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Journal for Nature Conservation ] (]]]]) ]]]—]]]

www.elsevier.de/jnc

Ecological restoration, carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation: The experience of the Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education (SPVS) in the Atlantic Rain Forest of Southern Brazil
Andre Rocha FerrettiÃ, Ricardo Miranda de Britez ´
Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educacao Ambiental, Rua Gutemberg, n. 296, Batel, -˜ Curitiba-PR CEP 80420-030, Brazil Received 20 December 2005; accepted 27 April 2006

KEYWORDS Biomass; Forest restoration; GIS; Native species; Nature conservation; Private reserve; Tropical forest

Summary
Since 1999, SPVS has been involved in three projects that combine two fundamental goals over the course of 40 years: the conservation of one of Brazil’s most important remnants of Atlantic Forest and the implementation of projects for carbon sequestration. In addition, there is an interest in replicating these projects in order to restore other degraded areas, protect the Brazilian biomes, and help to diminish deforestation and forest fire, therefore reducing carbon emissions. The acquisition of 19,000 ha of degraded areas of high biological importance in southern Brazil was the first step towards the implementation of the projects. These areas are owned by SPVS, a Brazilian NGO, and are being restored, conserved and transformed into Private Natural Reserves, in partnership with the NGO – The Nature Conservancy, and financed by the companies – American Electric Power, General Motors and Chevron Texaco. The process of forest restoration involves several stages: soil studies, surveying the region’s native plants, planning for restoration by means of a Geographical Information System, production of seedlings, application of different techniques for planting (such as manual or mechanised planting with seedlings and stakes), and biomass and biodiversity monitoring. To guarantee the survival of the seedlings on the planted areas, during the first three years, there is a continuous and

ÃCorresponding author. Tel./fax: +55 41 3242 0280.

E-mail address: andreferretti@yahoo.com (A.R. Ferretti). 1617-1381/$ - see front matter & 2006 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.jnc.2006.04.006

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2 A.R. Ferretti, R.M. de Britez
systematic maintenance programme including weeding of undergrowth, crowing and organic fertilisation. The three projects already planted around 500,000 seedlings of native species until September 2004, and aim to plant a further 300,000 until 2008. & 2006 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

Introduction
In 1992, 185 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climatic Change, aiming at mitigating the effects of global warming. The signatory countries of this Convention have been holding annual meetings, the Conferences of the Parties (COP), aiming at defining mechanisms to implement the decisions of the convention since 1995. The Kyoto Protocol was established in the 1997 Convention, with the objective of reaching specific goals to reduce the emission of gases that cause the greenhouse effect, including carbon dioxide (CO2). Reduction targets were established where 5.2% of the emissions registered, on average, in 1990, must be reduced between 2008 and 2012. Various market instruments for ‘‘commercialising the emissions’’ were established and one of them, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), grants developed countries limited use of carbon credits to reach their emission reduction goals. Among the many project modalities of the CDM are the projects based on activities of Land Use, Change in Land Use and Forests. Through a partnership between the Society for Wildlife Research and Environmental Education (SPVS) and The Nature Conservancy (TNC) it was possible to implement three projects on the coast of Parana State in ´ southern Brazil (Fig. 1). General Motors, American Electric Power and ChevronTexaco financed the three projects. The forest projects, besides mitigating the greenhouse effect by fixing carbon within the plant biomass and therefore, mitigating the effects of global warming, also protect biodiversity, soil and water and help to promote the sustainable development of local communities. Thus, the projects may generate significant and measurable environmental and economical benefits for developing countries such as Brazil. For the implementation of the projects, 19,000 ha were acquired, almost 80% of which were considered degraded areas with different stages of succession, and pasture areas that will be restored. In order to ensure the permanent protection of the areas, the three reserves will be converted into Private Reserves of the Natural Heritage, an official category of Brazilian private protected areas (acronym RPPNS). Most of this area is located within the Guaraquec -aba Environmental Protection

Area, the largest continuous piece of Atlantic Forest that remains today. The Guaraquec -aba Environmental Protection Area, or ‘‘APA’’, is a 314,000 ha area zoned by the federal and state governments for conservation and sustainable use. Approximately 12% of the APA’s area is publicly held, however, enforcement of restrictions on the many private farms and ranches inside the APA is inconsistent. The APA spans four municipalities, Antonina, Guaraquec -aba, Campina Grande do Sul, and Paranagua, although most of the project area is ´ located within the municipalities of Antonina and Guaraquec -aba.

Atlantic forest
The Atlantic Forest is one of seven neotropical moist forests. Covering most of the coast, in Brazil it is second in extension to the Amazon forest only. The Atlantic Forest contains eight vegetation types: mangroves, restinga (the Brazilian term for vegetation on marine sands), wetlands, high altitude grasslands, upper-montane, montane, submontane and seasonally flooded lowland forests.

Figure 1. Location of the three carbon sequestration projects, in Antonina and Guaraquec -aba, State of Parana. ´

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Ecological restoration in the Atlantic Rain Forest Deforestation of the Atlantic Forest dates back to colonial times, when large-scale exportation of commercially valuable neotropical timber species began. Brazil’s development has primarily taken place along its eastern coast, and today the country’s largest cities and industrial centres, accounting for 50% of its population and 80% of its Gross National Product (GNP), are concentrated in former Atlantic Forest areas. The Atlantic Forest originally covered an area of 1,000,000 km2, or 12% of Brazil’s national territory. Today, only 7% of the original vegetative cover remains, making the Atlantic Forest one of the most threatened tropical forests in the world. An amazing 53% of the trees and 77% of other plant species found in the Atlantic Forest are endemic. Among vertebrates, 50 species of mammals – including 17 primates – and 158 species of birds are found nowhere else on the planet, along with 168 species of amphibians and 88 species of reptiles. Amongst Brazil’s 202 officially recognised endangered species, 171 depend on the Atlantic Forest to survive (Consorcio Mata Atlantica, 1992; ´ ˆ Dixon, 1979; Haffer, 1974; Lynch, 1979; Stotz, Fitzpatrick, Parker, & Moskovits, 1996). Despite the Atlantic Forest’s great biological importance and highly endangered state, many areas of Atlantic Forest are largely unstudied. Very few studies of fauna exist, demonstrating the urgent need for research on the area’s biological resources. 3 of approximately 40% of annual rainfall in the summer (January through March) and only 15% in the driest months (June through August) (Fig. 2). In the summer, average daily rainfall is three times as high as in the winter, and the occurrence of rainless days is much lower (40% of total summer days are rainless versus 60% of winter days). Because of the orographic effect, significant variations in average annual rainfall occur across the area’s varied topography. The lowest values occur in the plain regions (1800 mm), while in the frontal part of the mountain region they remain between 2000 and 2500 mm, a variability that is more pronounced in the summer (Superintendencia ˆ de Recursos Hı ´dricos e Saneamento Ambiental (SUDERSA), 1998). Average annual rainfall above 3400 mm (for 1975–1994) was reported for the region surrounding Marumbi Peak (Mantovanelli, 1999). Average annual evaporation and rainfall, whose ratio (E/Rm) determines the hydric balance of a region, are respectively, 405 and 2545 mm in Antonina (for 1978–1997); 576 and 1924 mm in Morretes (for 1966–1997), and 787 and 2033 in Paranagua (for 1931–1988). The greatest direct ´ evaporation occurs in the warmest months, from November through March and is lower in winter months. The lowest E/Rm ratios (average monthly evaporation/precipitation) derived from historical data occur in summer months and increase 2.8–4.5 times in the winter (Fig. 3). The marked seasonal variation in rainfall results in a similar pattern in the flow of streams in the project’s area of influence. Rain intensity is one of several factors determining flow variability, which also depends on interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, percolation, and storage in the drainage area upstream of the measuring point.

Climate
The climate in Parana’s coastal region is classi´ fied as Cfa (in Koppen’s classification), or me¨ sothermic subtropical humid. The average annual temperature is between 20.8 and 22 1C, and the average annual rainfall is 2545 mm. Average temperature is above 22 1C in the hottest month. Marked seasonal variation in rainfall is a regional characteristic. Data collected by SIMEPAR (Meteorological Agency of Parana State) for 19 years in the ´ municipality of Antonina indicate a concentration

Conservation of biodiversity
The Atlantic Forest is recognised as one of the top five priority areas on the planet with regard to

Figure 2. Average monthly precipitation for Antonina from 1980 to 1999.

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4 A.R. Ferretti, R.M. de Britez Initial fieldwork unearthed more than 68 archaeological sites with the possibility of many more to be found. More than 30 experiments and studies, already finished or still in execution, are resulting in a better comprehension of the area’s biological diversity and ecology and are contributing significantly to the enrichment of information on the biome. These studies are performed in partnership with several public and private research institutions and allow the education of students through traineeships, field classes and workshops. In order to reach the conservation goals it is necessary that these areas are handled following technical criteria planned as a result of several socio-environmental diagnoses. The Geographical Information System (GIS) is one of the tools used in the planning regime. The cartographic basis was built from sources originating from remote sensing, such as orthophotos and satellite images and includes maps of geological and environmental vulnerability, soils, vegetation, etc., which contribute to the management, research and restoration activities. A network of approximately 400 km of trails has been mapped and field marked. These trails are used for vigilance, environmental education, research and management. Around 65 workers from the region have been employed and were divided over the following teams: vigilance (these individuals receive park ranger training), maintenance, restoration, handling of buffaloes and administration. This quantity of employees is more than twice the number of workers that lived in the areas before SPVS acquired them. Thus, the SPVS projects represent a significant gain for the region in terms of potential employment. Aiming at interaction between the communities located around the protected areas, development strategies compatible with environmental conservation are implemented. These strategies, based upon the principle that the social, human and economic welfare of the communities must be improved, include the promotion of association and human growth capacity through empowerment activities and the development of income alternatives. One of the methods used to achieve this is the development of agro-forestry systems, so far mainly involving banana and palm heart (Euterpe edulis) and the keeping of native stingless bees (Meliponinae). The focus is upon technical preparation for the production, transformation of the product and its certification. This should result in better prices for the products and environmental improvement of the region. The latter criterion includes a decrease of pesticide use and burnings and of forest destruction for banana plantation. It

Figure 3. Monthly Evaporation/Precipitation Ratio for Antonina from 1986 to 1999. According to data by Mantovanelli (1999), in the rainiest months (January– March), average evaporation represents 10–40% of average rainfall, while in the driest months it accounts for 60–150% of average rainfall. Thus, the relative importance of evaporation in reducing surface outflow is higher in the drier months.

conservation of biological diversity: less than 7% of its original forest cover is still intact. This area’s high biodiversity is a reflection of the wide range of environments present along the Brazilian coast as a result of climatic and geological differences and influences of the sea. The coast of Parana has one of the most ´ representative remnants of the Atlantic Forest. It encloses a mosaic of environments varying from areas in direct contact with the sea to mountains over 1000 m high. The differences between the vegetation types and plant communities are basically related to physical factors such as geological and pedological composition and terrain altitude and topography. As a consequence of this variation the Dense Ombrophilous Forest (Veloso, Rangel Filho, & Lima, 1991) can be divided in four subformations (Lowland, Alluvial, Sub-montane and Montane forest) that present distinct floral and structural characteristics. Two pioneer formation types (restingas and mangroves) are limited to unstable substrates under direct influence of sea and river waters. This wealth of environments and their characteristics have been mapped with regard to certain physical and biological aspects. The historical dynamics of land use were also evaluated. So far, about 1000 plant species have been recorded at the project site. Preliminary fauna surveys revealed the occurrence of new species for science, as well as species considered vulnerable or threatened by extinction (15 species of fish, 5 amphibians, 2 reptiles, 18 birds and 18 mammals). Preliminary research demonstrated the presence in these areas of more than 400 bird species, 31 amphibians, 30 reptiles (15 additional species expected to occur), 52 mammals and 61 fish.

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Ecological restoration in the Atlantic Rain Forest also includes the adoption of biological control, the recovery of areas of permanent preservation, the collecting and sorting of garbage, and some other facets. An Environmental Education Centre was built where project activities are presented and activities for environmental educational, training and other events are developed. The Centre receives visitors from the surrounding communities and from local schools. 5 absorbed by growing vegetation and stored in wood, other biomass and soil organic matter, is highest in young forests and will tend to reduce as forests reach maturity (The Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Management (ECCM), 2002). Brazil was the first country to sign the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on 4 June 1992 and the Brazilian National Congress ratified it on 28 February 1994. The Convention entered into force for Brazil on 29 May 1994, 90 days after its ratification by the National Congress. In the Third Conference of the Parties (COP3), held in Kyoto, Japan, in 1997, the Kyoto Protocol was adopted. In this Protocol, the developed countries accepted differentiated emissions limitations or reduction commitments between 2008 and 2012 (representing, for the developed countries as a whole, a reduction of at least 5% in relation to the combined emissions of greenhouse gases in 1990). The economic effort needed to comply with the goals established in the Protocol is perceived by some as resulting in significant costs to the economies of each industrialised country. As a result, three mechanisms were established to help developed countries comply with their greenhouse gas emission reductions or limitation targets. One of these mechanisms, defined as the CDM, emerged from a proposal originally presented by Brazil in the work of preparing for Kyoto, and involves both developed and developing countries. Its implementation is of particular interest to Brazil, because it will allow the transference of resources and technologies for the reduction of the country’s greenhouse gas emissions (UNIDO, 2003). UNFCCC in its Article 4(d) – ‘‘Commitments’’ – decides that all Parties shall ‘‘promote sustainable management, and promote and co-operate in the conservation and enhancement, as appropriate, of sinks and reservoirs (y) including biomass, forests and oceans as well as other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems’’. In consequence, the Kyoto Protocol – adopted in 1997 by the Conference of the Parties at its third session – included various references to sinks, most notably in its Articles 3.3 and 3.4. However, sinks have always been ‘‘a bone of contention’’ not only in terms of what sinks could be used to offset greenhouse gas emissions of other sources (existing forests, new forests, agriculture, etc.), but also to what extent they could be used (in relation to targets and caps), and how they could be used (under which rules, modalities and guidelines). For example, rules, modalities and guidelines for the use of sinks under the CDM have

Carbon sequestration
The world’s climate has always shown a natural variation. Scientists believe, however, that a new kind of climate change is under way and its impacts on people and ecosystems are to be drastic. Levels of carbon dioxide and other ‘greenhouse gases’ in the atmosphere have risen steeply since the industrial revolution. Concentrations have increased mainly because of the use of fossil fuels, deforestation and other human activities, spurred on by economic and population growth. Like a blanket around the planet, greenhouse gases stop energy escaping from the Earth’s surface and atmosphere. If levels rise too high, excessive warming can distort natural patterns of climate (UNFCCC, 2003). The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) confirmed in its Third Assessment Report that there was ‘‘new and stronger evidence that most of the warming observed over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities’’. Although uncertainties in the process of projecting future trends create wide margins for error in the estimates, the IPCC predicted a rise of 1.4–5.8 1C in global mean surface temperatures over the next 100 years. The impact of warming, even at the lower end of this range is likely to be dramatic. The impacts on humans will be unavoidable and – in places – extreme (UNFCCC, 2003). Carbon dioxide is absorbed from the atmosphere by growing trees and other vegetation through the process of photosynthesis. Using the energy of sunlight, plants produce carbohydrates from CO2 and water. However, as well as absorbing CO2 through photosynthesis, CO2 is also emitted by forests through plant respiration and through the processes of death and decay. The net balance of CO2 uptake and release will determine whether an ecosystem is acting as a sink or source of carbon. Carbon sequestration, where carbon from the atmosphere is

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6 only recently been adopted at COP9 in December 2003 in Milan, Italy (Trines, 2004). There are ample reasons why sinks are so controversial, two of which will be mentioned here. The first one is permanence or rather the ‘‘non-permanence’’ of carbon sequestration. Endless debates have been going on related to the usefulness of the temporary storage of carbon in biomass and wood products. But it is clear that any regime that includes sinks must be able to deal with the non-permanence issue. In the currently adopted COP decisions, an adequate format and politically acceptable solution has been laid out to deal with the accounting of non-permanent emission reductions: the temporary Certified Emission Reduction (Trines, 2004). The second reason for controversy over sinks is more complicated and relates to the role of sinks in the terrestrial biosphere in the context of the global carbon budget. To put it plainly: science does not know exactly how much carbon is located where in the terrestrial biosphere component of the global carbon cycle. Despite the fact that emissions from land-use change (principally deforestation in the tropics) were 1.7 Gt carbon (+0.8 Gt C yrÀ1) in the period 1980–1989, the total global carbon uptake in terrestrial ecosystems led to a sink over that same period of time. This was due to land-use practices and natural regrowth in middle and high latitudes, the indirect effects of human activities (e.g. atmospheric CO2 fertilisation and nutrient deposition), and changing climate (both natural and anthropogenic), but it is unknown how much is due to which aspect of that list. In other words: science cannot determine hitherto what proportion of biomass growth is resulting from natural processes and which ones from humaninduced influences. Crediting existing forests in particular involves a high degree of uncertainty in this context (Trines, 2004). One of the most important aspects in the implementation of carbon sequestration projects, whether they are forest carbon sequestration or other types of changes in the use of the land, is the capacity to quantify, with a high degree of precision, the quantity of carbon existing in the area and whether it is going to be captured by the forest restoration process. The methods must be well-known and must also have been tested in various forest projects and other uses of the land. The MacDicken (1997) and Brown, Calmon, and Delaney (1999) approach was adopted in the SPVS projects. The measuring was carried out prior to the beginning of the projects, evaluating the stock of carbon in the area, thus defining the base line. The amount of emissions avoided in case the A.R. Ferretti, R.M. de Britez vegetation had been destroyed is estimated in the different existing environments and in the capture of carbon in the restoration areas and in the increment of biomass during the secondary succession of different vegetation typologies. With a view to evaluating the avoided deforestation and the capture of carbon in the forests, 364 permanent monitoring parcels were installed in 12,278 ha of forests, for the quantifying of stock and carbon increment. Besides the biomass data gathered for the forests, the species included in the samples were identified, aiming at relating the biomass and the diversity of the tropical forests. For the carbon inventory a stratified sampling was used, which helped to make the estimates more precise and cost-effective. The preliminary average carbon stock estimated for the six forest strata measured were: 135.9 t C haÀ1 for the submontane forest; 106.8 t C haÀ1 for the lowland forest; 64.12 t C haÀ1 for the floodplain forest; 106.1 t C haÀ1 for the advanced/ medium forest; 101.96 t C haÀ1 for the medium secondary forest; 42.89 t C haÀ1 for the young secondary forest. The above ground carbon for the pasture strata was 2.4 t C haÀ1 and for the shrubbery 7.4 t C haÀ1 (Tiepolo, Calmon, & Ferretti, 2002). In the same way, in the old buffalo grazing areas, now under restoration, monitoring parcels, which besides quantifying the increment of biomass, evaluate the increment of the vegetation diversity of the succession processes of the areas, are being installed.

Ecological restoration
The region’s most degraded rainforest environments are the river plains and the mountain feet. Through history people have more intensively used such areas, since the flatness of the terrain made land-use easier and the presence of rivers made them more accessible. Nowadays these lands are used for agriculture and for the raising of water buffaloes. Their soils come from the adjacent slopes or from river deposits. Because of the flatness and an altitude near sea level extensive parts accumulate water and are flooded for most of the year (Fig. 4). A restoration programme was set up for the region, based upon five years of local experience with restoration work. The programme aims to restore 1500 ha of buffalo grazing areas. This should generate a restoration model that can be replicated and/or adapted to other degraded areas in similar rainforest environments.

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Ecological restoration in the Atlantic Rain Forest 7 Cecropia pachystachya Trecul (Cecropiaceae), Ca´ lophyllum brasiliense Camb. (Clusiaceae), Alchornea glandulosa Poepp. (Euphorbiaceae), Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Mull.Arg. (Euphorbiaceae), ¨ Hyeronima alchorneoides Allemao (Euphorbia˜ ceae), Sapium glandulatum (Vell.) Pax (Euphorbiaceae), Andira anthelmia (Vell.) J.F. Macbr. (Fabaceae), Erytrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae), Machaerium brasiliense Vogel (Fabaceae), Pterocarpus violaceus Vogel (Fabaceae), Casearia sylvestris Sw. (Flacourtiaceae), Talauma ovata A. St.-Hil. (Magnoliaceae), Miconia cinnamomifolia (DC.) Naud. (Melastomataceae), Miconia dodecandra Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Tibouchina pulchra (Cham.) Cogn. (Melastomataceae), Cabralea canjerana (Vell.) Mart. (Meliaceae), Cedrella fissilis Vell. (Meliaceae), Inga affinis DC. (Mimosaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Mimosaceae), Inga marginata Willd (Mimosaceae), Inga sessilis (Vell.) Mart. (Mimosaceae), Mimosa bimucronata (DC.) Kuntze (Mimosaceae), Myrsine coriacea (Sw.) R. Br. ex Roem. & Schult. (Myrsinaceae), Campomanesia xanthocarpa Berg (Myrtaceae), Psidium cattleianum Sabine (Myrtaceae), Virola bicuhyba Schott (Mirysticaceae), Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl (Solanaceae), Trema micrantha (L.) Blume (Ulmaceae), Cytharexylum myrianthum Cham. (Verbenaceae). Circa 90% of the production in the nurseries is done in 50 cm3 polypropylene tubes. Plastic trays that can hold 96 seedlings are used to support these tubes. In the system of use the seedlings are taken to the planting site when they have reached a height of 20–30 cm. This stage is reached in 3–4 months of development. A small part of the nursery production uses larger tubes, of 250 cm3, laid in metal trays that can hold 536 seedlings. The larger tubes are used for the direct sowing of species with larger seeds. They also allow the production of taller seedlings (30–50 cm high). Two different sowing techniques are used in winter: sowing in beds for the majority of species, and direct sowing in tubes for species with large seeds and high and regular germination rate (e.g. S. parahyba and C. myrianthum). The seedlings produced in the sowing beds are transplanted to tubes after having emitted their first pair of definitive leaves. The SPVS reserves are situated in Brazil’s largest remainder of Coastal Atlantic Forest. Although this area has been occupied for more than 400 years – it is Parana State’s oldest area of colonisation – it still ´ has the largest cover of native vegetation of the entire state. Areas of primary forest are few and occur mainly on the mountain slopes. The plains are mainly used for farming activities, such as the

Figure 4. Flat land under restoration (Antonina, State of Parana, Brazil). ´

Species are chosen according to their natural occurrence, soil preferences, succession stage and coverage. Such information is obtained through the analysis of data from permanent plots established in different succession stages of each vegetation type found in the reserve. Promising species occurring in abundance in forest formations in initial and medium stages of succession are tested. The survival and growth rates of the selected species and the easiness to produce their seedlings in plant nurseries and their development in the field is also taken into consideration. All these data are obtained from experiments carried out by SPVS since 1997. It should be emphasised that the speed of growth of the species in the field is of utmost importance. The reason being that maintenance is abandoned between the first and the second year (according to environmental characteristics of the place concerned), a period in which the fast-growing tree species have reached a height of more than 2 m and no longer suffer from the competition by grasses. SPVS has two plant nurseries for the production of native trees, with an annual production capacity of approximately 300,000 seedlings. Seedlings of more than 40 trees are produced at these nurseries. The principal species are: Annona glabra L. (Annonaceae), Euterpe edulis Mart. (Arecaceae), Jacaranda puberula Cham. (Bignoniaceae), Tabebuia cassinoides DC. (Bignoniaceae), Tabebuia umbellata (Sond.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae), Pseudobombax grandiflorum (Bombacaceae), Cordia sellowiana Cham. (Boraginaceae), Bauhinia forficata Link (Caesalpiniaceae), Schizolobium parahyba Blake (Caesalpiniaceae), Senna multijuga (Rich.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby (Caesalpiniaceae), Jacaratia spinosa (Aubl.) A. DC. (Caricaceae),

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8 growing of banana, rice, ginger and vegetables, as well as the raising of Asian water buffaloes. The degraded areas are concentrated along the few existing roads and close to navigable rivers. In this context the SPVS works with restoration models based on the use of ‘facilitating land’ with centres of diversity situated between ‘islands’ of pioneer plants and in the process of natural regeneration (Ferretti, 2002). The planted land is not fertilised, except in certain conditions on highly degraded land. There, buffalo excrement is added to the soil around seedlings. A total of 1500 ha of mainly abandoned areas is being restored. Protected against human intervention are those areas that are less degraded and not very extensive and still have a seed bank in the soil, or that are close to fragments that can supply this bank through seed rain. Thus, some of these areas have become spontaneously colonised by pioneer species. Periodically the natural regeneration is monitored to evaluate if the area must be ‘enriched’. The most degraded areas intensely occupied by exotic grasses are being restored through the planting of seedlings. These parts correspond with 30% of the total area in restoration. The restoration activities began with a spatial evaluation of the area. For setting up the cartographic base orthophotos (scale 1:5000) and a plain-altimetrical map (scale 1:25,000) of vegetation and soils were used. Areas for mechanical planting, for direct manual planting, for using stakes, and for natural regeneration were selected in the field (Fig. 5). In a period of five years more than 500,000 seedlings were planted on ca. 300 ha of land. The three projects aim to plant 300,000 additional seedlings in the next three years. The areas where machines can be used are defined and delimited on the orthophotos. This depends upon how accessible by tractor the area to be planted is (the presence of roads and bridges). At very steep places operational difficulties exist for the use of machines. Susceptibility to erosion, existence of natural regeneration, soil humidity and infestation with exotic Brachiaria mutica are also taken into consideration. This grass penetrates the machines attached to the tractor and manages to impede their functioning. Mechanical planting is the most commonly used method, as it permits intervention in a larger area, allows mechanical planting as well as maintenance, and reduces costs. An additional advantage is that as a result of more crumbled soil it promotes a better development of the seedlings and of natural regeneration through the establishment of a larger number of tree species and individuals springing from natural regeneration. A.R. Ferretti, R.M. de Britez

Figure 5. (a) Area of mechanical soil preparation, and the planting of seedlings from tubes; (b) area of manual soil preparation, and the planting of bigger seedlings from plastic bags and (c) planting of stakes in the wetlands.

Planting is carried out in lines with 2.5 m of space between the lines and 1.6 m between the plants, thus enabling the tractor to drive between the lines during the mowing. Three procedures are adopted in these areas: mowing (when necessary), weeding the undergrowth and use of the rotary blade. The

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Ecological restoration in the Atlantic Rain Forest small seedlings produced in tubes are planted manually. Tube-produced seedlings are generally taken out of their recipient when brought to the field and wrapped in a plastic strip. Thus they may be stored for a week, provided that they are frequently wetted and kept in the shade (Fig. 6). The average productivity of the clearing, of the work with the cultivator and the rotary blade is, respectively, 0.37, 0.60 and 0.4 ha/h. The average productivity in the planting activities is 56 seedlings per man-hour. Manual planting is carried out in areas that do not permit mechanical methods. In particular, these are the steeper slopes and the wetter plots infested with Brachiaria species. Manual planting is carried out where the use of mechanical methods is impossible. At such places larger seedlings 1 m high on average and produced in plastic bags (18 Â 30 cm) are used. The latter method has the advantage of being the most efficient manner to combat B. mutica and B. humidicula; bigger seedlings are able to surpass the height of these grasses and overshadow them, thus impeding their development. Later on they also reduce the efforts needed for maintenance. Planting is carried out in lines with 2.0 or 3.0 m of space between the lines and 1.5 or 2.0 m between the plants. The average productivity through manual planting is 19 seedlings planted per man-hour. Planting is done directly with stakes in soils that remain humid or soggy for most of the year. This environment is invaded by B. mutica and the stakes are able to outgrow this grass. For this method only a few species are used, all having in common a vegetative reproduction capacity through pieces of stems and branches. Stakes of ca. 1 m length are used in order to surpass the dense grass cover. Initially the following species are being tested: Tabebuia cassinoides DC. (Bignoniaceae), Acnistus arborescens (L.) Schltdl (Solanaceae), Erytrina speciosa Andrews (Fabaceae), Myrcia insularis Gardner (Myrtaceae), Alchornea glandulosa Poepp. (Euphorbiaceae) and Tabebuia umbellata (Sond.) Sandwith (Bignoniaceae). Two of these species are presenting good results (T. cassinoides and E. speciosa) and show that this method can be efficient but requires much care in the selection of species, preparation of stakes, and planting. The stake should be planted immediately after having been cut (Ferretti & Britez, 2005). Maintenance is one of the most important processes within the restoration practise and is influenced by seasonal climatic conditions. With the increase of rainfall and temperatures during summer a more intense growth of plants competing with the seedlings takes place. So in that period the 9

Figure 6. (a) Use of the cultivator in the preparation of the soil; (b) use of the rotary blade; and (c) transport of the seedlings to the field.

maintenance activities are intensified. Grass is mown between the planting lines using a tractor in areas where the soil was mechanically prepared. Around the seedlings mulching is done manually by adding dead material resulting from the mowing. Depending on the planting site such activities are

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10 repeated two or three times, until the seedlings reach a height of 2 m. In manual planting the maintenance is carried out through a manual crowning of the seedlings. The average productivity of planting through stakes is 43 stakes planted per man-hour. The data related to the restoration activities, such as the production of seedlings, planting, cultivation methods and monitoring are stored in a GIS, which allows for constant analysis of the restoration programme. The database gathers all the information related to the planting, such as soil type, data of planting, spacing, area planted per used technique, number of planted individuals, plant species, death rate and cultivation methods (mowing, fertilising, crowning). The system generates information about the gain and expenses of all activities carried out. Through the information stored in the system a constant updating and reporting is made possible, whether spatially through images or through numerically processed stored data. Photographic monitoring is another form of evaluation used. Geo-referenced points were fixed at well-visible places in areas that must be restored. Digital photographs are taken there each year. These data provide the GIS a view upon the evolution of the vegetation cover of areas under restoration. These data provide complement the GIS by showing the evolution of the vegetation cover of areas under restoration. A.R. Ferretti, R.M. de Britez other NGOs, and institutions for research and rural extension. The objective is to spread the work and search for new partners, so that this experience can be replicated and improved.

Acknowledgement
We thank American Electric Power, General Motors, ChevronTexaco for supporting the project, and also The Nature Conservancy for the partnership. This work could not be done without the help and the assistance of Carlinhos, Paulo, Nersio, Amantino, Lourival, Reginaldo, Reinaldo, Luı Car´s los, Antonio, Flavio, Marcos, and many others that ´ spent several days in the field, and also Eros Amaral, Marı ´lia Borgo, Denilson, Igor, Ricardo Wodzinski, Claudio, Alceu Fernandes, Clovis ´ ´ Borges, Sueli Ota, Andre de Meijer, Gilberto ´ Tiepolo, Miguel Calmon, Paulo Galvao and many ˜ others that shared with us the beauties of the Atlantic Rain Forest.

References
Brown, S., Calmon, M., & Delaney, M. (1999). Carbon inventory and monitoring plan for the Guaraquecaba Climate Action Project, Brazil, Winrock International, Arlington, USA. Consorcio Mata Atlantica. (1992). Reserva da Biosfera da ´ ˆ Mata Atlantica: Plano de acao, Vol. I: Referencias ˆ ˆ -˜ basicas (101pp.). Campinas, Brazil: Consorcio Mata ´ ´ Atlantica, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. ˆ Dixon, J. R. (1979). Origin and distribution of reptiles in lowland tropical rainforests of South America. In W. E. Duelmann (Ed.), The South American herpetofauna: Its origin, evolution and dispersal (Museum of Natural History Monograph, vol. 7) (pp. 217–240). Kansas, USA: University of Kansas Press. The Edinburgh Centre for Carbon Management (ECCM). (2002). Carbon sinks in the Amazon – The evidence (ECCM technical note, October 2002), ECCM, Edinburgh, UK. Ferretti, A. R. (2002). Modelos de plantio para a restaurac˜o. In A.P.M. Galvao & A.C. de S. Medeiros ˜ -a (Eds.), A restaurac˜o da Mata Atlantica em areas ˆ ´ -a de sua primitiva ocorrencia natural (pp. 35–43). ˆ Colombo, Brazil: Embrapa Florestas. Ferretti, A. R., & Britez, R. M. (2005). A restaurac˜o da -a Floresta Atlantica no litoral do estado do Parana: os ˆ ´ trabalhos da SPVS. In A. P. M. Galvao & V. Porfı ˜ ´rio-daSilva (Eds.), Restauracao florestal: fundamentos e -˜ estudos de caso (pp. 87–102). Colombo, Brazil: Embrapa Florestas. Haffer, J. (1974). Avian speciation in tropical South America: With a systematic survey of the toucans (Ramphastidae) and jacamars (Galbulidae) (14pp.). Nuttall Ornithological Club.

Conclusion
The largest impediments for the restoration of Atlantic Forest have been the high costs, the lack of financial encouragement and mechanisms, and the non-existence of machines and implements developed for, or adapted to, the soil preparation and the planting of seedlings and maintenance of the plantings. An additional problem has been the scantiness of technical information about the production and planting of seedlings of native species from this biome. The projects developed by the SPVS exemplify that a financial mechanism like the CDM of the Kyoto Protocol can stimulate the ecological restoration of tropical forests. Thus, they can generate benefits for the global climate and biodiversity and for the communities that work in these projects. SPVS has adapted and developed machines, implements and techniques for the restoration of one of the most threatened biomes of Brazil and of the entire world. This experience has been spread in congresses, meetings and lectures, papers and field visits for landowners,

ARTICLE IN PRESS
Ecological restoration in the Atlantic Rain Forest
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