This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**The Spacetime Model
**

Version 3.06 16 July 2009

Part 1

Mass and Gravity

Jacky JEROME

Ingénieur Européen EUR-ING Ingénieur DPE (Diplômé Par l'Etat) Ingénieur IPF Ingénieur ITP-ECI

Email: diaverre@orange.fr

ISBN 97829531234-0-1

Editions Arts et Culture 42 4, square Kennedy 42120 LE COTEAU (France)

Cover: On the left of the photo of Einstein: Maxwell, Feynman, Max Planck, Schrödinger On the right: Pauli, Niels Bohr, Marie Curie, De Brogglie, Dirac, Heisenberg

The Spacetime Model - Part 1

- II -

Introduction

Patent Rights

This theory, the “Spacetime Model”, was registered at INPI, the French Patent Institute, under the following references: 238268, 238633, 244221, 05 13355-2 895 559, 248427, 258796, 261255, 268327, 297706, 297751, 297811, 297928, 298079, 298080, 329638, 332647, 335152, 335153, 339797. This list is not exhaustive and some recent registrations at INPI are not mentioned. The “Spacetime Model” was also registered in other legal forms for Copyright. First deposit date at INPI: May 5th, 2005 Major deposit date at INPI: December 27th, 2005 In 2006, the two versions of this document, English and French, were addressed to more than 7000 physicists worldwide by e-mail. Several paper copies were sent in October 2006 to the most important Academics of Science and Committees of Foundations for Research. The “Spacetime Model” was also published on November 30, 2006, on 31 different web sites. It is also referenced on many sites like Google Books, Yahoo, DMOZ... The “Spacetime Model” is the intellectual property of its author, Jacky JEROME, and any illicit appropriation of the theory will be subject to prosecution.

The Spacetime Model - Part 1

- III -

Introduction

Abstract

The “Spacetime Model”

The Spacetime Model is a new theory based on spacetime. Instead of limiting spacetime to relativity, the author has extended it to all elements of the universe: matter, charge, electromagnetism, leptons, quarks, antimatter... In combination and relying on experimentation, this new theory explains, in a perfectly logical and rational way, more than 50 enigmas of quantum mechanics. Moreover, the Spacetime Model unifies the three basic forces (gravity, electroweak and strong nuclear force) in two generic forces: the Coulomb Force and the Hooke Force. To improve readability, the Spacetime Model has been divided into five parts: Part 1.......... Mass and gravity (this part) (www.spacetime-model.com/files/mass.pdf) Part 2.......... Constitution of matter (www.spacetime-model.com/ files/duality.pdf) Part 3.......... Quarks and antimatter (www.spacetime-model.com/files/quarks.pdf) Part 4.......... Electromagnetism (www.spacetime-model.com/files/electromagnetism.pdf) Part 5.......... Forces, the Universe (www.spacetime-model.com/files/universe.pdf) This document is the first part of the Spacetime Model. It offers the solution to the mass and gravity enigmas. Here are the main lines of this new theory.

**The curvature of spacetime
**

Let's fill up a container with water. We drop a billiard ball into the container. The volume of the ball produces a displacement of water. The same phenomenon applies to spacetime. Contrary to generally accepted ideas, it is not mass which deforms spacetime, but volume, more exactly "closed" volume.

**Mass = "Closed" volume?
**

In our world, mass and volume seem to be two different quantities because in atoms, the mass is not proportional to the volume. So, we have a large range of atoms with different masses and volumes. However, at the particle level, mass = volume (with some reservations explained in chapter 1 of this document). In reality, we have two main classes of volumes: ! Closed volumes (fig. A): These volumes make a displacement of spacetime, which produces a pressure on the surface of the volume. A “mass effect” appears, i.e. an effect that has all characteristics of mass. Nuclei and electrons are examples of closed volumes. Only closed volumes produce a “mass effect” and, therefore, have a mass. A B

The Spacetime Model - Part 1

- IV -

Introduction

!

Open volumes (fig. B on the previous page): These volumes exist but do not produce any displacement of spacetime. They are “porous” regarding spacetime. If there is no curvature, there is no mass effect either. So, open volumes are massless. Orbitals of electrons in atoms are examples of open volumes.

Open volume

Each atom has a particular proportion of open and closed volume. This is why mass and volume give us the illusion of being two different quantities.

Closed volumes

What is Gravity?

Two closed volumes inserted into spacetime curve it. Since spacetime is elastic, its curvature produces pressures on these two volumes. This tends to bring them closer to each other. So, contrary to what we think: Gravity is not an attractive force between masses but a pressure force exerted by spacetime on closed volumes. Since a pressure force is the opposite of an attractive force, and concave and convex curvatures are in opposition too, there is no difference between the Newton-Einstein Theory and this new explanation of mass and gravity: Attractive force + Concave curvature of spacetime

=

Pressure force + Convex curvature of spacetime

**Validation by mathematics and experimentation
**

Usually, the Schwarzschild Metric and Newton Law are calculated from the Einstein Field Equations (EFE). Chapters 4 to 6 of this document propose a new and innovative calculation of these two formulas, based on the Hooke Law (elasticity laws). The suggested theory is also in perfect accordance with the 1921’s Von Laue Diagram. Moreover, this document proposes a simple and low cost ($5,00) experimentation, which proves that the curvature of spacetime produces a pressure force, not an attractive force. This experiment also has a curiosity: it highlights a black hole behavior when R = Rs.

**The Higgs Boson
**

The Higgs Theory doesn't propose to the Physicists Community a simple explanation, a low cost experimentation, and a full mathematical validation (Schwarzschild-Newton-Einstein) as those explained in this document. The conclusion is immediate: the Spacetime Model is much more credible than the Higgs Boson Theory.

The Spacetime Model - Part 1

- 1 -

1 - Open and Closed Volumes

**1 Open and Closed Volumes
**

Mass, gravity and spacetime are so linked that it is not possible to explain one without the other. To understand these phenomena, it is necessary to study two new concepts. An understanding of these solves the mass and gravity enigma. This is why, for teaching purposes, this subject is divided into two chapters: Open and Closed Volumes, and Gravity. Each chapter covers half of the solution.

1.1 Starting points

The following three arguments has been used as starting points: 1. Enigma of electron and positron mass We know that the mass of positrons is exactly equal to that of electrons1. In addition, since the positron is the antiparticle of the electron, according to the symmetry theories (Richard Feynman, Nobel Prize 1965), their volumes must be identical (fig. 1-1). If electrons and positrons have the same mass (511 KeV) and the same volume, they also have the same mass per volume unit. Therefore, the following problem arises: How can, two particles, having strictly the same mass per volume unit, also have diametrically opposed internal constitutions2? Same Volume

Same mass : 510,998918 KeV

Fig. 1-1

1

The mass of the electron, 510.998918 +/- 0.00004 keV, is equal, or very close, to that of the positron. The accuracy of measurement is: |me+ - me-| /m < 8.10-9, with a CL of 90%. For the following demonstration, this accuracy is significant enough to allow us to assume that electrons and positrons have the same mass. 2 It is possible to consider that there is a probability that two particles with the same mass per volume unit can also have opposed internal constitutions. Such a proposal would not be illogical, but the measurement is so accurate (510,998918 KeV + 0,000044) that the probability of such a possibility would be infinitesimal. For example, on Earth, let us try to find two objects having the same mass per volume unit with an accuracy of 0,0000086% and different internal constitutions. Obviously, this challenge seems impossible.

YES and NO. The fifth dimension Is mass function of spacetime? We are facing to the following two possibilities: • Mass is independent of the four known dimensions.2 - 1 .z. In other words. His field equations were initially formulated in the context of a four-dimensional theory. Inconsistencies in EFE (Einstein Field Equations) This subject is covered in paragraph 2-3.y.Part 1 .t).x.z. as we'll see further. it would be advisable to begin our research following the theory this great scientist proposed.t). the following question arises: …is the mass nothing more than volume? The answer is both. the Einstein Equations prove that mass and volume are the same concept. . 2. 1. • According to Einstein. mass = k. As we will see in this theory. spacetime is far from having revealed all of its secrets to us… In other words. Mass is the function of four known dimensions: m = f (x. ! YES. but only as a last resort. We'll also see that this concept explains most of the greatest enigmas of physics: What is a quark? Where is antimatter? E=mc²?1 etc… NO. In this case. excluding extra dimensions.z.y.volume.y. all objects of the universe can be expressed with the variables x. The only solution to this problem is to consider a fifth dimension like the Higgs field. y. This supposes that mass is function of spacetime.The Spacetime Model . 3.Open and Closed Volumes This enigma allows for only one solution: mass and volume are two different aspects of a unique and identical entity. it is not possible to express the mass in the form m = f (x. because this definition is incomplete and requires some complements which are given in the following paragraphs. the universe has 4 dimensions. ! 1 Parts 2 to 5 of the "Spacetime Model" cover this topic. which expresses all objects of the universe by a law of the form f (m. after having exhausted all the resources of the traditional spacetime.t). In this case. like the Higgs Field.2 Basic concept According to these three arguments. it would be logical to begin our research in priority in 4D. Thus. There is no objection to envisaging new dimensions. z and t. because.

We drop a billiard ball into the container. 1-2 1. The same phenomenon applies to spacetime. Consequently. It would be more exact to compare spacetime to a kind of deformable crystal or EPP (expanded polypropylene). our example does not correspond exactly to spacetime since water is not elastic.Part 1 . In addition. Fig. if we remove the central object. Scientific authors often represent the spacetime curvature by a drawing like that of figure 1-2.3 Current theory of spacetime curvature Einstein's equations connect mass to the spacetime curvature.3 - 1 . The volume of the ball produces a displacement of water. This representation is very informative but does not answer the question “how is it possible for a mass to curve spacetime?” Fig. 1-3 . it is not mass which deforms spacetime.Open and Closed Volumes 1. Since spacetime is elastic. we'll try to understand mass in an indirect manner.The Spacetime Model . This figure was simplified to two dimensions for teaching purposes. Indeed.4 Explanation of spacetime deformation Let's fill up a container with water. Contrary to generally accepted ideas. the curvature must disappear. 1-3). the solution to this enigma arises from the spacetime curvature. but volume (fig.

produced by volume. This problem is covered in Part 2 of the Spacetime Model: "Constitution of Matter" (please download the PDF document "Part 2: Constitution of Matter" from the Web site www. Similarly.Part 1 . whatever the dimension of the space is. 1D. . the reasoning is the same. Any volume inserted in spacetime necessarily produces a curvature of it It must be noted that the word “volume” may not be exact since the universe has four dimensions and not three but. C = f (m). The mass variable.5 Mass-volume equivalence In the Einstein Equations. in 2D. particles are hermetic regarding spacetime. this means that mass and volume are the same entity. we always have the same phenomenon.7. must be present in the Einstein Equations. Spacetime shares the same principle. In other words. 3D or 4D … nD. This second curvature is necessary. on close examination of Einstein Field Equations and their solutions. we find only one curvature. A second curvature. … but things are not quite so simple… We'll study this subject thoroughly in paragraph 1. This second curvature should have the form C = f (v). The volume variable. a small surface inserted into a larger one will push out the surrounding surface to make room. 2D. which does not need to be verified. So. based on logical reasoning and good sense. "m". and another one produced by volume C = f (v). we will see in chapter 2 that the nature of gravity (a pressure instead of an attractive force) exactly compensates this modification of curvature. the one produced by mass. v). 2D. Note: Considering that spacetime is present everywhere. However. one from Einstein's theory produced by masses. We don't see any trace of volume curvature. We naturally deduce from this that the curvature of Einstein's theory due to mass and the curvature due to volume are the same phenomenon. more particularly in volumes. However. Thus. A small segment inserted into the middle of the line will push out its two ends to make room. produced by mass.com). "v". let's imagine a simple line (1D). Any volume inserted in spacetime pushes out surrounding spacetime to "get room".spacetime-model. In reality. which is the combination of two curvatures. 1.Open and Closed Volumes This deformation isn't concave but convex. The formulation of the spacetime curvature should therefore be C = F (m. we should note two curvatures of spacetime: • • A first curvature. we could think that any volume can't curve spacetime. whatever the dimension of the space. is present in the Schwarzschild Solution for example. 1D. 3D or 4D.4 - 1 .The Spacetime Model . For example.

This expression should exist since. x2.Open and Closed Volumes 1. mass-energy-momentum. These equations. The member of left describes a representation of the geometry of spacetime. Ω). or EFE.(1/2) gjk R = (8πG/c4) Tjk The member of left is a geometrical tensor verifying a mathematical property of Lorentzian conservation. which must be read from right to left. we will try to solve the same problem with Einstein Field Equations. Setting down (x0. it gives the representation of the energy-momentum. The member of right is the Tjk stress-energy tensor. . and Ω of the point of measurement. but we do not see any trace of the expression of volume2 V. The simplest solution of Einstein's equations is the Schwarzschild Solution. emphasize an identity between the properties of matter. which is a variety of Riemann Spaces.The Spacetime Model . r. Rjk is the tensor of Ricci and R the scalar of Ricci. Its metric describes the deformation of spacetime produced by a static object with a spherical symmetry. the EFE. It is an absolute necessity. becomes: Rjk . θ.Part 1 . this metric is written as follows: −1+ 2GM rc² (gµν) = 0 0 0 0 1 1− 2GM rc² 0 0 r2 0 0 0 0 r2sin2θ 0 0 The expression of mass M exists in the elements T00 and T11. Einstein discovered equivalence between the stressenergy tensor Tjk and the geometrical tensor of curvature Rjk . 1 2 Sometimes called "Eintein-Hilbert Field Equations" We are looking for an expression of volume that produces the spatial component of spacetime deformation. Since energy comes from mass (special relativity). θ. Any volume inserted in spacetime must curve it. x3) = (ct.6 Einstein Field Equations Note: Readers who are not familiar with tensors may bypass this section.5 - 1 . This volume should not be confused with the spherical coordinates R. In this section. This mathematical equivalence can be expressed as follows: Geometry of spacetime ≡ Matter and energy Hiding the cosmological constant Λ. like in our example of a billiard ball into water. and the geometry of spacetime. x1. usually called Einstein Field Equations1.(1/2) gjkR.

1-4 A): These volumes make a displacement of spacetime. quarks. therefore.e. In reality. 1. 1-4 The same phenomenon also exists in spacetime. is massless. Since there is no curvature. So. we have two main classes of volumes: • Closed Volumes (fig.The Spacetime Model . i. which produces a pressure on the surface of the volume. It should be noted that the same reasoning could be applied to other metrics1 but. neutrons. muons. and “open volumes” (massless). if we make some holes in the balloon (fig. Only closed volumes produce a “mass effect” and. However. A B Fig.4 by a balloon having the same volume (fig. are combinations of these two classes of volumes: “closed volumes” (with mass). Therefore. the only means by which to solve this enigma is to consider that mass and volume are connected by an equation of the form m = f (v). Orbitals of atoms are examples of open volumes. 1-4 B). A “mass effect” appears. 1 Kerr. Open Volumes (fig. since the Schwarzschild Metric reflects an anomaly. positrons. This empty space.Part 1 . it is not necessary to go further. electrons.7 Classes of volumes Let's replace the billiard ball used in the example in paragraph 1. water will go inside it and the displacement of water will disappear. mesons… are examples of closed volumes. taus. Protons. of course.6 - 1 . 1-4 A). an effect that has all characteristics of mass (see chapter 2 and 4). This does not change anything. Robertson-Walker etc… . and therefore all objects. Open volumes are massless. Reissner-Nordström. they do not produce any displacement of spacetime. • Empty space between atoms or molecules is considered as an open volume. there is no mass effect either.Open and Closed Volumes The Schwarzschild Metric has been verified many times. 1-4 B): These volumes exist but they are “porous” regarding spacetime. All atoms of the universe. have a mass.

7 - 1 . Experimentation confirms that atoms are made of: 1/ Open volumes: massless orbitals (a vacuum) 2/ Closed volumes: nucleons and electrons. have a mass.Open and Closed Volumes This is why we have the illusion. which are massless.Part 1 . orbitals are crossed on both sides by spacetime (fig. therefore. As a result. that mass and volume are two different concepts. However. and closed volumes. It is a normal situation since orbitals are made of a vacuum. with mass. the nuclei and electrons are closed volumes and. We must also take note of the difference between open volumes.The Spacetime Model .9 Conclusions Calculations are not modified by this equivalence mass-volume. on Earth. 1-5). On the other hand.8 Example: Atoms In atoms. which has mass. . we must always remember that "mass" means "closed volume" and conversely (see chapter 4 for conversion formulas). orbitals do not produce any spacetime curvature. The volume of orbitals is massless. Closed volumes: Electron(s) and nucleus Spacetime Open volume (orbital) Fig. 1. 1-5 1.

Part 1 . we must replace Volume Mass by by Open and/or closed volume Closed volume Note: As indicated. complex elements like atoms have a combination of open and closed volumes.Open and Closed Volumes So: To understand what is mass. 1-6 . Fig.The Spacetime Model .8 - 1 .

The Spacetime Model . 2-1). which deforms spacetime. contrary to what we think. and not the mass. Gravity is not an attractive force between masses but a pressure force exerted by spacetime on closed volumes . in 1D.Part 1 . Fig.9 - 2 . is for teaching purposes only. Note: This figure. Since spacetime is elastic. Now the challenge is to understand how such a spacetime curvature by a volume can produce the mass effect and gravity. 2. its curvature produces pressures on these two volumes. 2-1 So. This tends to bring them closer to each other.1 Principle of gravity Two closed volumes inserted into spacetime curve it (fig.Mass and Gravity 2 Mass and Gravity It seems obvious that it is the volume (closed volume).

3 Stress-energy tensor Let's come back to the Einstein Tensor. from the Hooke Law. 2-3) from the constraint tensor used in fluid mechanics. T22. T02. one third of the trace is isostatic pressure Stress-energy tensor The elements of this tensor have the following significance: • • • • • T00 is the density of energy T10. T10. Transposed to spacetime.2 Principle of split The "principle of split" also confirms this pressure of spacetime on volumes. of course. represents the dynamic pressures exerted by the fluid on an object. We have a movement of each half toward the other. T11. T22. is the pressure. represents an attractive force: gravity. Riemann made a significant contribution to that physic domain. T20. Let's imagine a sphere. T02. 2-2B). we suppose. The elements of this tensor have the following significance: • T01. this phenomenon is nothing but “gravity”. . which comes from the fluid theory of the nineteenth century. 2-2 2. If we split this sphere down the middle (fig.Mass and Gravity 2. each half is subjected to only one force. T32 are viscosity. T20. In this document. This operation. T31. which has two opposite forces (fig.The Spacetime Model . is used to build the constraint tensor. 2-2A). as with the constraint tensor The trace. T13. which is a pressure force on closed volumes. T33.Part 1 . that these pressures are produced by the curvature of spacetime.10 - 2 . T30 are the density of moments T01. T03 are the flow of energy T12. T11. A B Fig. T23. T12. • The trace T00. T21. T21 are viscosity. Constraint tensor This tensor. We know that Einstein created his stress-energy tensor (fig.

he replaced the initial pressure force (the trace) by an attractive force. we must reconsider this question because Newton's point of view concerning gravity as an attractive force is wrong.Part 1 . Since the stress-energy tensor is built from the constraint tensor. Why ??? Fig. Today. 2-3 In the original constraint tensor. in Newton's time. it is the volume – and not the mass – that produces the viscosity and pressure in fluid mechanics. Since Newton's time. spacetime was unknown. not on masses. is the same as the one in the constraint tensor.Mass and Gravity Stress-energy tensor in General Relativity Constraint tensor in fluid mechanics T00 T10 T20 T01 T11 T21 Pressure T02 T12 T22 T00 T10 T20 T30 T01 T11 T21 T31 T02 T12 T22 T32 T03 T13 T23 T33 Gravity = Attractive force Einstein built his tensor from the constraint tensor. This leads to the following remarks: ! In fluid mechanics. Indeed. Therefore.The Spacetime Model . physicists have supposed that gravity is an attractive force. This is only an assumption. We must keep in mind that. constraint tensors are always built on volumes. why would the trace be different? Why has an attractive force replaced the initial pressure force? ! ! These inconsistencies probably have the following explanation. these inconsistencies lead to the following deduction: . Be that as it may. Curiously. the significance of the trace is a pressure. If the viscosity is the same. why has mass replaced the volume? Viscosity. in the Einstein's tensor. we have a better knowledge of spacetime and the context is different.11 - 2 . as in the proposed theory.

4 Synthesis In this synthesis. . the mass effect is real too. This pressure force produces a “mass effect”.The Spacetime Model . of course. Wheeler's expression describes. a reality. Since spacetime is elastic. The same pressure force on the surface of two or more volumes tends to bring them closer to each other. on the following page. 3. “Closed volumes” curve spacetime. word for word. used on several occasions here. Mass is only an effect due to pressure from the curvature of spacetime produced by closed volume. doesn't mean gravity is a kind of "virtual effect". In other words.Mass and Gravity The connection between the constraint tensor and the stressenergy tensor clearly shows that: ! ! Spacetime is curved by closed volumes (not by masses) Gravity is a pressure force (not an attractive force) This conducts to the following equivalence: Gravity + concave curvature = Pressure force + convex curvature Figures 2-4 and 2-5. we will only consider closed volumes since open volumes do not produce a mass effect. show the difference between the two concepts. Since the spacetime curvature is quite real. but mass doesn't. this "mass effect" is. The reader must avoid misinterpretations of the word “effect” 2. Note: The term “effect”. and the spacetime curvature tells matter how to behave.12 - 2 . The whole phenomenon is summarized as follows: 1. This effect is “gravity”. It should be noted that volume exists physically. a pressure force (Hooke Force) appears on the surface of these closed volumes. the theory presented here: Closed volumes … tell spacetime how to curve itself.Part 1 .5 Wheeler's Intuition Mass and energy tell spacetime how to curve itself and the spacetime curvature tells matter how to behave. 4. 2. Let's note the intuition of the great physicist John Archibald Wheeler: If we replace “mass” by “closed volume”. 2.

Object Only volume physically exists.13 - 2 . Fig. Mass is an effect produced by the pressure of spacetime on closed volume.The Spacetime Model .Part 1 . 2-4 Proposed Theory (close to Wheeler's intuition) Closed volumes curve spacetime Spacetime elasticity Spacetime produces a pressure force on closed volumes 2 3 Gravity 1 Closed volume Mass effect 4 A mass effect due to the pressure of spacetime is associated with each closed volume. 2-5 . Mass does not exist per se.Mass and Gravity Current Theory = No Explanation Curvature of spacetime ??? (*) Gravity ??? (*) Volume Mass ??? (*) Object (*) No explanation Fig.

The curvature of the foam (spacetime) produces a pressure on the top of the ball.14 - 2 . this example clearly shows that mass physically doesn't exist. Mass is a simple effect due to the pressure of spacetime exerted on closed volumes. which increases.s-2 on the surface of Earth. A flexible EPP (expanded polystyrene) foam.The Spacetime Model . replaces spacetime. The result is the same. you will sense that the ball is heavier.Part 1 . 2-6). 2.81 m. mass is directly related to the pressure of the flexible polystyrene foam on the ball. instead of an attractive force made by mass.Mass and Gravity 2. The volume of this object produces a curvature of spacetime which exerts a gravity force on it.7 Equivalence principle The proposed theory fully explains the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass. . The acceleration due to gravity is g = 9. Fig. Earth has been omitted. in this figure. If you close yours eyes. Let’s consider an object on Earth (Fig. EPP Note: For teaching purposes. but the pressure on the top of it. imagine that you hold a very light polystyrene ball in your hand (fig. It is the volume of the ball that deforms the foam. It is not the mass of the ball. 2-6 As we see in this example. This is what is called a "mass effect".6 Example of mass and gravity In this example. toward Earth. 2-7). not its mass. This example also means that gravity is a pressure force produced by volume. Transposed to spacetime. which is curved by the ball.

So.15 - 2 . a local observer can’t say if the acceleration comes from the object or from the curvature of spacetime. 2-8A).Part 1 .81 m. 2-8). 2-7 since g = γ Fig. γ = 9. 2-7 Let’s now consider the same object which is accelerated out of gravity (fig. Since • • • g = 9.s-2 (fig. A B γ γ This figure is identical to fig. is supposed identical to g. γ. 2-8B). in this figure.81 m. 2-8 Without any reference. These examples uses the same object.81 m. figures 2-8A and 2-8B are identical and depend on where the observer stands. According to Einstein. 2-7) is identical to γ = 9. as described in Spacial Relativity. In other words: Gravitational mass = Inertial mass = Spacetime effect .Mass and Gravity g Note: For teaching purposes. In fact. 2-7) is identical to the “inertial mass effect” (fig. Fig. i. The acceleration.s-2 (fig.e. we deduce that the “gravitational mass effect” (fig. Therefore. by the closed volume) of the object is identical.s-2.The Spacetime Model . the curvature of spacetime produced by the volume (more exactly. Earth has been omitted. the “mass effect” produced by these curvatures will be the same.

This increase of pressure explains the apparent growth of the mass. This wellknown phenomenon is defined in Special Relativity but no one can explain it with logic. the “mass” of a particle remains unchanged.16 - 2 . As the velocity increases toward the speed of light c. Current Theory Direction of movement V=0 Proposed theory The particle curves spacetime m0 Relativistic speed V m= m0 1 – v2/c2 The speed of the particle produces a compression of spacetime.Mass and Gravity 2. It is its “mass effect” due to the compression of spacetime that increases. 2-9 Why ? No one can explain Therefore.8 Relativistic particles The mass of a particle increases when its speed approaches the speed of light. contrary to a preconceived idea: At relativistic speed.Part 1 . .The Spacetime Model . c. At relativistic speed. spacetime is compressed. the curvature of spacetime produced by the volume of the particle grows too. Fig. This phenomenon is identical to the opposition force produced by the pressure of air on cars which increases with speed (F=kv²). 2-9). The proposed theory solves this enigma with a great simplicity (fig. The pressure of spacetime on the volume of the particle increases. which gives us the illusion that the mass increases.

more exactly the “mass effect”. Closed volumes inside each atom of the tunnel (the nuclei and electrons) curve the spacetime located on the path of the particle.The Spacetime Model . However. the solution of this enigma is very simple. lets take the cubic system. in this figure. orthorhombic.Mass and Gravity 2. which is the simplest structure of a crystal. 2-10 No one can explain this strange phenomenon. therefore the “mass effect”. The only thing that increases is the spacetime density inside the tunnel of the crystal. to measure exactly the “mass effect” inside matter. . or at least very difficult.Part 1 . However.9 Crystals We know that the mass of a particle moving inside a crystal increases (fig. In this example. of a particle crossing a crystal increases too. This explanation is exactly in accordance with experimentation. Since a high density (or curvature) of spacetime produces an opposition force. the apparent mass. Note 1: The volume of the particle remains unchanged. considering that mass is an effect of the spacetime curvature. Therefore. triclinic. Note 2: The same phenomenon also exists inside matter different than crystals. M >m M Fig.. We can consider the lattice of a crystal as an array of “tunnels”. m (out of any mass) Note: For teaching purposes. it is impossible.17 - 2 .. Note 3: It would be interesting to calculate new solutions of the EFE with different kinds of Bravais Lattice: cubic. These metrics would be useful to predict the increase of the “mass effect” of a particle moving inside a particular crystal. structures. It is a necessity. 2-10). the density of spacetime will be higher inside the tunnel than outside the crystal. the mass of the particle has been increased. monoclinic. it is its "mass effect" which increases. In reality. The particle is moving inside one of these tunnels.

the spacetime will produce a pressure two times stronger over the pen than over the eraser in the pen/eraser-Earth context. the binding energy etc… has been ignored.Part 1 . we have an eraser and on our right. We will have two times more nucleons for the pen than for the eraser because all the mass is practically concentrated in nuclei. we consider that the volume of protons is identical to that of neutrons. the pen will produce twice more curvature of spacetime than that produced by the eraser. the mass of electrons. a “mass-effect”. the pen nucleons will have a total volume two times superior to those of the eraser. Since spacetime curvature = pressure. Therefore.10 Example of mass-volume equivalence1 x2 On our left. we obtain two "heaps" of nucleons. . in reality. which is the pressure exerted by spacetime on closed volumes. Since all nucleons have the same volume.999% of vacuum existing inside the atoms of the two objects. a pen that weighs two times more. Therefore. the pen will be two times heavier than the eraser.18 - 2 . x2 x2 p P x2 Fig. 2-11 This simple thought experiment demonstrates that what we call “mass” is. If we remove the 99.Mass and Gravity 2. Moreover.The Spacetime Model . 1 In this example.

The mass excess phenomenon is based on this ratio volume/surface. why it is negative in some nuclides. we must note that two objects. the figure (B) looks like (C). and null or positive in others.The Spacetime Model . The shape of the surface must also be taken into account because spacetime exerts a pressure on the surface of the volume. we consider a nuclide with 19 nucleons.11 The mass excess No one knows exactly the origin of the mass excess. this “closed volume” curves spacetime. the total volume is 19V and the total surface 19S. the mass effect of figure (C) is different from that of figure (A). The grey surface represents the enclosed volume between nucleons. In reality. 2-12 . Atom (B) The 19 nucleons are linked to make an atom. The proposed theory gives a rational and consistent explanation of this enigma. can have identical volumes with different surfaces. Now. Therefore. ! A B C Fig. Atom (C) From an external view.19 - 2 . we know that the “mass effect” is function of the volume which produces the curvature of spacetime. The Bethe-Weizsäcker formula is accurate but doesn’t explain this well-known but strange phenomenon. ! ! Independent nucleons (A) If the volume of a nucleon is V and its surface S. In the following example (figure 2-12).Mass and Gravity 2. Before going on.Part 1 . like a cube and a sphere. The global volume and surface are different than those calculated from the 19 independent nucleons (A).

12 Conclusion Current Theory Proposed Theory What is mass? No one knows Mass curves spacetime Why ??? Gravity is an attractive force between mass Why ??? Mass = closed volume Closed volume curves spacetime Gravity is a pressure force on volumes produced by spacetime Logical and consistent explanation of Mass and Gravity No explanation of these phenomena . depending of the arrangement of these nucleons.Mass and Gravity In all cases. it is obvious that. chapter 4. So.Part 1 . The calculation isn’t a simple multiplication followed by an addition. when two or more nucleons are linked. Note: More examples of the equivalence Mass = Closed Volume are described in Part 4. the overall volume and surface highlight minor differences. These differences are nothing but the mass excess (positive or negative) since “mass = closed volume”. we have 19 nucleons. 2. but the volume and surface are different.20 - 2 .The Spacetime Model .

it is possible to simulate spacetime with an EPP (expanded polypropylene) foam.1 Introduction Einstein demonstrated that spacetime has an elasticity behaviour and can be calculated from Fluid Mechanics. Two cylinders with a 2 cm in diameter Two Force Sensing Resistors (FSR) . trimmers. 3-1).The Spacetime Model . but a simple pressure force produced by spacetime on closed volumes (fig.. on the EPP foam. To conduct this experiment. a power supply. resistors. of a set of lines spaced 5 mm apart. 3. this experiment can be considered as a valid scientific simulation of mass and gravity. 2 cm thick A drawing. under the same conditions.21 - 3 . Fig.see the following paragraph Some basic tools such as a soldering iron. Indeed. a cutter.. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that gravity isn’t an attractive force between masses. Therefore.Part 1 . we need: . A few basic components such as wire..2 • • • • • • Basic material A piece of expanded polypropylene foam (EPP) measuring 30x21 cm. a multimeter. It always produces the same results. since spacetime and EPP follow the same rules. elasticity laws can be applied in both cases and the basic principle is identical.Validation by Experimentation 3 Validation by Experimentation The following experimentation can be repeated many times. Therefore.. 3-1 3.

3-4). part # SS-U-N-S-00015 (price = $1. 3-3 Fig.22 - 3 .007 to 7 bars. 3-3). 3-2) is a polymer thick film (PTF) device which exhibits a decrease in resistance with an increase in the force applied to the active surface. The two FSR’s used in these experiments are manufactured by the Interlink Company.4 Experiment #1 Experiment #1 shows that far from any mass. When a mass is placed on a FSR (fig.The Spacetime Model .Part 1 . 3-2 3. and the resistance decreases from 10 MΩ to 1 KΩ with an increase of force. Fig.00 each). 3-4 Since the weight of a mass is directly related to gravity (second Newton Law. The pressure ranges from 0. its resistance decreases to 35 KΩ. this experiment shows the following simple but important deduction: Decrease of FSR resistance = Presence of gravity . fig.3 The FSR A Force Sensing Resistor (FSR. Weight=mg).Validation by Experimentation 3. the resistance of a FSR is 10MΩ (open circuit. Fig. fig.

The pressure of the EPP foam (or spacetime) on both sides of the volume V1 is identical. FSR2 V1 C A D FSR1 B Fig. 3-6).The Spacetime Model . Figures 3-5 and 3-7 represent the first step of this experiment.Validation by Experimentation 3. 3-5 Fig. This setup is frequently used in strain gauge measurements. In order to get an accurate measurement and to use only one galvanometer in this experiment. 3-7 .Part 1 .23 - 3 . FSR2 V1 FSR1 FSR2 A R1 C FSR1 Vg B VR1 D Pressure of the EPP foam (= spacetime) on the two FSRs Fig. 3-6 The volume V1 is inserted in the EPP foam and the Wheatstone Bridge is adjusted by VR1 to obtain a zero voltage between the two midpoints A and B (fig. No current flows through the galvanometer Vg. the two FSR’s are inserted in a Wheatstone Bridge. Figure 3-6 represents the circuit diagram.5 Experiment #2 Two FSR’s measure the pressure produced by an expanded polypropylene (EPP) foam on each side of a volume V1.

We note a deviation on the galvanometer (fig. the galvanometer indicates no voltage (fig. 3-8 and 3-10).The Spacetime Model . V2.Validation by Experimentation Without changing anything. 3-10). FSR2 V1 V2 C A D FSR1 B Fig. Fig. with one volume. 3-9). is inserted near the first volume V1 (fig. it indicates a voltage proportional to the pressure produced by the second volume on FRS1 (fig. 38). which indicates an additional pressure on FSR1.4). 3-8 To summarize. With two volumes. a second volume. This force beetween V1 and V2 can be identified to gravity since "voltage on FSR = Presence of gravity" (paragraph 3.Part 1 .24 - 3 . 3-10 . 3-9 Fig.

he has not the financial possibility to conduct this experiment that requires some funds. therefore.Part 1 . 1 2 More exactly. 3-10). 3-11). At last. 1921. this experimentation also confirms that gravity is a pressure force exerted by volumes (not by masses) since mass of the cylinders is irrelevant. the FSR resistance decreases and.Validation by Experimentation 3. this experiment must be conducted by a laboratory and the scientific community. Experiment #1 (fig. Deduction: The voltage on FSR1 clearly shows that between V1 and V2 a force identical to gravity has appeared. page 247. Von Laue.25 - 3 . Replacing the spacetime elasticity with that of an EPP foam (fig.8 The Von Laue Diagram 2 The following thought experiment demonstrates that the proposed theory is in accordance with the Von Laue Diagram. can't actually perform this simple experiment3. The Author. Therefore.6 ! ! ! ! Conclusions Out of any volume (or mass). reported by Jean Eisenstaedt "Einstein and General Relativity". this simple experiment explains with consistency this strange phenomenon. Light Fig. 3-3 and 3-4) proves that a voltage on a FSR1 indicates a "presence of gravity". To increase accuracy. the voltage increases. due to practical limitations. 3-11 3. 3 This very simple experiment is not accurate with traditionnal EPP foam. The Author is a physics hobbyst and does not work in an institutional establishment. 3-9). 3. Only the volume of the cylinder is taken into account. When a second volume is inserted into the EPP foam the voltage of FSR1 increases (fig. the voltage in a Wheatstone Bridge is 0 V (fig.The Spacetime Model . page 226. .7 The light deflection Every physicist is familiar with the observation of the light deflection by the sun made by Sir Arthur Eddington and his collaborators during a total solar eclipse in 1919.

26 - 3 . It seems that in 1921. spaced 5 mm apart. We see that the Von Laue Geodesics match EXACTLY the concentric circles. 3-12A). Therefore. the lines are displaced since the EPP foam is elastic. So.Part 1 . The Von Laue Geodesics has been drawn over these circles.Validation by Experimentation A set of concentric circles. A B C Von Laue Geodesics 3◊3 GM/c² 2GM/c² 3GM/c² Fig. the Von Laue Diagram and the proposed theory conduct to the same results. In other words. has been drawn on EPP foam (fig. Von Laue predicted the proposed theory.The Spacetime Model . 3-12 These concentric circles have been duplicated in fig. . A volume is inserted in the middle (fig. It means that the two theories are based on the same principle. 3-12C. 3-12B).

Let’s examine these two expressions. the universal constant of gravity: K = [L3/M] G = [L3/MT²] We remark that K and G are two constants very close to each other. which has the dimensional quantity of [L3/MT²].s² for the proton ε = Strain ∆x/x0 G = Universal Constant of Gravity: 6.The Spacetime Model . . These two constants are simple constants of conversion. things are not so simple.67428.m k = 5.5704459. in Newtons P = Pressure. This chapter studies the mass-volume conversion equation. G.9239 x 1017 kg/m3 (CODATA 2006) K = 1. and G. On Earth. [1/T²].27 - 4 .3 Starting point In physics.1028 m3/kg.2 Conventional mass-volume conversion The volume-mass equivalence described in the preceding chapters may be expressed by an equation like (values for the proton): or m = k. The only difference is that G has an additionnal term.v v = K. in Pascals or N/m δ = Conversion constant: 1.6881 x 10-18 m3/kg The constants k and K have respectively the dimensional quantity of [M/L3] and [L3/M]. However. 4. K.10-11 4. the “traditional” volume-mass ratio.1 Abbreviations used in formulas [ML/T²] [M/LT²] [L3/MT²] [1] [L3/MT²] F = Force. we often use similar constants as “mass per unit volume". 4.Mass-Volume Conversion 4 Mass-Volume Conversion The purpose of chapters 4 to 6 is to validate the entire theory described in this document using mathematics. we use a constant.Part 1 .

4 The "mass effect" Let’s examine figure 4-1. a possible way of research for a new theory. mp . If such is the case. is the ratio between x and t. c. c = 300 000 km/s.Part 1 .28 - 4 . Object Fig.. it is not a basic constant but the value of a particular object. [1/T²].. must be taken with great care since many combinations of basic constants are possible. However. 4-1 Except with Planck Units tp. the ratio G/K must be another constant having the dimensional quantity of: If we consider that the mass per volume unit K is a constant... as 511 KeV for the mass of electron1. 2 This point of view. these units become references and replace G. In this case. 1 . h. which leads to a constant. can't be a basic constant2. considering that [L3/M] could not be constant. It is offered only as a suggestion. A basic constant can’t have only one value. nothing more. as [1/T²].Mass-Volume Conversion A basic constant is a ratio between two or more quantities. For example.. we are faced a problem since the second member of this equation. 4.. which is identical to figure 2-5. Closed volumes curve spacetime Spacetime elasticity Spacetime produces a pressure force on closed volumes 2 3 Gravity 1 Closed volume Mass effect 4 A mass effect due to the pressure of spacetime is associated with each closed volume. this point of view doesn’t change the reasoning stated above. the speed of light in a vacuum. c. If G = [L3/MT²] and K = [L3/M] are two basic constants.The Spacetime Model .

we must add an unknown term (constant or variable) having the dimensional quantity of [1/L²] : (4-8) We can transform [1/L²] in [1/T²] without changing anything. The dimensional quantity of (4-5) becomes: (4-6) or: (4-7) This equation reflects reality since it includes the surface component but it isn't homogenous.The Spacetime Model . or x² = c²t². Equation (4-8) becomes: (4-9) 1 K already includes a basic conversion constant without dimensional quantity .Part 1 . This formula can be written as: or: (4-4) (4-5) with K = volume per mass unit [L3/M]1. Let's return to the above equation (4-1).Mass-Volume Conversion On one hand. the mass effect would be proportional to: (4-1) (4-2) (4-3) This preliminary result is interesting. To render it homogenous. the "mass effect" must be inversely proportional to the surface S since the pressure exerted by spacetime on the object follows the rule P = F/S (the "mass effect" acts as a pressure). using the well-known formula x = ct.29 - 4 . Combining these two considerations. On the other hand. the "mass effect" M must be proportional to the volume V that produces the spacetime displacement.

8235 x 10-45 m3) δ = [L3/MT²] (δ for the proton = 1.68808 x 10-18 m3/kg Since V = 4/3 π R3. the formula (4-11) may also be written as follows: (4-12) Simplifying: (4-13) or: (4-14) As indicated in equation 4-3.s²) R = Radius (radius of the proton = 8. 4. assuming the proton spherical. and more precisely equation 4-10.6607 x 10-30 m²) δ4πR²/c² = Volume-mass conversion factor [L3/M] = 1.4. . the relation between R and M is linear.Part 1 .672622 x 10-27 kg) And: 4πR² = Surface (surface of the proton.5 Mass-volume conversion Deduction of paragraph 4.30 - 4 .Mass-Volume Conversion Rearranging the right member: (4-10) This is a second interesting result.768 x 10-16 m) M = Mass (mass of the proton = 1.The Spacetime Model .57045 x 1028 m3/kg. assuming it is spherical = 9. strongly suggest that the simplest form of an equation matching the process of figure 4-1 and including the surface component (4πR² = [L²]) could be: (4-11) Where (the following values concern the proton and may differ with other particles): V = Volume (volume of the proton = 2.

for a given element. the Fluid Mechanics to define ∆R by the well-known formula: 1 …perhaps because the deuteron isn't spherical . we have … x14. Since Einstein built his EFE from the Fluid Mechanics. the last line of the table calculates the ratio.34358E-27 2.cm-3. we must take into account ∆R. In reality. clearly shows that the Mass/Volume conversion isn't linear.67262E-27 8. 4. as we could expect.7 Calculation of the curvature of spacetime The variable R in equation 4-13 must not be interpreted as a radius but as a displacement of spacetime. Proton Mass M Radius R Volume V = 4/3 πR3 R/M (Radius/Mass) 1. ε. As we know. It confirms our previous result (equation 4-3. as we could think. However. that of iron is 7.24207E+11 Deuteron 3. Instead of x2.2211.4).543 1. ∆R is calculated from the coefficient of elasticity of spacetime. we can use. but 1.10631E-44 6. as Einstein. a constant without dimension. the elasticity of spacetime produces a force (or a pressure) on closed volumes. So.221 Considering that the mass is proportional to the volume.00.874 g. On Earth.999 2.82352E-45 5.999. this conclusion exactly matches equation (4-13) that we obtained in the previous paragraph.40092E+11 Ratio deuteron/proton 1. paragraph 4.76800E-16 2.5 !!!. a simple displacement doesn't produce a force.Part 1 . This value isn't 1. On the other hand. the mass per unit volume is constant. as on Earth. from CODATA 2006. CODATA values based on experimentation provide a first validation of the proposed theory. an "elastic displacement". Moreover. not "R" which is a simple displacement. R/M. the problem seems more complex for nuclear matter.Mass-Volume Conversion 4. For example. the volume of the deuteron must be twice that of the proton since the deuteron/proton mass ratio is 1.The Spacetime Model .6 Confirmation by experimentation The following table calculates some characteristics of protons and deuterons.31 - 4 . which is summarized as: (4-15) This table.14020E-15 4. Therefore.441 14.

Miller. a University of Washington physics professor.1028 m3/kg. v and s are aren't directly related to r. This result have an effect on δ.Mass-Volume Conversion (4-16) Since ∆R << R. However. and not from the deuteron.10-39 = [1] (4-22) Note: The product δε is constant but each term. posing1: (4-21) For the proton. led physicists to the conclusion that protons aren't always spherically shaped.The Spacetime Model . because the proton shape is supposed to be spherical. a recent experimentation conducted at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator by Gerald A. the logarithm can be replaced by its limited development: (4-17) (4-18) As previously indicated.s²= [L3/MT²] ε =1.v. (4-20) Since 3δε is a constant with the dimensional quantity of [L3/MT²]. Porting (4-18) in (4-13): (4-19) Without changing the formula (4-19). we can divide each member by a distance r to get the ratio of curvature of spacetime at point r located at a place outside of the mass M. Therefore.41664. Since some experimentation1 proves that particles aren't spherical. in this equation. equation (4-20) becomes.32 - 4 .57045. R must be interpreted as "the volume/surface ratio that determines the mass effect" rather than "the length of the radius". 1 .s…) with r = radius. is a variable f(r. the values for δ and ε are: δ = 1. we strongly suspect that this value is nothing but G.Part 1 . δ and ε. v = volume and s = surface etc…. These data are calculated from the proton.

1 Experimentation Before continuing. This experiment has been conducted using low cost basic material. A set of lines.00 and that anyone can conduct. As in chapter 3.The Schwarzschild Metric 5 The Schwarzschild Metric The purpose of this chapter is to validate the theory described in this document by retrieving the Schwarzschild Metric from the mass-volume formula (4-21 and 4-22). 5-2 . The results are shown in the following tables and graphs.Part 1 . See the following pages. 5-1 3 2 1 0 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Fig. is inserted into the foam (fig. despite this poor accuracy of measurement. Calculations are made on the assumption of a static non-rotating spherical symmetry mass with a weak fields approximation: x << r. we must know if the theory described in this document is in accordance with the Schwarzschild Metric. 5. A half cylinder. 5-1).The Spacetime Model . for example the cap of a milk bottle. a simple experiment. The purpose of this experiment is to demonstrate that a simple EPP foam can simulate spacetime and. For that purpose. However. 6 5 4 r Base Fig. The following curve (5-2) shows the variations of the space between two adjacent lines. is proposed. also simulate the Schwarzschild Equation. has been drawn on an EPP foam. which costs less than $2. the results of this experimentation are very interesting. This is why some lines aren't regular. the foam simulates spacetime. The gaps between two adjacent lines are then measured and plotted with ®Microsoft Excel. with a radius of 22 mm.33 - 5 . therefore. spaced 5 mm apart.

Table of figure 5-3 1.8 113.3 74.1 59.07 1.2 is a length.98 0. an arbitrary EPP foam coefficient (see §4.03 1.06 1.6 69. The following values are contracted in 2.34 - 5 .02 1.7) ∆R = εR = 0.03 1.04 1.4 26.3 84.02 1.6 118.02 1.09 1. not a mass.02 1.2 mm.02 1.2 35.05 1. 5-1 on the previous page).02 1.9 50. r 22 24.4 89.1.96 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Fig.2 108.08 1.The Schwarzschild Metric Experimentation with EPP foam r Distance measured between the base and the point of measurement “r” of the curvature of spacetime (see fig.02 1.03 1.2 38.5 99.9 64.4 123.02 1.10 1.5 94.02 y(r exp) The curvature of spacetime yr is calculated from the distance “r” measured in this experiment.4 32.02 1.1 x 22mm = 2.05 1.2/r is [1] since 2.08 1.07 1.3 41. The radius component of the Schwarzschild formula has been normalized to: (5-1) y(r exp) is the experimental calculation.06 1. 5-3 .04 1.4 79.8 45.04 1. Note: The dimensional quantity of 2.2 128 132.The Spacetime Model .03 1.00 0.2 with: R = 22mm (the radius of the cap of the milk bottle) ε = 0.5 104.9 y(r) 1.Part 1 .8 29.04 1.06 1.4 55.03 1.12 1.10 1.

4 24.) is: Table of figure 5-4 1. supposed to be 0.12 1.30 28.20 4.20 5. we are going to calculate the data on a mathematical basis. 1: "n" is the rank of each line ! Col.) (5-2) Col.80 78.07 1.98 0.10 1. ! Col.20 14. ! Col.70 11.80 87.80 51.35 - 5 . 1 Col.∆r y(r) 1.70 8. the distance between the base and the point of measurement of the spacetime curvature.03 1. is computed from ∆R and r0.05 1.80 132.30 55.20 13. 2 27 32 37 42 47 52 57 62 67 72 77 82 87 92 97 102 107 112 117 122 127 132 137 142 147 152 Col.02 1.1 in this simulation.03 1. The values are: ! Col.20 9. ! Col.30 37.70 6.80 96.00 0.30 64.80 69.30 118.The Schwarzschild Metric Theoretical calculation Now.70 3. 5 n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 r0 = 5n+22 ∆r = 0.02 1.70 15.30 91.08 1.96 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 25 Fig. ε.03 1.20 7.04 1. with an offset of 22 (22 mm. 3 2.70 4.80 Col. 3: ∆r.10 1.02 1.08 1.30 127.06 1. 5-4 .04 1.30 46.04 1.80 42.02 1.20 8.20 11.20 12.70 7.30 73.03 1. the curve of function y(r theor.80 123.30 109.80 33. apart.70 5.06 1.80 105.80 114.70 10.20 3.02 1.1 r0 r = r0 . is the radius of the closed volume).02 1.02 As in our previous example.70 12.02 1.05 1.70 13.20 Col.30 136. r. 4: Finally.30 100.02 1. is calculated using the elasticity of spacetime.70 14.20 10.02 1.04 1.70 9.Part 1 .80 60. 5: Result y(r theor.03 1.02 1. 2: Lines "r0" are spaced 5 mm. out of gravity. using the same formula as the precedent one (5-1).30 82.20 6.04 1.The Spacetime Model .02 1.

16 2.4 55. This experiment is very interesting because it proves.00 1 3 5 7 9 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 -10. 5-5 . which has been increased to 40 mm.90 1. We can also remark that the signature is changed from + to -. The table and the curve (fig.3 84.00 25 Table of figure 5-5 + - Fig.45 1.56 -2. 2.The Spacetime Model . 30. 5-3). It is only a question of a coefficient.1 59. one more time. to calculate a black hole behaviour.43 We get the behaviour of the Schwarzschild Equation around Rs.73 1.8 113.00 10.13 -7.51 1. the Schwarzschild Radius. the two tables and their associated graphics 5-3 and 5-4 are very close to each other.2 108. not by the mass.4 26. 5-1) and to its table and curve (fig.4 123.00 r = Rs 20. 5-5).4 32. a singularity appears (fig. (5-3) r 22 24.85 3.. In these two tables. as inside a black hole. that the curvature of spacetime is produced by the volume. 40 mm. is very close to that plotted from experimentation using a simple EPP foam (fig.77 -4.02 1.03 -2.2 38.48 1.63 2.3 41.Part 1 .5 104.81 1.54 1. only lengths have been considered.3 74. In particular.8 45. The curve calculated from the Schwarzschild Metric (fig.36 - 5 .9 64.5 99.62 1. This leads to two important conclusions: 1.65 3.00 -20.The Schwarzschild Metric Conclusions As we see. 5-3).9 y = f(r) -1.00 0.00 -30. is nothing but the Schwarzschild Radius Rs. 5-4).4 79. when the length of the curvature of spacetime ∆R is increased to 40 mm. during all these explanations. This value.22 7. volume (more exactly radius) replaces mass 5.58 1.67 1.53 23. their last column (in bold) are practically identical.8 29.2 35.4 89.5 94. not the mass. It is the radius.01 2.37 2.33 -22..78 4.6 118. In formula 5-1. 5-5) show an asymptote when r = 40 mm. Indeed.2 The Schwarzschild Radius Rs Let’s return to our experiment (fig.9 50.6 69.. Masses have been totally ignored.2 128 132.

Part 1 . The debate is ongoing. r can't be less than R. it is possible that particles of groups 2 and 3 of the Standard Model could be nothing but particles of group 1 in resonance. From a physical point of view. 5-6 B). 5-6 At last. That is in perfect accordance with the proposed theory. the "famous" black hole capture could be nothing but an ordinary Compton effect… A B Fig. . its behaviour could be identical to that of a black hole. In reality. If the light comes in r = R (fig. this possibility must be carrefully studied. the radius Rs should exist. the light is only deviated. This resonance increases the volume (the mass) of the particles but keep their charge unchanged (-1 in this example). In this case. 5-6 A). In the same manner. we must note the three following remarks (these remarks are only suggestions that are not proven): ! ! ! Since a particle (electron. 3-12) partially gives the solution to this enigma: ! ! ! Far from the volume that makes the displacement of spacetime (fig.. it is possible to have r < R. For this reason.3 Discussion concerning Rs Theoretically. In front of the volume.The Schwarzschild Metric 5. proton…) is a closed volume. 5-6 B). the tau could be an electron in a "level 2 resonance".The Spacetime Model . R beeing the radius of the particle or object.. the muon could be an electron in a "level 1 resonance". It follows the geodesic of spacetime. In that case.. the light is captured. From a mathematical point of view. For example. Near the volume (fig. In other words. but logically. the light turns around the object and doesn't have the possibility of escaping. it is possible that a resonance takes place if the circumference of the particle is a multiple of its wavelength. this is not certain.37 - 5 . What happens if an electromagnetic wave comes at a distance r = R? The Von Laue Diagram (fig. this point of view isn't obvious. the light comes in collision with the object (Compton Effect).

is: (5-4) Using this formula. 5-7 1 The term r²(dθ² + sin²θdφ²) doesn’t need an unknown function as A(r) or B(r) since the Schwarzschild Metric has a spherical symmetry 2 For example.S. we don't follow this rule because a simple number (“1” in this case) 1 doesn't have a dimensional quantity like c² [L²/T²] or G [L3/MT²].The Schwarzschild Metric 5.38 - 5 . 5-1) that becomes figure 5-7. In this document. expressed in a spherical coordinates. These two functions A(r) and B(r) have the form3: (5-6) 5. In that case. in spherical coordinates.5 The Schwarzschild Metric Let’s come back to our preceding simulation of (fig. . The Schwarzschild Metric is nothing but a Minkowski Metric. « Notes on General Relativity » . The details of calculations are described in many books concerning General Relativity2. we will calculate the Schwarzschild Metric using results from the proposed theory. However.The Spacetime Model .4 The Minkowski Metric The expression of the Minkowski Metric. the Einstein Vacuum Field Equations are employed and simplified. the term c² must be excluded from the Minkowski Metric (5-4). Note: in order to simplify equations. the result is the same. Carroll -. which comes from special relativity. Curvature Fig.Part 1 . with two unknown functions: A(r) and B(r)1: (5-5) To determine A(r) and B(r). 3 Some authors prefer writing A(r)B(r) = K with K=c². in both cases. some Authors also replace c² and G by 1.

elevating in square: (5-11) Developing the denominator (1 – ε)² = 1 . On the contrary. spacetime is flat far from any mass. if the upper line moves toward the central volume. an elementary radius drout approaching the central volume will be subject to the same increase of spacetime curvature: (5-9) Since ε << 1. spacetime is curved near a mass (more exactly near a closed volume in the proposed theory).2ε + ε² and ignoring the last term ε².Part 1 . the curvature of spacetime out of gravity (far from any closed volume). This phenomenon is exactly what figure 5-7 shows. What is the relation between Cout. replacing spacetime by an EPP foam. the curvature of spacetime near a closed volume? As we can see on figure 5-7. out and in a gravity field. and Cin.The Spacetime Model .39 - 5 .The Schwarzschild Metric As everyone knows. we can write the equivalent formula: (5-10) or. its curvature increases. Therefore. we obtain: (5-12) . The two lines in bold on figure 5-7 simulate with a great realism the curvature of spacetime. and the mass by a volume. The relation between two adjacent curvatures Cout and Cin is: (5-7) or (5-8) where: ! Cout is the curvature of spacetime out of gravity (in a flat space) ! ε is an elementary increase of spacetime curvature (ε = ∆Cout/Cout) ! Cin is the curvature of spacetime toward the volume.

Part 1 . equation (5-5) becomes: (5-15) The curvature of spacetime. The calculation of B(r) is immediate.40 - 5 . This demonstration also confirms Einstein’s Point of view: “The universe is very simple”. And with the help of few elementary mathematical manipulations. expression of A(r). ε.The Spacetime Model . taking into account that A(r)B(r) = 1 (formula 5-6). i.The Schwarzschild Metric This result is nothing but the coefficient of dr² in formula (5-5). the proposed theory demonstrates that the Schwarzschild Metric can be easily obtained ! ! ! With few logical deductions.00. replacing ε by GM/rc² in equation 5-15 leads to the well-known Schwarzschild Metric: (5-17) As we see. Hence: (5-13) (5-14) So. .e. Conducting a simple experiment which costs less than $5. is given by formula 4-22 which is re-written as follows: (5-16) Finally.

is the "gravitational potential" since: ! ! ! ! U(r) is a continuous function. with E having the dimensional quantity of [ML²/T²] : (6-2) Formula (6-1) is constructed on the same principle: (6-3) The only difference is that U(r) has the dimensional quantity of [L²/T²] instead of E = [ML²/T²].41 - 6 . equation (6-3) may be written as: (6-4) This formula. 6.e. i. It can be derivated.1 The Potential Equation (4-20) indicates the relationship between mass and the curvature of spacetime: (6-1) In quantum mechanics. U(r) → 0. . which is a solution of the Poisson’s equation. we have the following equivalence. If r → ∞.Part 1 . its expression varies as "1/r". And its dimensional quantity is that of a gravitational potential: [L²/T²].The Spacetime Model . Finally.The Newton Law 6 The Newton Law This chapter calculates the first Newton Law from the conversion formula of chapter 4.

these variables depend of many parameters. (6-5) Since we are in a spherical symmetry. as in formula (4-21): (6-9) For the proton. as proven by the table of paragraph 4-6 (proton-deuteron ratio). . the surface and the radius (remember that. applying the Newton Second Law (F = mg) to equation (6-7) gives the well-known Newton Formula: (6-8) with.10-39= [1] Note: The product δ x ε is constant but each term isn't.The Newton Law 6. Parameters which enters in the construction of δ and ε are mainly the volume.2 The Newton Formula Derivating formula (6-4) gives an gravitational field which is actually equal to the gravitational acceleration.s²= [L3/MT²] ε =1.The Spacetime Model .57045.Part 1 . the volume isn't proportional to the surface). the values for δ and ε are: δ = 1.41664. for two objects having different shapes.1028 m3/kg.42 - 6 . the nabla operator is reduced to: (6-6) The gravitational field then becomes : (6-7) Finally.

he devised the two experimentations described in chapters 3 and 5. the author predicted that an EPP foam could have the same behaviour than spacetime. Newton Laws .I - Complements Complements Predictions The gravity formulas (Schwarzschild Metric. …and also prove that the displacement of spacetime is produced by a volume (the cap of the milk bottle). Results also prove that it is the volume. 4. Replacing spacetime by an EPP foam Following the first publication of his theory in 2005. or at least very difficult. we obtain the same results.Part 1 . not by a mass. …and that the pressure force measured with the two FSR's is identical to gravity.. . the Schwarzschild Radius. The first experimentation in chapter 3 proves that the curvature of the spacetime is not produced by masses but by volumes.. not the mass.) are not modified by the proposed theory and results of experimentations concerning this new theory and general relativity are identical. its mass theoretically must increase since the density of spacetime have an influence on the “mass effect”. So. Particle behaviour near a surface The proposed theory demonstrates that the spacetime density increases near closed volumes. The proposed experimentation could highlight a very light difference of the mass of a particle moving near and far a massive surface. So. when a particle is moving near atoms or molecules. 1. Therefore. a thought experimentation with r = rs. has been described using an EPP foam. to conduct an experimentation verifying the proposed theory. 5. Finally.The Spacetime Model . 3. These two experimentations prove that when we replace spacetime by an EPP foam. which produces the spacetime curvature. it is impossible. The curves of chapter 5 are identical to those of the Schwarzschild Metric. 2.

. Mass and gravity... the measurement of the "mass effect" of a particle depends of the position of the moon during the experimentation..www.com\matter..pdf Part 5 .. Constitution of Matter . the author had to solve three enigmas: 1..spacetime-model..com\electromagnetism.pdf Part 4 .. This new theory is confirmed by experimentations. 1 However. How an e+e..The Spacetime Model ...II - Complements The moon influence The curvature of spacetime produced by the moon is added or subtracted to that produced by Earth.. like water/water in our example....www.Constitution of Matter Before understanding the constitution of matter..pdf Part 3 .. Quarks and Antimatter ...com\forces. we should note different data... a drop of water can be transformed into a wave.e..... it is not impossible that the curvature of spacetime could produce an infinitesimal perturbation of EM field. if two experimentations measuring the mass of a particle are conducted a) when the moon is at zenith and b) 12 hours after..www..pdf Note: Some informations included into parts 3 to 5 are nor proven and must be taken with reservation....spacetime-model... the Universe .. The solving of this enigma conducts to the knowledge of the constitution of matter and EM waves.www.com\mass... 3.. 1 Partitioning the theory The five parts of the Spacetime Model can be downloaded at the following URL addresses: Part 1 .www. if the particle and the wave have same constitution..... Electromagnetism . For example... Therefore..pair can be transformed into two gammas of 511 KeV. Why electromagnetic waves have a constant speed of 300 000 km/s. So.spacetime-model. How to explain the wave-particle duality from a scientific point of view.. ... all the particles must be re-caculated to eliminate the effect of the spacetime curvature due to Earth..e....spacetime-model....... how matter is transformed into waves and the converse.Part 1 . far from any mass which could perturb the measurement: Moon. Forces...pdf Part 2 . Sun etc…. i. The same phenomenon exists in physics: Waveparticle duality..com\quarks... 2....... This enigma is solved in only one case. The only real mass of a particle must be that calculated out of any gravitational field..spacetime-model..... If this prediction is verified......... Part 2 . i... Earth.

mesons... baryons etc. Part 4 . its electric field has a spherical symmetry. can be made with only two basic particles: electrons and positrons. exactly 2A.III - Complements Part 3 – Quarks and Antimatter Quarks This part demonstrates that we need two positrons to make three u quarks. we can deduce that antimatter is not located at the bottom of the universe but right before our eyes. the C12 is made of 24 electrons and 24 positrons. when a charged particle is motionless. The calculation is fully explained in this Part and is 100% accurate for all 2930 known isotopes. A simple calculation demonstrates that any atom is made up of an equal number of electrons and positrons. Its 1D space is transformed into a 2D/3D space. Antimatter From this discovery.Electromagnetism The mystery of the wave-particle duality solved in Part 2 leads to a full knowledge of electromagnetism. embedded in u and d quarks. it becomes a wave and its spherical symmetry disappears. taus. Finally. This phenomenon is quite simple to understand. A magnetic component (2D/3D) is added to the electric field (1D) of the particle. muons. This phenomenon is exactly what experimentation proves (∆q/∆t).The Spacetime Model . When it moves. with A = atomic number. . antiquarks. A u quark with an electron becomes a d quark (please note that the rule of addition of fermions is covered in Part 4). the latter being embedded in quarks. d quarks. This deduction. In short. antimuons. has been extended to all particles.Part 1 . u quarks. For example. from the wave-particle duality and spacetime.

Forces. produce a recall force toward the center of the particle.Part 1 . much more credible than the “Big-Bang”. electroweak and strong nuclear force) in two generic forces: the Coulomb Force and the Hooke Force. Unification of forces This part unifies the three basic forces (gravity. Part 5 offers two suggestions. The writing of the Spacetime Model has been done entirely on his own money and time. In reality. with no help from the scientific community. Contact You can contact the author1 by email at: diaverre@orange. Jacky JEROME Résidence Le Kennedy 4 square Kennedy 42120 LE COTEAU (France) 1 The author is a physics hobbyist and does not work in an institutional establishment. The Universe A suggestion regarding the creation of the universe is proposed. which surround other particles as a spacetime wave. please let him know.fr or writing to: M. the Universe Nuclear force Electrons or positrons. regarding the creation of the universe. the BigBang Theory does not explain the “electron mystery" discussed in Part 5. . This force is nothing but the "strong nuclear force". like a rubber band.The Spacetime Model .IV - Complements Part 5 . If you find some error in this document.

..........................................................8 The Von Laue Diagram .... 22 3.................................................................................................................................. 20 3............................................................................................................4 Experiment #1 ...................................................8 Example: Atoms ........7 Classes of volumes ....................... 3 1................................................................. Mass and Gravity 2............................................................... 17 2................................................................................................................. 21 3....... 12 2.................................................................................................................. 23 3................................................................ I – IV 1....................................................... 25 ............................................................................5 Experiment #2 ....................................2 Basic material ..........................5 Wheeler's Intuition........ 7 2.......... 25 3... 2 1....................... 22 3...... 7 1.......................... 9 2.............2 Principle of split ....................................8 Relativistic particles ............... Open and Closed Volumes 1........12 Conclusions ................... 6 1.9 Crystals ................... 19 2.............................................................1 Principle of gravity ...........3 Stress-energy tensor..................V - Complements Table of content Introduction.............................Part 1 ......................... 14 2............................6 Einstein Field Equations............... 4 1............................................................................5 Mass-volume equivalence.............11 The mass excess ..2 Basic concept...........................................7 Equivalence principle ................................................................. 1 1.............................................. 18 2.........................................................................................9 Conclusions ........................................3 Current theory of spacetime curvature ...1 Introduction .......................................................................................................... 5 1.............................................The Spacetime Model .......................................................................... 3 1....................................4 Synthesis....... Validation by Experimentation 3........................1 Starting points......... 14 2............................. 25 3........................................... 21 3.....................................10 Example of mass-volume equivalence .........................................4 Explanation of spacetime deformation............................................................................................................7 The light deflection......................................................... 10 2....................................................................................... 16 2...........6 Example of mass and gravity........................................................ 10 2..........................3 The FSR........6 Conclusions .................. 12 2....

.................................. 42 Complements.......Part 1 ....... 27 4... 30 4........5 Mass-volume conversion.........1 Abbreviations used in formulas...................................................................IV ............. 38 5...........................................................4 The Minkowski Metric......................2 The Schwarzschild Radius Rs .....................................................5 The Schwarzschild Metric....................2 The Newton Formula...... The Newton Law 6.....................3 Discussion concerning Rs............................................................................. Mass-Volume Conversion 4.................................................................. I .........................................1 Experimentation .....4 The "mass effect"............... 31 4... 27 4..............................................1 The potential...............................7 Calculation of the curvature of spacetime .......................... 41 6...... The Schwarzschild Metric 5.............................................................................................. 38 6............. 31 5..............3 Starting point ................................ 33 5............. 37 5.............................................................................................2 Conventional mass-volume conversion...........6 Confirmation by experimentation........................... 36 5.......................................................The Spacetime Model ........................................................ 27 4....... 28 4.............................................................VI - Complements 4.................................

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd