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◆ Network Technology

Chapter 5

◆ LAN Hardware

Branch LAN CSMA/CD The Internet Backbone LAN FDDI

Branch LAN Token-ring

: Inter-LAN connection equipment

◆ Factors that necessitate LAN expansion
(1) Increase in the number of end systems

(2) Extension of transmission distance

? (3) Merging and integration ?

(4) Load distribution ?

◆Equipment to expand LAN

Router

Repeater

Bridge

Router

LAN switch

HUB

◆Repeater, HUB
Repeater function Amplify an electrical signal

HUB A AB C Repeater

AB B LAN1 LAN2 A B C D D

Limitation of the Number of Segments in a CSMA/CD LAN
(1)

R

R

Link segments to pass + Co-axial segments to pass <= 5 and Co-axial segments to pass <= 3 (3) HUB Link segment

R

(2) R Link segment R R R : Co-axial segment : Link segment : Transceiver cable Link segment R

HUB Link segment

: End system R : Repeater

◆ Repeater HUB

Class I Repeater HUB Class I

Class II Repeater HUB Class II Class II

• One HUB is used

• Cascade connection is available (up to two levels).

       Dual

speed repeater HUB

Dual speed repeater HUB structure 100Mbps bus 10M/100M conversion 10Mbps bus Autonegotiation 10M 10M

100M

10M

◆ Bridge… Supports transmission distance extension, end system count
increase, interconnecting LANs, and load distribution.

MAC OSI Bridge TCP/IP MAC

• Filtering Bridge

Source Destination MAC MAC address address   ↓ ↓   

 Data    A  C
MAC address: A

Forwarding x Filtering
MAC address: C

 Data    A  B Address table LAN1 LAN2 A C B D

MAC address: B

MAC address: D

LAN1

LAN2

     LAN Switch (Switching HUB)
Before introduction

(2) LAN Switch (Switching HUB) (1) HUB(10BASE-T) AC
Port 1 A

Address table
Port 2 B Port 3 C Port 4 D

AC BD To C A B Discard To D
Port 1 Port 2 Port 3 Port 4

C Copy

D A Discard

To C B

To D C D

After introduction

     Collision Domain
Repeater

A Bridge × Collision detection range

HUB

LAN switch

◆ Router… Supports transmission distance extension, end system count
increase, and interconnecting LANs.
E.g. TCP/IP
MAC frame   DA SA SA DA Data  3.1 1.1 v  a 1.1 Router
Routing table network Next router 3 2.3 b

MAC frame    DA SA SA DA Data  3.1 1.1 b  d Router 2.3 2.2
Network address 2 d

MAC address    DA SA SA DA Data  3.1 1.1 e  y 3.1

Routing table network Next router 1 2.2 e 4 2.2

3.2

y
Network address 3

v
Network address 1

2.1 1.2
a ARP cache
IP addressMAC address

w

ARP cache
IP addressMAC address

1.1 2.3 2.1 4.1

v d w x

3.1 2.1 2.2

y w b

4.2
c

4.1
Network address 4

x

N.M : IP address N… Network address M… Host address : MAC address DA … Destination address SA … Source address

◆ Setting up a Routing Table
• Static routing
Network address 1 1.2 Router Routing table
Network  next router

Router 2.2 Network address 2 2.3 Routing table
Network  next router

3.2

3 ...

2.3 ...

1 ...

2.2 ...

Network address 3

Tables need to be set up.

• Dynamic routing
Information exchanged between routers Router Network address 1 1.2 Routing table
Network  next router

Router 2.2 Network address 2 2.3 Routing table
Network  next router

3.2

3 ...

2.3 ...

1 ...

2.2 ...

Network address 3

 Automatically set up 

◆ Routing
D.A S.A S.A D.A Data 3.1 1.1 A B Data Router 1 1.1 A Network address 1 1.2 B 2.1 C Network address 2 D.A S.A S.A D.A 3.1 1.1 C D D.A S.A S.A D.A Data 3.1 1.1 Router 2 2.2 D 3.2 E Network address 3 3.1 F E F

Routing table
network

Routing table
Next router direct direct
2.2

network
1 2 3

Next router
2.1

N.M:IP address N: network address M: host address :MAC address D.A: destination S.A: source

1 2 3

direct direct

ARP Cache
IP address MAC address


1.1 2.2


A D

ARP Cache
IP address MAC address

2.1 3.1

C F

     IP address and MAC address
End system 1
Decide the destination MAC address according to the destination IP address Destination MAC address router B

Decide the next router according to the destination address
Des MAC tination a routeddress rA Dest IP inatio  end addressn syste m2

Router A Relay router

Destination IP address  end system 2

Router B Final router
n io s at es 2 tin dr m es ad e st D n 2 AC sy io M d at ss m en tin re ste es dd sy D a d IP e n  

TCP/IP TCP/IP

End system 2

     Broadcast Domain

A Repeater, bridge

HUB, LAN switch

Destination MAC address Data B F

×
Router

The range of broadcast reachable from B.

F:FFFFFFFFFFFF

◆ Example of Using Repeaters, Bridges, and Routers
3F sales div. 100 units
• Relays between end systems with different network addresses

Network address 150. 1. 2. 0 HUB HUB HUB

Router Network address 150. 1. 1. 0

WAN

• install in the same network • Reduces network load. • Extends data transmission distance

Bridge

HUB

HUB

HUB

Router
security

2F IT div. 30 units

Router HUB HUB

Network address 150. 1. 3. 0

1F G.A. div. 30 units

Router HUB HUB

Network address 150. 1. 4. 0 Note: subnet mask   255. 255. 255. 0

◆ Example of Using HUBs, LAN switches, and Routers
3F Network address 10.1.1.0 LAN switch HUB Sales div. 50 2F Router Access router Network address LAN switch 10.1.4.0 1F Network address 10.1.3.0 HUB LAN switch General affairs div. 30 Subnet mask:   255.255.255.0 Network address 10.1.2.0 HUB IT div. 30

Outside network

Gateway…Supports network connection.
Gateway 7A --- 7B 6A --- 6B 5A --- 5B 4A --- 4B 3A --- 3B 2A --- 2B 1A --- 1B Connects networks using different protocols.

Network A

Network B