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Physics is the scientific study of matter and energy and how they interact with each other.

This energy can take the form of motion, light, electricity, radiation, gravity . . . just about anything, honestly. Physics deals with matter on scales ranging from sub-atomic particles (i.e. the particles that make up the atom and the particles that make up those particles) to stars and even entire galaxies. Branches of physics Astrophysics A branch of astronomy concerned with the study of the physical and chemical properties of material objects and energy sources situated outside the boundaries of the earth's atmosphere. Atomic and Molecular Physics The study of the properties of matter at the atomic or molecular scale. The study of the structure of atoms and molecules and the forces that act between positive nuclei and the negative electrons in orbits around nuclei or the interaction of electrons from one atom with those from another. Biophysics This branch studies the physics of living organisms. It is sometimes considered to be an overlap of biology and physics. Biophysics and medicine go hand in hand, as this study plays a big part in the development of life-saving machines and artificial limbs. It also has broader uses in engineering; everything from cars to sneakers is influenced by our understanding of biophysics. Classical Electrodynamics This field is the most broadly applied of all the branches of physics. Classical electrodynamics is based on Maxwell's laws of electromagnetism, which describes all kinds of electromagnetic phenomena from atomic to global scales. It is the theoretical basis of optics, telecommunication and many other sub-fields. Its domain extends over all of nature, as the 'Electromagnetic Force' is all pervading and we live in an electromagnetic world. Condensed Matter Physics Condensed Matter Physics is a sub-branch of quantum physics and statistical mechanics, which describes all phenomena that occur in matter, which is in condensed form. This includes everything from liquids, solid and gases. The physics of semiconductor devices, which make today's age of information technology possible, is a result of research developments in condensed matter physics. It describes all phenomena in bulk matter like ferromagnetism, super fluidity and superconductivity. Chemical Physics This is the branch of physics involves using the principles and theories of physics to study chemical processes. It is very similar to physical chemistry and has significant overlap with it. The development of batteries, fuels, medicines and building materials all result from the work people do in chemical physics. Cosmology A branch of astronomy focused on the study of the origin, structure, and evolution in space and time of the physical universe. Dynamics A chapter of mechanics dealing with the behavior of material objects under the action of external forces. Electricity The study of the behavior of electric charges and the fields they create in their surrounding space. Electrodynamics The study of the relations between electrical, magnetic, and mechanical phenomena. The study of the interactions between electric currents and magnetic fields created by other electric currents. Field Theory A classical or quantum mechanical theoretical study of fields, based on the knowledge of the field equations, or of the commutation rules satisfied by the field operators. Fluid Mechanics The study of the properties and behavior of matter in fluid (gas or liquid) state. Geophysics The physics of the earth and its environment, including the physics of fields such as meteorology, oceanography, and seismology. Hydrostatics / Hydrodynamics The study of the mechanical behavior of fluids and of solid bodies immersed in fluids, which are in static equilibrium or in motion relative to them.

Magnetism The study of magnetic properties of matter and the fields created in the surrounding space. Mechanics The study of the behavior of physical systems in terms of their position in space, under the action of external forces which may be equal of different from zero. Mathematical Physics This is the branch of physics, which gives theoretical physics its tools of analysis. Mathematics is the language of nature and therefore if one wants to understand nature, one must understand mathematics. Mathematics brings precision to physics. It is the branch which is an overlap of pure mathematics and physics. Mathematical physics techniques form the toolbox of a physicist. Just like a workman must use the right kind of tools to get his job done, so must a physicist use the right mathematical tools to solve a problem! The more and more deeply we explore nature, every new law discovered can only be expressed in a new form of mathematics. Molecular Physics Not to be confused with Atomic Physics, molecular physics deals with entire molecules and the atoms that form them. By learning how to manipulate the elements, we can create new types of substances, ranging from durable metals to plastics and gels, that get used in many different industries. Nuclear Physics The study of the properties of atomic nuclei. The study of the structure of atomic nuclei and the forces responsible for the stability or the disintegration of atomic nuclei. Non-Linear Dynamics This is a sub-field of classical mechanics, which solves the problems on macroscopic scales, which cannot be solved by classical mechanics. It is an advanced branch of mathematics, which attempts to solve non-linear differential equations of motion, which are not amenable to a solution by conventional techniques. A greater part of it is also known as 'Chaos Theory', which delves in to the organized chaos that exists in the macroscopic world. It is the most happening branch of physics currently. For more on this read, 'An Introduction to Chaos Theory'. Optical Physics This is the branch of physics concerned with the properties and behavior of light. It has applications in mechanics and computer engineering, as well as the use of lasers. Optics The study of light and vision. The study of the phenomena associated with generation, transmission and detection of electromagnetic radiation, from the short wave length edge of radio waves (1 mm) to the long wave length edge of Xray (1 nm). The study of waves associated with particles, i.e. electron optics, neutron optics, etc. Particle Physics The study of the structure, properties and interactions of elementary particles. Planetary Physics The study of the origin, structure, and evolution of planets and planetary systems.. Plasma Physics The study of the structure and properties of materials in plasma phase. Quantum Electrodynamics A quantum theory of electromagnetic radiation. A quantum theory of the interaction of radiation with electrically charged particles, in particular with atoms and their constituent electrons. Quantum Mechanics A theory of matter based on the idea that material particles may be described as waves, and waves may be described as particles. Solid State Physics The study of the structure and properties of materials in solid phase. Space Physics The study of planetary and interplanetary magnetized plasmas. The study of the energy flow from the sun through the solar wind and into terrestrial and planetary magnetospheres, both induced and intrinsic, and how this energy is dissipated within these magnetospheres. Statics A chapter of mechanics dealing with the equilibrium of external forces acting on material objects. Statistical Mechanics The branch of physics that makes theoretical predictions about the behavior of macroscopic systems on the basis of

statistical laws governing its component particles . Surface Physics The study of the structure of solid surfaces. The study of physical and chemical processes occurring at the interface between solid objects and the gas or liquid environments surrounding them. Thermodynamics This is the branch of physics that studies heat and its relationship with other forms of energy. Like molecular physics, there are thousands of applications for this research, ranging from manufacturing to new forms of energy.

Filipino physicist
Alcaraz, Arturo: was a leading member of a team that used steam produced from the heat of a volcano to produce electric power in 1967. Banatao, Diosdado: introduced or developed accelerator chips that improved computer performance, helped make the internet possible by contributing to the development of the Ethernet controller chip, created the local bus concept for personal computers. Campos, Paulo: wrote many papers in the field of nuclear medicine and was instrumental in building the first radioisotope lab in the Philippines. Comiso, Josefino: the first person to discover a recurring area of open water in sea ice in the Cosmonaut Sea. Comiso was studying global warming at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. Maramba, Felix: developed a profitable biogas system, building a power generator fuelled by coconut oil. Zara, Gregorio: discovered around 1930 the law of electrical kinetic resistance ("Zara Effect"). In 1955 he patented a two-way videophone. In the 1950's and 1960's he developed or improved alternate energy technologies. Jose O. Juliano Nuclear chemistry and physics.

Foreign physicist
1.Archimedes(Greece) - Principle of buoyancy; principle of lever 2.Galileo Galilei ( Italy) - Law of inertia 3.Christian Huygens ( Holland) - Wave theory of light 4.Issac Newton(UK) - Universal law of gravitation; law of motion; Reflecting telescope 6.Michael Faraday (UK) - Law of electromagnetic induction 7.James Clerk Maxwell(UK) - Electro magnetic theory;Light-an electromagnetic wave 8.Heinrich Rudolf Hertz(Germany) - Generation of electromagnetic waves 9.J.C.Bose (India) - Ultra short radio waves 10.W.K.Roentgen(Germany) - X-rays 11.J.J.Thomson(U.K) - Electron 12.Marie Sklodowska Curie (Poland) - Discovery of radium & Polonium; studies on natural radio activity 13.Albert Einstein (Germany) - Explanation of photoelectric effect; Theory of relatvity 14.Victor Francis Hess(Austria) - Cosmic Radiation 15.R.A.Millikan(USA) Measurement of electornic charge 16.Ernest Rutherford (New Zealand) - Nuclear model of atom 17.Niels Bohr(Denmark) - Quantum model of hydrogen atom 18.C.V.Raman(India) - Inelastic scaterring of light by molecules 19.Louis Victor de Borglie (France) - Wave nature of matter 20.M.N.Saha (India) - Thermal Ionisation 21.S.N.Bose (India) - Quantum statistics 22.Enrico Fermi (ITaly) - Controlled nuclear fission 23.Werner Heinsberg(Germany) - Quantum mechanics; Uncertainity prinicple 24.Paul Dirac (UK) - Relativistic theory of electron; Quantum statistics 25.Edwin Hubble (USA) - Expanding universe 26.Ernest Orlando Lawerence (USA) - Cyclotron

27.James Chadwick(UK) - Neutron 28.Hideki Yukawa(Japan) - Theory of nuclear forces 29.Homi Jehangir Bhabha (India) - Cascade process of cosmic radiation 30.Lev Davidovich Landau (Russia) - Theory of condensed matter; Liquid helium 31.S.Chandrasekhar(India)-Chandrasekhar limit,structure & evolution of stars 32.John Bardeen (USA) - Transistors, Theory of super conductivity 33.C.H.Towens (USA) - Maser ; Laser 34.Abdus Salam (Pakistan) - Unification of weak & electro magnetic interactions

Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are enforced A principle is a law or rule that has to be, or usually is to be followed, or can be desirably followed, or is an inevitable consequence of something

Theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking. Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools, machines, techniques, crafts,systems, methods of organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a preexisting solution to a problem, achieve a goal or perform a specific function Measurement is the process or the result of determining the ratio of a physical quantity, such as a length, time, temperature etc., to a unit of measurement, such as the meter, second or degree Celsius. Fundamental quantities are such things as the kilogram ( a physical mass of metal), the Metre (now defined by reference to atomic oscillations) The quantity which has only direction. Derived quantities are produced using data from kernels. These are the primary reason that SPICE exists! energy (Ancient Greek: energeia "activity, operation" ) is an indirectly observed quantity that is often

understood as the ability of a physical system to do work on other physical systems. Since work is defined as aforce acting through a distance (a length of space), energy is always equivalent to the ability to exert pulls or pushes against the basic forces of nature, along a path of a certain length. Environmental biotechnology is when biotechnology is applied to and used to study the natural environment. Environmental biotechnology could also imply that one try to harness biological process for commercial uses and exploitation. The International Society for Environmental Biotechnology defines environmental biotechnology as "the development, use and regulation of biological systems for remediation of contaminated environments (land, air, water), and forenvironment-friendly processes (green manufacturing technologies and sustainable development)". Environmental biotechnology can simply be described as "the optimal use of nature, in the form ofplants, animals, bacteria, fungi and algae, to produce renewable energy, food and nutrients in asynergistic integrated cycle of profit making processes where the waste of each process becomes the feedstock for another process". The efforts are not only on to use biotechnology to protect the environment from pollutionbut also to use it to conserve the natural resources