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◆ Network Technology

Chapter 3

◆ LAN Protocol

LAN(IEEE)

Application protocols Communications software protocols LAN protocols

Application protocols Communications software protocols LAN protocols

LAN

◆ Topology of LANs
NO 1 Topology Bus Basic Form      Features
•Smaller influences of errors in information equipment or cables. •Hard to locate errors.

2

Ring

•Free of data collisions and suited for high-speed communication because of one-way communication being employed. •Larger influences of errors in information equipment or cables.

3

Star Center Station

• Smaller influences of errors in information equipment or cables. • Larger influences of errors in the center station.

◆ CSMA/CD types: IEEE802.3
10 10 10 1 10 Mbps Transmission speed BASE BASE BASE BASE BASE band Transmission method 5 T 2 5 F Bus Star Bus Star Star

  LAN topology x100m Max. cable length (T: Twisted-pair cable) (F: Optical fiber cable)

Type of signal Connection equip. Baseband

Baseband Digital Transceiver

Broadband Analogue Modem Broadband

0 1  0 0  1 1 0

◆ CSMA/CD protocol

Frame
Control information

Destination Address

Source Address

Transmission data

Control information

MAC Address

◆ Flow of data when no collision occurs
(1)

Transmission A request C
BA Data

(3) A C

BA Data B B Copy (4) A BA Data C A C Discard BA Data

(2)

B

B

n : MAC address

◆ Flow of data when a collision occurs
(1)

Transmission Transmission A request(wait) C request(wait)
C A Data C B Data A C Data

(4) A Suspension of C Suspension of

transmission

transmission

B (2) A C A Data C A C Data

B (5) 1 second later A RetransmissionC C A Data

B (3) A C

B (6) 2 seconds later A A C Data C Retransmission

Collision

n : MAC address B B

      MAC Frame

・Ethernet MAC frame
Control information

Destination address 6Byte

Source address 6Byte

Data type 2Byte

Data

Control information

8Byte

46~1500Byte

4Byte

・ISO8802-3(IEEE802.3: CSMA/CD method)MAC frame
Control information

Destination address 6Byte

Source address 6Byte

Data length 2Byte

Data 0~1500Byte

Control information

8Byte

4Byte

◆ 10BASE5
Terminator Transceiver Multi-port transceiver Co-axial cable Transceiver cable

Repeater

Item Transmission speed Topology Transmission distance

10BASE5 specification HUB 10Mbps

Twisted-pair cable

Bus TPMAU TPMAU Coaxial cable 500 m Without repeater 500 m With repeater 2,500 m Transceiver cable 50 m Within segment Within network 100 units 1,024 units

Number of end systems

◆ 10BASE-T

HUB HUB

HUB

Twisted-pair Twisted-pair Transceiver

Item Transmission speed Topology Transmission distance Number of end systems Star

10BASE-T specification 10Mbps Twisted-pair cable 100 m Cascade connection 500 m Within segment Within network 1 unit 1,024 units

◆Fast/ Gigabit Ethernet
HUB

Traffic bottleneck

Switch 100Mbps

1000Mbps

10Mbps

Performance improvement

10Mbps

◆ Types of Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet

Fast ethernet Standardization body Transmission speed communication specification IEEE802.3 100Mbps 100BASE-TX (category 5) 100BASE-T4 (category 3) 100BASE-FX (fiber optics) Topology Star

Gigabit ethernet IEEE802.3 1000Mbps 1000BASE-T (category 5 four-pair) 1000BASE-LX (fiber optics, long wave length) 1000BASE-SX (fiber optics, short wave length) Star

   

LAN Cables

• UTP Cables
Classification Category 3 Category 4 Category 5(e) Description Adopted to up to 10Mbps data transmission. (IEEE802.5 4Mbps IEEE802.3 10BASE-T) Adopted to up to 16Mbps data transmission. (IEEE802.5 16Mbps) Adopted to up to 100Mbps data transmission. (IEEE802.5 4/16Mbps IEEE802.3 10/100BASE-X)

• Optical fiber cables
Description Classification More likely to reduce a signal for higher reflection. Multi mode Less expensive, connection distance: 2 km. Less likely to reduce a signal for lower reflection. Single mode Expensive, connection distance: 60 km.

◆ Token-ring protocol: IEEE802.5

Frame
Control information

Destination address

To k

en

Source address

Data

Control information

MAC Address

◆ Flow of data in a token-ring LAN
(1) B
 

Fre e

tok en

(2) B
K A D

K

A
A AT

(5) A Z
KAD AT A  

Z

K

(3) A B
K A AD TA

(6) A
Free to

n :MAC Address

KA

A

(4)
DA

Z
TA

K COPY

ken

◆Token ring LAN

Station cable Ring cable Branch equipment Token ring HUB Twisted-pair cable

Branch equipment

Branch equipment Ring cable Configuration control equipment

Branch equipment

Station cable

     Configuration Control Equipment Functions
(1) Ringback function

Primary ring Ring cable Secondary ring

Primary ring Ring cable Secondary ring

(2) Spur bypass function

CCE

Ring cable

Secondary ring

detach

Primary ring
Spur

Spur

◆ What is FDDI ?
Token FDDI router FDDI bridge

FDDI bridge

FDDI router

  FDDI: • A high-speed, high-capacity LAN providing a transmission speed as high as 100M bps. • Connects between branch LANs.

◆ FDDI
Concentrator

Token-ring network

FDDI equipment CSMA/CD Node

CSMA/CD

CSMA/CD

FDDI

◆Wireless LAN: IEEE802.11

Wired LAN

Access point
PC (Card type) PC (Dedicated type)

Item Transmission speed Service area Frequency band

IEEE802.11b 11Mbps 30m~60m 2.4GHz

IEEE802.11a 54Mbps 20m~40m 5.4GHz

IEEE802.11g 54Mbps 30m~60m 2.4GHz

◆ Logical Link Control: EEE802.2
Connection Oriented (CO) A CO B Connection Less (CL) A CL B

(1) C onne ction reque st ant on gr necti ) Con (2 ( 3) Da ta tra nsmi ssion Data trans missi on ation nfirm on co cepti e (4) R ( 5) Di scon necti on re ques t rant tion g nnec isco (6) D

Data tr

ans m ission Data t ra n s missi on