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RADIATION SAFETY IN INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6
Introduction General Requirements
Safety Licence, Radiation Safety Officer and Operating Organisation Operator in Charge Training Instructions Monitoring of Radiation Exposure and Medical Surveillance Radiation Meters
3 3 3 3 4 4
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6
Requirements for X-Ray Radiography Devices
General Requirements Shielding Filtration Shutter and Diaphragms Cable and Control Panel Markings on the X-Ray Tube Unit
4 4 4 4 5 5
4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5
Requirements for Gamma Radiography Devices
General Requirements Radiation Source Exposure Container and Remote Control Projection Sheath and Control Cable for the Radiation Source Collimators
5 5 5 6 6
This Guide is valid as of 1 May 1999 until further notice. It replaces SS Guide 5.6 “Radiation Safety in Industrial Radiography”, issued on 6 January 1989. Second, revised edition Helsinki 2001 Mustavuoren Kirjapaino Oy ISBN ISBN ISBN ISSN 951-712-462-7 (print) 951-712-483-X (pdf) 951-712-484-8 (html) 0789-4619
6 / 17 Feb. Original text in Finnish. Translation. STUK – Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (Finland) issues general instructions.2 6.2.3 Safe Working General Instructions Open Installation Enclosed Installation 6 6 7 7 6 6.2.3 6.2 5. known as Radiation Safety Guides (ST Guides).2. concerning the use of radiation and operations involving radiation.2.1 5.2. The responsible party is obliged to ensure that the level of safety specified in the ST Guides is attained and maintained.1 6. 1999 5 5. paragraph 2.2 6. of the Radiation Act (592/1991).5 6. The Radiation Act stipulates that the party running a radiation practice is responsible for the safety of the operations.GUIDE ST 5.6 Regular Inspections of Radiography Devices Devices for X-ray Radiography Devices for Gamma Radiography Projection Sheath Control Cable and Fixing Joint Remote Control Exposure Container Radiation Source and its Holder Leak Test of the Radiation Source 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 9 7 Storage and Transport of Devices for Gamma Radiography Accident Situations Bibliography 9 10 10 8 9 Appendix A Definitions Appendix B Structure of a Device for Gamma Radiography Authorisation Under section 70.2.4 6.1 6. .
The safety licence contains provisions for the inspections to be performed on the device and operations.6 S T U K 1 Introduction Safety in industrial radiography presupposes that the safety properties and operating condition of the devices are faultless. This must be confirmed in a document that is signed by both the safety officer and the worker.4 Instructions The safety officer shall put on display in the place where radiation is used the radiation protection instructions that have been drawn up for the operations.1 Safety Licence. owing to the nature of the work. 2. Radiography devices must be accompanied by operating instructions in Finnish (when necessary in Swedish).1. tasks. This guide presents those requirements which the Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) considers important for safety. 3 . the safety officer cannot actively supervise compliance with the safety regulations.2 Operator in Charge Radiography devices can only be used by the safety officer or by a trained person with the safety officer’s written permission. The safety officer shall have sufficient training and experience for the supervision of radiography. All members of the operating personnel must be given sufficient training in the handling of radiography devices and in matters related to radiation protection. Application for a safety licence shall include a description of the organisation.Guide ST 5. and safety arrangements in the place of use shall be defined. Radiation Safety Officer and Operating Organisation The operation and possession of a device for gamma radiography and the operation of an Xray device requires a safety licence. are dealt within Guide ST 1. allocation of responsibilities. the operator in charge being responsible for radiation safety in the place of use and its surroundings. The license is granted by STUK on written application. If. the competence of the operating personnel. and that safety aspects are considered to a sufficient extent. and the requirements of legislation and regulatory control. 2. and to which it pays attention when controlling the radiation safety of radiography. Operators must also be provided with sufficient instructions for working outside their regular place of work. The instructions shall pay particular attention to specifying the measures that must be taken in the case of equipment failure or a radiation accident (see chapter 8). The general principles of safety in radiation practice. More detailed information about the description of the organisation is given in Guide ST 1. In addition to appointing a safety officer. They must demonstrate to the safety officer that they are familiar with the contents. the personnel participating in radiography are properly trained. 2 General Requirements 2.3 Training The safety officer shall ensure that the operating personnel are trained in safe working practices. he/she shall appoint an operator in charge for each place where radiation is used. More detailed information about the application of the licence can be obtained from STUK.4. Every worker who is involved in radiography must read the radiation protection regulations and instructions pertaining to their own field of work. The applicant shall propose a person to be appointed as radiation safety officer responsible for the safe use of radiation. 2. and shall give the necessary data on the radiography operations that will be performed.
Diaphragms for achieving different primarybeam field sizes (collimators) must be available.6 Radiation Meters Max 50 kV A sufficient number of radiation meters must be available for the radiography device. an easily installable extra filter must be available.2 Shielding The protective housing of the X-ray tube shall be of such a structure that leakage radiation at a distance of one metre from the tube does not exceed the following values: 4 .3 Filtration The total filtration of primary radiation must be equal to the following values at least: Tube voltage Total filtration no requirements 2 mm Al 3 mm Al 4 mm Al 0. given in item 3. the radiation window shall be provided with a shutter which attenuates the primary beam so that the values for leakage radiation. 3. Workers who perform the imaging and their assistants must have both a personal dosemeter and a personal radiation alarm. and be mechanically strong enough and so safe that the normal operation of the device does not pose any danger. A radiation meter is necessary for monitoring the radiation field when the radiography device is in use. It shall function as intended.ST U K Guide ST 5. are not exceeded. 50–100 kV 100–200 kV 200–300 kV over 300 kV 3 Requirements for X-Ray Radiography Devices 3.1. The dosemeters and radiation alarms must be suitable for industrial radiography. Panoramic X-ray device shall be supplied with diaphragms enabling directional beam exposure. Panoramic X-ray device must be provided with a corresponding belt shutter.4 Shutter and Diaphragms For heating the X-ray tube. The shutter must be easy to install. The extra filter must be used. STUK approves the dosemeters and alarms for the use in question when granting the safety licence or inspecting the practices. and for the medical surveillance in Guide ST 7. unless the imaging technique requires a lower filtration than normal.1 General Requirements The device shall conform to the information given in the documents.6 Tube voltage Max 150 kV Leakage radiation 1 mSv/h 2. Individual monitoring of exposure and medical surveillance shall be arranged to these workers. This is not required for X-ray crawlers.5 mSv/h 5 mSv/h 2.5 mm Cu 2.2. If the total filtration of the device is lower than the above figures.5. 3. 150–200 kV over 200 kV 3.5 Monitoring of Radiation Exposure and Medical Surveillance Owing to the nature of the work and the risk of accidents. industrial radiography is the kind of work for which the workers have to be classified as occupationally exposed workers (category A). The instructions for the monitoring of radiation exposure are presented in Guide ST 7.
6 Markings on the X-Ray Tube Unit The X-ray tube unit shall be marked with the following information: • maximum tube voltage (kV) • maximum tube current (mA) • location of focus • primary beam angle • total filtration. must also carry a text warning of a high dose rate.3 Exposure Container and Remote Control A portable or movable exposure container shall meet the requirements for a transport container of type B (U). • A text warning of a radiation hazard. a shorter cable can be accepted. a device for gamma radiography shall comply with the requirements set out in standard ISO 3999. 5 . The certificate must be kept ready for review by STUK. stating that the device can only be used by operators appointed by the radiation safety officer. 3. 4. In conjunction with replacement of the radiation source. • Facilities for connecting a separate signal lamp. sand and other foreign material into the critical parts of the device • resistance to abnormal temperatures • resistance of the rubber. • Two functionally independent exposure indicators. and its classification shall be at least C 43515 according to standard ISO 2919. to the following: • durability and resistance to corrosion • prevention of the passage of water.Guide ST 5. The cylindrical window of a panoramic X-ray device must be clearly marked. plastics and other corrsponding components to radiation. • A connector for the door switch of the exposure room. The system must be designed such that exposure is interrupted when the door is opened. without which the device is inoperable. 4 Requirements for Gamma Radiography Devices 4. Attention must be paid. the holder of the safety licence must check the certificate issued by the manufacturer in order to ensure that the radiation source meets the set requirements.6 S T U K 3.5 Cable and Control Panel The length of the cable between the X-ray tube unit and the control panel shall be at least 20 metres. and the device can only be restarted from the control panel after the door has been closed. One of these must be a red signal lamp.2 Radiation Source The radiation source shall comply with standard SFS 4849 (ISO 1677). 4. An X-ray tube unit which has only a beryllium window. If the radiation dose rate is low or if the X-ray device is installed as a stationary unit in the radiography room. In addition to what is presented in this guide. specified in the IAEA publication “Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material”. The control panel shall include: • A key switch. for example.1 General Requirements A device for gamma radiography shall be of such a design that faultless operation is ensured as effectively as possible.
The connections between the control cable and the radiation source. and the risk of a radiation accident. Locking must be prevented if the radiation source is not in the secured position. its activity and the date when the activity was determined • type of container • date when the device was last inspected. A remote control cable and a sheath allowing a distance of 8 metres can be used in exceptional cases. the dose rate of leakage radiation must not exceed 2 mSv/h on the surface of the container.6 The remote control cable sheath shall be of such a length that the remote control can be placed at a distance of at least 15 metres from the exposure container. Guide ST 5.02 mSv/h at a distance of one metre from the container surface. The sheaths and the openings of the exposure container shall be provided with covers that prevent dust from entering the device. warning signs and lights. The primary beam must be limited with collimators such that it is as small as possible with respect to the radiography work. During the period when the X-ray device is being heated. When operators leave for a break. during the work. 4. The locking device shall be clearly marked to show whether the container is locked or not. The exposure container shall be of such a design that the radiation source can be moved from the secured position only by remote control. The remote control shall be of such a design that the control cable cannot be accidentally disengaged from its drive.5 Collimators For radiography. such as the importance of safety ropes.3) • the radionuclide and maximum activity for which the container is intended • the radionuclide in use.1 General Instructions Safety precautions necessitated by the use of radiation. 6 . The dose rate must be checked with a radiation meter. 5 Safe Working 5. and it shall be possible to lock the container without a key. Unauthorised persons must be prevented. The collimators shall provide an attenuation corresponding to at least 2 TVT (tenth value thickness). shall be explained to those staying in the vicinity of the exposure site. and between the projection sheath and the exposure container. and 0. shall be of such a design that the radiation source can move only when the connections are properly made. The remote control shall clearly show whether the radiation source is in the secured position or in the working position. 4. there shall be a separate shield immediately behind the object. When the radiation source is in the secured position. the operators must ensure that the radiography device is in a proper condition and that the persons who participate in radiography work are provided with a radiation meter and a personal dosemeter. If part of the radiation beam bypasses the object that is being radiographed. the window must be covered with a shutter. from handling the radiography device. there shall be a sufficient number of collimators.ST U K The exposure container shall be marked with the following information: • a radiation warning sign (see Guide ST 1. the device must be locked in such a way that it cannot be used. The exposure container shall have a locking device. Before starting work. The radiation source must not become loose or jammed in the projection sheath.4 Projection Sheath and Control Cable for the Radiation Source The projection sheath and control cable shall be capable of withstanding the stresses caused during use of the device.
must be controlled for the whole duration of the exposure. have at least one assistant. Only members of the radiography team can stay or work in this area during exposure. for example. The control panel and the remote control must be located in such a way that the radiographers can control the area to a sufficient extent. Open installations can be used only for fully justified reasons. The controlled area. the radiography team can only use one device at a time. In addition to the controlled area. brief visits. to the maximum operating voltage of the X-ray device or the direction of the primary beam. The operator must take into account the restrictions on working that apply.Guide ST 5. The radiography device is controlled from outside the room. the return of the radiation source to the secured position must always be ensured with a radiation meter. When a device for gamma radiography is used. and shall not as a rule exceed the value of 20 µSv/h. Warning signs. there must be special arrangements to ensure safety.3 Enclosed Installation 5. working places shall be divided into controlled areas and supervised areas. In an open installation. such as during transit. At least one door must be of such a design 7 . Doors to the shielded enclosure must be lockable. S T U K a separate flashing signal lamp mounted on the X-ray device. special attention shall be paid to the following factors affecting radiation safety. the area does not need to be isolated. 5. there shall also be Enclosed installation means that the radiography device has been placed in a shielded enclosure that only authorised personnel can enter. If these requirements cannot be met. for example during selection of the radiography device and technique. When planning radiography work. be performed in an enclosed installation. however.2 and 5. Section 32 of the Radiation Act (Amendment 1142/1998) specifies the measures to be taken for the protection of workers. as well as the location and time of the examination. the radiography must be performed in accordance with item 5.2. The operator can work alone in an enclosed installation. briefly visit the controlled area if it is necessary for the performance of the work. supervision shall be extended to an area where the dose rate is higher than 7. After completion of the radiography work. and it can be effectively controlled. The operator must.3. the operator must check the control panel of the Xray device in order to make sure that exposure has been terminated. and access to it.5 µSv/h (supervised area). The shielded enclosure is a controlled area. and the employees whose radiation exposure must be monitored individually will be classified as a separate group (radiation work category A). The dose rate shall be restricted to as low a level as possible in the area where the radiographers are working. as a rule.6 Radiography must. as a rule. When necessary. If more than one radiography team are working in the same area. Radiographers can. ropes or other barriers shall be used for isolation purposes. However. are allowed. One radiographer must remain in the vicinity of the control panel or the remote control so that the exposure can be quickly interrupted in an emergency. The area around the object to be radiographed where the dose rate exceeds 60 µSv/h shall be isolated as a controlled area. Additional instructions concerning open and enclosed installations are given in items 5.2 Open Installation Open installation means that radiography is performed in an isolated and guarded area without fixed barriers. for example if the size or location of the object to be exposed so requires. On the basis of this. If the exposure takes place in an open field. Nobody is allowed to remain inside the controlled area during exposure.
When the shielded enclosure is not in use. Before entering the shielded enclosure after exposure.2 Devices for Gamma Radiography Devices for gamma radiography shall be inspected and serviced at least once a year under the supervision of the safety officer. If a device for gamma radiography is used. 6 Regular Inspections of Radiography Devices 6. 6. The shielded enclosure shall contain information about restrictions on the use of radiation. such as the maximum allowable operating parameters for the X-ray device. warning signs and ropes. If devices for gamma radiography are used in the shielded enclosure. or when the highest allowable activity is used in the gamma radiography device. there shall be a clearly visible warning light that is lit during exposure. are operable.2. and the highest allowable activity for the gamma radiography device.1 Devices for X-ray Radiography X-ray devices shall be inspected at least once a year under the supervision of the radiation safety officer.6 The dose rate at a distance of one metre from the walls outside the shielded enclosure must be lower than 7. Before exposure. During the inspection it must be ensured that the device conforms to requirements and is in a good operating condition. and that the electrical cables are undamaged. direction of the primary beam. this check shall always be made with a radiation meter. the operators shall ensure that unauthorised persons cannot touch the radiography device. The switches shall be installed in such a way that. A note about the inspections shall be entered in the service book of the device and on the exposure container of the radiation source (see item 4. 8 . During the inspection it shall be ensured that the warning lights. Guide ST 5. the doors to the enclosure must be provided with a safety device that prevents entry into the room during exposure.2.2. e. directional rod.1–6. Faults and deficiencies shall be repaired before the apparatus is used the next time. in the event of a switch failure.6 of this guide. The light must be accompanied with an explanatory text. diaphragms. A note about the inspection shall be entered in the service book of the device. On the outside. it must be ensured that nobody is in the shielded enclosure. If there are other doors to the shielded enclosure. The control panel and remote control of the radiography device must be located in a place from where the door of the shielded enclosure can easily be seen.3). Doors to a shielded X-ray enclosure shall be provided with switches that are connected to the control panel (see item 3. they must be locked during exposure in such a way that they cannot be opened from the outside. “Red light is on during exposure”. Faults and deficiencies must be repaired before the apparatus is used the next time.5 µSv/h when the X-ray device is operated at its maximum allowable parameters. the device does not work and it cannot be started. The exposure container of a device for gamma radiography shall be locked. shutter.g. and all other safety devices. The shielded enclosure shall be marked with a radiation warning sign. Inspections shall be carried out as specified in items 6.ST U K that it can always be opened from the inside of the room. 6.5). the radiographer shall make certain that the exposure has been terminated. The requirements and instructions issued by the manufacturer shall be taken into account during inspection and service.1 Projection Sheath It must be checked that: • The projection sheath is not worn or damaged and has no fractures or become brittle.
The wipe sample is taken from a surface that has been in contact with the source.2. provided that the dose rate in the places that are used for regular working purposes shall not exceed 0.2 Control Cable and Fixing Joint It must be checked that: • The cable is not corroded and has no damaged strands.g.5 µSv/h. e. for shorter periods of time in a locked vehicle where it must be securely fixed and under supervision. • The connections to the cables are clean and undamaged. • The cable is not bent. The tensile strength of the joint must be tested by subjecting it to a force of 400 N. • The fixing joint between the cable and the radiation source holder is not worn or damaged. A device for gamma radiography can be stored. 6. During the inspection it shall be ensured that: • The exposure container has been marked properly (see item 4. The plate showing the radionuclide shall only be in its place when the container is loaded.2. The exposure container can be inspected when it is either loaded or empty.3). 60 6.Guide ST 5.3). 6. The radiation source holder shall be replaced with a new one when the source is replaced. 6. at the latest. in a locked cupboard or in a room provided with a radiation warning sign. can be seen clearly. and always when the radiation source is replaced. 6. A 60Co source shall be replaced after 15 years of use. • The markings on the shutter and on the locking mechanism. proper markings shall be made on the exposure container (see item 4. The cable must be replaced if it cannot be straightened without tools.5 µSv/h. Replacement of the source shall be carried out according to the written instructions. and the radiation source has not caused any wear to the internal parts of the container.2. e. a device for gamma radiography shall be locked and kept in a fire-proof and safe place. section 7.3 Remote Control The remote control must be dismantled in such a way that any worn parts that may endanger faultless operation can be discerned during the inspection. S T U K tion source is ready for operation.4 Exposure Container The exposure container shall be inspected at least once a year. The dose rate outside the room shall not exceed 7. The relevant transport regulations shall be complied with when devices for gamma radiography 9 . The wipe test shall not be performed directly on the radiation source capsule. Damage often occurs near the fixing joint of the radiation source.2. • The shutter and locking mechanism function faultlessly and show no signs of visible damage. Locking devices or radiation shields must not be dismantled for the inspection. in accordance with the regulations concerning transportation. The container shall be checked for leakage radiation.g. • The inside of the projection sheath is clean and undamaged.5 Radiation Source and its Holder When the radiation source is replaced. that show that the radia- 7 Storage and Transport of Devices for Gamma Radiography After use.2. • The container shows no signs of visible damage that can affect its shielding properties.6 • The fixing joint is not damaged and operates faultlessly. on the inside surface of the projection sheath.6 Leak Test of the Radiation Source Co source shall undergo a wipe test according to standard SFS 5111.
International Atomic Energy Agency. 1987. regional alarm centre or Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK) tel. Sealed radioactive sources. An area in which the dose rate exceeds 60 µSv/h is isolated around the site of the accident. 9 Bibliography 1 Nordic Recommendations on Radiation Protection in Industrial Radiography. STUK will give instructions for the handling of a loose or stuck radiation source. The area must be guarded. Measurement of radioactive surface contamination. Radioactive sources. Sealed radioactive sources. 2 SFS 4575. (09) 759 881”. General. Apparatus for gamma radiography – Specification. 8 Decree on the Transport of Dangerous Goods by Road (632/1996). 5 ISO 2919. contact the nearest police. The accident is reported to the safety officer. Unauthorised persons are cleared to a sufficient distance from the area. An incident can mean. The Radiation Protection Institutes in Denmark. On request. Guide ST 5. Guarding should be continued until sufficient expert help has arrived. IAEA Safety Standards Series No. 8 Accident Situations The holder of a safety licence shall ensure that the workers have instructions in case of a radiation accident. 2.6 ly. Classification. Leak test method during use.ST U K are transported. 4 ISO 1677. If the container of the radiation source is undamaged. In such a case. Finland. 6 ISO 3999. When the holder of a safety licence or the safety officer is notified of an incident or a radiation accident. 3. that the radiation source is stuck in the projection sheath or has become loose. The dose rate in a vehicle must not exceed 20 µSv/h in any of the spaces intended for the driver or crew in cases where personal dosemeters are not used. Transferring the dismantled or stuck radiation source to the shielding shall be planned careful- 10 . for example. Smear method (Smear test. 10 Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material. and the foreman of the workplace where it has occurred. the device can be handled without any risk. Iceland. 1996. 3 SFS 5111. As precaution for accident situations. the following action shall be taken: 1. Wipe test). Vienna. 9 Decision of the Ministry of Transport and Communicatios on the amendment of the decision of the Ministry of Transport and Communications of transport of dangerous goods by road (1181/1994) with its amendments. ST-1. the radiography device shall be accompanied with a sign in a visible place warning of radiation. 7 Act on Transport of Dangerous Goods (719/ 1995). Norway and Sweden. he or she shall contact STUK. It shall be supplemented with a suitable text. The instructions shall include the following information: • immediate actions for restricting the radiation exposure as effectively as possible • warning the personnel and outsiders • notifying the radiation safety officer and STUK. In the case of an accident. such as: “This vehicle is used for transporting device containing radioactive material. STUK. The radiation source must never be touched by hand and no hasty measures should be taken.
filament current transformer and cooling devices. remote control. projection sheath. such as controllers for current and voltage. X-ray device includes the X-ray tube unit. such as collimators and tripods.6 S T U K A PPENDIX A DEFINITIONS Radiography device is a device for X-ray radiography or gamma radiography. 11 . Control panel includes the operating and control devices of the X-ray device. filters and tripods. radiation signal lights and the main switch with its key. Leakage radiation means radiation that penetrates the protective housing of an X-ray tube unit or the exposure container wall of a gamma radiography device. Exposure container is a radiation shield for a gamma radiography device. timer. control panel and the necessary accessories. such as diaphragms. radiation source. X-ray tube unit includes at least the X-ray tube and the protective housing and. Gamma radiography device includes the exposure container.Guide ST 5. depending on the type of device. transformers. mains and high-voltage cables. remote control cable and sheath. and the necessary accessories. the high-voltage transformer. used for storing and transporting the radiation source. Remote control is a device for controlling gamma radiography device at a distance.
ST U K Guide ST 5.6 A PPENDIX B STRUCTURE OF A DEVICE FOR GAMMA RADIOGRAPHY projection exposure container sheath beam limiter (collimator) remote control cable sheath source in working position remote control source in storage position source holder remote control cable fixing joint 12 .
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