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TUTORIAL SELECTED APPLICATIONS OF MS EXCEL (January 7, 2008) Some elementary statistical calculations are used to illustrate selected types

of calculations that can be done using a MicroSoft Excel spread-sheet. Features illustrated include: • Use of the toolbar paste function, fx. • Use of array calculations. • Use of the $ symbol to control cell references. Table 1 summarizes data to be used and calculated in this tutorial. Numbers not included in parentheses are the data to be used in the calculations. Numbers included in parentheses are the numbers that should be obtained when the tutorial is completed successfully. Table 2 summarizes equations and processes used in the various cells to complete the tutorial. As you proceed through this tutorial pay particular attention to ways that the Copy/Paste operations are used to minimize the effort required for similar operations on different data sets. All uses of the word “Click” in this discussion refer to the left mouse button. I. Entering data Open an Excel spread sheet and Enter data in Cells C8 – E13 and Cell H16. The data in Cells C8 – C13 are masses used to calibrate a constant flow system and the number in Cell H16 is a dummy constant used to illustrate use of the $ symbol to control reference positions. II. Paste function The paste function, fx, can be used to implement a variety of calculations. Applications for averages and standard deviations are illustrated here. A. Mean of data Set 1. Click on Cell C14 and locate the fx “Insert Function” in the toolbar. Click fx and use statistical as the category. Select the function AVERAGE OK/OK. The mean of Set 1 data should appear in Cell C14. B. Standard deviation of data Set 1. Click on Cell C15/fx and scroll down to STDEV. Click OK/Change C14 to C13/OK. The standard deviation should appear in Cell C15. C. Means/SD’s of Sets 2 and 3. Highlight and copy Cells C14 and C15. 1. Click on Cell D14 and click Edit/Paste; the mean and standard deviation of Set 2 should appear in Cells D14 and D15. 2. Click on Cell E14 and click Edit/paste; the mean and standard deviation of Set 3 should appear in Cells E14 and E15.

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III. Array calculations Array calculations are used when one wishes to perform similar operations on two or more data. Several applications of array calculations are illustrated here. 1. Row array. Highlight (Click and drag) Cells C16 – E16; Click on the formula bar and type =100*(C15:E15/C14:E14) in the formula bar and press the CONTROL/SHIFT/ENTER keys on the keyboard simultaneously. Percent relative standard deviations should appear in Cells C16 – E16. (See the row for C16 – E16 in Table 2.) 2. Column array. Highlight (Click and drag) Cells F8 – F13; Click on the formula bar and type =C8:C13-C14 in the formula bar and press the CONTROL/SHIFT/ENTER keys on the keyboard simultaneously. Deviations from the mean should appear in Cells F8 – F13. (See the row for F8 – F13 in Table 2.) With Cells F8 – F13 still highlighted, Click Edit/Copy, Click on Cell G8 and Click Edit/Paste. Deviations from the mean for data Set 2 should appear in Column G. Click on Cell H8 and Click Edit/Paste. Deviations from the mean for data Set 3 should appear in Column H. IV. Single calculation on multiple cells It is frequently desirable to perform a single calculation on data from several cells. Implement the operations described in Table 2 for Cells F15, G15 and H15 to calculate standard deviations using deviations from the means in cells F8 – H13. V. Cell references The Copy/Paste operations used to duplicate array calculations above take advantage of the fact that Excel uses relative positions for cell addresses written without any modifiers. For example, click on Cells F8, G8 and H8 in succession notice that Excel automatically adjusted for calculations on data in columns C, D and E. There are situations in which one may want to use a single cell address in several relative positions in a calculation. The dollar symbol, $, is used to do this. Select Cell F18, click in the formula bar and type =$H$16*C14, and press CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER simultaneously to multiply the mean in C14 by the constant in Cell H16. Then copy the contents of Cell F18 and paste it into Cells G18 and H18. Notice that the multiplier in Cell H16 remains the same while the C14 cell reference changes to D14 and E14 in Cells G18 and H18.

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The notation $H$16 fixes both the column and row reference positions; the notation $H16 fixes the column reference at H and lets the row reference vary whereas the notation H$16 lets the column reference vary but fixes the row reference at 16. VI. Miscellaneous Cells E17, E18, and E19 illustrate some miscellaneous operations. Table 1. Numerical dataa used to illustrate selected features of an Excel spreadsheet program. A/1 B C D E F G H I 2 3 4 Table 1. Calibration data for a constant flow system 5 6 Mass (g)/60 s Deviation from mean (g) 7 Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 Set 1 Set 2 Set 3 8 1.168 1.154 1.212 (-0.006) (0.006) (0.069) 9 1.169 1.154 1.168 (-0.005) (0.006) (0.025) 10 1.164 1.123 1.166 (-0.010) (-0.025) (0.023) 11 1.187 1.136 1.119 (0.013) (-0.012) (-0.0240 12 1.196 1.148 1.102 (0.022) (0.000) (-0.041) 13 1.160 1.170 1.090 (-0.014) (0.023) (-0.053) 14 Means (1.174) (1.148) (1.143 (0.012) (0.012) (0.039) 15 S. D. (0.014) (0.016) (0.047) (0.014) (0.016) (0.047) 16 RSD (%) (1.2) (1.4) (4.1) Dummy multiplier 2.000 17 Overall mean (1.155) Dummy multiples of means 18 Pooled Std. Dev. (0.0298) (2.348) (2.295) (2.286) 19 RSD (%) (2.6) a Numbers not in parentheses are to be entered into the table; numbers in parentheses are to be calculated as part of the exercise.

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Table 2. Summary of cell contents for Excel tutorial. Cells C8 – E13 H15 C14 C15 D14,D15 E14,E15 C16 – E16 F8 – F13 G8 – G13 H8 – H13 F15 G15 H15 F18 G18 H18 E17 E18 E19
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Entry As shown in Table 1 As shown in Table 1 Excel toolbar fx: Statistics/AVERAGE/C8:C13/OK Excel toolbar fx: Statistics/STDDEV/C8:C13/OKa Copy and paste C14,C15 into D14 and D15 Paste C14,C15 into E14 and E15b =100*(C15:E15/C14:E14)C : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER =C8:C13-C14 : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER Copy and paste F8 – F13 into G8 – G13 : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER Paste F8 – F13 into G8 – G13b : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER =STDEV(F8:F13) Copy and paste F15 into G15 : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER Paste F15 into H15b : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER =$H$16*C14 : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER Copy and paste F18 into G18 Paste F18 into G18b =SUM(C14:E14)/3 : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER =SQRT(SUM(C15:E15^2)/3)C : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER =100*E18/E17 : CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER

Change C8:C14 to C8:C13; bNo need to recopy; C CTRL/SHIFT/ENTER

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