Citation Style Guide

IST Programmes Victoria University of Wellington
Version 0.6 February 2009

C O NTENTS
1. 2. Introduction ............................................................................................................................................................ 1 Books ..................................................................................................................................................................... 2 2.1. Books with a single author ........................................................................................................................... 2 2.2. Books with two authors ................................................................................................................................ 2 2.3. Books with three to six authors.................................................................................................................... 3 2.4. Books with six or more authors ................................................................................................................... 3 2.5. Books with editors......................................................................................................................................... 3 2.6. Books by a corporate body............................................................................................................................ 4 2.7. Books with the author’s name given as “Anonymous” ............................................................................. 4 2.8. Books with no authors or editors ................................................................................................................. 4 2.9. Books with an edition statement and multi volumes ................................................................................. 5 2.10. Chapters in books that are written by a single author................................................................................. 5 2.11. Chapters in edited books ............................................................................................................................... 5 2.12. Electronic books............................................................................................................................................. 5 3. Articles ................................................................................................................................................................... 6 3.1. Articles with one to six authors.................................................................................................................... 6 3.2. Articles with more than six authors.............................................................................................................. 6 3.3. Articles not yet published (draft, in press, preprints) .................................................................................. 6 3.4. Abstracts of articles ........................................................................................................................................ 7 3.5. Book reviews.................................................................................................................................................. 7 3.6. Newspaper articles.......................................................................................................................................... 7 3.7. Electronic articles ........................................................................................................................................... 7 4. Other Types of Resources ..................................................................................................................................... 9 4.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................... 9 4.2. Blog posts ...................................................................................................................................................... 9 4.3. Brochures........................................................................................................................................................ 9 4.4. Conference papers ........................................................................................................................................... 9 4.5. Encyclopedia and dictionary entries............................................................................................................ 10 4.6. Legislation .................................................................................................................................................... 10 4.7. LIM Course material.................................................................................................................................... 10 4.8. Message sent to an electronic mailing list ................................................................................................. 10 4.9. Personal communication.............................................................................................................................. 11 4.10. Podcasts ........................................................................................................................................................ 11 4.11. PowerPoint and other presentations............................................................................................................ 11 4.12. Press releases ................................................................................................................................................ 11 4.13. Reports.......................................................................................................................................................... 11 4.14. Television series and episodes.................................................................................................................... 12 4.15. Theses, dissertations and MLIS research projects ..................................................................................... 12 4.16. Video recordings, movies and online videos ............................................................................................. 12 4.17. Web pages .................................................................................................................................................... 13 4.18. Wiki Pages ................................................................................................................................................... 13 4.19. Wikipedia articles ........................................................................................................................................ 13 5. Writing style........................................................................................................................................................ 14 5.1. Direct quotations .......................................................................................................................................... 14 5.2. referring to Digital sources........................................................................................................................... 14 5.3. Citing items you have seen referred to in a another source....................................................................... 14 5.4. Citing more than one item within an in-text citation ............................................................................... 15 6. Reference List and Bibliography......................................................................................................................... 16 6.1. Creating a reference list and a bibliography................................................................................................ 16 6.2. Formatting references ................................................................................................................................... 16 6.3. More than one item by the same author(s) in different years .................................................................... 17 6.4. More than one item by the same author(s) in the same year .................................................................... 17 7. Further references.................................................................................................................................................. 18

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1.

INTR O D U CTI O N

This Guide has been written for staff and students of Victoria University of Wellington’s Library and Information Studies (IST) programmes. It gives you examples of how to create a reference list and bibliography by citing different types of resources using a slightly modified American Psychological Association (APA) format. It explains basic citation rules, and illustrates how to use in-text citations in different situations. Almost all of the examples are for fictitious publications. If Jones, Stein, Zimmer and their friends really existed, they would be exhausted, given their huge output of perfectly referenced writing, film and audio production in 2008. Key points to note: • The purpose of any citation is to provide enough information for your reader to be able to identify exactly what you have read, and to be able to find it as easily as possible if they want to. The rules for print publications form the basis of the rules for electronic material. Study the examples to see the differences and similarities • • never spell out the first name of an author, give their surname and initials only organisations can be authors too, but never abbreviate the name of an organisation that is listed as an author in the reference list (e.g. use Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa, not LIANZA, in your reference list) most publications, reports and web resources have a publication date, but sometimes you need to search to find it – do try. If you can’t find a date, use (n.d.) in place of the year. It is important that you include a retrieval date in the reference if you don’t give a date of publication titles of books and journals are italicised, but not titles of chapters and articles. This is so that the ‘container’ of the item you are citing stands out when viewing the citation. If a paper is unpublished, then italicise its title, because it does not form part of a larger work citing electronic documents is challenging. APA gives precedence to a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) over a URL, so you should use this if it is available. If you can’t locate a DOI, give the most precise URL whenever possible – this is so that your reader will be able to click straight through to the document. However, you need to be aware that most article databases have access restrictions, so the URL will not work for someone who is not from Victoria. If a DOI is not available for the item you are citing from a database, name the database that you retrieved the item from. It is a good idea to test all your URLs before submitting your assignment when referencing any electronic material, ask yourself “is this a final, fixed version of the book / article / report / archived email etc or might it change over time?” If it might change (e.g. a webpage, information sheet, wiki article, online reference tool, etc), include the date you retrieved the item in your reference. This acknowledges that the reader of your text who clicks on your URL might see a different version of the content to the one you used. If you believe that the item will not change, there is no need to include a retrieval date in the reference. If in doubt, include a retrieval date writing with the APA style requires you to use parenthetical references in the body of your paper, for example (Jones, 2008), with a separate list of references at the end of the paper. If you quote directly from another source, such as a book, article, or web page, place all of the quoted material in double quotation marks, followed by a text reference indicating the source. There is more information about this in 5 Writing style .

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2.

B O OKS 2 . 1. BOOKS W I T H A SINGL E AU T H OR

Jones, P.G. (2008). The joys of correct citation style: A manual of shortcuts. Wellington: Our Place Press. Points to note: • Only the first word of the main title and subtitle, and any proper nouns, are capitalised • When places of publication have states or provinces, give the name of the town or city, followed by the standard two-letter state or province abbreviation. There are a few exceptions to this rule: the following American cities do not need the state abbreviation as they are well known places of publication – Baltimore, Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York, Philadelphia and San Francisco • Include the country of publication, except for major cities in New Zealand, the United States, Canada, Australia, and the cities of Amsterdam, Jerusalem, London, Milan, Moscow, Paris, Rome, Stockholm, Tokyo and Vienna which do not need a country because they are recognised as major centres of publication • If the name of the publisher ends with the word “Publisher” or “Inc” or “Co”, the convention is to leave this out. However, leave in the words “Press” or “Books” Citing in a sentence: Jones (2008, p.36) argues that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style. or Three benefits of citing material correctly are speed, readability, and accountability (Jones, 2008, p.36). or “ The benefits of using correct citation style are speed, readability, and accountability” (Jones, 2008, p.36) Extra point to note: • Include the page number for the source of specific ideas, as well as for all direct quotations

2 . 2.

BOOKS W I T H T W O A U T H ORS

Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008). A New Zealand guide to APA: How to cite things right. Wellington: Our Place Press. Point to note: • proper nouns, such as the name of a person or country or business, have a capital letter when they appear in the title Citing in a sentence: Jones and Stein (2008, p.36) argue that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style. or Three benefits of citing material correctly are speed, readability, and accountability (Jones & Stein, 2008, p.36). or “ The benefits of using correct citation style are speed, readability and accountability” (Jones & Stein, 2008, p.36) Extra points to note: • when you name two authors as part of the sentence, write “and” between their names • when you cite two authors within the in-text citation, write “&” between their names

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2 . 3.

BOOKS W I T H T HR E E T O SIX AU T H ORS

Jones, P.G., Stein, J., & Wang, T. (2008). Citation style for American college students. Chicago: Fix Mistakes Press. Jones, P.G., Stein, J., Wang, T., & Zimmer, P. J. (2008). Citation style for tertiary students. Free Hills, N.J.: Textmakers. Points to note: • Name all the authors in your reference list • If there is more than one publisher listed, include the first named publisher only • If there is more than one place listed, give the location of the main office or, if this is not obvious, the first listed place Citing in a sentence: The first time you cite this source, name all authors: Jones, Stein, Wang, and Zimmer (2008, p.36) argue that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style. or Three benefits of citing material correctly are speed, readability, and accountability (Jones, Stein, Wang, & Zimmer, 2008, p.36). Subsequent citations can be shortened using the first author’s name followed by “et al.”: Jones et al. (2008, p.36) argue that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style. or Three benefits of citing material correctly are speed, readability, and accountability (Jones et al., 2008, p.36).

2 . 4.

BOOKS W I T H SIX OR M ORE AU T H ORS

Jones, P.G., Stein, J., Want, T., Zimmer, P. J., Cooke, G. A., Bertram, S., et al. (2008). Citation style for fun and profit. London: Money and Grabbit. Point to note: • Name the first six authors in your reference list citation, followed by et al. (which means “and others”) Citing in a sentence: Jones et al. (2008, p.36) argue that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style. or Three benefits of citing material correctly are speed, readability, and accountability (Jones et al., 2008, p.36).

2 . 5.

BOOKS W I T H E D I T ORS

Jones, P.G. (Ed.). (2008). Current best practice in citation style. Hong Kong: Fortuna. Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (Eds.). (2008). Essays on citation style. Hong Kong: Fortuna. Point to note: • The word (Ed.) or (Eds.) is added to indicate that these are not the authors of the book Page |3

2 . 6.

BOOKS BY A COR P ORA T E BODY

National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008). New Zealand citation guidelines. Wellington: Author. Points to note: • Reports are often presented as the work of an organisation or ‘corporate body’ rather than having a named author or editor • These always appear in your reference list with the organisation’s name spelled out in full • When the author and the publisher are the same body, do not repeat the whole name. Use the word “Author” as the publisher Citing in a sentence: The names of some organisations are commonly shortened to acronyms, e.g. Library and Information Association of New Zealand Aotearoa is commonly referred to as LIANZA. The first time you cite an item written by an organisation with a name that has a common acronym, spell the name out in full. You can choose whether to spell the name out in full every time you cite it, or to use its acronym in subsequent citations. If you plan to use the acronym, the first time you cite the item, add the acronym in square brackets in the in-text citation, and thereafter you can use the acronym on its own. Never invent an acronym if it is not in common use. The National Citation Association of New Zealand [NCAONZ] (2008) provides guidelines for all New Zealand citers. or There is an official New Zealand citation style (National Citation Association of New Zealand [NCAONZ], 2008). If you cite the source subsequently, you may use the acronym: NCANZ (2008) provides guidelines for all New Zealand citers. or There is an official New Zealand citation style (NCAONZ, 2008).

2 . 7.

BOOKS W I T H T H E AU T H OR’S NAM E GIVEN AS “ A N ONY M OUS”

Anonymous (2008). Citation style for adults. Dublin, Oh: Raunchy Style Guides. Point to note: • Only use the name “Anonymous” if it is given as the name of the author in the document. If this word is not actually used in the publication, use title entry (see 2.8 Books with no authors or editors)

2 . 8.

BOOKS W I T H NO A U T H ORS OR ED I T ORS

Citation style for children (2008). Auckland: Smart Tots Press. Point to note: • This is one of the few times when you should include the title of a book in the sentence of academic writing. Citing in a sentence: The book Citation style for children (2008, p.36) argues that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style. or Three benefits of citing material correctly are speed, readability, and accountability (Citation style for children, 2008, p.36). Page |4

2 . 9.

BOOKS W I T H AN E D I T I O N S T A T E M E N T AND MU L T I VOL U M ES
th

Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008). Citations are cool (4 ed). Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Stein, J. (2008). Citations for farmers (rev. ed, Vols 1-4). Hamilton: Federated Farmers of New Zealand.

2.10. CHA P T E RS IN BOO KS T H A T AR E WRI T T E N BY A SINGL E AU T H OR
Jones, P.G. (2008). The importance of commas. In A step by step guide to citation perfection (pp.56-73). Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Point to note: • If you have only used one or two specific chapters from a book, and the others in the book are not relevant, you should cite the individual chapters rather than the whole book

2.11.

CHA P T E RS IN E DI T E D BOOKS

Jones, P.G. (2008). The beauty of the semi colon. In P.G. Jones & J. Stein (Eds.) The aesthetics of rd correct citation (3 ed. , pp.120-134). Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Zimmer, P.J. (2008). The dignity of the ampersand. In P.G. Jones & J. Stein (Eds.) The aesthetics of rd correct citation (3 ed. , pp.102-119). Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Zimmer, P.J. (2008). The dignity of the ampersand. In P.G. Jones & J. Stein (Eds.) The aesthetics of rd correct citation (3 ed. , pp.102-119). Retrieved from CitationBooksOnline database. Points to note: • The author of the chapter usually differs from the name of the editor, although sometimes editors write a Foreword and/or one or more of the chapters in an edited book • The initials of the editor(s) come before their surname in this situation. In all other places, initials follow the surname

2.12.

E L EC TRO N IC BOOKS

Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008). Career options for citation specialists. Wellington: Career Books. Available from http://www.bookstobuy.com/JonesStein.htm Stein, J. (2008). Going solo: A citer’s biography. Retrieved from http://www.steinfamily.com.au/ biography.pdf Points to note: • Almost all of the rules for electronic books are the same as those for print books • A URL is given instead of place and name of the publisher, as long as the URL indicates the name of the publisher. If it doesn’t, then include the place, name, and URL. • Use the phrase “Available from” to direct users to a link to information about how to access the book • Use the phrase “Retrieved from” if the URL takes you to the full text of the book • No retrieval date is given because the text of a book is fixed

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3.

ARTICLES 3 . 1. AR T IC L ES W I T H O N E T O SIX A U T H ORS

Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008). Top tips from the citation experts: Become the best citer on the block. Journal of Academic Exactitude, 43(5), 3-14. Stein, J. (2009, Spring). The trauma of always being the second cited author. Journal of Academic Disappointments, 38, 34-37. Zimmer, P.J. (2007, May 5). Citation for crafters. Craft Weekly, 4-6. Points to note: • Authors are treated the same way as authors of books • The title of the article is formatted in the same way as the title of a book. The first word of the title and subtitle, and proper names, are the only words that have capital letters. However, the article title is not italicised • The full journal title is follows the article title, with all significant words capitalised. The journal title is italicised • Then the volume number is given, in italics. If there is no volume or issue number, the season (for quarterly publications) or month (for monthly publications) is added after the year within the brackets. If there are more than one issue a month (e.g. a weekly publication), include the date • If there is an issue number, this follows the volume number in brackets. If there is no issue number, the season or month is added after the date (see previous point) • The first and last pages of the page numbers of the article are given. If the page numbers are broken (i.e. there are gaps), cite like this 3-6, 8. • Take particular care to get the punctuation correct, following the examples above

3 . 2.

AR T IC L ES W I T H M ORE T H A N SIX AU T H O RS

Jones, P.G., Stein, J., Wang, T., Zimmer, P. J., Bacon, J.B., & Brown, H.H., et al. (2008). Everybody can cite correctly. Journal of Collaborative Citation, 4(5), 5-18. Point to note: • List the first six authors, followed by the words “et al.”

3 . 3.

AR T IC L ES NO T Y E T P UB LISHED (DRAF T , I N PR ESS, PRE PR IN TS)

Jones, P.G. (in press). The impact of citations on American presidential speeches. Journal of Citation Studies. Jones, P.G. (in press). The impact of citations on American presidential speeches. Journal of Citation Studies. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from http://ncaonz.co.nz/papers/inpress/Jones99.pdf Jones, P.G. (n.d.). The impact of citations on Barak Obama’s president-elect speeches. Manuscript in preparation. Retrieved February 20, 2009, from http://ncaonz.co.nz/papers/drafts/Jones09.pdf Jones, P.G. & Stein, J. (2008). The impact of citations on George W. Bush’s presidential speeches. Journal of Citation Studies 45(3), 23-45. Advance online publication. Retrieved February 10, 2009. doi:10.1234/s00567-111-2345-6 Points to note: • You do not yet know the year or volume, issue or pages, so you can only give a partial reference • If you have retrieved the article from a personal or institutional website, give the date retrieved as you cannot guarantee that this is the final text • The DOI, if available, will refer the reader to the most recent version Page |6

3 . 4.

ABS TRAC TS OF AR T IC L ES

Jones, P.G., Stein, J., Wang, T., Zimmer, P. J., Bacon, J.B., & Brown, H.H., et al. (2008). Everybody can cite correctly. Journal of Collaborative Citation, 4(5), 5-18. Abstract retrieved from Emerald database. Point to note: • Sometimes you might need to cite an abstract of a document, usually when you cannot obtain a copy of the full document. It is important to let the reader know that you have not read the whole article, just the abstract

3 . 5.

BOOK REVIE WS

Zimmer, P.J. (2008). Essential reading for the amateur citer [Review of the book The joys of correct citation style: A manual of shortcuts]. Journal of Collaborative Citation 4(6), 56-58. Retrieved from Emerald database.

3 . 6.

N E WSPA P ER AR T ICL ES

Zimmer, P.J. (2007, May 23). Citation fever sweeps the world. Daily Citer, B15-B16. Zimmer, P.J. (2007, May 23). Citation fever sweeps the world. Daily Citer, B15-B16. Retrieved from http://www.dailyciter.com/20070523/Zimmer.html Zimmer, P.J. (2007, May 23). Citation fever sweeps the world. Daily Citer. Retrieved from http://www.dailyciter.com Points to note: • Newspapers citations include the year, month and date. The page number often includes a letter indicating the section • When citing printed newspaper articles from an electronic database, include the page numbers if they are known • If there is a direct link URL to the article, include it. If it is necessary to search the website using a search engine to find the article, simply include the index or home page for the newspaper

3 . 7.

E L EC TRO N IC AR T IC L ES

Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008). Top tips from the citation experts: Become the best citer on the block. Journal of Academic Exactitude, 43(5), 3-14. doi:11.2222/0003-4567.89.1.234 Jones, P.G., Stein, J., Bacon, J.B., Wang, T., Zimmer, P. J., & Brown, H.H., et al. (2008). Citing in the atomic age. Online Journal of Citology, 5(3) 12-14. Retrieved from Emerald database. Jones, P.G., Stein, J., & Wang, T. (2008). Everybody can cite correctly. Journal of Collaborative Citation, 4(5), 5-18. Retrieved from http://www.cit.vuw.ac.nz/index/ojoc/article/jones35 Points to note: • The rules that apply to print articles, described above, also apply to electronic articles • For articles from full-text databases (such as ProQuest or EBSCOHost), give the DOI (Direct Object Identifier) rather than the URL, if you know the DOI. DOIs are increasingly used in article databases, and provide a persistent link to the item. You often need to look at the full record for the item to find the DOI (top example)

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• •

If you cannot find a DOI for an article, and if you used a database that is only available via a library website or with a password, then do not include the full URL – it will not take the reader back to the article. In this case, use the name of the full-text database (middle example) If the journal is accessed from a website rather than a database (e.g. if you are accessing a single ejournal from the publisher’s website), use the most specific URL available for retrieving the article (bottom example). This may be a link direct to the article, or it may be a link to an index or search page.

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4.

OT HER TYPES OF RES O U R CE S 4 . 1. IN T RO DUC T I O N

This section contains examples of how to cite a range of different types of resources, both print and digital, arranged in alphabetical order by resource type. It is not comprehensive, and you may find that you want to cite something that isn’t included. In that case, please use the supplementary resources listed at the end of this Guide, or contact your lecturer or a Senior Tutor for advice.

4 . 2.

BLOG P OS TS

CiteBunny. (2007, May 13). Colon or semicolon? Message posted http://www.citeright.blogspot.org/ Zimmer, P.J. (2008, January 23). A new way to cite blogs. Message posted to http://www.citeright.blogspot.org Point to note: • use the screen-name if you don’t know the poster’s real name

4 . 3.

BROCHURES

National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008). Quick guide to citing in New Zealand [Brochure]. Wellington: Author. National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008). Quick guide to citing in New Zealand [Brochure]. Retrieved from http://www.ncaonz.co.nz/quickguide.pdf

4 . 4.

CONF ERE NCE P A P ERS

Jones, P.G. (2008, January 4-5). The never-ending journey of a citation theorist. Paper presented at the International Congress on Citation Studies, Wellington, New Zealand. Jones, P.G. (2008). The never-ending journey of a citation theorist. Paper presented at the International Congress on Citation Studies, 4-5 January 2008. Retrieved from the National Citation Association of New Zealand: http://ncaonz.co.nz/papers/ICCS/2008/Jones.pdf Jones, P.G. (2008). The relevance of citation theory to academic publishing success. In Citation for the st rd 21 Century: The 43 Conference of the World Citation Organisation, 13-15 February 2008 (pp 99-120). Tokyo: World Citation Organisation. Point to note: • The first version is for a conference paper that has been presented, but hasn’t been published anywhere. The citation date indicates the date(s) of the conference • The second version is for a conference paper published online, and the third is for one published in hard copy, which is treated like a chapter in a book

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4 . 5.

E NCYCL O P E D I A AN D D IC T I O N ARY E N TR I ES

Acronyms. (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/ Acronyms. (2008). In P.G. Jones & J. Stein (Eds.) The world encyclopedia of citationology (pp.2-3). Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Zimmer, P.J. (2008). Media sources. In P.G. Jones & J. Stein (Eds.) The online world encyclopedia of citationology. Retrieved February 12, 2009, from http://blackstump/citencyc.htm Points to note: • If the article’s author is named, treat an encyclopedia entry like a chapter in a book. This often happens in large scholarly encyclopedias • If there is no named author, use the title of the article rather than the editor’s name • Entries in online reference tools might be updated. It may not be possible to tell the date the entry was last updated. The retrieval date is very important to include.

4 . 6.

L EGISLA T I ON

Copyright (New Technologies) Amendment Act 2008. Retrieved February 17, 2009, from http://legislation.govt.nz/act/public/2008/0027/22.0/DLM1122502.html

4 . 7.

L I M COURSE MA T ER IA L

School of Information Management. (2008). Module 2: Citation styles. In INFO599 Academic Writing [CDROM]. Wellington: Victoria University of Wellington. Point to note: • VUW LIM course material has usually been developed over time by different authors, who revise and modify the existing course notes. Unless the authorship of a particular Module is clearly indicated (which is rare), treat the course notes as being written by the School

4 . 8.

M ESSAGE SEN T T O A N E L EC TR ON IC MA I L I NG L IS T

CiteBunny. (2007, May 13). Colon or semicolon? Message posted to nz-cite electronic mailing list, archived at http://www.citeright.org/nzcite/archives/200705 Zimmer, P.J. (2008, January 23). Re: How do you cite Blogs? Message posted to nz-cite electronic mailing list, archived at http://www.citeright.org/nzcite/archives/200801 Point to note: • when citing email lists, include the URL for the archive, if the message is available online. If the email you are citing is not archived, treat it as personal communication (see below)

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4 . 9.

P ERSONAL CO MM UN ICA T I O N

The APA style does not require you to include personal communications in a reference list, so there is no recommended citation style. Citing in a sentence: Prunella Jones, Director of the International Citation Society, admits that writing a style guide is not easy (personal communication, February 12, 2008). or It is not easy to write a style guide (P.G. Jones, personal communication, February 12, 2008). Points to note: • Information that you, as the author of your work, have gathered from other people through letters, personal emails, interviews, conversations, etc, is not included in the reference list. The only place you indicate the source is in an in-text citation, which gives the initials and surname of the person and the date of the communication • you only need to name the source once – if the name of the source is in your sentence, the in-text citation is in a briefer format

4.10.

P O DCAS TS

Jones, P.G. (Producer). (2008, March 14). Travels as a citation consultant [Show 12]. CiteRight Radio. Podcast retrieved from http://www.citeright.org/podcasts/54travels.mp3

4.11.

P O W ER P O IN T A N D O T H ER PR ESEN T A T I ONS

National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008). APA is easy [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.ncaonz.co.nz/presentations/2008easy.ppt

4.12.

P R ESS REL E ASES

National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008, October 23). New Zealand students are better citers than Australian students, says a just-released study [Press release]. Retrieved from http://www.ncaonz.co.nz/pressreleases/JonesSteinStudy08.html

4.13.

RE P OR TS

Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008). The use of APA citation style in New Zealand masters degree programmes (Report No. NCAONZ 2008.35). Retrieved from National Citation Association of New Zealand: http://ncaonz.co.nz/reports/research/2008.35.pdf National Citation Associati on of New Zealand. (2008). Annual Report 2007. Retrieved from http://ncaonz.co.nz/reports/annual/AR2007.pdf National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008). Annual Report 2007. Wellington, New Zealand: Author. Point to note:

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In most situations it is not necessary to name the organisation that owns the website, but for items such as technical and research reports, it is important that the reader can see the source of the report, so include this detail if the organisation is not otherwise named.

4.14.

T E L EVISION SERIES AND E P ISODES

Citation Channel (Producer). (2008, February 14). Today’s citation headlines: The news [Television broadcast]. New York: Author. Jones, P.G. (Producer). (2008). Citation makeovers [Television series]. New York: Citation Channel. Stein, J. (Writer) & Bacon, J.B. (Director). (2008). Citation: A hairdresser’s tale [Television series episode]. In P.G. Jones (Producer) Citation makeovers. New York: Citation Channel.

4.15.

T H ESES, DISSER T A T I O NS AND M L IS RESEARCH PROJEC TS

Jones, P.G. (2003). Citation accuracy amongst New Zealand polytechnic students. Unpublished master’s thesis, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Jones, P.G. (2007). Citation accuracy: A study comparing Australian TAFE students and American community college students. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Jones, P.G. (2007). Citation accuracy: A study comparing Australian TAFE students and American community college students. Retrieved from ProQuest Digital Dissertations (ZZZ1234567). Stein, J. (2007). The cult of personality amongst citation scholars. Unpublished MLIS research project, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, New Zealand. Stein, J. (2007). The cult of personality amongst citation scholars. (Unpublished MLIS research project, Victoria University of Wellington, 2007). Retrieved from http://vuw.ac.nz/IR/LIM/Stein2007 Points to note: • References for MLIS research reports, masters theses and doctoral dissertations all have different phrasings • The punctuation of the reference for an unpublished source differs from that used for published sources. • If the thesis is held in a database such as Digital Dissertations, the name of the database and the Accession Number are all that is required • A thesis held on a personal or institutional website needs more information about the degree and institution, and a full URL. The punctuation varies from that required for a printed thesis, and the date is repeated

4.16.

VIDEO RECORDINGS, MOVIES AND O N L IN E VID EOS

Jones, P.G. (Producer) & Bacon, J.B. (Director). (2008). A day in the life of a citer [Motion picture]. Wellington: APAFlix. Jones, P.G. (Producer/Director). (2008). A year in the life of a citation scholar [Motion picture]. Podcast retrieved from National Citation Association of New Zealand: http://www.ncaonz.co.nz/podcasts/rss/podcast_pb.xml Jones, P.G. (Producer). (2008). Citation bloopers [Motion picture]. (Available from Victoria University of Wellington, PO Box 600, Wellington, New Zealand). Zimmer, P.J. (2008, August 10). Citation rap [Video file]. Video posted to http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Abc12QWERTy P a g e | 12

Points to note: • The name or the producer, followed by (Producer) comes first if known • The name of the director, followed by (Director) comes second, if known • The title of the item is italicised and followed by [Motion picture] for a film or hard copy video, and [Video file] for an online video • In place of a publisher, a video normally names a studio or distributor for major distributions. For videos that have not been commercially released, include the name and postal address of the publisher

4.17.

W EB P AGES

Jones, P.G. (n.d.). History of citations. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from http://citeright.org/history.html National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008). Retrieved February 10, 2009, from http://ncaonz.co.nz National Citation Association of New Zealand. (2008). History of citations in New Zealand. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from http://ncaonz.co.nz/history.htm Citations: An historical overview. (n.d.). Retrieved February 10, 2009, from http://www.asker.co.uk Points to note: • The core principle of citing electronic sources is to follow the rules for print sources, and to include enough information to allow the reader to find the cited item if it still exists. For most items from the open Web (websites, reports, e-journals etc), this means including the full URL for the page. This is not always possible though – if a site uses frames, you may need to give the URL for the home page, and for online encyclopedias and dictionaries that use a search function, the URL of the search page. • Try to identify a date that the web page was last updated. If none is found, use the abbreviation (n.d.) • Always include a “Retrieved” date for a webpage, as content is likely to change • Web pages can have personal authors, organisations as authors, or no identifiable author (this last is quite unusual) • If the web page’s author and title are the same, you do not need to repeat the information

4.18.

W I K I P AGES

APA citation style (n.d.) Retrieved February 10, 2009, from The Citation Wiki: http://www.citewiki.com/wiki/apa

Point to note: • Use (n.d.) if you cannot find a date that the entry was last updated. Many wikis do allow you to see the date of last edit, so check carefully

4.19.

W I K I P E D IA AR T ICL ES

APA style. (2008, January 10). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved February 10, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=APA_style&oldid=270340885 Point to note: • Wikipedia has a “Cite this page” link to the left of every article which gives you a fully formatted APA reference including the date the page was last updated. The style of the APA references they give follows the rules for referencing online encyclopedia articles, not Wikis.

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5.

W RITING STYLE 5 . 1. DIREC T Q U O T A T I O NS

All direct quotations you use in your assignments need to be acknowledged, and must clearly indicate to the reader that they are not your own words. • • For short quotations, use “quotation marks around the quote” (Jones & Stein, 2008, p.36). For quotations longer than about 40 words: indent the block of text so that it has a wider margin than the rest of your page. This tells the reader that the text is a quotation. If you are using a complicated page layout and there is potential for confusion about whether you are including a direct quotation, it may be better to use quotation marks. Remember to include the citation at the end before the full stop (Jones & Stein, 2008, p.36). • Writing tip: when you include a direct quotation, it has more impact if you add value to it in some way: analyse it, critique it, make sure it part of your argument. If you don’t, your reader is likely to ask “Why is this here?”

5 . 2.

REFERRING T O DIGI T A L SOURCES

Some web pages are very long – if you printed them, they would take more than one page. However, unlike a print source, they do not include fixed page numbers. When you cite a webpage in your in-text reference, you may need to tell the reader which part of this long page a specific idea or quote came from. The accepted solution is to cite the paragraph number, preceded by the abbreviation ‘para.’, like this: (Stein, 2008, para.3). If the document has subheadings, include the subheading before the word para. to make it easier for your reader to locate the correct paragraph, like this: (Jones, 2008, Acronyms, para. 4).

5 . 3.

CI T I NG I T E MS YOU HAVE SEE N REFERRED T O I N A AN O T H ER SOURCE

Sometimes you find a useful source referred to in another publication. If possible, you should obtain a copy of the original source, so you can judge its usefulness for yourself once you have read the whole document. However, you might sometimes be unable to obtain the original, and in this case you must cite the secondary source. • • Cite the book, chapter, or article that you have actually read in your reference list. Do not include the item you have not read. In your in-text citation, cite the original source as part of the secondary source: Brown and Bacon (2002, as cited in Jones & Stein, 2008, p.36) argue that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style. or Three benefits of citing material correctly are speed, readability, and accountability (Brown & Bacon, 2002, as cited in Jones & Stein, 2008, p.36).

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5 . 4.

CI T I NG MORE T H A N ON E I T E M W I T H I N AN I N - T E X T C I T A T I O N

Often you will want to indicate that more than one book, article etc deals with a topic or supports your statement. Cite up to three sources in alphabetical order within the brackets. Works cited should appear in the order they will be listed in your reference list. Use a semicolon to separate the citations: Several studies have found a positive correlation between good citation style and academic success (Jones & Stein, 2008; Peterson, 2002; Wang & Chu, 2006). If you wish to cite more than three sources, consider: • • • choosing the three most relevant studies clearly stating that the sources given are examples of a wider body of literature identifying sub-themes that could be discussed, each supported by some of the sources.

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6.

REFEREN CE LI ST AND BI BLI O G R A P H Y 6 . 1. CREA T I NG A R EFER ENC E L IS T AN D A BIBL I OGRA P H Y

At the end of your document • • • Start a new page Give it the heading “References” List all items that you cited in the text, in alphabetical order by author, or title if there is no author.

At the end of the References list, insert the heading “Bibliography” • List all items that you found relevant in preparing the text, but have not been cited, in alphabetical order

There should be no overlap between these two lists. These are the only sequences required. Do not separate out, books, articles, web resources, etc. into sublists.

6 . 2.

FORMA T T I NG REFER ENC ES

Format your references using a hanging indent. This means that the first line is longer than the subsequent lines, which are indented. The reason for using this type of formatting is that it helps your reader scan the authors’ names quickly, to help them find a specific reference. Correct (hanging indent): Jones, P.G., Stein, J., & Wang, T. (2008). Citation style for American college students. Chicago: Fix Mistakes Press. Incorrect (no indention; first line indention): Jones, P.G., Stein, J., & Wang, T. (2008). Citation style for American college students. Chicago: Fix Mistakes Press. Jones, P.G., Stein, J., & Wang, T. (2008). Citation style for American college students. Chicago: Fix Mistakes Press.

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6 . 3.

MORE T H A N O N E I T E M BY T H E SAME A U T H OR(S) IN DIFF ERE N T Y E ARS

Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2001). The first Aussie citation guide. Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2005). Citations in the city. Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008). A New Zealander’s handbook to APA. Wellington: CiteRight Press. Point to note: • List items by the same author(s) in your reference list in date order, the earliest item first.

6 . 4.

MORE T H A N O N E I T E M BY T H E SAME A U T H OR(S) IN T H E SAME Y EAR

Jones, P.G. ,& Stein, J. (2008a). An Australian guide to APA: How to cite things right. Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008b). Citing for the South Pacific. Moonee Ponds, Vic.: Black Stump. Jones, P.G., & Stein, J. (2008c). A New Zealander’s handbook to APA. Wellington: CiteRight Press. Points to note: • Put the items in alphabetical order by title (ignore The, or A, or An when deciding this order) in your reference list • Insert a lower case letter after the date to give each item a unique text reference for the in-text citations Citing in a sentence: Jones and Stein (2008a, p.36) argue that there are three major benefits to using a correct citation style.

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7.

FURTHER REFEREN CES

This guide has covered citing the types of material you are most likely to be using in your assignments. If you need more information about the APA style, or would like to find out how to cite a type of resource not covered here, you may want to consult one or more of the following: • the LIM Programmes Information Community →LIM Resources→LIM Assignment guidelines and resources American Psychological Association. (2005). Concise rules of APA style. Washington, DC: Author. American Psychological Association. (2001). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.

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