cables for inbound/outbound Passive Head end Send and receive
November 24, 2010 S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy 8

Cable Components
Cables
Trunk Cable Semi rigid Upto 10s of Km. Distribution or Feeder Cable Shorter distances Drop Cable To connect station to feeder cable

Terminators 75 Coaxial cable Amplifiers To compensate for the attenuation Directional Coupler one-to many or many-to-one

November 24, 2010

S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

Cable Components Contd.


Splitters
To branch the cable (x=y=z)
Sub Mid High y z x

Tap To connect drop cables/stations to LAN Modem


Digital to Analog

Controller

November 24, 2010

S. Selvakumar, Professor, Dept. of CSE, NIT Trichy

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