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3 August 2012
Prepared for Jim Hanson, City Manager, City of Atlantic Beach and Matt Schellhorn, Captain, USN retired Community Planning and Liaison Officer, US Navy Jacksonville
Jonathan Lynn, MPA and G.G. Candler, PhD Director, UNF-MPA program
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Table of Contents
Executive summary Introduction History of NS Mayport Changing Dynamics at NS Mayport Impact on Local Communities Best Practices from Everett, WA & Watertown, NY Conclusion Works Cited 3 4 4 6 10 20 22 22
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A decade of economic fluctuation and uncertainty. The NS Mayport community and the City of Atlantic Beach (COAS) can expect a decade of economic fluctuation, with the current decommissioning of the frigate fleet, and some continued uncertainty about the arrival of the new Littoral Combat Ships, the 2013-4 arrival of an Amphibious Ready Group (ARG), and especially about the eventual (2020+) arrival of the CVN. Frigate decommissioning. In a process that began in 2006 and will end in 2015, NS Mayport will see all of its FFGs decommissioned. This will take the consumption demand of some 3000 sailors out of the local economy, and will result in an estimated contraction of the ship building industry of over $100m annually between 2011-13. Amphibious Ready Group. The 2013-4 arrival of an Amphibious Ready Group will bring 2000 additional sailors, who will help to lessen the severity of the impact of the loss of the frigates, adding $60m+ in consumer demand, and $75m in annual ship repair contracts. Bow wave. The construction which will precede the arrival of the CVN has been estimated at over $400 million, with an overall economic impact of close to $700 million. CVN. A CVN at Mayport would bring with it approximately 3,000 personnel, with comparable impacts on the local economy. Mayport Corridor redevelopment. The fluctuations brought about by the movements of Navy ships will provide an opportunity for COAB to influence change in this area. Housing demand. Especially with the delayed arrival of the CVN, the decommissionings will result in an at least medium term decrease in the Navy contribution to local housing demand. This should turn around from 2015. The 70% of NS Mayport survey respondents who live in civilian housing pay an average $1600 a month for housing costs. To the extent that COAB and Beaches communities develop more housing options in this price range, more Navy personnel will live in the area. Consumption demand. We estimate that the average sailor adds about $30,000 in nonhousing consumption demand to the local economy. Beaches residents spend far more in the Beaches cities than do others, and so again, Beaches communities can capture more of the benefits of this spending through decisions that encourage more sailors to live in the area. Traffic and crime. It is likely that new ships in Mayport will have little negative impact on crime and traffic. Both the professionalism and the discipline of the Navy have improved dramatically in recent decades, while both Wonderwood Drive and the redevelopment of Mayport Road have lessened traffic congestion. Local government services. The infrastructure and utilities of Atlantic Beach currently have excess capacity that is unlikely to be exceeded as a result of Navy deployments. Schools. Finnegan Elementary will face continued pressure until NS Mayport produces a student population to sustain it. The local middle and high school should be unaffected. Best practice elsewhere. The cities of Everett, Washington and Watertown, New York are good case studies for best practices of local government/ Navy relations. Both cities feature a proactive partnership between the public and private sector to engage their military bases and promote shared interests.
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This report was commissioned by the City of Atlantic Beach (COAB), Florida, to assess the impact of the planned 2019 deployment of a CVN to Naval Station Mayport (NS Mayport). As the community closest to NS Mayport, Atlantic Beach expects a heavy impact from these moves; specifically along the Mayport Road Corridor, which is the main artery to the base. The CVN impact has, though, been inextricably linked to other ship movements, and so the report has expanded to consider four related changes at NS Mayport: the decommissioning of the Guided Missile Frigates (FFG), the homeporting of additional ships, including an Amphibious Ready Group (ARG), additional destroyers, patrol craft and Littoral Combat Ships (LCS), the transfer of one nuclear aircraft carrier (CVN), now expected after 2020, and construction associated with the CVN. Beyond access to publicly available sources, data for this report was gathered through discussions with various individuals involved with some of the projected impacts of Navy deployments, and also on a survey, conducted by the authors, of 195 Navy personnel in the Jacksonville region.1 The overwhelming majority of respondents (184) were based at NS Mayport, or on Mayport ships.
History of Naval Station Mayport
As shown in Figure 2, on the following page, Naval Station Mayport is a deep-water port located on 3,400 acres on the south bank of the mouth of the St. Johns River, 16 miles east of downtown Jacksonville in Northeast Florida. NS Mayport is therefore bordered by the river to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east, the town of Atlantic Beach to the south, and the small village of Mayport to the west, which is part of the greater city of Jacksonville. Naval activity at the river mouth dates to the 1500s, but NS Mayport came about as a result of the 1938 Congressional authorization of the Hepburn Act, with its recommendation to establish a major naval installation at the mouth of the St. Johns River. Doing so transformed the area from a sleepy fishing and recreational village to a modern military community. The base would displace part of the village of Mayport, home to the resort community called Wonderwood-bythe-Sea; convert Ribault Bay from a haven for shrimpers and fishermen to a port for aircraft carriers and destroyers; and change the popular Seminole Beach into a restricted access military facility (Floyd 1994, p. 68; McGuinness 2010, pp. 131-48).
We used the Vovici online survey tool. The url to the website was emailed to sailors by the Navy, and the survey was open in February and March of 2012. The number and percentage of respondents by rank is shown in Table 1. The actual distribution of Navy ranks, according to the Defense Manpower Data Center (2012), is presented as well. Table 1 -- Rank distribution of survey respondents E1-E3 E4-E6 E7-E9 O1-O2 O3-O5 O6-O8 Missing Number 16 88 45 6 29 5 6 Percent 8.5 46.6 23.8 3.2 15.3 2.6 3.1 Actual 25.1 49.4 8.8 4.3 11.1 1.1 ---
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The base that emerged was constructed prior to and during the rapid mobilization of World War II, and has grown to become the third largest Fleet Concentration Area in the US. It features berths capable of accommodating 34 ships, ship repair facilities, helicopter units, and an 8,000foot runway that can handle any plane within the Department of Defense‟s inventory. Over the years, Mayport has been the homeport of many frigates, destroyers and cruisers, as well as aircraft carriers such as the USS Lake Champlain, USS Franklin D Roosevelt, the USS Saratoga and the USS John Fitzgerald Kennedy (Navy 1975). Figure 2 Naval Station Mayport and surrounding area
Source: Jacksonville University JROTC
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Over the past 50 years, the footprint of Naval Station Mayport has increased, a fact that has had a significant economic impact on the City of Atlantic Beach, the broader Beaches region (Mabry 2010, pp. 115-6) and the City of Jacksonville. Because of the pleasant climate and relatively affordable standard of living in the region, NS Mayport is widely recognized as a duty station of choice for Navy personnel. Beyond the direct economic impact of Navy spending, the City of Atlantic Beach benefits from this as many military retirees remain in the area and add their skills and income to the local economy. Local consensus is that the base is a valuable asset for the community (Schellhorn interview; Wyncoop 2010). A more recent, critical piece of the NS Mayport puzzle has been the desire of COAB to improve the Mayport Road Corridor, which refers to both the road and the surrounding neighborhoods and business community, and is the main artery to NS Mayport. This is shown as A1A on Figure 2, and runs from Atlantic Blvd to the main gate of the base, denoted by the star. The Road has six lanes separated by a median. Small and medium sized-businesses front the road on both sides and residential communities, parks and light industrial complexes occupy the land adjacent to it. Especially important, the Mayport Road Corridor is an area of mixed jurisdiction between the City of Atlantic Beach and the City of Jacksonville. As one turns north from Atlantic Boulevard onto Mayport Road, both sides of the road are initially part of Atlantic Beach. After about twenty blocks, at Dutton Island Road, one enters Jacksonville. This continues for less than a quarter of a mile, after which the west side of the road is part of Jacksonville, while the east side part of Atlantic Beach. Just short of the point where A1A splits northwest, both sides of the road are in Jacksonville again, a situation which continues until the base is reached. This mixed jurisdiction greatly complicates development planning in the area.
Changing Dynamics at NS Mayport
The high, somewhat stable degree of activity that the base has traditionally enjoyed has changed. In 2006 the USS JFK was decommissioned, leaving Mayport without an aircraft carrier. Additionally, the Navy has begun to decommission its fleet of FFGs and CGs, many of which are based at NS Mayport, creating a scenario where the number of NS Mayport ships will be reduced from 22 in 2006, to 12 by 2015. This ongoing process has had a dramatic effect on the area, transforming it from a relatively busy business corridor into what a local official termed, with perhaps a bit of over statement, a “ghost town” (Hatfield interview). As indicated, there are four large dynamics interacting over the next decade at NS Mayport and in the Mayport Road Corridor: the ship decommissionings, the arrival of the Amphibious Ready Group and other new ships, the CVN construction “bow wave”, and the arrival of the CVN. This section will summarize each of these events. It is also important to bear in mind that while many of the negative impacts on the NS Mayport community are occurring now (the ship decommissionings), the positive impacts have been less certain. The mid-June Amphibious Ready Group announcement firmed this up, but the decision on homeporting of the LCSs is presumably subject to revision, and no firm decision has been taken on the CVN. Helpfully, the Florida Times-Union (Brumley 2012) published a graphic summarizing the ebb and flow of
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these movements prior to the just announced decision by the Secretary of the Navy to move up the transfer of the Amphibious Ready Group. The data is presented in Table 3, below. Table 3 Mayport’s future tenants projected, before ARG announcement January 2012 Year 2006 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2018 2020 Ships 22 19 15 16 12 12 14 18 20 Personnel 6036 5017 4435 4063 2945 3946 4216 4756 5026 1 CV 11 FFG 8 FFG 6 FFG 3 FFG 6 DDG 6 DDG 6 DDG 6 DDG Ships by 13 FFG 4 DDG 4 DDG 5 DDG 7 DDG 3 PC 3 PC 3 PC 3 PC class
4 CG 4 DDG 4 CG 4 CG 3 CG 3 PC 3 PC 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 2 LCS 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 6 LCS 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 8 LCS
2 FFG 1 DDG 1 LSD 2 LCS 4 LCS Ships gained 1 LPH 1 LHD Source: Reformatted from Brumley 2012, with 2006 data added from NAVFAC 2008, p. 1.6.
1 CV 2 FFG
2 FFG 1 CG 3 PC 1 DDG
3 FFG 3CG 2DDG
The key number is the year 2014 personnel total (in bold): 2945 shipboard sailors on 12 ships. This is down over 2000 from the year 2011, and 3000 from as recently as 2006. With the June announcement of the earlier arrival of the ARG, the picture changes considerably, as shown in Table 4. Here, the bottom arrives a year later and, more important, at a much higher level of 3946 (again in bold) ship-based sailors. Table 4 Mayport’s future tenants projected, after ARG announcement June 2012 Year 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2018 2020 2020+ Ships 19 16 18 16 12 14 18 20 21 Personnel 5017 4435 4423 4787* 3946 4216 4756 5026 8000+ Ships by class 11 FFG 8 FFG 6 FFG 3 FFG 6 DDG 6 DDG 6 DDG 6 DDG 1 CVN?
4 DDG 4 CG 4 DDG 4 CG 5 DDG 3 CG 3 PC 1 LPD 7 DDG 3 PC 1 LPD 1 LHD 1 LSD 1 CG 2 DDG 1 LHD 1 LSD 3 PC 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 3 PC 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 4 LCS 3 PC 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 6 LCS 3 PC 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 8 LCS 6 DDG 3 PC 1 LSD 1 LPD 1 LHD 8 LCS
Ships lost Ships gained
2 FFG 1 CG 3 PC 1 DDG 1 LPD
2 FFG 1 DDG 2 LCS 4 LCS 2 LCS 1 CVN?
Source: Derived from Brumley 2012 Notes: * The personnel total for the year 2014 adds in the 1842 for the ARG indicated in NAVFAC 2008, p. 2.4.
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Note that during the period that this report was being prepared the interplay of these four dynamics has shifted dramatically. The FFG decommissionings began in 2006, and by way of more historical context, Navfac (2008, p. 1.6) reports a 2006 NS Mayport fleet of one conventional aircraft carrier, 13 frigates, four cruisers, and four destroyers. As indicated in Table 3, these contributed to over 6000 ship personnel in port. In a deeper historical context, even these 2006 numbers are well down on the recent peak year of 1987, when 37 ships, including two conventional carriers, were homeported at NS Mayport. Note, too, that this report was initially commissioned by the City of Atlantic Beach to look at the impacts of the 2019 arrival (already pushed back from the earlier announced date of 2014) of a new CVN, with a „Bow Wave‟ of pre-arrival construction preceding this. With the FFG decommissionings, the Beaches economy faced a substantial, economically debilitating gap, with the FFGs and CGs gone, and the CVN not expected for 5+ years. As shown in Table 3, Navy personnel at NS Mayport would have dropped to 2945 in January 2014. This would have destroyed much of the local ship repair industry, an increasingly critical component of a Navy base‟s operational readiness (Gibbons 2010; Mabus 2012). Even with the arrival of the CVN, the local industry would feature a much less stable economic environment, with no repair work being done when the CVN is at sea, drydocking beyond the capacity of the Mayport ship repair industry and so done elsewhere, and a large decrease in economic impact when 3000+ plus CVN sailors all deploy simultaneously. This would be much different from the more even impact of the current fleet of frigates, destroyers and cruisers. The 2019 projected arrival date of the CVN has since also been delayed by the Navy, citing federal revenue shortfalls (Causey and Gibbons 2012), with this followed by news that an Amphibious Ready Group would be transferred to NS Mayport. Changes have continued right up to the Friday, 15 June 2012 completion of a first final draft of this report, with a firmer, 2013 announcement regarding the beginning of the Amphibious Ready Group‟s arrival, including the identification of the ships (Navy News Service, 2012), and a tantalizing announcement that a November 2012 college basketball game would be played on a US Navy CVN at NS Mayport (Carlyon 2012), which might at least provide moral support for those looking for signs that the Navy still associates CVNs with NS Mayport. Decommissioning of existing ships The first of these changes is the decommissioning of much of NS Mayport‟s current fleet. For the past 50 years the ship repair industry has felt more secure because the base has retained a substantial fleet of homeported ships. The Department of Defense is in the process of decommissioning its aging fleet of frigates (FFGs) and replacing them with Littoral Combat Ships (LCSs). As indicated in Figure 3, the number of FFGs homeported at NS Mayport is expected to decline from eleven in 2011 to zero in 2015. Up until some months ago the local shipbuilding industry -- composed of three large companies (BAE, North Florida Shipyards and Earl Industries) and many medium and small companies -- faced decimation as a result. The ship-repair industry that serves the naval vessels home ported at Mayport is a highly specialized one. The required standards for naval ships exceed those for commercial vessels, which translates into high-paying jobs for specialized craftsmen such as pipefitters and welders. Navy ships are unique beyond the standard of work they require. These are sent on long deployments
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in a demanding saltwater environment. They require extensive repair work both before and after deployment. The ship-repair business is cyclical because some ships only get major repairs every three to five years. Typically, the exterior of the ship is sandblasted, cleaned and repainted while the components such as the electrical and power systems are repaired or upgraded. The ship-repair industry is heavily reliant on business from NS Mayport and in turn, supports much of the small business activity in the Mayport Corridor. While the expected arrival of a CVN after 2019 will be a major boost for the local economy, the repair work the CVN provides will not be enough to offset the work lost via the decommissionings, while the Jacksonville region will be unable to drydock the CVN. As well, with repair work on more, smaller ships this work was spread more evenly through the year. However maintaining the carrier will feature a boom/bust cycle, with no work to be done while the ship is at sea. Amphibious Ready Group and other new ships Despite all of this change and uncertainty, the recent announcement of the transfer of an Amphibious Ready Group to NS Mayport will help this situation considerably. Indeed, Navy Secretary Ray Mabus made a point of noting that “those three ships will take about $75 million a year to maintenance and repair — work that can be done here at the waterfront” (Browing 2012). The ARG includes three amphibious ships, which are some of the Navy‟s largest2, and will bring approximately 2,000 sailors. Also coming to Mayport are three new destroyers, eight Littoral Combat Ships (LCS) and three patrol craft. While the time-line of the others is not finalized, the ships are expected between 2013-2020 (Brumley, 2012). For the purposes of the current ship repair industry, even the addition of the LCSs will help the industry relatively little, as these newer, very different vessels will require much less repair work, at least in the medium term. There may be an opportunity here for the local ship repair industry, as if this is the naval warship of the future, the Mayport industry could get in on the ground floor. CVN Naval Station Mayport has enjoyed a long history, which includes the home porting of multiple aircraft carriers. This changed as of 2007 with the decommissioning of the USS John F Kennedy, and the base has been without a carrier since. This will change with the 2009 decision by the US Navy to home port a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier at NS Mayport. However, the current projection is that the CVN will not arrive at NS Mayport until after 2019.
For instance, of the ships in the process of decommissioning, the Navy‟s online Fact File (http://www.navy.mil/ ) lists crew sizes of 215 for the Perry class FFG, 276 for the Arleigh-Burke class DDG, and 364 for the Ticonderoga class CG. While there are fewer of the expected new arrivals, they have larger crews. On 15 June the Secretary of the Navy identified the three ships as the USS New York (LPD 21), USS Iwo Jima (LHD 7), and USS Fort McHenry (LSD 43). The Wasp class LHD has a crew of 1070, the San Antonio class LPD, and the Whidbey Island class LSD 413. The other projected arrivals are much smaller. The LCSs have core crews of under 100, while the patrol craft have crews of 30.
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When the CVN arrives, it will bring with it approximately 3,000 personnel and their dependents to the area, which will have a significant impact on the Mayport Corridor. It is highly likely that the air wing will come from Virginia, much like it did with the USS JFK. The impact from the CVN is comparable to that of conventionally-powered carriers like the JFK, as CVNs generally have the same crew-size as traditional carriers with the exception of the engineering department, which is smaller and more sophisticated. The rotation for a CVN entails roughly a six month deployment, one month post deployment, six months in which calls are maintained, followed by six months of training new personnel (Navfac 2008, p. 2.4.2; Schellhorn interview; O'Rourke 2011, p. 8). Bow Wave The “bow wave” refers to the construction activities that will precede the arrival of the CVN, and are necessary for its home porting. Before a nuclear-powered aircraft carrier can be home ported at Naval Station Mayport, specific infrastructure must be in place. That includes on-base construction of road infrastructure and additional parking structures, dredging (and dredged material disposal) of the basin in which the CVN will dock, the installation of Type III heavy weather moorings, improvements to Wharf F to provide berthing which includes upgrading shore power utility systems, and the construction of CVN nuclear propulsion plant facilities. These consist of three main components: the Controlled Industrial Facility, Ship Maintenance Facility and Maintenance Support Facility. To make space for these facilities, some ship repair facilities currently located on base will need to be relocated to the Mayport Road Corridor (Navfac 2008). Note that this „bow wave‟ effect of pre-deployment construction applies only to the CVN, not the amphibious ships, which can be treated by the existing facilities with less new infrastructure. The initial $400+ million in military construction projects associated with the bow wave will eventually have an impact of approximately $700 million and 7000+ jobs, for about four years prior to the arrival of the CVN. Prior to the recent delay in the arrival date for the CVN, these activities had begun at NS Mayport, and were to run concurrently with the decommissioning of naval ships at Mayport, leading to a period in which the construction sector of the Mayport economy was growing, while ship repair another was contracting (O'Rourke, 2011, p. 9). These activities have been delayed, however, given the uncertain arrival date of the CVN.
Impact on Local Communities
This section will summarize the impact of the decommissionings, the new deployments, the bow wave, and the arrival of the CVN on the local community. The summary will cover a 10 year time-span from the present until the CVN arrives. The Mayport Road Corridor (MRC) is an area of mixed jurisdiction between the City of Atlantic Beach and the City of Jacksonville. While both municipalities are responsible for services, it is the City of Atlantic Beach that carries the weight for improving the area, because it is a small city and the MRC is a relatively large part of it. This contrasts to the City of Jacksonville, which has a large land area of which the MRC only represents a small, outlying part. Strategically, the City of Jacksonville is concentrating its development energies toward Cecil Field, a former
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Naval Air Station to the west of Jacksonville, and its downtown business district, rather than Mayport. In this dynamic, if the conditions of the area are to improve, it will be the City of Atlantic Beach that will facilitate the process. The process of improving the area is difficult because many of the factors that drive the conditions of the Mayport Road Corridor are beyond the control of Atlantic Beach. Still, while the power of local governments has limits, there are ways the city can act on conditions it seeks to improve. The areas identified for improvement by the City of Atlantic Beach are housing quality, business quality, crime, and community engagement. Economic impact of Naval Personnel The economic impact of Navy personnel on the broader Jacksonville community is considerable. A COJ website, for instance, provides the following estimate of local 2008 defense spending. Table 5 Defense spending in Duval County for FY 2008 Type Total spending ($m) Procurement 794.7 Salaries 737.3 Pensions and transfers 860.4 Total 2,392.4
Source: COJ (undated)
Estimates for the annual economic impact in the broader seven county region are just over $3b (Harper, Pooley and Scheibe 2011, p. 43). In a region of about 1.4 million people, this represents about $2200 in direct economic impact per capita; and in a regional economy of about $60b (BEA 2010), this represents about 5% of gross regional product. For the non-economist, this means that about five cents of every dollar spent on the First Coast is derived from the Navy presence. The same source estimates that there are about 30,000 Navy personnel in Jacksonville, so a simple back-of-the-envelope indication of the direct economic impact of Navy personnel suggests that about $80,000 is pumped in to the local economy for each additional sailor stationed in Duval County. A 2006 estimate put the economic impact of NS Mayport at “approximately $1.8 billion annually, which includes payroll, goods and services purchased in the local community, and payments to the military retiree population” (Navfac 2008, p. 3.144). This is probably an underestimate, to the extent that it is based on an assumption that “the average annual wage for ships personnel is $20,000” (Navfac 2008, 4.122). Using military pay scales, we find the average base pay for the lowest enlisted ranks (E-1 to E-3) to be about $20,000, this is without Basic Allowance for Housing (BAH) or Basic Allowance for Subsistence (BAS), which adds well over $1000 a month in purchasing power to personnel living off base which, as we show below, includes about 70% of NS Mayport sailors. For the Beaches communities, though, much depends on where that spending occurs and, intuitively (and as will be seen, this will be borne out by the data that follows), Navy personnel
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who live in the Beaches will spend more in the Beaches, not to mention contribute to Beaches housing demand, and so rising property values. As shown in Table 6 below, about half of the sample lives in the Beaches community, though about half of these (a quarter of the whole sample) live in Navy housing. Table 6 Place of residence Location Number Atlantic Beach 18 Neptune Beach 2 Jacksonville Beach 14 Mayport 5 Ponte Vedra 3 Wonderwood area 9 Other off-base 86 Navy housing 48 Not specified 10 Total 195
Percent 9.3 1.0 7.2 2.6 1.5 4.6 44.3 24.7 5.1 100.0
The large majority of the sample, about 70%, lives in off-base civilian housing. Equally important for housing demand, over half of those who responded owned their own Jacksonvillearea home. This is shown in Table 7. Table 7 Type of off-base housing Number Apartment 32 Own condo 4 Own house 73 Rented condo 3 Rented house 20 Trailer 3 Not specified 60
Percent 16.4 2.1 37.4 1.5 10.3 1.5 30.8
A second factor influencing the impact of Navy personnel on the local economy is the number of dependents. Of the respondents, 133 reported that they were married, and 108 reported children in their Jacksonville residence, for an average of just under two children per household, or an average of about one child per service member. The large majority of families report that their dependents will remain in Jacksonville when the service member deploys. Along with spouses, there are about 1.7 dependents for each service member.3 As a result, while deployment will
This is higher than that done by Navfac in 2008 (p. 4.119-120), which estimated about 0.55 spouses, and 0.65 children for each service member. Given the over-representation of officers and Chief Petty Officers in our sample, Navfac may be more accurate.
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obviously see some economic impact, the economic impact of new Navy personnel should remain relatively stable through the deployment cycle4, as dependents remain. A better estimate of total purchasing power is provided by total income which, as we suggest above, can be determined by adding up base pay, BAH and BAS. Navy personnel not provided government housing receive a Basic Allowance for Housing, which varies from about $900 to $1200 for most enlisted personnel, and $1200 to $1600 for most officers. A Basic Allowance for Subsistence is about $350 per month for enlisted personnel, and $240 for officers5. Factoring in BAH and BAS, total income is presented in Table 8 below. In the table we combine these three factors, for each member of the dataset, depending on rank, housing location (only personnel living off base are eligible for BAH), and dependent status. This provides average monthly personal income for each rank grouping as shown. Table 8 Total monthly ($) income by rank E4-E6 E7-E9 O1-O2 O3-O5 87 45 6 29 3847 6073 4469 7918 4218 6511 4661 8115
Number Mean Median
E1-E3 16 2153 2025
O6-O8 5 12770 12770
Total 188 5121 4218
By way of a broad summary: when the sample is re-weighted to adjust for the overrepresentation of senior enlisteds and officers in our sample (as we report in Table 1), on average each additional sailor earns gross annual income of just under $4200 a month, or just over $50,000 per year. Considering the tax free nature of BAH and BAS, and the average number of dependents indicated above, income after federal taxes is likely to be about $47,000. Given the high percentage of sailors with family who live locally, it is likely that most of that purchasing power is exercised in the Jacksonville region. Our survey suggests that how much of that spending remains at the Beaches is critically dependent on whether the service member lives in the Beaches. Housing rented or purchased elsewhere will, of course, contribute to stabilizing housing prices (and so public revenues) elsewhere. This is shown in Table 9. This is not adjusted for the un-representative nature of the sample, so should be seen as at least 20% higher than the actual figures. Not surprisingly, spending in the beaches area is far higher for those Navy personnel who live in the Beaches area. As a result, the Beaches region, and COAB in particular, will benefit more to the extent that it can attract more sailors to live in the region.
NAVFAC (2008, p. 1.6) reports that NS Mayport ships remain in port about 73% of the time. This data was gathered from www.military.com.
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Table 9 Spending patterns per respondent, by type of spending per month ($) Beaches residents Navy housing Others Total Housing Food Restaurants Bars Hotels Entertainment Charity Beaches 1651 534 226 145 65 65 57 6 0 82 47 43 11 Total 253 101 24 10 83 55 Beaches n/a 153 69 3 10 53 29 Total 473 202 37 9 101 110 Beaches 1639 79 69 14 2 21 12
Off-base combined Total 1643 489 202 45 8 95 96
The Table also indicates average monthly spending per respondent on food, restaurants, bars, hotels, entertainment and charity. As an example, Beaches residents spend $534 per month on food, of which $226 occurs at the beaches. Non-Beaches residents spend $473 per month on food, of which only $79 is spent at the Beaches. Housing Demand The preference of the majority of Navy personnel is to live on base because of its many amenities and close proximity to the beach. Given the high demand, there is usually a shortage of base housing. Indeed, as of the writing of this report, there were 1,800 families on the waiting list for on-base housing. This shortage is exacerbated by the recent remodeling of base housing that has cut in half on-base housing capacity. As a result, a substantial number of Navy personnel live off-base even though the population decrease due to changes at NS Mayport will lessen the demand for on-base housing. Table 10 Rank and housing spending Number Median 2 1000 52 1500 24 1750 4 838 20 2100 3 3500 105 1500
Rank E1 to E3 E4 to E6 E7 to E9 O1 to O2 O3 to O5 O6 to O8 Total
Mean 1000 1579 1633 919 2360 3000 1745*
Note: not adjusted for the unrepresentative sample.
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As shown in Table 10, our survey shows that Navy personnel are contributing considerably more than their BAH in paying for housing6. There are also clear differences in housing costs in different regions. The average cost of housing is highest in Atlantic Beach, at $2130 a month for the 14 respondents living in the community. Jacksonville Beach costs were considerably lower, at just under $1500 a month, and personnel living in other areas averaged $1740. Multivariate regression analysis showed that the 1/3rd of families with working spouses allowed these families to afford on average over $300 a month more in housing costs. Purchasing power then needs to be contrasted with housing cost. An online realty source7 estimates median housing prices for Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville Beach at about $240,000 through the end of March, 2012. At current interest rates, median Beaches housing prices are affordable, given average Navy purchasing power. However, either the inevitable rise of interest rates, and/or especially the likely rise in housing prices, will change this equation dramatically. How much, and whether most Navy personnel can afford to purchase homes in the Beaches, will depend on decisions taken by cities and developers at the Beaches. A final point worth noting is that the Navy has gotten much better at providing personnel (and their families) with greater geographic stability. Rather than transferring personnel between Virginia, Florida, California, Washington and elsewhere; an effort is now made to allow families to put down roots in one of these regions. While ships will still deploy, personnel will still do overseas shore duty, and the needs of the Navy will take priority, home ownership is more feasible than has been the case in the past. There are a wide variety of housing options close to the base in the MRC, including many apartments, houses to rent and houses to buy. An example of existing housing available for Navy personnel is the Royal Palm neighborhood, which consists of easy-to-expand, single floor, concrete block homes which rent for $800-$1000, or sell for $70-$100,000. Habitat for Humanity has programs available to home owners in the MRC in which owners who occupy their residence may receive a zero-interest loan of $7,000 for home repair, and $12,000 for major repairs of roofs, plumbing and electricity. In short, the developments at NS Mayport have contributed to a medium-term overall decrease for housing demand. In the past, Navy personnel generally would live in the MRC, the beaches communities or over the Intracoastal Waterway on Atlantic Blvd. Now, however, much of the development that would have occurred in the MRC may occur across the Intracoastal Waterway via the Wonderwood Expressway, which makes this a convenient commute from Mayport (Navfac 2008, p. ES.6.9; Schellhorn interview; Carper interview; Hatfield interview). The improvement of existing housing in the MRC is a goal of the City of Atlantic Beach. One of the ways it is acting to improve this is by code enforcement. For example, code stipulates that homes have clean yards with no vehicles, no chain link fences and no more than two unrelated individuals allowed in apartments. Coordination with code enforcement and development between Atlantic Beach and Jacksonville is not optimal. This is likely due to different ordinances
The small number of Ensigns and Lieutenant Junior Grades excepted. http://www.zillow.com/
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and a lack of resources (Thompson interview). As a result, whatever efforts Atlantic Beach makes to prevent the deterioration of housing stock along its side of Mayport Road, might prove futile if Jacksonville code enforcement allows run down properties on its side of the road. This dynamic produces suboptimal results in an area that could become an attractive place with a concentrated and sustained effort to re-incentivize, renew and polish up the area. While the condition of some of the housing is less than ideal, it is relatively good when compared to other areas of Jacksonville (Doerr interview). Still, COAB has sought to maintain a reputation as an attractive, higher end community, and would like to raise the quality of the MRC closer to the level of the rest of the city. However, in the absence of all COJ land north of Atlantic Boulevard and east of the Intercoastal Waterway being transferred to COAB, or much more attentive cooperation from COJ, these inter-jurisdictional inconsistencies will remain a challenge for COAB. Economic Impact of the Ship Repair Industry The typical ship-repair economic impact starts with the Navy making a contract with a primary contractor who then makes purchases from suppliers and subcontractors. Households of all these layers then purchase everyday goods, which spreads the impact throughout the community. Table 11, below, illustrates the impacts of the frigate decommissionings on both the ship repair industry and the community in which it exists. As indicated, DoD has announced the deployment of a number of ships to NS Mayport especially from 2013, but the estimates below provide an indication of the economic impact of the decommissionings in the absence of new ships. Direct impact refers to the activity that the industry takes itself (i.e., material purchase and employees), indirect impact refers to business-to-business support transactions, and induced impacts are the household spending by employees of the firms. The geographic area included in these numbers includes the six counties of Northeast Florida (Nassau, Baker, Clay, Duval, Putnam and St. Johns) where the ship repair industry is located. The majority of businesses are concentrated in the Mayport Road Corridor, which is where the greatest impact will be felt. Table 11 Economic impacts of Mayport ship repair facilities Direct Indirect Induced Output effect ($m) 2010 2011 2012 Labor income ($m) 2010 2011 2012 Employment 2010 2011 2012 148.6 104.4 67.0 38.1 26.6 17.0 517 353 220 61.7 43.2 27.6 21.0 14.7 9.4 403 275 171 55.1 38.5 24.5 17.5 12.2 7.8 449 306 191
Total 265.5 186.1 119.1 76.6 53.5 34.1 1370 935 582
Data source: Wynkoop 2010
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Local Government The impact on local government will be twofold: in the short term revenues from the area and demand for services will decrease and the challenge of improving the conditions of the Mayport Road Corridor will increase because of the reduced economic impact which NS Mayport provides. COAB officials report that the infrastructure, utilities and public works of Atlantic Beach have an excess capacity that likely will not be needed. Ironically, the customer service aspect of local government may become easier as some Navy personnel have historically been less than ideal customers, and occasionally skip out on, or not pay, their bills on reassignment. COAB revenues are beyond the scope of this paper. The 2008 Navfac study estimated local per capita tax contributions of Navy personnel at $1181 (p. 4.125). However this figure would be critically dependent on housing prices, and certainly for COAB, how much of this spending occurs in the Beaches region. Schools There are three schools that serve dependents of NS Mayport personnel: Fletcher High School, Mayport Middle School and Finnegan Elementary School. While Fletcher High and Mayport Middle both service children of Navy families, they make up only a small percentage of the total student population. This stands in contrast to Finnegan Elementary, whose back gate leads into Mayport‟s on-base housing, and has a large majority of students who are dependents of Navy personnel. The Navy‟s 2008 impact statement, for instance, estimates that while 1% of students at Fletcher High School are Navy dependents, 37% of Finnegan elementary students are (Navfac 2008, p. 3-150). Depending on the firmness of the recent announcements regarding ship deployments, in the absence of new ships it was also the school in the greatest danger of closing. Finnegan saw its highest enrollment figures in 1985, and enrollment has been declining since. This trend accelerated in 2006 with the decommissioning of the USS JFK and continues to the present day. The school avoided being closed during the Duval County Schools budget cuts of 2009 because of a concerted effort by both the local civilian and military community. Prior to the expected arrival of the Amphibious Ready Group, there were proposals to „mothball‟ Finnegan Elementary until the base population rebounds, however this is not an optimal scenario. Over decades of serving students from military families, Finnegan has developed an environment and culture that is unique in its orientation towards the military, which is the priority for the school. Approximately 85% of the staff has a connection with the base, which equips them with a specialized skill set to effectively teach dependents of military families. This is especially important in a time when multiple wars and military commitments around the world have required longer tours and exert greater pressures on military families. The concern is that while the physical facility can be preserved until a later date, mothballing the school would result in the loss of the staff and the other intangible elements that have been so successful in educating the children of military families (Chew interview; Carper interview).
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More broadly, our survey of Navy personnel provides an estimate of the impact of Navy personnel numbers on local schools. Some 70% of respondents were married, and 55% reported children in their Jacksonville residence, with an average of about two children per household. 28% were in kindergarten or younger, 36% in primary school (grades 1-5), 13% middle school (grades 6-8), and 14% high school. Nine percent attended college. Put differently, for every 100 Navy personnel stationed in Jacksonville, about 100 children will also be added to the area‟s population. 36 will be in primary school, 13 middle school, and 14 in high school. Nine will attend college, and the remainder will be pre-school age. Traffic Through much of NS Mayport‟s history, traffic along Mayport Road was a common complaint. These problems are unlikely to be repeated on the arrival of a CVN after 2019, however. Impact would be localized, short term and on-station (Navfac 2008, pp. 31-32). As shown in Figure 2, the Wonderwood Expressway, which was opened in 2008, heads west from the main gate of the base across the Intercoastal Waterway to residential areas. Coupled with a wider Mayport Road, this will mitigate excessive traffic congestion caused by the home porting of the nuclear aircraft carrier and its associated bow wave (Carper interview). Data provided in the Naval Facilities Engineering Command economic impact analysis of a proposed CVN move to Mayport especially notes how the opening of the Wonderwood Expressway resulted in average annual daily traffic (AADT) counts dropping buy 5-10,000 vehicles on Mayport Road, as Wonderwood has absorbed some 20,000 vehicles per day (Navfac 2008, pp. 3.127-129; see also 4.100-103). It should be noted, though, that the Navfac study projected traffic loads with the addition of CVN and ARG traffic, and projected natural growth in traffic through 2014. The report did not extend the analysis to 2020: adding CVN and ARG traffic to 2020 projected natural growth. Business Quality Atlantic Beach officials have also expressed a desire to bring in new business both in the MRC, and along Atlantic Boulevard, a major retail district which Mayport Road intersects, and which forms the southern boundary of Atlantic Beach. Both Atlantic Boulevard and Mayport Road currently have a number of vacant retail spaces. The desired type of businesses are familyoriented restaurants and service establishments, as opposed to dive bars and strip clubs, which do exist in the MRC, but are out of Atlantic Beach‟s control in Jacksonville‟s jurisdiction. Atlantic Beach has zoning codes in place to discourage these types of establishments. For example, establishment of bars require extensive bureaucratic red tape including two hearing processes and recommendation from the zoning board. These requirements do not extend to restaurants which can serve beer and liquor by right. Adult entertainment is not allowed in Atlantic Beach per zoning code (Doerr interview). We also surveyed respondents regarding commercial establishments they would like to see move in to the Mayport Road, and Atlantic Beach areas. Of the 108 who responded, over 20 requested sit-down restaurants, and another 16 more fast food establishments of various sorts. Nine wanted a department store (i.e. Target or WalMart), eight a movie theater, and seven each a grocery and coffee shop. Twenty were happy with the current line-up of stores.
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Crime Fears of crime associated with Navy personnel have long been a cultural stereotype, and have been expressed by a small number of Atlantic Beach officials. In 2008, the City of Atlantic Beach began dedicating extra resources to improve the security of the MRC. These efforts include bike patrols, crime tracking and the identification and engagement of problem areas where drugs, prostitution, gun use and street crime were of high frequency. Concurrently, JSO increased its presence by dedicating two full-time Community Oriented Police (COPS) officers. Coordination with JSO created a systematic approach that unified the law enforcement effort. The ABPD also began working with JSO and NCIS by conducting monthly drug and prostitution sweeps. Aside from direct crime fighting, the law enforcement groups are also engaged in community events and at community centers as a way to connect with citizens and foster a sense of community (Thompson interview; COAB 2008; COAB 2009). The modern American Navy puts a heavy emphasis on the quality of personnel it recruits into its ranks and, once there, expects a high level of decorum. The Navy has a Zero Tolerance drug policy and all Navy personnel are subject to random drug testing and inappropriate behaviors are not tolerated in the Navy. Navy personnel are subject to Courts-Martial as well as non-judicial punishment which could result in various forms of punishment and/or discharge for behavior that is incompatible with the naval service (Carper interview; Schellhorn interview; Thompson interview; Hatfield interview). Community Engagement “Community engagement” refers to both the formal and informal organizing of citizens into groups to improve the quality of life in their community. Examples include baseball leagues, community watch organizations, clean-up projects, and pickup basketball games at a park. The City of Atlantic Beach created the position of Mayport Coordinator to facilitate the creation of the groups. While this position has been effective, the greatest challenge will be to make these groups self-sustaining so that the position of Mayport Coordinator is no longer necessary. To foster community groups, the City has been organizing community activities such as the Donner Park baseball field expansion, community/ public art projects at parks, and movies in the park. After-school programs have been developed such as Project Acceleration, in which local students receive assistance on their science fair projects from COPS officers and other volunteers. City beautification projects such as streetscapes use donated plants for street corners, which citizens water and maintain as a way to improve the aesthetics of the area. Understanding that the codes in place are difficult to comply with for some citizens, the city organizes volunteers from local churches, schools, the Navy and community associations to help bring properties up to code (Hatfield interview). It is also important to note here the contribution of Navy personnel through their community engagement. Our survey indicated that 40% of respondents donated to local charities, at a
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median monthly amount of $50. Forty percent volunteer locally, about 20% of these eight hours or more per week, and 40% also attend off-base houses of worship. The Business Community Coordination within the Mayport area business community has been weak. The broader Beaches area is represented by the Beaches Division of the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, and the Jacksonville Area Ship Repair Association provides effective representation for this influential industry. A Mayport Village Civic Association has also been active in Mayport Village itself, especially around the issues of revitalization of the village, and saving the Mayport Ferry, which connects Mayport to the north side of the St. Johns River. However the Mayport Corridor lacks similar collective voice and representation. This may be due in part to the small, shifting nature of the local retail community, in part to the inter-jurisdictional nature of the Mayport Road Corridor, with COJ and COAB sharing jurisdiction. A current development has been coordination between the Jacksonville Chamber of Commerce, the Jacksonville Economic Development Commission (JEDC) and the UNF Small Business Development Center (Bryan interview; Hanson interview).
Best Practices from Everett, WA & Watertown, NY
One of the goals of this report is to identify other communities which are in close proximity to military bases, and experience the cyclical economic impacts of large unit deployments, to assess the ways in which they maximize the economic impact of the military. Everett, WA and Watertown, NY are two such communities. They were chosen due to their size in relation to their proximate military base and the relative size of the bases‟ economic impact. Everett, WA The city of Everett, Washington is home to Naval Station Everett, the homeport of “two destroyers, three frigates, two nuclear-powered aircraft carriers, and a Coast Guard buoy tender. There are about 6,000 Sailors and Civil Service persons assigned to commands located at Naval Station Everett. The naval station itself has about 350 Sailors and Civilians assigned” (Navy). The base and surrounding area is therefore somewhat smaller, though similar to NS Mayport and the Beaches. That is, the base is the dominant economic driver in the area. The City of Everett, its business community and citizens use practices to foster a positive relationship with the base to spur economic development, which Atlantic Beach and the surrounding municipalities could model. Examples are as follows:
The business community and City Hall facilitate the adoption of homeported ships, whereby send off and welcome back deployment events are staged and support operations are conducted. ● The Mayor meets with the Base Commander regularly in both business and social settings. ● The city has an Executive Director of Government Affairs, which features a continuous direct relationship with base command.
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The Chamber of Commerce has a Naval Affairs Committee which takes the lead on offbase development and on-base outreach events, like the annual state-of-the-Station Address event. 8 ● The Navy League provides guidance to the business community ● An Energy Roundtable, composed of local businesses, universities, and energy companies, meet to discuss how they can meet the Navy‟s needs. ● The Economic Alliance of Snohomish County performs a function similar to the Jacksonville Economic Development Corporation. Everett officials also noted that during a recent trip to Washington, DC, it was suggested that the communities around NS Mayport and NS Everett should work together to promote their interests, as they have a similar dynamic as smaller homeports facing competition from the much larger San Diego and Norfolk. Watertown, NY The City of Watertown, NY is in close proximity to Fort Drum, the home of the US Army‟s 10th Mountain Division. Examples of community relationships with the Army include: ● Fort Drum Regional Liaison Organization (http://fdrlo.org/) is a nonprofit organization whose mission is, “To foster effective communication, understanding and support by serving as the primary point of coordination and advocacy for resolution of those issues of mutual interest of the military and civilian community of the Fort Drum region.” The FDRLO also funds studies, for example, a transit study to determine how to get the soldiers to downtown more easily (Woolfolk 2011). ● Watertown features an active public affairs office. ● The fire department does about 8000 annual inspections of rental properties. ● There is an intentional push to foster an environment of respect and understanding for the members of the Army stationed at Fort Drum. For example, local stores and restaurants offer military discounts, the local newspaper has a section called „Military Matters‟ that covers military news, and the local chamber of commerce puts out a few seasonal publications that are geared toward military members (Nelson interview).
Jacksonville‟s equivalent is available online, at: http://www.nljax.com/index.html.
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This report has detailed the changes at Naval Station Mayport and their effect on the Mayport Road Corridor. In sum, until the arrival of the CVN the reduction of the footprint of NS Mayport will result in a smaller economic impact on the MRC, COAB, and broader Beaches region, at least in terms of experience of the past decade. In this environment, decreased demand for housing, fewer customers for local businesses and reduced tax revenue for local government should be expected. This will likely be compounded by the national slowdown in economic activity. The announced arrival of the Amphibious Ready Group, along with some other ships, will help maintain the ship repair industry and the economic activity it creates, and also mark the turnaround in the Navy‟s economic impact on the region. While there is little that the City of Atlantic Beach can do in the short term to change this scenario, city government can use this time to „prepare the soil‟ by strengthening fundamental policies and practices so that as the post2015 rebound begins, when the CVN does come and the national economy begins to grow again, the MRC will be fertile ground from which new growth can spring.
BEA (2010). “Current-Dollar GDP by Metropolitan Area.” Bureau of Economic Analysis: Washington. Available online, at: http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/gdp_metro/gdp_metro_newsrelease.htm. Browning, William (2012). “Navy to bring three-ship amphibious group to Mayport early.” Jacksonville.com, 15 June. Available online, at: http://jacksonville.com/news/florida /2012-0615/story/navy-bring-three-ship-amphibious-group-mayport-early Brumley, J. (2012). “Mayport's Future: Amphibious Assault Ships, Destroyers, Littoral Combat Ships and Patrol Craft.” Jacksonville.com, 12 January. Available online, at: http://jacksonville.com/news/metro/2012-02-17/story/mayports-future-amphibious-assault-shipsdestroyers-littoral-combat. Bryan, J. (interview). Chamber of Commerce- Director of Beaches Division. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). Causey, Adam and Gibbons, Timothy (2012, February 18). No carrier for Mayport in the near future, if at all. Retrieved April 10, 2012, from Jacksonville.com: http://jacksonville.com/news/metro/2012-02-13/story/no-carrier-mayport-near-future-if-all. Carlyon, Hays (2012). “UF hoops to play Georgetwon in Jacksonville on U.S. Navy carrier.” Jacksonville.com, 15 June, available online at: http://jacksonville.com/opinion/blog/400642/hayscarlyon/2012-06-15/uf-hoops-play-georgetown-jacksonville-us-navy-carrier. Carper, R. (interview). Public Works Director, City of Atlantic Beach. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). Census, U. B. (2011). State and County Quickfacts. Retrieved 09 02, 2011, from http//quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/53/53061.html. Census, U. B. (n.d.). State and County Quickfacts2011. Retrieved 09 02, 2011, from http//quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/36/36045.html. Chew, S. (interview). Teacher, Finnegan Elementary School. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). COAB (2008). Agenda for Mayport Corridor Workshop, March 25. Atlantic Beach. COAB (2009). Strategic Plan Quarterly Report. Atlantic Beach, 14 January. COAB (2010). Resolution No. 10-04 Adoption of Strategic Plan. Atlantic Beach. Page 22 of 23
COJ (undated). “Jacksonville‟s Military Presence,” City of Jacksonville. Available online, at: http://www.coj.net/departments/jacksonville-economic-development-commission/businessdevelopment/jacksonville%E2%80%99s-military-presence.aspx. Defense Manpower Cata Center (2012). “Active Duty Military Personnel by Rank/Grade.” Department of Defense, Washington. Available online, at: http://siadapp.dmdc.osd.mil/personnel/MILITARY/rg1203.pdf Doerr, S. (interview). Community Development Director, City of Atlantic Beach. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). Floyd, H. C. In the Shadow of the Lighthouse: A Folk History of Mayport Florida. Pascagoula, MS: Lewis Printing. Gibbons, Timothy (2010). “Mayport area to go through tough times before new ships arrive.” The Florida Times-Union, 22 April. Available online, at: http://jacksonville.com/news/metro/201004-22/story/mayport-area-go-through-tough-times-new-ships-arrive Hanson, J. (interview). City Manager, City of Atlantic Beach. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). Harper, Rick, Phyllis Pooley and Michael Schiebe (2011). Florida Defense Industry Economic Analysis. Pensacloa: Haas Center. Hatfield, D. (interview). Special Assignment Officer for the Mayport Corridor, City of Atlantic Beach. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). Liere, N. V. (interview). Director of Finance, City of Atlantic Beach. (J. Lynn, Interviewer) Mabry, Donald (2010). World’s Finest Beach: A Brief History of the Jacksonville Beaches. Charleston: The History Press. Mabus, Ray (2012). “Assault ships at Mayport will provide jobs for area.” Florida Times-Union, 4 March. Availble online, at: http://jacksonville.com/opinion/2012-03-03/story/guest-columnassault-ships-mayport-will-provide-jobs-area. McClain, P. (interview). Governmental Affairs Director, City of Everett, WA. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). McGrath, J. M. (2011). Mayport Naval Station Ship Count Downsizing. Atlantic Beach: Jacksonville Area Ship Repair Association. McGrath, J. M. (2011). Point Paper Followup. Atlantic Beach: Jacksonville Area Ship Repair Association. McGuiness, Neil (2010). The Beaches: A History and Tour. Atlantic Beach, Fl. Navfac (2008). Final EIS for the Proposed Homeporting of Additional Surface Ships at Naval Station Mayloprt, FL. Naval Faciltiies Engineering Command, 21 November. Available online, at: http://www.dtic.mil/cgi-bin/GetTRDoc?AD=ada491893. Navy (1975). Mayport Naval Station Master Plan. Navy (2009). “Record of Decision for Homeporting of Additional Ships at Naval Station Mayport.” Federal Register, 21 January. Available online, at: https://www.federalregister.gov/articles/2009/01/21/E9-1099/notice-of-record-of-decision-forhomeporting-of-additional-surface-ships-at-naval-station-mayport-fl . Navy News Service (2012). “Secretary of The Navy Accounces Early Move for Amphibious Ready Group.” 15 June, available online at: http://www.navy.mil/submit/display.asp?story_id=67848. Nelson, E. (interview). Assistant to the City Manager, Watertown NY. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). O'Rourke, R. (2011). Navy Nuclear Aircraft Carrier Homeporting at Mayport: Background and Issues for Congress. Congressional Research Service. Schellhorn, M. (interview). Community Planning Liason Officer, NAVFAC . (J. Lynn, Interviewer). Thompson, D. (interview). Assistant City manager, City of Atlantic Beach. (J. Lynn, Interviewer). Wynkoop, P. (2010). Economic Impact of the Jacksonville Area Ship Repair Association; an InputOutput Analysis. The HPW Group LLC.
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