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WHAT IS ASSOCIATION?
Association is a relation between conceptual identities.
These are relationships between objects, feelings and ideas. In psychology, memory appears to be structured as an associative network that serves the purpose of informing about relationships between different things.

ssociation
(classified under Principles of Teaching)

It is a simple reinforced connection between a stimulus and a desired response.
Previously-acquired knowledge, experiences, and the environment of the learner may serve as the stimulus which aids in providing a connection with the expected concept to be learned or the response. Association aids in making the process easier on the part of the learners because knowledge is digested or perceived easier when things are related or connected with one another, even though they are ideas of different interests.

It is a mental activity which begins with simple ideas that are compounded into complex ideas and succeeded by other ideas in the stream consciousness. - David Hume

EXAMPLES: In the pre-schooling stage, letters are associated with concrete words (A for apple, B for ball); as well as colours are associated with objects (red for an apple, blue for the sky).

UNDERLYING CONCEPTS
Classical Conditioning
In Pavlov’s famous experiment, he coincided feeding a dog, with the sounds of a bell. With this practice the dog was implicitly trained to expect food whenever it heard the sounds of a bell. After the training, the dog salivated in expectation of food when it heard the bell; it had formed an association between the ringing of the bell and the presentation of food. This is called associative learning.

Prepared by Mark Angelo A. Ordonio EDUC 122 - F, 1st sem ‘12-’13

A
UNDERLYING CONCEPTS

ssociation
(classified under Principles of Teaching)

Operant Conditioning
Operant conditioning is explicit associative learning: positive associations are formed when rewarded after completion of a task, and negative when punished after completion of a task. In essence praise will encourage an individual to keep doing a task, while punishment will provide discouragement. As with classical conditioning, the effect of the reward creates a positive association to the task itself: after training, the task will be viewed positively or negatively without need for punishment or praise.

Resemblance
Imagination runs easily from one idea to another that resembles it. It usually comes in similarity in appearance but as long as the senses are involved, resemblance can still be observed.

Cause and Effect
The mind also runs from the idea of cause to the idea of the effect of that cause. Familiar as the ‘domino effect,’ it is likely to associate a specific occurrence with another remote idea given that a series of causes and effects exists between the two.

Prepared by Mark Angelo A. Ordonio EDUC 122 - F, 1st sem ‘12-’13

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