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ITALIAN REPORT CENTRO STUDI E FORMAZIONE VILLA MONTESCA GIUNTI OS

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

ICT, Communication and the Families
General ICT incorporation and development in Italy

Research methodology
The methodology used to carry out the PatchWorld research has taken into account various sources, like: - Analysis and review of the literature (existing researches, studies, reports) - Review of the web – existing cross-national, national and regional researches, projects, initiatives, good practices, etc.; - Review of the ISTAT statistics studies - Interviews with experts in the field of ICT researches and in the educational sphere with: Mr. Mario Rotta, expert on ICT, e-learning and on-line learning environments Ms. Rita Minello, pedagogues expert in learning processes and training methodologies, in room and on-line, Mr. Antonio Fini, Expert in e-learning platforms and in particular of cooperative and collaborative systems.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

- Survey on 20 families from different Italian regions and with different educational and professional backgrounds – all having a child or children aged between 11,18 and over.

Italian access to ICT (ISTAT report) In Italy the access to ICT at home is growing rapidly, especially in families with at least one child. Following the ISTAT survey the main technological tools used by the Italian families are:

Owners of DVD players, digital decoders, mobile phones, parabolic aerials and PCs have increased in number since 2005. PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Increased access to Internet: improves the quality of home connection, decreases, in fact, the number of narrowband connections (through traditional telephone line or IDSN) and increases the number of families using the broadband (ADSL or other types of broadband connection). Levels of ICT ownership at home is generally linked to cultural, socioeconomic and generational factors Families formed only by 60 year old people or over do not, in general, have access to technological tools: only 6.5% uses a PC and 4.8% has access to Internet. Broadband connection (2.2%) is practically non-existent. Furthermore, the ownership on new TV linked technologies by this type of family is very limited: parabolic aerial (10.6%) and digital decoders (6.4%). The only technological tools with widespread ownership (besides colour TV) is the mobile phone (52.2%). On the other hand there are families with at least one child under age: PC and Internet access (69.7% and 51.8% respectively). These families have also the highest ratio of broadband connections (21.1%) while mobile phones have reached the same level as TV sets (96%). Also video recorders (82.4%) and DVD players (75.1%) are commonly owned.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

The most disadvantaged families are those in which the father is a manual worker or is unemployed. Between families where the father is a normal worker and those of managers or professionals there is a gap of about 30% in PC ownership and 37% in access to Internet. The difference between these two types of families is less relevant but still wide, also for cheaper technologies such as DVD players (14%) and is practically non-existent as regards mobile phones.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

For some technological tools the difference between families of professionals and managers and those of normal workers is increasing: access to broadband Internet for instance goes from 17% to 21% and the ownership of digital TVs increases from 4% to 8%.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Trend of the Internet use per age

The peak in the use of PCs is between 11 and 19 years of age (more than 75%) and for Internet from 15 to 24 (more than 67%) and it rapidly decreases with age. The use of the PC in people between 35 and 44 years of age decreases to 53.8% and the difference in the use of Internet is more contained (45.7%). Only 16.4% of the people between 60 and 65 uses a PC and 12.3% uses Internet. For the over 65, the use of these technologies is only a marginal factor.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Patterns of access to a home computer The timing is good: PC and internet use is on the rise, with 70% of young people now using it at home, school or elsewhere.

A deeper overview
Our research with the 20 families A number of factors appeared to have contributed to the high levels of computer ownership in the families surveyed. First, many parents stated that they bought computers to support their child’s education and to provide further educational opportunities for their children

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Second, a large number of parents used computers themselves for leisure and work purposes. Third, some families suggested that they needed the technology to keep in contact with distant relatives. Finally, a number of families regarded computers as an integral part of every day life in the twenty-first century.

Frequency of use of computers in household in rural/urban areas

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Children from urban areas are more likely to use a computer at home than those in rural areas, especially for game activities.

The use of ICT: How and why

PATTERNS OF USE Use of a technology is not the same as access. The main use of ICT at home, according to the families interviewed for the survey, is for the following activities:

Parents Office software Using a word processing package to write Using spreadsheets for the family accountancyUsing a word processing package to look through information concerning work Using an email program

Children Using a word processing package to write Using a spreadsheet for some homework Finding clip art on the web and pasting into a word processing document. Drawing pictures using an art package. Producing greeting cards Using an email program to contact friends

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

FAMILY use of ICT COMMUNICATIO N AND RELATIONSHIPS

Using programmes (email, Skype) to keep in touch with family members Using Internet Sometime playing computer games with children

Using programmes (e-mail, Skype) to keep in touch with friends Using Internet; blog and chat

Educational games

Playing educational games on the Internet, e.g. maths games, science quizzes, support for writing stories. Sometimes they play with their parents. Often Playing simulation computer games Playing CD-ROM games linked to television and popular cultural interests.

‘Noneducational’ games

Sometimes Playing simulation computer games Playing CD-ROM games linked to television and popular cultural interests.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

The parents and children use of the ICT in Italy

GAME AND RECREATION
The use of computers for reasons different from work or study, in particular as a playing tool, has a crucial role in the computer culture.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Playing is also a way of learning: it is an activity through which an individual relationship with the computer can be established and is a way also to understand one’s level of competence and skills. The results show that certain skills learned via computer can lead to social enhancement, e.g. problem-solving skills and communication skills, as well as social development. Another result is that new technologies can help children to express their skills. The majority of children and teen-agers interviewed declare to prefer the use of ICT tools for leisure purposes rather than for school work. Use of the Internet, computer games, leisure activities recorded in the ICT logs included the following: • Surfing web sites related to their popular cultural interests. • Playing networked, online games. • Shopping. • Finding cheats for computer games. • Using chat rooms. • Using instant messaging (sometimes with webcams). • Downloading music. • Downloading photographs.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Some children reported pretending to their parents that they were using the home computer for educational purposes when they were actually using it for ‘fun’. A minority of parents argued that console games and non-educational computer games have developed particular skills in their children, such as making them think, or developing factual information about specific topics. However, it is hard to identify and measure these ‘gains’ because they are so embedded in the pupils’ everyday lives. A particular gap in parental knowledge relates to video games. Children like to play videogames and sometimes they play with their parents. There is also a huge possibility for recreation as television, radio and magazine media increasingly move to electronic formats. In general the parents don’t know the games contents. Only a third of parents who were surveyed said they play videogames with their children some or all of

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

the time. Most of those parents are younger than 40 and part of a generation that grew up playing video games themselves.

EDUCATION - What children say:

à ICT is regarded as making homework less boring because they use computers as: ‘cool’; à Interactive and multimodal texts are more interesting than books; à ICT save time (e.g. it is easier to write and revise documents on a computer than by hand) and enhance the presentation of children’s work; à The Internet is a good source of information (range and depth) and educational materials (such as revision websites); à ICT enable multi-tasking and is perceived by children to improve grades à Internet offers readily available information for children’s school projects and researches. à ICT contribute both to making school work more enjoyable and also to pupils’ perceptions of achievement, therefore it is perceived as motivational. The majority of children and young people believe that ICT competence would be important for their futures and careers. The interviewees who use computer at home for school work at least once a week are also the same subjects who believe that using a computer can improve their grades and have most home-based electronic resources.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

EDUCATION - What parents say:
- The majority of parents believe that skills in ICT would be vital for their children’s future. - Their comments are often linked to the importance that ICT might play in children’s future careers. - The majority (84%) of parents agree with the statement that ‘Using a computer helps my child to learn useful things’. - Families buy computers for their educational potential. - The majority of parents believe that computers help their children to learn useful skills and gain knowledge ICT enable them to find new sources of information; enhance the presentation of their work; provide more opportunities for revision/consolidation of learning; save time on mundane tasks such as editing; and increasing their motivation. Parents reported that using ICT raised pupils’ confidence and had motivational effects. ICT can be motivational because it à contributes both to making school work more enjoyable and also to the pupils’ perceptions of achievement; à is interactive and multimodal texts can be more interesting than books

à but, in their opinions, THERE ARE SOME BARRIERS IN USING ICT for
educational purposes

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

What are the BARRIERS in using ICT for educational purposes? - a lack of explicit instruction to do so by teachers; - a lack confidence on how to use ICT as applicable to specific subjects; - a lack of interest in particular subjects per se This shows clear implications in terms of addressing how schools deliver out of school ICT opportunities for their pupils in ways that make them more attractive for children

SECURITY AND SAFETY

Risks Some parents identified what they felt to be educational disadvantages in the use of ICT tools. These included the perceived enhanced ability to plagiarise by cutting and pasting from the Internet, the possible negative effects on handwriting and the potential for distraction by non-educational uses of ICT. Parents want, but sometimes they don’t have the right competences

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To talk to children about the dangers of ICT tools and Internet, To encourage children to look critically at the information they find on the web To have the basic computer security systems in place To track and monitor their children’s online activity and movements

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PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Parents While allowing them to use ICT tools generally supports an atmosphere of exploration, there are some more specific things which many parents could do. These might include: 1. 2. ensuring that appropriate filtering software has been installed and that children know the rules of Internet safety occasionally joining in, sharing or talking to their children about their use of the Internet 3. encouraging enjoyable, relaxed, independent use of the Internet

4.

providing a context for informal learning through ICT as informal learning becomes more significant, ensuring children have alternative sources of information (e.g. an encyclopaedia) rather than assume the Internet suffices.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Examples & Good Practices
The culture of videogames: the world of the young and the world of the adults compared. (Istituto IARD under the sponsorship of the Ministero per le Politiche Giovanili)

A

new

study

about

videogames

indicated

they

have

become

"an

increasingly social activity" particularly among parents and children. Setting stereotypes aside, the study revealed gaming to be very much a social activity. The project aims to develop informal skills through online games both for parents and children, making them play together. After the first experimentation the majority of the parents who performed the games with their children now see them as a positive activity for their kids: 73% believe that videogames teach their children about technology and 68% feel that they them with some “school skills”. They value the skills kids learn through interactive games and can see the benefits both socially and educationally.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Project EDUCANDO – Marche Region WWW.PROGETTOEDUCANDO.COM The Project Educando is an extra curricular activity for young girls and boys. It consists in carrying out computer and Internet related activities with the help of teachers and families (drawing, writing stories, games and animation, photography, acting etc). The games favour “free creativity” in children and are also a way to communicate and to establish social relations with other children of the same age, with teachers and educators in a protected online environment. Children and parents, guided by experts, produce Internet pages explaining the activities carried out. Project EDUCANDO – SOME ACTIVITIES: DRAWINGS The drawings were photographed and published on the project’s website in a Picture gallery in which the children added a story referring to the drawings. INVENT THE ENDING The children were read the beginning of a story and were invited to invent the end of it. The project’s website has a gallery of images representing the beginning of the story and the children have published with the help of their parents and teachers the end they invented. COMMUNICATE WITH INTERNET:

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

àBLOG: THE ONLINE DIARY The children have been given the opportunity to write on Internet as if it were their own diary, free to express their thoughts on the day’s events. àFORUM: COMMUNICATE WITH INTERNET Parents can use a Forum to exchange opinions over the project and communicate among themselves.

EASY www.easy4.it Campaign for a safe and critical use of new technologies
Field: exploitation and abuse Partner: Adiconsum (Consumers Association) The project is promoted by Save the Children – Italy and Adiconsum (Consumers Association) and is financed by the European Commission. EASY is a nationwide awareness project for a safe and critical use of new technologies. The problems arising from a safe and at the same time positive use of the Internet are now amplified by the rapid development and diffusion of the new portable technologies (particularly, but not only, mobile phones) and by the faster connection speed through which it will be more and more possible to gain access to new online contents and services.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

According to a recent report by CENSIS 5% of the Italian population between 14 and 85 years of age own a mobile phone; 93.4% of young people between 14 and 18 use their mobile phones regularly. There is a great gap between adults and young people under age in terms of competences and familiarity in the use of new technologies. Although young people are often more “technologically” competent, this does not necessarily reflect a real knowledge of the risks and of the opportunities offered by the new technologies when properly used. The lowering of the barriers in terms of access and use of Internet contents and services make the attention given by EASY to the new technologies an element of particular relevance.

The starting point is the recognition of the exploitation of the competences and experiences of young people in defining and influencing new online technologies. EASY focus on the present and potential risks represented by new technologies promoting at the same time their critical and proper use. The project has a wide section of the public: à young people under age à IT operators à the government à local authorities and institutions à media and parents General purposes à To promote and protect the rights of children in the use of new technologies, in particular respecting and updating the principle of the Greatest Interest of Minors.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

à To operate as an awareness focal point in Italy. à To develop a cohesive awareness campaign of high impact through the use of the most appropriate media keeping in the account the best practices and experiences of other European countries. à To establish partnerships (formal or informal) with the main European operators (government and non government agencies, media, ISP associations etc) operating in the same field and cooperating with other organisations working in the media and information literacy sectors. à To actively cooperate with other European Network organisations through the exchange of information and expertise, participation to meetings and development of best practices for a European wide approach suitable for the needs of different cultures and languages.

WEAGREE For parents to learn more about the video games their children play
This is a web interface allowing parents and children to keep contact with each other when physically distant. The designers’ idea was to give children the freedom of space and exploration knowing that their parents would be always available. It could be defined as a protected space in which young people can experiment beyond the skills because, although virtual, adult assistance is given by supports figures and not by substitutes.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

The use of this program helps also to keep in contact with each other, therefore, should they be occupied in their activities, there is always a trusted network catering for their needs. This is an interface program full of psychological implications: from the development of children's competences to the conception of a social network inbetween reality and virtuality.

Internet and minors: Little Tom Thumb in the web
Developed by the 'International Crime Analysis Association-Italy”, to make parents and children aware of a safe Internet use Sponsored by the Ministry of Communication, the Polizia Postale and the UNICEF The project focuses on the assessment of children's’ behaviour outlining the molestation and enticement risks in chat rooms (i.e. contacts with paedophiles) and the dysfunctional behaviour of the adults (parents and teachers) who are in charge of control and prevention. The project has developed the Little Tom Thumb in the Web to make parents and children aware of the norms for a safe navigation and to offer recommendations for a proper use of the web.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

The duty of making public opinion, parents and children aware of the risks of an unsafe navigation has brought a second edition by Symantec and ICAA showing a precise analysis on the lack of control by parents over their children, on enticement risks, the method of police enquiries, the profile of children at risk and children's behaviour on chat lines in case of contacts with paedophiles. Also this second edition is sponsored by the Ministry of Communication, the Polizia Postale, the Lazio Region, UNICEF and, the last entry, Iscom. On its part, Symantec has developed the Little Tom Thumb in the Web project to make parents and children aware of the norms for a safe navigation and to offer recommendations for a proper use of the web. The project includes a guide to safety and to a proper use of technologies which will be used during the year as a support for a series of activities on the territory addressed to parents and teachers and supplying concrete elements of support for a safe Internet navigation for children. The project includes a guide to safety and to a proper use of technologies which will be used during the year as a support for a series of activities on the territory addressed to parents and teachers and supplying concrete elements of support for a safe Internet navigation for children.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Other initiatives…..
I CARE: how to learn, communicate and act in an Educational network. An Internet Guide for parents providing them key information in a wide variety of ways How to use Internet How are the main risks How to prevent them

Project ReMida21
Italian network for XXI century didactics and learning

One-O-Five Live - Cultura
How to reduce the generation gap between parents and children in the use of computer and mobile phones: ISTRUCTION FOR THE USE Cybermondo The important information for parents and children on the Internet. Risks for children: it is possible to keep the use of the computer under control… FAMILY SPACE Stories that parents and children want to write together on the web.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

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PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Kerawella, L. and Crook, C (2002) Children’s computer use at home and at school: context and continuity, British Educational Research Journal 28: 751-771. ISTAT: Le tecnologie dell’informazione e della comunicazione: disponibilità nelle famiglie e utilizzo degli individui Anno 2007 Livingstone, S., Bober, M. and Helsper, H. (2005) Internet Literacy Among Children and Young People: Findings from the UK Children Go On-line Project. Accessed at: www.children-go-online.net, February 2005. McFarlane, A., Sparrowhawk, A., Heald, Y. (2002) Report on the Educational Use of Games, Cambridge: TEEM. Mumtaz (2001) Children’s enjoyment and perception of computer use in the home and the school, Computers & Education, 36: 347-362. Nichols, LM (1992) the influence of student computer ownership and in-home use on achievement in an elementary school computer programming curriculum Journal of Educational Computing Research, 4: 407-21. Owen, D., Green, A., McLeod, M., Law, I., Challis, T., Wilkinson, D. (2003) The Use and Attitudes Towards Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) by People from Black and Ethnic Minority Groups Living in Deprived Areas. London: DfES Research Brief 450 (also available at: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/research). Parents’ Information Network (2000) Survey of Home-School ICT Support http://www.pin.org.uk/survey/01.htm, p.5). View From the Press. Philadelphia: Annenberg Public Policy Center, University of Pennsylvannia. Valentine, G. and Holloway, S.L. (1999) ‘The vision thing’: schools and information and communication technologies, Convergence: The Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 5: 63-79. Valentine, G. and Holloway, S.L. (2001) On-line dangers? Geographies of parents’ fears for children’s safety in cyberspace. The Professional Geographer, 53: 71-83.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein

Wellington, J. (2001) Exploring the secret garden: the growing importance of ICT in the home, British Journal of Educational Technology, 32: 233-244.

PATCH-WORLd - PArenTs and CHildren Working, ORganising and Learning together 135285-LLP-1-2007-1-IT-KA3-KA3MP Grant Agreement 2007-3620/001-001 This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This publication reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein