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(LARSEN & TOUBRO CONSTRUCTIONS) Construction of Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC) & Associated Works DCRUST, Murthal
SUBMITTED BY:-ROBIN KUKREJA ROLL NO. :- 0909044 FINAL YEAR B.Tech (Civil Engineering)
I would like to take this opportunity to thank Larsen & Toubro Limited for giving me an opportunity to do my internship with them. I express my sincere thanks and gratitude towards Mr.Rakesh Kumar Singh (Project Manager) and Ms.Pooja Mishra (Assistant Planning Manager) who guided me and provided valuable inputs and insights throughout the internship. I would also like to express my special gratitude and thanks to Mr.ShushilKumar (Sr. Engineer) and other site engineers for giving me such attention and time. Mr. Ashim Gupta,for familiarizing me with the processes and details of site work My thanks and appreciation also goes to my colleagues for their special co-operation and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.
1. Introduction 2. Air traffic control tower model picture 3. Construction: ATC Tower 4. Construction: ACC and TBB 5. Earth work 6. Waterproofing 7. Reinforcement a) Re baring 8. Concreting 9. Injection grouting 10. 11. Brick work Safety precaution 28-35 36-39 40-43 44 4 6 8-11 12-16 17-19 20-23 23-27
During Summer vacations after completed3rd year in Deenbandhu Chotu Ram Engineering College, Murthal,Sonipat, I did six week internship (from 11.06.2012 to 20.07.2012) wit LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED (ECC DIVISION). Project : ATC Tower & Associated Works at T3-DIAL, IGI Airport, New Delhi Project detail:New Control Tower Construction consists of Air Traffic Control Tower (ATC), Area Control Centre Building (ACC), Tower Base Building (TBB) & Link Bridge 1. Client – Delhi International Airport Ltd. 2. Contractor – L&T (ECC Division – B&F BU) 3. Architect – HOK International, London 4. Structural Consultant – BuroHappold – UK, Taylor Devices India Pvt. Ltd. 5. Area Control Centre BUA – 25,185 Sq.m. (approx.); B+4 Floor 6. Tower Base Building BUA – 9,375 Sq.m. (approx.); 4 Floor 7. ATC Tower BUA – 2154 Sq.m. (102 m Ht.)This tower is 3rd highest ATC tower of the world & highest ATC tower of the Asia. 26 Floors To manage site requirements below mentioned area are covered:Steel yard, Form work yard, Batching Plant & Basic Infrastructure Facilities.
The ATC tower has two associated building for control and function –the Area Control Centre (ACC) and the Tower Base Building (TBB).The new Air Traffic Control Tower at Delhi’s Indra Gandhi International Airport will be the country’s tallest ATC once constructed .These buildings are G+4 structures. It will be fully functional by 2014. The ATC Tower is scheduled for completion in a time period of 22 months and commissioned in October 2013. The tower will employ the Tuned Mass Damper (TMD) technology. to reduce the building sway due to lateral forces such as wind and earthquake forces. The associated works-ACC and TBB.are scheduled for completion in 12 months and commissioned by 1st Janaury 2013 5 . These buildings will house the equipments required for air traffic control. first of its kind in India.It will stand 102m tall with 26 controller postion with a 360-degree view at the visual control room and 12 ground controller positions at operational level.
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER PROJECT MODEL PICTURE 6 .
CONSTRUCTION AREA TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER(ATCC) AREA CONTROL CENTRE(ACC) TOWER BASE BUILDING(TBB) 7 .
5m No. Also.AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER The ATC Tower . The construction sequence of the ATCTower are furnished below: PILLING DETAILS REINFORCEMENT CONCRETING 1.It will consist of 26 floors and be made of Self Compacting Concrete (SCC) of varying grades. of Concrete: M30(SCC) PILE CAP 8 .will be the tallest ATC in India with a height of 102m. The facing of the tower will be in Glass Reinforced Concrete (GRC).PILING DETAILS: The type of foundation selected for the Air Traffic Control Tower on the basis of Geotechnical Investigation Report was Bored Cast In-Situ Friction Piles. The geotechnical report classified the soil as Sandy Silt Soil with a CBR value of 9-13% A)FONDATION DETAILS The details of the foundation are: PILES Diameter of Pile :1500mm Depth of Piles : 23.it will be the 7th tallest ATC Tower in the world.once constructed .
Area of Pile Cap :650.301 sqm Height : 3m Grade of Concrete :M40(SCC) B) PROCEDURE FOR FOUNDATION WORKS a)Procedure for Piling Works The procedure for piling works is essentially a two component procedure .It includes : Pile Load Test Piling Work PILE LOAD TEST The Pile Load Test was conduted as described below 9 .
90.TEST PROCEDURE as per IS 2911(Part-4)-1985 1. Preparation of Pile Head The top of pille head shall be exposed and top of concrete chipped off upto the required test level . 3. each increment being about 20% of the design load.the pile deflection shall be observed accurate to 0. Kent Ledge Arrangement A Platform shall be made of steel joist with primary and secondary girders . Two bearing plates of suitable size and thickness 60mm shall be placed one above the other on the of the pile for the jack to rest. Intial Load Tests on Test Piles The intial pile is tested upto 3 times the design load or up to failure whichever occurs earlier . 2.60.120 minutes and at every hour till 24 hour completes.Dead weights such as concrete block or sand bags should be placed aove the platform to obtain the necessary reaction. 10 .G of the pile head .15.whichever occurs first. The Centre of Gravity (C.The test is carried out by applying a series of vertical downward incremental loads.The top of the pile head shall be finished smooth and level with non-shrink grout material.10.30. The final load shall be maintained for 24 hours and reading recorded for 5. At each load increment .02 mm at an interval upto a time when the rate of settlement reduces to either 0.G) of this platform should concide with the C.1 mm in first 60 minutes or 120 minutes .The reaction available should be 25% more than the test load proposed.
0 cum fresh concrete of Grade 40(SCC) was cast in a cube of dimensions 1.301 3m Total Quantity of Concrete :1780 cum Grade of Concrete:M40(SCC) Placement Temprature:550mm(min) Mock Up Test for Pile Cap: A mock-up test was conducted in the laboratory prior to the actual concrete placement at site.The mock-up was conducted to determine the temperature changes in the mass concrete due to heat of hydration process.ii) Procedure for Mass Concreting of the Pile cap of ATC Tower Dimension of Pile Cap and Type of Concrete: Area : Height: 650.5m x 1. Placement of Thermocouples: The thermocouples are placed as shown in the diagram: 11 . Concrete: 3. Reinforcements: Reinforcements of diameter 10mm@100mm c/c spacing were placed at top buttom and sides. Scope: To find the temperature changes in the concrete due to heat of hydration process.35m Insulations:100mm thick Polyurethane foam insulation materials were placed on the inner sides of the formwork.5m x 1.
SUPERSTRUCTURE: a)VERTICAL: Retaining Walls.Columns.Shear Walls and Staircases Reinforcement Shuttering Concreting b)HORIZONTAL : Beams & Slabs Reinforcement Shuttering Concreting 12 .AREA CONTROL CENTRE (ACC) & TOWER BASE BUILDING(TBB) Construction sequence in ACC and TBB 1 SUBSTRUCTURE: a)EARTHWORK Excavation Sand Filling PCC Water Proofing Screed(50mm) b)RAFT Reinforcement Shuttering Concreting 2.
with a minimum thickness of 50mm 2. The screed may be directly bonded to the base .which is placed over the slab .The grade of this concrete is M10 Water Proofing: The Material used for water proofing is Polyurethane. laid bounded onto a suitable damp proof membrane .It may be apllied onto either a solid in-situ concrete ground floor slab or onto a precast concrete floor unit. It is a derivative of bituminous water proofing and is applied on the retaining wall between the basement raft and upper raft of ACC Screed: A floor usually a cementitous material made from a 1:3 or 1:4:5 ratio of cement to sharp sand.SUPERSTRUCTURE 13 .SUBSTRUCTURE a)EATHWORK Excavation:The excavation work commences after setting out of levels by the surveyor.1. For example : In the basement of the ACC building 6m of soil was excavated for basement construction. PCC: After sand filling. The depth to be excavated is determined by the design consideration .with a minimum thickness of 40mm.a layer of Plain Cement Concrete (PCC) 1:6:12 is applied . The sand used for sand fillng is obtained from suitable source and compacted to required density before fillng . Sand Filling:Sand Filling was done in expansion joint between the upper raft and basement raft of ACC and TBB .
This spacing need not be less than 75mm nor more than 100mm.: in rectangular column. At other locations. 14 . (b) Over the distance specified in item (a) above and below a beam-column junction. one-sixth the column height or 450mm.this extension beyond the bend should not be less than 75mm. (c) The length of tie beyond the 1350 bends must be at least 10 times diameter of steel bar used to make the closed tie. ties are spaced as per calculations but not more than D/2.g. b) Closed loops of small diameter steel bars placed horizontally at regular intervals along its full length Design strategy of columns as per IS 456-2000 and IS 139201993 (a) Closely spaced ties must be provided at the two ends of the column over a length not less than larger dimension of the column. the vertical spacing of ties in columns should not exceed D/4 for where D is the smallest dimension of the column (e. namely a) Long straight bars placed vertically along the length. the vertical members in RC building contain two types of steel reinforcement. D is the length of the small side).A) VERTICAL Columns Shear Wall i) Columns: Reinforcement Columns.
A simple way of achieving this is by overlapping the two bars over at least a minimum specified length. Furthur. only half the vertical bars in column are to be lapped at a time in any storey . For ordinary situations. IS13920-1993 prescribes that the lap length would be largest only in the middle half of column and not near its top or bottom ends.The concrete is placed using boom placers and then vibrated using vibrators of diameter 40mm or 60mm as applicable.Lapping of Vertical Bars In the construction of RC buildings.The shuttering of columns is removed after a period of 24 hours after which the concrete is cured till it attain its required strength. due to limitation in available length of bars and due to constraints in construction. there are numerous occasions when columns bars have to be joined. called lap length. it is about 50 times bar diameter.The perpendicular distance between the plunb thread and formwork surface is measured at the top and bottom to ensure vertically of the column formwork Concreting: Concrete of grade M40 SCC is used for the columns . The lap length depends on type of reinforcement and concrete. 15 . Also. when laps are provided. Furthur. Shuttering Shuttering of the columns is checked with the help of plumb bobs. ties must be provided along the length of the lap at spacing not more than 150mm.
area of reinforcing steel to be provided is . 16 .horizntal reinforcement need to be anchored to the walls the min. along each of the horizontal and vertical directions . The vertical and horizontal reinforcement in the wall can be placed in one or two parallel layers called curtains.or as high as 400mm in high rise buildings.This vertical reinforcement should be distributed uniformly across the wall cross section.ii)Shear Walls Reinforced concrete (RC) building often have vertical plate-like RC walls in addition to slabs .beams and columns .these walls generally at foundation level and are continous throughout the building height. Therir thickness can be as low as 150mm.0025 times the cross sectional area. Shear wall are provided along both length and width of building shear walls are alike vertically oriented beams that carry earthquake load downwards to foundation REINFOCEMENT IN SHEAR WALLS Stell reinforcing bars are to be provided in walls in regularly spaced vertical and horizontal grids.
Which consist excavation. earthfilling.m EXCAVATION:Excavation in different area of the site Excavation shall be taken to the width of lowest step of footing or the pile caps (required level) and the sides shall be left in slope where the nature of the soil allow it for safety purpose. Dumper. Roller. seepage. Take adequate measures such as bailing. Auto level 4.construction of diversion channels. trolley 3.rain or other reasons.pumping.cofferdams and other necessary works to keep the 17 .springs.bunds. Excavated Soil EXPECTED QUANTITY:-99. drainage channels. Plate Compactor & hand rammer 2.EARTHWORK INTRODUCTION: -Earth work is the works related to soil. Yamuna Sand 2.036 cu. NDG (Nuclear Density Gauge) MATERIAL:1. EQUIPMENTS:1. DEWATERING AND PROTECION:Where water is met with in excavation due to stream flow.
Before the footing is laid.foundation trenches/ pits dry when so required and to keep the green concrete against damage by erosion or sudden rise of water level. No pumping shall be permitted during the placing of concrete or for any period of atleast 24 hours thereafter. 18 . these shall be removed. the surface shall be slightly watered and rammed. PREPRATION OF FOUNDATION:The bottom of the foundation shall be leveled both longitudinally and transversally or stepped. If there is any slips or blows in the excavation. BACKFILLING:Backfilling is done with Yamuna sand.
FILLING IN PLINTH:. Power roller and adequate watered to aid compaction.EARTHFILLING GENERAL: . grade and chamber and rolled by 8 to 10 tons. watered & consolidated by ramming with iron rammers weighing 7 to 8 kg. black cotton soil and combustible material. It is free from salts. When filling reaches the required level topmost layer is dressed to proper section. surface is kept flooded with water for 24 hours. allowed to dry and then rammed and consolidate. and having base 20 cm. dia. FILLING IN OUTDOOR POSITION AND FOR SITE DEVELOPMENT:Filling is done in layer of 30 cm and each layer is adequately watered. When the filling reaches the finished level. So it can be easily used for filling at the site. in order to avoid settlement at a large stage.Filling is done in layer of 25 cm. organic matter.Filling is done with excavated earth soil. . 19 .
) Elastothane PROCEDURE:1. 3. Surface cracks on walls: -Surface cracks more than 2 mm shall be open & chiseled to ‘V’ groove and repaired with polymeric mortar and extra layer of Elastothane of 6 inch shall be placed over cracks as a crack bridging layer. Fillet or Gola on Sharp corners:-Fillet on sharp corner: laying & placing of fillet of polymeric mortar (75 mm * 75 mm) on sharp corner of roof with vertical wall. Polymeric cement: Sand mortar can be prepared by adding 5-10% SBR on gauging water and cement: coarse sand mortar (1:3) 2. MATERIAL:a. Basement:Surface preparation:20 . Add fresh polymeric mortar over the groove.WATERPROOFING INTRODUCTION: -Waterproofing is done to prevent the dampness which is caused by rising the water from earth by the capillary action. Make polymeric cement slurry by adding cement to SBR(1:1 ratio) and apply by brush inside the groove.
If surface undulation is found then it shall be repaired with polymeric cement sand mortar. cleaning the surrounding area with aromatic hydrocarbons solvent. Allow the coating to cure for 24-36 hours. overlapping by 150 mm. Clean properly the concrete surface and remove all dust. Remove all sharp projections and make surface reasonably smooth to receive “Bituthane P” a liquid applied. per man per day or upto 600 sq m per man per day by spray 21 . REPAIR OF DAMAGE LAYER OF ELASTOTHANE:Minor damage to Elastothanebe repaired by removing loose membrane.2 mm thick and coverage of 1 kg. After 12-36 hours when first coat become touch dry then apply second coat. foreign matters.20 kg per sq. in case of spray application. m. Elastothane is easily applied and quickly applied manually at a rate of 40 sq. dirt. All day work-joints. APPLICATION:Apply first coat of Elastothane over cleaned prime surface with roller/ brush or appropriate spray application. priming the area and finishing with two coats of Elastothane.Assure that PCC shall be smooth enough to receive primer application. loose particles or any deposits of contaminants. m. to 1. primer. which could affect the bond failure between the mother surface and waterproof coating. depending upon the surface condition. where as the application extended more than a day use an overlap of Elasthothane by 150 mm. A total composite thickness will be 1 to 1.The concrete of basement must be sound enough and free from moisture. SPRAY APPLICATION: Only airless spray equipment shall be used.
Separation Layer: place 150 GSM Geotextile Mat/ 300 micron LDPE sheet as separation layer over waterproofing coating before placing Protection layer. Wipe all detail work with a cloth wet with Xylene/ Acetone or Aromatic hydrocarbon solvent and allow drying. The coating should be protected from damages by future operation and other trade.application. Allow the coating to cure 36 hours and install protection course after water pounding test. PROTECTION COURSE: .Place 50 mm thick protection screed concrete. 22 .
REINFORCEMENT REINFORCEMENT GRADE: Fe 500 BENDING OF REINFORCEMENT:Bars should not be heat bending. precast mortar blocks or other approved devices. and by using stay blocks or metal chairs. 23 . All devices used for positioning shall be of non-corrodible material. spacers. Bars will not be allowed to sag between supports nor displaced during concreting or any other operation over the work. supporting wires or other approved devices at sufficiently close intervals. Pieces of broken stone or brick and wooden block shall not be used. Layers of bars shall be separated by spacer bars. metal hangers. PLACING OF REINFORCEMENT:All reinforcement bars shall be accurately placed in exact position shown on the drawings. And shall be securely tied in position during placing of concrete by annealed binding wire not less then 1 mm in size and conforming to Is:280.
Chairs used to separate the two layers of slabs. In the case of columns & walls. WELDING OF BARS:Welding of main bars shall not be permitted. Spacing of cover blocks shall not exceed 1 m in any direction. Reinforcement after being placed in position shall be maintained in a clean condition until completely embedded in concrete. vertical bars shall be kept in normal position with timber templates having slots accurately cut in for bar position. concrete cover shall be provided as indicated on the drawings. Welding may be permitted for temporary works and areas where welding will not affect the structure adversely. To protect reinforcement from corrosion. The ratio of the maximum horizontal length between the legs of the chair to the diameter of bars used in preparing chairs shall not be more than100. shall be placed not more than 2 m clear in all four directions. Dowels if provided for further lapping shall be coated with approved quality bitumen paint over and above the anti corrosive treatment. walls etc. Such templates shall be removed after the concreting. In special case Welding will be permitted by Client with Welding rod 7018. 24 .
EQUIPMENTS:1. Chemical RE 500(M/S HILTI) 25 . Air pump MATERIAL:1. Grouting gun 3. Drilling machiene 2.REBARING INTRODUCTION:Re-baring is done where the further reconstruction is required due to revision of Drawings after construction.
Fly ash 4. EQUIPMENT:a) For Production of Concrete: Concrete batching and mixing plant (fully automatic) with minimum capacity of 15 cu.5 tone capacity iii) Chutes iv) Buckets handled by cranes v) Transit truck mixer vi) Concrete pump vii) Concrete distributor booms 28 .m. Cement 6. Water 5. per hour. Admixtures Mixing of these raw materials dependson the grade of the concrete. Aggregates 2. Coarse Sand or Dust 3. b) For Concrete Transportation : depending upon actual requirement i) Concrete dumpers minimum 2 tones capacity ii) Powered hoists minimum 0.CONCRETING INTRODUCTION:-Concrete is prepared by mixing the following raw materials in a right proportion: 1.
viii) Belt conveyor ix) Cranes with skips x) Tremies c) For Compaction of concrete: i) Internal vibrators ii) Form vibrators iii) Screed vibrators (up to two lanes) size 25 mm to 70 mm minimum 500 watts full width of carriageway SIZE OF COARSE AGGREGATE:The size (maximum nominal) of coarse aggregates for concrete to be used in various components shall be given as Table 1700-7. Components Maximum Nominal size of coarse Aggregate (mm) RCC well curb 20 RCC/PCC 40 Well cap or pile cap solid type 40 piers and abutments RCC work in girders. pier / abutment caps. slabs. 20 wearing coat. approach slab hollow piers and abutments. piles PSC work 20 Any other item. kerb. As specified by Engineer i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) 29 .
Test for the Sand a) Sieve analysis of coarse sand b) Sieve analysis of Fine sand c) Silt content 3. Aggregates a) Sieve analysis of 20mm aggregate b) Sieve analysis of 10mm aggregate c) Impact test of 10mm aggregate 2. The proportions of the various individual size of aggregates shall be so adjusted that the grading produces densest mix and the grading curve corresponds to the maximum nominal size adopted for the concrete mix. TEST FOR RAW MATERIALS:1.Maximum nominal size of aggregates shall also be restricted to the smaller of the following values: a) 10 mm less than the minimum lateral clear distance between main reinforcements b) 10 mm less than the minimum clear cover to the reinforcements.Cement a) Sieve analysis b) Consistency test 30 .
Mixers which have been out of use for more than 30 minutes shall be thoroughly cleaned before putting in a new batch.c) Fineness of Cement d) Initial and Final Setting Time For Concrete:1. as per these Specifications. Mixing shall be continued till materials are uniformly distributed and a uniform color of the entire mass is obtained and each individual particle of the coarse aggregate shows complete coating of mortar containing its proportionate amount of cement. COMPRESSIVE SRENGTH TEST MIXING CONCRETE:Concrete shall be mixed either in a concrete mixer or in a batching and mixing plant. In no case shall mixing be done for less than 2 minutes. SLUMP TEST 2. Mixing plant shall be thoroughly cleaned before changing from one type of cement to another. 31 . Hand mixing shall not be permitted.
32 .5 meters. All formwork and reinforcement contained in it shall be cleaned and made free from standing water. sothat no contamination. dust. \ Concrete shall not be freely dropped into place from a height exceeding 1. Concrete shall be transported and placed as near as practicable to its final position. No concrete shall be placed in any part of the structure until the approval of the Engineer has been obtained. snow or ice immediately before placing of concrete.TRANSPORTING. concrete shall be deposited in Horizontal layers to a compacted depth of not more than 450 mm when internal Vibrators are used and not exceeding 300 mm in all other cases. PLACING AND COMPACTION OF CONCRETE:The method of transporting and placing concrete shall be less time taken. Except where otherwise agreed to by the Engineer. segregation or loss of its constituent materials takes place.
embedded fixtures and into corners of the formwork to produce a dense homogeneous void-free mass having the required surface finish. and not more than 40 degrees Celsius. When vibrators are used. vibration shall be done continuously during the placing of each batch of concrete until the expulsion of air has practically ceased and in a manner that does not promote segregation. The slump of concrete shall be checked as per IS: 516.Concrete when deposited shall have a temperature of not less than 5 degrees Celsius. 33 . It shall be compacted in its final position within 30 minutes of its discharge from the Mixer. tendons or duct formers. Over vibration shall be avoided to minimize the risk of forming a weak surface layer. Concrete shall be thoroughly compacted by vibration or other means during placing and worked around the reinforcement. Requirements of Consistency:- The optimum consistency for various types of structures shall be as indicated in Table .
e. well cap. RCC and PSC structures with highly congested reinforcements e. box culverts well curb. e. (b) Plain cement concrete.g.1 TYPE (a) Structures with exposed inclined surface requiring low slump concrete to allow proper compaction. well steining RCC structures with fair degree of congestion of reinforcement. RCC structures with widely spaced reinforcements. box girders. piers. abutments.g. footings. solid columns. cast-in-situ piling 100 – 200 34 . pier and abutment caps. walls with thickness greater than 300 mm.g. bottom plug. deck slab girders.g. walls with thickness less than 300 mm SLUMP (mm) 25 25 2 40 – 50 3 50 – 75 4 75 – 125 5 Underwater concreting through tremie e.
Grade of concrete in ATC: Self Compacting Concrete a) SCC M30 in Pile b) SCC M40 in Pile Cap & Above Level ‘9’ c) SCC M60 up toLevel ‘9’ LEVELING COURSE:-It is a lean concrete mix which is placed in position conforming line and level shown in the drawing and compacted by approved means and cured adequately. 35 .1. Grade of concrete in ACC: Structure concrete M10 to M40 2. Grade of concrete in TBB: Structure concrete M10 to M40 3.
EQUIPMENTS: Pressure Pump Pressure Gauge Drilling/Chisel Machine Mixing Drum Pipe NRV (Non Returning Valve) Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity(UPV) Rebound Hammer Carborandum stone MATERIALS: Low viscous epoxy (Conbextra EP 10) Epoxy Repair Mortar(Nitocrete) Non Shrink Cementations Grout(GP2) Nitobond/Latex ROOT CAUSE ANALYSIS: It is observed that during concreting of particular column due to pressure of concrete minor gap has been created at corner of two vertical shutter. 36 .INJECTION GROUTINTG INRODUCTION: -Injection grouting is done to joint the layer of green concrete to the old hardened concrete.
Just before fixing NRV (Non Returnable Valve) packer on the cavity 37 . d) Cleaning of all loose laitance. e) Clean the Surface by water jetting. Epoxy Grouting in the Honey Comb Location i) Drilling shall be made to a depth of 100-300mm. PROCEDURE: The Entire Repair Procedure shall been done in 3 Stages i. Slurry Loss has been occurred due to improper Packing of the gaps in shuttering Material. Inadequate tamping of the shuttering during the concreting. loose concrete up to the desired depth by Mechanical or manual means to have dust free surface to have good bond between the existing concrete and with the high strength repair mortar.e Surface Preparation Epoxy Grouting in the Honey Comb Location Non-Shrink Cementations Grouting Surface Preparation : a) Mark the honey combed area to be Rectified. c) Remove all loose concrete from the column until hard concrete surface with proper bonding is obtained. b) Saw cut the edges with a minimum of 10mm with concrete saw cutter.
the nozzles shall be removed & the area is filled with Epoxy Repair mortar. iii) As Recommended Latex/Nitobond shall be applied on the old & new surface either by brush or by spraying for proper bonding with the newly laid concrete. iii) Injection of Low Viscous Epoxy (Conbextra EP10) in the NRV Packers with a pressure of 3-5kg/sqcm. vi) Allow the system to get water cured for 3 Days vii) After the Completion of the Entire Process the Grouting surface shall be finished with Carborandum stone 38 . ii) Fixing of NRV packer of size 13mm for 100-300mm deep drilled holes @ 200mm c /c in staggered manner shall be done with proper tightening to have proper packing of rubber gaskets. ii) The area shall be cleaned with water / air jet to remove any loose particles or dust. iv) Proper shuttering arrangement shall be taken before pouring the Non-Shrink Cementations Grouting. Non-Shrink Cementations Grouting : i) The Concrete chipped surface to be grouted & filled with Epoxy Repair Mortar. iv) The Injection Grouting shall last till backward pressure is observed on further applying the pressure in the injection grouting v) After the injection Grouting operations are over. v) The Non-Shrink cementations Grout is Poured From one side & corner with proper head to fill the area & all the air voids.portion it shall be cleaned with the air pressure to get clean and dry surface.
TESTING After completion of repair procedure. The overall process of NDT tests (UPV and Rebound Hammer test) results shall be satisfactory of repaired column structure. the column shall be tested by UPV and Rebound Hammer. 39 .
Bricks shall be sound. well burnt.holes. Fly ash brick (size 230*115*75) 2. Mortar a) Cement b) Water c) Fine aggregate (sand) BRICKWORK TOOLS FOR BRICK WORK:a.) d. crushing strength shall be 35 kg/sq cm.homogenous in texture giving a metallic ringing sound. shape&color.MATERIAL: 1. c. d.) Line and pin spring f. straight and sharply defined. Maximum absorption shall not be more than 15% of its dry wt.) Right angle ½ m. Min. They shall not break when struck against each other and dropped flat from a height of 1 m to the ground. 40 .cracks.) Auto level b.) 3 m steel tape d. b.) Plumb g.lumps or grit & arises should be square. CEMENT:-Cement used shall be ordinary Portland cement conforming to IS and shall be of grade 53 or 43. long e.) Wooden/aluminum straight edge 3 m long c. hard. on immersion in water for 24 hours.) Storey rods BRICK:a. free from flaws. uniform in size.
41 . coal particles. pyrites.WATER:-water used for masonry shall be clean and free from injurious amount of deterious materials.Natural sand deposited by stream or glacial agencies as a result of disintegration of rock is the best form of fine aggregate. clean and free from adherent coatings and organic matter and shall not contain any appreciable amount of clay Sand should not contain any harmful impurities such as iron. alkali and organic impurities in such form or quantities as to affect the strength or durability of concrete or mortar. The fine aggregate shall conform to following standards. (i) For plain and reinforced concrete IS 383 specification for coarse and fine Aggregates from natural source for concrete (ii) Mortar and grout IS 2116 Specification for sand for masonry Mortars Sea sand should not be used. MORTAR:Mortar shall be prepared by mixing fine graded aggregate with cement in the proportion 1:4 for 115 mm width& 1:6 for 230 mm width & above. lignite. durable. Sand shall be hard. SAND:.
Total ht. Half or broken bricks shall be used only for the purpose of bond and at no other place. Joints of each course shall be within the limit of 6 mm to 10 mm depending upon the size of brick. Work shall be true to horizontal lines and perfect plumb. IS 226 IS 412 purpose IS 432 IS 1566 Specification for steel standard quality Specification for expanded metal steel sheet for general Specification for mild steel and medium tensile steel bars Specification for steel fabric or hard drawn steel wire WORKMANSHIP:Bricks used for masonry in cement mortar shall be soaked by immersing in water or by hosing of water at least one hour prior to start of actual lying. 42 . Brick shall be laid in English bond unless otherwise specified. of 9 cm brick with 5 courses and 5 mortar joints shall be 50 cm. The mortar mixed shall be consumed within 30 minutes of its mixing. of 3 minutes. METAL REINFORCEMENT:Metal reinforcement used in brick masonry shall conform to the following IS specification.Cement and sand added to mixer shall be thoroughly mixed and water shall be added to it gradually. Vertical joint shall be truly vertical and those in alternate courses shall be in the same vertical line. After addition of water the mixer shall run for a min.
period of 10 days.green work should be protected from rains by suitable covering. PROTECTION & CURING: . The top of the masonry shall be left flooded with water at close of the day. Joint should be filled to full depth and checked each time. lintels etc. Masonry in cement mortar shall be kept constantly moist on all the faces for the min. 43 . Required datum level must be established throughout the floor and only then work should start. It is equally important to take into account level of window sills.In no case joint thickness shall not increase 50 cm.
44 . The area where injection grouting operations are to be undertaken must be cordoned off. and clearly signposted to establish a restricted area. Avoid direct contact of the material with skin. 2. All personnel to be fully attired in the required Safety gear. Suitable lights for the application work during night shift should be provided in and around the work area.SAFETY PRECAUTIONS:1. Wear proper safety helmets. eye & body. 3. 5. shoes during application. 4. goggles.
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