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Weight and Activity Level

My BMI is 35.5 and I am in the obese range. When I was in elementary, junior and high school, my weight was in the normal range. When I was in the Army, my weight was also in the normal range. After my first child, still my weight was in the normal range. However, once I had my third child I began gaining weight. I regularly exercise at least 30 minutes a day on the treadmill or stationary bike. I clean house, run errands, do work study and go to school. As compared to 300 minutes of moderate intensity exercise weekly, I execute around 270 minutes. I do not do muscle strengthening activities at all weekly. I consumed 3,371 calories during the 3 day diet study and my DRI was 7,818. This shows that I consumed 4,447 less calories than is recommended. On the 3 days that I did the diet plan, I consumed less than was recommended on all three days. I do not have any health related data for my paternal side of the family. My maternal side of the family has a history of high-blood pressure and heart disease. My mother has both heart disease and blood-pressure. I have high cholesterol which my doctor says is genetic-related.

Foods and Food Components to Reduce


Sodium
My maximum recommended for sodium is 2,300 mg daily. On day one of the diet study, I consumed 1,404 which is 896 less than recommended. On day two, I consumed 2,565 mg

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which exceeds the 2,300 maximum recommended for sodium by 265 mg. On that day, I ate one item of Maruchan Roman Noodles; beef flavor dry that contained 1,540 mg of sodium. In addition, I ate one taco bell crunchy taco supreme that contained 740 mg of sodium. On day three, I consumed 1,061 mg which is 1,239 less than is the maximum recommended.

Saturated Fat
My DRI for saturated fats is <29. On day one of the Diet Study, I consumed 12.7g of saturated fat which is 16.3g below the 29g. On day two, I consumed 18.2g of saturated fat which is 10.8g below the 29g. On day three of the study, I consumed 11.6g which is 17.4g less than the 29g.

Added Sugars
My DRI for sugar is not determined. However, on the three day study I consumed several high sugar treats that had more than 8gs of sugar. On day one, I had a Pepsi and a Snickers bar that raised my sugar intake to 77gs. On day two, I had a McDonalds ice cream in a cone, vanilla, reduced fat which raised my sugar intake to 23gs. On day three, I had a Starbucks tall coffee Frappuccino which raised my sugar intake to 38gs. On the 3 days of the diet study, I consumed more grams of sugar than I would normally do. I dont usually consume that many products containing sugar. Salt is more of a problem for me.

Refined Grains
On day one, I did not consume any refined grains. On day two, I consumed Maruchan Roman Noodles, beef flavor, one item which measures as 2 servings for day two. On day three, I did not consume any refined grains. As compared to the 3 serving daily maximum, I consumed less than the maximum for the entire 3 day diet study.

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Alcohol
As compared with the one drink daily maximum for women, I only drank one drink on day one. On day two and three, I did not drink. Therefore, my alcohol consumption met the moderate intake guidelines.

Foods and Nutrients to Increase


Vegetable Variety and Fruits
I did not consume any vegetables or fruits during my 3 day diet study plan. My usual meals would not meet the half plate recommendation. Adding more fruits and vegetables as snacks instead of meals will help me.

Whole Grains
During the three day diet study, I consumed one whole grain corn tortilla on day two. On day one and three I did not consume any whole grains. I fell short of the 3 servings daily recommendation on all three days of the diet study. To add more whole grain to my daily diet, I could replace wheat flour bread with whole wheat bread, white rice with whole grain rice (brown), and refined pasta with whole wheat pasta. Whole grain crackers can replace Cheez-its.

Seafood
I do not typically eat fish or shellfish. I could start eating more walnut, beans, winter squash and flaxseed. I already use canola oil so that would not change. My DRI for Omega-3 fatty acids is 1.1gs. On day one, I consumed 0.1gs of Omega-3 fatty acids. On day two, I consumed 0.2gs Omega-3 fatty acids. On day three, I consumed 0.0gs of Omega-3 fatty acids.

Dietary Fiber
On day one, I had 43% of my DRI, (11g out of 25g which is 14g less than the DRI). On day two, I had 37.1% of my DRI (9g, 16g less than the DRI). On day three, I had 12% of my

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DRI (3g, 22 less than the DRI). I could add 1 medium pear with the skin, as a snack, to add 5.5 grams of dietary fiber to my diet. In addition, I could add 1 cup of whole-wheat-cooked spaghetti for lunch to add 6.2 grams of dietary fiber to my diet. For breakfast, adding 1 medium oat bran muffin will raise my intake for dietary fiber to 5.2 grams. Finally, adding 1 medium cooked artichoke to my evening meal will increase my daily dietary fiber intake by 10.3 grams (Mayo Clinic Staff, 17 November 2009)

Vitamins and Minerals


On day 1, 2, and 3, I was below the DRI on vitamin A, B6, B12; C, D and E, thiamin, riboflavin, folate; potassium, calcium, magnesium; iron and zinc. On day 1, I exceeded the DRI for niacin. I could add one ounce of nuts (40 microgram), 4 ounces of asparagus (88 microgram), 1 cup orange juice (109 microgram), and 4 ounces of cooked black beans (1/2 cup cooked) to increase my folate intake (Walters, J. January 2004). To increase my potassium intake, I would add 4 ounces of whole grain bread, 2 tbsps. of peanut butter, cup of orange juice and 3 ounces of lobster. All of these foods have more than 250 mgs per-serving of potassium (Patient Information: Low potassium diet, n.d.). Since I was low on my zinc, I would add 1 baked potato with skin (1 cup, 2.8 mg), 10 dried apricot halves for 1.7 mg, and 4 ounces of fresh-cooked broccoli for 0.7 mg of zinc (Keller, A. 2012). I do take Folate and 1000g fish oil capsules. I also take a daily vitamin prescribed by my doctor.

Self-Evaluation
I need to exercise more to meet the 300 minutes of moderate intensity exercise weekly. I fluctuate in my eating pattern so half the time I meet my DRI for my calorie intake. However, the

RUNNING HEAD: Diet Study Part II

other half, I most likely eat too much. I believe I either over eat or under eat which is something I should work on. I need to be more consistent in my eating habits and meet my DRI for calories. I need to keep my sodium level below 2,300g daily. Although during the diet study, my saturated fat was always below what was recommended, I know that I usually eat more saturated fat because I eat a lot of beef. I need to cut down on my beef intake to keep my saturated fat down. Even though my sugar intake was high on all three days of the diet study, I normally do not eat that much in the sugary category so I think I can meet the DRI for sugar if I stay away from snacking. I need to decrease my intake of refined grains even though my intake for the three days was good except for day two. I will replace the refined grains with whole grains. In fact I have already replaced white rice with brown, wheat flour bread with whole wheat, pasta with whole grain pasta, and crackers with Kashi whole-Grain original crackers. I am within the moderate level for alcohol but I would like to not drink at all. Vegetable variety and fruits are going to be my main problem. I buy for the entire house and when I buy fruit, it ends up rotted. The only fruit that my kids will eat is kiwi. I will add pears, oranges and apricots to my fruit grocery list. As for vegetables, the only vegetable that they will eat is canned corn and I have to force that on them. I can buy for me but I cant force that much food down my throat to meet the recommended. I will add artichokes, asparagus and broccoli to my vegetable grocery list. Seafood is another problem for me because I do love seafood but I only eat it with all the bad stuff such as butter. I will try the walnuts which is ironic because I have a walnut tree but do not eat the walnuts. I will eat more beans and winter squash. I can meet my dietary fiber, vitamin and mineral DRI without too much change.

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References
Keller, A. (2012). Breastflap. Retrieved from http://www.breastflap.com/iron-rich-foods.cfm Mayo Clinic Staff. (17 November 2009) High-fiber foods. Retrieved from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/high-fiber-foods/NU00582 Patient Information: Low potassium diet. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.sangotn.com/Health/Low%20Potassium%20Diet Walters, J. (January 2004). University of Kentucky Extension Associate. Retrieved from http://www.ca.uky.edu/hes/fcs/factshts/efnep-11.pdf