HYPERSPACES
PURE
AND APPLIED
MATHEMATICS
Textbooks, and Lecture Notes
A Program of Monographs,
EXECUTIVE Earl J. Taft Rutgers University New Brunswick, New Jersey
EDITORS Zuhair Nashed University of Delaware Newark, Delaware
EDITORIAL M S. Baouendi Universi~ of California, San Diego Jane Cronin Rutgers Universi~ Jack K. Hale Georgia Institute of Technology S. Kobayashi University of California, Berkeley Marvin Marcus University of Calrlfornia, Santa Barbara W. S. Massey Yale University
BOARD Anil Nerode Cornell Universify Donald Passman University of Wisconsin, Madison Fred S. Roberts Rutgers University GianCarlo Rota Massachusetts Institute of Technology David L. Russell Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University Walter Schempp Universitat Siegen
Mark Teply University of Wisconsin, Milwaukee
MONOGRAPHS AND TEXTBOOKS PURE AND APPLIED MATHEMATICS
IN
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K. Yano, Integral Formulas in Riemannian Geometry (I 970) S. Kobayashi, Hyperbolic Manifolds and Holomorphrc Mappings (I 970) V. S. Vladimirov, Equations of Mathematical Physics (A. Jeffrey, ed.; Littlewood, trans.) (1970) B. N. Pshenichnyi, Necessary Conditions for an Extremum (L. Neustadt, translatron ed.; K. Makowskr, trans.) (1971) L. harici er a/., Functional Analysis and Valuation Theory (I 971) S. S. Passman, Infinite Group Rings (1971) L. Domhoff, Group Representation Theory. Part A: Ordinary Representatron Theory. Part B: Modular Representation Theory (1971, 1972) W. Boofhby and G. L. Weiss, eds., Symmetric Spaces (1972) Y. Mafsushima, Differentiable Manifolds (E. T. Kobayashr, trans.) (1972) L. E. Ward, Jr., Topology (1972) A. Babakhanian, Cohomological Methods in Group Theory (1972) R. Gilmer, Multiplicative Ideal Theory (I 972) J. Yeh, Stochastic Processes and the Wiener Integral (I 973) J. BarrosNero, Introduction to the Theory of Distributions (I 973) R. Larsen, Functional Analysis (1973) K. Yano and S. lshihara, Tangent and Cotangent Bundles (1973) C. Procesi, Rings with Polynomial Identities (1973) R. Hermann, Geometry, Physics, and Systems (I 973) N. R. Wallach, Harmonic Analysis on Homogeneous Spaces (1973) J. Dieudonnt!, Introduction to the Theory of Formal Groups (1973) /. Vaisman, Cohomologv and Differential Forms (I 973) B.Y. Chen, Geometryof Submanifolds (1973) M. Marcus, Finite Dimensronal Multilinear Algebra (in two parts) (1973, 1975) R. Larsen, Banach Algebras (I 973) R. 0. Kujala and A. L. Vitter, eds., Value Distribution Theory: Part A; Part Deficit and Bezout Estimates by Wilhelm Stall (1973) K. 8. Stolarsky, Algebrarc Numbers and Diophantine Approxrmation (1974) A. R. Magid, The Separable Galois Theory of Commutative Rings (1974) B. R. McDonald, Finite Rings with Identity (1974) J. Satake, Linear Algebra (S. Koh et al., trans.) (I 975) J. S. Go/an, Localization of Noncommutative Rings (1975) G. Klambauer, Mathematical Analysis (1975) M. K. Agosfon, Algebraic Topology (I 976) K. R. Goodearl, Ring Theory (1976) L. E. Mansfield, Linear Algebra with Geometric Applications (1976) N. J. Pullman, Matrix Theory and Its Applicatrons (1976) B. R. McDonald, Geometric Algebra Over Local Rings (I 976) C. W. Groetsch, Generalized Inverses of Linear Operators (1977) J. E. Kuczkowski and J. L. Gersfing, Abstract Algebra (1977) C. 0. Christenson and W. L. Voxman, Aspects of Topology (1977) M. Nagata, Field Theory (1977) R. L. Long, Algebraic Number Theory (1977) W. F. Pfeffer, Integrals and Measures (1977) R. L. Wheeden and A. Zygmund, Measure and Integral (I 977) J. H. Curtiss, Introduction to Functions of a Complex Variable (1978) K. Hrbacek and T. Jech, Introduction to Set Theory (I 978) W. S. Massey, Homology and Cohomology Theory (I 978) M. Marcus, Introduction to Modern Algebra (1978) E. C. Young, Vector and Tensor Analysis (I 978) S. 8. Nadler, Jr., Hvperspaces of Sets (I 978) S. K. Segal, Topics.in Group Kings (1978) A. C. M. van Roofi, NonArchimedean Functional Analysis (1978) L. Corwin and R..Szczarba, Calculus in Vector Spaces (I 979) C. Sadosky, Interpolation of Operators and Singular Integrals (I 979)
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J. Cronin, Differential Equations (1980) C. W. Groefsch, Elements of Applicable Functional Analysis (1980) 1. Vaisman, Foundations of ThreeDimensional Euclidean Geometry (1980) H. /. Freedan, Deterministic Mathematical Models rn Population Ecoloav (1980) S. B. Chae, Lebesgue Integration (1980) C. S. Rees el al., Theory and Applications of Fourier Analysis (1981) L. Nachbin, Introduction to Functional Analysis (R. M. Aron, trans.) (1981) G. Orzech and M. Drzech, Plane Algebraic Curves (1981) R. Johnsonbaugh and W. E. F’faffenbefger, Foundations of Mathematical Analysrs (1981) W. L. Voxman and R. H. Goetschel, Advanced Calculus (1981) L. J. Corwin and R. H. Szczarba, Multivanable Calculus (? 982) V. /. Isfr~fescu, Introduction to Linear Operator Theory (1981) R. D. Jiirvinen, Finite and Infinite Dimensional Linear Spaces (1981) J. K. Beem andP. E. Ehrlich, Global Lorentzian Geometry (1981) D. L. Armacost, The Structure of Locally Compact Abelian Groups (I 981) J. W. Brewer and M. K. Smith, eds., Emmy Noether: A Tribute (1981) K. H. Kim, Boolean Matrix Theory and Applications (I 982) T. W. Wieting, The Mathematical Theory of Chromatic Plane Ornaments (1982) D. B. Gauld, Differential Topology (I 982) R. L. Faber, Foundations of Euclidean and NonEuclidean Geometry (1983) M. Carmeli, Statistical Theory and Random Matrices (1983) J. H. Carruth et a/., The Theory of Topological Semigroups (I 983) R. L. Faber, Differential Geometry and Relativity Theory (1983) S. Earner?, Polynomials and Linear Control Systems (1983) G. Karpilovsky, Commutative Group Algebras (I 983) F. Van Oystakyen and A. Vefschor&, Relative Invariants of Rings (1983) 1. Vaisman, A First Course in Differential Geometry (1984) G. W. Swan, Applications of Optimal Control Theory in Biomedicine (I 984) T. Petrie and J. D. Randall, Transformation Groups on Manifolds (1984) K. Goebel and S. Reich, Uniform Convexity, Hyperbolic Geometry, and Nonexpansive Mappings (1984) T. Albu and C. NiQt&escu, Relative Finiteness in Module Theory (I 984) K. Hrbacek and T. Jech, Introduction to Set Theory: Second Edition (I 984) F. Van Oystaeyen and A. Verschoren, Relative lnvanants of Rings (1984) B. R. McDonald, Lrnear Algebra Over Commutative Rings (I 984) M. Namba, Geometry of Projective Algebraic Curves (1984) G. F. Webb, Theory of Nonlinear AgeDependent Population Dynamics (1985) M. R. Bremner et a/., Tables of Dominant Weight Multiplicities for Representations of Simple Lre Algebras (1985) A. E. Fekete, Real Linear Algebra (1985) S. B. Chae, Holomorphy and Calculus in Normed Spaces (I 985) A. J. Jerri, Introduction to Integral Equations with Applications (1985) G. Karpilovsky, Projective Representations of Finite Groups (I 985) L. Nariciand E. Beckenstein, Topological Vector Spaces (1985) J. Weeks, The Shape of Space (1985) P. R. Gnbik and K. 0. Kortanek, Extrernal Methods of Operations Research (1985) J.A. Chao and W. A. Woyczynski, eds., Probability Theory and Harmonic Analysis (1986) G. D. Crown et a/., Abstract Algebra (1986) J. H. Carruth et a/., The Theory of Topological Semigroups, Volume 2 (1986) R. S. Doran and V. A. Belfi, Characterizations of C*Algebras (I 986) M. W. Jeter, Mathematical Programmrng (1986) M. Alfman, A Unified Theory of Nonlinear Operator and Evolution Equations with Applications (I 986) A. Verschoren, Relative Invariants of Sheaves (1987) R. A. Usmani, Applied Lrnear Algebra (1987) P. B/ass and J. Lang, Zariski Surfaces and Differential Equations in Characteristic p > 0 (1987) J. A. Reneke et a/., Structured Hereditary Systems (1987) H. Busemann and B. B. Phadke, Spaces with Distinguished Geodesics (1987) R. Harte, lnvertibility and Singularity for Bounded Linear Operators (1988)
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G. S. Ladde ef al., Oscillation Theory of Differential Equations with Deviating Arguments (I 987) L. Dudkin et a/,, Iterative Aggregation Theory (1987) T. Okubo, Differential Geometry (1987) D. 1. Stancl and M. L. Stancl, Real Analysis with PointSet Topology (1987) T. C. Gard, Introduction to Stochastic Differential Equations (19881 S. S. Abhyankar, Enumerative Combmatorics of Young Tableaux (19881 H. Strade and R. Famsteiner, Modular Lie Algebras and Their Representations (1988) J. A. Huckaba, Commutative Rings with Zero Divisors (1988) W. D. Walks, Combinatorial Designs (19881 W. Wi@aw, Topological Fields (1988) G. Karpilovsky, Field Theory (I 988) S. Caenepeel and F. Van Oystaeyen, Brauer Groups and the Cohomology of Graded Rings (1989) W. Kozlowski, Modular Function Spaces (1988) f. LowenColebunders, Function Classes of Cauchy Continuous Maps (I 989) M. Pave/, Fundamentals of Pattern Recognition (I 989) V. Lakshmikantham ef a/., Stability Analysis of Nonlinear Systems (1989) R. Sivaramakrishnan, The Classical Theory of Arithmetic Functions (19891 N. A. Wafson, Parabolic Equations on an Infinite Strip (1989) K. J. Hastings, Introduction to the Mathematics of Operations Research (1989) B. Fine, Algebraic Theory of the Bianchi Groups (1989) D. N. Dikranian era/., Topological Groups (1989) J. C. Morgan II, Point Set Theory (1990) P. Eiler and A. Witkowski, Problems in Mathematical Analysis (1990) H. J. Sussmann, Nonlinear Controllability and Optimal Control (I 990) J.P. Florens e? a/., Elements of Bayesian Statistics (1990) N. She//, Topological Fields and Near Valuations (1990) B. F. Doolin and C. F. Martin, Introduction to Differential Geometry for Engrneers (1990) S. S. Ho//and, Jr., Applied Analysis by the Hilbert Space Method (1990) J. Okninski, Semigroup Algebras (I 9901 K. Zhu, Operator Theory in Function Spaces (I 990) G. 6. Price, An Introduction to Multicomplex Spaces and Functions (I 991) R. 8. Darsr, Introduction to Linear Programming (I 991) P. L. Sachdev, Nonlinear Ordinary Differential Equations and Their Applications (1991) T. Husain, Orthogonal Schauder Bases (1991) J. Foran, Fundamentals of Real Analysis (I 991) W. C. Brown, Matrices and Vector Spaces (1991 i M. M. Rao andZ. D. Ren, Theory of Orlicz Spaces (1991) J. S. Golan and T. Head, Modules and the Structures of Rings (1991) C. Small, Arithmetic of Finite Fields (1991) K. Yano. Comolex Alaebraic Geometrv (1991) D. G. Hoffman et a/.,Coding Theory (1991) . M. 0. Gonzdlez, Classical Complex Analvsis (I 992) M. 0. Gondlez; Complex Analysis (1992) L. W. Baggeff, Functional Analysis (I 992) M. Sniedovich, Dynamic Programming (1992) R. P. Agarwal, Difference Equations and Inequalities (I 992) C. Brezinski, Biorthogonality and Its Applications to Numerical Analysis (1992) C. Swarfz, An Introduction to Functional Analysis (1992) S. B. Nadlef, Jr., Continuum Theory (1992) M. A. AlGwaiz, Theory of Distributions (19921 E. Peny, Geometry: Axiomatic Developments with Problem Solving (1992) E. Castillo and M. R. RuizCobo, Functional Equations and Modellinq in Science and Engineering (1992) A. J. Jerri, Integral and Discrete Transforms with Applications and Error Analvsis (1992) A. Charlier et a/., Tensors and the Clifford Algebra (1992) P. Bile/ and T. Nadzieja, Problems and Examples in Differential Equations (1992)
E. Hansen, Global Optimization Using Interval Analysis (1992) S. GuerreDe/abri&re, Classical Sequences in Banach Spaces (1992) Y. C. Wong, Introductory Theory of Topological Vector Spaces (1992) S. H. Kulkarni and B. V. Limaye, Real Function Algebras (1992) W. C. Brown, Matrices Over Commutative Rings (1993) J. Lousfau and M. Dillon. Linear Geometry with Computer Graphics (1993) W. V. Petryshyn. ApproximationSolvability of Nonlinear Functional and Differential Equations (1993) 172. E. C. Young, Vector and Tensor Analysis: Second Edition (1993) 173. T. A. Eick, Elementary Boundary Value Problems (I 993) 174. M. Pave/, Fundamentals of Pattern Recognition: Second Edition (1993) S. A. Albeverio er a/., Noncommutative Distributions (1993) 175. 176. W. I%/&, Complex Variables (1993) M. M. Rao, Conditional Measures and Applications (1993) 177. 178. A. Janicki and A. Weron, Simulation and Chaotic Behavior of aStable Stochastic Processes (I 994) P. Neirraanmgki and D. Tiba, Optimal Control of Nonlinear Parabolic Systems 179. (1994) Differential Equations: Introduction and Qualitative Theory, Second 180. J. Cronin, Edition (I 994) 181. S. Heikkil.+’ and V. Lakshmikanrham. Monotone Iterative Techniques for Discontinuous Nonlinear Differential Equations (1994) 182. X. Mao, Exponential Stability of Stochastic Differential Equations (1994) B. S. Thomson, Symmetric Properties of Real Functions (1994) 783. 184. J. E. Rubio, Optimization and Nonstandard Analysis (1994) 185. J. L. Bueso et a/., Compatibility, Stability, and Sheaves (1995) 186. A. N. Michel and K. Wang, Qualitative Theory of Dynamical Systems (1995) 187. M. R. Dame/, Theory of LatticeOrdered Groups (1995) 188. Z. Naniewicz and P. D. Panagioropoulos, Mathematical Theory of Hemivariational Inequalities and Applications (1995) 189. L. ./. Corwin and R. H. Szczarba, Calculus in Vector Spaces: Second Edition (I 995) 190. L. H. Erbe er a/., Oscillation Theory for Functional Differential Equations (1995) 191. S. Agaian et a/., Binary Polynomial Transforms and Nonlinear Digital Filters (1995) 192. M. /. Gil’, Norm Estimations for OperationValued Functions and Applications (1995) 193. P. A. Griller, Semigroups: An Introduction to the Structure Theory (1995) 194. S. Kichenassamy, Nonlinear Wave Equations (1996) 195. V. F. Krorov, Global Methods in Optimal Control Theory (I 996) 196. K. /. Beidar er a/. , Rings with Generalized Identities (1996) 197. V. 1. Arnaurov et a/, Introduction to the Theory of Topological Rings and Modules (1996) 198. G. Sierksma, Linear and Integer Programming (1996) 199. R. Lasser, Introduction to Fourier Series (1996) 200. V. Sima, Algorithms for LinearQuadratic Optimization (1996) 201. D. Redmond, Number Theory (1996) 202. ./. K. Beem et a/., Global Lorentzian Geometry: Second Edition (1996) 203. M. Fonrana et a/., Prijfer Domains (1997) 204. H. Tanabe, Functional Analytic Methods for Partial Differential Equations (1997) 205. C. Q. Zhang, Integer Flows and Cycle Covers of Graphs (I 997) 206. E. Spiegel and C. J. O’Donnell. Incidence Algebras (1997) 207. 8. Jakubczyk and W. Respondek, Geometry of Feedback and Optimal Control (I 998) 208. T. W. Haynes et a/., Fundamentals of Domination in Graphs (1998) 209 T. W. Haynes er a/., Domination in Graphs: Advanced Topics (1998) 210. L. A. D’Alorro et a/., A Unified Signal Algebra Approach to TwoDimensional Parallel Digital Signal Processing (1998) 21 1. F. HalrerKoch, Ideal Systems (1998) 212. N. K. Govil et a/., Approximation Theory (I 998) 213. R. Cross, Multivalued Linear Operators (1998) 214. A. A. Marrynyuk, Stability by Liapunov’s Matrix Function Method with Applications (I 998)
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A. Favini and A. Yagi, Degenerate Differential Equations in Banach Spaces (1999) A. Manes and S. Nadler, Jr., Hyperspaces: Fundamentals and Recent Advances (1999) G. Kafo and D. Struppa, Fundamentals of Algebraic Microlocal Analysis (1999) Additional Volumes in Preparation
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HYPERSPACES
Fundamentals and Recent Advances
Alejandro
Wanes
Autdnoma Mkxico de Mbxico
Universidad National Ciudad Universitaria,
Sam B. Nadler, Jr.
West Virginia University Morgan town, West Virginia
MARCEL
DEKKER, INC.
NEW YORK  BASEL
ISBN: O824719824 This book is printed on acidfree paper. fax: 446 l26 l8896 World Wide Web http://www. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means. Postfach 8 12. Inc. write to Special Sales/Professional Marketing at the headquarters address above. and recording. Current printing (last digit) 10987654321 PRINTED IN THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA . fax: 2 126854540 Eastern HemisphereDistribution Marcel Dekker AG Hutgasse 4. microfilming. CH400 I Basel. Switzerland tel: 446 I26 I8482. NY 10016 tel: 2 126969000. 270 Madison Avenue. All Rights Reserved. Headquarters Marcel Dekker. or by any information storage and retrieval system. For more information. without permission in writing from the publisher. Inc. Copyright0 1999 by Marcel Dekker. electronic or mechanical.com The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. including photocopying.dekker. New York.
To Margarita and Elsa .
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see HS (pp. The book is replete with exercises that we hope will enable the reader to gain a deeper understanding of material and more facility with techniques. p. selections.). We define some concepts differently than in the literature so as to obtain the most appropriate formulations for theorems (e. Nadler.1 and the theorem in 17. In contrast. HS was written more as a research monograph than as an introductory text. Jr. the exercises are therefore an integral part of the book. We provide proofs for almost all results in the first six chapters and for many results in the remaining chapters. We also include material about symmetric products. the definition in 13. The first six chapters are solely concerned with the fundamentals of hyperspaces. For a brief history of hyperspaces up until 1978. either incorporated into the main body of the text or at the ends of sections. Inc.g. A number of exercises contain new ideas. and comments. The book is reasonably selfcontained. The book contains historical comments and references to original sources.7 compared with the original version of the theorem in HS. by Sam B. we have written this book as a text. Marcel Dekker. xiixiv). Moreover.. applications. interesting sidelights. as well as a reference. we sometimes discuss the ideas V . The remaining chapters include more specialized material. The first book on hyperspaces was written in 1978 and is referred to here as HS (Hyperspaces of Sets. we devote all of Chapter II to basic examples. 79).Preface We wrote the book with two purposes in mind: to present the fundamentals of hyperspaces in a pedagogically appropriate way and to survey the research aspects of the field. Examples abound throughout the book.. When we do not prove a result. where X is a continuum. providing a basic overview of the subject and a foundation for further study. spaces of segments and spaces of Whitney levels. containment hyperspaces. The book emphasizes the hyperspaces 2” and C(X). the detailed verifications of the properties of the examples in Chapter II put the techniques used on a solid basis.
We express our gratitude to several people for their help: Janusz J. we include basic material (usually with proofs) that is not specifically about hyperspaces: absolute retracts and Zsets (section 9)) Peano continua (section lo). we felt it was time to survey the research in hyperspaces that has occurred since HS appeared. who were always patient and helpful. the term Question a question or problem whose answer is not known (at least by us). who helped us search the literature. we include complete details for the especially important solution to the dimension problem (section 731. and we ask them to let us know so that we can include their papers in a subsequent printing of the book). The first two sections of the last chapter quote the questions from HS and discuss their current status. Other notation is explained as it comes up. boundary bumping (section 12). etc. The final section discussesmore questions. cl is usually used when the expression over which we are taking the closure consists of several letters and/or symbols (however.). New developments have begun. especially Maria Allegra. who read the manuscript and gave us many beneficial suggestions.vi PREFACE involved in the proof. The last chapter is wholly concerned with questions. We cover the results in Chapter VIII. Therefore.. we limit our treatment of these topics to ideas and results used in hyperspaces. The table at the end of Chapter VIII gives the reader a bird’seye view of the resultsand their relations to eachother. and the product problem (section 79). Gerard0 Acosta and Fernando Orozco. we do not mix the two ways of denoting closure in the sameproof. we always refer to the literature where a proof can be found. and general theorems concerning the fixed point property (section 21). the nod problem (section 70). Fklix Capulin. A tremendous amount of research has been done on hyperspaces in the past twenty years. who patiently and diligently did a splendid job typing a large portion of the book. the characterizations of Class(W) (section 671. and the students Daniel Arkvalo. For example. We do this beginning with Chapter VII. or Problem refers to Starting with Chapter VII. and many of the almost two hundred research questions in HS have been partially or completely answered. the people at Marcel Dekker. definition. Furthermore. Benjamin Es . Charatonik and Sergio Ma&s. covering recent research thoroughly. The most active research topic in hyperspaces has been Whitney properties and Whitneyreversible properties. Joann Mayhew. Typographical considerations lead us to use X as well as cl(A) (or cl~(A)) to denote the closure of A. Of course. Inc. Our general notation is standard. After the references for the last chapter is a list of the papers concerned with hyperspaces that have appeared since 1978 (we apologize to those whom we overlooked in our search of the literature. a number of which are original with this book.
. Jorge Martinez. L6pez. We also thank the Instituto de Matematicas of the Universidad National Autbnoma de Mexico. Fanny Jasso. for the use of resources during the preparation of the book. Ver6nica Martinez de la Vega. and the Mathematics Department of West Virginia University. Fernando Orozco. who took a one year course based on the manuscript for the book. Mercado. We express our gratitude to Gabriela SanginCs for formatting the final version of the book.PREFACE vii pinoza. Sim6n. Patricia Pellicer and Likin C. Jr. Maria de J. It is our hope that the book will serve well as a text to attract people to the field and that researchers will find the book valuable. Alejandro Illanes Sam B. Albert0 C. Nadler.
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........... The General Notion of a Hyperspace ................................ Lconvergence...... Exercises .............. Relationships between Lconvergence and Tvconvergenece When X Is Compact Hausdorff . 2............ Proof That Hd Is a Metric ...........Contents Preface V Part I.......................... ix ..... Specified Hyperspaces ........... 4......... References ...................................... Exercises .... A Result about Metrizability of CL(X) .. TVconvergence .............................. The Hausdorff Metric H..... Metrizability and Compactness of CL(X) Exercises ............ 22 25 26 26 28 1..... Exercises ............ Countable Compactness Is Necessary ...........................J ............................ Metrizability of 2x .. 3.............. One The Topology for Hyperspaces 3 3 5 6 7 9 11 12 14 16 16 ......... Convergence in Hyperspaces ......... Metrizability of Hyperspaces ...................... Topological Invariance ....... 18 19 20 20 ........................
.. The CurtisSchori Theorem ............................ References ........ Exercises ..... Zsets... Knaster’s Question .................. 11............................. Cones......... Geometric Cones .. Preliminaries: General Results about Peano Continua ...... Structure Theorem . Torunczyk’s Theorem Exercises ........... The Model for 2’ .... Exercises ..... C(X) for Certain Finite Graphs X ........... Historical Comments ................................ XaNoose ... X a Simple Closed Curve ........ 2x When X Is Any Countably Infinite Compacturn .... X a Simple nod .... 6..... Uniqueness of Compactifications ...... C(X) When X Is the Hairy Point .............................................. Preliminaries: Absolute Retracts........ 2’ and C(X) for Peano Continua X 33 33 35 36 39 44 44 46 50 51 51 53 59 59 62 64 65 65 67 67 70 72 72 75 9............................................... III............ 7...............X II.......... References ................. Cantor Sets ..................................................................... 76 79 80 83 85 85 89 90 91 94 ............... Exercises ...................... Exercises ......... When C(Y) x Cone(Y) ....................... C(X) When X Is the CirclewithaSpiral............... The Model for C(X) ................... The CurtisSchori Theorem for 2x and C(X) .. XanArc ................... Exercises . 8....................... Preliminary Results ....... 10............................................ and CK(X) Are Zsets ........ Examples: TABLE OF CONTENTS Geometric Models for Hyperspaces 31 5............... ............... Exercises ............. When 2................. Further Uses of Torunczyk’s Theorem ........................
.. 13............ Kelley’s Notion of a Segment ..... S.. A Brief Introduction to Whitney Maps Definition of a Whitney Map Exercises . Arcs in Hyperspaces xi 97 12...................... 14............ Arcwise Connectednessof 2x and C(X) Application: 2’ > I”O ............... 17..................... Kelley’s Segments ......... Exercises ...... ..... Addendum: Extending Whitney Maps ..... Original Sources .............. Exercises ............................... Application: Homogeneous Hyperspaces .... S........ 140 141 141 Mapping the Cantor Fan Onto 2x and C(X) Original Sources ..............(C(X)) Application: .... Results about Segments ................ Necessary and Sufficient Condition ............. When X Is a Peano Continuum ............................ 15....................... Exercises ...(Z’)...... Existence of an Order Arc from As to Ai ......TABLE OF CONTENTS IV....... 97 103 105 105 106 108 110 110 110 114 116 117 119 119 122 124 124 127 127 128 131 132 132 134 134 136 138 ..... .................. Spacesof Segments................. Quasicomponents......................................... Exercises ....................S..... . ......... Order Arcs and Arcwise Connectedness of 2x and C(X) Definition of Order Arc .....................................................(E) Compactness ..................... Existence of Whitney Maps ........... 16......................... .............. Exercises .. Original Sources ....... Preliminaries: Separation........................... .....(R) M 8(B) S.. . Original Sources .... Boundary Bumping .....................................
_ . _ . Exercises ... 186 .. .... . ... .... . .. . .. .... . . . . .. 2’ and C(X) as Nested Intersections .. .. . .... . . C(X) Are Acyclic 2’..... ...... . . Preliminaries: Brouwer’s Theorem... ...... .... .. ... and Contractibility of Hyperspaces of ARs ... .. Lokuciewski’s Theorem .... . . . ... .. . . The Characterization Original Exercises References V. . ... . .... . .. . ... . ... .. .. .. . X Homogeneous .. References ... .. . . Uniqueness of Arcs in C(X) When X Is Hereditarily Indecomposable .... 159 160 161 161 164 164 166 167 168 173 175 176 177 . .... .. .. . ...... . .. . . ... When C(X) Is Uniquely Arcwise Connected .. . .. . 153 155 155 157 2’... .... ....... .. ... ... .. Theorem about Property (K) ... . .. ... . .. X Hereditarily Indecomposable ..xii TABLE OF CONTENTS 18.. .... .. .. ... .. ... ...... .. . ... ... Universal Maps....... . .... ........ . ..... . ..... ..... ... .......... Property (K) (Kelley’s Property) . . .. .. . .. .... 143 145 Structure of Arcs in C(X) When X Is Hereditarily Indecomposable . .. . .. ... 186 Exercises . 146 148 148 148 149 153 .. . . 19.. .. ........ . . . ... ..... . Contractible Hyperspaces The Fundamental Theorem .. . ... . . Original Sources . .... . ..... . .... . .. .. 2’. .. .. . . . Shape Sources Theorem ... . .. .. Hyperspaces and the Fixed Point Property 181 21...... . .. . .. . . . X Contractible.. ...... ........ .. . . .. C(X) Original Exercises Levels in C(X) Are Unicoherent ... ... .... ... . .. . . VI..... . . ..... .. C(X) Whitney 2’.... . ..... .. . . ... ...... .. . 181 Original Sources .... . C(X) Are crANR. . ... .. .. ......... Have Trivial Sources .. . X Peano. .... 20.. ... . .. ..... ... ..... ... .. ..... .. . Are Continua Shape .... .... ... ...
A Metric on Hyperspaces Defined by Whitney Maps .... ............ Exercises ......................................... 24............................. 26.. ................... Circlelike Continua ..................... Two 205 205 206 207 215 216 225 227 227 228 Whitney Maps 23. ................................ Peano Continua.... Dendroids ........ Open and Monotone Whitney Maps for 2’ Exercises ....... 28......................... Addendum: Dim[C(X)] > 2 .................. Exercises . Admissible Whitney Maps ..... Arclike Continua.. Exercises ............ Whitney Properties and WhitneyReversible Properties 27............. 231 231 233 234 236 238 239 239 245 ........ Aposyndesis ...... Hyperspaces with the Fixed Point Property ............... Exercises .............................. 29............................ Original Sources .......... References ................ x111 187 187 187 190 192 193 196 196 197 197 199 Part VII.. Exercises .... ....................TABLE OF CONTENTS 22............ VIII....... Exercises ...... Hereditarily Indecomposable Continua ....... Exercises ....... 25.................................................................................................. A General Theorem ........... Existence and Extensions ....... ................................. 30.....................................ANR ........... References ................................... Definitions .................. AR ................ Exercises ...
46............................................... Being Atriodic 245 246 247 247 251 251 253 253 256 257 257 259 259 259 259 260 261 262 262 264 265 265 265 Exercises ............. 32........................................xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS 31....... 33.............. Fundamental Group ................... Irreducibility 267 267 268 268 269 270 270 271 271 271 272 273 Exercises ..... Exercises 42................ Exercises ....................... ............. Exercises ... 43.. Class(W) and Covering Property ....... .. 44....... 35............... Acyclicity ... CircleLikeness ............... 49.............. Exercises . Exercises ...... Exercises 40............... .................. Exercises ......... Contractibility .. Arcwise Connectedness ..................................................................... ArcSmoothness ........................ Being a Circle ............................................................. ................. 45........... 276 . Exercises ......... Cone = Hyperspace Property .................... Homogeneity Exercise ....................... Being an Arc ...... ............ 36........... Chainability (ArcLikeness) .......... Fixed Point Property ............... 48........................................................ Tech Cohomology Groups. C*Smoothness........................................................ Dimension .......... 37..................... Cut Points ...... 39.................... Decomposability Exercises ......................... ............................. Convex Metric ............ Exercises 47...... .. Exercises ......... 34.. Exercise . ..................... 41.. Exercises 38.. Exercises ......................................................................
IX..................................... Shape of Continua ... Exercises ........ ........ 319 325 Whitney Levels .............................................. 58............. 61.... R3Continua Exercise ......... Class(W) ............... 51........ and Covering .............. Kelley’s Property ...... ...... XConnectedness . Exercises Table Summarizing Chapter References .. ......... 56. Span... Exercises 60.... VIII 59..... PseudoArc ............................ Exercise 57.................... ......... Finite Graphs Exercises ....................... Continua ........... C*Smooth....... 52............................. TreeLikeness 64...................................... ..................... Exercises Exercises 54.......... Solenoids ....... PseudoSolenoids and the PseudoCircle ......... ............................................................ 62........................................ 66.................. Rational .............. PLikeness Exercises .............. 63............ Local Connectedness ............TABLE OF CONTENTS 50................................ Unicoherence ............. ... .................................. ........... ........ Exercises ............... Absolutely Exercises ... Spaces of the Form &(X.............................. 53.................................. xv 276 278 279 280 281 281 281 283 283 284 284 285 286 286 286 286 287 287 287 287 290 291 292 292 293 ....... t) Are ARs Exercises 67..... ............... nConnectedness ..... .... Planarity Exercises 55..... 65............. 294 299 305 305 313 314 Property 318 .....................................................
..... ...... ..... ............... General Properties of Hyperspaces 69...... ............... .... Selections .. Exercises References ..... Admissibility Maps Preserving Hyperspace .. 326 ..... More on Contractibility of Hyperspaces .... ..................... Dimension 72... ... . . .... Contractibility .... 9 ... .............................. Dimension of C(X) for aDimensional Continua X . .................. ....... 390 395 395 .......... 1 ....... ................... Smoothness in Hyperspaces R3Sets ... 387 ........ ....... 403 76.... .. 70..... .. 371 ............................ More on Contractible Hyperspaces Contractibility vs......................... 381 . of C(X) XI...... Previous Results about Dimension of Hyperspaces ......... Exercises 77.. 368 .... ..... . 363 ............ XIII............. Exercises 74.. ...... References . ........................ 379 . Special Types of Maps 75....... ....... XII....... . Retractions between Hyperspaces . ............. ....................... 78.............. Exercises ........xvi TABLE OF CONTENTS 68............ 71.............. Holes in Whitney Levels ........ . ..................... 342 344 345 347 ... References . . Spaces of Finite Subsets .... 395 399 400 402 ....... . .. SemiBoundaries ........ Dimension of C(X) for lDimensional References ....... Induced Maps ................. 347 348 349 357 358 359 X............. Exercises between Continua X Hyperspaces ....... Neighborhoods of X in the Hyperspaces Exercises ...... Cells in Hyperspaces ............................. Exercises 73... ... Exercises ... 329 333 333 336 337 341 .......
......... Questions 81............ .................... Universal Maps .............................. XV.......................... General Spaces ......... ZSets ........................................... ................ Wrinkles.. Exercises References ................................... Geometric Models ................ Symmetric Products Size Maps ..... Unsolved and Partially Solved Questions of [56] ............ References ................... 79............... Exercises .....TABLE OF CONTENTS More on Kelley’s Property ......................... Exercises 80........ xvii 405 406 408 413 413 414 415 421 423 424 431 434 437 437 463 470 470 471 471 471 472 473 473 473 474 478 497 499 Symbols ........ More Questions . ....... More on Hyperspaces and Cones .. 82......................... Hyperspaces Which Are Products .............. Products................................................. Folds... Aposyndesis .................................... References ... Solved Questions of [56] ..................... .. Proof of the Main Theorem ........................ Literature Special Index Related to Hyperspaces of Continua Since 1978 .......... XIV..... 83..................... The Space of Whitney Levels for 2x ...................... Cones and Hyperspaces .....................
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HYPERSPACES .
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Part One .
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Exercise 1.) = {A E CL(X) : A c lJ~==. Then Bv is a base for TV. .. . First. T) be a topological space. 1. The Topology Hyperspaces The General Notion for 1. The Vietoris topology for CL(X) is the smallest topology. of X. for TV as follows.13). Let (X. 1. Let (X. We may exhibit a base. of a Hyperspace Let X be a topological space with topology T. we exclude the empty set 0 from being a point of a hyperspace.2 Theorem.. 3 . A hyperspace of X is a specified collection of subsets of X with the Vietoris topology (which we will define in 1. let (Sl.I... to avoid pathology. and {A E CL(X) : A c B} is TVclosed whenever B is Tclosed.Si and A II Si # 0 for each i}. T) be a topological space. . S. which we now define.. the largest hyperspace of X is CL(X) = {A c X : A is nonempty and closed in X} with the Vietoris topology.1 Definition.) : Vi E T for each i and n < oo}.. Bv = {(VI. and let ..1). Thus.. S. note the following general notation: For any finitely many subsets Sr . U. we restrict our attention to hyperspaces whose points are closed subsets of X (cf. for CL(X) having the following natural property: (4 E CL(X) : A C U} E TV whenever U E T. . Also. For convenience. TV. Bv.
it suffices to prove that the intersection of any two members of S is a member of Bv. To seethat 13~ c S*. U n W E Bv. . Vi)). W. it suffices to prove that S* = Bv. .. W assume that U = (VI. WI n U. Hence. . Uk n W. Thus. U2) = This completes the proof that S’ c Bv. m < 00. U.U) for U E T. we prove that S’ c Bv. .).4. since & is a collection of subsetsof CL(X). .1 says that TV is the smallest topology for CL(X) containing all the sets of the forms (U) and (X. n U). of all finite intersections of members of S is a base for TV. (x. which means that the family. .. . Finally. then U n W E Bv. U2 E T): (I) (2) (u. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES Proof. we see that nE = CL(X). Uk) and W = (WI. To prove this. letting S = {(U) : U E T} U {(X. .) of the base 0~. however. it is easy to check that U n w = (VI n W.. S*. . (Note: If & denotes the empty subcollection of S. the definition in 1.2 leads us to think of the Vietoris topology in a geometric way.U) : U E T}. E Bv. First. . . Hence. In other words. Let U = Ut=.B). Wi E T and k. we prove that if Z. . VI. U. then.) We show that the intersection of any two members of S is a member of BV in (l)(3) below (where UI. Wdmu2). W n (x. Wi. W. Therefore. u2).(X. E T(n < oo) and simply observe that Wl. n The theorem in 1. . ..Ui and let W = Uz”=.4 I.. where Vi. Then. {A E CL(X) : A c B} = CL(X) . . {A E CL(X) : A c U} = (U). The sets that are used to define TV in 1. to prove that S’ c Bv. Un) = (ULW fl (q=1(X. . clearly. . . as in Figure 1 (top of next page). . . let VI.) (ud n n (u2) Ku2) = (uln = u2).X . nE E S*. which implies that n& E BV since CL(X) = (X)... the collection S is a subbase for TV. where A and B are points in the same member (VI. . (3) (x. .1 can be expressed using the notation for the members of BV as follows: for any U E T and any Tclosed set B. . .
Um)) = (h(U.. h’ maps CL(X) into CL(Y).. . we seethat h* is onetoone. Define a function. is open in X...TOPOLOGICAL INVARIANCE 5 A. h‘(B) Since h is onetoone. where each U. we seethat h’ is continuous. the proof of the second one usesthat h is onetoone and maps X onto Y and that h is continuous): (1) (h*)‘((Wr. hence. = (h‘(W~). then CL(X) x CL(Y). . on CL(X) as follows: h*(A) = h(A) for each A E CL(X).u5) Figure 1 Topological Invariance invariance of We prove the fundamental theorem about the topological CL(X). The symbol M means “is homeomorphic to.. is ..W. the fact that h is continuous. we seethat h” is an open map and. where each IV. Let h be a homeomorphism from X onto Y.” 1. and 1. .h‘(W.)) open in Y.. Proof.)). ..2. and 1.. Since h is a closed map.)... h’. (2) h*(W. By (l).3 Theorem. Now.. moreover. h(Um))..B E (&.. h’ maps CL(X) onto E CL(X) and h*(hl(B)) = B. CL(Y) since for any B E CL(Y).2. note the two equalities below (the proof of the first one usesonly that h is a closed map. . the fact that h is an open map. If X x Y.. By (2). that (h*)’ is continuous.
.. X. C(X) = 2x n CLC(X).3 is false.6 Definition. For example. 1. 2x = {A c X : A is nonempty and compact}. which we consider as a subspace of CL(X) or 2”. In particular.7 Definition. 1.2. 2x = {A E CL(X) : A is compact}.6 I.3.4 Definition. seesection 77 (where h* is denoted by 2h and h’ /C(X) is denoted by C(h)).(X) = {A c X : 1 5 IAJ 5 n}.8. We also note that when X is Hausdorff. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES Therefore. much more satisfying examples come from 8.(X) is called the nfold symmetric product of X. results about the fixed point property for hyperspaces can be proved using this idea (see section 22). For more information. etc. . let F.5 Definition. Starting with Chapter II. indiscrete spaces.10 and 11. Specified Hyperspaces By considering simple topological properties .10. (Al denotes the cardinality of a set A. each of the hyperspaces has the subspace topology obtained from the Vietoris topology on CL(X). For each n = 1. Assume that X is a Tispace. We note that 2x = CL(X) when X is compact. Also.we are led to consider hyperspaces that consist of sets having one or more of these properties. CLC(X) = {A E CL(X) : A is connected}.compactness. the book is almost exclusively about the two hyperspaces 2x and C(X) when X is a compact metric space. . However. we have proved that h* is a homeomorphism from CL(X) onto CL(Y). 1. the nfold symmetric product of X and the Cartesian product . Symmetric products provide a simple way to obtain interesting spaces. We introduce some of these hyperspaces in 1.3 (regarding 8.15). I The converse of 1. . The idea of forming h* from h when h is continuous is an important idea in hyperspace theory. We comment about the proof of 1. the lfold symmetric product of X is also called the space of singletons (note Exercise 1.41. Of course.connectedness. This is easily seen by letting X and Y be nonhomeomorphic. 1. recall that a Tlspace is a topological space. C(X) = {A E 2dY : A is connected}. For the next definition. seethe secondparagraph of section 8). . in other words. The space F. such that (2) is closed in A’ for each 2 E X.
(0.1. CL(X) is a Tospace. . = U~i.. If X = Y.11 Exercise. (Y.3 maps the hyperspace ?&(X) onto the hyperspace ?&(Y).2} with the topology T consisting of the sets X. there exists U E T such that yi E U and ?/j $ U for some choice of i and j. I}.) 1.0.i for each i = 4. In fact.19 and 78.20. prove that . What familiar space is (CW). 0. the homeomorphism h’ in the proof of 1.9 Theorem. . We conclude this section by noting that the topological invariance of CL(X) in 1.2}.3 is also true of each of the hyperspaces in 1. (Recall that a Tospace is a topological space. . then ‘tli(X) z ‘&(Y). TV) when X = (0.41.(X). then CL(X) is a Tispace. Let (X. We call An open problem and related results about F(X) are in 78.26. we did not consider the hyperspace N(X) because it almost always fails to have decent separation properties. 1. 1. The Vietoris topology for CL(X) extends naturally to what we would call the Vietoris topology for N(X): simply replace CL(X) with N(X) throughout 1. TV)? Describe the space (CL(X). such that for any ~1. and let N(X) = {A c X : A # 0). let F(X) F(X) the space of finite subsetsof X. converse is false. and { 1).20. For any topological space X. For a Tispace.8: 1.8 (we assumethat X and Y are Tispaces when i = 7 or 8). 1) with the topology T = {X.13 Exercise. see 78. (0)). ~2 E Y with yi # ~2. The Let (X.19 and the comment following 78. T) be a topological space.EXERCISES 7 of n copies of X are usually quite different. However. This is true even when X is a simple metric continuum and n = 2. Basic open questions about symmetric products are in 83. If X is a Tispace.1183.T).. X.10 Exercise.T) be the Sierpinski twopoint space: X = (0. Proof. 1. see Exercise 1. where ‘&(.12 Exercise.8 Definition. For example. n Exercises 1. 1.14. also. { 1.X) and xi(Y) are the hyperspaces of X and Y defined in 1.F. For each i.
19 Exercise. If X is a regular space. then F. For any Ui . then X M Fi(X). and let K be a closed subset of CLK(X) = {A E CL(X) : A > K}. X. If X is a normal space. 1.8 I. If X is a Trspace. . If X is a Hausdorff space. then CL(X) is a Hausdorff space. T) is a discrete 1. (TIY)v = Ty]CL(Y). . then X is separable if and only if CL(X) is separable. then F. T) is a Tispace is only used to prove containment in one direction. CL(X). then X is a regular space.(X) is closed in CL(X) for each n = 1. the Vietoris topology for CL(Y) obtained from the subspace topology for Y is the same as the subspacetopology for CL(Y) obtained from the Vietoris topology TV for CL(X). using juxtaposition with vertical lines to denote subspace topologies. E T (n < Cl((Ul.18 Exercise. m).21 Exercise. hence.... If X is a Tispace.20 Exercise.) 1. If X is a connected Trspace. 1. (Note: the proof of the “if” part usesthe Axiom of Choice. such that Fl (X) is not closed in CL(X). CLK(X) Let X be a Tispace. is connected 1. Give an example of a Tispace. . is closed in CL(X). then CLC(X) is closed in 1. 1. TV) and ??.22 Exercise.) 1. . . denotes the Tclosure of Vi for each i.. CL(X) is connected. Then.. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES N(X) with its Vietoris space.(X) for each n. . T) be a Tispace. Let (X. Let Then. 1. In other words..14 Exercise. .. T) be a topological space. and let Y be a closed subset of X. UT&)) = (~l. . If CL(X) is a Hausdorff space and X is a Tispace. Let (X.cL) where cl denotes the closure operator for (CL(X). (Note: The assumption that (X.15 Exercise.16 Exercise.2. lJ.. X. .17 Exercise. . topology is not a Tispace unless (X.
24 Exercise. that is. 1. there exists b E B such that d(a. This assumption would not cause any loss of generality since every metric can be replaced by a bounded metric .. 2. .4. We can solve this problem by assuming that d is a bounded metric for X. then there is no real number r satisfying (a). A and B. 153 of [6] that the spacesX are almost always assumedto be Tispaces. Let X be the subspace of the plane R2 consisting of the interval [1. Let S’ denote the unit circle in the plane R2 (i. . of the Vietoris topology. for example.~) with the point (1. Figure 1 suggests that we consider the “Vietoris distance” between A and B to be lessthan a real number. 11. Find a subset. 411. Now.5 of [7. Then. of the plane R2 such that Z M 1.1 of [6] in 0. this assumption was not taken into account when the comment was made about 2. 162 (cf. It would then be natural to define the “Vietoris distance” between A and B to be equal to the infimum over all real numbers T satisfying (a) and (b). l] x [0. there exists a E A such that d(b. l] on the yaxis.6 of [7. However. The Hausdorff Metric Hd In Figure 1. If you read [6].. Fz(S’) is homeomorphic to the quotient space obtained from [0. l] by identifying the point (0. A is not bounded and B is bounded. 2.25 Exercise. let us assume that X has a metric. that induces the topology on X. 2. b) < r. 1. of Euclidean Sspace R3 such that 2 M Fz(X). . THE HAUSDORFF METRIC Hd 9 1. respectively).a) < T.26 Exercise. there is an apparent technical problem with the definition just proposed: If. (b) for each b E B. 156 and 4.66. V. Remark. You should also be careful to remember the standing assumption on p.B E CL(X).).66. WR’). Then F2(S1) is a Moebius band. which is defined by u(A. l] on the saxis and the interval [0. of CL(X) to be in the same basic open set.y) for each 9 E [0. (x denotes Cartesian product). p. 40411 and [8 or 91. p. (Vi. is continuous. you should be aware of two errors: (c) on p.3 on p.y) E R2 : x2 +y2 = 1)). r.l .23 Exercise. 0. d.B) = A U B for each A. The union map u : CL(X) x CL(X) + CL(X).e. provided that A and B satisfy the following two similar conditions: (a) for each a E A. 5 we illustrated what it means for two points. pp. Some of the results in the exercises above are in [6]. Find a subset.2. S’ = {(z.5.
Of course.A). Hence.10 I. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES that induces the same topology for the space (e. respectively.. A) < T} (Figure 2). even on assuming that d is a bounded metric for X. A) the generalized open dball radius r. 1451.A) let = inf {d(z.B) and B c Nd(r. We will call the “Vietoris distance” the Hausdorff metric since it was first considered by F. d) be a metric space. Let (X. A) Figure 2 . Nd(r. For any r > 0 and any A E CL(X). Nd(r. p. Hausdorff [3.a) let : a E A}.g. But first let us provide convenient notation and repeat the definition of the “Vietoris distance” in terms of the new notation. We call Nd(r. in X about A of Note that (a) and (b) above say that A c Nd(r. we still have to check that the “Vietoris distance” is actually a metric. the following definition is simply a reformulation of what we referred to as the “Vietoris distance” from A to B. For any 3: E X and any A E CL(X). A) = {x E X : d(z. d(z. 2111). p. replace the metric d with the bounded metric D = d/(1 + d) [4.
1 Definition. B) + E.B E CL(X) such that Hd(A.2. d) be a bounded metric space. A = B. A) for all A. B E CL(X). We begin by noting that. Then.B) for all E > 0. Since b E B. If (X. E B for each n = 1. . c) < Hd(A. Hence. d) is a bounded metric space. since {b. c) < Hd(B. L) + E. C E CL(X). there exists b.PROOF THAT Hd Is A METRIC 11 2. that Hd is a symmetric function. indeed. c). C) + 2~. we have proved that A c B. which is denoted by Hd. Let a E A. L E CL(X) Now. B) = Hd(B.1. . A) = 0 for all A E CL(X) . 2.1. Hence.Hd(A. Hd(A. A c N~(E. For this purpose. Then. B) + Hd(B. it is useful to have the following fact (which is an elementary consequence of definitions): (#) for any K. we seeby using (#) again that there exists c E C such that (2) d(b. there exists b E B such that (1) d(a.B E CL(X). By (l). a metric. such that d(p. B) = inf {r > 0 : A c Nd(r. We next observe.M < l/n. Thus. by (#).2 Theorem. L). It only remains to prove the triangle inequality for Hd. Hd(A.B) = 0. since d is a bounded metric. and E > 0.1.then Hd is a metric. Therefore. (2). b) < Hd(A. The converse . by 2. we have that (3) d(a. We prove that c) 5 &(A. p E B. The Huusdorff metric for CL(X) induced by d. K C Nd(Hd(K.. Hd is a realvalued (nonnegative) function. Proof That Hd Is a Metric We prove that Hd is. and the triangle inequality for d. in other words. B. Let E > 0. assume that A. &(A. Let (X. fixing p E A.}~zl converges to p and B is closed in X. B) + Hd(B. Proof. as is evident from 2. A similar argument shows that B c A. let A. A)}. .follows immediately from 2. B) and B c Nd(r. Now. is defined as follows: for any A. C) + E.
A). (6).. and 2.3 Lemma.. Un) for the Vietoris topology. Recall from the second paragraph of the proof that Hd is a symmetric function. Now. then DA # a. c) + 2E. there exists a. we may rewrite (5) as follows: (6) c C Nd(Hd(A. In particular. However. n A Result about Metrizability of CL(X) The discussion at the beginning of the section shows how the idea for the Hausdorff metric arises naturally from examining the basic open sets (VI. when X has a bounded metric. each A E CL(Y) is open in Y. we have proved that (4) A C Nd(&(A. for Tispaces X. Note that Proof. c). Thus. A’ E CL(Y) such that A # A’. .. we would expect that the Vietoris topology for CL(X) and the Hausdorff metric topology for CL(X) would be the same.&.1. the function A + f?jA is a onetoone function from CL(Y) into p. In other words. . the conditions in (a) and (b) at the beginning of the section seem to describe the interpretation of the Vietoris topology in Figure 1. A) + 2~.C) + 2s. A). since a was an arbitrary point of A. Hd(A. B) + H@. then the Vietoris topology for CL(Y) does not have a countable base. discrete space.12 I. when the metric d for X is bounded. B) + Hd(B. B) + Hd(B. 5.4 E /I such that A E f?A C (A). Hence.B) since E > 0 was arbitrary. c) + 25. the Vietoris topology for CL(X) is not even metrizable (by any metric) unless X is compact. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES Thus. it follows immediately from (1) that if A. hence. for each A E CL(Y). it follows easily that (1) A = USA for each A E CL(Y). p.C) 5 Hd(A. + Hd(B. If Y is an infinite. this is not so. The following lemma gives the principal reason (as you will seefrom the proof of the succeeding theorem). In fact. By (4). Let .0 be a base for the Vietoris topology for CL(Y). Therefore. B) f Hd(B. Thus. C). C) 5 &(A. Hence. 2. A similar argument (which starts with a point of C) shows that (5) c c Nd(Hd(c. Hd(A.
T) is a compact.e. We prove that (X.5 Remark.A RESULT ABOUT METRIZABILITY c4 OF CL(X) 13 ICW)l I IPI Since Y is a discrete space.2 shows that Hd is a metric for 2x whether d is bounded or not.T) must be metrizable. TIY). also.4 is somewhat disappointing since it limits the generality in which (CL(X). it is clear that (X. 2’“) is metrizable. metrizable space. that it is the Hausdorff metric that does the metrization. T) be a Tispace. the hyperspace 2x with its Vietoris topology is metrizable by the Hausdorff metric. we will be consoled by the important theorems in the next section: They show that for any metric space (X. r = l+ diameterd(AUB)). we have that (1) (CL(Y). However. A) (e.. by (2). thus. Let (X. T) is metrizable. moreover.T) is compact. TV).18.1 produces a real number when A. Since (CL(X). CL(Y) = {A c Y : A # 0}. We call this metric the Hausdorff metric . (Y.T). w 2.4 Theorem. the proof of 2. Then. the formula for Hd(A. infinite. Y being an is compact.Tv) is metrizable and X M Fi(X) (by 1. T)Y) is discrete). Therefore. TIY) is a Z’ispace (since (Y.g.2 that d is bounded was only used at the beginning of the proof of 2.3. Now. whether d is bounded or not. by 1. closed (in X). there is a countably infinite.T v ) is metrizable to compact spaces X. (X. since we are assuming that (CL(X). If (CL(X). By (1) and (2). compact subsets of X). (2) (CL(Y). A and B are nonempty. B E 2x (i. there is a countable base for (TIY)“. Therefore. d) be a metric space. then (X.4 is true and. TV) is metrizable. Since Y is closed in X. d). of (X.22 that CL(Y) with its own Vietoris topology (TIY) v is a subspace of (CL(X). Let A. note that (Y. Suppose that (X. they also show that the converse of 2. Proof. since Y is an infinite set.2 to know that Hd is real valued. (TIY)“) is metrizable. discrete space. we have by 1. note that (Y.. T) is not compact.15). Thus.TIY) is separable (since Y is countable). (TIY)v) is separable. Hence. Let (X. this contradicts 2. B) in 2. Now. B) and B C Nd(r. CL(Y) is uncountable. Thus. Therefore. Then there is a real number T > 0 such that A C Nd(r. 2. B E 2x. since (X. However. and discrete subspace. recall that the assumption in 2.T) n The theorem in 2. the base p is uncountable.
B E CL(X). for this metric that we used in 2. Let (X. B) 2.1 (since we know that doing so will never cause any confusion). then (X.y) = 0.4. T) is compact. for any A. Exercises 2. A’. that (X. then there are points. B. ifz=y.T) be a Trspace.} and by using the metrics d and d’ defined as follows: 1. is the analogous result for A. there is a much more important reason to involve the given metric on X in our notation for the Hausdorff metric for CL(X): two bounded metrics. B U A’) 5 Hd(A. that (X. then &(A. Let (X.Tv) has a countable base.9 Exercise. of course.5”) is metrizable? 2. Hd. may induce the sametopology on X. B’ E CL(X) such that A’ C A and B’ c B. Is the analogous result for A. If (CL(X). Verify that this can happen by letting X = { 1. B) and B C Nd(r.4 to prove the following result. Use modifications of the proof of 2. d) be a bounded metric space. { and d’(s. d) is a bounded metric space)? 2. B) = d(p. If A.B). B) = ma ‘1:~ d(a..7 Exercise. d) is a bounded metric space. Also.F. Let (X.8 Exercise. B) < r. . such that Hd(A. d) be a metric space. We use the same symbol. 2. Then.11 Exercise.2. as in 2. Let (X. ifz#y d(s. Hd(A. . . q). THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES for 2 x induced by d.A)}. p E A and q E B. B E 2x. Then &(A U B’. B E CL(X) true (assuming.14 I. B E 2” and if A c Nd(r.d) be a bounded metric space. yet the Hausdorff metrics Hd and ff& may induce nonhomeomorphic topologies on CL(X). B E CL(X) true? 2. A). Can you also conclude. d(b. when (X. Even though Hd # Hdt whenever d # d’. d) be a metric space.y)=/iiIforallx.yEX. Let A. If A.6 Exercise. . d and d’. Let (X.10 Exercise.
Let (X. Let (X. H d ) is complete. we see that (Fz(l)..13 and 2.H d ) is not isometrically embeddable in any Euclidean space R* (with the metric given by JC~=“=. E Fz(I). If (X. then (2”. E 2x for each i.13 Exercise. A. X is the union of finitely many sets each of which has diameter less than E. d). 2. d(s. An important consequence of Exercises 2. d) is a totally bounded metric space.11 trivial.(G . with AI # A:! and BI # BP. = d(UgO. 2. . . (A metric space is said to be complete provided that every Cauchy sequence with respect to the given metric converges. Consider Y = IIF&Y. R2. If (X. Let I = [0. t E I).. and let d denote the usual metric for I t) = Js .. is said to be totally bounded provided that for each E > 0.) . is totally bounded and complete.EXERCISES 15 2. then (CL(X).yiJ2 for (G)L. where THY is the topology for CL(X) induced by Hd.. P. (A metric space. such i # j. (X. d ) is topologically embeddable in the plane prove that (Fz(l). hence each Y.2. 1. that Exercise.Bz Hd(Ai.14. prove that E. Note that the equivalence of (1) and (3) makes 2. d) be a bounded metric space. Hd) is separable.16 (i. AZ) whenever Therefore.tl for all s.14 is in Bj) = iHd(Al.. 11. for Fz(I) First.] Remark.d) is totally bounded. (3) (CL(X). 3.5.Ai).14 Exercise. (An isometry is a distance preserving map between two metric spaces. WI 2.e..BI. Let Hd denote the Hausdorff metric induced by d.d) be a bounded metric space. (2).12 Exercise.Az.) 2. let Y. [Hint: Use Y in the hint for 2. then THE C TV. (yi)L E R”).d) is a complete metric space. Hd) is totally bounded.d) is complete. If (X.) For each n = [Hint: Let {Ai}zl b e a Cauchy sequence in CL(X).H find A~. therefore compact [5. Next.15 Exercise. Here.. (2) (CL(X). Then (l). Hd) is topologically embeddable in R2. and (3) are equivalent: (1) (X. even though (Fz(I).Hd) is complete.
Then.4 is true (see 3. Note that the theorem implies that the converse of 2. We show that when they are metrizable. . then (2x. .1 Theorem. Taking into account our agreement about notation (above). let U E T.Tv) and (2x.z) : a E A and z E X . Metrizability of Zx We begin with the following important theorem. We show that (U) E THY as follows. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES 3. Therefore. THY denotes the topology for % induced by the Hausdorff metric Hd for ?t (cf. we often simply use the previous notation and rely on the context for clarification.5). A) denotes the open Hdball in 31 with radius r and center A. Therefore. A) C (U) as follows: if B E BHd(E. is metrizable. to prove that THY > TV. 4.B) <T}. 3. We will be concerned with 2x and (later on) with hyperspaces. Let (X. TV\‘% However. and let 3t c 2x. it follows from 2. We could expand on previous notation to fit this situation as follows: (U.1 that B C Nd(&. TV = THY.X . for any A E ?l and T > 0. Proof. Note that E > 0 since A is a compact subset of the open set U (E exists since A and X . U) E THY for all U E T. it suffices to show that (U) E THY and (X.Un) nX.A) = {B E ‘?i : Hd(A.d) be a metric space. (T. We also rely on the context for clarification regarding the following notation. We first set down some convenient notation. Metrizability of Hyperspaces We determine when (CL(X).U)(= inf{d(a. A).Tv) In fact.U are nonempty). 2. Note that if U = X. then (U) = 2* and. U) for all U E T (where T is the topology on X). Let E = d(A. we seefrom section 1 that TV is the topology for 2x generated by the sets (17) and (X. let A E (U). . BH. we seethat BHd(&. Thus.. 31. .(T. T~l2~) are metrizable. we assume that U # X. B) < & and. contained in 2*. If (X. then Hd(A.16 I.4). Also.U}). aH. in other words. Furthermore. (U) E THY.d) is a metric space. . hence. they are metrizable by the Hausdorff metric. We prove first that THY > TV. the expanded notation is cumbersome. thus. HdlR x ‘H. SO. NOW.
.. Then. Let B E BHd(6.U). open subsets.B) < A C Nd(6. Thus. Then. open subsets. . it follows (as noted above) that THY > TV. Un). Therefore. . B). U). since p E A. starting with A E (U). . we have proved that Since we have proved (1) and (2) for any U E T.un) C BH~(~. U). U) for some b > 0.. it suffices to show that for each open Hdball. Then. We now prove that THY c TV. Let p E An U. . A) C (X. &(A. B E (U). By 1.2. To prove this. there exists b E B such that d(b. . A) C (U) for some E > 0. which shows that B E (X. Hence. .. Thus. starting with A E (X..(~. we showed that a.(T. . of X such that AE (VI.. (T.. we see that B c U. there are finitely many. there exists 6 > 0 such that We prove that BH~(~.METRIZABILITY OF 2’ 17 hence.A) 6. we will be done with the proof once we show that WI. Therefore B II U # 0. Afl U # 8. . Since p E U and U E T.. (5) diameter (Ut) < T for each i. we have proved that (1) (u) ETH~.p) < 6.A).A). .e. i. (4) A II Vi # 0 for each i. UI.. by the way E was defined. U. since A is compact and nonempty. . U.A). U). Ui . U). let A E 2x and let r > 0. there are finitely many. by 2.un) C aH. we showed that aHd (6. Therefore. C (X. .1. A) C (X. Let A E (X. . from the way we chose 6. It is evident from (3) and (4) that A E (VI. U) E THY as follows. . We show that (X. 23~~ A). of X satisfying (3)(5) below: (3) A c u&Vi. ... Thus. This proves that B&(6. we seethat b E U. Thus. Therefore.
9. n The next theorem is fundamental to the development of the theory of hyperspaces. T) is a compact. (X. The most general version of the theorem is in Exercise 3. K) < r by Exercise 2.5 Theorem. If (CL(X). 3. Assume that (2x.T) is a compact. then. The converse is in 3. Then. K E f?~. and Compactness of CL(X) Compare the result about 2x in 3. Therefore. metrizable space.Tv) metrizable. Assume that (X. metrizable space.3 Theorem. thus. T) is metrizable.2. T) is a metrizable topological space. Hence. then T\J = THY.1 in the following way. 3. (CL(X). A). n A). K c Uy==. If (X. moreover. able if and only if (X. The converse is in 2. we seethat (X. Then. T) be a Trspace. metrizable space. since from (4) and (5) that K c Nc+(r. Let us note that we can state 3.4 Theorem. Let (X.(r. Then. Therefore. . Un). is (2”. (CL(X). TV) is metriz Proof. Hd(A. TI/) is metrizable by 3. TV) is metrizable.2 is true for Tispaces: 3.2 and 2x = CL(X).15). T~I) is metrizable Proof.. The converse of the first part of 3.3 with the following result about 3..18 I.Tv) is compact.2 Theorem. T) be a Tispace.7’) is metrizable. since Fi(X) c 2~~ and X z Fi (X) (by Exercise 1. then (2x. it follows from (3) and (5) that A c N~(T. (2”) if and only if (X. K). let K E (Vi.T) is a compact.12. then . we have proved that THY c TV. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES To show this. U. since K fl Vi # 0 for each i. . Let (X. Then. . if d is any metric for X that induces T. TV) is metrizable. it follows also.4. n Metrizability CL(X).
(X. we revert to the notation Hd and THY. Thus.2 says that we may do this without taking into account any specific metric d that induces T. Thus.8 Remark. such . (CL(X). Let (X.d) is totally bounded and complete.T) is a compact. The corollary follows at once from 3.14. note that CL(X) = 2x (since X is compact). Let (X. in other words. metrizable space. (CL(X). Give an example of a topological space.T) is a metrizable topological space. we mean that H is the metric Hd obtained from some metric d for X that induces T. TV) is compact. Exercises 3. (A subset. Regarding the comments in 3. The theorem in 3. Assume that (X. 3. We will often want to think of the Vietoris topology on 2x in terms of the Hausdorff metric. (Y. n The corollary follows immediately from 3. TV) is metrizable. TV) is compact. for z c 2”. is said to be a Gaset in Y provided that Z = f$ZiUt. Finally.20. of a topological space.T) be a compact Hausdorff space. respectively.7 Corollary. we must mention that. Then. n (X. we will often omit d from our notation. Proof. T).1. p. Note that (X.Tv) is metrizable but (X.T) is not metrizable. In particular. Proof.6 Corollary.4 and 3. we will denote the Hausdorff metric for 2x by H and the associated topology by TH.) 3. 201.13 and 2.9 Exercise.8. we use H and TH to denote the Hausdorff metric for ‘?f and the topology for 7i. namely. If (C(X). Wd) is compact [5. hence.5. Therefore. Now. on occasion. Hd) is totally bounded and complete by Exercises 2. by 3. (CL(X). TV) is compact. we conform to our agreement about notation at the beginning of the section.10 Exercise.T). 2. where U. then 3. E T for each i. a specific metric (or type of metric) for X that induces T is important when considering properties of 2”.5 and Exercise 1. then (CL(X). Let d be a metric for X that induces T. (CL(X). when we say that H is the Hausdorff metric for 2x. Hence. that (CL(X). n 3. If (CL(X). THY = TV. T) be a Tispace.T”) is metrizable if and only if B(X) is a G&set in CL(X). On such occasions.EXERCISES 19 Proof.
Hence. denoted .)). Lconvergence. T) is compact [5. assumethat CL(X)=(UiE~(Uz))U(U+y(X. TV) is compact if and only if (X. Vj E T for all i and j (recall S in the proof of 1.11 Exercise.11. T) is a topological space. 3. [Hint:For the “if” part. is metrizable if and only if (CL(X).1 Definition. 41.moreover.5. then consider when u~~JV~ = X and when u~~JV~ # X. T) is metrizable (combine 3. the results can not be much more general (as you will see.2 we define a notion of convergence for sequencesof subsets of X. V. be careful . For the “only if” part.2). then (CL(X). We will see that convergence (of sequences)in CL(X) implies Lconvergence when X is regular.{z} may not be a point of CL(X) for 5 E X. TV) is compact. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES 3. convergence in CL(X) and Lconvergence are equivalent when X is a compact Hausdorff space. . In 4.T) is compact. then (X. Our description enables us to picture convergence as if it were taking place in X. Prove this general result by using the Alexander Subbase Lemma. We define the limit inferior of {Ai}z=.20 I. By viewing convergence in CL(X) as occurring in X. it is a natural tendency to want to think of hyperspace phenomena in terms of the base space X as much as possible: the space X seemssimpler. and let S be a subbase for T. These results are sufficient for our purpose since the rest of the book is almost entirely about hyperspaces of compact metric spaces.4): If (X. We know that the following result is true when (X.9). be 4. lessformidable. Besides. T) be a met&able space. Let (X. (CL(X). we will also see that the converse implication is true when X is countably compact. p. T) be a topological space. Then. TVconvergence We will define Lconvergence using the two companion notions in the following definition. and 2. than the hyperspace CL(X). TV) 3. we will often enhance our understanding of various aspects of the theory of hyperspaces. Let (X.1 4. where Vi. Convergence in Hyperspaces We describe convergence of sequences CL(X) directly in terms of the in topology on X. notabIy by 4. if every cover of X by membersof S has a finite subcover. we call the notion Lconvergence. T) be a topological space. and let {Ai}zl a sequenceof subsetsof X.12 Exercise. which we state as follows: Let (X.
(2) limsupA. provided that lim inf 4. = A = lim sup A.104. . Let (X. as (1) lim inf Ai = {x E X: for any U E T such that z E U. and their solutions do not depend on any material in the rest of the section. denoted by lim sup A. and let A C X.LCONVERGENCE. U all but finitely many i}.UnAi#Ofor infinitely many i}. n Ai # 0 for 4. let {Ai}z.17.={x~X:foranyU~TsuchthatxEU. At this time.. be a is Lsequence of subsets of X. you may find it beneficial to work some (or all) of the exercisesin 4. let {Ai}& be the sequencedepicted in Figure 3.. by lim inf Ai. For example. which we denote by writing Lim Ai = A. and the limit superior follows (illustrated in Figure 3): TVCONVERGENCE 21 of {Ai}z”=. These exercises are directly concerned with the concepts that we just introduced.2 Definition.limsup Figure 3 (4.1) . we see are each that {Ai}& is not Lconvergent whereas {Asi}E”=. liminf. We say that {Ai}zl convergent in X to A. and {A~l}z~ Lconvergent (with different limits).T) be a topological space.
convergence with respect to the Vietoris topology TV. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES We discuss some terminology and phraseology that we use in the theorems. be a sequence of subsets of X. 4. First. A with respect to the first type of convergence. Assume that {A. and let U E T such that a E U. (1) and (2) below are equivalent: (1) Lim 4. Let {A. We will show that Lim ‘4i = A by using 4.2.4 Theorem.It would be awkward. to continually refer directly to sequences and their limits in the statements of the theorems. c lim inf Ai and lim sup Ai c A.1 and 4. We call this convergence TVconvergence.T) be a regular topological space. Let (X.U). by which we mean the following: If a sequence. (2) A Proof. Let a E A. The lemma follows immediately from the definitions in 4.22 I. and let . of course. TVconvergence in CL(X) implies Lconvergence in X. U) for all i 2 N. since {Ai}zO=. Proof. We emphasize the and “Lconvergence in difference by saying “TVconvergence in CL(X)” X. Note that A E (X. Thus.1 that lim inf Ai c iim sup A.}z. Thus.{Ai}El. Convergence in CL(X) means.)zO=. T) be a topological space. it being evident from 4. if not distracting. then the sequence {Ai}zl converges to A with respect to the second type of convergence. TL+converges to A. there exists N such that Ai E (X.4 c X.3. Then. we show that A C lim inf Ai.3 Lemma. Let (X. = A. .. H 4.” Relationships between Lconvergence TVconvergence and Our theorems are concerned with implications between TVconvergence and Lconvergence of sequences. is a sequencein CL(X) such that {Ai}p”l TVconverges to A in CL(X). We want to always remind ourselves of the inherent difference in perspective between TVconvergence and Lconvergence: TVconvergence takes place in CL(X) whereas Lconvergence takes place in X. Then. Note the following simple but useful lemma. we simply say that one type of convergence implies the converges to other.
Ur=iU. Next. and U n W = 0. we see that A. T v ..converges to A. let U.6). Then. Then. Under this trivial but necessary restriction. we show that Lconvergence implies TVconvergence when X is countably compact (4. Thus..l[cl(u~nA. Of course. (X.9). Therefore..cl(Ug=. supposethat lim sup Ai = 0. Proof. = X . X. H We turn our attention to the converse of 4.. Ai n U # 8 for all i 2 N.T) being countably compact. since A E (IV) and {Ai}:“=. . we have proved that (2) lim sup Ai c A By (l). Since (X. there exist U. . First. that is. and 4. {Ai}fZl Let (X.3. n U = 0 for all i 2 M. = X. Hence. since we started with any point x # A. A c W. Let CC X .. there exists A4 such that Ai E (IV) for all i 2 M.. (2). by (#). we show that lim sup A. Next.A. Of these finitely many sets that cover X. If is a sequenceof nonempty subsets of X. This proves that a E lim inf Ai.. we have proved that (1) A c lim inf Ai.W E T such that z E U. is said to be countably compact provided that every countable.T) be a countably compact topological space.11): (#) lim sup Ai = n:zp.RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN LCONVERGENCE AND. p. 4. to determining when Lconvergence implies TVconvergence. . then lim sup Ai # 0. finitely many of the sets U. Lim Ai = A. since U n W = 0. c A. 23 in other words.5 Lemma. open cover of X has a finite subcover [5.T) is E regular.2.A. let U.4.. let us note the following fact (whose proof we leave as an exercise in 4.) for each n = 1. Therefore. 11. cover X. This shows that x $! lim sup A. Now. Recall that a topological space. we must only consider Lconvergence for sequences whose terms are in CL(X).)]. be the one having the largest . we also show that this implication between convergences is sufficient for a Tispace X to be countably compact (4.
. E NOW. Let Ur .uy&. of X (i. First. . . for each n < m. Consider any one of the sets U. A = lim sup Ai. A E CL(X). = X. A. For this purpose. such that (1) and (2) below hold: (1) A. {Ai(k)}rzO=l. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES U.. Next.6 Theorem.12 shows that A is closed in X. we have by 4.T) be a countably compact topological space.). having obtained such an integer Mj for each j 5 n.. that there is no integer N such that (2) holds. of {Ai}zl such that . U. by fixing j 5 n. = 0.. n U. . c U.1 that Uj fl A. let Y = x . Let {Ai}gl convergent in X to a subset..Un).) = 0. Let (X. This index m. such that Now.. is open in X. By 4. M and N. We find M so that (1) holds as follows. Therefore. E (U. by way of obtaining a contradiction.. # in particular..e. since U. . there is an integer.Mn}. we let M = max {M1. .5. by 4. The exercise in 4. Lim Ai = A). we have by 4. . Since A E (Ul. Then. Mj. . It is then evident that (1) holds for this integer M. we show that {Ai}gl T(n < co) such that AE (&. . is TVconvergent to A. . Lconvergence in X for sequences in CL(X) implies TVconvergence in CL(S)..) for all sufficiently large i. ..2 that p E lim inf A. there is a point p E A fl U. lemma. since p E Uj and U.. # 0 for all i 2 M and each j = 1... Then there is a subsequence.. .2. hence. We must show that A. .. A. Therefore. We do this by finding integers.. U. . U. Since p E A and A = Lim Ai. Then. we show that A E CL(X). .. (2) Ai c lJjn=rUj for all i 2 N. be a sequence in CL(X) such that {Ai}zl is LProof.. This contradicts an assumption in the 4. # 0 for all but finitely many i.24 I. Thus. A # 0. In other words. n. obviously means that +&A. we show that there exists N such that (2) holds. . Suppose.
n 4. A n Y = 0. when (X.7 Theorem.5 to the space (Y.T) be a compact. Proof. Hence. we see from (b) and (c) above that A n Y # 0. N}. . . even.19.. We will use lim supy in denoting limit superiors with respect to the space (Y.1): (c) lim su~.8 for 2x when (X.. Ai E (VI. the theorem follows from 4. . .(A~(~l n Y) c lim sup Ai.2’) be a compact Hausdorff space.J for all i 2 max {M. U.T) is only metrizable is in Exercise 4. Lconvergence in X for sequencesin CL(X) is equivalent to convergence in CL(X) with respect to the Hausdorff metric.WHEN X Is COMPACT HAUSDORFF (a) Ai 25 n Y # 0 for each k = 1. Therefore. Then. . clearly A c u$L~U~ and. .TIY) is countably compact (since Y is closed in X).2 that A = lim sup Ai.2.4 and 4. TVconverges to A.8 is worth noting: When (X. In contrast. n we have proved that {Ai}zl When X Is Compact Hausdorff The following theorem is a consequenceof the two preceding theorems. Lis convergence in X for sequencesin CL(X) .20. since A E (VI. however. I An analogue of 4. One incidental consequenceof 4. Since compact Hausdorff spacesare regular and countably compact. Let (X. Then.T) is only metrizable.8 Corollary. metrizable space. then the Lim operator is the sequential closure operator for the Vietoris topology for CL(X). .6.2. hence.TIY) and to the sequence{Aick) n Y}p=i to conclude that (b) lim su~~(Ai(k) n Y) # 0 Note the following fact (which is evident from the definition in 4. we have obtained a contradiction.J. Therefore. . Thus.7 and 3.TIY). Lim may not be a sequential closure operator for any topology for CL(X) or. Let (X. Therefore. Now. by (a). .T) is a compact. since A = Lim Ai.seeExercise 4. By (1) and (2). we may apply 4. The corollary follows from 4. Proof. . equivalent to TVconvergence in CL(X). we have by 4. Fs(X) . 4. there must be an integer N such that (2) holds.. U. Note that (Y. metrizable space.
We seeeasily that Lim A.11. of X such that Y has no limit point in X [l. Y.T) is a Tispace. Let (X. Proof. {Ai}cl. Exercises 4. If Lconvergence in X for nontrivial sequences FZ(X) implies TVconvergence in Fz(X).? 4. Let (X.. i = 1. We assumethat Y # X (as we may.let us agree for the moment to call a sequence.2. . . of subsetsof X a nontrivial sequenceprovided that Lim A. H Some research questions related to material in this section and the preceding section are in 83.. T) is a Trspace. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES Countable Compactness Is Necessary We prove that the condition of countable compactness in 4.Y) E TV because Y is closed in X). p.5. .T) be a topological space. is a topological space and Ai C X for each lim sup Ai = nr=i(cl(U&Ai)].. . there exists U E T with x E U such that is a nontrivial sequence U n A. since (X.10 Exercise. In the interest of conciseness. there can not be a similar type of formula for lim inf Ai [2]! . and we let p E X . For each i=l. Suppose that (X. # 0 for at most one i). .11 Exercise. 2291.. .T) be a Tispace.Y. be a onetoone indexing of the points of Y.183. 4. T) is a Tispace.. Hence. Then. .. = A for each i = 1. then If (X. Regarding the formula for lim sup Ai in 4.Y) but Ai 4 (X . In fact.Y) for any i (note that (X .T) is not countably compact. Remark.26 I. since z is not a limit point of Y and (X. Now. T) in is countably compact. However. # 0. we prove even more: We restrict ourselves to F2(X) and we restrict ourselves to sequencesthat have a nonempty Lim. {Ai}zl in Fs(X) with Lim Ai = (p}. = {p} (if z # p then.let A = {~.2. there is a countably infinite subset. then (X. the sequence { Ai}gi does not TVconverge in Fz(X) to {p} since {p} E (X .6 can not be weakened when (X.T) A C X.a). let yi for i = 1.2.2.9 Theorem. by removing a point from Y if necessary).. and let What is Lim Ai when A.
lim mf Ai = hm mf A. .18 Exercise. If {Ai}g”=. c X for If (X..2. . .17 Exercise. Let (X.T) be a compact Hausdorff space. and let Ai C X for each i = 1. and let Ai C X for 1. 4.12 Exercise. then Lim (A.14 Exercise. > AZ > . assuming that Lim Ai exists. connected subsets . hence.2. Lconvergence in X for sequencesin C(X) is equivalent to convergence in C(X) with respect to the Hausdorff metric. Then..T) be a topological space.T) be a topological space. but Lim Ai is not connected. Then . . = Lim xi.. Let (X. and let A. Then. then Lim Ai is connected. and. then Lim Ai = ~I~~cZ(A~). U B2) Lim (A..T) be a topological space.. c Ax c ..2. such that Lim Ai exists. T) is compact and metrizable. lim sup Ai = lim sup x2. c X If Lim Ai and Lim Bi each exist.2. 4. . Let (X. . then Lim Ai = cZ(UEiAi)...) 4. of compact.. . {Ai}fZO=.. ..EXERCISES 27 4.T) be a topological each i = 1. Lim A. exists. . B. in fact. are each closed in X.13 Exercise. and let Ai. Is the analogous formula for limit inferiors also valid? (Compare with the result in the next exercise. then space. assuming that Lim Ai exists. foreachi=1... of a metric space. . T) is a topological spaceand A. Hence.. lim sup Ai and lim inf A. X. is a sequenceof connected subsetsof R’ and Lim A.. u &) = (Lim Ai) U (Lim Bi). Give an example of a sequence. i = 1.2. 4. Lim Ai is compact. Bi C X for each lim sup (Ai U &) = (lim sup Ai) U (lim sup Bi)...15 Exercise. Lim Ai is closed in X.16 each i = If A1 If AI Exercise.. when (X. . exists and. Lconvergence in X for sequencesin C(X) is equivalent to TVconvergence in C(X). 4. Let (X. 4.. Let (X.
Bull. . T) be a metrizable topological space. 3.3. Press.. R. define L(d) as follows: L(d) = {B E 31 B = Lim Ai for some sequence{Ai}c”=. 659662.) Now.. Allyn and Bacon. when L 0 L = L. 4. 1927..R. for our example. Kuratowski. Walter de Gruyter & Co. First. Topology. andk=l.. 381. 152182. Vol... T) is metrizable (recall the discussion in the second paragraph after the proof of 4. (It is easy to see that L always satisfies the first three axioms for closure operators in [4..T) be a topological space..8). 19 (1958).3 . = 1+ (l/n) for n = 1. Kuratowski. Prove that Lim do this by is not a sequential closure operator for any topology for F2(X). 668. Acad. 1966. Vol. Let ?/ C CL(X). N. 1. N.1). III 4 (1956). convergence in 2X with respect to the Hausdorff metric implies Lconvergence in X. Hausdorff.20 Exercise.28 I. Sot. 5. Inc. THE TOPOLOGY FOR HYPERSPACES 4.. Press. & = (l/n) + (l/k) for n = 2. James Dugundji. hence. Acad. Cl.. and for which qk < l/(n . . i..2. p.. Conversely. 6.2. F. 4.qL}:n=2.2 .. 1968. . For any A C ?t. saying “Lim is a sequential closure operator for some topology for 31” simply means that the function L is a closure operator.. . K.19 Exercise. Topology. 2. Ernest Michael. Topology. Mass. Topologies on spacesof subsets. New York. Sur l’impossibilite’ de dt?j%ir la limite topologique infkrieure ci l’aide des ope’rations dt!nombrables de l’algtbre de Boole et de l’ope’ration de fermeture.. . If { Ai}zI is a sequence in 2x such that Lim Ai E 2x. Amer. Polon..e. then {Ai}gI converges with respect to the Hausdorff metric to Lim Ai. 71 (1951). Engelking. M. Sci. K. let us define what it means for Lim to be a sequential closure operator. The purpose of this exercise is to show that the Lim operator is not necessarily a sequential closure operator for any topology for Fs(X) when the space (X. Let X be the subspace of R’ consisting of the following numbers: 0. p. : Then. Mengenlehre. Let (X. considering the subset A of F2(X) given by d={{p. Math. in A}. Let (X.. .Y. 1967 (third printing). . References 1.Y. New York.. Acad. II. L is a closure operator when L is idempotent. Boston. k = 1.. }. I.Trans. Berlin.
49. Sam B. 9. 29 8. Marcel Dekker. 56 (1976). 325328.Y. Daniel E. R. Sot.. New York. N. Subsets of first countable spaces. Sot. Inc. 12731277. 1978. Vol. Smithson.E. Hyperspaces of Sets.. Proc. Math.. Amer.REFERENCES 7. 19 (1968). Jr.. Math. Proc. . Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. First countable hyperspaces. Amer. Nadler. Wulbert.
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4. however. When natural limitations prevent us from drawing a picture of the entire hyperspace. compact. Examples: Geometric Models Hyperspaces for A geometric model for a hyperspace is a picture that shows what the hyperspace looks like. and Lconvergence in X are equivalent to each other (by 4. we call a connected compactum a continuum [24].7). All of our spaces X are nonempty. and C(X) is the hyperspace of all subcontinua of X. Thus. 2” and C(X) are also compacta (by 3. 31 . metrizable space a compactum.18). 2x plays a major role in Chapter III.7. We call a nonempty. Since 2x and C(X) are metrizable (by 3. Hausdorff metric convergence. We obtain many geometric models for hyperspaces. We will be concerned with proving that various functions defined on (subspaces of) 2” or C(X) are continuous. Then. we can use sequences in proving that the functions are continuous. TVconvergence. All of our geometric models are for these two hyperspaces. and 3. compact. 2x is the hyperspace of all subcompacta of the compactum X. We use the words subcompactum and subcontinuum when referring to a compactum and a continuum (respectively) as being a subset of a space. and metric. With this in mind.1).1.8. In fact. and Exercise 4. we recall that for sequences in 2x or C(X). Let X be a compactum. 3. which is in reality a continuation of the study of geometric models. the geometric model will contain enough information to give us a clear mental image of the hyperspace.II. most of our geometric models are for C(X) (the exception being in section 8). According to the terminology just introduced.5. Let us note some pertinent information from Chapter I. 2” plays a minor role in this chapter.
. p. 2121: dm((s. 1471. We [0. . Finally..for which dimension has a clear geometric meaning. by dim(Y). We use II or x in denoting Cartesian products. and CK(X) is the containment .32 II.)~l. We denote the dimension of a space. We often use the term “finitedimensional”. which the reader can interpret as meaning that the space being referred to is embeddable in R” for some n.usually polyhedra . d.l] under any homeomorphism of [O.. A lsphere is called a simple closed curve.more precisely. A lcell is called an arc. We use [0. The only time that we use dimension extensively in a technical way is in section 8. . for I” is defined as follows [18.2. We refer to 2: and CK(X) as containment hyperspaces.o mean that the space has at least two points. l]i. 11% denote the ith to coordinate factor for such Cartesian products. 2. Any ncell is an nmanifold with boundary. A Hilbert cube is a space that is homeomorphic to I* = llfZo=.. The term “infinitedimensional” means not finitedimensional.l]. where we are concerned with zerodimensional spaces (we define this notion near the beginning of section 8). is the containment hyperspacefor K in 2x.[O. of and let K be a subcompacturn of X.l] onto A. in other words. we denote the manifold boundary of any ncell. = {A E 2x : A > K}. . p. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES We take this opportunity to give somegeneral terminology and notation that we use throughout the chapter. CK(X) = {A E C(X) : A 3 K}. For each n = 1. We mostly use dimension in describing geometric objects . by dZ.. We use the term nondegenerate when referring to a space t. . most often when all the intervals are [O. aP denotes the manifold boundary of In. (yi)El E P. We define 25 and CK(X) as follows: 2. Now. The dimension of a spacemeans the topological dimension of the space [9]. for n = 1. an end point of an arc. A. 2. Y. an ncell is a space that is homeomorphic to I” = IIy==.l)sphere. = 0 or 1 for some i). A space that is homeomorphic to aP is called an (n. is either one of the two points of A that are the image of the end points of [O. l]i. (yi&) = 2 i=l 2‘1xi  yil forall (zi)El. dI” = ((~& E I” : 5. note that the standard metric. Let X be a compactum. it will be helpful in building many of our geometric models to consider the following subspaces 2x and C(X).2. We tacitly assumethat all Cartesian products have the Tychonoff (product) topology [18. We will frequently be concerned with Cartesian products of intervals.
11)) = T. be a sequencein C([O.1 Example.b) for each [a. It is easy to see that h is onetoone and that h(C([O. p. Therefore.l]) are the closed intervals [a. a finite graph is a compact. Thisleadsusto consider the function h from C([O. 3]). then. For a point p E X. C(X) FOR CERTAIN FINITE GRAPHS X 33 &perspace for K in C(X).(X) u C. {[at. Now. 11)is a 2cell. we see that h is a homeomorphism from the following easytoprove fact: (1) Let {[ai. bi)):.11)u G([O. we write 2: and C.l) (Figure 4.b] E C([O. we seefrom the formula for h that (2) aNO. 11). we have proved that C([O. using what we have shown about C([O. b] withO<a<b<l. (0.(X) for the containment hyperspaces for (p}. Observe that the points of C([O.11)u Co([O. 11) to [a. bf]}gr converges in C([O. a noose. b] if and only if the sequence((ai.19). Specifically. 11)under h is the triangular 2cell T in R2 with vertices (O.1. top of the next page). and (1. If X is any arc with end points p and q. since surjective homeomorphisms between manifolds preserve manifold boundaries (1.3. a simple closed curve. We construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is any arc. 11)= FI ([O. X an Arc 5. connected polyhedron of dimension zero or one (the zerodimensional casebeing the polyhedron that consists of only one point). The image of C([O. converges in R2 to (u. Regarding 2x when X is a finite graph.b]) = (a. Hence. seeChapter III. We first consider the case when X = [0.b). 11). we determine which subcontinua of X form the manifold boundary of C(X). 5. We construct geometric models for C(X) when X is an arc. We note that since 2x and C(X) are compacta. C(X) for Certain Finite Graphs X A finite graph is a continuum that can be written as the union of finitely many arcs. Furthermore. containment hyperspaces are compacta (by Exercise 1. we show that C(X) is a 2cell. Alternatively. 11. In addition. 11).O). any two of which can intersect in at most one or both of their end points. l]). h]}E”=.1. we prove the following result for arcs in general: 5.3 of [33.5. and a simple nod. then C(X) and &T(X) = Fl(X) u C. 11) into R2 that is defined as follows: h([a.(X). l). is a 2cell .
11) (see 1. Ic. it suffices to exhibit one homeomorphism of C(X) onto C([O. 11)u Co([O. it follows easily using the formula for k’ that k*[Ji(X) UC. since any homeomorphism between arcs must take end points to end points. 11) for 5. 11) that takes Fl (X) u C.1.3 and 1. We already know that k’ is a homeomorphism of C(X) onto C([O. p. Having just shown that C([O.1. Hence. To prove that K’(X) is as we claim in 5. We then define k* : C(X) + C([O.34 II. 11). EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES C([O. we seethat C(X) is a 2cell immediately from 1. Also. I].9). To do this.(X)] = Fl([O.l]) U cl([O.3 of [33.(X) U C.(X) u C. 31). 11)is a 2cell. . 11) as follows: k*(A) = k(A) for each A E C(X).9 (for i = 6).1 Figure 4 Proof of 5.1. 11) (since k* is defined in the same way in which h’ was defined in the proofs of 1.3. from X onto [0. we have that k(h nl) = {O.(X) onto aC([O.l). we start with a homeomorphism.1.
1. We show that C(X) is a 2cell and that aC(X) = E(X). in view of the formula for aC([O.O) to m(A) and that is of (Euclidean) distance l(A)/27r fr om m(A) (lefthand side of Figure 5). let m(A) denote the point of A that divides A into two subarcs of equal length.z2) E R2 : xf + xz 5 1). In other words. in the plane (S’ = {(x1. h(A) = (1 . h.X A SIMPLE CLOSED CURVE 35 Therefore. Let us first consider the case when X is the unit circle.2 Example. S’. We construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is any simple closed curve.[l(A)/274 . from C(S’) onto the unit disk D = {(51. Let C(A) denote the length of any given arc A in S’ . C(S’) for 5. lc* is a homeomorphism that does what we wanted.2 Figure 5 .x2) E R2 : xy +s.1. considering m(A) as a vector. We define a homeomorphism. n X a Simple Closed Curve 5. let h(A) be the point that lies on the straight line segment from (0. m(A). 11) in (2) above 5. We begin by defining h(A) when A is any arc in S1. Then. = 1)).
NOW. we have defined h(A) for every A E C(P). that maps C(X) onto the polyhedron in Figure 6.(X).(t/2n). we extend g to a homeomorphism.2 to descriptive set theory in Exercise 5. k’ is a homeomorphism of C(X) onto C(Si). X a Noose A nooseis a finite graph consisting of a simple closed curve and an arc whose intersection is one of the end points of the arc.O). We will usually not distinguish between t and (t. g. on C(Sl) such that the images of C(S’) and the containment hyperspace Ci(S’) are suitable.13. Then. It follows rather easily that h is a homeomorphism of C(S’) onto the disk D. the 3dimensional polyhedron in Figure 6 (top of the next page) is a geometric model for C(X). clearly. We build a homeomorphism on C(X) in three stages. on C(S’) u C. Therefore. Finally. also. We illustrate this with an application of 5.9. The result for simple closed curves in general follows from what we have just shown by adapting the proof of 5.3 Example. 5. and we let h(S’) = (0.36 II. we seethat C(X) is a 2cell and that K’(X) = Fi (X). We start by obtaining a homeomorphism.3. there is only one way that we can define h on the rest of C(S’) so that the resulting function is continuous: we let h({s}) = z for each {z} E Fi(Sl).(P). let k be a homeomorphism from X onto S’ . h maps Fi(S’) onto dD. by the formula for k’. onto the circle with center (0. By 1.1 to the present situation. C(S’) is a 2cell and dC(S’) = F. h maps all the arcs in S’ of a given length. we will often consider R3 as being R2 x R’. We show that when X is a noose. Let X be any simple closed curve. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Thus. n It is appropriate at this time to remark that geometric models for hyperspacescan be used to prove theorems that are not ostensibly about the models themselves. from what we showed about C(P). . Also.1. h. it suffices to show the result when X = S1 U J. Thus. cp. 0) for 1 5 t < 2. We then extend cp in a special way to a homeomorphism. and let k* : C(X) + C(S) be defined in the same way h” was defined in the proof of 1. t. 21in the zaxis. k* maps Fi(X) onto Fi (S’). also. Therefore.O) and radius 1 . where S’ is the unit circle in R2 and J is the interval [l.
X a noose (5. we can consider C(S’) as being the unit disk D in R2. We do this with the help of a homeomorphism. Note that each A E Cl(X) . of C(Sl) (p[Cr(S’)] = D’ (by the Schoenflies Theorem [33.2.X A NOOSE 37 C(X). cp. cp. we note that (1) cp({ll) = U>O)> which follows from the conditions that cp satisfies and D’naD = ((1.2). By 5. or by ad hoc image of Cr(S’) is from the fact that Step 2: Extending cpin a special way to a homeomorphism.0) to l/2. p. g. of C(S’)U Cr (X) into R3. we see that Cr(S’) is a 2cell and that cl (9) n 6C(S1) = { (1)).2. methods that are based on knowing precisely what the under the homeomorphism h in the proof of 5. f. For use in the next step.3) Figure 6 Step 1: A special homeomorphism. let D’ be the disk in D with center at (l/2. l] that we define as follows. By using the homeomorphism h in the proof of 5. of Cr (X) onto D’ x [0. Then there is a homeomorphism. Now.O)). of C(S’) into R2. and radius equal onto D such that 471.
BA = A and tA = 1. p. 11). the function given by il + (BA .1) for all [l. thus. Denote the polyhedron in Figure 6 by P.O) = (v(K).t] E Cl(J). EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES can be written uniquely in the form BA U [I. tA) is a homeomorphism of Ci (X) onto Ci (S’) x [l. (cp(A). TV].for use in = Step 3. The fact that g is well defined is easy to verify: if A E C(Sl) n C.38 II.(X). since g(Ci(J) = f]Ci(J). A = K (since cpis onetoone). we need only show that A = K under the assumption that (cp(A)>O) = f(K) for some A E C(S’) and I< E Cl(X). 11.t]) = ((l. where BA E Ci(S’) and tA E [1. tK = 1. Now. l].t]) = ((l.(X) + D’ x [O. as is easy to see. then A E Cr(S’) and. Now.(X). Next. we use f and ‘p to define the homeomorphism g that we want for Step 2: (cp(A). by the formula for f and by (1) near the end of Step 1.t . Define f: C. by the formula for f.l] by f(A) = (y(BA).2]. Recall from Step 1 that (p[C(S’)] = D. under this assumption. thus.tK 1). 21.O). we have that (3) g([l.t] E Cl(J). We need two specific facts about g . Furthermore.(X)] = (D x (0)) u CD’ x [O. observe that f([l. The fact that g is onetoone is also easy to verify: since cp and f are onetoone. Step 3: Extending g to a homeomorphism. f(A) = (cp(A). which means that BK = K.(2) and (3) below . finally. h. we have from the formula for f that (v(A).O).1) for all A E Cl(*Y). hence.t . thus. 37. hence. Oh therefore. of C(X) onto the polyhedron in Figure 6. thus. It follows easily that f is a homeomorphism of Ci (X) onto D’ x [0.tA .O). since g is onetoone and since ‘p and f are homeomorphisms on the compact spacesC(S’) and Ci (X) (respectively).1) for all [l. Let . if A E C. if A E C(S’) g(A) = f(A). we have that (2) g[C(S’) u C. we seethat g is a homeomorphism of C(S’) U Cl(X) into R3.O).@ = (v’(BK). since f[Cl(X)] D’ x [0.
is called the vertex of the simple nod.1) for all [s. and ((2. 1). 0). The point 2. letting h(A) = g(A). Thus. F. A simple 3od is called a simple triod.T). j. p.X A SIMPLE noD 39 T denote the triangular 2cell in P with vertices (( 1.0). (cl)]. by (3) at the end of Step 2. T n K = g[C. (The use of the word “base” comes from thinking of an nfin in the following way: If Y is a simple nod with vertex U. Let K = cl(P .1). 0). l). and. t] E C(J). 37. 0). of C(J) onto T such that j]Ci(J) = g]Ci(J). A simple nod (n > 3) is a finite graph that is the union of n arcs emanating from a single point.O). A standard simple nod is a simple nod lying in some metric linear space such that each spoke of the simple nod is a straight line segment. An nfin (n > 3) is a continuum that is the union of n 2cells (called fins) all of which intersect in a single point and any two of which intersect only in that point (Figure 8. to obtain the homeomorphism h of C(X) onto P that we want. bottom of the next page). Th is is easy to do. evidently contains a simple nod any two of whose spokeslie in the manifold boundaries of different fins of F. and each of the n arcs is called a spoke of the simple nod. t]) = ((s. . and j]Ci(J) = g(Ci(J) by (3) of Step 2. t . We seethat j satisfiesour requirements: j is a homeomorphism of C(J) onto T (J’ being a simple modification of the homeomorphism that we defined in 5. Note the following terminology.4 we construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is any simple nod. if A E C(S’) U Cl(X) if A E C(J) we seethat h is a homeomorphism of C(X) onto the polyhedron in Figure 6. n X a Simple nod In 5. we call a simple nod that is situated this way in F a base of the nfin F. and otherwise disjoint from one another (Figure 7. ((l. By (2) of Step 2. V. Define j : C(J) + T by letting j([s. Any nfin. We also note the following three relevant facts: C(X) = C(S’) u Cl(X) u C(J). j(A). [CW) u Cl(X)] n C(J) = Cl(J). g maps C(S’) U Ci (X) homeomorphically onto K. Therefore. top of the next page). it follows that we only need to find a homeomorphism.
40 II. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Simple nod Figure 7 nfin Figure 8 .
For each i < n.(X) u 3. . we now seethat cp= (cpl.. C. where is Y = {(ti)F=l E I” : ti = 0 for all but at most one i}. The polyhedron may be described as follows: It is the result of attaching an nfin to the ncell I” by identifying a base of the nfin with a standard simple nod lying in dI”. namely.l] such ~~~‘[i(v) = 0. Note that C(X) = C.(X) n 3 = Ur==. it follows easily that cpj(A) # ‘pj (B).. We show that when X is a simple no& a geometric model for C(X) is the ndimensional polyhedron that is represented in Figure 9 (top of the next page).C(S~. we denote the vertex of X by v and the spokes of X by S1. (p. hence. let F.. simply note that each C(Si) is a 2cell (by 5. I++ separates points: if A. we define a homeomorphism. l] as follows: pi(A) = sup[&(A n Si)] for each A E C. of C. the polyhedron that Figure 9 is intended to suggest is a quotient space . then de&e (Pi : Cv(X) + [0. . . Finally. Therefore. Next.it is the attaching space F. We define ‘p in terms of its coordinate functions . onto Y.) 5. (Pi.. Uf I” that is obtained from the free (disjoint) union of F. let & be a homeomorphism of Si onto [O. To seethat 3 is an nfin. and Y x (0) is a base of this nfin.). see 5..g. Uf I” when X is a simple nod. S. then clearly A n Sj # B n Sj for somej. p.) = {{v}> whenever i # j. . 11 to a point is an nfin.. .(X).(X) onto I” such that (p(B) is a standard simple nod in dI”.) is a homeomorphism of C. 651.. cp. Regarding our requirement that Y be a standard simple nod. Also. Clearly. . B E C. 1271 or [34. we prove that 3 is an nfin and that B is a base of 3.(Si). the containment hyperspace &(X) and 3 = U~==. (For basic information about attaching spaces. Also. l] obtained by shrinking {v} x [0.(X) is continuous). in fact. and I” by means of a homeomorphism f of a base of F. note that C. as is more pertinent.l]. We prove first that CV(X) is an ncell. To be more precise.(X) such that A # B. each pi maps CV(X) onto [O.4 Example. It follows readily that each (pi is continuous (verify first that the function that assignsA n Si to each A E C.1 . . e. then. [7. . the family of functions (PI. . denote an nfin.) For the proof that C(X) M F.(X) onto I”. p.. and let Y be a standard simple nod in dI”.. which we denote by f?.l) and that C(Si) n C(S.5. . The proof focuses on two dominant parts of C(X).X A SIMPLE nOD 41 then the decomposition spaceof Y x [0. cp(L?) a standard simple nod in 81” since v(B) = Y...see.
(Sj) = {{u}} whenever i # j.. (3) C.42 II.(Si) C LW(Si) for each i (cf. f3 is a base of FT..(S) is an arc for each i (cf. we make a few preparatory comments about the nature of the points of F. (2) C. it is easy to see why C(X) M F.T. Uf I”.. the spokes of B lie in the manifold boundaries of different fins of T. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES C(X).4) Figure 9 To seethat f? is a base of the nfin .. Uf In.which maps B onto Y C I”. 5. to be F’. Uf I” are equivalence classesof points of the disjoint . by (3). We then let f = cp[L?. On the basis of what we have shown. Therefore. B is a simple nod with vertex {w} and spokes C. = 3). Nevertheless. Uf I” with F.X a simple nod (5. we choose F. we include a proof.1.1). we assumethat 3 rl In = 0 (so that we may form the attaching space F.(S). we make three observations: (1) C. 5.1.(Si) n C. Before proceeding directly with the proof.1). The points of F. BY (1) and (21.. For convenience.
otherwise. On the other hand. = {B. Before we justify the comments. that is our goal. 2. Uf I”: for any z E F. . of 81” onto OI” such that h(Z) is a standard simple nod. Nevertheless. we make three comments about our choice of Y in 5. n 5. there are wild simple nods in 81” for any n 2 4 (since there are wild arcs in dP for n 2 4 [33.4 is tame in 81”.. Uf I” if f were a homeomorphism of D onto a wild simple nod in 81”.4. We adopt the following notation for the points of F. p.(B U q(D)). since f = (~]a is onetoone. concerning the comment in (l). Therefore. 841). in i?In is said to be tame in df” provided that there is a homeomorphism. Y in 5. since ‘p is a homeomorphism of C. since F. The relevant equivalence relation. U In . the attaching map f is a homeomorphism of I3 onto Y.. U In is the one generated by declaring that B N f(B) for each B E B (recall that a c F. C(X) could not possibly be homeomorphic to F.X A SIMPLE nOD 43 union F. This resulted in an especially clear geometric model . Uf I”.(X). we see that the following formula gives a welldefined function. p(B)} for the points B E L?. the only nondegenerate equivalence classesare {B. and [z]~ = { z } whenever z E F. we seethat D is tame in &7.4)... (2) we could have only required that Y be tame in 81” (definition follows).4 from Cv(X) onto I” takes Z?onto Y. it follows easily that h is a homeomorphism of C(X) onto F. UP. U I”. This verifies (1). since the homeomorphism cp in 5. after all.(X) onto In. = F).. [z]. (#) [B]. (3) when X is a simple triod and Y is any simple triod in 813. thus. from C(X) to F. then C(X) M F3 Uf I3 (where F3 and f are as in 5. Furthermore.and. The comment in (2) is evident from the definition of tame and from the . In light of the comments just made (especially (#)).p(B)} = [p(B)].. whenever B E L3. on F. Z is said to be wild in dI” [33]. and Y is a standard simple nod in d1”. We used the standard simple nod Y in df” to construct a geometric model for C(X) in 5. h.(X) Therefore.denotes the equivalence classwith respect to . Uf 1” (recall that f = ‘p]L?): h(A) = M1 b(A)l ifAEF 7 if A E C. h.that contains z. Now.4 (reasons that justify the comments will follow) : (1) we could not have let Y be any simple nod in dI” when n > 4. we give a definition for the terminology in (2). Thus.5 Remark. LJ is a base of the nfin 3 = F. Therefore. A simple nod.
9 Exercise. then P NN C(X) for at most one finite graph X [4.4 is tame in G’Cv(X).10 Exercise. p. 0). 0) to (2. Historical Comments Duda did an indepth study of C(X) when X is a finite graph ([4][6]). Construct a geometric model for C(X) when X = S’ U 2. pp. and he constructed several such models (see. is a finite graph if and only if C(X) is a polyhedron [4. if P is a polyhedron and dim(P) 2 3.44 II.7 Exercise.0). 2482551). Kelley provided a formula for calculating dim [C(X)] when X is a finite graph [16. where S1 is the unit circle in R2 and Z is the straight line segment from Kw) to GAO). 2831. 311). What is dim [C(X)] when X is the finite graph drawn in Figure 10 (top of the next page)? In other words. He also obtained general results. . Finally. where S1 is the unit circle in R2.6 Exercise. [6.0) to (2. p. 471). 5. Kelley had proved that if X is a Peano continuum. see [ll] and [13][15]. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES fact that the simple nod B in 5. p. Y is the straight line segment from (1. 301 (seethe Remarks in [4. Construct a geometric model for C(X) when X = S’ U Y U Z. More about finite graphs is in section 65 and in the exercises at the end of section 72. Earlier. We mention that Kelley stated (without proof) the “only if” part of the first result of Duda quoted above (see [16. 2761.. (3) follows from (2) since any simple triod in 131~ tame in d13 (which can be proved is using the Schoenflies Theorem [33. (A figure eight is a finite graph consisting of two simple closed curves that intersect in a single point. 5. Recent developments concerning C(X) when X is a finite graph are mostly concerned with Whitney levels (e. we discusssome of these results in section 65). 301. He provided a lot of specific information that can be used in constructing geometric models for C(X). p. especially. Let X be a finite graph. p. P.8 Exercise. and 2 is the straight line segment from (1. Exercises 5. Construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is a figure eight. two of which are particularly relevant to what we have done: A continuum. p. what is the largest n such that C(X) contains an ncell? 5. then dim [C(X)] < 00 if and only if X is a finite graph [16.g. Furthermore.) 5. 2781). X.
p $! A. In the proof of 5. p. .(X).9 Figure IO If C(X) is a 2cell. p.12 Exercise. and q 4 A.11 Exercise. we used k’ to show that K(X) = Fl (X) u C. then A has an open neighborhood that is homeomorphic to R2 if and only if A 4 Fi(X). which we stated in the last paragraph of the section.1.1. we will use the concept in connection with geometric models in the next exercise. Let X be an arc with end points p and q. 37. 2831. The purpose of this exercise is to gain some insight into a new concept.) 5. then X is a noose. Avoid the use of k* by proving the following fact directly: If A E C(X). then X is an arc or a simple closed curve (and conversely). 5. Can C(X) be an ncell for n > 2? If C(X) is the polyhedron in Figure 6.EXERCISES 45 x for 5.(X) u C. (Prove this without using Duda’s theorem [4.
Thus. A choice function for A is a function f : A 4 ud such that f(A) E A for each A E A. pp. What is the precise shape of the image of the containment hyperspace C.2. For applications of the result in 5. We give the application of geometric models of hyperspacesthat we mentioned after the proof of 5. we construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is the hairy point.13 and for more about selections.(Sl)] from D? 6.19. However.2. we remark that the arc is the only continuum X for which there is a selection for 2x.2. satisfying the following conditions: All the arcs Hi . seesection 75 and [25. 2532671. We now construct a geometric model for C(X) when C(X) is infinitedimensional. see Exercise 75.13 Exercise. These results are in [19] and can be deduced from 1.9 and 7.46 II. . there is a choice function for any hyperspace.] Remark. (2) Find a selection for C(X) when X is any nod.14 Exercise.O). EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Let A be a collection of nonempty sets.6 of [22]. Regarding (1) and the change to C(X) in (2). 5. C(X) When X Is the Hairy Point Our previous geometric models are for finitedimensional hyperspaces C(X).. the Axiom of Choice says nothing about the continuity of a choice function for a hyperspace: (1) Let I = [0. Choice functions are often called selections when they are continuous on a hyperspace. Specifically. Hz. The Axiom of Choice says that choice functions for A always exist [12]. The hairy point is a continuum that is the union of countably infinitely many arcs HI. 11. Let p = (l. Prove that there is no continuous choice function for C(S’) by using the geometric model for C(S’) in 5. In fact. Let h : C(S’) + D be the homeomorphism that is defined in the proof of 5. It is a natural. [Hint: Use a form of the Brouwer fixed point theorem. the arc is the only continuum X for which there is a selection for Fz(X).(S1) under h? What medicalmathematical phraseology might appropriately describe removing the interior of h[C. infinite extension of simple nods that can be defined as follows. 5. Prove that these are the only two selections for 2’. We depict the hairy point in Figure 11 (top of the next page). . Find two selections for 2’.
6. C(X) WHEN X Is THE HAIRY POINT 47 Hairy point Figure 11 cofin Figure 12 .
6. Let Y = {(t%)zr E I” : ti = 0 for all but at most one i}. p. F2. . An cofin (Figure 12. let f be a homeomorphism of a base of Foe onto Y. Any mfin. uj I=‘=. and let B = C. bottom of the previous page) is a continuum that is the union of countably infinitely many Pcells Fl . diameter (Hi) = 0. p. (defined near the beginning of the chapter). Uf P is similar to the proof in 5. and let H1. . Finally. be an oafin such that F. We now give the example for this section. The proof that C(X) M F.48 II. Next. top of the next page): We assume that the Hilbert cube I” has its standard metric d. n IO0 = 0. . and are otherwise disjoint from one another. We sketch the proof. Hz. and such that limi+. We show that C(X) x F. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES emanate from a single point. and the point v is called the follicle of the hairy point. = 0 for all i # j (the dadiameter of the jth hair is 2j). 651).4. Uf Iw is the attaching space obtained from F. diameter (Fi) = 0. Let X be the hairy point. its J‘th hair being the points of Y such that t. . omitting the details of the verifications (since the details are straightforward modifications of the details in 5. Note that Y is a hairy point.4.4). all of which intersect in a single point and any two of which intersect only in that point. U I” by means of the attaching map f ([7. denote the hairs of X. let F.(X) n FT.(X) u FT. Each of the arcs Hi is called a hair. v. Let T = UgiC(Hi). obviously contains a hairy point any two of whosehairs lie in the manifold boundaries of different fins of F. and limi+. which is an extension of terminology preceding 5. we call a hairy point that is situated this way in F a base of the oofin F. We obtain a geometric model for C(X) as follows (the model is drawn in Figure 13.1 Example. where F. . F. . Note that C(X) = C. Each of the 2cells Fi is called a fin. Let v denote the follicle of X. We use the following terminology. 1271or [34..
(X) onto I” such that cp(B) = Y (where Y is as defined above).2.1.(X) such that q(B) = Y (cf.) with respect to the Hausdorff metric Hd is equal to the diameter of Hi with respect to d.. cp2. l] by letting vi(A) = [<:(A n Hi)] for each A E CL(X).(X) is a Hilbert cube.(X) + [0. sup It follows that cp = (cpi.) is a homeomorphism of C.1) Figure 13 We show first that C. then define cpi : C. C(H..1). details in 5. and.. letting d denote the metric on X.4).) n C(Hj) = {{u}} w henever i # j. in fact.. . of C.6. . We define the coordinate functions. C(X) WHEN X Is THE HAIRY POINT 49 C(X). vi. we define a homeomorphism. onto P We seethat F is an oofin from the following facts: each C(Hi) is a 2cell (by 5. of ‘p as follows: for each i= 1. . the diameter of C(H. let & be a homeomorphism of Hi onto [O.l] such that <i(v) = 0.. X the hairy point (6. (p.
and the only point of A n Y.(X) is a Hilbert cube. Let X be the continuum in R2 consisting of the straight line segment from (0.. [ll].. A is an arc. 6. Steps outlining the construction of a geometric model for C(X) when X is the harmonic fan are in 11. Exercises 6.4 Exercise. let X be a Peano continuum that is not a finite graph. is the follicle of Y. .9 are quite different than the techniques used in this section. for each i. infinite extension of simple nods.50 II. p. noting that B = uE=. Another such extension of simple nods is the harmonic fan (Figure 23. Construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is the following continuum: X = Yr USUY. we seethat t? is a base of the oofin F (cf. Thus. proceeding as we did in the last three paragraphs of 5. and prove that C. by 6.3 Exercise. p. Let p = (O. we see that C(X) z F.4 is called the null comb.2. l/i) for each i = 1.4). p. Now. Construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is the following continuum: X = Yr U A U Ys.1 and 6. n The example in 6.O) to (1. 2452461). 301.9.. Now. S is a simple closed curve.4. and the only point of S n Yi is the follicle of Yi for each i. and [26]. 0) to (l/i. details in 5. In spite of the similarity between the harmonic fan and the hairy point. Near the beginning of the section. Results about dim[C(X)] for any continuum X are in Chapter XI. 6. we described the hairy point as a natural. Uf P. This proves the essential half of the following result of Kelley: If X is a Peano continuum. C(X) contains a Hilbert cube. see [lo]. p. For related material including applications and stronger results. The continuum in 6. . 301 or [26.O). .1 is from [26. pp.2 Exercise. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Next. and In replaced by I@‘). Then it can be shown that X contains a hairy point or a null comb ([lS. where Yr and Y2 are mutually disjoint hairy points. where Yr and Ys are mutually disjoint hairy points. Remark.0) and the straight line segmentsfrom (l/i.C~(H~). the techniques employed in 11.4 (with F = F. 92). 2441. then dim[C(X)] < 00 if and only if X is a finite graph [16.
Let us recall the definition of the cone over a space and its geometric interpretation.7. l] by shrinking Y x { 1) to a point. l]/ N. is the quotient space obtained from Y x [0. Geometric Cones Let Y be a topological space. The cone over Y. ti) N (~2. in other words. Cone(Y) is the quotient space Y x [0.19):T=l+&j and B 2 0). which we denote by Cone(Y).1 we show that C(X) is homeomorphic to the cone over X when X is the circlewithaspiral. C(X) WHEN X Is THE CIRCLEWITHASPIRAL 51 7. where S’ is the unit circle in R” and S is the spiral given in polar coordinates bY S={(r. C(X) When X Is the CirclewithaSpiral The circler&haspiral is the continuum X in Figure 14. X = S1 u S. where N is the equivalence relation on Y x [0. I] given by (yr . t2) if and The circlewithaspiral Figure 14 . Cones. In 7.
v+[lt]. 2411.t] (y. then Cone(Y) is topologically the same as the space G(Y) that results from the following geometric construction (we illustrate G(Y) in Figure 15): We may assumethat Y c E. + Geometric cone G(Y) Figure 15 . t) E Y x [0. We now prove that G(Y) and Cone(Y) are homeomorphic. I] from (y. where E = R” for some n or E = IO0 [18. If Y is a compactum.52 II. and let f : Y x [0. 21 [l . Fix a point p E E. Let 2.O) : 0 5 t 5 1)). 0) for all (y. The point Y x (1) of Cone(Y) is called the vertex of Cone(Y). Let G(Y) = u{yv: y E Y}. t2) or ti = t2 = 1. = (p. p. the subset Y x (0) of Cone(Y) is called the baseof Cone(Y). EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES only if (yi. Let x : Y x [0.(y. let yw denote the straight line segment in EX [0. yv = {t.e. Consider the space E x [0..O) to v (i. 1). l] + Cone(Y) denote the quotient map. 11. For each y E Y. l] + G(Y) be given by f(y. 11. ti) = (~2. t) = t.
xx = {z}.{S’} onto Y . in X. y E S’. 1) = v for all points (y. f. as in Figure 16. Let X be the circlewithaspiral. Note. G(X) is a geometric model for C(X). be the closest point in S to x such that ~(xxg.) We will define a homeomorphism.see 3. let x2. p. 451). 1231 or 3.1 Example. let V. 11). Clearly. If z. However. l] is compact and rr is continuous). for example. xS’ denotes the smallest subcontinuum of X containing {x} US’ (hence. For each x E S. Y. we call the point v of G(Y) the vertex ofG(Y) (note that f o 7rl defined above takes the vertex of Cone(Y) to v).22 of [24. The Model for C(X) 7. of C(X) . 0) to (x. f o 7r’ is a homeomorphism of Cone(Y) onto G(Y). if x. zS1 x X for each z E S).THE MODEL FOR C(X) 53 Note that f o 7rl is a function (since f(y. We prove that C(X) M Cone(X). h. 1) in Y x [0. that [(x52. hence.2n]). for each x E X. Cone(Y) is compact (since Y x [0. then xy denotes the arc in S’ from x to y in the counterclockwise direction. thus.y E X such that x # y.) = S’. for1 is onetoone. be the vertical line segment in R3(= R2 x R’) from (x. f o r ’ is continuous (since f is continuous and rr is a quotient map . We define a subset. 51). and we call the subset Y x (0) of G(Y) the base ofG(Y). more precisely. For any z E S. We use the following notation. of R3 as follows (Y is depicted in Figure 16. if Y is the subspace of R’ consisting of the integers. r(x) is the point of S’ that lies on the straight line segment in R2 from the origin to z. Let Y = (U{V2 : 2 E S}) u (S’ x [0. then Cone(Y) ic: G(Y). p. A.(Sr x (27r)). then xy denotes the arc in S from x to y. Therefore. we call G(Y) the geometric cone over Y. X = S1 U S (Figure 14. Also. We let T denote the radial projection of X onto S’.27r]. We will then “extend” f to a homeomorphism. We note that the construction of G(Y) can be carried out as above for any separable metric space Y. Let z. top of the next page). [(zxsx)).2 of [7. (We note that Y M X x [0. of C(X) onto . p. For any z E X.y E S. For any arc. Referring to the construction above. we let t(A) denote the arc length of A.) > 27rfor each 2 E S.
we will seethat Y/(Sl x (27r)) M Cone (X). = {xy : y E S'}. cu(zy) = az(xy) . .{S’} onto S’ x [0.{S’}. (zy) = (z. + {x} x [0. which will be a homeomorphism of C(S’) . For each 2 E 5”) let A. Y/(S’ x {Zr}). We define o.2~) be given by Q. as follows. that is obtained from Y by shrinking S1 x (27r) to a point. Finally. The map f is made up of two maps.1 Figure 16 the quotient space. which we define in the next two paragraphs.{S’} + S’ x [0..2x) be given by for each zy E C(S’) . cr and /3. and let cyz : A.27r).54 II. l(zy)) Then let Q:: C(9) for each sy E A. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Y in 7.
as follows: v. and let p’ be the homeomorphism p’ (xy) = &(xy) .THE MODEL FOR C(X) 55 We define p. of V.2r) of B2 onto V2.“. 21. 2] defined as follows: p~(z. let /?i be the homeomorphism off?: onto Vi given by P5(XY) = (XT & Then let 8’ = u{Bi : x E S}. P2 (xX2. t) E V2. . let f?. p2 is a homeomorphism Also. &$& + 1) for each (z. v.ZK]. t) = (x. p2. = {xy : y E xx2r} and let aq = {xy : y E (x&l) IIS} u {xs’}. note that f?: and Bq are arcs in C(X) such that f?: fl Bz = (zc~~}. let .’ : 2 E S}. Let ‘p2 be the homeomorphism of V2 onto S x [l. Let cpi be the homeomorphism of a2 onto S x [l.j) and cpl (x. Clearly.B’ on L?l n U2 since for any x E S.” = {x} x [27T. t(zz~‘~+Y&.’ : x E S}. 21 defined as follows: for each XY E u2 cpl(XY) = b . as follows. [(xy)) for each zy E Bk. Now.tyXX2~)]. We define /I2 in terms of homeomorphisms (pi : B2 + S x [l.) = cp.)1 = (Pi1 [(XT I)] = b. Now.9’) = (x. for any z E S.’ = {x} x [U. and . V. let 82 = u{BZ : x E S} and let v2 = u{V.B2 = (p. For each x E S.l [cpl (xX2. It is geometrically evident that O2 and V2 are homeomorphic. Next. vl = u{V. For each z E S.’ and V.02 agrees with . nevertheless. which will be a homeomorphism of C(X) . 21 and 92 : V2 + S x [l.’ o (pl. of B2 onto V2. we need an especially wellbehaved homeomorphism. of B1 onto V1 given by for each xy E B’. define subarcs. 2) for each zS1 E f?2.C(S’) onto U{Vz : 5 E S}.
increasing path that is headed toward v as the points x advance around S. if A E C(S’) . in other words (remembering that the points of 2 are equivalence classes). let p.(S’ x (2n)) if 1JE S’ x (27r). as the end result of a deformation of R3 that pulls S’ x (27r) in along concentric circles to the point v = ((0.each point of S’ x (2~) would have to be the value of such an extension at the point S’ of C(X)! Note that this is the only problem in extending f to a homeomorphism on all of C(X). Let q : Y + Z be the quotient map. It follows easily that f is a homeomorphism of C(X) . 2n) (as we will see. which we denote by v. It follows easily that h is a homeomorphism of C(X) onto Z. For convenience. we can define the homeomorphism p of C(X) .(5” x {2x1). Thus. For each straight line segment 22) in G(X) such that z E S.Figure 17 shows how 2 would look if 2 were obtained from Y in the most natural geometric way. Finally. if A # S’ if A = S1. Now.(S’ x (27r)) by the following formula: a(A).O). we show that Z M G(X). EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Therefore. finally. V. We can not extend f to a continuous function of C(X) into Y . . we define f : C(X) .C(9) onto U{Vz : 5 E S} by letting P(A) = P’(A). the next step is natural: we change S’ x (2~) to a single point.{S1} onto Y . p.C(S’) 1 P(A). 2n).{S’} + Y . 0). seeFigure 18. Let 2 be the quotient space obtained from Y by shrinking S’ x (27r) to a point. if y E Y .{Sl} f(A) = if A E C(X) . Thus. 58. P2(A). the points ps spiral around in G(X) in a continuous.any point t > 0 such that t < 23~would do as well). Concerning G(X). { V. be the point of xv at height y(z). we let G(X) be the geometric cone over X with vertex v = ((O. We have drawn 2 in Figure 17 (top of the next page) . 2x).56 II. if A E I?’ if A E f?2. Cl(Y) = {y}. let y be a homeomorphism of S onto [r. Define h : C(X) + Z as follows: h(A) = q o f(A). We use the notation and auxiliary maps defined in the next two paragraphs. the choice of ?r as the first point of the range of y will not be significant . namely.
For each z E S. denote the third coordinate (height) of q(e.0) E S. Qeez*)) to be the point at the top of the righthand side of 2 in Figure 17.) at height X(z). q(V%) is the straight line segmentfrom z(= q(z)) to q(z. &(n2.te] such that for each z E S .l(eez=)). We consider the point q(e.O) E S. g maps zv into Z as follows: g(x) = z.1 Figure 17 Concerning 2.)). linearly onto the straight line segment zzz in q(Vz). t. Now. It is implicitly indicated by Figures 16 and 17 that for each z = (x.l!(zzz. Sz. let 2%be the point of q(V. For each 2 E S. ends at w.. and is asymptotic to the spiral Szc at the top of Z in Figure 17 .{e}. recall that q is the quotient map of Y onto Z. Let X be a homeomorphism of S onto (27r. we describe a homeomorphism.THE MODEL FOR C(X) 57 2 = Y/S’ x (2~) in 7.v onto a spiral. g maps the straight line segment sp. > 27r.)) (which is the point at the top of q(Vz)). X(s) is strictly less than the third coordinate of q(s. and let t. in particular. of G(X) onto Z. that begins at zz(= g(p%)). Let e = (2. g maps the straight line segment p. g.
We have shown that C(X) z Z (by the map h) and that Z M G(X) (by the map g). for all z E S so that g is a homeomorphism from U{zv : z E S} onto 2 . as we showed for any compacturn near the beginning of G(X).2x]) be the identity map.J.2~)). It is easy to see how to choose the spirals S..58 II. that G(S’) = q(S1 x [0. Now. g maps p.1) Figure 18 . Also. Defining g on the rest of G(X) is simple: Note from Figures 17 and 18. it follows easily that g is a homeomorphism of G(X) onto Z. having defined g on all of G(X). EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES (when 2 = e.v onto the spiral S. and let g : G(S’) t q(S’ x [0.27r]). X the circlewithaspiral (7.q(S’ x [0.
called a Whitney map. there is a continuous function from C(Y) into [0. C(X) Figure 18 is a geometric model for C(X). this was the first example of a continuum whose hyperspace does not have the fixed point property. G(X) z Cone(X). y) E R” : 2’ + y2 5 1)) . First. then must C(Y) have the fixed point property? We briefly discuss how 7. there are arcs in Cone(Y) that go from the base of Cone(Y) up to the vertex of Cone(Y) (namely. consider the natural extension of X obtained by adding the unit disk. the arcs yv in G(Y)).6).1. Nevertheless. similarly. 1291). Rogers observed that C(X) does not have the fixed point property [32. that measures the height (with respect to the partial order of containment) . Rogers. Let X be the circlewithaspiral. 1231. Y. [32. p.l] that measures the height of points in Cone(Y). however. Knaster’s Question The example in 7. similarly. there are arcs in C(Y). that go from Fi (Y) up to Y (14. have the property that C(Y) z Cone (Y)? We do not suggest that the original motivation for the question should come from 7.1 led to the answer to a question asked by B. Using Knill’s result and 7.1. oo). Jr. is as follows: If Y is a continuum with the fixed point property. D. When C(Y) M Cone(Y) We discuss the following natural question: Which continua. there is a natural projection of Cone(Y) onto [O. see section 22. to X (D = ((2. Knaster in 1952.X U D has the fixed point property and C(X U D) does not have the fixed point property. which appeared in the (unpublished) New Scottish Book. Instead. 2831. 2821. For results about hyperspaces that have the fixed point property. a proof that X U D has the fixed point property is in [3.1 is due to James T. Ronald Knill showed that Cone(X) does not have the fixed point property ([17]. this example does not answer Knaster’s question since the continuum X also does not have the fixed point property. Therefore. it comes primarily from the following two general similarities between C(Y) and Cone(Y). p. called order arcs. p. W M Cone(X) and G(X) 59 in The example in 7. In fact.1 led to the answer to Knaster’s question. p. a more directly accessible proof is in [3. Second.KNASTER’S QUESTION the section. Knaster’s question. The proof that C(X U D) does not have the fixed point property is in [27] and is done by showing that C(X) is a retract of C(X U D).
We know from 7. which resembles the way we represented Cone(Y) as G(Y) in Figure 15. hence. these spacesare usually quite different. Y a continuum Figure 19 . We can seethis from geometric models in the two preceding sections (5.60 II. In spite of the general similarities between C(Y) and Cone(Y) that we mentioned above. then Y is a finite graph. In fact. We are therefore led to represent C(Y) as in Figure 19.2 are exceptions since they show that C(Y) M Cone(Y) when Y is an arc or a simple closed curve).5. there is no homeomorphism of C(X) onto Cone(X) that takes the point X of C(X) to the vertex of Cone(X). however.1 that C(X) M Cone(X) when X is the circlewithaspiral. Y is an arc C(Y). See Exercise 7. Lest our discussion of similarities be misleading on one point. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES of points in C(Y) (13. if Y is a finitedimensional Peano continuum such that C(Y) M Cone(Y).1 and 5. 52. let us make an observation.4). p.
2. by 9. in addition. We define indecomposable continua and make somecomments about them. Then we return to our discussion about when C(Y) z Cone(Y). Some specific examples of indecomposable continua are constructed in [24.3.2 by the result in [2. 2701that we stated above). One specific difference between C(Y) and Cone(Y) that is worth mentioning concerns dimension. p. We return to our discussion of when C(Y) M Cone(Y).7. 3111): 7. dim[C(Y)] = 00 whenever dim(Y) 2 2 ([20]. Although it may seem that all nondegenerate continua are decomposable. Indecomposable continua play a significant role in trying to determine when C(Y) x Cone(Y).see [25. on the other hand. 3011). Therefore. 7. [25. and 221.1)dimensional. On the one hand.2 (it implies 7. there are infinitedimensional. A continuum that is not decomposable is said to be indecomposable. We note that the assumption that Y is finitedimensional is necessary in 7. according to (2) of 11.2 Theorem. The remainder of the discussion centers around the next theorem.27 of [25. We remark that the theorem is significantly stronger than 7. the second part is left as an exercise in 7. p. 6131). where most means that they form a denseGJ set of points in the hyperspace C(P) ([21]. p. p. The first part of this result is a consequence of comments in the remark following 6. . p. A continuum is said to be hereditarily decomposable provided that all of its nondegenerate subcontinua are decomposable. If Y is a finitedimensional continuum such that C(Y) x Cone(Y). Most continua in R”(n 2 2) are hereditarily indecomposable. pp. I” x Cone(P). C(P) M I” and. A continuum is said to be decomposable provided that it is the union of two proper subcontinua (proper means not equal to the whole space). this is far from being the case. which is due to Rogers [30. also proved in 19.WHEN C(Y) rz CONE(Y) 61 or a simple closed curve. we have the following result (which was known before [20] . 2861. dim[Cone(Y)] < M whenever dim(Y) < oo (cf. The following results of Bing [2. p. A continuum is said to be hereditarily indecomposableprovided that all of its subcontinua are indecomposable. hereditarily indecomposable continua. see Chapter XI). then dim(Y) = 1. For example. hereditarily indecomposable continuum. 21.4. 2701point out the abundance as well as the diversity of hereditarily indecomposable continua: Any ndimensional continuum (n < oo) contains an (n . 13.9.
such that C(Y) fi: Cone(Y) are closeto being hereditarily decomposable. then Y contains at most one nondegenerate indecomposable continuum.6 Exercise. C(Y) z Cone(Y) if and only if Y is one of the eight continua in Figure 20 (next page). [Hint: Cone(X) . Y. finitedimensional continua. .3.Y. Y is often called the Warsaw circle or the &(1/z)circle. In order to show the necessity of being planar. Prove that C(Y) x Cone(Y). this showed that C(Z) is not embeddable in R3 by the theorem about cones in [l]. 7. the first continua Y for which it WLXS shown that C(Y) M Cone(Y) were indecomposable.{v} is not arcwise connected. then h(S’) = v.4 Theorem. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES 7. Let Y be a hereditarily decomposable continuum. Rogers then proved that C(Z) M Cone(Z) whenever 2 is a nonplanar solenoid [31. p.7.3. Exercises 7. Recall from 7. Let Y be the continuum in (4) of Figure 20. Specifically. Let Y be the Warsaw circle ((4) of Figure 20). then C(Y) is embeddable in R3 [31. fact. Determine the subcontinuum of Y that would have to correspond to the vertex of Cone(Y) under all homeomorphisms of C(Y) onto Cone(Y). They were the nonplanar solenoids. Y itself can be indecomposable. aside from the arc and the simple closed curve. Then. 7.5 Exercise. p. where v is the vertex of Cone(X). it is natural to consider the following question: Which hereditarily decomposablecontinua. More about hyperspaces and cones is in section 80.7 Exercise. If Y is a finitedimensional continuum such that C(Y) M Cone (Y). In Concerning the continuum Y in 7. Prove that C(Y) M Cone(Y) by making use of 7. 1671(also proved in [8]). Thus. p.3 Theorem. Let Y be the continuum in (3) of Figure 20. Rogers proved that if Y is any planar circlelike continuum. 51). 1661. In view of 7. Y is called the sin(l/x)continuum. the fact that their hyperspace and cone are homeomorphic was of interest in connection with an embedding theorem.1 that C(X) M Cone(X). Prove that if h is any homeomorphism of C(X) onto Cone(X).] 7.8 Exercise.62 II. have the property that C(Y) z Cone(Y)? This question has been completely answered [23]: 7. Let X be the circlewithaspiral (Figure 14.
4 Figure 20 .EXERCISES 63 (1) (3) w (4) (5) (6) Continua Y for 7.
More generally.64 II. We use the following terminology. without using 7.3). 2” z 2’ even though Y $ 2.10 as a negative answer to Ponomariov’s question.1 and 8.e. Yu{l+L=1. is zerodimensional. hence.. . lo]: We say that a topological space. and the results are 8. written dim(Y) = 0. We mentioned the result stated below when we were discussing differences between C(Y) and Cone(Y) (in the two paragraphs preceding 7. p. consider the following two compacta: Y 2 = = {O& ). 71. Concerning the example above. 8. Most of the results in this section are due to Pelczynski (the exceptions being 8. As a simple illustration of the results. There are several notions of dimension [9. infinite compactum with a dense set of isolated points.10.9 and 8.}. For example. any nonempty. Pelczyriski [28] obtained the results stated here in 8. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES 7. 2’ and 2z are homeomorphic to the compactum P in Figure 21.10. we obtain a geometric model for 2x when X is any zerodimensional. Prove the result in an ad hoc manner (i..3 is false for compact metric spaces (recall the comments following the proof of 1.. It suits our purpose best to define zerodimensional for topological spacesin general just as it is defined for separable metric spacesin [9. The model is in Figure 21. we show that all such compacta have the same geometric model for their hyperspace.3 is true for compacta [29. Y. for which C(Y) M Cone(Y). In fact.11). p.6)..4). This is the simplest example showing that the converse of 1. n By 8.they agree with one another for separable metric spacesbut not in general. provided that Y # 0 and there is a base for the topology for Y such that each member of the base is both closed and open in Y.9 Exercise. 1531.9 and 8. p.2. metrizable space is zerodimensional (Exercise 8.. Ponomariov was apparently the first person to ask if the converse of 1. p. The arc and the simple closed curve are the only finite graphs. countable. }.2). 2x When X Is Any Countably Infinite Compactum We obtain a geometric model for 2x when X is any countably infinite compacturn. Y.. 1951.
we define CI+i to be the subset of C. An isolated point of a space.{p} such that {pi}:1 converges to p.2 Lemma. We say that a topological space. of A is a limit point of X. If some point. define A.e. Let in ri = 2‘d(p. where Cr = [0.11). Since p is a limit point of X. (The characterization in 8.pi) Now. assuming inductively that we have defined Ci. 8. # A for each i. The Cantor Middlethird set is the subspace. X . d) be a metric space. ifpi #A if pi c A. we state the characterization in 8. perfect compactum. Y. then there is a sequence. 1091 and [34. A spaceis a Cantor set if and only if it is a zerodimensional.1 are in many texts. obtained by removing from C.1 for use later. p. 8. p. Cantor Sets Cantor sets play a central role later in the section. converging to A in 2x such that p E Ai and A.1/3]~[2/3.1 Theorem. 2161.7.. is a point of Y that is not a limit point of Y (i. C. for each i as follows: for each i. of [O.1 is often stated in terms of totally disconnected compacta instead of zerodimensional compacta see 12. the middlethird open interval of each maximal subinterval of C. including [24. Proofs of 8. and let A E 2”. p. {pi}zi.CANTOR SETS 65 From now on. a point 9 E Y such that {y} is open in Y). there is a sequence. Any space that is homeomorphic to C is called a Cantor set.. {Ai}zl. Cantor sets can be characterized intrinsically. we say that a set is clopen in Y to mean that the set is both closed and open in Y. Y.l] that is obtained as follows: C = IT~lCi. . Preliminary Results We use the results in this part of the section to prove the structure theorem in 8. is perfect provided that every point of Y is a limit point of Y. l] and. Proof. Let (X.
dim(2x) = 0.4 Proposition.4 = {al.) ll 2” : n < 00 and Waci) E W for each i}.. . I Wa. 2(2‘) is dense in 2x if and only if Z(X) is dense in X. : (Y E A} be a base for T such that each W. Since the members of W are clopen in X.}.2). by Exercise 1. it follows from 1.5 Corollary. which is open in 2x since each {ui} is open in X (recall 1. since A is compact. we have that dim[Fl(X)] = 0.a. R is a base for the Vietoris topology for 2x (Exercise 8.15. properties (concerning convergence.3 in a more readily applicable form by using the following notation: For a space Y. and let A E 2x. In other words. dim(X) = 0 if and 8. for each i.. n Let (X.3 Proposition.1). assume that each point of A is an isolated point of X. The corollary follows easily from 8. . then it follows immediately from 8. n We reformulate 8.}). A must be a finite set. Proof.d) is a metric space. is clopen in X.21 that the members of R are clopen in 2x.(I). . . 8. Then.6 Proposition. . EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES It follows easily that the sequence {Ai}zl just defined has the required < 3r.. since Fl (X) c 2x. Conversely. d) be a metric space. assumethat dim(2x) = 0. Let fl = {(W.Ai) and recall 3. Let W = {W. Proof. dim(X) = 0. say . n .T) be a Tlspace. {A} = ({al }. . 8. {a.. . Then. Furthermore. note that Hd(A.d) be a metric space. Hence. only if dim(2Y) = 0. A is an isolated point of 2x if and only if each point of A is an isolated point of X. . Conversely.66 II. Proof. . If (X. Assume that dim(X) = 0.4. Let (X. The result is simply a restatement of 8. Then. Then. Proof. . then Z(2x) = 2’(“).2 and Exercise 1. A is an isolated point of 2x. If A is an isolated point of 2x. Clearly. n Let (X. Then.12). n 8. Z(Y) denotes the set of all isolated points of Y. Therefore.3 using the notation just introduced.2 that each point of A must be an isolated point of X.
) 8.STRUCTURE THEOREM 67 Structure Theorem For a space Y. By 8.Z(Y).3.‘) is perfect.’ is an infinite compactum. we have that (1) wm # 0 and (2) JV(~~) is compact.1. it remains to show that &‘(2dY) is a Cantor set.y and N(2*‘) is a Cantor set. ni(2x) = {A E 2” : A n N(X) # 0).1 and 3.7 Theorem. we let h/(Y) d enote the set of all nonisolated points of Y.8 Proposition. Let Y and Z be infinite compacta such that Z(Y) is dense in Y and Z(Z) is dense in Z. then N(Y) # 0 and n/(Y). the theorem below says that 2” is a. Z(2x) is dense in 2”.um. p. there is only one metric compactification of the integers with Y as the remainder. Under the assumptions on X. (The analogue for metric compactifications of other spacesis not necessarily true. Q.6. Note that if Y is any infinite compactum. . By 3. By 8. If N(Y) M ni(Z). Q . Thus. in other words.Y is called the remainder of the compactijkation.5. Therefore.‘) is dense in 2. then Y x Z. Hence. (7) and (8) in Figure 20.’ is a compacturn such that Z(2. we prove (l)(4) below. metric compactification of the integers with a Cantor set as the remainof a space. since it is evident that any nonempty subspace of a zerodimensional space is zerodimensional. since 2. Proof. By 8..) 8. By (l)(4) and 8.1. n Uniqueness of Compactifications The proposition below says that.5.1.2 that (4) N(2. Therefore. Y. We will use 8. n/(2x) is a Cantor set. Then. in which der. it follows from 8. is a compact space. we have by (1) that (3) dim[i\/(2‘)I = 0. (A compactification Y is embedded as a dense subset. e. 2. is compact. infinite compactum such that Z(X) is dense in X. for a given compactum Y. 111order to apply 8.g. dim(2x) = 0. being closed in Y. Let X be a zerodimensional. 2x is a compact. 63 are nonhomeomorphic compactifications of R’ with a simple closed curve as the remainder. N(Y) = Y .
t.2. . . . Z’s)... Let d and D denote metrics for Y and 2. . ~6. We use induction to define Rk.l.a(pb. We will extend h to a homeomorphism.Yo) and any y E l’(n. N(Z)) is within l/k of a point of Ak (respectively.68 II. {bk. since Z(Z) .i. then either (2) or (3) holds: (2) @k. . ak.a(ph.lrbk.t). is analogous. For any natural number. lb). The meaning of . Let & = So = 0 and ho = Q) Assume inductively that we have defined finite sets Re C 1(Y) and Se C Z(Z) and onetoone functions he from Re onto St for all e such that 0 < C 5 k .~~ . a~&~.s) < dpk.Z(Y) For each point p E 4. Noting that z(Y) .pk. . B/c = = {ak. .Z(n.i.u.bk. hence. and hk for each k = 0.2.m(k)} 1 c c N(Y) N(z). such that each point of n/(Y) (respectively.n(k) so that if s < t.r)) I d(Pk.2.z. of Z(Y). respectively. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Proof...tQk) . Yu.)) > d(Pk. . Al. . and any infinite subset. of Y onto 2. ak.. . Ak)}.t))~ is an infinite set. ak. let a(p) = min{j : d(p. . we let Y(n. . PL and Next.+) be n(k) distinct points of Z(Z) Ut$Se such that for each i. there are finite (nonempty) sets.pkJ. Bk). we can define two sets.i)). . h. Rk and Sk will be finite subsetsof Z(Y) and Z(Z).a(pk. and hk will be a onetoone function from Rk onto Sk. respectively. D(Pi.Ye) denote a given set of n distinct points of Ye with the following property: (1) d(yo>NW) L ~YJV)) for any yo E YO . 1.UfliS.~. .t) and @k. .Y(n. n. let Pk = Y(n(k). ‘&. QL?as follows: let P.j) = d(p. .s) = +k.1. h(‘k. . (3) Q(Pk.R& Index the points of Pk as pk. Note that N(Y) and J/(Z) are compact.. Let h be a homeomorphism of n/(Y) onto JV( 2). pk.t>‘k.s. . where n is any natural number and ZO is any infinite subset of Z(Z).UiiJ Re is an infinite set. Sk.
then.l .mck) (4) Pk4. supposethat (6) is false.??k. we have defined Rk.& = z(Y).1. Therefore.z.. . To prove (6). as is analogous to (2) and (3) above.s)= PC&) and Wq k.t) hk(qk./3(&))) 5 D(qh.87bk. we define Qk in terms of QL and Bk as follows: noting that.2.. . .. .) < Pk7LJl (5) P(qIL. Sk. 1).L3(q. and the onetoone function hk from Rk onto Sk for each k = 0. yo 51u&Pk = u&Y(n(k).I(Z) For each point qf E Q’.j) = D(q'.2.. We will define the homeomorphism h.Z(Y) .z> h1(bk.Bk)}.. [pk u (uf:.bk. and h. of Y onto Z using Rk. and define hk : Rk + Sk as follows: hk(pk. let p(q)) . “.. (7) UFO=...i for all qk.& = z(z). so that if s < t.UNIQUENESS OF COMPACTIFICATIONS 69 then let and let Q’k = Z(m(k).2. We first prove the following two facts: (6) UFO=.[Pi u (uf:$%)]). Then there is a point ys E Z(Y) UpEo Rk. D(q'.4(q~~.))~ and let &k = {qk.[Pk U (UfziRe)] is be m(k) distinct points of Z(Y) an infinite set.... Hence. by the way we defined Rk and 9.qk. for all pkj E 9.1 hc7.) In analogy with how we defined PL in terms of Pk and Ak. q6.z) = = p.. hk.. Index the points of Qk as .. qk. . .i~bk. Sk. . qk.m(k) such that for each i. . = min{j : qL. 9.Rt).m(k)h Finally. 2 WA.l. Z(Y) .u.i E Qk. let qk. let Rk = Pk U Qk and Sk = Pk U Qk. . &)I d(qk.l. either (4) or (5) holds: qk. by induction.2r.
Also.). l] .C (we could just as well have chosen the isolated points of P to be the midpoints of the maximal intervals in [0. We call P the Pelczy&ki compacturn. since yo E Z(Y). . are mut. ~YO.70 II..(y) = h(y)1 h(Y). 871. hence.N(Y)) = 0. Then 2x M P. if g f N(Y) ifyE& and note that h.8 there is only one such compactification). .2. Now. In Figure 21. maps I’ onto all of 2 by (7) since hk(Rk) = Sk for each k and h[N(Y)] = N(Z). RI. let h. and (2)(5). Hence. inf {d(p. l] . n The Model for 2x We now come to the main results.ually disjoint. where P is the Pelczyfiski compactum in Figure 21.. by (#). is onetoone since h and each hk is onetoone and since the sets N(Z).N(Y)) From the definitions of Pk and &. p. We see that h. . h. . . (6) must be true. of considerations of clarity in Figure 21). 4. The proof of (7) is similar (using the sets Q’. we see that the sets PI. 4!/o.) and is therefore omitted. .. . R2. since Y is compact. see[28. which we describe as follows (Figure 21.9 Theorem. are mutually disjoint and nonempty. we did not do so only out. for details. . Pz. the properties of the sets AEL and Bk (k = 1. the Cantor Middlethird set C is the remainder. we see from (1) that L &N(Y)) for all p E uglPk. is continuous by using the uniform continuity of h. Therefore. infinite compacturn such that Z(X) is dense in X. are mutually disjoint. h. be given by h. top of the next page): P is a metric compactification of the integers with a Cantor set as the remainder (by 8. 8.C. however. We will refer to a specific compacturn P. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC U~~~Rp MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES Thus. Let X be a zerodimensional.. and the isolated points of P lie above the midpoints of the maximal intervals in [0. this is impossible. since Y is compact and 2 is Hausdorff. Thus. is a homeomorphism of Y onto 2. is well defined since the setsN(Y). since Y/O Z(Y) E (#) for each k.N(Y)) : p E ur&Pk} = 0. Therefore. it follows that h. in other words. P is a geometric model for 2x. Finally. . SZ. is defined on all of Y by (6). . UpE=lPk is an infinite set. We seethat h.
.. .. 2” z P.11... . Pelczyriski compacturn P Figure 21 Proof. . X is zerodimensional.. since Y is open in X. Suppose that Y # 0. such that Z(Y) is dense in 1’ and is a Cantor set is homeomorphic to P... . . c Z(X) and hence. . .10 If X is a countably infinite compactum.7. Y is topologically complete [18. . .. .. W Corollary. by 8.. by 8. . .. 4141to seethat. Y.9. .’ M P. p.. . .cl[Z(X)]. Let Y = X . thus. Hence... . Since Y is open in X.. we may apply the Baire theorem [18. p. .. ...8.. . . 8. However. then 2..THE MODEL FOR 2’ l 71 .. by the . N(Y) By 8. .. Proof... :.. Z(Y) # 0. . 4081. since Y is nonempty and countable. Therefore.. any compactum.. . By the exercise in 8. .. IL(Y) = 0. . it suffices to show that Z(X) in dense in X.. clearly Z(Y) definition of Y. .
then ((6. H. H. Higherdimensional hereditarily indecomposablecontinua. and a base. for T such that is not a base for the Vietoris topology for CL(X). (1969). 119132. 71. 21. References Ralph Bennett and W.9 is in 83. On the hyperspace of subcon~in~aof a finite graph. Bing.Bn)n2 *’ : Bi E B for each i and n < oo} is a base for the Vietoris topology for 2x. Monthly 76. n An open question related to 8. Math. 8. Any nonempty.}. Bing. 62.2. Exercises 8.. R. 267273. Construct a geometric model for 2dYwhen X = CUD. f?.7 and 8. Math. (1968). 275276. having established a contradiction. (We used this result in the proof of 8.14 Exercise. Amer. countable. The converses of 8.) However. On embedding cones over circularly chainable continua. metrizable space is zerodi mensional. Amer. Fund. Let X be a compacturn. ’ . Then. R. we conclude that y = 0.6. 8. T) be a topological space. (1951). R. EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR Hyp~~sp~c~s Therefore. Duda. The elusive jixed point property. R. If &Jis a base for T. 8. (X. . Math.12 Exercise. Sot. (1969).. SOC. Let (X. 265286. .72 II. Proc.T). Trans. I.6. 8.9 are true (assuming that X is a compacturn). Math.13 Exercise.11 Exercise. . Amer. . R. Transue.15 Exercise. the analogous result for CL(X) is false: Give an example of a metrizable space. 2x is embeddable in R’ if and only if X is zerodimensional. where C is the Cantor Middlethird set and D = (1 + k : 11= 1. This proves that Z(X) is dense in X.
New York. 511. H. Whitney (1987). Boston. Princeton Fund. Acad. J. 5765. I. Amer. Whitney continua of graphs admit all homotopy types of compact connected ANRs. Kuratowski of a continuum.. Topology. (1942). (1970). James Dugundji. Trans. N. Determining finite graphs by their large Whitney levels. Jech. 173184. Holland. Hyperspaces 52. Kato. 14. Kato. Fund. 10.. New Jersey. 18. Young. 63. Mass. Fund.Y.. Fund. Acad. products and fixed points. Nadler. 161166. 69. (1970). Trans. of the Univ. Continuous selections on locally compact separable metric spaces. Sci. Top. Topology.. Math. The semigroup of subcontinua of a solenoid. Math. I”. 7. Duda. 910. Japan 41. Princeton.. 15. Thomas J. 300. 18. Pub. of Sot. 130. L. Correction to the paper “On the hyperspace of subcontinua of a finite graph. 19. Pol. The Axiom of Choice. 1967 8. Bull. Vol. Cells and cubes in hyperspaces. Jr. On the hyperspace of subcontinua Math. continua Math. (1988). R. Cones. Carl Eberhart. Proc. (University of Houston. (third printing). 16. 2236. K. Math. (1989). Press. Alejandro Illanes. 9. Allyn and Bacon. Math. 1948. 6. and G. 1971. J. 1971). Fund. Duda. Ed. 12. 1973. AmMath. (1988). continua of curves. Traylor. Kuratowski. Math. NorthHolland sterdam. Amer. 73 R. of Houston Point Set Topology Conf. 243250. A note on fundamental dimensions of Whitney graphs. 60. II. Witold Hurewicz and Henry Wallman. Inc. Theory. S. H. H.REFERENCES 5. Knill.. (1968). Kelley. 1966. 367381. Co. (1967)) 3546. Sot. 207211. (1994). Sot. B. . Dimension University Press. 225255. D. and its Appls. 17. of a finite graph. 11. S. Alejandro Illanes and Isabel Puga. Ronald J. 129. K.R. 13. Kato. 60.
Novoye prostranstvo zamknutykh mnozhestv i mnogoznachnye otobrazhenya bikompaktov. 8589. 1992. T. Reading. Amer. Rogers. N.. (1971). 32. (1977). Novaya Seriya 48. 22. Fund.. 25. 13. SOC. 191212. A remark on spaces2x for zerodimensional X. T. Fund. 233250. 165168. Proc. Inc. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. The cone = hyperspace property. Can. An Introduction.Gen... V. Jr. Math. Amer. Marcel Dekker. J. Vol.. Rogers.Y. Continua whose cone and hyperspace are homeomorphic.. Jr. Sur les continus absolument indecomposabtes. AddisonWesley Pub. 31. New York. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math.. (1973). Jr. 230. Topologies on spacesof subsets. James T.. 24. Amer. Jr. sot. Sb. Colloq. 33. Benny Rushing Topological Embeddings. sot.Y. 71. James T. 283289. 24. 34. Hyperspaces of Sets. Math. (1951). 321345. 3. Locating cones and Hilbert cubes in hyperspaces. (1965).. 158. 151159. 27712775. Bull. 125. Sci. Inc.. 152182. 1973. Top. Math. Trans. Math. James T. Co. (19591. 27. Sot. New York. Jr. Sam B. Rogers. Embedding the hyperspaces of circlelike plane continua..Y.. Stephen Willard General Topology. 255257. 21. (1997). 23. Michael Levin and Yaki Sternfeld. Nadler. Math. Pelczynski.. Continuum Theory. Acad. Rogers. 28.. 49. Ponomariov. A note on hyperspaces and the fixed point property.Trans. 26. Amer. and J. Nadler. 29. Jr. Math. (1930). Sam B. Stefan Mazurkiewicz. Nadler. Jr. (1972)) 2799285. 25. 1978. Proc. I. Pol. Math. (1972). 29. Acad. Nadler. Sam B. Jr. Marcel Dekker. . EXAMPLES: GEOMETRIC MODELS FOR HYPERSPACES 20. Vol. N. Mass. Nadler. N. The space of s&continua of a 2dimensional continuum is infinite dimensional. 79. Ernest Michael. (in Russian) [A new space of closed subsets and multivalued mappings of bicompact spaces] Mat. and its Appls. A. Sam B. Math. New York. 30. Continua with cones homeomorphic to hyperspaces. 1970. Sam B.74 II. (1973).. 16. Press. Jr.
Peano gave the first example of a spacefilling curve. for many years a proof eluded everyone who worked on it. 0 < x 5 1. On the other hand. Hahn [18] and Mazurkiewicz [23] showed that every locally connected continuum is a continuous image of \O. later. Returning to 1938. it seems only fitting to begin with a historical discussion. is not a Peano continuum. Wojdyslawski [36] asked the following question: Is 2x the Hilbert cube whenever X is a (nondegenerate) Peano continuum? We remark that the question was restricted to Peano continua because they are the only continua X for which 2x is a Peano continuum ([33] and [34]). he proved that for any Peano continuum X. Finally. nevertheless. 2x and C(X) are absolute retracts [37]. The topic of this chapter is of fundamental importance. any ncell. it was conjectured that 2’ is the Hilbert cube. in the 1970’s. 11. the Hilbert cube. Simple examples of Peano continua include any finite graph.l] (and conversely). for example. Wojdyslawski provided strong evidence in support of an affirmative answer to his question. open sets. And there the matter rested 75 . Schori and West proved that 2’ is.l] onto the square I2 [28]. Therefore. where I = [0. the familiar continuum that is the closure of the graph of y = sin( l/z). a continuous function of the closed interval [O. They went on to extend their result to 2x when X is any finite graph [31].III. 2x and C(X) for Peano Continua X A space is said to be Eocally connected provided that each of its points has a neighborhood base of connected. it is centered around a problem that took over fifty years to resolve. the Hilbert cube ([29] and [30]). There were compelling reasonsto believe the conjecture. In Poland in the early 1920’s. The conjecture first appeared in print in 1938 [36]. In 1939. and the hairy point. namely. A locally connected continuum is often called a Peano continuum in honor of Giuseppe Peano: in 1890. indeed.
when every arc in X has empty interior in X. the embedded copy of K is a retract of Y. [lo. These results led to similar results for containment hyperspaces ([9].e. it is right!” At the end of the paper. We discuss the concepts that are necessary for understanding Torunczyk’s theorem. in I974 and 1978. They answered Wojdyslawski’s question (a&matively). Y. . A compacturn. is called an absolute retract (written AR) provided that whenever K is embedded in a metric space.until Schori and West proved their result about 2’ (mentioned above). A retraction is a continuous function. 2x AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X . The following notions are due to Borsuk [3]. Y. 9. the CurtisSchori papers are not the end of our story. But. and they obtained two definitive results about C(X). The CurtisSchoriWest techniques of proof involve the delicate use of inverse limits. at the time. The first reaction was “This can’t be right . 241).” which was followed five hours later with “By God. namely. into Y such that T is the identity on its range (i. p.for over thirty years . A subset. C(X) x Q z Q. of Y is said to be a retract of Y provided that there is a retraction of Y onto 2.e.76 III. We state Torunczyk’s theorem at the end of the section. who was hard at work in the mid 1970’s trying to characterize Hilbert cube manifolds. I remember the day when a preprint of Torunczyk’s results was received in the mail by a renowned topologist.we prove the converse the first day of class. Toruriczyk’s Theorem Zsets. We note that the results about C(X) were proved for a special case in an earlier paper by West [35]. and C(X) is a Hilbert cube factor (i. ~(T(Y)) = f(y) f or each y E Y). Enter H.. K. subtle and complicated maneuvers with refinements of partitions.. 2. Their results are as follows (where X is a nondegenerate Peano continuum): 2x is the Hilbert cube. Torunczyk. This brings us to the purpose of this chapter . Preliminaries: Absolute Retracts. where Q denotes the Hilbert cube). fairly new results about infinitedimensional topology. Then. Torunczyk gave an elegant proof of the CurtisSchori result for 2x as an application of his characterization theorem. C(X) is the Hilbert cube in the only situation when it could be. and what were. from a space. Curtis and Schori published their landmark papers ([9] and [lo]). T . We present the necessary background for the proof in the first two sections of the chapter.proving the first two CurtisSchori results mentioned above using Torunczyk’s theorem.
since J is an AR. is a retraction of I” onto a copy of In). First. let K’ be an embedded and extend the identity map for K’ to a n Let K be a compacturn in I”. 9. let P denote the polyhedron in Figure 6. there is a retraction. By 9. which uses the following terminology. If K is a retract of Im. we can assume that K C I”.1.Let g = (g& Then we see that T o g : M + K K is an AE. 11%. continuous function r : Y + K’. Assume that K is an AR. Therefore. PRELIMINARIES: ABSOLUTE RETRACTS. A similar argument (using an ncell) shows that the polyhedron in Figure 9. of Ice onto K. 1271. On the other hand. p. l]i. A compactum. any retract of I” is an AR. where f has coordinate functions fi : B + [0. let B be a closed subset of a metric space. p. then K is an AR. extension of is a continuous f. Evidently. 42 is an AR. is an AR if and only Proof. P is contained in the 3cell J = I$=. Therefore.1.) 9. is called an absolute extensor (written AE) provided that whenever B is a closed subset of a metric space. p. K. since K is an AR. By Urysohn’s metrization theorem Then. Next. by 9. Theorem [3]. K. : M + I’=‘. 77 We will give some examples of absolute retracts using the corollary in 9.. then f can be extended to a continuous function F : M + K..2. Proof. 10° itself is an AR (the identity map of 1” being a retraction).2. (Note: F being an extension off means that FIB = f. that K is an AE. By 9.2.2]i. p. we prove the important characterization theorem in 9.2 Corollary. The converse is easy: Assume copy of K in a metric space Y.[1. ZSETS. Therefore. and f : B + K is continuous.1 shows that any retract of 10° is an AE. By Tietze’s extension theorem [21. [21. A compactum.. Now. any ncell is an AR (the map (Zi)ci + (xi)&. let us use 9. The first part of the proof of 9. W Now. M. each fi can be extended to a continuous function gi : M + [0. simple examples of compacta that are not absolute retracts come from realizing that every AR is a Peano continuum. = 0 for all i > n. r. P is an AR (it being obvious that a retract of an AR is an AR). 2411. 37. This .1 Borsuk’s if K is an AE. and let f : B + K be continuous.9.2 to give some simple examples of absolute retracts. where X: = zi for all i 5 n and x!. It is easy to envision a retraction of J onto P. M.
y) < E for all y E Y).(y). . Unlike In. for I” given by dw((~i)~l. and let q E [0. Let E > 0. We will contrast Zsets in I” with Zsets in the Hilbert cube I”. 2411. . 3141). Klee. x3+1. 2’ AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X fact is a consequence of the following observations: Every compactum is embeddable in IO0 [21. For a systematic treatment of the fundamentals of absolute retracts. (yi)&) = 22“/xi i=l . f6. Therefore.yil for all (xi&.. unlike In. no point of In . clearly. such that q # pj. 21.. from Y into Y . 3131). . which we now define. d(f. We use the standard metric d. This implies that. p. (yi)& E 103.A such that f. q. On the other hand. l] = (~1. We note that an nsphere for n > 0 is an example of a Peano continuum that is not an AR (since dI”+l is not a retract of In+l [21. A similar argument shows that any finite set (and any countable. A.). We define Zsets and briefly discuss them. . a closed subset.l E I”. let p = < E. it is easy to see that 81” is a Zset in I”. In [l]. see PI. resulting in what are now called Zsets. We will give another simple example of Zsets in Tco. For example. Define fc : IO0 + 103 as follows: f<((~i)&) To see this. We turn our attention to the idea of a Zset. there is a sequence of Zsets in IO” whose union is dense in I”. of Y is said to be a Zset in Y provided that for each E > 0. He called the notion Property Z (the letter Z was intended to be suggestive of the zigzag motions that Anderson. except that we restrict our attention to Zsets in compacta. Anderson defined a notion about closed subsets of certain infmitedimensional. Fix j 2 1 such that 2j (Pi)~“. p.. Anderson’s definition of Property Z has been modified.) for each (zi)Ei E I”.e. any point of 103 is a Zset in I”. closed set) in IO0 is a Zset in I”. p. and others used in moving points around in infinitedimensional spaces). The definition we give is from [5. p. is within E of the identity map on Y (i. The example concerns Zmaps. and every retract Of a Peano continuum is a Peano continuum. I” is a Peano continuum. Let Y be a compacturn with metric d. Then. .78 III. . p 4 f6(I”) and f 6 is within E of the identity map on I”O (with the metric d. of In is a Zset in In if and only if A c aIn. linear spaces. A. A closed subset. zj1.dI” is a Zset in I” (which follows using the Brouwer fixed point theorem [21. there is a continuous function.
then Y is the Hilbert cube. Let Y be a compacturn. Consider the “nearest point” map r : 10° + G(Y) defined as follows: for each x E I”. [Hint: To prove that Cone(lm) is an AR. T(X) is the unique point of G(Y) that is nearest to x. . . 9. Easytostate open questions about Zsets in hyperspaces are in 83. We see that each fn is a Zmap (by using coordinate replacement. Prove that I” M Cone(F’) by using 9. let fn : I” + 10° be the following “projection” : fn((zi)gl) = (xi. Yz.6 Exercise. Determine all the Zsets in Y when Y is the closure in R* of the graph of y = sin(l/z). .O. let Y = {(yi)Er E 103 : y1 = 0}. is a Zset in Y. as we did above). Now. Hilbert cube manifold is the Hilbert cube).3 Toruriczyk’s Theorem [32]. Let Yx denote the space of all continuous functions from X into Y with the uniform metric p. Therefore. 9. . 341. Note that the sequence {fn}r=i converges uniformly to the identity map on I” (with respect to the metric d.3 is only a special case of Theorem 1 of [32. . . we have determined an elementary fact about Hilbert cubes: if Q is a Hilbert cube. The converse. 0.). Exercises 9. is called a Zmap provided that f(Yr) is a Zset in Yz. Let Y be an AR.2. and let G(Y) be the geometric cone over Y with vertex v = (l. contractible. p. Let X and Y be compacta. f. . is Torunczyk’s theorem! 9. 9.znrO. for absolute retracts. The finite union of Zsets in Y 9. .). in other . from a compactum. Yi.7 Exercise. then the identity map on Q is a uniform limit of Zmaps.EXERCISES 79 A continuous function...3 follows from Theorem 1 of [32] by using Chapman’s contractibility theorem [S] (which says that any compact. If the identity on Y is a uniform limit of Zmaps.) for all (si)p”i E 10°. .8 Exercise..5 Exercise. for each n = 1. .10. into a compactum.1 9.O..4 Exercise. Give an example of a closed subset of IO0 that has empty interior in IO3 and that is not a Zset in P.883. 0 < z 5 1. map We remark that 9.3.
p. cube. g E Y x. Preliminaries: General Results Continua about Peano We will use three classical theorems about Peano continua in the next section.g) = sup {d(f(s)>g(z)) : x E X1. Let Y” be as in 9. Then. 10. 331.2. 10. Every Peano continuum Convex metrics were first studied by Menger [24]. then {f E 10.3 Theorem. is said to be arcwise (or pathwise) connected provided any two points of X can be joined by an arc in X. a compacturn with a convex metric must be a Peano continuum (Exercise 10. for X that induces the topology on X and for which midpoints always exist: for any x. X is the union of finitely many Peano continua of diameter < E. = id(x. there exists m E X such that d(x. which will be easy by the end of the section). and 10.2 Theorem.80 words. The convexity of the Hausdorff metric has been studied by Duda in [12] and [13] (regarding the problems in [12.13. If Y is a Hilbert YX : f is a Zmap} is dense in Y x.3.) . for example. proofs of 10. has a convex metric. 10. The following proposition shows that if a continuum has a convex metric. The theorem in 10. pp. y) = d(m. that A convex metric for a space X is a metric.9 Exercise. We state these theorems in 10.3 are in [2] and [25]. Let X be a Peano continuum. Proofs of 10. In fact.3. then {f E Yx : f(X) conversely).6 in the next section. then the points of the continuum can be joined by metricallystraight line segments. see 4. 9. that is. X.m) 10. We will use 10. (Recall that an isometry is a distance preserving map.1 and 10. d. which is due to Bing [2] and Moise [25].6 of [13]). 2x AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X if d denotes the metric on Y and f. A space. by arcs that are isometric to intervals in R1.5 and 10. [22.7.y). Every Peano continuum is arcwise connected. y E X. then df.5 and 4. for each E > 0. nA = 0) is dense in Yx (and If A is a Zset in Y. 2542571 or Chapter VIII of [27].1. answered a question in [24].1 Theorem. Let us note a few elementary properties of convex metrics. It is easy to see that a compacturn with a convex metric must be a continuum. III.2 can be found in.
B) for all x E cd(T. .2n . Let m(1/2) be a midpoint for x and y. and let A E CL(X). in accordance with the indicated pattern. . y)]. where each m( k/2n) 1sa midpoint for m([kJ = R. x. Hd[Cd(T.A) 5 T}. B)) 5 Hd(A. d) is an arc. We use the formula for Hd in the exercise in 2.11. letting f(z) = d(x. A). seeExercises 10. A). Let.5 Proposition. which is denoted by C~(T. is defined as follows: &(T. The generalized closed dball in X about A of radius T.z) 1]/2n) and m([k+ 1]/2n). thus. in X such that J is isometric to the closed interval [0. of x: A4 = {m(/~/2~) : n = 1.5. . therefore.4 Proposition. 10. Let X be a continuum with a convex metric d. Fix > 0. Then any two points.A) = {x E X : d(x. J.10 and 10. of X can be joined by an arc. y)]. WI 5 Hd(A.12). The following proposition may not be true when the metric d for the continuum X is not convex (Exercise 10.7..3 E J by the way we constructed J. M. cd(T. it follows that f is an isometry of J onto [O. be an arc since isometries are homeomorphisms. gives us the following subset. n The next two properties of convex metrics involve generalized closed balls.7 and where m(0) = z and m(l) = y. Then.3. . Note the following definition (which is what is expected in view of how we defined generalized open balls in Chapter I). . Then let m(/~/8) be a midpoint for m([k . A) may not be the sameas the closure of N~(T. We remark that Cd(f. T Proof. B E 2x. Then. for each z E J. Cd(T.d(x. B E 2”. where Ic = 1. Let (X. Proof. x and y. Let A.2.1]/8) and m([lc+ l]/S).d) be a metric space..10. and k = 1. let T > 0. B). A formal induction. it suffices (by symmetry) to show that (#) d(x. We note that J must. and let m(3/4) be a midpoint for m(1/2) and y. . A). PRELIMINARIES: GENERAL RESULTS ABOUT PEANO CONTINUA 81 10. Let X be a continuum with a convex metric d. A) even when the space (X. for any A. Also. Then let m(1/4) be a midpoint for x and m(1/2).l}. d(x.
Since B E 2”.(2. B). Now.T < d(z. n since y E C~(T. there exists b E B such that d(n. B). the usual triangle inequality for x. Note that d(z. a) + d(a. since d(y. by 2. Then. since 2 and b are the end points of J and J is isometric to [0.y. VI u Vz may not be open in 2 even if Vi is open in Zi for each i). n 22). b) = 4x. B). we assume for the proof that 2 $ Cd(r. C. since Zi and Zz are Peano continua. Since it is obvious that (#) holds if z E Crl(r. S’mce d(z.7. d(z. then VI u Vz is a connected neighborhood of z in 2 (however. Proof. a) 5 T. Obviously. we have Our final property of convex metrics concerns the connectednessof generalized closed balls. 6) = T. B). b) = r. b) . thus. b)].b) = d(a. B)).82 III. B). J. we have that d(z. b) > r. then 21 U 22 is a Peano continuum. by 10.A) E C(X). in X from 5 to b such that J is isometric to [0. b) = d(a. Therefore. since d(z. A). d(z. let 2 t C~(T.(r. y) = d(z. Proof. A) is connected when A E C(X) is a simple consequenceof 10. Let X be a continuum with a convex metric d. Let Z = Zi U 22.7 Proposition. Note that if z E 21 n 22 and I”. 10. is a connected neighborhood of z in Zi. If Zi and 2s are Peano continua (in a given space) and if 21 f? 22 # 0. B). b)]. Thus. b).r. 9) I d(a. there is a point y E J such that d(y.hat . proved (#). d(z. it follows t. The fact that Cd(r.4. A) and A E 2x. 2 is a continuum that is locally connected at each point of 2 . there is an arc. Since z E Cd(r. and b (with y as the repeated point) is an equality: 4x7 Y) + d(~. there exists a E A such that d(z. B). y) 5 Hd(A.4. d(x. Thus. b) . 2’ AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X To prove (#). n We will use the following simple result about unions of Peano continua several times in the next section. n) 5 r and d(n. 10. Therefore.6 Proposition. b) > T (by our assumption that z # Cd(r. for any A E C(X) and T > 0. Hence.
the converse is false even for continua. z has a connected neighborhood. having shown that there is such a G for any p E Z and for any neighborhood N of p. perhaps. X is locally connected at p provided that p has a neighborhood base of connected.e. G is a connected. Nevertheless. Do the same for a noose and a simple nod. we have proved that G is open in Z. see 4. n The proof of 10. clearly E c G. Give an example of a convex metric for a simple closed curve. 10. However. since G is the union of all such sets. thus. Hence.4 of Kelley [20. If X is a Peano continuum. G is the union of all the connected subsets of No containing p). Note that G is connected. Finally. since E is a neighborhood of z in Z and since z was an arbitrary point of G. This is what most of the proof of 10. then X is cik at p. We mentioned his theorem in the historical discussion at the beginning of the chapter.7 leads us to make some comments that will explain why the proof was. Let No denote the interior of N in Z. Note that G U E is a connected subset of N“ containing p. open neighborhoods. Therefore. then 2x and C(X) are absolute retracts. as the continuum in Figure 22 (top of the next page) illustrates. Now. Let G denote the component of p in N” (i. connected sets that contain p in their interiors in X). There are two natural ways to localize connectedness: Let X be a topological space. if a topological space is cik at every point.8 Wojdyslawski’s Theorem [37]. we have proved that Z is locally connected. We show that G is open in Z.7 was devoted to showing. E. p. fix p E Z and let N be any neighborhood of p in Z. harder than expected. then it is locally connected at every point.9 Exercise. and let p E X. Let z E G. It is obvious that if X is locally connected at p. open subset of Z and p E G c N. X is connected im kleinen (cik) at p provided that p has a neighborhood base of connected neighborhoods (that is. . in N”. By (*).. For a short proof of Wojdyslawski’s theorem based on a characterization of Lefschetz. Exercises 10. Therefore. 281.EXERCISES 83 (*) each point of 2 has a neighborhood base of connected sets. we recall Wojdyslawski’s theorem for use in the next section.
for any 4 E 2x and any T > 0. Give examples of metrics.3. B E 2x. d.(X) is a Peano continuum for each n.5 is true for d2 even though d2 is not a convex metric. Let X be a continuum with a convex metric d.11 Exercise. 10. If X is a Peano continuum.) 10. If a compactum. 2’ AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X X cik at p. A)] = Cd(r. is equivalent to the continuous variance of balls [26]). some T > 0. at p Figure 22 10. (The equality here. . has a convex metric. 10. corm. dl and dz. for an arc.84 III.12 Exercise.13 Exercise. and some A. such that dl and d2 induce the topology on X and have the following properties: the inequality in 10. A). (This is a converse of 10. for an arc. X. not lot. Then.5 fails for dl. without requiring d to be convex. If Fl(X) is a Peano continuum. then X is a Peano continuum. {PI)1 # Cd(T. cwd(r. X. then X is a Peano continuum. 10. the inequality in 10.10 Exercise. cl[Nd(r.14 Exercise. X. Give an example of a metric. then F. {PI). such that d induces the topology on X and for some p E X and some T > 0.
Proof. and CK(X) Are Zsets We prove the theorem in 11. Let J be an arc with end points p and q. 11.3. l] a. l] # 0.1 . ifAn[1.0]#0.0) if An [1. q}. a+ = inf A CI[0.l}.2 in the proof of the CurtisSchori Theorem in 11. We will use 11. follows: ifAn[$. First. we prove an important result about when containment hyperspaces are Zsets.1. We say that A is a free arc in X provided that A without its end points is open in X. then. THE CURTISSCHORI THEOREM FOR 2x AND C(X) 85 11.1.=supAn[l. if A c (0.2:.3.2 with the following technical lemma (whose proof uses a function in [ll]).O) # 0 # An (O. We facilitate part of the proof of 11.l]. y(A) = Au {2a1 A u {2a+ + l}. cp(S) = S. The CurtisSchori Theorem for 2x and C(X) We prove the CurtisSchori Theorem in 11.l]. For convenience. .3. and (p(AUS) = (p(A)US. . We leave it for the reader to check that cphas the properties in the lemma (for the case when J = Y). (h*)’ o cpo h* is the required map for 2J.11. l)] u t1. When 2. l] if A c [1.1. 11. let we first prove the lemma for the arc Y = if A f~ [0.2a”)] U {2a0 .2a+ l}. There is a continuous function cp : 2J + 2’ such that cp has the following properties: If A E 2J and S c {p. let h’ : 2’ + 2’ be as in the proof of 1. ifOEA v(A) = [A . { [y(A)(2a0 . let AU {2a+ .2a0}. n Let A be an arc in a space X.2.1 Lemma. then p(A) # J. The general result for any arc J now follows readily: Let h be a homeomorphism from J onto Y.C1. and let ‘p : 2’ + 2y be as just constructed. define ‘p : 2’ + 2’ as Note that y is continuous on 2y . Finally.1 .$I=0 Y(A). If A E 2’.O] a0 = inf (1~1 : a E A}. [l. if 0 < a0 5 5. If A E 2y such that 0 4 A.
Let enough so that St(p) C = {Xj we assume that E is small : p 4 Xj and X.1. by 11. then int(B) and B” denote the interior B in X. let d denote a metric for X. assuming that K does not contain a free arc in X. also. We see that fc maps 2x into 2*Y . Let E > 0. We define what is commonly called the star of p with respect to Xi. there is a continuous function. In other words. Recall from the statement of the theorem that K’ # 0. Let t > 0.2 Theorem [ll. Next. therefore. since K contains a free arc in X. where n < oo. X. as follows: S(p) = U(Xi : p E Xi). in X such that diameterd(J) < E.. Then. from 2x into 2x . Let K be a closed subset of X such that K” # 0. .1. 11. .1). we will use the Hausdorff metric Hd as it is specifically defined in 2. By 10. is closed in 2x by 1. c K and St(p) # X. f( is within E of the identity map on 2x (with Hd) since diameterd(J) < E. NOW. we show that for each E > 0. 2’ AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X of If X is a space and B C X. each Xi is a Peano continuum. Then. J. ifBnJf0. In determining how close a map is to the identity map on 2x or C(X). K contains a free arc. we have proved that 25 is a Zset in 2 x in the case when K contains a free arc in x. Define fE : 2x + 2x as follows: ifBnJ=0 f’(B)={fkJo)u~(BnJ). In view of the definition of a Zset. we note to begin with that 2. and diameterd(Xi) < c/4 for each i. CK(X) is closed in C(X). Finally. p(A) 3 J for any A E 2’. assuming that K contains a free arc in X. .2: since J C K and since. Let p and q denote the end points of J. p. and let p E K“. CK(X) is a Zset in C(X). also.2: such that g( is within E of the identity map on 2x (with Hd). X = uFz2=. We first prove the theorem for 2. n St(p) # S}.86 III. 1621. Therefore. Let X be a nondegenerate Peano continuum.1. gL. we prove the theorem for 2.Xi. and let cp : 2J + 2’ be as guaranteed by 11. Without loss of generality (recall that p E K’).1 (recall 3.1. 2% is a Zset in 2x. if K contains no free arc in X. The continuity of fc follows from J being a free arc in X and from the properties of cp in 11. .19. Proof.
for infinitely many k. note by using 10. extend p to a function y : X + C(X) by the following formula: Y(Z) = 1 p(z). which implies the continuity of y.. by (if. let z E cl[X .St(p)] II St(p). We prove that gr has the following three properties: (4 Se maps 2x into 2x and gr is continuous. let g. . we show how y is used to define the final function. has the following three properties: (i) z E X.(B) 2 K for any B E 2”. Let {zk}& be a sequence in and n < 03. by 10. This proves (#).[St(p) U I’]. on 2”.8. By (ii) and (iii). Hence. E C. (c) ge is within Eof the identity map on 2. z E Y. AND C&(X) ARE ZSETS 87 is connected.. XSt(p) such that {zk}& converges to z. (since zk 4 St(p) for any k). This implies that X. To prove (#). Recall that p is continuous and that /3(y) = {y} for all y E Y.WHEN 2. Then. there exists m such that zk E X. in St(p) from p to each of the points pj chosen above. Hence. A. (ii) p $ X. and let Y = Au (UC).Xj E C. first.xi For each .X. C(Y) is an AR. Since St(p) # X and X = U~==.7 again that Y is a Peano continuum. gc.1 that Q can be extended to a continuous function p : St(p) U Y + C(Y’). it follows easily that C # 0. there is an arc.. II St(p) # 0 (by (i) since z E St(p)).(B) = u{y(b) : b E B}. (2>. note that the points pj really do exist (since C # 0). Also. Let A denote the union of these arcs Aj. Therefore. X. Define cy: Y + C(Y) as follows: a(y) = {y} for all y E Y. It follows by using 10.&St@)]n St(p) c Y. hence. we see from 9. let pj E Xj fl St(p). Since X = Uy==. Now. (iii) X. since C(Y) is an AR. if 5 E St(p) U 1 if 2 E X .’ (with Hd) Proof of (a): We begin the proof of (a) by proving that y is continuous. We will prove that y is continuous. For each B E 2”. by 10.7 that St(p) is a Peano continuum. (b) g.2. the continuity of y follows easily once we prove that (#) cl[X .
also. since U is clearly nonempty and open in Xj we see that U 4 A. Therefore. Hence. we use the continuity of y to complete the proof of (a). it suffices to show that UA # 0 (since Y = AU(UC)). Hence. B) < E for all B E 2x (by Exercise 2. wecompletetheproofof(b). Thus. y(B) E 22x. This proves (b). This proves that gEmaps 2x into 2x.(B) $ K for any B E 2x.UC. by the formula for g6. For use in proving (*).. SC(B) Thus. Let Since y is a continuous function from X into C(X). by the formula for y and the fact that 0 maps into C(Y). Let y* : 2x + 22x be defined by B E 2”. Recall that A was defined as a finite union of arcs in St(p) and that St(p) C I(. q $! g. we have proved (*). 4141). This proves (a).A # 8. Recall the formula for y and the fact that /3 maps into C(Y). Proof of (b): The reason that (b) is true is that St(p) $ZI’. thereisapointq E St(p)Y. A is a finite union of arcs each of which has empty interior in X. i.5 that g. since g. We first prove that (*I SW c y.3).(B) E 2x. hence.(B) = UY(B). The fact that ge is continuous follows from the continuity of y and from (2) of 11.e. p. Therefore. . we seethat diameterd[{z} U r(z)] < e for all z E X. y* is continuous (by the continuity of y and by (1) in the proof of 1.(B) for any B E 2x. Now. Thus. g( (B)) and c N~(E.9). since q E St(p) c K. U .5 as follows. clearly g. we seeby (1) of the exercise in 11.5. y(B) is a (nonempty) compact subset of C(X). Note that u c St(p) . Proof of (c): Observe that diameterd[St(p) U Y] < e. let U = X u{Xi : p $ Xi}. A” = 8 (as follows directly or by using the Baire theorem [21. Hd(gf(B). 2x AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X Now. gc is continuous. and 21is continuous (by (2) of 11. B). Hence. Therefore.5). for any B E 2x. recall our assumption that K does not contain a free arc in X. it follows immediately that B c Nd(c. This proves (c). also. y*(B) = y(B) for all B E 2x. By(*). Therefore. to prove (*).88 III. Hence. Let 21 the union map be in 11. Here are the details. Then we see that q $! y(z) for any 5 E X. Therefore. Then we see that g( = u o r*.
Obviously. +c is continuous.. Let B E C(X). y(B) E C[C(X)]. Then (1) 2x is the Hilbert cube.3 that d is a convex metric for X. Proof of (1) and (2) [32. . We prove that g<]C(X) maps C(X) into C(X). we assume by 10.5. n. it follows that CK(X) is a Zset in C(X).3 CurtisSchori Theorem ([9] and [lo]). The proof is based on Torunczyk’s Theorem in 9. we must show that there is a Zmap from 2x into 2x that is within E of the identity map on 2x. by Exercise 9. is a Zset in 2x for each i. Finally.(B) = UT(B). m The CurtisSchori Theorem There are three parts to the CurtisSchori Theorem. since g.3.3. We will verify the second assumption in 9. Hence. Uy!=.. Define af : 2x + 2x as follows (recall that Cd is used in denoting closed dballs): +<(A) = Cd(e. since y : X + C(X) is continuous. is a Zset in 2x.3 for 2x and then for C(X). we show that +c is a Zmap. Therefore. in view of (a)(c) above. Thus.8. we have proved that gc]C(X) maps C(X) into C(X).3.12). . By 10. there are finitely many points. We prove the first two parts and then discuss proofs for the third part.THE CURTISSCHORI By (a)(c). . . and (3) C(X) is a Hilbert cube factor. we note right away that 2x and C(X) are absolute retracts by 10. 2: is a Zset in 2x. such that Y x P M I” (cf. {pi}) for each i = 1.A) for all A E 2x. Consider the map gc]C(X). Since X is compact. is at most E from the identity map on 2x (with Hd). Let X be a nondegenerate Peano continuum. i. y(B) is a subcontinuum of C(X).p. a Hilbert cube factor is a space.4. the first two parts are of primary importance. $. . For this purpose. (2) C(X) is the Hilbert cube when there is no free arc in X. Regarding the first assumption in 9. Then. 391. By the first part of 11.e.2$. 11. Let E > 0. THEOREM 89 The proof of the theorem for CK(X) is now easy. _. we see by (3) of the exercise in 11.. Regarding the terminology in the third part of the CurtisSchori Theorem. According to 9. where gc is as defined above. of X such that Let Ki = Cd(c/2.2. 2 5. Hence. pl. p.5 that Se(B) E C(X). . Exercise 11. Y.
n It. and the proof using 11. he used a theorem of R. @t(2Y) is a Zset in 2”.8 and Toruilczyk’s Theorem in 9. Edwards. [9] and [lo]. in other words.4). cpcmaps C(X) into C(X). Hence. . Two such results are in Exercises 11.3 (using 10.4 Edwards’s Theorem.. Further Uses of Toruriczyk’s Theorem Toruriczyk’s Theorem in 9. Thus. Thus. 2’ AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X It is easy to seethat for each A E 2 x.7.6. we prove part (2) of the theorem. 2. Then the proof that C(X) satisfies the second assumption in 9. Next.3 using Wojdyslawski’s Theorem in 10. with a different proof).o Curtis and Schori.8. [lo]).7 (the results are due t.2. by adjusting the relevant part of what we did above to the present situation.3 is a simple adaptation of what we just did for 2x..90 III. we see that (pc is continuous and that (pc is at most E from the identity map on C(X). Therefore.1 and 22. Therefore. CK.8).6 and 11.3 is useful in studying hyperspaces of nonPeano continua. This proves part (1) of the theorem. Assume that there is no free arc in X..3 is in 83. Every AR is a Hilbert cube factor. Toruriczyk’s Theorem can be used to prove results about containment hyperspaces. Namely. having verified the assumptions in 9. . ‘p.1 of [5] to obtain our 11. We state the special caseof Edwards’s theorem: 11. we have proved that Qe is a Zmap. . C(X) is the Hilbert cube. Then.(A) E 25.(X) is a Zset in C(X) for each i.9. and let pr = aelC(X).3 . by 9.11).3 (Exercise 11. l+om the properties of G<.. Hence. To see that cpcis a Zmap. A proof of the theorem is in 44. and a special case of Edwards’s theorem directly implies (3) of 11. However. One illustration is in Exercise 11. An open question related to 11. there are two appropriate proofs for part (3) of 11. since it is evident that a closed subset of a Zset is a Zset. by the second part of 11. at the present time.3 that 2aYis the Hilbert cube. but apparently he did not publish it (see [17]). Edwards proved his theorem in the early 1970’s. By 10. such a proof is really not appropriate for the following reason: When Toruticzyk proved his theorem.the original CurtisSchori proof ([9]. (2”) c uy=. . is simple enough to prove part (3) of 11.3. let Ki be as aboveforeachi=l.3 for 2x. it follows that (pt is a Zmap. we have by 9. there exists j such that Q.4 and 10.a. let ar be as above.1 of [5] (combine 44. D.
and let K be a subcompactum of X such that K # X. [Hint: The hint is similar to the hint for 11. part (1) generalizes the familiar case of finite unions. Then.3 for 2:. moreover. Part (1) of 11. Verify the properties of u in (l)(3) below (which we used in the proof of 11. find a natural map from 22 onto 25d!d(C. (2) u is continuous.EXERCISES 91 Torunczyk’s Theorem can be used to prove results about intersection hyperspaces (see part (3) of Exercise 15. 11. We note that by 3.Kj (small) 6 > 0.3).1. To verify the second assumption in 9.5 Exercise. 22x . B) for all A. Let X be a Peano continuum. B E 22x..6 except that a retraction of C(X) onto CK(X) is not as easy to find as a retraction of 2x onto 2. Let X be a Peano continuum.] . and examine the for proof of 11. include 171. function ‘u.7 Exercise. onto) C(X). aside from papers already mentioned.2). A) > K} for each A E C(X). If X . 181. defined by The union map for 22x is the u(d) = ud for each A E 22x.5 says that the union of a compact collection of compact sets is compact. and 1191. Exercises 11. H(Ud. Let X be a compactum.6 Exercise. A result about spaces of segments whose proof uses Torunczyk’s Theorem is in 17. (1) u maps 22x into (in fact.] 11. Remark. find a natural retraction of 2x onto 2. 2: is the Hilbert cube. thus.9. onto) 2x. and let K be a subcompactum of X such that K # X. then CK (X) is the Hilbert cube.8.K contains no free arc in X. Ua) 5 HH(d. and let [(A) = inf(r : Cd(r. Papers about hyperspaces that use Torunczyk’s Theorem and other results from infinitedimensional topology. metrized by the Hausdorff metric HH 1s induced by the Hausdorff metric H for 2x.2 carefully. (3) u maps C[C(X)] into (in fact.15). [Hint: To show that 2z is an AR. The following function is helpful: Let d be a convex metric for X (10. [14][lSj. and use 10. (See Remark below).
p.. Construct a geometric model for C(X) when X is the harmonic fan. Let X be a continuum. 3811 or [5. Assume that ud E P for every subcontinuum A of P. The following theorem is used in (5) to give clarity to the model (for a proof of the theorem.7 (including the hint).22. and let P be a Peano subcontinuum of 2x or C(X). Regarding 11. see Exercise 11.g. We suggest a procedure for doing this in (l)(5) below. 2x AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X 14. Then.. we will use it in the next exercise). see [l.9) Figure 23 . The harmonic fan is the continuum in Figure 23.9 Exercise. it is the cone over the compacturn Y. where Y = {ei : ee = 0 and ei = l/i for i = 1. [Hint: Use 11.2.1 11. Remark.5. P is an AR. 141): Harmonic fan (11.8 Exercise. The following general result has many applications (e..III. p..}.
.9. didn’t have to do .10 Exercise. Anderson’s Homogeneity phism between two Zsets in a Hilbert homeomorphism of Q onto Q.3. 1.(X) a Peano continuum. Is 2..4).1 to obtain a geometric model for C(X). 93 Theorem [l].5 with what we did or. where Y is as above. 92).1 disregarding ‘p and using the procedure outlined for the harmonic fan. One should also compare what we did with respect to the harmonic fan with what we did with respect to the hairy point in 6.2. The harmonic fan is a natural generalization of a simple nod.4.(X) is the Hilbert cube (use (l). the Hilbert cube? (We know from (2) of 11. 11. (5) Use (2)(4) and 11.1: We did not need Torunczyk’s Theorem or Anderson’s Theorem in 6.8. it is not appropriate for the reason mentioned preceding 11.1. (4) Prove that F n C. Any homeomorcube. it is beneficial to rework 6. In particular. p.9 that x CV(X) is the Hilbert cube. furthermore..(X) is a continuum.EXERCISES 11. Let X be the harmonic fan with vertex v (11.4 we constructed a geometric model for C(X) when X is a simple nod.. Nevertheless. Show how part (3) of the CurtisSchori Theorem in 11. and 9.(X). (1) Prove that C. due to Anderson’s Theorem in 11.9 and Figure 23. See the Remark following the result. It is interesting to compare the comments in 5. let v denote the vertex of X.12 Exercise. .) 11.1. (2) Prove that C. rather. .1 because we had a formula for the homeomorphism cp of Cv(X) onto 10°.8 and Torunczyk’s Theorem in 9.9. (3) Determine a geometric model for F = U&C(eiv).11 Exercise.9. is .) 11. 11. Remark...(X) is a Zset in C.. In 5. (Although such a proof is instructive. can be extended to a For what follows. We also suggest working the exercises at the end of section 6 using the methods of this chapter. Prove the result stated below in an elementary way (without using Edwards’s Theorem in 11. prove that C. and let eiv denote the arc in X from ci to v for each i = 0.in obtaining a geometric model for the harmonic fan. recall that X = Cone(Y).3). less care is required in constructing a geometric model for C(X) when X is the harmonic fan than when X is a simple nod. Q.3 follows easily from 10.
51 (1962). 3. Mich. D. W. Math. 329353. 87106. On convex metric spacesV. 1938. Nadler.M.. Series in Math. 271283. and its Appls. R. R. Theory of Retracts. l] x In # Tn. is a Hilbert cube factor if (and only if) there is a space. D. Math. Duda. 2X and C(X) are homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube. On the structure of Hilbert cube manifolds.. Conf. 68 (1978). . 13. 927931. Bull. R. Growth hyperspaces of Peano continua. 715. The hyperspace of compact conuex subsets of a polyhedral 2cell. 365383. Remark. Poland. 1967. Curtis and R. 279288. Providence. Hyperspaces of cones and fans. Chapman.94 III. D.Fund. and R. Amer. Fund. Sot. Amer. 28. W. 68 (1970). D. Bing. 14. Proc. Sot. W. Math. 17 (1931). Math. Polish Scientific Publishers. Curtis. 220224.Fund. Carl Eberhart and Sam B. Top. 8.l] is a Cartesian factor of 1” but. 2. 9. Hyperspaces of Peano continua are Hilbert cubes.I. 6. such that Y x 2 is the Hilbert cube. 7. Quinn. 11. 80 (1974). Compositio Math. Math. A.l] is not an ncell factor since [0. K. Sot. Schori. Gen.A. 3 (1977). Schori. Regional Conf. Amer. T. Sot. Schori. Proc. of Math. 24 (1972). 152170. Fund.12 puts our definition of a Hilbert cube factor in sync with the usual notion of a factor of a Cartesian product. 4. M. D. 44. Trans. Warszawa. 55 (1949). Carl Eberhart. 6 (1976). Borsuk. Hyperspaceswhich characterize simple homotopy type. [O. Jr. Intervals of continua which are Hilbert cubes. Amer. 10. Amer. Math. 1. T. Bull. Monografie Matematyczne. 2x AND C(X) FOR PEANO CONTINUA X A space. Y. 12. Duda. Sot. Board of the Math. Sci. D. Amer. W. R. Anderson. Sur les re’tractes.. Houston J. Sot. W. Curtis and R. Curtis and R. using the definition of an ncell factor that is directly analogous to our definition of a Hilbert cube factor. 14 (1967). Borsuk. References R. Math. Math. M. 101 (1978). Chapman.. [O. M. Vol. Partitioning a set. 2333. On topological infinite deficiency. Lectures on Hilbert Cube Manifolds. 77 (1979). Math. 153165. 5. K. On convex metric spaces111. Curtis. 238 (1978). J. In contrast. Math. 11011110. Math. 1976. Vol. The result in 11. Schori. J. 2. 15. H.
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we often simply say that E and F are mutually separated (without saying in X). definitive results about the homogeneity of 2x and C(X) when X is a continuum (15. E and F.IV. Most of the sections include applications: 2” contains a Hilbert cube for any nondegenerate continuum X (14. We also include some related topics such as spaces of segments.9 and 12.followed by a section about Whitney maps. 2x and C(X) are continuous images of the cone over the Cantor set (17. hence.7). Let (X. Preliminaries: Separation.10. If (X. Arcs in Hyperspaces The arc structure of hyperspaces is the most fundamental and important ingredient in the general theory of hyperspaces. Quasicomponents.10). and other applications that are in the exercises. where E and F are nonempty and mutually 97 . The main theorems are 12.12).T) is a topological space and Y c X. We present a systematic treatment of the arc structure of 2x and C(X) when X is a compactum. of X are said to be mutually separated in X provided that Note that this notion only depends on the subspace topology for E U F. Boundary Bumping We obtain some general results concerned with connectedness for use later. Two subsets. T) be a topological space. The rest of the chapter contains our study of the arc structure of 2” and C(X). We begin the chapter with a section of general preliminaries . 12.6 and 15. then we write Y = E(F to mean that Y = E U F.quasicomponents and boundary bumping . chapter. We use the material in these two sections throughout the rest of the .
or B is known to be a onepoint set. G. and let K.. and B be subsets of X.B such that G is clopen in XB. EvidentIy. Therefore. Let (X. Hence. L. the boundary of I” in I” is empty whereas the boundary of I” in R’” is aP).andGnL=0. L.1). Bd(Z) depends on the containing space X (e. Clearly. cotnpact subsets of X. for . it follows that B and C are separated in X. G.g.2 Lemma. we simply say that K and L are separated in X.T) be a topological space. there is a clopen set.. compact subset of X. n Let (X. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES separated. Thus. Since C is compact. Proof.1 Proposition.B = EIF with K c E. If any of the sets K. We say that K and L are separated in X by B provided that X . say {x}. and p # G. K and L are separated in X by B if and only if there is a nonempty subset.. then p and C are separated in X. 12. G is clopen in X and p $ G. of X .Z). which is denoted by Bd(Z). T) be a topological space. and let B and C be nonempty. L c F. B and each point of C are separated in X. Then. repeating the proof of 12. C is contained in a union. The boundary of Z in X. and B be subsets of X. since C c G. and let 2 C X. of finitely many of the sets G. Let (X. Proof. For each c E C.3 Proposition. L. n 12. Thus.T) be a topological space. and let K.2 with p replaced by B. Y = E(F means that Y is not connected and that E and F are the “sides” of a separation of X. (by 12.T) be a topological space. p and C are separated in X (by 12. G. it would be more accurate to incorporate X in our notation by writing. in X such that c E G. and let C be a nonempty. Let (X. is defined as follows: Bd(Z) = cl(Z) rl cl(X . T) be a topological space. If p and each point of C are separated in X. By 12. 12.1).2. then B and C are separated in X. We often use the following easytoprove reformulation of the preceding definition.KcG.98 IV. If each point of B and each point of C are separated in X. let p E X. Let (X. then we use x rather than {x} in our notation and terminology. When I( and L are separated in X by B = 0.
in X such that p E G and G n Bd(Z) = 0. the qc of p in X is the intersection of all the clopen sets in X that contain p.6 Lemma. ary of 2 confusion Y when SEPARATION.8. Proof.O) and q = (0. Any qc of a space. the component of p in X is the union of all the connected subsetsof X that contain p. together with the points p = (0. G. PRELIMINARIES: example. is a union of some of the compo nents of X. x. . this is not the case.2 are separated in X. let X be the subspaceof R” consisting of the vertical lines through the points (l/n. in other words.1. Thus. . The quasicomponent (abbreviated qc) ofp in X is the set of all those points. in other words. 12. we mean a component. p E G n Z and GnZ is disjoint from X . and let p E X. any qc of X is an intersection of clopen sets in X. thus. this will not cause any since we will always use Bdy (2) to denote the boundary of 2 in Y is not the largest space under the consideration. of some point in X (the component of 0 and the qc of 0 is 0). {p} and {q} are components of X that are not separated in X. w Let (X. W e see that G n 2 is clopen in X as follows: since G n Bd(Z) = 0. is closed in X.O). However.Z are separated in X.T) be a topological space. and let p E 2. The component of p in X is the set of all those points. 12. since G is clopen in X.12. p and X .. Also. If p and Bd(Z) are separated in X.4 Proposition. a component of a spaceis a maximal connected subset of the space. Nevertheless. as we will seewhen we get to 12.2. x.l). or qc (respectively).. . QUASICOMPONENTS. then.2. Any qc of a space. or a qc of X. there is a clopen set. it may seemthat any two components of a space are separated in the space. Therefore. By 12. n 12. Obviously.v(Z).5 Lemma. n = 1. of X such that p and x are not separated in X. let 2 c X. However. X. G n Z is clopen in X.1. Proof.. we prefer to use Bd(Z) to mean the boundin the largest space under consideration. by 12.7’) be a topological space. . For example. clearly GnZ=Gncl(Z)andGnZ=GnZ”. any two components of a compact Hausdorff space are separated in the space. As we noted when we defined a qc. By a component of X. 99 Bd.. then p and X . X. of X such that p and x lie together in a connected subset of X. Let (X.
Thus. then U would be clopen in X. s&ices to prove that every qc of X is connected. it follows that Q > C. since G n C is clopen in C and C is connected.U are separated in X. (4) BW) # 0.14. since X is a normal space. n By the exercise in 12.7. (5) Bd(U) is compact. noting that p E U (since E c U).. Therefore. Therefore. Then. Bd(U) = V . If Bd(U) = 0. n 12.CT.U). For this purpose. since Q is the intersection of all the clopen sets in X that contain p. Any two components of a compact Hausdorff space are separated in the space. we see that G II C = C.5 that E and F are closed in X. Let Q be the qc of a point. in X. Since X is compact and Bd(U) is closed in X. however. of X such that (1) ECUandFnU=0. p. Suppose that Q is not connected. n 12. . we see from (2) that (3) p and each point of Bd(U) are separated in X. 12. this is impossible (since p E Q and since F is a nonempty subset of Q such that F C X . Note from 12. we seefrom (1) that (2) Q n Bd(U) = 0. let p E E. G > C. by the definition of a qc.2 to seethat p and Bd(U) are separated in X. we have by 12.7 Theorem. Now. Proof.components and quasicomponents are the same.2 to show that p and Bd(U) are separated in X. Let G be a clopen set in X such that p E G. since p E Q. the corollary is actually equivalent to We now prove the two main theorems of the section.8 Corollary. In view of 12. we prove (4) and (5) below. U.6. it. G n C # 0. since lJ n Q # 0 and U $ Q (by (I)). since Q = E u F. we may apply 12.e. Proof. Q is connected. Note that since U is open in X. Let x E Q. Let Q be a qc of X. Then.100 IV. Now. G > Q. by (3)(5). i. Thus. Let X be a compact Hausdorff space. However. which is to say that Q = EIF. Hence. and let C be the component of x in X. Thus. there is an open subset. we seethat U can not be clopen in X. Therefore. We will use 12. In compact Hausdorff spaces. Therefore.4 that p and X . ARCS IN HYPERSPACES Proof.
9. QUASICOMPONENTS. K n (X . and let B and C be nonempty..10 Boundary Bumping Theorem. W We conclude the section with two applications of our main theorems.13). it follows that no .e. closed subsets of Y. If K is a component of v. . compact. open. B and C are separated in Y. 12. a totally disconnected metric space need not be zerodimensional (an example is in Exercise 12.7. A topological space. In other words. We defined zerodimensional in section 8. By assumption. by 12.9 Cut Wire Fence Theorem. . then K n Bd(U) # 0. Also. Hence. ?? = EIF with K c E.3. no component of Y intersects both B and C. each component of X consists of only one point). note that K and BcZ(U) are closed subsetsof u. i. Therefore. This contradicts the connectednessof X. Proof. Let X be a Hausdorff continuum.. in other words. Bd(U) C F. Thus. and let U be a nonempty.12.VI). proper subset of X. Hence.9. H Recall that our definition of continuum in Chapter II requires that a continuum be a metrizable space.U) # 0..e. connected. If no connected subset of Y intersects both B and C. each point of B and each point of C are separated in Y. then B and C are separated in Y. Let Y be a compact Hausdorff space. 101 12.connected subset of u intersects both K and Bd(U). since K is a maximal connected subset of u. We have the following application of 12. and Bd(U) # 0 (E xercise 12. K and Bd(U) are separated in v. Hausdorff space a Hausdorff continuum. by 12. K n Bd(U) # 0. The first application concerns the relationship between zerodimensional spaces and totally disconnected spaces. However. Therefore.. It is easy to seethat every zerodimensional Trspace is totally disconnected.19). X. is said to be totally disconnectedprovided that X # 0 and no connected subset of X contains more than one point (i. PRELIMINARIES: SEPARATION. Suppose that K n Bd(U) = 0. by 12. it follows easily that X = EI(F u [X . Proof. We call any nonempty. Then. no qc of Y intersects both B and C. K # 0.
Conversely. X contains a nondegenerate. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES Then. Proof.U are separated in X. say p and q. however. Indeed. p and X . X # 0). Hausdorff subcontinuum of X. Hausdorff subcontinua. {p} and X .9. . since X is totally disconnected.102 IV. proper. N n C is a nonempty. proper. and let U be an open subset of X such that A c U. let p E X and let U be an open neighborhood of p in X. dim(X) = 0 if and only if X is totally disconnected. Bn(XV)#@ thus. Let X be a nondegenerate Hausdorff continuum. n The next theorem is a fundamental result about the structure of continua. C. Therefore. Suppose that X is not totally disconnected.10.12 Theorem. we have proved that dim(X) = 0. let A be a proper. a proof of this fact would be far from obvious until now. The other properties of B that are stated in the theorem are obviously satisfied. We may assume for the purpose of proof that U # X. Since dim(X) = 0 and X is a Tispace.U are nonempty. 12. Then. Assume that A Proof.10. V. of p in X such that q $ N. It probably comes as no surprise that every nondegenerate continuum must contain a nondegenerate. of U such that B > A and B # A. closed subsetsof X.U. Assume that dim(X) = 0 (hence. To prove that dim(X) = 0. Then. v c U. Let X be a compact Hausdorff space. there is a clopen neighborhood. We prove the second part of the theorem first. Moreover. B. the theorem says that every nondegenerate. in X such that p E G and G c U. by 12. assume that X is totally disconnected. of X such that C contains at least two points. by 12. it is obvious that no connected subset of X intersects both {p} and X . there is a connected subset. Then. Therefore. since X # 0. Hence. then there is a Hausdorff subcontinuum. Note that B c U since v C U. By 12. since A c V. N. Let B be the component of 7 containing A (B exists since A is a connected subset of v). Thus. also. clopen subset of C. In general terms. 12. proper subcontinuum. and V # X.11 Theorem. hence. since X # 0. there is an open subset. Hausdorff subcontinuum. there is a clopen set. we have a contradiction to C being connected. X must be totally disconnected. since X is a normal space. the following theorem is a simple application of 12. G. and U satisfy the assumptions in the second part of the theorem. Clearly. Then.1. of X such that A c V. we seethat B # A. Hausdorff continuum contains many nondegenerate.
12.16). of a topological space. (X.12 (second part). For any topological space.1 12. (2) the quasicomponents of X and the components of X are the same. of X such that p E U. the point p of the continuum X in Figure 22. Let X be a Hausdorff continuum.{p} is connected. w Exercises 12. and let U be an open.7’).10 implied the second part of 12. If K is a component of 2. [Hint: Use 12.8. and 12. A point. i.13 Exercise.17 Exercise.16 directly implies 12. the remark following 12. proper subset of X. we show how the first part of the theorem follows from the second part. Prove the following boundary bumping theorem (cf.10.T). Hausdorff subcontinuum. the following two statements are equivalent: (1) any two components of X are separated in X. and from an easy argument that shows that 12. then cl(K) fl Bd(Z) # 0. Prove the two results below using 12.16.1 Remark. Hausdorff subcontinuum of X.12. 12. Let X be a Hausdorff continuum.15. then X . 2 be a nonempty. . is an end point of X. For example. proper subset of X. proof of 12. by the second part of the theorem (with ‘4 = {p})..e.T) is a connected topological nonempty.15 Exercise. (Cf.2 are not mutually separated.15. space and 2 is a 12.) 12. of U such that p E B and B # {p}. 84.10. [Hint: Find a way to use 12. proper. We see this from how 12. proper subset of X. If K is a component of 2. 12. p.16 Exercise. and let.14 Exercise.Z) # 0. (X. then Bd(Z) # 0. cl(K) f~ cZ(X . there is a B. proper subset.EXERCISES 103 Now. Clearly. The results in 12. 12. If X is a Hausdorff continuum and p is an end point of X. is called an end point of X provided that p has a neighborhood base of open sets in X with onepoint boundaries. We consider the following generalization of an end point of an arc.15. Let p E X. from the hints in 12. and let 2 be a nonempty. p. Then.16 are actually one and the same result stated in different ways. If (X.15 and 12. B is a nondegenerate. then IC and X .
let U be any bounded. Show that Q is totally disconnected but that Q is not zerodimensional. . Q = {(xi):1 E e2 : xi is rational for all i}. and let p E X.. It suffices to prove that U is not closed in Q. Let al be a rational number such that. e. . for pl = (al.yi)2 for all (xi)gr. is defined as follows: &c(p) = {x E X : there is a proper. d. 2041. this does not remain true for Hausdorff continua [I].104 IV.U) < 2‘. X may not be locally connected at p  12.. 12. By a composant What is K(P) for various choices of p when X = [O?l]? What about when X is a simple closed curve ? What about when X is the sin(l/x)continuum in (3) of Figure 20. . We give an example of a totally disconnected metric space that is not zerodimensional (cf.) If p is an end point of a Hausdorff continuum (However. Let X be a Hausdorff continuum. p.18 Exercise.) Prove the following result using 12. then X is cik at p.11). az. Q .U) < 2l.)~_. then n(p) is dense in X and connected.}p& pattern. Q . why does p E e2?] . p2 E U and d(p2. O. (yi)zi E 12. open subset of Q such that (O.O. : xiER’foreachiand ~x~<co) i=l with the metric. and hEo=. however. or uncountably many composants [28. .O. X in Figure 22. e2 = u~. O. .19 Exercise. for ps = (ai. p. pl E U and d(pl. .g. 63? (Note: A nondegenerate continuum must have either one.)z=. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES X. Then let a2 be a rational number such that. explicitly. [Hint: To prove that dim(Q) # 0. . The composant of p in X. Let Q denote the set of all “rational points” in the Hilbert space & of all squaresummable sequences of real numbers. three. Hausdorff containing both p subcontinuum of X and x}.).) E U. given by d((xtL. . Consider the that is obtained by induction according to the indicated sequence {p.). of X we mean a composant of some point in X.15: If X is a nondegenerate Hausdorff continuum and p E X. Let p = (a. which is denoted by K(P). 12.O.) = g(zi i=l .
13. A Whitney map for fl is a continuous function ‘w : Z + [O. In particular. .2 = Ur==. A Brief Introduction to Whitney Maps In the early 1930’s.Ei. For example.. In 1942. For this reason it is appropriate at this time to devote a short section to constructing a Whitney map for any hyperspace. the diameter map is a Whitney map for C([O.oo) that satisfies the following two conditions: (1) for any A. and let ‘U C 2x. w(A) < w(B). L. Y. If Y is an nod.2 = ElIE21.M # 0 for each i.1 Definition. Beginning in the early 1970’s. 13. We will see later that Whitney maps lend elegance and clarity to proofs.?$ # 0 for each i. (2) w(A) = 0 if and only if A E ‘H n Fl(X).Y. such that Y . . for which there is a (Hausdorff) subcontinuum. Remark.1814. On the other hand. A 3od is called a triod.1E. Definition of a Whitney Map The definition of a Whitney map is essentially an axiomatic formulation of what one might mean by a general measureof the relative geometric sizes of sets: Let X be a compactum. Y . 11). assuming that [O. Y. 2. and assumethat X has the Euclidean metric.. B E 31 such that A c B and A # B. A BRIEF INTRODUCTION 12. The following TO WHITNEY MAPS 105 of the no definition is a generalization tion of a simple nod: An nod (2 5 n < 00) is a Hausdorff continuum. and Ei and E3 are mutually separated whenever i # j).. Whitney maps (as Whitney’s functions are now called) are closely connected with the arc structure of hyperspaces. then the diameter map is . thereby proving that Whitney maps always exist.20 Exercise. (i. Some results about nods and hyperspaces are in Exercises 14.e. Kelley made significant use of Whitney’s functions in studying hyperspaces [16].. J.13. let X be an arc in the unit circle S’ such that X has arc length greater than a. then Y = Uy==.l] has its usual (absolute value) metric.20. where Yi is a Hausdorff continuum for each i. and Yi n Y3 = M whenever i # j. M = f&Yi is a Hausdorff continuum. Hassler Whitney constructed special types of functions on spacesof sets for the purpose of studying families of curves ([38] and [39]). connections between Whitney’s functions and the structure of hyperspaces were investigated extensively and systematically by numerous people (seeChapter XIV of [29] for what was known up until 1979).
Then the diameter map diamd : zx + [O.2 Lemma. Since al. the diameter map with respect to d is the function diamd : 2x + [0. n 13. we construct the Whitney map that was constructed in [39.az).1). Since A is compact. Existence of Whitney Maps In 13. In fact. cc) that is defined as follows: for each A E 2”. = f(A) for each A E 2x. Proof. y) : z:. diameter maps are useful in constructing Whitney maps (as we will see when we prove 13.3 Lemma. and a diameter map is never a Whitney map for Zx when X contains more than two points (Exercise 13. Nevertheless. a diameter map is rarely a Whitney map for C(X).106 IV. Let f* : 2x + Zy be defined as follows: f : X + Y be f*(A) Then. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES not a Whitney map for C(X).bz) + 2~. since diamd(A) = d(al.bl) < E and d(az.9). Therefore. we have that (1) diamd(A) < d(bl. a2 E A and A c Nd(s.b2) + d(b2. and let continuous. f’ is continuous. a~).4). there exist bi. there exist ai. d(al.diamd(B)( < 2~.4.u2 E A such that diamd(A) = d(al.00) is continuous.j(A) + 2E. bs) + 2~ 5 diamd(B) f 2~. (diamd(A). 13. By (1) and (2).az) 5 d(al. In the proof of 13. and let A.a~) < d(bl. bz E B such that d(al. B E 2x such that Hd(A. B). B) < & (where Hd is the Hausdorff metric in 2.bl) + d(bl. Let X and Y be compacta. Hence.4 we prove that Whitney maps exist for any hyperspace of a compactum. Let E > 0.y E A}.bn) < E. A similar (symmetric) argument shows that (2) diamd(B) < diam. pp. Let X be a compacturn with metric d. 2452461. Let X be a compactum with metric d. diamd(A) = lub{d(z. .
Therefore.. A) > T. be finitely many open subsets of Y. It is evident from 13. wn(A) for each A E 2x.. By combining the inequalities in (a) and (b).. Let Wi.. b4 f&4 = riT. we seeimmediately from (c) that (d) lubfi(A) < lubfi(B).. . Proof. (b) fi(a) = & < & for each a E A. Therefore.. we seethat (c) lubfi(A) I & < fib). 22. Since d(p. clearly fn(A) c fn(B) for each n. f1(wl)). dense subset of X. it suffices to prove the following: (if) wi(A) < wi(B) for some i. l] as follows: wn(A) = diameter [fn(A)] for each A E 2x.EXISTENCE OF WHITNEY MAPS 107 Proof. .. it suffices to show that there is a Whitney map for 2x. define w. where p is the usual metric for [O.2 and 13. define fn : X + [0. n 13. . .A). to prove that w(A) < w(B).l]). . o f.3 (since wn = diam. we seefrom 1. Next. Let d denote a metric for X. z. . . and let T = $d(p. define w : 2x + (0. . zi) < r. . let A. Next. we see that tf*r’twl~ . w=(A) 5 wn(B) for each n. Thus. and recall that 2 is dense in X. Let 2 = {zi. . We show that wi(A) < wi(B) as follows. : 2” + [0. . . Proof of (#): Let p E B ..} be a countable. Then. We prove that w is a Whitney map for 2”. . . . Note that T > 0 (since p $! A and A is closed in X). there exists zi E 2 such that d(p. Since A c B. since f is continuous. hence. Now. using that f is a closed map. . to show that w satisfies (1) of 13. l] as follows: fn(z) = & for each 2 E X. .) Wn)) = (fywl). . simply note that each w..zi) < T.1 that if w is a Whitney map for 2x and R C 2”) then the restricted map w]‘R is a Whitney map for 3t.t. . . B E 2x such that A c B and A # B.4 Theorem.2. W. If X is a compactum.2 that f * is continuous. . then there is a Whitney map for any hyperspace of X. . l] as follows: w(A) = CrEp=l2n.1. is continuous by the lemmas in 13..r > ii+7 Since d(zi. Hence. To seethat w is continuous.A. for each n = 1.2.it. For each n = 1. Therefore. . since p E B.
13. then.6. Prove that the Whitney map ‘w in 13. .A 4 Fi(X).}.. then.5 Exercise. completes the proof Finally. Finally.8. For any given integer n 2 2. w.(A) + [0. Let A E 2”. This proves (#) w satisfies (1) of 13. fk(A) is nondegenerate (since 2 is dense in X). ARCS IN HYPERSPACES inequality (which is simply due to the fact that Now.. .. let Next.5. 13. : K E Fn(A)}.6 Exercise. Prove that the function UJ defined below is a Whitney map for 2x.. hence. and Exercises 13.(A) and K = {ar. for each n 2 2.5 has the following property: For any A.(A). let X. co) index points of K using all the integers as follows: For each K E F. (The notation F.(A) stands for the nfold symmetric product of A (1. First. therefore. .(A) that that (2) for wi(A) < 2ui(B). . .1. Let X be a compacturn with metric d. Next.108 IV. if K f F. for some k = 1. The Whitney map in 13. historically. we note the following A c B): (e) .) Fix A E 2x. then.5 was. Remark. we show that w satisfies that A E Fi (X). . = diameter [fn({z})] therefore. w(A) = 0. assume each n = 1. More about Whitney maps is in Chapters VIIIX. let wn(A) w(A) 2’+.dbf@) L Ofi( It follows at once from (d) and (e) and.a2. define X. It has a very natural and useful property that Whitney maps in general do not have . of 13.1. therefore.7. 1. say A = {z}. Give an example of a Whitney map that does not have the property just mentioned. = 0. ) n (thus requiring the indexing not to be onetoone when (K( < n). assume that .2.aj) = lub(X.a. w(A) > 0.2. .7). wk(A) > 0. .(K) = min{d(ai. w(A) = w(B).(K) = 2 n=2 : i # j}. B E 2x such that A and B are isometric (as subsets of X). : F.see Exercise 13. ..2. 13. . R We construct three other Whitney maps in Exercises 13. wn(A). the first Whitney map [38].
For any given E X such that exist zlr..) Let B = {Bi. define w : 2x + [0. define w. for each pair (Bi. (See the discussion following 13.. We assume that for each i = 1. . A) for all i sufficiently large. arcwise connected continuum such that the diameter map with respect to some metric for X is a Whitney map for C(X). and let w be converges in 2x to any Whitney map for 2x. Let X be function w defined below is a due to Illanes [13]. w*(A). : 2x + [0. Bj) such that Bi C Bj. fn. .} be a countable base for the topology for X.2. .] 13. w. Let X be a compacturn with metric d. let w be the Whitney map for 2 *’ in 13.. Then.7 Exercise. w. A if and only if lim+.) 13. . NOW. If X is a nondegenerate.w(Ai) = w(A) and for any E > 0. . then the diameter map with respect to any metric for X is not a Whitney map for 2x. Bi # 0 and ??.Bj) = 1. fi. . If X is a compacturn that contains more than two points. . .9 Exercise. l] such that Ji(Bi) = 0 and fi(X .5. {xi})}.. . a compacturn with metric d. consider the product map ‘p . (The construction is due to Krasinkiewicz [19]. .zn w(A) 2n. l] with the usual metric d. 13. let wn(A) = inf{e > 0: there A c U~T~N~(E.%(A)] for each A E 2”. # X. Prove that the function w defined below is a Whitney map for 2x.? : X + [0. Then let = 5 n=l 13. .Bs.) Fix A E 2x. I] by w(A) = 2 2Tn. and define cp on 2x by v(A) = 1ubA for each A E 2x. (The construction is integer n 2 1.}&. {A.1.10 Exercise.(A) for each A E 2x. Ai C Nd(c.(A) = diameter [f. Prove that the Whitney map for 2x. Then a sequence. there is a continuous function f... . . Let X be a compacturn.. l] by w.2..8 Exercise. For each n = 1. .EXERCISES 109 [Hint for second part: Let X = [0. Reindex all the functions f{ SO that they form a simple sequence fi. then X is an arc.
3 here. 68 and 1301311.110 IV. . 14. We find it convenient to state the definition of an order arc as in 14. closed subset of 2x. The lemmas lead to a quick proof that 2” and C(X) are arcwise connected when X is a continuum (14. N.11 Exercise. and let 31 c 2x. Q. for example.9). Some applications of the MaximumMinimum Theorem are in [28. see the proofs of 14.also. The MaximumMinimum Theorem has numerous applications. A collection. Let X be a compactum. MaximumMinimum Theorem.9).1 Definition. If C is a nonempty. any hyperspace has a natural partial ordering (namely. in 7i such that a is a nest. pp. In particular.1. a minimal member of C is an E E C such that no member of C is properly contained in E. then there is a maximal member of C and there is a minimal member of C.4.5 and 15. We use order arcs to prove the important theorem that 2x and C(X) are arcwise connected when X is a continuum (14. Note the following definitions. We apply this theorem to show that 2x contains a Hilbert cube when X is any nondegenerate continuum (14. Remark. A maximal member of C is an F E C such that no member of C properly contains F. Prove the following theorem using 13. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES 13. Arcwise Connectedness of 2x and C(X) We prove several lemmas about nests.12). 14. N2 E N. Let X be a compacturn. An order arc in 3c is an arc. Let C be a collection of sets. Definition of Order Arc Any arc has a natural total ordering. Order Arcs and Arcwise Connectedness C(X) of 2x and We are ready to begin our study of the arc structure of hyperspaces. ‘Il. containment). An order arc in a hyperspace. is an arc (Y c 7i such that the partial ordering of containment for ?i agrees on a: with the total ordering on Q.1 below. NiCNzorNzCNi. it can often be used in place of Zorn’s Lemma or the Brouwer Reduction Theorem. of sets is called a nest provided that for any Ni. We introduce the notion of an order arc in 14.
w. B. The lemma follows easily from the definition in 13. c Al for each i. A C M since C(M) is compact by 3.19). Let X be a compactum. Let X be a compactum. Since SO < si and M is a nest. First. we have shown that M U {A} is a nest in C(X) from A0 to AI. N. N and A0 c 14. Proof. tl E w(M) and since w(M) is a compact subset of [to. we show that M U {A} is a nest. Proof. Let M E M. and let w be a Whitney map for 71. we see from (1) of 13. A0 C A C AI. note that. since M is a nest. since M is a nest from A0 to A1 and A0 # Al. Then. Then. since M c C(X). A 3 M (cf. MO is a proper subcontinuum of the continuum Ml. then WIN is a homeomorphism. If N is a compact nest in ?i. the open interval (so. n A nest from A0 to Al is a nest.4. If M is a maximal nest in C(X) from AO to Al. We also know from 14. there is a Whitney map. in other words. If M is a maximal nest in C(X) from A0 to Al. there is a proper subcontinuum. sI) = 0.si E w(M) such that SO< s1 and w(M) n ( so. it suffices to prove that M is closed in C(X). Let to = w(Ao) and let ti = w(Al). Therefore. Thus.Al E C(X) such that A0 c Al and A0 # Al. AI E C(X) such that A0 c Al. since A0 c M.ARCWISE CONNECTEDNESS OF 2x AND C(X) 111 14.2 Lemma. such that Ao. si) = SO is a component of [to. M is a nest.7.4 Lemma. tl]. let 31 C 2x. it follows that M U {A} is a nest. By 13. Hence. Therefore. We show that A E M. by the maximality of M.2. for C(X).1 that MO c Ml and MO # MI. . we have that A E M. tl]. . it suffices by 14. then M is compact.1 that to < tl and that w(M) c [to. Since C(X) is compact (by 3.. it follows from (1) of 13. then M is an arc from A0 to Al. there exist se. Let X be a compactum. Al E N c Al for all N E N. Then. Let MO. Proof. to prove that M is an arc from A0 to Al. . of Ml such that B > MO and B # MO. Ml E M such that I and w(M1) = ~1. and let Ao. since to. Mi > M for infinitely many i or Mi C M for infinitely many i.7). in the second case. Exercise 1. Therefore. such that {Mi}Ei converges to some A E C(X). ti] w(M). Let Mi E M for each i = 1.tl].2 to prove that w(M) = [to. Suppose that w(M) # [to.tl].12.1. by the second part of 12. and let Ao.3 Lemma. In the first case. n 14. Next.3 that M is compact. Therefore.
Let M E M. The lemma is a consequenceof Zorn’s Lemma [15.5 Lemma. and let Ao. there is a maximal nest. Then. Proof. Let X be a compactum.tl]. 14. in C(X) from A0 to AI. p. Therefore. M. Then there is a maximal nest in C(X) from Ao to Al. by the maximality of M. we also have that B $ M for the following reason: w(M) n ( SO. and grow continuously to X with larger and larger continua.1 that M c MO. Also.6 can be thought of as a continuous boundary bumping theorem: We can start at any proper subcontinuum. Furthermore. we see using (1) of 13. 331. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES We show that M u {B} is a nest. by 14.5. since w(M) n (so. thereby .11 (with X replaced by C(X)). Let X be a compactum.14 that M is a maximal nest in C(X) from A0 to Al. Then there is a order arc in C(X) from A0 to Al. M > Ml. n The following theorem is a straightforward but important consequence of the two preceding lemmas.tl]. If w(M) 5 so then. Hence. MU(B) is a nest in C(X) from A0 to Al (since B E C(X) and since AO C MO c B C Ml c AI). we have that B E M.7). since M is a nest. M is an arc from A0 to Al. we seethat M c B or M 3 B.6 Theorem. Nevertheless. A # 0 (since (Ao.11.4.s~) = 0. and let Ao. we include the following proof of the lemma to illustrate the MaximumMinimum Theorem in Exercise 13. Proof.1. by the MaximumMinimum Theorem in 13. Therefore. similarly. Thus. we have that w(M) 5 SOor w(M) 2 ~1. Therefore. M is an order arc in C(X) from A0 to Al.1 and 3. M. w(M) = [to. note that C(X) is a compacturn (by 3. X.1 (since the containments MO c B c Ml are proper).112 IV. according to the definition in 14. The contradiction that we just obtained came from our supposition that w(M) # [to. However. if w(M) 2 s1 then. A. Al E C(X) such that A0 c Al.S~)= 0 and SO< w(B) < s1 by (1) of 13. of A. It now follows easily that M U {B} is a nest. n The theorem in 14. Then. Al E C(X) such that A0 c Al and A0 # Al. Al} E A) and A is a closed subset of 2c(x) (by an elementary sequenceargument). there is a maximal member. M is a maximal compact nest in C(X) from A0 to Al. Let A = {N c C(X) : N is a compact nest from A0 to Al}. it follows from Exercise 14. n 14. since MO c B c Ml. Clearly. By 14. Thus. of a continuum.
there is a Whitney map. of the continua in If X is a continuum. f([O. tinua that contain no arc whatsoever! (as is 1. Hence.. f([O. Let h be a homeomorphism of [O. we come to our theorem about the and C(X). then A is an order arc (and conversely). Y is arcwise connected. by 14. We have shown that for any K E 2” such that K # X. since A is a nest. 11) is a nest from K to X (since (Y is an order arc from A0 to X and Ao c K).27 of [28]).1). 14. Hence. 14. wlA is a homeomorphism of A onto a nondegenerate.8.8 Lemma. Hence. arcwise connectedness of 2’ to continua X that are not the theorem applies to contrue. 11) is an order arc in 2x from K to X. Note that f(0) = K. and let A be a nondegenerate subcontinuum of 2x.{p}. Therefore.g. A is an arc.2. Note that the theorem applies themselves arcwise connected. Now. Let A0 be a component of K. Let Y be a space such that for some point p E Y.ARCWISE CONNECTEDNESS OF 2x AND C(X) 113 bumping the boundaries of all neighborhoods of A (except X). By 13. 11.7. Then. We prove our final lemma about nests: 14. Thus.9 Theorem. and f is continuous (by Exercise 1. for 2x. f([O. n We note the following elementary. Note that Ao. Then let f be the function from [0. hence more enlightening way.l] onto (I such that h(0) = A0 and h(1) = X. 11) is a nondegenerate subcontinuum of 2”. Therefore. l] into 2y given by f(t) = K u h(t) for each t E [0.6.23 since h is continuous). If A is a nest. in C(X) from A0 to X. Q. In particular. 14.13 in a dynamic.6 enables us to envision the boundary bumping theorems in 12. there is an arc in Y from y to p for any point y E Y . A is an order arc (14. w. 2x is arcwise connected by 14. Therefore. Proof. Let K E 2x such that K # X. Proof.7 Lemma. there is an order arc. there is an arc in 2” from K to X.X E C(X) and that A0 # X. e. furthermore.9. . by 14. f(l) = X.4.23 and 2. By the assumptions about A and 14. general lemma for use in the proof of 14. closed and bounded interval. Let X be a compactum. then 2” and C(X) are arcwise connected.10 and 12.
8. there are open sets.(p} with the following properties: Q E Vi for each i.&. 14. p.7. nevertheless. It is easy to seethat the sequence{Ai}El is asrequired. this theorem has nothing to do with the arcwise connectedness of 2” .114 IV.5.12. Then there is a sequence.2. n Application: 2x > I” We prove that. (A generalized arc is a Hausdorff continuum.9.11 Lemma. Proof. for a nondegenerate continuum X. p. in X .second part of Exercise 1.. 2” contains a Hilbert cube. Ost. The hyperspaces 2” and C(X) are compacta by 3. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES connected is simply a matter of using The proof that C(X) is arcwise 14. {. a generalized arc is a Hausdorff continuum with exactly two noncut points . X. and diameter (Ui) < 2j for each i. Ui. n The analogue of 14.) We have known for some time that 2x is connected when X is a continuum . whose topology is the order topology obtained from a total (simple) ordering on X.4i}pOi. 951. by the second part of 12. and 3. The following general lemma sets the stage for the proof. and let p E X.{p} such that Lim Ai = {p}. In contrast.ensibly. 2” and C(X) are arcwise connected continua. U. there is a nondegenerate subcontinuum. . then 2x and C(X) are arcwise Proof. connected continua. for each i = 1. 12091. . However. 3. Let {z2}g1 be a sequenceof distinct points in X(p) such that {~i}zi converges top.9 for Hausdorff continua and generalized arcs has been obtained by McWaters [25.10 Corollary. 14.9 is the first result from which we know that C(X) is connected when X is a continuum. mutually disjoint subcontinua of S . 6. by 14. of nondegenerate.6 with Ai = X and 14. Let X be a nondegenerate continuum. A simple induction shows that.17. Now.. . of U.16 of [28. equivalently.1. for each i. we note that there are connected Hausdorff spacesX for which CLC(X) is not connected [21]. If X is a continuum. n Uj = 0 whenever i # j. It is convenient for later reference to have a summary of what we know about the general structure of 2x and C(X) when X is a continuum: 14. n . the proof of the theorem is based directly on the existence of arcs in 2aY. Therefore.
{&}gi converges in 2x to {p}. By 14. We embed IIzo=. 491and by the subspacetheorem [ll. oi.13 Corollary. converges in IIEioi to B.Bi) < c for each k > K.11. Since {Ai}z”=. Let p E X. and Bi c A. Thus. Let B” = (Bt)z”=. there exists K such that (2) H(B. (2). h is an embedding of the Hilbert cube IIEioi in 2”.11). we have that (4) H(Bf.cri. for each i and that {A. Thus.)z”=. h is onetoone. Since Bf c A. Note that Bi c A. This proves the first part of the theorem. hence. n 14. Note that IIzioi is a Hilbert cube.12 Theorem. h(B)) < 6 for each k 2 K. The second part of the theorem follows from the first part by the fact that Hilbert cubes are infinitedimensional [ll. which we see using that the sets Ai are mutually disjoint and that p $! Ai for any i (14. there is an arc.“=iai into 2”. there exists N such that (1) diameter (Ai) < Efor each i 2 N.1 that (3) H(Bf. Therefore. and (3) below are equivalent: (1) dim(X) # 0.“.ai. It follows easily from (4) that H(h(B”). for each k and i. Then (l).8). . let B = (B. Bi) < E for each i 5 N when k 2 K. 2* is infinitedimensional. we seefrom (1) and from the formula for H in 2. Let X be a compactum. Let E > 0. we have defined a function h from II. since convergence in IIEi oi is coordinatewise convergence. E II~=. p. Combining (2) and (3). then 2” contains a Hilbert cube. in 2Az for each i.Bi) < E for each i 2 N (and every k). Furthermore. E IIE”=. Proof. and assume that the sequence {B”}rf”=. We prove that h is continuous. p. converges in 2x to {p} with respect to the Hausdorff metric H (by 14.}E”=. we have proved that h is continuous. and let {Ai}El be as guaranteed by 14. converges in 2x to {p}. 261. Now. Therefore. letting we see that h((Bi)zl) E 2x. Hence.APPLICATION: 2x > IO0 115 14. having proved that h is onetoone. If X is a nondegenerate continuum.9 (and since each Ai is nondegenerate).oi in 2dYas follows.11 and 4. Let (Bi)zi E I’Izioi.
hence 2x.1814. the specter of order arcs appeared earlier in a proof of Borsuk and Mazurkiewicz [3] (for comments about the proof. see 1. IV. Some results about when C(X) contains an ncell or a Hilbert cube are in Exercises 14. which we present in section 70.21. By 14.6. Assume that dim(X) # degenerate continuum. contains a Hilbert cube. 2x contains a Hilbert cube whenever 2x is infinitedimensional. then C(X) contains an ncell for every n.9 Figure 24 . Therefore. a definitive characterization is in [12]. n By 14.13. implies (3). p. but C(X) does not contain a Hilbert cube (Exercise 14. (2) implies (1) by Proof. see Chapter XI. Then. Evidently. More results about this along with some applications are in [30]. 1721and Lemma 5 of [22]). we have proved that (1) (see the last paragraph of the proof 8. hence C(X) is infinitedimensional.12.12). Regarding specific results. Finally. (3) implies (2) of 14. However. The analogous statement for C(X) is false: Let X be the continuum in Figure 24. 0.116 (2) dim(2x) = 00. 14. Original Sources The notion of an order arc was first formulated in a precise way by Mazurkiewicz ([22. X contains a non2y. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES (3) 2x contains a Hilbert cube. Y.15).10 of [29]). by 12. Regarding the dimension of C(X).11.
17 Exercise. Exercises 14. 11. 14. and prove that C(X) does not contain a Hilbert cube.14 Exercise.9 for C(X) and 14. We also note that 14.18 that dim[C(X)] 1 2 for any nondegenerate continuum X. 14. [Hint: Prove that any decomposable continuum contains a 2od. . contains a decomposable continuum. g is a nest from AC.19 and 14.18 are in 14. then C(X) contains an ncell. The converse of 14. 14. and let f be a continuous Let function from [O. The example in Figure 24. we will prove in 73. 14. p.18 is true (see section 70).20. Let X be a compactum.9 that dim[C(X)] = 00 when dim(X) 2 2 (see 72.20. X. Prove that C(X) contains an ncell for every n.1 Remark. if n/ is a nest from A0 to Al. we will prove this in 18. 116. The converse of 14.EXERCISES 117 for 2” is from [3]. then o is an order arc in 2x from f(0) to Uf([O.18. and apply 14. p.6 are from the proof in [3] (see remarks in 1. 11). Then the closure.l] into 2x.J. 1771.18 is due to Rogers [31.19 is true. of n/ in 31 is a nest.16 Exercise.t]).13.10 and 1.15 Exercise.. then the end points of cy are no and Ua. independently. 14. and let J\/ be a nest in Ifl. Ball and appeared in [30.19 Exercise. If a continuum.1 Remark. [Hint: Start with the result in 12. let U c 2x.14 of [29]). Let X be a compactum. then C(X) contains a 2cell. contains an nod for some n 1 2 (as defined in Exercise 12. p. we will prove in 22. 116 is due to B. pp. For each t E [0. If a continuum. g. Let X be the continuum in Figure 24. 14. If a is nondegenerate. p.18 Exercise. 291.11).to Al.let At = Uf([O.5). a = {At : t E [O.12 is due to Mazurkiewicz [24] and. X. Let X be a compacturn.19 implies that dim[C(X)] 2 2 when X contains a decomposable continuum. to Kelley [lS. also.) 14. If (Y is an order arc in 2x.‘2472481. Two applications of 14. (The continuum X came up in the discussion about 14.20).8. The result in 14.
6. A continuous function. (Cf.] Give an example to show that the analogue of 14. Let X = Y x 2. then C(X) contains an ncell. in Y. 14.}withthe ‘f Euclidean metric d.5.8 applies.24.118 IV.21 Exercise.) Use 14.1 14.6 to show that the result in Exercise 11. In relation to 14. U. where Y and Z are nondegenerate continua. (1) If X is a continuum and w is a Whitney map for C(X).7. of X such that C(X) . for 2. X. Determine which subcontinua. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES 14. and [Hint: of X. 14. and let w be the Whitney map in Exercise 13. f(U) is open in f(Y). and apply 14. thus. Then. Prove that the statements above are equivalent.13. such that An B has at least n components for some n < 00.22 14. A and B. X. f. C(X) contains a Hilbert cube (and. I] and when X is a noose. A.{A} is connected. Then the following three statements are equivalent: (1) Cl<(X) is an arc. and a subcontinuum.{. of X satisfy the statements when X = [0. 14. If a continuum.26 Exercise. More about open Whitney maps is in section 24. K. Exercises 11. and let K be a subcontinuum of X.24 Exercise. prove that for any continuum X and any A E C(X). Let X be a continuum.4} is not arcwise connected. (3) there is only one order arc in C(X) from K to X. see Exercise 15. Remark. C(X) is infinitedimensional). y) E R2: max{]z]. Remark.18. Exercise. On the other hand. .22 then the 11. Iv]} = 1 an d 1 a:=ltheny<Oorgr>. contains two continua. Give an example of a continuum. [Hint: Prove that X contains an nod. C(X) .23 Exercise. 14. (2) CK(X) is an order arc.25 Exercise.23. is false. (2) A Whitney map for 2x may not be an open map: Let X = { (2. then w is an open map. from Y into Z is called an open map provided that for any open set. 14.20 Exercise. If X is a continuum and K is a subcompacturn containment hyperspace CK(X) is an AR.
’ between two g’ rven points of 2*’ (15. when Ao. When we say that an order arc. which we use in proving 15. that A0 C Al (14.. see Exercises 15. MO # C # MI.17. by the second part of 12. In relation to 14. We also obtain two definitive theorems about homogeneoushyperspaces as applications. .{p} such that B > KO and B # Ko. necessary and sufficient condition for there to be an order arc in 2. Necessary and Sufficient Condition A necessary and sufficient condition for there to be an order arc in 2x from A0 to A1 can be discovered by carefully analyzing the example just mentioned. we see that K1 contains a component. let C=M. However. there exists p E Ml . of MO.’ such that AToc Ml. EXISTENCE OF AN ORDER ARC FROM A0 TO A1 119 Remark. Since Ml c Me. It is also in the following lemma. Let K1 be the component of Ml containing p. Existence of an Order Arc from A0 to Al We give a useful.1 Terminology.{p} and that KO is a proper subcontinuum of the continuum Kr . 1). K1 n MO # 0. MI E 2.12.1).3. by an assumption in our lemma. and each component of Mr intersects Me. B. as for any arc. Then there exists C E 2” such that MO c C c Ml. and each component of C intersects MO. since K1 is a component of MI and MI > MO. it is easy to see that there is no order arc in 21°. Now.uB.26. a.6 and 15.) Let 40. Al c zx. this condition is not (always) sufficient for there to be an order arc in 2. Note that KO c KI .3).16. A0 and A1 are the end points of Q. an order arc from A0 to Al is not an order arc from Al to A. (Thus.MO. there is a subcontinuum. we mean that A0 c ‘41 and.. 15.15. # Ml. Al E C(X) such that A0 # Al. 15. for example. Proof. of K1 .26 is in [17]. Therefore. 15. Then. A much stronger result than the second part of 14. Let X be a compactum. Thus. of course. Ko.3.11 from { 0) to (0. is an order arc finm A0 to Al. 15. and 18.2 Lemma. h/r. simply. an order arc from A0 to A1 is still an arc from AI to Ao. The condition is in (2) of 15. We already know a necessary and sufficient condition for there to be an order arc in C(X) from A0 to Al: The condition is.9. and let MO.x from A0 to A..
Hence. each component of Al must intersect Ao. assumethat L f~ B # 0. we again have that L ~7MO # 0.11 with X replaced by 2x). we see by 12. of I’ (by the MaximumMinimum Theorem in Exercise 13. Then. therefore. We now prove that the second part of (2) holds.120 IV. Therefore. (2) A0 C Al and each component of Al intersects Ao. for any N E N. we have proved that (1) of our theorem implies (2). assumethat (2) of our theorem holds. (Y. Clearly. let L be a component of C. l We now prove our theorem. C E 2x and MO C C c MI. To seethat C # MI.. finally. each component of N intersects Ao}. 15. If L II B = 0.9 that K and A0 are separated in Ar. Assume that (1) holds. to prove that each component of C intersects MO. Suppose. in 2x from A0 to Al. We show that (1) of our theorem holds by showing that . I’ is a closed subset of 22x (by an easy sequence argument). recall that Ke is a component of MO and that B is a continuum that properly contains Ke. since B > Ko. Then. to the contrary. r # 0 (since {Ao. L > Ko. of Al such that K n A0 = 0. C # MO. This is a contradiction (since a: is an arc). there is a maximal member. also. L O MO # 0. Let I? = {hi c 2x : N is a compact nest from A0 to A1 and. A C Al = E U F). by definition. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES We show that C has the properties in the conclusion of our lemma. Thus. K. then L c MO and. M. Then there is an order arc. since B is a connected subset of C. K C F. Hence.1). Let & = {A E ~1:: A c E} and let 3 = {A e a : A n F # 0). F # 0 (since Al E 3). Therefore. E u 3 = CY(since for all A E a. & and 3 are each closed in o (since E and F are closed in X by 1. Proof. So. that there is a component. simply note that p E MI and p $! C. since KO c MO and KO # 0. Finally. and let Ao. Thus. Next. Obviously. Then. since A0 c Al. and. (1) and (2) below are equivalent: (1) there is an order arc in 2x from A0 to A. Al} E I’ by (2)). & n 3 = 0 (since E n F = 0). Then.3 Theorem. B $ZMO and. Therefore. hence. Note that & and 3 have the following properties: & # 0 (since A0 E E). Let X be a compactum. o is not connected. there are E and F such that Al = E]F with A0 c E. To see that MO # C.1). AL E 2x such that A0 # Al. we seethat L > B. As C Al (by 15. hence.
Since SO< sr. since M is a maximal member of I?. let Q be a component of C. Since M E r and C E 2”. let to = w(Ao).1 that to < tr and that w(M) c [to. since M is a nest.2 to prove that w(M) = [to. Thus. (b). tl]. we may apply 15. QnMo # 0. sl) = 0. Hence. Then.2. Suppose that w(M) # [to. Ml E M E r. C E M. We do this by showing that M U {C} E l? (and then applying the maximality of M). C $ M since w(M) n (~0. w(M) 5 SO or w(M) 2 sr. L n A0 # 0. we only need to show that M is an arc (14. we have that M U {C} E I’. to prove (iii).2. We will use (a). To prove the last hypothesis of 15. Hence. This completes the proof that M . To prove (i).2 to obtain C E 2x such that C has the properties in (a)(c) below: (a) MOCCC MI. To prove (ii). (c) each component of C intersects A4c. Mr E M such that w(Mc) = se and w(Mr) = sr. since M is a nest. (ii) now follows immediately from (a). Q fl A0 # 0. clearly MO # Ml and. Thus. Qo. (b) MO # C # MI. let M E M. We show that MO and Ml satisfy the hypotheses of 15. tl E w(M) and since sr w(M) is a compact subset of [to. there exist SO. Then. Let w be a Whitney map for 2x (20exists by 13.1 that M c MO or M > Ml. and (1) of 13. we will show thatCEMandC$M. since Q 2 Qo. (b). we see using (1) of 13. the proof that M u {C} E r amounts to proving that C satisfies three conditions: (i) M c C or C c M for each M E M. we see from (1) of 13. let L be a component of Ml. by (c). MO c MI. E w(M) such that se < s1 and w(M) n ( se. tl]. tl]. w(M) = [to. Let I&. Finally. (iii) each component of C intersects Ao. of MO. Since M is a nest in 2x from A0 to AI. tl]. note that M is compact since M E r.1. Then. MI E M E r. Then. M c C or C C M. Thus. L f~ MO # 0.NECESSARY AND SUFFICIENT CONDITION 121 M is an order arc in 2x from A0 to Al. by (1) of 13. This proves (i). We show that C E M.1. Since MO E M E r. tl]. it suffices by 14. having proved (i)(iii). Qc n A0 # 0. Therefore. The contradiction that we just obtained came from our supposition that w(M) # [to. AO C MO.4). by (a). to prove that M is an arc. Therefore. recall that MO. tl]. AO c MO and MI c Al. Thus. thus.s~) = 0 and since so < w(C) < s1 by (a). Now. Therefore. since to. hence. namely. (ii) Ao C C C AI. However. Also. Hence. This proves (iii). Since M is a nest from A0 to Al. MI $Z MO. and let tr = w(Al).1). also. and (c) to obtain a contradiction. Q must contain a component. since Q is a component of C and C > MO (by (a)). since MO E M E r.
n A natural generalization of 15. B E C(X). then o stays in C(X). where >40E C(X). there is a homeomorphism. Let A0 E 2x such that A0 # X and Hd(Ao. and let CY an order arc in be 2.9.X) < &.4. We then briefly discussthe situation when X is a compacturn. 15. Let CY an order arc in 2x from A* to Al. p. after which we say that LYstays in 7i if cr c Ifl.‘. p is an order arc from A0 to B (15. then Q c C(X) by 15. Our discussion leads to the corollary in 15. each component of B intersects Ao. We note the following simple consequenceof 15. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES we have proved that (2) of is an order arc in 2x from A0 to Al. (Y is an order arc in 2x from A0 to Ai. Let X be a compactum. cr. X. no ncell is homogeneous(by Invariance of Domain [ll.3. By assumption. Let E > 0. Let p denote the subarc of cr from A0 to B. Let B E o such that B # Ao. q E Y. B is connected.5 Corollary. note that if A0 E C(X). Proof. the theorem implies (1). for which 2x and C(X) are homogeneous. there is an order arc. Therefore.11. Y.j(A. 951). any nsphere is homogeneous(use rotations) and any topological group is homogeneous (use translations).3 and 15.’ from A0 to X. For example.4 is in Exercise 15.1). Note that p is an order arc and that A0 c B. since A0 is a connected subset of B. Hence. we will use it to determine those continua. If cy begins in C(X). . For any continuum X. we have proved that o c C(X). n We use the following descriptive terminology in the corollary below. It follows easily from the formula for Hd in 2. Thus. the Hilbert cube is homogeneous[14] (a much stronger result is in 11. nevertheless. By 15. thus.1 that H. Let d denote a metric for X. by 15. we obtain complete characterizations for the homogeneity of 2” and C(X) when X is a continuum.122 IV. In the next two theorems. Therefore.4. Hence. 15. We say that a: be beginsin 3t if A0 E ?i. On the other hand.8. Proof. in 2. of Y onto Y such that h(p) = q. X) < E for all A E CLn Application: Homogeneous Hyperspaces A topological space. we seethat B has only one component.1). is said to be homogeneous provided that for any p.3. 2x and C(X) are locally arc wise connected at X. h. and let ?f c 2x. in other words.4 Corollary.
The situation is quite different than when X is a continuum. In particular. A. p. every point of C(X) has a 2cell neighborhood in C(X). n 15.the points of G could not have a 2cell neighborhood in C(X)). Proof.19).2.4 .6). a 2cell is not homogeneous(as noted preceding 15. Then. Assume that (1) holds. 1351). Then. (l)(3) below are equivalent: (1) C(X) is homogeneous. (l)(3) below are equivalent: (1) 2x is homogeneous. C(X) is a Peano continuum (C(X) being a continuum by 14. Hence. (2) implies (3) by 11. Next. X does not contain a simple triod (since if there were a simple triod in X. by 15. 2x and C(X) are homogeneous. suppose to the contrary that there is a free arc. (2) holds by Exercise 15.5. Then. Then. (3) implies (1) by [13] (or by 11. G. X is an arc or a simple closed curve (8. in X.10). C(X) is a 2cell.1).7 Theorem. Let X be a nondegenerate continuum. 2x is a Cantor set by 8.3 and 8. p.6 Theorem. . (2) X is a Peano continuum. Assume that (1) holds.1).3. Then. X. C(X) would contain a 3cell. (2) implies (3) by 11. let X be a Cantor set. Finally.9. and (3) implies (1) by [13] (or by 11.40 of [28. by 5.1 and 5.10). Hence. by 5. hence. (3) 2x is a Hilbert cube. H We remark that 15. Then. Thus. by (l). such that 2x and C(X) are homogeneous.10. To prove that the second part of (2) holds. C(X) is a Cantor set (since C(X) = X). C(A) has nonempty interior in C(X) and C(A) is a 2cell (by 5.2x and C(X) are topological groups. 2x is a Peano continuum (2” being a continuum by 14.5.APPLICATION: HOMOGENEOUS HYPERSPACES 123 15. we have a contradiction to our assumption that (1) holds. since a Cantor set is a topological group [15.3. Let us consider for a moment the homogeneity of 2x and C(X) when X is a compacturn. Therefore. hence.7 do not generalize to Hausdorff continua (Exercise 15. Finally. However.6). also.hence. by [ll. Hence. Hence.6 and 15. For example.10. 951. This completes the proof that (1) implies (2). there are nonlocally connected compacta.9. X is a Peano continuum by Exercise 15. Therefore.1 (use 8. Let X be a nondegenerate continuum. by 15. Thus. there is no free arc in X. Proof. We have shown that X is a (nondegenerate) Peano continuum that does not contain a simple triod.1). p. 1661. (3) C(X) is a Hilbert cube. (2) X is a Peano continuum with no free arc.
If X is a nondegenerate continuum.3 and 15. ..9.6 and 15. do not use 10.3 .5 for Hausdorff continua is in 1. Since topological groups are homogeneous. The homogeneity theorems in 15.3 and the corollary in 15. .7 are from [29. then neither 2x nor C(X) is a topological group. 1541. pp.5 is from [7. The result in 15. Then.7 and 16.124 IV. the Hilbert cube has the fixed point property (21. . the Hilbert cube is not a topological group. on the other hand. Note the following two facts: On the one hand.4). The following three statements are equivalent: (1) X is a Peano continuum. (1) Let X be a continuum. (3) 2x is a Peano continuum.) II C(X) are arcwise connected continua (if they are nonempty). be finitely many subcontinua of X.the analogue of 15. The equivalencesare the first of several progressively strong .using them would be overkill. Exercises 15. p. Our final result showsthat this can not happen when X’ is a nondegenerate continuum: 15. Prove the equivalences using 15. p. 16. Prove the two results below for usein the next exercise.6 and 15. and let A be a subcontinuum of 2x. 5645651. Remark. If A II C(X) # 0.10 Exercise. and let Al. a nondegenerate topological group does not have the fixed point property (translation by an element of the group different from the identity element is a fixed point free map). then Ufi is a subcontinuum of X.8 Corollary.8 or 11.. A.. It is helpful to remember that continua that are cik at every point are Peano continua (seecomments following the proof of 10.136 of [29. The equivalences in 15.) and (Al. (2) Let X be a continuum.10 are due to Vietoris [34] and Wazewski [37].7 that we only need to show that the Hilbert cube is not a topological group. seethe proof of Lemma 2 of 191). 15. .4 are reformulations of results about “segments” due to Kelley [16]. and. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES We have just seen that 2x and C(X) can be topological groups when X is a nondegenerate compacturn. Therefore. 10321for C(X) (also.8 are Kelley’s versions of 15. A.9 Exercise. Proof. A. (2) C(X) is a Peano continuum.7). . . .4). . We discuss Kelley’s notion of a segment in the next section (in particular. (A. we see from 15. . n Original Sources The theorem in 15.
{A E 2x : c(A) < No} and {A E 2x : c(A) 5 NO} are arcwise connected.11 Exercise. t]) may fail to be a continuum when w is a Whitney map for 2x (e. (1) If X is a continuum and K E 2x. Remark. We define We call 2”(K) and C(X.g.2. 2”(K) and C(X. let w be a Whitney map for 2x or for C(X). wl ([t. K) intersection hyperspaces. give an example of a continuum. show this using X and w in (2) of Exercise 14..w(X)].t]) is a continuum when w is a Whitney map for C(X). 15. Prove the following generalization of 15.. w(X)]) is an arcwise connected continuum. Let X be a continuum. then 2x(K) arcwise connected continua. for each n = 1..14 Exercise. K) and K E 2x.15 Exercise. wl ([0.. also. Furthermore.12 Exercise.13 Exercise.14 is 15. and C(X.3) a historical 125 dis 15. For any compacturn Y. let c(Y) denote the cardinality of the set of all components of Y.11). Let X be a continuum. An important application of the results for C(X) in 15. (2) If X is a Peano continuum are absolute retracts. (See Exercise 14. On the other hand. 15.4: Let X be a compactum. only one. I<) as follows: and let K E 2x. Let X be a compactum. and let t E [O. (11. X. Then there are none. Let X be a continuum. and let Q be an order arc in 2x.24. K) are and C(X. in 19. such that {A E 2x : c(A) = n } is not arcwise connected for any n 2 2. then c(B) 5 c(A). then 2”(K) .(A E 2x: c(A) 5 n) is an arcwise connected continuum (notation from 15. Then. If A. B E (Y and A c B. if there is only one order arc in 2x from A to X. or uncountably many order arcs in 2x from A to X. w‘([O.EXERCISES er results leading to the CurtisSchori Theorem cussion is in the introduction to Chapter III.. Then.) 15.25). however. Also.9. and let A E 2”. then A E C(X).
{E} and f(l) $ E.4 of [27]). In relation to 15. For any s > to. 15241 or [29. then 2”(K) is the Hilbert cube.16. pp. l] + 2x be continuous such that f(0) E C(E) . and let E be a nondegenerate.126 IV.9. For more results. one of these results is in Exercise 18.] Remark.S) . [Hint: For (2). 1611.26. Let Y be an arcwise connected space.17 is false. We also note that E arcwise disconnects 2x if and only if E arcwise disconnects C(X) [27. 15.17. then E E C(X).15 immediately implies the first two parts of the Curtis.g. [Hint: Let f : [0. Remark.Schori Theorem in 11. furthermore. e. but the converse is true when E is decomposable (4. then E arcwise disconnects 2x and C(X). The result in (3) of 15. p. The converse of the result in 15. Let X be a continuum. 191. [35]). If E arcwise disconnects 2x. pp.. For (3).composants of indecomposable continua were important examples of Csets [35]. and let E E 2x. proper subcontinuum of X.{p} is not arcwise connected. use (2) and 9.1 Remark. and 15. then A > E.16 Exercise.3 (take K = X). we say that E is buried in X provided that whenever A is a subcontinuum of X such that AnE#0andAn(XE)#0.8. 18. However. and let p E Y. Let to = lub{t 2 1 : f(t) c E}.tl) : to I t L sJ. see the exercises in 14. Probably the C in Cset was intended to refer to the word composant .15 is a special case of Theorem 5. we say that p arcwise disconnects Y provided that Y . see [27. the notion itself is old: Sets we call buried. consider {uf@o.3 (see second part of hint for Exercise 11 . if there is no free arc in X. . Let X be a continuum. If X is a continuum and E is buried in X. 3573721.2 of [5. Our terminology buried in X has not been used before. 15. then C(X. p. except that they were not assumed to be continua. were called Csets (in.9. K) is the Hilbert cube. use (1) and Exercise 11. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES (3) If X is a Peano continuum and K E 2”.17 Exercise. Note that (3) of 15.
Finally. Remark. and we establish the basic properties of segments. Let X denote the linear map of [0.18 shows that each A E C(X) . with no free generalized arc such that C(S) is not homogeneous. al for all t E [O. al] given by x(t) = (1 . such that 2x is not homogeneous. nevertheless. This will lead to Kelley’s notion of a segment in 16.18 Exercise. W((Yis a homeomorphism of 0: onto [aa. KELLEY'S SEGMENTS 127 15. and let p E 2. This provides a foundation for the next section. see [27. The method involves Whitney maps.C(X) if and only if A # Fr(X).1. S. Kelley’s Notion of a Segment There is a natural and especially useful way to parameterize any order arc. Let cy be an order arc in 2x from A0 to Al. A is order arcwise accessiblefrom 2x . pp.7 do not generalize to Hausdorff continua by giving examples of the following: A locally connected Hausdorff continuum. define the parameterization u from [O.C(X) (for examples. Let X be a compactum. Let us see how it is done. Let X be a continuum.Fl(X) is arcwise accessiblefrom 2. 10 and 131 or [29.ar] (by 14. let Z c Y.’ . Show that our theorems about homogeneous hyperspaces in 15. Let ae = w(AO) and let al = w(Al). Our first two properties of 0 are rather evident: o is a homeomorphism of [0. having defined the parameterization U. The result in 15.2). Let Y be a space. . a singleton may not be arcwise accessiblefrom 2x . X. let us determine some of the elementary properties of o. a(0) = A0 and o(l) = A1 (since a(O) = (~]a)‘[X(O)] = (wlcr‘(ao) = A 0. we say that p is arcwise accessible from Y . Kelley’s Segments We define Kelley’s notion of a segment [16]. and let A E C(X). 15. and similarly for a(l)).C(X). 378 and 3831). 16. where the results and ideas that we present here take on new life in a dynamic setting. Then.6 and 15. 11onto [a~. Now.Z provided that there is an arc in (Y .2) u {P> h aving p as an end point. and let w be a Whitney map for 2”.t) . a0 + t.19 Exercise. l] onto cy by letting 0 = (wla)’ 0 A.l]. pp.16. Then.a locally connected Hausdorff continuum. l] onto cu.
. (2) u(0) = Ao and g(l) = AI. however. w[(~(l)] for each t E [0.1). Results about Segments theorem sumarizes what Using the terminology in 16. Let X be a compactum. (3) w[u(t)] = (1 . let 31 c 2x. we see that we do not require segments to be homeomorphisms: We want constant maps into hyperspaces to be segments when we consider spaces of segments in section 17. w[g(O)] + t. cr (t) 2 w h enever 0 5 ti 5 t2 5 1 (order preserving). Let X be a compactum. We will prove that nonconstant segments are homeomorphisms in 16.t> . This property of 0 is due to the fact that X and lu]~y are order preserving (recall (1) of 13. w[a(l)]. Al E Z. (On comparing the definition below with what we have done. Let Ao. at the same time.12). indeed. to know that segments are designed to provide a special parameterization for every order arc. Our final property of g is that ~7is order preserving: rr(ti) c o(tz) whenever 05 tl <_ t2 <_ I. (4) 4t11c When there will be no confusion. and let w be a Whitney map for 31. 11 + 2 is said to be a segment in ‘lf with respect to w from A0 to Al provided that D has the following four properties: (1) g is continuous. w[a(O)] + t . = w(A. 11. We are now in a position to define Kelley’s notion of a segment and.1. A function (7 : [0. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES Our next property of CJis that ‘w linearizes c .1 Definition.. A(t) since w[a(O)] as and w[o(l)] = w(A1) = al. we must be careful (see Exercise 16. let fl C 2”.t) .3. l] (linearity). We prefer to express the fact that w o c = X without mentioning XT as follows: for each t E [0.explicitly. w o 0 = A (which is obvious). 16. and let w be a Whitney map for 5% Then every order arc in ?i is the range of a segment with respect to w.2 Theorem.128 IV.) 16. w[a(t)] = (1 .) = The righthand side of the equality is. we will sometimes not refer to w: We will simply say that (T is a segment in ‘H from A0 to A1 . the following we did at the beginning of the section.
that u is not onetoone. by the definition in 14. Proof. 15. we show how close we came to obtaining all segments at the beginning of the section. (Y is an order arc from A0 to Al and 0 = (w]o)’ o X.1. Suppose. Thus. the next theorem showsthat we obtained all segmentsexcept for the constant maps of [0. it suffices to prove that g is onetoone.1 that 0 is a constant map. l] onto w(o) = [w(Ao). Thus. We first show that Q is an order arc from A0 to Al.4 Theorem. a is a nest. By (1) of 16. This is a contradiction. note that since Q is an order arc from A0 to Al. First. w[u(l)]. g is continuous. w(Al)]. l] into 2” (each such constant map is obviously a segment by 16. Any nonconstant segment is a homeomorphism. let ?t c 2x. Since a(0) and o(l) are the end points of a:. w(Al) for each t E [0. In fact. by (2) and (3) of 16. Thus. w[g(s)] = wig(t)]. w[g(O)] = w[g(l)].1. we seefrom (2) of 16. Also. Hence. it follows easily that (t . l] such that s # t and U(S) = u(t). where X is as in the statement of the theorem. Proof. Finally.1. Q:is an order arc. we show that cr = (~]a)’ o X.RESULTS ABOUT SEGMENTS 129 Proof.s) . a: is an arc with end points a(O) and a(1). by (4) of 16. Hence. t E [0. 11.1.1. Then there are s. n 16. by (4) of 16. Let u : [0. W]CY a onetoone map of Q: onto is . The development that precedes16. and let w be a Whitney map for 71.1 is not affected by replacing 2x with ?l and assuming that w is a Whitney map for 3t. Therefore. by applying (3) of 16.1.1 that these end points are A0 and A. we prove the following lemma. Therefore. 0 is onetoone. Note that X has the following formula: X(t) = (1 . Hence. where X is the unique increasing linear map of [0. it follows from (4) of 16. we see that w o c = X. Hence. Then.t) . 11). 16. w[u(O)] = (t . Furthermore.3 Lemma. n Next. Let X be a compactum. Q is an order arc from A0 to A1 (cf. By 16. A0 C Al.1 to w[g(s)] and w[a(t)]. and let a = U( [0.s) . a(O) c a(l). let 0 : [0. by (4) of 16. Let X be a compactum. Thus. Hence. l] + ?i be a nonconstant segment with respect to w from A0 to AI. l] + 8 be a nonconstant segment with respect to w. a(O) = a(l) by (1) of 13. let ?l c 2x. also.. l] onto Q. to the contrary. and let w be a Whitney map for 3t.1). D is a homeomorphism of [0.3. w(Ao) + t.1).1. Now.
Y. (2) A0 C A1 and each component of Al intersects Ao. Thus. and let w be a Whitney map for 2”.w(41)] by 14. A1 E 2x. the second corollary is a uniquenessresult. (2) of our theorem is equivalent to the following statement: (*) there is an order arc. Assume that (1) of our theorem holds. (w]&)’ is well defined [w(Ao). in other words. 01 = CTZ. by 16. A subset. let 7t c 2. and g(l) = A 1.4 (with the proviso n that X is constant if 0 is constant). ARCS IN HYPERSPACES on all of 0 X.2.l] onto cr by Proof. l]). Let Ao. Conversely.4. Th ere f ore. Then. Proof. o.5 Corollary. if crl and LT~are segments in ‘H with respect to w such that c~i([O. for each i = 1 and 2. then ~1 = ~72. Then. Let X be a compactum. Then a segment in 7l with respect to w is uniquely determined by its range. Once we show that a(O) = AC.4.2. Obviously. of ‘U is the range of a segment with respect to w if and only if S is an order arc or S E FI (‘ll). 11)= ~2([0. Let X be a compactum.2 and the fact that every constant map of [0. and let 1~ be a Whitney map for ?i. and let cy = oi([O. with respect to w such that a([O. clearly 0 = (w]o)’ . Proof. we obtained two important results about order arcs ~15. Let gi and 02 be as above. in 2x from A0 to Al.7 Theorem. o2 = (w]o)’ o X as in 16. Then.3. Then. Let X be a compactum. we see from 16. since AC. So.130 IV. where ai is as in (*). The first corollary characterizes the ranges of segments. In section 15. . assume from now on that A0 # Al. a Whitney map for 3c. (1) and (2) are both true if ‘40 = Al. # AI. there is a segment. 16. n [ur(Ao). I]). W 16. It is appropriate at this time to formulate these results in terms of segments. S. 11)= cy.3 and 15.4 that (*) holds.6 Corollary. Therefore. by 15. assumethat (*) holds. we will know that (I) of our theorem holds (cf.1). UJ(A~)]. I] into R is a segment with respect to w. We prove two corollaries. and let w be 16. let 7i c 2”. Thus. Then. (1) and (2) below are equivalent: (1) there is a segment with respect to w from A0 to A1 . it suffices to prove that (1) of our theorem is equivalent to (*). (2) of 16. Note that 0 is a homeomorphism of [O. U. The “if” part is by 16. The “only if” part is due to 16. since ?u 0 0 = X. 11) = 02(\0.
n 16. let ‘Ii C 2x. since a: is an order arc from A0 to Al. 0. Then. Conversely.1. We seethat D is a segment from A0 to Al by using 16. A0 C AI.5. also. Then there is a segment with respect to w from A0 to Al if and only if A0 C Al. 11) are ~(0) and (~(1) by 16. Hence. Since the theorem is obvious if (T is constant.1. . 11) c C(X). by our assumption that o(O) E C(X). Hence. Then. Let A. the end points of a([O. However.3 and (4) of 16. by 16. On the other hand. in C(X) from A0 to Al. with respect to w from A0 to Al. by 16. Proof. n At first glance. a(0) and ~(1) are the end points of a.7). and a(0) c ~(1) by (4) of 16. there is an order arc.1).3. Proof.3. there is a segment.8 Theorem.1). o.7 and 16. Addendum: Extending Whitney Maps We stated most of the results in the section in terms of a Whitney map for ‘Fl. Hence. Let X be a compactum.1 (as in the last part of the proof of 16. and let w be a Whitney map for 7L If CT a segment in ‘?f with respect to w such that is a(O) E C(X). the results are stated in the literature in terms of a Whitney map for 2x. m Our final result is the analogue of 16. this is not the case (see Exercise 16. Therefore.11) is an order arc from a(O) to a(l) (recall 15. The theorem is of independent interest. A0 and Al are the end points of (Y and A0 c Al (recall 15. and let w be a Whitney map for C(X). with respect to w such that o([O. (T([O.J. assume that A0 c A1 and that A0 # Al (the result is trivial if A0 = Al). u(0) c a(1) by (4) of 16. 11)= cy. then o([O. Assume that there is a segment. we have by 15. where 31 c 2x.6. Al E C(X). 11) C C(X). We show that this is true in the corollary to the following theorem. by 14.l]) is an order arc. Therefore. Then.20).2. This leads us to wonder if every segment in ‘H c 2x with respect to a Whitney map for ?f is a segment with respect to a Whitney map for 2x. one might suspect that 16.4 that u([O. we seethat a(O) = A0 and u(1) = Al. furthermore.ADDENDUM: EXTENDING WHITNEY MAPS 131 16.9 is a simple consequenceof 16. 0.1.9 Theorem. On the other hand. a([O. Let X be a compactum.7 for C(X): 16. we assumethat (T is not constant. by (2) and (4) of 16.8.
prove in 17. which includes 16.19. l]). seeExercise 16. Let w denote a Whitney map for ‘li such that IT is a segment in ?f with respect to w. l] + 3c is a segment with respect to a Whitney map for 3t. and let ?f c Zx. . seethe addendum above.30 of [29] (which we. and let w be a Whitney K = 31 u FI(X) u {X}. Let Let Yl be a closed subset of 2x. by 16. Let 6 = o([O. is 1.8 is 2. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES 16. Exercises 16.11 Corollary. Original Sources The result in 16.31.4 is 1. for Ic by letting w’({z}) = 0 for all (2) E Fi(X) and by letting w’(X) = 1 + sup w(N) if X 4 ‘+i.12 Exercise. n Regarding the extension theorem in 16. Then every segment in 2x (with respect to some Whitney map for 2x) is a segment with respect to uncountably many Whitney maps for 2x. Then. Let X be a compacturn. Let X be a nondegenerate compacturn. w is a Whitney map for 2x such that the only segments in 2x that are segments with respect to both w and w2 are the constant segments.4 of [27]. 16.10 Theorem. 16. Proof. Clearly.6 is part of the proof of 1. w2 = w .13 Exercise. g’.6 of [16].5). map Extend w to a Whitney map. and let w be a Whitney map for 2x.132 IV. g can be extended to a Whitney map. and 16.1 of Ward [36]. Then. Hence. 0 is a segment with respect to g’.4. and let g = WIG.3 of [16]. Proof.2 of [29]. w’ can be extended to a Whitney map for 2x by Theorem 3.3 is 1.10. If X is a compactum.7 is 2. The converse half of the corollary is evident from the fact that the restriction of a Whitney map for 2x to 3t is a Whitney map for 2. n 16.2 and the first part of 16. 16. Regarding the way results are stated in the papers just cited. w’.10. Note that G is closed in 2x and that g is a Whitney map for G. then o is a segment with respect to a Whitney map for 2x (and conversely). then any Whitney map for any closed subset of 2x can be extended to a Whitney map for 2x.5. If 0 : [0. the second part of 16. 16. Let X be a compactum. for ‘fl.18 of [29]. for 2x.
cp. Let X be a compactum.15 is a converse to 16.9. for C(]O. then w l(t) is arcwise connected for all t.15 Exercise.3.20 Exercise. (Recall comment following the proof of 16. let 31c 2. tr] such that 0 o ‘p is a segment with respect to w.10. a subset U of C(X). See Chapter VIII. 16. 11) as follows: u(t) = [O.7. Show that 16.9 is a direct consequence of 16.8. phism of [0. of [0. and let w be a Whitney map for Ifl. Then there is a unique map. and let to. Give an example of a continuum X. 16. a. and let w be a Whitney map for ?l. K. B E w‘(to) such that A n B # 0 and C(X). A # B. in wr (t. and fix t. Then there is a Whitney map. l] + C([O. [Hint: Find a way to use 16. 133 map.) 16. Let X be a compactum.18 essentially proves that if X is an arcwise connected continuum. If u is a segment in ?t with respect to w such that a(te) E C(X) for some to E [O. of A n B. let ‘?i c 2x. l] into 2x such that a(tr) c and let (T be a homeomor g(t2) whenever 0 5 tr 5 tz 5 1. then there is an arc.14 Exercise.19 Exercise. l] onto [to. w.Y. let w be a Whitney map for If A. for 2” such that 0 is a segment with respect to 1~.16 Exercise. Find a formula for a Whitney with respect to w.t’] for all t E [0. Define 0 : [0.) . furthermore. 16. (Cf. < w(X). Let X be a compactum.10.l]. The result in 16. [Hint: The proof is a balancing act with two segments. 16. then a(t) E C(X) for all t E [to. w. Let X be a compactum. and 16. and a Whitney map w for 3c such that w can not be extended to a Whitney map for C(X).) from A to B.10. Let u be a segment in 31 with respect to w. (Y can be chosen to lie in C(A U B) so that K c L for all L E cr. 11.18 Exercise.EXERCISES 16. 16. l] such that to _< tl. tr E [0. 11) such that LTis a segment 16. The result in 16. 16. 11. given a component.] Remark.17 Exercise.1 Remark.
pp. Compactness Our first theorem about spacesof segmentsconcerns their compactness. now. and let w be a Whitney map for 3t. Then. 17.dz) be compact metric spaces. f (yz)) < E for all f E . and let Z be a metric space with metric dz. and let F C Zy. we recall the definition of equicontinuity for maps between compacta. Spaces of Segments. the topology for Zy is the topology that is induced by the uniform metric. We give the definition for spaces of segments in 17. 2’ denotes the space of all continuous functions from 1” into 2.4.dy) and (Z.K . The uniform topology for Zy is the compactopen topology [6.2. P(f.1 Definition. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES 17. First. First. then. Let X be a compactum. 2~~ and C(X) are continuous images of the cone over the Cantor set. We present an application that is particularly noteworthy: It is the lovely theorem which says that for any continuum X. F is said to be equicontinuous provided that for each E > 0.“one at a time” . which is defined as follows: for any f.1.(Z) = {CJE ?t[OJl : o is a segment with respect to w} with the uniform topology (defined above). also. let ‘H C Zx. The space of segmentsin 3t with respect to w is the space S. We use the term uniform topology to refer to the topology on Zy or any subspace of Zy. when we do. let us recall some standard notation and terminology.134 IV. Let (Y.dy)) : Y E Y). S. 2692711. convergence of sequences with respect to the uniform topology is uniform convergence. The theorem is in 17. we form spaces of segments and investigate their properties.(?I) without mentioning w beforehand.g) = SUP {dz(f (y). g E Zy . Note: We often write &.in the preceding section. then &(fh). the uniform topology does not depend on the choice of the metric that induces the given topology on Z. there exists 6 > 0 such that if dy(ylryz) < 6.(R) We have studied segments . Thus. Let 1’ be a compacturn. its proof is based on the special caseof the Arzela4scoli Theorem that we state in 17. it is to be understood that w is an arbitrary. p. fixed Whitney map for X.
We show that S. w[a(O)] (t2 t1) . the lemma may appear to have no direct bearing on the compactness of spaces of segments ~ however. let tl. let ‘R be a closed subset. the lemma essentially proves that spacesof segmentsare equicontinuous. Let E’ and 2 be compacta. n 17. Proof. then our theorem follows from 17.of 25.2.w(A. and let F C 2’. by (1) of 13. A = B.2 (since Fl. there is an Q(E) > 0 with the following property: If A. However. for each i = 1. Now.}z”=.tzl < 6.3. since H(Ai. converge in 31 to. we have a contradiction.‘l.M=. for example. 17. ta E [0. Let s = sup w(R). Then. say. for any given E > 0. hence.COMPACTNESS 135 It is easy to see that since Y and Z are compacta. A c B and Iw(B) . Let q(~) be as guaranteed by 17. At first.. s < ~~[41)11 7](E). there exist Ai. see [6. respectively. being closed in 2x. Then.hat 6. and let D E S. iii c B. we also have that H(A.w(A)1 < T(E).4 Theorem. l] such that It1 . Hence. Therefore.1. We use the following lemma in the proof of our theorem about.(R). and let w be a Whitney map for 31. 3 is compact if and only if F is equicontinuous and F is closed in 2’. and let 3c be a closed subset is compact.(Z) Let X be a compactum.1 and 3. Since 7t is a compacturn (by 3. We see at once from (3) of 16. 1t. S. the notion of equicontinuity depends only on the topologies on I’ and 2 (and not on the given metrics dy and dz). Then. p. A and B.(X) is equicontinuous. p. Choose 6 > 0 such t. then H(A.L  . I+(tl)l wb(tz)]l = 5 It. Then we seethat A C B and w(A) = w(B). B.) 2 E. and {Bi}. B) > E.5). B E 3c such that.3 Lemma. lw(Bi) .(R) is equicontinuous and closed in ~[‘. the lemma is false for some particular E > 0.1 that w[a(h)] w[c(h)] = (t2 tl) . 17.)I < t. To prove that S. s < 6 .B) < E. Then.9 < V(E). and H(Ai. w[a(l)]. 2671or [15.? t1 I t1I Iw[40)] . is a compactum).. . Suppose that. 2331. Bi E fl such that.2 ArzelaAscoli Theorem (special case). Bi) 2 E for each i. .. Proof. of 2X. compactness of spacesof segments. Proofs of the ArzelaAscoli Theorem are in many texts.. Let X be a compactum. we can assumethat the sequences{A. let E > 0.
1. W[Ui(O)] + t. since Q(E) is as in 17.8).1. < we have that ui(tl) c ai for each i.(C(X)) by Exercise 1.we will seethat spacesof segmentsare. then S. satisfies (4) of 16. Hence.8 and use the continuity of w.3. the pointwise convergence of {Ui}zl to f.(%) is closed in 31[‘~~]. u(tz)) < E. o(tl) C g(t2) or a(t2) C cr(tl).denoted by O(‘?i).t) .(2”) and S. Thus. t2 E [0. This proves that j satisfies (4) of 16. and let ?l c 2x. w[Lim ui(l)] + t.(R). in S.5 Corollary.(Y). w Our next theorem gives us an alternative way to think about spacesof segments. Since j E ~[Oy’l.1.(x) is closed in M”l’l.4 (which can be applied to S. and the fact that each oi satisfies (3) of 16. We have now proved that j E S. we have that H(~(tl). we prove that S. To prove that j satisfies (4) of 16. l] such that t 1 _ t 2. it follows easily that j(tl) c j(t2). recall 4.6 Definition.1. Then.1. w[j(O)] ai( + t . To prove that j satisfies (3) of 16. Let X be a compactum.(R) converges in 71[OJ] to j.20). we know that j is continuous. we have proved that S. 11. n 17. w[Lim (1 . Proof. This proves that j satisfies (3) of 16. Next. independent of the choice of Whitney map (17.1.8). If X is a compactum. Therefore. UJ[ni(l)] (1 .t) . To verify the equalities below. Therefore. We prove that j E S. As a consequence. and the closed space of . by (4) of 16. let tl. {a. Apply 17.}&. it remains to prove that j satisfies (3) and (4) of 16.136 IV. fix t E [0.(C(X)) are compact. Let j E ~c[OJI such that some sequence. This proves that S.(R) is equicontinuous. since f(tl) = Lim ai and j(t2) = Lim cri(tz) (by 4. from a topological standpoint.t) . w[j(l)]. The key idea is in the following definition: 17. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES also.1. We define the space of order arcs in 31.1: w[j(t)] = = = = w[Lim ai( = lim W[Ui(t)] lim (1 . since each (T.
HH denotes the Hausdorff metric for 23t induced by H as in 2. of &. explicitly. and let cy( E B(X) for each i = 1. besides.(R).. By 16. Next.’ : B(X) + S. Thus. ~2 E S.. H(al(t). fw maps S. as follows: a it is an order arc in ‘?I) Let X be a compactum.l].‘(cu). Note: There can not be any confusion between our abstract use of the bar in ?!?(?f) and our usual way of using a bar to denote closure. and let Z C 2”. fix 01.(Z).(X) = D(?i). 11)~NH(f. fw(u) = u([O.‘(ai) for each i. 11)). we prove that f. By 16. We prove that fw is nonexpansive with respect to HH and p. .. is continuous. fw(cn)) < T for any r > p(ar. O(~)={aE2? and D(N) = O(Z) u Fl(?l). (*) implies that fw is continuous. We use the following notation: H denotes the Hausdorff metric for Z.(R) as follows: Proof.(R) onto B(Z). the closure of 0(R) in 2R. Let (T= f. To prove (*). we have proved that HH(~~((T~). Let a E D(X). u2 E S. Finally.n([O.m([o. we have proved (*).1. Then. Clearly. We prove the following fact: (#) There is a compact subset.1. Hence.11)) by the first part of Exercise 2. where 0(X) and ??(a) each has the topology obtained from the Hausdorff metric for 2R.. S.7 Theorem. we prove that f. 17.gs) for all 01..~2([0.. f.as). C. as is easy to check. denoted by a(Z). is onetoone. Thus. 8(R) is. Therefore.5.(R) is continuous.az). .6. 11) for each u E S. (3t) that is defined preceding 17. indeed.2. and 02([0. Then. Define the function fw on S. we prove that (*) HH(~uJ(~I)> fd”2)) 5 P( (~r. such that the sequence {oi}gr converges in ??(‘?I) to a. and p denotes the uniform metric for S.11) c Nd~.9.(‘?I) such that u E C and gi E C for each i.(X). and let oi = f. Let r > p(ar. by the way p is defined.137 order arcs in Z. an(t)) < r for each t E [O. .
see Exercise 16..8 Corollary. by (#). Recall th at we have proved that fw is onetoone and continuous on S.‘(a). we show that C satisfies the conditions in (#)..(Ufl) # SW. and let ‘fl c 2x. hence. hence.!(w).138 IV. we have the following result: 17. by (1) and (a). recall that {ai)E1 converges to a. This completes the proof of (#I. Let X be a compactum. recall that o = f.’ is continuous..’ (a). Therefore. NOW. By 17. m Usually.(C(X)) is an AR (i. by 17.hence.I converges in S.4. we have proved that f. we have that (1) fw]C is a homeomorphism. (3t) to f. and pi E C for each i. Finally. Next. Proof.(x) by (#).12). ARCS IN HYPERSPACES let w’ = ~1%’ (note that w’ is a To prove (#). SW.(U) : o’([O. C c SW(Y). Then.4). for (‘IY) (31). Whitney map for 3t’). cr E C. we have shown that {f. . C is compact. Since 20’ = wllfl’ and 31’ C ?t. An easy sequenceargument shows that U’ is compact.g. and let c = s. zz SW. any two Whitney maps wi and w2 for ?i. we seeeasily that c = {a’ E S. 11) c U’}.(x) M B(x).. Then (1) S. Thus.7.‘(a) and pi = f.(Zx). we have that (2) cr E fw(E) and cyi E fw(C) for each i..(C(X)) is the Hilbert cube when there is no free arc in X.(C(X)) When X Is a Peano Continuum We prove a theorem about spacesof segments that is analogous to the CurtisSchori Theorem in 11. a Hilbert cube factor by 11. (31) = 8(R) and S. n S. SW.9 Theorem. thus. S. let %’ = (Y U (U&ai)..l(czi) for each i.‘(~i)}~r converges in S..(U).(2x) is the Hilbert cube. Nevertheless. hence. since C C S.3..~‘(cy~)}~~ converges in C to f.‘(a). we use (#) to show that {f. by (#). (2) &. Let X be a nondegenerate Peano continuum. {f.e.(‘?Q to f. S.l(cyi)}p”. 17.CW w hen w1 # w2 (e. and (3) S.
Let E > 0.7.16 (the example is from [8. by 10. n An example of a Peano continuum.(Zx).3. since C(X) is a retract of 2x by 10.3. such that &. . replacing CK. by Exercise 17. Next.13.. For any closed subset. Therefore.15 and proceeds as follows.3. Thus.8. Also.(2X) = {a E a(29 : IICI > K} (recall 14. For any closed subset.16) a. 2°(“x) is an AR.S. let (cf. we base the proof on Toruriczyk’s Theorem in 9.15 that ??(C(X)) is an AR. (2x). by making the obvious changes in the proof of 11. let D&C(X)) = {a E B(C(X)) : na > K}. in each case. hence. we see that G: is a Zmap and that @z is within e of the identity map on a(2x).(C(X)) is not a Hilbert cube is in Exercise 17.3 with DK. K.2.2$ such that fc is within e of the identity map on 2x. 1191201).3 to the present situation. the proof is similar to the proof Then. a uniform limit of Zmaps. of X such that K” # 8. K. n(2*‘) is an AR. ~K(C(X)) for ??~(2~) in the preceding paragraph. is a Zset in fl(C(X)). pp. replace 2.(C(X)) WHEN X Is A PEANO CONTINUUM 139 Proof.3 with @: : a(ax) + a(2x) given by @):(a) = {C~(E. there is a continuous function fc : 2x + 2x . we see as in the proof of 11. A) : A E a} for each a E n(2”). Then. we use ideas in section 11 to verify the assumptions in 9. We use the results that we just obtained to adapt the proof of 11. let f: : 22x + 22x be the maps natural induced map in 13.(X) in the proof of 11. 8(2x) is a Peano continuum. Finally. By Exercise 17. This proves that am is a Zset in ??(2x).3 that +:(??(C(X)) is a Zmap of L?(C(X)) into a(C(X)) and that G:la(C(X)) is within E of the identity map on D(C(X)). we see from Exercise 17.S. Let +z > 0. we devote the next two paragraphs to obtaining results that are analogous to 11. it follows easily that f:18(2x) ‘i7(2x) into ??(2x) am and that fc. we prove that the identity maps on 8(2x) and ??(C(X)) are uniform limits of Zmaps. We show that ??~(2~) is a Zset in 8(2x). by 11.14. Then.‘??(zx) is within E of the identity map on n(2x).3 with CK. By 17.8.1317.2. (C(X)). Then. Now. we prove that the identity map on 8(2x) and the identity map on D(C(X)) is. Exercise 14. Replace @‘e : 2x + 2x in the proof of 11. For use in the proof. The proof that ?!?(2x) and B(C(X)) are absolute retracts uses Exercises 17. in the proof of 11.16).3. X. of X such that K” # 0 and such that I< contains no free arc in X. we may as well prove the theorem for ??(2x) and n(C(X)).
(2x).of f. and the fact that convergence in C is uniform convergence (as noted preceding 17. We show that g is continuous and that g maps K x [0. f. C is compact. with . we see from 16. C is closed in S. t) = [f(z)](t) : a(1) = X}. 2231. p.10. by (*). p. IV.10 implies the result in 14. Define g : K x [0. and arcwise connectedness is preserved by continuous functions (8. from K onto C. we prove that g maps K x [0.(C(X)) is the Hilbert cube. Let K denote the Cantor set. We first prove our theorem for 2x. Moreover. 17. by 17. g. Hence. Let w be a Whitney map for 2x (13. We omit the details and point out instead that the continuity of g is the direct consequence of the following general fact: The compactopen topology for continuous functions between Hausdorff spaces is jointly continuous on compact sets [15.9: There are arcwise connected continua that are not continuous images of the Cantor fan (see Exercise 17. l] onto 2x. 17. The Cantor fan is an arcwise connected continuum. p.9 that 2x and C(X) are arcwise connected for any continuum X. The proof of the continuity of 9 can be done with a straightforward sequence argument that uses the continuity. Let A E Zx.7 that there is a segment. there is a continuous function. 1061): (*) Every compacturn is a continuous image of K.4). and then we use the quotient map of K x [0. 17. Let c = {CT E &(2X) Clearly.28 of [28. l] + 2” for each (z. 1331). We prove the theorem in 17.140 For a complete see [4]. Then. Application: Mapping the Cantor C(X) Fan Onto Zx and The term Cantor fan is the usual name given to the cone over the Cantor set. l] onto 2x.10 Theorem.10 is significantly stronger than 14. Thus.5. then 2x and C(X) are contin Proof. We will use the following wellknown result (an especially simple proof of the result is in [28. Next.1). 0. If X is a continuum. as follows: g(z. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES characterization of when S. We obtain a map. Thus.l]. and let F = Cone(K) (the Cantor fan). uous images of the Cantor fan.18 for an example). 11 onto 2x. of K x [0. since X is a continuum. l] onto F to complete the proof. t) E K x (O. the continuity of each f(z).
30 and 1.22 of [28. there respect to w from A to X.t) = (z. also. pp. (z. p. S. 1231 or 3.9 is from EberhartNadlerNowell [8].10 is due to Mazurkiewicz [22] although the proof we gave is from [16. W Other results about continuous images of the Cantor fan. Recall that F = Cone(K).11 Exercise. since f(ic) exists z. 81991 (the paper that is referred to in the footnote in [29.7). 17. Note that g is constant on T‘(U) since g(z. Note that G E C. Furthermore. then. see Comment after first question in section 82 here). Hence. as well as results about continuous preimages of the Cantor fan. [23].(C(X)) are .9 where we used 16. This completes the proof of our theorem for 2x. 451). Hence.5 is from the first paragraph of the proof of 2.) = 0. clearly g 0 7rl maps F onto 2x. Many of the results are also discussed in [29. 17.t). E K such that f(z. we complete the proof for 2” as follows.4 in the form of 17. and let x : K x [0.32 of [29]. l] onto 2x. g o rl is continuous (by 3. 17.O) = [f(zo)l(o) = 40) = A. let C’ = {u ES. are in [2]. we have proved that g maps K x [0.2 of [6. p. { V.3 is 1. 1951. 1) = [f(z)](l) = X for all is singlevalued at each point of F. Now. dzo. 2511 will not appear. goV’ since 7r is a quotient map and g is continuous. p.7 and 17. 1) E K x [0.l] onto 2”. p.(C(X)): a(l) = X}. Original Sources The result in 17. Therefore. For any continuum X. l] + F denote the quotient map: 7r(z. To prove our theorem for C(X).ORIGINAL SOURCES 141 = C. [25]. Thus. Thus.7 of [16]. Exercises 17. p.(2x) arcwise connected continua. since g maps K x [0. 251. repeat what we did for 2x using C’ instead of C (use 16.8 give full generality to 1.11.5 of Kelley [16]. 11. let w denote the vertex of F. and S. see the comment immediately following 33. if t # 1 ift=l. 17. and [31.
7. 273(2x) For any compacturn X. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES Let X be a compactum. A hint follows. (If Z is a space and Y c 2. hence. then Y is said to be a strong deformation retract of Z provided that there is a continuous function h : 2 x [0.(C(S’)) is not the Hilbert cube. Then.14 Exercise. recall 5.7..+)](t) : t E [O. 2” [9].1 17. Prove that {p E 8(2x) : Hi(cr. S.16 Exercise. IV.) [Hint: make use of fw in the proof of 17.13 Exercise. then 8(2x) is a Peano continuum. There are continua. 0) = z for all .z E 2. Let X be a compacturn. Fix Q: E D(Zx) and E > 0. X. h(z. t) = y for all (y. ??(C(X)) of 17. (We used the result in the proof of 17.. A continuum. The space S. ??(C(X)) of 8(2x) if and only if C(X) is a retract of 2x.142 17.9.12 Exercise. S&(B) is a strong deformation retract of S.P) < E} is arcwise connected.] 17. (See the comments following the proof of 17. [y: = {[f. Hence.7. is said to be arcwise decomposable provided that Y is the union of two arcwise connected.2 and our discussion of Zsets in section 9. Sk(Z) = (0 E SW(Z) and let 31 c 2x.1 17.5. F1(8(2~)) is a retract of [Him: Let fw : S. l] + 2 such that h(z.17 Exercise. 2x and C(X) are arcwise decomposable whenever X is a nondegenerate continuum.(R). by 17.l]}. Recall 14.1 17. 11. is a retract Remark. If X is a Peano continuum. Then. so don’t use 17.15.) [Hint: Prove that the point {S’} of ??(C(S’)) is not a Zset in Tj(C(S’)). and h(y.(2x) + a(ax) b e as in the proof of 17.(Z) is of the same homotopy type as 7l. and let Hj denote the Hausdorff metric for 22x induced by Hd as in 2. for which C(X) is not a retract is not always a retract of 8(2”).3). Let : (T is constant}. . Y.) [Hint: Let d be a convex metric for X (10.1. Hence.9. proper subcontinua.9. 1) E Y for all z E 2. t) E Y x [0. M a k e use of Exercise 11.15 Exercise. Any nondegenerate continuum that is a continuous image of the Cantor fan is arcwise decomposable. The key idea for the proof comes from the following obvious fact: for each o E @2”).
1 Remark. The idea of relating arcwise decomposability to continuous images of the Cantor fan is due to Bellamy [2]. then any continuum that is a continuous image of 2” or C(X) must be arcwise connected by 14. In the part of section 7 entitled Knaster’s Question. Furthermore.19 and the fact that there are decomposable continua that contain no arc [28. pp. Results in this section .will provide us with a general understanding of how the subcontinua of an hereditarily indecomposable continuum fit together.) [Hint: Use 17.2).10 and 17.10. This condition is also necessary for C(X) to be uniquely arcwise connected (by 5. for example. 2412511.including lemmas . In this section we show that this condition is also sufficient: C(X) is uniquely arcwise connected if and only if X is hereditarily indecomposable. 1331). and/or C(X) are in Chapter XII and in [29. he noted that only one example of such a continuum was known (footnote 14 in [16. the Warsaw circle is an arcwise connected continuum that is not a continuous image of 2x or C(X) for any continuum X. p. Y is an arcwise connected continuum that is not a continuous image of the Cantor fan.17.18 is Example II of [2. 171. then.18 Exercise. p. (See the discussion preceding 17.18. When C(X) Is Uniquely Arcwise Connected A space. 341. In fact. q E Y such that p # q. If X is a continuum. The theorem is due to Kelley (16. 63).1). It is easy to determine when Cone(X) is uniquely arcwise connected: The necessary and sufficient condition is that X contains no arc. 2x. however. pp. Results about when there are continuous surjections between continua. we discussedsimilarities between C(X) and Cone(X) when X is a continuum. 17.hat for C(X) to be uniquely arcwise connected it is necessary that X be hereditarily indecomposable. 18. . WHEN C(X) Is UNIQUELY ARCWISE CONNECTED 143 17. p. 341). we see from 14. p. 28301). p. In fact. when Kelley proved the theorem just mentioned.28 of [28. Y. By 17. is said to be uniquely arcwise connected provided that for any p.9 (and 8. there are many examples of hereditarily indecomposable continua (see fourth paragraph following 7.18. Let Y be the Warsaw circle ((4) of Figure 20. however. the condition is not sufficient for C(X) to be uniquely arcwise connected (by Exercise 14.19 t. continuum theory and dynamical systems. there is one and only one arc in Y with end points p and q. N ow. We remark that hereditarily indecomposable continua were at first thought to be anomalies. hereditarily indecomposable continua are important in.
If A is an arc in C(Y) such that ud = Y.5. Proof. Thus. by (3) of 11.t. = inf{ t E [O.. t]) and let Bt = uh([t. we have that (b) At U Bt = Y for each t E [0. of X. By our assumption following (a) that t. t. Y E A.8. Clearly. assume that X is not hereditarily indecomposable. Let h be a homeomorphism of [O.8.]) = Y. we have that (c) At and Bt are subcontinua of Y for each t E [O. Uh([O. A II B # 0.3 and (2) of converges to Bt. For each t E [0.}& .3 and (2) of Exercise 11. A c B or B c A. t]) = Y) (to exists since Uh([O. several of them are of independent 18. A continuum.. for any t > t.]. > 0.. {ti}gl. W 18. A U B is an indecomposable continuum. Thus.7 facilitate interest. in [O. Hence. Conversely. = Y for each 11. we have that (d) At#Yforanyt<t. we may assumefor the rest of the proof that t. then Y E A. = 0. By using 13. X. Assume that X is hereditarily indecomposable.5. Let t. we seethat {Bt. since Y is indecomposable. A $ B and B q! A. Then. Note the following three properties of At and Bt: by (a). and. since Bt.]. we see from (b)(d) that Bt = Y for each t < t. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES in 18. AU B is a subcontinuum of X. by the definition of t. 11) = Ud = Y). Hence. to]).t.5.]. > 0. Clearly. A and B.144 IV. the proof The main theorem is 18.118. then h(0) = Y by (a). we see by a simple sequence argument that (a) Uh([O. t.l] onto A. hence. l] : Uh([O. there are proper subcontinua.to) converging to t. t]) = Y. using 13.1 Proposition. Then there is a decomposable subcontinuum... Note that if t. let At = Uh([O. K.2 Proposition. Therefore. Let Y be an indecomposable continuum.. The results of 18. hence. there is a sequence. Let A and B be subcontinua of X such that AII B # 0. Now. then A c B or B c A. is hereditarily indecomposable if and only if whenever A and B are subcontinua of X such that A cl B # 0. of K such that K = A U B. Proof.
. (3) a = A. If A is an arc in C(X) from A0 to Ai.. In relation to 18. The union map u for C(d) is continuous by (2) of Exercise 11.9..D WHEN X Is HEREDITARILY.5. also. then d is an order arc. For each A f A .1.Al E cu. Clearly. We prove that Al E Q as follows. u o f maps d onto a. Now. h(t. f is continuous. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum.(Ao}. Let Ao. YEd. let denote the subarc of cr = {ud(A. We show that d = M UN. Al E C(X) such that A0 c Al and AC. Therefore. then.)..2. Hence. we let d(AoAo) = {Ao}.. 2t o f is continuous. = Y. see Exercise 18.3 Proposition. 18. = h(t. Next..STRUCTURE OF ARCS IN C(X) i = 1. Proof of (2): Since A0 = ud(AoAa). A1 E M. Proof. Thus.A) : A E A}. (4) cy is an order arc. and let Ao. since A0 c Al. A0 E N. Hence. . we let A(AoA) A from AD to A. Proof of (1): Let f : A + C(d) be given by f(A) = d(AoA) for each A E A. since Bt. We prove (l)(4) below (combining (3) and (4) proves our proposition): (1) (Yis a continuum. Hence. note that M and N are closed in d (by an easy sequence argument using the continuity of u o f in the proof of (I)). (1) holds.) 145 BtO = Y. the next two propositions determine the structure of all arcs in C(X). one of A0 or Al is contained in the other or 40 n Ai = 0. (2) Ao. Structure of Arcs in C(X) When Indecomposable X Is Hereditarily Assume that X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. AI E C(X).2. Let M = (A E A : Al c ud(AoA)}. by 18. M # 0 and N # 0. Obviously. ni = {A E A : Al 3 ud(AoA)} Clearly. # Al. Therefore. clearly A0 E Q.
since A0 C Ai. I’ E A.5. AEM (if. uum. Thus. Then. This proves (4).2. Since A0 c 1. also. If A is an arc in C(X) from 40 to Al. Thus. Hence. 41 c Z or Z c Al. This completes the proof of (2). arcs in C(X) are uniquely determined by their end points.2 does not apply. there exists C E Jbi fl ni. even though 18. Z is a subcontinuum of X. Zn Ai # 0. de and dr . since Aond4i = 0. di is an order arc. This proves that cr is a nest. Let Y = ud. Y E d(AoB) since Y = As).3 that do is an order arc. by 18. Thus. Y is an indecomposable cont. it suffices by (1) and (2) to prove that a c A.2. Therefore. we have proved that a c A. d is an order arc. by 18. a is an order arc. Hence. cy is a subcontinuum of 2. we seefrom 18. By (3) of 11. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES Let A E A. AI E cy. . Hence.1. d(AoE) C d(AoF) or d(AcF) c d(AoE). A = do u di . Y E d(AaB) (note: if B = AO then.E) c Ud(AcF) or Ud(AsF) c Ud(AsE). clearly Y # 40 and I’ # Al. there are subarcs. by 14. similarly. Al = Ud(AaC). Therefore. ‘I’ E A. where do is an order arc from A0 to UA and dr is an order arc from ill to UA. we seefrom the properties of M and N just verified that M fl N # 0. Y is a subcontinuum of S.’ and. Therefore. then A = do u di. Clearly (from the definitions of M and N).7 show that when X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. Also. since X is hereditarily indecomposable. Proof of (3): Since A is an arc from A0 to Al. Therefore. F E A. Let Y E LY.5. Thus.inuum.41 CZ)orAEN(ifZcAi). Now.5. since A is connected. Hence. Hence. Hence. Proof. Y is an indecomposable continuum. This completes the proof of (3). n Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable contin18.say I’ = Ud(AeB) for some B E A. by (2).4 Proposition.146 IV. Let Z = Ud(AsA). Y is a subcontinuum of X. ThisprovesthatdCMUN. by 18. By (3) of 11. A = M UN. Proof of (4): Let.7. By (3) of Exercise 11. W Uniqueness of Arcs in C(X) When Indecomposable X Is Hereditarily The propositions in 18. respectively. By (3) and (4). Ud(A. and let Ao. E. of A from A0 to Y and from ill to Jr. Clearly. By (l). (Y is nondegenerate. clearly.6 and 18. Al E C(S) such that AenAi = 0.
Thus. n 18. Al E C(X) such that A. do = &J and di = &. An B > K). A n B # 0 since A and t? are order arcs from K to L (hence. and di U C is an arc in C(X) from Al to UB. n 18. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. hence. and let K.UNIQUENESS OF ARCS IN C(X) WHEN X Is HEREDITARILY. Hence. Hence. we know from 14. A = As U dr as in 18. C. by 18. and let Ao.1.1. in C(X) from A0 to Al. in C(X) from K to L. Hence. n Proof. This proves that A c B. by 18. By 18.. Then. Now. Also. Let B be any arc in C(X) from K to L. Thus. Then there is one and only one arc in C(X) from K to L.4). Assume next that ud # Ua. Therefore.1 and 14.w(L)] = w(B). Proof. let A E A. Therefore. there is an arc. there exists B E B such that w(A) = w(B). By 18. d. A C D. Hence. Then.n . it follows immediately that A = 13. it follows from the definitions in 13. B E C(X) such that A n B # 0 and w(A) = w(B).1 that A = B. Thus. since ud c Ua. w. Hence. Recall our assumption that A0 n A1 = 0. by 18.5 Lemma. n Al = 0. we have by (1) of 13.1 that w(d) = [w(K). by 18. L E C(X) such that K c L and K # L. since w(d) = w(D).3. since A and 23 are arcs in C(X) with the same end points. 147 18.7 Proposition.6. . for C(X) (w exists by 13. By a similar argument. A = f?.4). Let t? be any arc in C(X) from A0 to Al. do U C is an arc in C(X) from A0 to UB. By 14.9.9.6. A C B or B C A. Assume first that ud = UZ?. Proof. By 14. A.5.6 that there is an order arc. We use a Whitney map.4 and t? = a0 U 23r as in 18. A = f?.6 Proposition. We show that A = D. Ud C Ul? or UB C ud. then A = B. Then there is one and only one arc in C(X) from A0 to Al. We show that A = t3. A and t3 are order arcs.4 (with ud replaced by UB). Then. say ud C UB. since w(A) = w(B). Note that W) n W) # 0 (since Ud > A0 and UZ? > Ao). A E f?. do U C = f?e and di U C = BI. there is an arc. 0 c A. A = B and. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. Therefore. If A. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum! and let ‘w be a Whitney map for C(X) (2~exists by 13. in C(X) from ud to UB.
Assume that X is hereditarily indecomposable.19. pp. For related results. C(X) is uniquely arcwise connected. Let p E A fl B (note that p exists since Y is connected). 18. in C(Y) from {p} to Y such that A E cr. In particular. Let A and B be proper subcontinua of Y such that Y = A U B.5 is 8. there is an order arc.1 of [16] (a stronger result is in 1.t the bottom of p. we seethat there is an order arc. Similarly. thus. however.7. in particular. see [27. Then. of X. p. C(X) is not uniquely arcwise connected. Y.50 of [29. Therefore. 18. 1021). pp. Assume that X is not hereditarily indecomposable. pp. we present an independent proof of the converse. in C(Y) from {p} to Y such that B E p. X. 6866871for a compendium). a characterization Of hereditarily indecomposable continua is in 4. inde Proof. If A0 < Al and Al @ Ao. 2031. [Hint for the “only if” part: Use that a nondegenerate.148 IV.15 of [29] .3 of [16].2 of Kelley [16]. p. Clearly. Original Sources All results except 18.1 Remark.9 is 8. Let Ao. A E (Y. The result in 18.cf. then there is a unique arc in C(X) from Ao to Ai by 18.9 Exercise. 371 of [29]). By using 14. 18. hence. . p. indecomposable continuum is irreducible about two points [28.6 twice.8 is 8. in the interest of selfcontainment. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES The Characterization We prove Kelley’s characterization theorem: Theorem 18. Q # /I. 161).11 of [27] (which is 11. Let X be a continuum. Al E C(X) such that Ac # AI. 3573721. 15241 or [29. p.1 are due to Kelley [16] or can be inferred easily from ideas in proofs in [16.6. Exercises 18. Therefore. 341. there is a unique arc in C(X) from As to Ai by 18. (Y. X is hereditarily composable if and only if C(X) is uniquely arcwise connected. then Ao n Al = 8 by 18.3 of [27. and 18. Note 1 a. The converse is due to Exercise 14. p.1.2 is 8. If ACJ C A1 or Al c Ao.9 is also true with C(X) replaced by 2” (4.8 Theorem.4 of [16]. A nondegenerate continuum.p. n More results about C(X) when X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum are in [16] and [29] (see [29. is indecomposable if and only if X arcwise disconnects C(X). Then there is a decomposable subcontinuum.
of sets Ai such that Ai C AZ+1 for each i = 1. w(X)].2. {Ai}. Then. ed. X. Bellamy. is the union of a monotone increasing sequence of arcs. p. Jr. 18.9. The uniquely arcwise connected continuum in Figure 25. 1970) (J. 101 (1978). it is actually the case that Cone(Y) is not even embeddable in C(X) [30.4. Let X and Y be nondegenerate continua such that X is hereditarily indecomposable. is hereditarily indecomposable if and only if every monotone increasing sequence of arcs in C(X) is contained in an arc.11 Exercise. pp. moreover. an hereditarily In the terminology of Chapter VIII. p. References 1.5 yields a natural map of X onto wl(t). Atlanta. Regarding the first part of 18. Rogers. 1821. 129134. Remark. can not be embedded in C(Y) for any hereditarily indecomposable continuum Y. Proc.10 Exercise. A continuum. p. David P.8: The Warsaw circle in (4) of Figure 20. also. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. W. 1491521.17. The cone over the Cantor set . 18.11. For related results.13 Exercise. Topology Conference (Emory University. is an hereditarily and let w be a Whitney map for C(X).13 says that being indecomposable continuum is a Whitney property (27. Y x [0.1(a)). By 18.12 Exercise. C(Y) is not embeddable in Cone(X).REFERENCES 149 18. l] is not embeddable in C(X) [18. Bellamy.)..] Remark.“. 2842851. (The “only if” part does not follow from 18.. C(X) $ Cone(Y)..)] Remark. 1801. The result is due to Rogers the proof just given is from Krasinkiewicz [18.17 and the comment following the proof of 22. Ga. see 22. see [29. . Fund. pp. 63 is uniquely arcwise connected and.continuous maps from both directions. .10 and 14. 18. p. Math. 18. 158. Indecomposable continua with one and two composants. For more details. David P. (A monotone increasing sequence of sets is a sequence. Then. 2. p. 16 of Young [40] is an hereditarily 133. 2371. we can apply Theorem to see that C(X) has the fixed point property whenever X indecomposable continuum. w‘(t) indecomposable continuum for each t E [0. [Hint: 18.. . yet.) [Hint for the “only if” part: Make use of 18. 825.
150 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.
IV. ARCS IN HYPERSPACES K. Borsuk and S. Mazurkiewicz, Sur Z’hyperespace d’un continu, C. B. SOC. SC. Varsovie 24 (1931), 149152. Doug Curtis and Mark Lynch, Spaces of order arcs in hyperspaces Peano continua, Houston J. Math. 15 (1989), 517526. D. W. Curtis and R. M. Schori, Hyperspaces which characterize homotopy type, Gen. Top. and its Appls. 6 (1976), 153165. of
simple
James Dugundji,
printing, 1967.
Topology, Allyn and Bacon, Inc., Boston, Mass., third
Carl Eberhart and Sam B. Nadler, Jr., The dimension of certain hyperspaces, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. 19 (1971), 10271034. Carl Eberhart, Sam B. Nadler, Jr., and William 0. Nowell, Spaces of order arcs in hyperspaces, Fund. Math. 112 (1981), 111120. Jack T. Goodykoontz, Jr., Aposyndetic J. Math. 47 (1973), 9198. properties of hyperspaces, Pac.
10. Jack T. Goodykoontz, Jr., C(X) is not necessarily a retract of 2”, Proc. Amer. Math. Sot. 67 (1977), 177178. 11. Witold Hurewicz and Henry Wallman, Dimension Theory, Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey, 1948. 12. Alejandro Illanes, Cells and cubes in hyperspaces, Fund. Math. 130 (1988), 5765. 13. Alejandro Illanes, Monotone and open Whitney maps, Proc. Amer. Math. Sot. 98 (1986), 516518. 14. OttHeinrich Keller, Die Homoiomorphie der kompakten konuexen Mengen im Hilbertschen Raum, Math. Ann. 105 (1931), 748758. 15. John L. Kelley, General Topology, D. Van Nostrand Co., Inc., Princeton, New Jersey, 1960. 16. J. L. Kelley, Hyperspaces of a continuum, Trans. Amer. Math. Sot. 52 (1942), 2236. No Odimensional set disconnects the hyperspace of 17. J. Krasinkiewicz, a continuum, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. 19 (1971), 755758. 18. J. Krasinkiewicz, On the hyperspaces of hereditarily indecomposable continua, Fund. Math. 84 (1974), 1755186. 19. J. Krasinkiewicz, Shape properties of hyperspaces, Fund. Math. 101 (1978), 7991. 20. K. Kuratowski, Topology, Vol. II, Acad. Press, New York, N.Y., 1968. 21. A.Y. W. Lau and C. H. Voas, Connectedness of the hyperspace of closed connected subsets, Ann. Sot. Math. Pol. Series I: Comm. Math. 20 (1978)) 393396.
REFERENCES 22. Stefan (1932), 23. Stefan Math.
151
Mazurkiewicz, SW l’hyperespace d’un continu, Fund. Math. 18 171177. Mazurkiewicz, Sur le type c de l’hyperespace d’un continu, Fund. 20 (1933), 5253.
24. Stefan Mazurkiewicz, SW le type de dimension de l’hyperespace d’un continu, C. R. Sot. SC. Varsovie 24 (1931), 191192. Sur les images continues des continus, Proc. 25. Stefan Mazurkiewicz, Congress of Mathematicians of Slavic Countries (Warsaw, 1929), F. Leja, ed., 1930, 6671. 26. M. h4. McWaters, Arcs, semigroups, and hyperspaces, Can. J. Math. 20 (1968), 12071210. 27. Sam B. Nadler, Jr., Arcwise accessibility in hyperspaces, Dissertationes Math. 138 (1976). 28. Sam B. Nadler, Jr., Continuum Theory, An Introduction, Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math., Vol. 158, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1992. 29. Sam B. Nadler, Jr., Hyperspaces of Sets, Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math., Vol. 49, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1978. 30. Sam B. Nadler, Jr., Locating cones and Hilbert cubes in hyperspaces, Fund. Math. 79 (1973), 233250. 31. Sam B. Nadler, Jr., Some problems concerning hyperspaces, Topology Conference (V.P.I. and S.U.), Lecture Notes in Math. (Ed. by Raymond F. Dickman, Jr., and Peter Fletcher), SpringerVerlag, New York, Vol. 375, 1974, 190197. 32. J. T. Rogers, Jr., Dimension of hyperspaces, Bull. Pol. Acad. Sci. 20 (1972), 177179. 33. J. T. Rogers, Jr., The cone = hyperspace property, Can. J. Math. 24 (1972), 279285. 34 L. Vietoris, Kontinua zweiter Ordnung, Monatshefte fiir Math. und Physik 33 (1923), 4962. 35. A.D. Wallace, Indecomposable semigroups, Math. J. of Okayama Univ. 3 (1953), l3. 36. L. E. Ward, Jr., intending Whitney maps, Pac. J. Math. 93 (1981), 465469. 37. T. Wazewski, Sur un continu singulier, Fund. Math. 4 (1923), 214235. 38. Hassler Whitney, Regular families of curves, I, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci.
18 (1932).275278.
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39. Hassler Whitney, Regular families of curues, Annals Math. 34 (1933), 244270. 40. Gail S. Young, The introduction of local connectivity by change of topology, Amer. J. Math. 68 (1946), 479494.
V. Shape and Contractibility of Hyperspaces
The chapter consists of two sections. In the first section we prove that, for any continuum X, 2x and C(X) have trivial shape in the sense of Borsuk [2]. We prove this theorem in a different form at the beginning of the section; namely, we prove that, for any continuum X, 2x and C(X) are nested intersections of absolute retracts. We use this form of the theorem to obtain some basic properties of 2x and C(X). In the second section of the chapter we are concerned with contractibility. We prove two general theorems about the contractibility of 2” and C(X). We use these theorems to determine some classes of continua, X, for which 2x and C(X) are contractible. More about contractibility of hyperspaces is in Chapter XIII. The two sections of the chapter are related by the following fact: A continuum (in this case, 2x or C(X)) has trivial shape if and only if the continuum is contractible with respect to every absolute neighborhood retract.
19.
2x and C(X)
as Nested
is an intersection,
Intersections
n&Yi, where
of ARs
Yi > Yi+i for
A nested intersection each i.
We prove that for any continuum X, 2x and C(X) are nested intersections of ARs (absolute retracts). We then derive several important properties of 2x and C(X). 153
154
V. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITYOF
HYPERSPACES
The usual approach to the results in this section is to use inverse limits. However, we have chosen the present approach so that we can obtain the results in the simplest and most accessibleway possible. We begin with the following general lemma about continua. 19.1 Lemma. tinua. Every continuum is a nested intersection of Peano con
Proof. Let X be a continuum. We may assumethat X is contained in the Hilbert cube Ice [17, p. 2411. Let C denote the Cantor Middlethird set in [OJ], and let VI, U2, . . . be a onetoone indexing of the components of [0, l]  C. There is a continuous function, f, of C onto X (7.7 of [22, p. 1061). By 9.1 and 9.2, Ic*3 is an AE; hence, f can be extended to a continuous function, g, of [O,l] into Ia. Now, for each i = 1,2,. . ., let Ki = [0, I]  lJj,,uj and let Yi = g(Ki). Since Ki 3 Ki+l for each i, clearly Yi > Y,+r for each i. We prove that X = f$ZrY% and that Yi is a Peano continuum for each i. Since K, > Ki+l for each i and since fIgr K, = C, Lim Ki = C (by the converges second part of Exercise 4.16); thus, by 4.7, the sequence{Ki}fZl in 2[“l’1 to C. Hence, by 13.3, the sequence {I$}& converges in 21m to g(C). Thus, since g(C) = f(C) = X, {I$}& converges in 2’O” to X. Therefore, since Yi > Yi+r for each i, we see that X = f$?rYi (by 4.7 and the second part of Exercise 4.16). Finally, we prove that Yi is a Peano continuum for each i. Fix i. We seeeasily that K; is a finite union of closed subintervals of [O,l]. Hence, Yi is a finite union of Peano continua (by 8.17 of [22, p. 1281). We show that I< is connected. To this end, note that
thus, since yi = g(Ki)
and g(C) = f(C) = X, we see that (1) yi = 9(C u [q&+1 Vj]) = x u [u,oo,~+1g(17j)]. Since aj f~ C # 0 for each j and since g(C) = X, we seethat
(2) g(Uj) n X # 0 for each j. Since X and each g(uj) are connected, we see from (1) and (2) that 1; is connected. Therefore, since Yi is a finite union of Peano continua (as noted above), 1; is a Peano continuum (since 10.7 implies that a connected metric space that is a finite union of Peano continua is a Peano continuum). a
19.2 Theorem. sections of ARs.
For any continuum X, 2” and C(X) are nested inter
2x, C(X)
ARE ACYCLIC
155
Proof. If X = n&Xi then, clearly, C(X) = n&C(Xi) and 2x = fl&2X*. Therefore, the theorem follows from 19.1 and 10.8. n Throughout the rest of the section we use 19.2 to derive properties of 2” and C(X). We include somegeneral background for most of the properties.
2x, C(X)
Are Acyclic
The term acyclic refers to any homology theory or cohomology theory over a coefficient group for which the theory is continuous [7]. When the coefficient group is the integers, examples of such theories are Vietoris homology, tech homology, Tech cohomology, and AlexanderKolmogoroffSpanier cohomology. 19.3 Theorem. dimensions. For any continuum X, 2” and C(X) are acyclic in all
Proof. Every AR is contractible (Exercise 19.11). Hence, every AR is acyclic ([2, p. 861 or [8, p. 301). Therefore, the corollary follows from 19.2 (since we are assuming that our homology and cohomology theories are continuous). n
2x, C(X)
Are crANR
Our result (which is in 19.6) involves homotopy and absolute neighborhood retracts. We first give the definitions and notation that we use and prove two lemmas. We refer the reader to [2] for more information. Let Y and 2 be spaces. A continuous function from Y x [0, l] into Z is called a homotopy (a continuous function from Y x [a, b] into 2 is also called a homotopy). For a homotopy h : Y x [0, l] + 2 and any t E [0, 11, we let ht denote the map of Y into 2 given by ht(y) = h(y, t) for all y E Y. We say that two maps f,g : Y + Z are homotopic provided that there is a homotopy h : Y x [0, l] + 2 such that ho = f and hl = g, in which case we say that h is a homotopy joining f to g. If a map f : Y + Z is homotopic to a constant map of Y into 2, then f is called an inessential map; otherwise, f is called an essential map. A space, Y, is said to be contractible provided that the identity map of Y is inessential. We describe what it means for a space to be contractible in the following way: The space can be continuously deformed, in itself, to a point. This intuitive description is a reasonable way to envision the notion of contractibility for compact spaces;however, the description leaves a lot to be desired when a space is not compact: R’ is contracted to the point zero
156
V. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY
OF HYPERSPACES
by the homotopy h given by h(z, t) = (1  t) . 2 for all (2, t) E R’ x [0, 11; nevertheless, ht (R1) = R’ for each t < 1. with respect to Let Y and Z be spaces. We say that Y is contractible 2 (written Y is crZ) provided that every continuous function from Y into Z is inessential (i.e., homotopic to a constant map; note that we do not require that every continuous function from Y into 2 be homotopic to the Sameconstant map). We will use the following simple lemma in the proof of 19.6. 19.4 Lemma. every space Z. A space, Y, is contractible if and only if Y is crZ for
Proof. Assume that Y is contractible. Then there is a homotopy h : Y x [0, l] + Y joining the identity map of Y to a constant map of Y. Hence, if f is a continuous function from Y into a space Z, we see that f o h : Y x [0, l] + 2 is a homotopy joining f to a constant map of Y into 2. Therefore, Y is crZ for every space 2. The other half of the lemma is obvious. n We discussedretracts, absolute retracts, and absolute extensors in section 9. We now define the following notions. retract (written A compactum, K, is called an absolute neighborhood ANR) provided that whenever K is embedded in a metric space, Y, the embedded copy, K’, of K is a retract of some neighborhood of K’ in Y. A extensor (written ANE) compactum, K, is called an absolute neighborhood provided that whenever B is a closed subset of a metric space, M, and f : B + K is continuous, then there is a neighborhood, U, of B in M such that f can be extended to a continuous function F : U + K. The following lemma is analogous to 9.1 and is due to Borsuk. 19.5 Lemma. ANE. A compactum, K, is an ANR if and only if K is an
Proof. The lemma follows by adjusting the proof of 9.1. Assume that K c IO3 [17, p. 2411;T is a retraction from a neighborhood, W, of K in I” onto K; B, M, f, and g are as in the proof of 9.1; let U = gl(W); then, r o (g]U) : U + K is an extension of f to the neighborhood, U, of B in M. For the converse, let K’ c Y be as in the last part of the proof of 9.1, and simply note that, since K is an ANE, there is a neighborhood, V, of K’ in Y such that the identity map for K’ can be extended to a continuous function r : V + K’. W
2’, C(X)
ARE UNICOHERENT
157
We write Y is crANR to mean that the space Y is contractible with respect to every ANR. We are ready to prove the following theorem: 19.6 Theorem. For any continuum X, 2x and C(X) are crANR.
Proof. We prove the corollary for 2x; the proof for C(X) is similar. Let K be an ANR, and let f : 2x + K be continuous. By 19.2, %+r and Yi is an AR for each i. By 19.5, I< is 2x = fP Y. where Y, > 1’ E 2l 2 an ANE; hence, there is a neighborhood, U, of 2x in Yr such that f can be extended to a continuous function g : U + K. Since 2x is the nested intersection of the compacta Yi and since 2x C U, there exists n such that Y,, c U (by second part of Exercise 4.16 and by 4.7). Note that since I”, is an AR, Y, is crK (by Exercise 19.11 and 19.4); also, note that g is defined on all of Y, (since I$ c V). Hence, g1Y, : Y, + I( is inessential. Thus, since 2x c Y, and 912” = f, we see that f : 2” + K is inessential (for if h : Y, x [0, l] + K joins g]Y, to a constant map Ic : Y, + K, then h(2X x [0, l] joins f to the constant map lc(2x). Therefore, we have proved that 2x is crK. n We note that 19.6 can not be strengthened to say that 2x and C(X) are contractible. For example, let X be the continuum in Figure 25 (top of the next page), (X consists of two harmonic fans joined at a point): Neither 2x nor C(X) is contractible (Exercise 19.12). We remark that a lot of work has been done on contractibility in connection with hyperspaces. Wojdyslawski wrote the first paper about this [30]; Kelley obtained the first general results [12, pp. 25271. We discusscontractibility of hyperspaces in section 20 (Wojdyslawski’s result is 20.14, and Kelley’s results are 20.1 and 20.12).
2x, C(X)
Are Unicoherent
We see from 19.6 that for any continuum X, 2x and C(X) are crS1 (where S’ is the unit circle). A weaker result that is useful and more geometrically appealing is in 19.8. First, we give a definition and make some comments about the definition. A continuum, X, is said to be unicoherent provided that whenever A and B are subcontinua of X such that AU B = X, then An B is connected. The notion of unicoherence has a clear geometric interpretation: A unicoherent continuum has no hole. For example, S’ and an annulus are not unicoherent. However, the interpretation is not without flaws: The 2sphere is unicoherent (by Theorem 2 of [18, p. 506]), and the circlewithaspiral
158
V. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY
OF HYPERSPACES
X with 2x, C(X)
not contractible
Figure 25
in Figure 14, p. 51 is unicoherent. Thus, unicoherent continua need not be acyclic. The proof of the following lemma uses the notion of a lift; the definition of a lift and the relevant theorem about lifts are in Exercise 19.20.
19.7 Lemma.
If a continuum is crS’, then the continuum is unicoher
ent.
Proof. Let S: = ((2, y) E S’ : y 2 0}, and let S’ = { (2, y) E 5” : y 5 0). Note th at, since Si and S! are arcs, S: and Sl are AEs (by 9.1 and 9.2). Now, assumethat Y is a continuum that is not unicoherent. Then there are subcontinua, A and B, of Y such that A u B = Y and A fl B is not connected, say A n B = E/F (section 12). Let f : A n B + S: CISf.
WHITNEY
LEVELS
IN C(X) ARE
CONTINUA
159
be the continuous function that is defined by letting f(E) = (1,0) and f(F) = (1,O). s ince S: and Si are AEs, we can extend f to continuous functions gi : A + S$ and g2 : B + Sl. Let g : Y + S’ be the continuous function that is defined by letting g/A = gi and glB = g2. Note the following fact: (1) g(A II B) = {(LO), (1,O)) = g(A) n g(B). We show that g is an essential map. Suppose that g is an inessential map. Then, by the theorem in Exercise 19.20, g has a lift cp: Y + R’. Let (with exp as in Exercise 19.20)
M = exp[cp(A) v(B)]. n
Since p(A) and p(B) are intervals in R’, q(A) n p(B) is connected; hence, M is connected. However, as we now show, M = {(l,O),(1,O)). It is obvious that
n (2) exp[p(An B)] c M c exp[cp(A)l wMB)l. Since cpis a lift for g, we seefrom (1) that
(3) exp[p(A n B)] = dA n B) = {Cl, 01, NO)) and that (4) e&p(A)] n exp[dB)l = g(A) n g(B) = {(LO), (LO)). (2)(4), M = {(LO), (LO)). Th us, since we have previously proved that M is connected, we have a contradiction. Therefore, g is an essential map. We have shown that if Y is a continuum that is not unicoherent, then Y is not crS’. n
BY
We are now ready to prove our result about unicoherent hyperspaces. 19.8 Theorem. For any continuum X, 2x and C(X) are unicoherent.
Proof. By 19.6, 2x and C(X) are crS’; by 14.10, 2” and C(X) are continua. Therefore, by 19.7, 2x and C(X) are unicoherent. n
Whitney
Levels
in C(X)
Are Continua
Let X be a compactum, and let 31 2x. A Whitney level for ?i is any c where w is some Whitney map for subset of R that is of the form w‘(t), 3c and t E [O,w(X)]. The next theorem provides the primary motivation for the study of Whitney levels. We will discussWhitney levels extensively in Chapters VIIIX; nevertheless, we include the theorem here as an immediate illustration of the applicability of 19.8. We note that the theorem differs from previous
6 are. Then. Proof.9 says that Whitney maps for C(X) belong to a wellstudied class of maps .6 (or 15. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES theorems in two principal ways: It is only valid for C(X) (Exercise 19. and [14. since dt we have that w‘(t) is a continuum. 19. Regarding the existence and the nonexistence of monotone Whitney maps for 2x.8. = w‘([t.the classof monotone maps. 19. The theorem in 19. to 19.9 Theorem. pp. and being a weak proximate absolute retract. Let At = w‘([O. [lo]. Let X be a continuum. we see that dt and & are continua (cf.w(X)]. Then. Proof. thus. A monotone map is a continuous function f : Y + 2 such that f‘(z) is connected for each z E 2 (sometimes it is required that f‘(z) be a continuum for each z E 2 [29]). the theorem is equivalent . At n Bt is a continuum. as is obvious.3).2. A natural generalization of Whitney maps and of 19. a number of seemingly different properties are actually equivalent to being a nested intersection of ARs. by using 14. w n Bt = we1 (t). C(X) Have Trivial Shape When only considering continua. We list a few more such properties (proofs of various equivalences are in [3].2 and 19.w(X)J.10 Theorem. [ll]. Fix t E [O. Hence. equivalent results. 2x and C(X) have trivial According to comments just made. 2x. by 19. shape. in reality. The prominent role of shape theory per se leads us to reformulate 19. it is concerned with proper subsetsof C(X).9 is in Exercise 19. and let w be a Whitney map for C(X). t]) and let f?.w(X)]). being a fundamental absolute retract. Also. Therefore. being absolutely neighborhood contractible. a For any continuum X. see [4]. The terminology probably comes from the fact that a continuous function from R’ into R’ is monotone in the sensejust defined if and only if the function is monotone in the usual senseof real analysis.2 as follows: 19. One such property is that of being crANR. 2372391): having trivial shape.18.160 V. Exercise 15.16). w‘(t) is a continuum for each t E [O.14). and section 24.
1319. The result in 19. since CK(X) itself 19. who asked about C(X). Remark.8 is from [24. [Hint: If Y is a Peano continuum. 1761791). p.6 of [13]. 80831.1.ORIGINAL SOURCES 161 Original Sources The result in 19. p. p. for 2” or C(S’). Let X be a continuum.1 Remark. (Compare with the next exercise. p.) 19. see [23.10 for 2x is 1. 19. and 19. 12091. Then the containment hyperspace 2. 271 for 2x.1. t = 0 19. there exists t > 0 such that wl ([O. then 24. t]) is not a nested intersection of AI&. 19.2 for C(X) is 1. 14. Lau [19] and McWaters [20. (We used the result proofs above.12 Exercise. 1801. p.6 for C(X) is 1.9 of [13].3 is from various sources depending on the type of homology or cohomology that is used and on whether 2x or C(X) is considered (notably.10 for C(X) is 1. consider the unit circle S’. p. Every AR is contractible.15 are in [16.13 is also true for CK(X) is an AR by Exercise 14. 1751).171 of [23. Prove 19.22 (cf.8. also.9 is from EberhartNadler [6.4).x is a nested intersection of ARs.183 of [23.184 of [23. Kelley [12. and 19.11 Exercise.23). and let K be a subcompacturn of X.2 is a special case of 19.14 by taking in 19.10. 158. 1801.13 Exercise.5 of Krasinkiewicz [13] (cf. pp.14 Exercise. for more details.w(X)].14. show that the result follows easily from 9. 1. p. w. 7081 for C(X). Then.6 for 2x is 1. and Segal [27. 19. in in Figure 25. Show that for any Whitney map.6). w‘([&w(X)]) is a nested intersection of ARs. 4121. We see that 19. Let X be the continuum that 2” and C(X) are not contractible.) [Hint: Use 19. 16. is an AR (see the first part of the hint for Exercise 11. and let w be a Whitney map for 2x or C(X).] Remark.15 Exercise. 10321.14 (and recalling 13. 19. and Exercise 11. pp. p. for each t E [O. Exercises 19. Results that are related to Exercises 19. Let X be a continuum. 19. In relation to Exercise 19. . p.
a size map for ?l is a continuous function u : ?l + [0. 19.17) Figure 26 .‘..17 Exercise. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES 19.’ and/or C(X) is not cry? (Compare with 19. such that 2.18 Exercise. Let x’ be a compactum.25.e.16 Exercise. Let E’ be the Hawaiian Earring (Figure 26): 1’ = where Ci is the circle in R2 with center at (0.l .the Hawaiian Earring is one of the simplest continua that is not an ANR. The following notion is a natural generalization of the notion of a Whitney map.) UE_. co) that satisfies the following two conditions: Hawaiian Earring (19.162 V. Show that Whitney maps for 2” need not be monotone (i.ci. x’. Is there a continuum.2j) and radius 2“.6 . and let ?l C 2. (See section 24. the analogue of 19.) 19.9 for 2x is false) by using x’ and w in (2) of Exercise 14.
f is inessential if and only if f has a lift. 19.EXERCISES (1) for any A. If X is a continuum and D is a size map for C(X). Theorem.sin(t)) for each t E R1. 19.l] is contractible..20. c (S’JY such that p(gi.l.19 Exercise. To prove the other half of the theorem. The point inverses of size maps are called size levels. : Y + S’ be Sketch of proof. (1) Any constant map of Y into S’ has a lift.9).. let u be a size map for 2x or C(X). This exercise contains the basic theorem about lifts that we used when we proved the lemma in 19. nl. All the size levels for C([O. A lift for f is a continuous function cp: Y + R’ such that f = exp o cp. and let f : Y + S’ be continuous. we define the notion of a lift. 19. continuum for each t E [0.7. Prove the result stated below (which generalizes 19. and let t E [O. (‘4 Ifa. We state the theorem in 19..15 and 83. First. Let p denote the uniform metric for (S’)* (section 17).20. (2) u({x}) = 0 for each {z} E 71. Let X be a continuum. o(A) 2 a(B). (3) If h : Y x [0. B E ‘H such that A c 163 B. (251 is the only paper on size maps (except for those papers about Whitney maps).20 Exercise. then a‘(t) is a Remark. So far. Let Y be a compactum.1 and sketch its proof. Then.. Then. Let exp denote the exponential map of R1 to S’ given by exp(t) = (cos(t). Open questions about size maps are in 83. hti+. then gi has a lift if and only if gs has a lift. we leave the details of the proof for the reader. then there exist to = 0 < t1 < t2 < . n f has a lift and use . . Let Y be a space. a(X)]. = l(n < 00) such that p(ht. (Tl(t) is a continuum if and only if 0l ([0.. l] + S’ is a homotopy.16. and let f continuous. 11) are completely characterized in [25]. Size maps include Whitney maps and diameter maps. * < t.1. gs) < 2. Verify (l)(3) below (from which the “only if” half of the theorem follows easily).) < 2 for each i=O. t]) is a continuum. assumethat the fact that [O.a(X)].
Fl(X) is contractible in 2x. Fl(X). 11. The theorem in 19. on 2x x [0. then so is the other. (1) (2) (3) (4) Proof. In this section we present some basic results about when 2” and C(X) are contractible. Contractible Hyperspaces In the preceding section we gave an example of a continuum. of We recall from section 19 that a space. For any continuum X.20. is said to be contractible provided that the identity map of Y is inessential (i.) 20. C(X) is contractible.1 Theorem. (If 2 is a space and Y C 2. l] + 2 such that hc is the inclusion map of Y into 2 and hi is a constant map of Y into 2. Fl (X) is contractible in C(X). p.164 V. Since 2x is arcwise connected (by (1) or by 14. 3 and k. X. 4264271). SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES Remark. pp.9). homotopic to a constant map).20. Then there is a homotopy h : 2x x [O. 3(A. We prove two general theorems . 11 as follows: for each (A. t) E 2x x [0. 158). The theorem shows that if one of 2x and C(X) .. Assume that (1) holds. Y. then Y is said to be contractible in 2 provided that there is a homotopy h : Y x [0. t) = u3(A. . 20. t). 681 (the proof is also in [18.s):OQ4t} and lc(A. (l)(4) below are equivalent: 2” is contractible.t)={h(A. contractible.e. We define two functions. The theorem also is provides a useful way to determine whether 2x or C(X) is contractible namely. if (and only if) the space of singletons. such that 2d’ and C(X) are not contractible (Figure 25. p. is contractible in 2” or C(X).12 . l] + 2x such that ho is the identity map of 2” and hl is a constant map. this was proved by Eilenberg [7. The Fundamental Theorem We begin with what we consider to be the most fundamental theorem concerning the contractibility of hyperspaces.1 remains true for any topological space Y.1 and 20.and we determine some classes continua for which 2” and C(X) are contractible. it follows easily that we can assumethat hl (A) = X for all A E 2x. We first prove that (1) implies (2).
(a) k(A. Thus.t) and f(4 t) = @(A. l] into C(X).THE FUNDAMENTAL THEOREM 165 Since h is continuous. on 2” x [0. homotopy g shows that the identity map of C(X) is inessential. The fact that (2) of our theorem implies (3) is due to a general observation: If 2 is a contractible space and Y c 2. it follows easily that F maps 2. (b) k(A.ta) whenever 0 5 tl 5 t2 5 1. t) E 2x x [0. &LO) = A and g(A. specifically.t) : a E A} .O) = {x} for each {z} E PI(X). Also. we see that (c) for each A E 2x. we see that k maps 2” x [0. we see that f maps 2x x [0. Thus. t). 0) = U{ {a} : a E A} = A for each A E 2y. = {h({a}. Since h is continuous. (YA is an order arc from A to X or aA = {X}. Hence. Finally. 0) = UG(A. We define two functions. we have that (d) if A E C(X). g maps C(X) x [0.5. l] into 2x and that f is continuous.4. l] into 22x and that G is continuous. fix A E 2x. Let h : Fl (X) x [0. 0) = A for each A E 2x and. since h(A. C(X) is contractible. G(A. l] into 2x and that k is continuous. since h({z}. l] into 2”’ and that 3 is continuous.t):O<t<l}. the (4 and (b).) The fact that (3) of our theorem implies (4) is obvious. QA is a nest from A to X (recall (a) and (b) above). 1) = X for each A E 2x. This proves that (1) of our theorem implies (2). tl) c k(A. Therefore. Also. Hence. (Proof: If h : 2 x [0. then CrA C C(X). ho({z}) = {z} and hl({z}) = K for some given I< E 2x. temporarily. Note from the definitions of k and F that k(A. By (d). Let (YA={k(A. 1) = X for each A E C(X). QA is a subcontinuum of 2x since k is continuous.5. S and f. for each {z} E Fl(X). f(A. we prove that (4) of our theorem implies (1). l] + 2” be a homotopy guaranteed by (4). 1) = X for each A E 2x.’ x [0. Finally. l] + 2 is a homotopy such that ho is the identity map of 2 and hl is a constant map. it follows easily that 6 maps 2” x [0. Now. 0) = h(A. then Y is contractible in 2. By (c) and 15. by (1) and (2) of Exercise 11. Assume that (4) holds. then hlY x [0. l]. by 14. I] as follows: for each (A. 0) = U3(A. 11. let g = klC(X) x [0. by Hence. by (1) and (2) of Exercise 11. l] shows that Y is contractible in 2. 1) = W(A.7. Also.
1.6).1 and 3. the corollary follows from 20. w(X)]. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. the homotopy f shows that the identity map of 2x is inessential. This proves that (4) of our theorem implies (1). Let X be a contractible continuum. by considering an order arc in C(X) from {z} to X (14. Then. contractible (in itself). since h({z}. Hence. Proof. 1) = UG(A. and let {({xcil. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES and. Let ({z}. m 20. by 18.166 V. w(X)] + C(X). since w(h({xi}. w(X)]. X Hereditarily Indecomposable We use the preceding theorem to show that 2x and C(X) are contractible for two diverse classesof continua X. We prove that h is continuous. 20. Our results are in the following two corollaries. since xi E h({xi}. Hence. Proof. If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. t). Fl(X) .5.. .t E w‘(t) such that z E A.w(X)) = X. X Contractible. It follows at once from the definition of a Whitney map in 13. We assume without loss of generality that the sequence {h({xi}. We define h : Fl(X) x [0.. f(A.. t) E Fl(X) x [0. Let ({z}. Fl(X) is is contractible in C(X). By 13.1 that.7). then 2aYand C(X) are contractible.ti)) = ti for each i . since Fl(X) z X (Exercise 1. let h({x). clearly. we see that x E B.. t) E FI (X) x [0. w. B in C(X) (see3. then 2x and C(X) are contractible. Then.3 Corollary. This defines the function h : Fl (X) x [0. also. there is a Whitney map.. for each {z} E Fl(X).4. h({x}.2 Corollary.. t) = ht. We show that Fi(X) is contractible in C(X) (and then appIy 20. 1) = K for each {z} E Fi(X). say.. w(X)] + C(X) asfollows. ti) for each i. ti)}& converges to.15). Therefore. furthermore. 2x is contractible. 1) = K for each A E 2”. Therefore. If X is a contractible continuum. for C(X).1). w(X)] to ({z}. tz)lf% be a sequencethat converges in Fl(X) x [0. we see from the continuity of w that there exists A. there is only one such A.O) = {z} and h({x}.
. Even more is true: Property (6) is invariant under confluent. we see that w(B) = t. 63.5 Example. 5381. To set this. Therefore. q) < 6 and if il. q E Uj.18. Then there exists j such that p. We remark that open maps and monotone maps are confluent. UTL}. 20. p.4 CC(X) such that p E A. Then there is a finite. and let.4 Example. is connected and of diameter < E.q E X such that d(p. . 241). see Figure 27 (top of the next page). q E . p. We give applications in 20. . let X be a Peano continuum with metric d. It follows easily that B E C(X). we have proved that Fl(S) is contractible in C(X).12 we show that if X is a continuum that has property (IC). From the properties of h verified above.3 of [as]). However. there is a 6 > 0 satisfying the following condition: (K) if p. Let X be a continuum. p. has property (K). of the uncountably many topologically different compactifications of a halfline with an arc as the remainder. It is easy to seethat property (K) is a topological invariant. of X such that each cl. We illustrate property (K) with the following examples. Any Peano continuum has property (K). and let E > 0. the sin(l/z)continuum is the only such compactification that has property (K) (2. we have proved that 11is cont. then there exists B E C(X) such that q E B and H(il.1. slight modifications of the sin(l/s)continuum may produce continua that do not have property (K.5 of [21]). The condition is due to Kelley [12. provided that for each E > 0. n Property (6) (Kelley’s Property) We turn our attention to a useful sufficient condition for 2*Y and C(X) to be contractible.t). B) < c. 20. E C(X) such that.q) < S. and H(A. Therefore. . U = {U. in fact. p E A.Y such that d(p. In 20. Let S denote a Lebesgue number of U (Corollary 4d of [18.inuous. open cover.14 and 20.PROPERTV (K) (KELLEY'S PROPERTY) 167 and since 7u is continuous. pictured in (3) of Figure 20.. 2dYand C(X) are contractible. we have proved that X has property (K). Let B = Uj U A. The sin(l/z)continuum. . Therefore. or Kelley’s property. B) < 6 (where H denotes the Hausdorff metric for C(X)). and let d denote a metric for X. Thus. p. We say that X has property (K). B = /~({z}. 261and was called property (K) in [23. . Now. mappings (4. by 20. let p. then 2aYand C(X) are contractible.): For example. q E B.
This follows at once from the uniform continuity of the homotopy h in the proof of 20. and let X denote the resulting quotient space. let A be an arc that is disjoint from Y. the proof that X does not have property (K) is left as Exercise 20. and let a.13).5) 20. E A. We base the proof of the theorem on the function F. We conclude our examples by presenting a simple procedure for constructing continua that do not have property (K). 20. X is a continuum that does not have property (K).19. Any hereditarily indecomposable continuum has property (6). Let Y be a continuum that is not cik at some point yO. that we define as follows. Attach A to Y by identifying a. 431. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES Modification of Sin (i)continuum Figure 27 without Prop (K) (20.6 Example. Theorem about Property (K) We prove that 2x and C(X) are contractible when X has property (K). p.3.168 V.20 of [22..7 Example. The fact that X is a continuum is due to 3. We will use the procedure later (in 20.. with y. Then. .
f(y.THEOREM ABOUTPROPERTY Let X be a continuum. for each (z.t) = Cz(X)n w‘(t). t) E X x [0.z E Z.(s.. and (M.(X): F. ddf(~l l z). Recall that since C(X) is compact (3.(X) n w‘(t) for each (z. We say that f is equicontinuous in the first variable provided that for each c > 0.t) = C. Fix (2.dz). letting f. for all y E Y. w(X)]. Thus. fact about Fw: Then. dll. CY. w(X)]+ . We note the following preliminary 20.:XxfO.Y~) < 6. w(X)].a). 22x is equicontinuous in the second variable.t) # 0 (since there is an order arc. in terms of the for each (z. 20.. n The two lemmas that we prove next show that F. F. It is useful to formulate containment hyperspaces C. z ) for each y E Y and .(z. we see that F. for all 2 E 2. F.(z... Define F. there exists 6 > 0 such that.2).. f(312. t) E 22x. Also. Similarly. We do not assumethat X has property (K) in the following lemma.(z. t) E X x [0. then the function F. t) E 22x.i(f(y. we say that f is equicontinuous in the second variable provided that for each E > 0..t) E Let X be a continuum.in C(X) from {z} to X by 14..6.4). t) E X x [0.(y) = f(y. t) = {A E w‘(t) (K) map for C(X) 169 (w exists : 5 E A} F. (Z. X x [0. and let f be a Let (Y. w(X)].z)) < E whenever dy (YI.(z. the family LfZ : z E Z} is equicontinuous (cf. Therefore. in other words.~Y). Proof. is continuous when X has property (K). and since w(A) = t for some A E cr).(z. We use the following terminology in the statements of the lemmas. since F. w(X)]. w(X)] by letting F. do) be metric spaces.9 Lemma.7). on X x [0. If X is a continuum. F. ~2) < 6.19). and let w be a Whitney by 13..(z.8 Proposition.zz)) < c whenever dz(zl . definition preceding 17.t) is compact. function from Y x Z into M. there exists 6 > 0 such that. Cz(X) is compact (by Exercise 1.
Fw(P. and HH denotes the Hausdorff metric for 22x that is induced by H as in 2. t)) < E whenever d(p. to) (for the purpose of proving (6) below). Since p E A and . we have that F~(P. Let E > 0.1. in C(X) from (p} to X such that Al E o (use 14.7) and w is continuous (13. tz). t2) C NH(f. tz)) < E (cf. : X x [0.9). We prove the lemma by proving the following: (*) For all t E J. F.w(X)].Aa) F.q E X such that d(p. p E AZ. Fix ti. also. there is an order arc. Let d denote a metric for X. Exercise 2.(p. Fix p E X.q) < 6 and p E A E C(X). since X has property (n).3. (2) F~(P.1).6 twice unless Al = X). there exists y > 0 such that y < 5 and (1) Iw(K) . Proof. A2 E CY. by 17.w(L)1 < q(H) whenever H(K. denotes the Hausdorff metric for 22x that is induced by H as in 2. since ~(~42) = t2.3. and HH Proof.1. and fix p. F. Therefore.170 V. n 20.tz)). c A2 or AZ c AI. there exists 6 > 0 such that (2) if d(p.3.B) < y.(p.(p. w(X)] + 22x is equicontinuous in the first variable. then F. we have proved (*).(z. ti). and let 71(e) be as in 17. w is uniformly continuous with respect to H (recall 3. tl). HH(F.(p. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES As usual.tl). t).I). since ItI . there exists A2 E CEsuch that w(A2) = tz. Since C(X) is compact (3. since A2 E (1) Fw(p. AZ) < c as follows: Since Al. Therefore. Since A2 E cr.tzl < q(e). Since p E Al.L) < y.A.q) < 6. we have shown that < E. Since W(Q) = J. HH(F. Let J = [O. Proof of (*): Fix t. Let A E F. E J.w(X)]. tz). we have that H(AI. H denotes the Hausdorff metric for 2”. Let J = [O. Proof of (*). Similarly (by interchanging tl and t2 in the argument used to prove (l)).(z. Let Ai E F. we have that A2 E F.(p.(q.tl) C NH(E.10 Lemma. Let E > 0. tl)). If X is a continuum such that X has property (K). 1441) 74A2)I = It1 t21 < Q(E)..q) < 6. Let r](z) be as in 17. We show that H(A1.tn)) < E for all 2 E X. H denotes the Hausdorff metric for 2x .(~. t2 E J such that Iti . then there exists B E C(X) such that q E B and H(A. thus. Q. hence. Finally. By (1) and (2).t21 < V(E). We prove the lemma by proving that (*) H~(F.F.(P. hence.
to)). then f is uniformly continuous. Let X be a continuum. IdA) .6 that there is an order arc. H(A. D = Jw). F. 20. since w(A) = t. C E p. t.z).w(B)I = Ito . Fdq... do) be metric spaces.9).C) < 5: b(C) . it follows from 14.11 Proposition.w(B)1 < ~($1.w(B)1 < v(.9. q) < 6.. dy). and let w be a Whitney map for C(X). X has property (K) if and only if F. by 17. As a consequenceof the lemmas that we just proved. that H(B. to)).). Conversely. < f. hence. Therefore. by (3). therefore. (because A E F. q E C. The fact that property (K) implies F. C) < y + f < E. we have proved that (6) Fwb. p. Since w(p) = J. The proof of (#) is simply done by taking the minimum of two deltas and using the triangle inequality (noting that dy 5 D and dz 5 D).: 20. By (4) and (5).(p. since H(A. B) + H(B. is continuous follows from 20. assumethat F.6 twice unless B = X).(q.10.and let D denote the usual metric for Y x 2 (i.THEOREM ABOUT PROPERTY(K) 171 d(p. We show that H(A. and the following general result: (#) Let (Y. B) < y (by (2)) and (5) H(A.(~. B) < y. we have that (3) Ito . we have proved (*). H(B. hence. : X x [0. n to)) < E (cf.w(B)1 < 4. B c C or C c B. we have the following relationship between property (K) and the function F. to) c NH(% FdP. in C(X) from (q) to X such that B E . Then.h Thus. Since C E p. Therefore. also. d.tfJ). We start by showing Since B. By (6) and (7).). is continuous. HH(F. Since B satisfies (2). since w(C) = t.e. By (2).C) < E.C) since y < $ (by choice). if f : Y x 2 + M is equicontinuous in each variable (separately). we assumethat the metric for 22x is the Hausdorff metric HH that . w(X)] + 22x is continuous (as usual. by (11.3. to)). Thus. we have that (4) c E Fw(q.!3 (use 14. q E B. to) c NH(E. Proof. there exists B satisfying (2). Similarly (by interchanging p and q in (2) and in the subsequent we have that (7) FuJ(q. 2. C) I H(A. and (M. (2. there exists C E 0 such that w(C) = t. Exercise arguments).
in reality.172 V.7. X.O) and W(z). let X = Y U A be as in 20.1. Any contractible continuum that does not have property (K) showsthat the converse of 20. F. We remark that the continuum in Figure 27..12 is false (Exercise 20. 0) = uF&.(z. the cone over any nonlocally connected compactum).). by the Hausdorff metric H for 2x). We note that the proof is. 168 also shows that the converse of 20. 20. it follows easily that X has property (K). by 20. since X x [0. Proof.g. since F. using the definitions of F.2). Furthermore. We show that FI (X) is contractible in 2x and apply 20. and HH. p. and.12 is false (by 20. is uniformly continuous.t) = UF. By 20.e. then 2x and C(X) are contractible.20). w(X)] is compact. h.12 is false. Therefore.8).11. = u{ {4} = (~1 . {z} + Z) is continuous. h({z). that do not have property (K) as follows: Start with any contractible continuum.. We can obtain many contractible continua. : x x [O.13 Example. a generalization of what we did in proving 20. 2x and C(X) are contractible. with a homotopy that leaves the points of Y fixed. Define a function. thus.4). Thus. we see that h is a continuous function from 2.5. h is a homotopy that showsthat Fl (X) is contractible in 2x. w(X)]. 20. is continuous. the example below gives a classof continua for which it is easy to seethis.3. Therefore.t) for each ({z}. on V as follows: h({z}. into 2x by using (1) and (2) of Exercise 11. If X is a continuum that has property (K. w(X)) = uFw( 2.t) E Z?. It is easy to see that the continuum X just constructed is contractible (deform A to y0 = a.1). then.12 Theorem. Y. w(X)) = U{X} = x. Note that the natural map of Fl(X) onto X (i. w(X)] + 29 is continuous (recall 20. that is not cik at some point y0 (e. as noted in 20. using the definition of a Whitney map (13. n We are ready to prove our theorem about property (K) and contractibility.7. Let w be a Whitney map for C(X) (w exists by 13. then deform Y to a point). as in 2. m The converse of 20. X does not have property (6). Let 2) = Fl (X) x [0.1. F. we see that for each {z} E Fl(X).1. Then. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES is induced.
then there exists V E Ty such that p E V and F(y) c U for all y E V (Figure 28. Since we have already proved the CurtisSchori Theorem in 11. We now use 20. The proof of 20. for a proof see ]18. it is worth noting the easy proof based only on results in this section. If F is USC every point of Y. let F : Y + 2z be a function.X PEANO. pp. Then we say that F is upper semicontinuous (where p E Y) provided that whenever U E Tz such that F(p) C U. p. our first result below is of no substantive interest to us now. X HOMOGENEOUS 173 X Peano.upper semicontinuous setvalued functions. pp. then 2x and C(X) are contractible.17. We note the following easytoprove fact about USC functions.3. Our results are in 20. The theorem in 20. top of the next page). 1031. 20.12 to show that 2x and C(X) are contractible for two more classes of continua X. see3. pp. If X is a Peano continuum. n We will show that 2x and C(X) are contractible when X is any homogeneous continuum. We also note the following result.Tz) be topological spaces. the corollary follows from 20. then it is easy to see that f’ : Y + 2x is USC.) Let us note a general type of example of a USC function: If X and Y are compacta and f is a continuous function of X onto Y. 2072081). F is USCat p if and only if lim sup Flyi) c J’(P) wfi enever {yi)gi is a sequencein Y converging to p. Then. we prove the theorem in 20.12. Let (Y. We discussthese ideas in turn. 461 and [22. p.3). 3941(also.18. By 20. however. for applications to results about the Cantor set and spacefilling curves.17 uses a completely new idea . 70711and [17.(For a discussion of possible origins for the terminology.2 and 20. 1251271.14 Corollary. Upper semicontinuous functions are a unifying tool that can be used to prove a number of basic theorems. [17. seeChapter VII of [22] and [22. Proof. and let p E Y. 20. X Homogeneous We showed earlier that 2x and C(X) are contractible when X is a contractible continuum and when X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum (20. and let F : Y + CL(Z) (USC) at p be a function.17 concerns a pointwise version of property (tc). Let Y and 2 be compacta. Therefore.Ty) and (Z. p.4. X has property (K). .15 Proposition. then we say that F at is USC.25 of [22. First.14 and 20.
then there exists B E C(X) such that q E B and H(A. consider the continuum X in Figure 27. If X is a continuum. 168. if a continuum is cik at p. pp. Ga set in Y. If F : Y + 2z is USC. .~) > 0 such that if q E X such that d(p. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES F is USC p at Figure 28 20. B) < E. then X has property (K) at each point of a dense.16 Proposition. GJ set in X.174 V. there exists S = 6(p. p. 23241). X has property (K) at all points except the points on the upper half of the vertical arc on the left that lie below the top point. we say that X has property (K) at p provided that for any E > 0. then the points of continuity of F form a dense. 6 depends on E and p).17 Theorem. We prove the following interesting result: 20.q) < b and if A E C(X) such that p E A. obtained by simply stating the definition of property (K) as before but holding p fixed (thus. We now turn our attention to the pointwise version of property (n). and let p E X. We see easily that a continuum has property (K) if and only if it has property (K) at each of its points (use Lebesgue numbers of covers [18. Explicitly. Also. clearly. let X be a continuum with metric d. then the continuum has property (K) at p. For example. Let Y and Z be compacta.
X has property (K) at some point p.9 of [23]). For each 2 E X. If X is a homogeneous continuum. we have shown that lim sup F(x. since F is USC.2 of Kelley [12]. This proves that F is USC. 2x and C(X) are contractible.2. and property (K) at a point is from Wardle [28].5 for the sin(l/x)continuum is from [12. Let p E X. We see that F(z) is compact (by 3. 20. F is USCby using 20. we apply 20. 20.3 of Krasinkiewicz [15] (a special case is in 3. Therefore.(X) is the containment hyperspace for x in C(X)). and let {xi}zo. .3 of [12] (the “if” part of 20.ORIGINAL SOURCES 175 Proof.5 of [26] and from 3.6 is from the proof of 3.12 and 20. hence.15.920. at It is easy to seethat F is continuous at x if and only if X has property (K) at 5. pp.1 of [28]. 20. then 2x and C(X) are contractible.7 and Exercise 1.1 (without (3)) is 3.12.8 of [23] but should be credited to Kelley (see16.14 is due to Wojdyslawski [30] although the proof given here is from [12]. since X is homogeneous. Then. Hence. A = Lim Aicj) where Ai E F(xicj. A E F(p). 20. by 20. since xi(j) E Ai for each j and since {zicj.17.4 was noted in the proof of 4. let F(z) = CZ(X) (where C. see Fort [9]. X has property (K).16. F is a function from X into C(C(X)).17 has been used in other contexts. 20.1 of [12].3 of [28]. 20. 20. Thus. it follows easily that X has property (K) at every point. Hence.) c F(p).12 is 3.3 for C(X) is in 2. 20.3 of [12].17 to the class of homogeneouscontinua: 20. 20. 26271. and 20. theorem now follows from 20.7 of [28].6.18 Corollary.}~=i converges to p. Therefore. and we see that F(z) is connected by using 14. 20. F : X + C(C(X)) is USC p.Y was noted in 1.2 is 16.) for each J = 1. .. Original Sources Property (K) is 3. for example. we see that p E A.4 of [28]).15.1 of [12]. Therefore. We show that.18 is 2. and 20.5 of Rhee [26]). Let il E lim sup F(xi). n the Now. By 20.19).76 of [23]. . by 20.11 is from 2..3 for 2.17 is 2.11 are from the proof of 3. The technique of using USC functions as in the proof of 20. Proof. Thus. Thus. n An excellent survey (with proofs) of property (K) has been done by Acosta [l].l converge in X to p.
168. then w‘([t.20 Exercise.. contractible. Y. onto a compactum.7 of [28]. and let Y be a retract of X. SHAPE AND CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES Exercises 20. of a halfare not con has property 20. has property (K). If 2x or C(X) X. w(X)]) is contractible for any t 2 w(X). Let X be a continuum such that 2” or (equivalently) C(X) is contractible. p.22 Exercise.19 Exercise.1 Let X be a continuum. then 2y and C(Y) are contractible. If ?i is contractible. (See the comment preceding 20. Let X be a continuum. Prove that 2x and C(X) are contractible when X is the continuum in Figure 27.13. such that X has property (K) and yet X x X fails to have property (K): X consists of two oppositelydirected. 20. X. surprisingly enough. Remark. if f is an open map.] .7 20. disjoint spirals in R2 approaching the unit circle S’ (as in (8) of Figure 20.24 Exercise.5 and Exercise 20.3 to prove the following preliminary result (whose converse is also true): Let f be a continuous function of a compactum. and let w be a Whitney map for %. then 2’ and C(Y) are . (2) If X has property (K).21 Exercise.e. [Hint: Make use of Exercise 11.5. (K). [Hint: Use 4.20. let ‘U = 2x or C(X). IIgiYi. do not have property Prove that continua X that are constructed (K). then each Y. If Y is a continuum that is a continuous image of X under an open map. there is a continuum.25 Exercise. The proof that X x X does not have property (K) is in 4. (Compare with 20. We see from (2) of 20. Let X be a continuum. line with an arc as the remainder such that 2x and C(X) tractible. 20.24 that if a Cartesian product. However.) 20.) 20. 63. X. B E 2y (i. then Y has property (K). as in 20. then Lim fr(&) = f‘(B) whenever Lim Bi = B and Bi.8 and 3. of continua has property (K). p. f’ : 2y + 2” is continuous (by 4. then 2x and C(X) are contractible. without the “handle”).176 V.1)). (1) If 2x or (equivalently) C(X) is contractible.23 Exercise. Give an example of a compactification.
26 Exercise. Prove that monotone maps preserve property (n).28. It is not known if the converse of 20. 20. Theory of Retracts.REFERENCES 177 20. Hence. p. There exists M E A such that w(M) = lub(w[A]).29 Exercise.4. then Y has property (K). 20. [Hint: Find a monotone map of a contractible continuum onto the continuum in Figure 25. f. and 18.28 for C(X) is true. . 2. that is. Define a homotopy. if X is a continuum that has property (K) and if f is a monotone map of X onto a continuum Y.4 in proving that the homotopy is continuous. The result in 20. Show that the analogue of 20.29. Vol.6).24 shows this [5]. there is a segment. for each L E A.29 is due to Krasinkiewicz [15. 1791. Coahuila. moreover. K.28 Exercise. Poland. there are continua. use 17.4). Universidad Autonoma de Coahuila. 1994. for which there is a monotone map. 16. If A is an arcwise connected subcontinuum of C(X). Mexico.8) and CJL is uniquely determined by L (16.5.27 Exercise. [Hint: Make use of Exercise 11. show that monotone maps need not preserve property (K) at a point. see 123. then X has property (K). X and Y.25 for monotone maps is false. cr~([O.1 20. Borsuk. [Hint: Let w be a Whitney map for C(X) (13. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. Polish Scientific Publishers.8 to show that M > L for each L E A. If X is a continuum erty (K).29 in the proof of 22. References 1. 1151211.1. Tesis. pp. that is. However. For results related to 20. Warszawa. Regarding converses of 20. and 18.17. (TL.] Remark. Saltillo. p. the converse for 2x is false: The continuum with two spirals in the Remark following 20. 1967. 158. but Y does not have property (K) at f(p). 18. then A is contractible (in itself).6. Use 18. Escuela de Matematicas.5. Monografie Matematyczne. Hiperespacios y la propiedad de Kelley. We use 20. 44. of X onto Y such that X has property (6) at a particular point. Gerard0 Acosta. p. in C(X) from L to n/f (16. 11) C A (18.1 such that 2x or C(X) has prop Remark.9).
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Y. A space. the fixed point property is elusive [l]. see [35] or [32. We discussedthis in the part of section 7 entitled Knaster’s Question. X. We present general results that will help us show that certain hyperspaces have the fixed point property. The most celebrated result about the fixed point property is the Brouwer theorem: 21. Universal Lokuciewski’s Theorem A fixed point of a function. pp. pp.VI. It is often difficult to determine that a spacehas the fixed point property. for a proof using 181 . 3403411. Any ncell has the fixed Different types of proofs of the Brouwer theorem are in various texts: For a proof using degree of a map. for which 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property (a few results are only for C(X)). We mention that there is a continuum. For details. is said to have the jixed point property provided that every continuous function from Y into Y has a fixed point. Hyperspaces and the Fixed Point Property We discuss the fixed point property for the hyperspaces 2x and C(X).1 Brouwer point property. Y. In the first section. 2922941. 21. we determine classes of continua. In the second section. f. Fixed Point Theorem [5]. p. Brouwer’s Theorem. see [9. such that Y has the fixed point property but C(Y) does not have the fixed point property. to paraphrase Bing. we give preliminary results about the fixed point property in general. is a point. such that f(p) = p. Preliminaries: Maps.
fc o f ]Y. then rC is within e of the identity map on Y. 3133141. since f[r(p)] = p. . has a fixed point. for Y such that d.182 VI. Proof. d) be a compact metric space. It is important to keep two facts in mind when we consider (#). see [lo. (#) would be true for any Y for the following reason: For each E > 0.g. 41. Second. of Y such that Y. for has a fixed point. has the fixed point property. gives the topology on Y.. Let Z be a retract of Y.3 Proposition. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY multiple integrals. Hence. d(y. Let f : Z + Z be continuous. we may choose a metric. For the next three results. p. 21. (Proof: If r.l(z). Therefore. we do not need to (and will not) mention the metric on to refer to a retraction that is also an We use the term cretraction emap. Assume that for each E> 0. has the fixed point property and fc is within Eof the identity map on Y (the second condition holds.. pp. Y. 5 Eand d.z) < E and. n Let (Y. of Y into a subset. Let f : Y + Y be continuous. Proof. d(y. recall the definitions of retract and absolute retract (AR) from section 9. hence. therefore. d) be a metric space. p. Y has the fixed point property. and for a combinatorial proof. r(p) = p. then y. from Y into Y. is a continuous function from Y.for a homological proof. d.(y)) < E). fC. Let E > 0. see [13. see [25. Then. p. the emaps in (#) are assumedto be emaps with respect to a fixed metric on Y. thus. then every retract of Y has the fixed point property. A function f : Y + Z is said to be an emap (with respect to d) provided that f is continuous and for each t E f(Y). otherwise. 3011or [21.(y) = z. First. let 2 be a topological space. 21.r. and let E > 0. e.2 Proposition.z E r. thus. If a space. Since for(p) clearly p E 2. into Y. (#) is a topological invariant. pp. we have that f(P) = P. when fc is an Eretraction). : Y + Y is an cretraction with respect to a metric d for Y. Let (Y. and let T be a retraction of Y onto 2. Ye. 4684701. Note that fc of/Y. since f o r is a continuous function = p and for(Y) c 2. Then.. We note that if T. there is a continuous function. We will often consider the following condition: (#) There is an cmap from Y to Z for each E > 0. when Y is compact. when Y is compact and we consider (#). diameterd[fl(z)] < E.
pi) < i for each i = 1.” given by rll((ti)zl) = (tl.” be the ncell in P given by I.5 Proposition. It follows easily that f(p) = p. . = 0 for each i 2 n + l}. Let Y and Z be topological spaces. let 1. {pi)Er. T..” has the fixed point property by 21. Z. for IO0 (defined in the introduction to Chapter II).every AR can be embedded in the Hilbert cube I m = Hz_.. for each 11.heorem [25.1.~ is a 2“retraction with respect to the metric d..O. We note that if u : Y + 2 is a universal map. since fL is within Eof the identity map on Y.. 21. then there exists y E Y such that f o u(y) = u(y). Y has the fixed point property.PJ = d(f(P~)7f~[f(Pr)l) < E..) for each (ti)zr E I”. We introduce several important notions along the way. . there is a sequence.3. Hence. . .). Then. IO” has the fixed point property. 11%. A function u : Y + Z is said to be a universal map provided that u is continuous and u has a coincidence with every continuous function from 1. Assume that for each E > 0. there is a universal emap. p. d(f(Pc).I. ... . Now.. by 21. and let rn be the natural retraction of IO0 onto I. Therefore.. 2411. Every AR has the fixed point property. A companion of this result is in the next proposition. 183 p.. n We begin a development that leads to Lokuciewski’s theorem in 21.” = {(t$E1 E P : t.4 Corollary. u.O.2. Proof. from what we have shown. Let Y be a compacturn. We prove that I” has the fixed point property by using 21. such that d(f(p.2.t. Thus.. by 21. We see that for each n. of Y to a space. Some other elementary yet enlightening facts about universal maps are in the exercises at the end of the section. somesubsequence of {pi)El converges to. By Urysohn’s metrization t. For each n = 1. p. .2. Also. n 21. into Z (meaning that if g : Y + Z is continuous.21. say.2 and 21. then 2 has the fixed point property! The proof is simple: Let f : Z + Z be continuous. UNIVERSAL MAPS. it suffices to prove that P has the fixed point property.. Since Y is compact. .3..[O.7. PRELIMINARIES: BROUWER’S THEOREM. _. then there exists y f Y such that g(y) = u(y)).
Let Bn = {(zi)~!i E R” : & $ < l}. and let 2 be an ncell (recall that 82 denotes the manifold boundary of 2). letting d denote the metric on Y. . Therefore. Assume first that f is not universal. We prove each half of the equivalence in the proposition by arguing contrapositively.3 that f has a fixed point. Then. A function ‘p : Y + Z is said to be an AHessential map provided that cpis continuous and (p(‘p’ (82) can not be extended to a continuous function of Y into dZ.6 now follows from two similar.) = ue(pe). : Y + Z. It is easy to see that F is continuous and that F(y) = f(y) for each y E fvl(aBn). Let f : 1’ + Bn be continuous. Thus. Proof. clearly. n We want a way to detect universal maps . for each y E Y.6 for Z = Bn. Then (1) f’ is universal if and only if h o f’ is universal. Therefore. o f(p. 0 f : Y + Z. thus. We have proved 21. Hy. we seethat since u. Let Y be a topological space. Let Y be a topological space. Let E > 0. Then there is a continuous function g : 1’ + B” such that g(y) # f(y) for each ME Y. Let f : Y + Y be continuous. This defines a function F : Y + aBn. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY Proof. there is a unique convex. since k is a continuous function from Y into Bn. We will see in the next section that the condition in the following definition is particularly suitable. and let h be a homeomorphism of Xs onto a spaceXs . It is helpful to use the geometry of P. it follows as in the last part of the proof of 21. and let Z be an ncell. (Note: AH stands for AlexandroffHopf. let f’ : Xi + X2.) 21. Since u. E Y such that u. It follows easily that f(y) # k(y) for each y E Y. which we denote by F(y). Hence. Therefore. A map of Y into Z is universal if and only if it is AHessential. is a universal map and since u. f) f l(i3Bn) can be extended to a continuous function k : Y + dB”. easytoprove facts: Let Xi and X2 be topological spaces. 21.ndB” consistsof one and only one point.a way that is applicable to hyperspaces. H. unbounded halfline. is continuous. there exists p. assumethat f is not AHessential. is an cmap. f is not AHessential. since Y is compact. and then we show how the result for Z = B” implies the proposition. Conversely.6 Proposition. Therefore. in R” that begins at g(y) and goesthrough f(y). f is not universal.184 VI. we prove the proposition for Z = B”.
the theorem is a special case of 21. Thus. Assume that for each E > 0. it is clear that g]g‘(aZ) : g‘(dZ) + dZ must be an essential map. by definition.8. 941 or [22. n Open questions about universal maps and hyperspaces are in 83.5. Then. Then. Y has the fixed point property. if g : Y + Z is an AHessential map. Let 2 be an ncell. p. there is an AHessential emap of Y to an n.8 Proposition. Proof. we note that any inessential map of any closed subset of Y into aZ can be extended to a continuous function of Y into dZ ([29].6.. 185 (2) f’ is AHessential (here X2 is an ncell) if and only if h o f’ is AHessential. n 21. then g is an AHessential map (and conversely). g]g‘(82) can be extended to a continuous function G : Y + 82. p. + az is inessential. PRELIMINARIES: BROUWER’S THEOREM. we see that Gig‘(32) : 9l (82) + a2 is inessential.8. To prove the converse half of 21. UNIVERSAL MAPS. If there exists A c g‘(a2) such that glA : A + BZ is an essential map. 21. see [4.cell. 919l (az) : g‘(az) Therefore. Hence.7 Lokuciewski’s Theorem [27]. Recall from section 19 the definitions of contractible with respect to a space and essential map (not to be confused with AHessential map). (Note: The proof of (2) usesthe fact that h(aX2) = dXs [22. 871). . Proof.21. for any A c gl (aZ). G is inessential. Since Y is contractible with respect to 82. for the easier casewhen Y is a metric space. Let Y be a compacturn. since G]g‘(aZ> = gig‘(aZ>. In view of 21. glA : A + dZ is inessential. Let Y be a topological space that is contractible with respect to an (n1)sphere for some n. Thus. 95961). pp. n We end the section with a proposition that enables us to know that certain maps that we will construct are AHessential. by restricting a homotopy that joins G to a constant map. Assume that g is not AHessential. This proves half of 21. .23 83. and let g : Y + 2 be continuous.27.
see [lo. 521.l] onto a simple triod that is not a universal map. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY Original Sources The first systematic study of universal maps was done in a seriesof papers by Holsztynski begining with [18] (seereferences in [17]). If 21: I’ + Z is a universal map. Use 21. p. 591and compare with [18] and 21. for more historical information. and let f : k’ + Z be continuous. 21. p. contractible space..is due to Schauder [39.3 to show that the sin(l/z)continuum in (3) of Figure 20. 21. A topological space..u(Y) = Z.186 VI. p.9 Exercise. of Z to a space. p.13 to prove that every continuous function from any continuum onto the sin(l/z)continuum is a universal map. Any continuous function from a connected topological space onto an arc is a universal map. has the fixed point property if and only if the identity map on 2 is universal.where it is stated for the casewhere Y is a binormal. Remark. 21.1 of Holsztynski [20. 21.g. Then. A topological space. It is not known if arclike continua are .ronger than the first part and is true for any arclike continuum. f is a universal map. is a universal map.I” has the fixed point property . The second part of 21. 21. 21. 21. Use 21.6 is 1.5 is a consequenceof Proposition 3 and Lemma 1 of Holsztytiski [19].8 is essentially Proposition 10 of [19. 21.14 Exercise. Assume that for each E > 0. there is an emap. p. 21. Let Y and Z be compacta.14 is st.11 Exercise. 1551.4 is the corollary in [3.13 Exercise. 1611(the main part .12 Exercise. such that fc o f : Y + Z. Give an example of a continuous function from [O. then . where they are called essential maps (e.21. see Theorem III. Z. 1481although the “if” part was first proved by Lokuciewski [27]. p. 2.10 Exercise. AHessential maps have their origin in dimension theory. Exercises 21. 4701).. p.6 here). 63 has the fixed point property. p. Dyer [ll] may have been the first to use AHessential maps in fixed pont theory. fC. has the fixed point property if and only if there is a universal map of some topological space to Z.2 is from 7 of Borsuk [3. 2. 4341. a special case of which is Lemma 1 of [ll].5 of Nagata [36.
of X onto P. in somewhat descriptive terms. circlelike (S’like). pp. are homeomorphic to P ([25. HYPERSPACES WITH THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY 187 the only continua for which the second part of 21. etc. and hereditarily indecomposable continua. and (5) are circlelike. . arclike continua.8.X is “almost the same as” P. the continuum in (6) is nooselike. 2542551). Peano Continua We begin with Peano continua even though our theorem is eclipsed by the CurtisSchori Theorem in 11. Note that the decomposition spaces. Let P be a given continuum. 441). and the continua in (7) and (8) are figure eightlike as well as theta curvelike.14 is true (Problem 1 of [26]. By 10. If X is a Peano continuum. the continua in (2). D. is said to be Plike provided that for each e > 0. such that for each E > 0. there is an emap of X onto P. by 21. 22.1 Theorem. Proof. 22. fc. X. (4). we have the notions of arclike ([0. there is an cmap. p. Thus. in this sense. p. The reader will find it a pleasant exercise to verify what we have just said about the continua in Figure 20. and consider all those continua. This leads to the following terminology. We restrict our attention to the hyperspaces 2” and C(X). circlelike continua. dendroids. Let us illustrate the notion of Plike with the continua in Figure 20. that X becomes homeomorphic to P by identifying points of arbitrarily small sets in X. l]like). X.3.22. Therefore. Hence. 63: The continua in (1) and (3) of Figure 20 are arclike. n Arclike Continua Interesting classes continua are generated by the following idea: Start of with a simple continuum P (usually a polyhedron). p. Hyperspaces with the Fixed Point Property Our main results are about hyperspaces of the following types of continua: Peano continua. the statement that X admits an emap onto P for each E > 0 means. 1841or [30. a continuum. 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property. 2x and C(X) are ARs.‘(p) : p E P}. then 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property. see the discussion about span in [30. = {f. ncelllike (Inlike).4.
Inc. and there is an arclike continuum that contains every arclike continuum. arclike continua have a long and distinguished history. q}. l] + S joining k to a constant map. k(E) = p. Let h : S + S’ be a homeomorphism such that h(S) = S:.4 to prove other results.7. n We will make use of induced maps between hyperspaces. then h o cpwould be a homotopy joining g to a constant map). acyclic.2 Lemma.4 are two of the main ingredients in the proof of 22.3 and 22. Then. topologically different arclike continua.h(Sz) = S’. k(F) = q. Therefore. Let k : Y + S be a continuous function such that k(A) c Sl. An indepth treatment of the pseudoarc is in the forthcoming book The Pseudoarc by Wayne Lewis.O). arclike continua are inverse limits of arcs.188 VI. nevertheless. The general theory of arclike continua is covered in Chapter XII of [30]. where A and B are subcontinua of Y such that An B is not connected.h(p) = (l.5.’ + 2y is given by f*(A) = f(A) for each A E 2x. Let S = Si U SZ be a simple closed curve. For general interest we mention some properties of arclike continua: Arclike continua are onedimensional. embeddable in the plane.h(q) = (170).7: Let S: and Sl be as in the proof of 19. We will also use 22. this continuum became known as the pseudoarc. since k = hi o g. Let X and Y be compacta and let f : X + Y be continuous. In 22. . there are uncountably many. The events centered around continua all of which were eventually shown to be the same continuum. by the proof of 19. Let g = h o li : Y + S’. atriadic. k is an essential map. Proof. Intriguing events that led to the interest in arclike continua are discussed in [30. k(B) c S2. 22& 2291. The induced map f * : 2. Then. We essentially proved this lemma when we proved 19. to be published in 1998 by Marcel Dekker. and have the fixed point property. where Si and SZ are arcs such that Si 0 S2 = {p. 22.5 we show that C(X) has the fixed point property for any arclike continuum X. Let Y = A U 3 be a continuum. The propositions in 22.3 and 22. g is an essential map. say A II B = EIF. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY Arclike continua are the simplest caseof Plike continua. pp.7. we see that k is an essential map (if there were a homotopy ‘p : Y x [0.
Let X and Y be compacta. Let A = crc U ~1. and let jJ=duB. Therefore. . for any 71 2x. Now. f*]‘Ft is an &map with respect to Hd\‘ft x 7L.1 that C(I) is a 2cell and that XT(I) = Fl(1) u Co(I) u Cl(I).4 Proposition.18). we may apply 21. 11) is an AHessential map.6. Recall from 5. Therefore. also. we have that (#)f^]Y : Y + aC(l) is an essential map. let d denote a metric for X. If f : X + Y is an Emap with respect to d. Proof. and (hence) y is a continuum. B is a continuum (by Exercise 1. 11. let D = Fi(X). there is an order arc.zi G X such that f(zs) = 0 and f(si) = 1. A n B = {{ze}. Hence. If f is any continuous function of X onto [O.1). (Sometimes f * is denoted by 2f and f is denoted by C(f) . by 22.2. We first find a subcontinuum. recall that C(X) is contractible with respect to S’ by 19. n An application of 22.6.15). Note from 13. Let X be a continuum. of C(X) such that f^(Y : Y + &Z’(l) is an essential map.2 are satisfied: A is a continuum (since X E cron oi). {zi}} (since og and or are order arcs).3 that f’ and (hence) f are continuous.ARCLIKE CONTINUA 189 the induced map f : C(X) + C(Y) is f*]C(X).1. by (#). then the induced map f” : 2x + 2y is an Emap with respect to Hd (as defined in c 2. We show that the assumptions in 22. f(B) = K(I). j(h)) = (1). from the formula for j.8 to conclude that f^ : C(X) + C(I) is an AHessential map.3 that has nothing to do with the fixed point property is in the addendum (22. then the induced map f : C(X) + C([O. f^({xo)) = {o). j(d) = Co(r) u Cl (I).I]. Y. there exist zo.3 Proposition. Since f(X) = I. By 14. cq. in C(X) from {Q} to X for each i = 0 and 1. and let c > 0. Let I = [0.) 22. 22.
each C(X) has It is not known if 2x has the fixed point property when X is an arclike continuum.5 is in Exercise 22. B E (f*)‘(K). HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY Proof. see 83. A similar argument shows that B c Ncj(c. Recall that C([O. By the definition of arclike.11) is an AHessential map.9. we have proved that A c N~(E.4. see [30. Therefore.1).23 for an approach that may solve the problem.11. B) < e (by Exercise 2. Let K E f*(2X). [0. by fc is an emap. Therefore. l] for each z > 0. b) < E. since f(A) = f(B).7. 11) is a 2cell (5. also. n We now prove our theorem about arclike continua. If X is an arclike continuum. We show that &(A> B) < e. A).5 Theorem. since f is an emap with respect to d. by Lokuciewski’s Theorem in 21. each 22. Hence. 7537541. Then. (See 22. fc.3. The following lemma yields a convenient way to distinguish circlelike continua that are not arclike from those that are arclike. 22. then C(X) has the fixed Proof. 22.6 Lemma. then X is arclike (and conversely).190 VI.7 we prove that C(X) has the fixed point property for any circlelike continuum X. we need only prove our theorem for circlelike continua that are not arclike. pp.5. We note that there are circlelike continua that are also arclike ([6] for the equivalence of arclike and chainable. Let a E A.5. and [33. B). and let A. there exists b E B such that f(b) = f(u). . the fixed point property. Circlelike Continua In 22. In view of 22.9). By induced map fE : C(X) + C([O. d(a. 2342371). pp. Let X be a nondegenerate continuum. We proved a similar theorem for arclike continua in 22. point property.) A stronger result than 22. W of X onto 22. If there is an inessential cmap fi : X + S1 for each c > 0. Hd(A. 22. there is an emap. Thus.23 (seethe Remark following the exercise).
23 for an approach that may solve the problem). has the Proof. .5. we have by 21. recall from 5. 22. since C(X) is crS’ by 19.(X) onto [O. We see that each ft : X + S’ is an inessential emap: fc is inessential since gr is a lift of fc (hence. we can apply Lokuciewski’s Theorem in 21. n As in the case of arclike continua. qr is an emap of the continuum S onto a nondegenerate interval. S’mce fc : X + S’ is an essential map for each E< 6.15) fc IF1 (X) : FI (X) + dC(S’) . Since fc = expocp. we illustrate this with Exercises 22. fi. By 22. there is an Emap. p. of X onto S’ for each E > 0. By the theorem in Exercise 19. Hence. we can assumefor the proof that X is not arclike.4.CIRCLELIKE CONTINUA 191 Proof. By 22. there is an emap. f6 is an cmap since gr is an emap and expl[O.47 of [30. Let fc = expog.8 that fc : C(X) + C(S’) is an AHessential map for each e < 6. 19. X is arclike (obtain an emap of X onto [0.7 Theorem. and since fe is an Emap. since fc is also an cmap. each induced map fc : C(X) + C(S’) is an Emap. clearly (by Exercise 1. for each E > 0. since each fc : X + S’ is an emap. each f< has a lift cpc : X + R’. an essential map for each E < 6. 22. of X onto [0. IS Thus. we do not know if 2” has the fixed point property when X is a circlelike continuum (see83. for each 6 5 6. assume that X is arclike. l] is onetoone.6 gives us a 6 > 0 such that fc is an essential map for each E < 6.7 is useful in contexts other than hyperspaces. Now. Now. for each E > 0. let 6 = diameter (X). then C(X) fixed point property. l] for each E 5 6 by composing (pc with a homeomorphism of P. Therefore.20. gc. If X is a circlelike continuum. Therefore. 11. it follows easily that cpf is an cmap.7 to conclude that C(X) has the fixed point property.2 that C(S’) is a 2cell and that aC(Sr) = Fl(Sl).2622. a stronger result is true: Every arclike continuum is crANR (12.28. and note that 6 > 0. 2631). clearly qe(X) is nondegenerate for each e 5 6. Then. Thus. n Regarding the converse part of the lemma we just proved. The general approach used to prove 22.5 and 22. By the definition of circlelike. Conversely. 11).6.20. Since cpc is an cmap.1 applies).
Let X be the sin(l/z)continuum in (3) of Figure 20. Hence. Let X be a continuum. Let X be the indecomposable continuum that is often called the Buckethandle continuum: X is the closure in R2 of the onetoone. there is an eretraction of X onto a 2cell (a horizontal projection to the right). We illustrate the theorem with three examples (some more examples are in Exercise 22. where we obtain results about hyperspaces of dendroids. fc is within & of the identity map on X with respect to d. . is in (4) of Figure 20. Therefore. jc.. Proof. co) that weaves through the ‘<endpoints” of the Cantor Middlethird set as in Figure 29 (top of the next page). Then. by 22. Therefore. It can be seen from Figure 29 that. 63. Also. 2” and C(X) have the fixed point property (the caseof C(X) also follows from 22. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY A General Theorem We prove a simple.)). X. 63.5).8. Therefore. there is a map.8 Theorem. X is called the Warsaw disk. continuous image of [0. 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property.192 VI. W.11 Example.10 Example. for each E > 0. 22.19). Let X = W u U. of X into a Peano continuum. je.g. p. by 22.3 to conclude that 2dYhas the fixed point property. by 22.5).1. n 22.1). By assumption. when jc is an eretraction). It is easy to see that there is an cretraction of X onto an arc for each E > 0 (a horizontal projection to the right). 22. 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property (the case of C(X) also follows from 22. 22. Let d denote the metric for X.W. we can apply 21.. 2xc has the fixed point property by 22. p. of X onto an arc in X such that jc is within e of the identity map on X (a formula for j< is in 2. Assume that for each c > 0.8. Our main applications of the theorem are in the next part of the section. there is a continuous function.8. Therefore. The Warsaw circle. where U is the bounded component of R2 . in X such that j< is within E of the identity map on X (e.7 of [31]). 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property. general theorem that can be applied to a variety of continua.9 Example. The proof for C(X) . we seeeasily that the induced map j: : 2Y + 2xe is within c of the identity map on 2x with respect to Hd (as defined in 2. For each E > 0. similar (using the induced maps is jl : C(X) + C(X.
p. and 25.smooth dendroids and fans. and let x. Examples of dendroids are in Figures 22. p.e. we will show that 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property for two kinds of dendroids . then we let xy denote the unique arc in X with end points x and y. 2711). 3051). then xy = {x}. p. dendroids are acyclic.7).69 of [30. i. we discussedunicoherence in section 19 preceding 19. 84. p. if x = y. . However.. y E X.23. p. so We do not know if 2x or C(X) has the fixed point property for all dendroids X. 92. 2261). For general information we state some properties of dendroids: Dendroids are uniquely arcwise connected. 158. If x # y.DENDROIDS 193 Buckethandle continuum Figure 29 Dendroids A dendroid is an arcwise connected. every subcontinuum of a dendroid is a dendroid. hereditarily unicoherent continuum (hereditarily &coherent means that each subcontinuum is unicoherent. dendroids are hereditarily decomposable (see [2. 171or 11. and dendroids have the fixed point property [2] (a1 see the followup paper [16]).57 of [30.54 of [30. We use the following notation in defining the notion of a smooth dendroid: Let X be a dendroid. crS’ (see (f) of 12. p. dendroids are onedimensional (see 13. p.
13 Theorem. The dendroid in Figure 23. It is smooth at the point furthest to the right (but not at the point furthest to the left). we can apply 22.20.8 that are in Exercises 22. 92 is also a smooth dendroid. 22. then there is a retraction. p.12 would be true for all dendroids. we have the following result: 22.8 to seethat 2’ and C(X) have the fixed point property.8 to see that 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property. then 2x and C(X) have the fixed point Proof. then Lim px+ = px. in X. p. and let p E X. If X is a fan. Thus. If there were always such a retraction. X is said to be smooth at p provided that whenever {xcL}zl is a sequencein X converging to a point. p. is within e of the identity map on X. see Theorem 7 of [28. r. m The proofs of the next three theorems use the variations of 22. The dendroid in Figure 22. Obviously. p. Fugate [14. 2611has proved the following theorem: If X is a smooth dendroid and 6 > 0. r.194 VI. we can apply 22. On the other hand.12 Theorem.22. 1201has proved the following theorem: If X is a fan and E > 0. 1161. is within Eof the identity map on X. . The fan in Figure 30 (top of the next page) is not a smooth fan. of X onto a tree such that T. If X is a smooth dendroid. then there is a retraction. Fugate [15. Proof. for which only one point is a common end point of three or more arcs in X that are otherwise disjoint [7]. A tree is a finite graph that contains no simple closed curve.. p. n It is not known if there is an eretraction of every dendroid onto a tree for each E > 0 (the problem is mentioned in [15. 158 is not a smooth dendroid. of X onto a tree (which in this case is a simple nod or an arc) such that T. p. By the theorem of F’ugate just stated. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY Let X be a dendroid.21. then 2dYand C(X) have the fixed point property. x. X.. A fan is a clendroid. we have the following result: 22. A dendroid that is smooth at some point is called a smooth dendroid [8]. 92 is a smooth fan. a tree is a locally connected dendroid. By the theorem of F’ugate stated above. and 22. The harmonic fan in Figure 23. p. then 22. then. the dendroid in Figure 25. 84 is a smooth dendroid. p. Thus. For an interesting hyperspace characterization of smooth dendroids. 2611). property.
2x and C(X) have the fixed point property.14 Theorem.13 to apply the result in Exercise 22. . Proof.15 Theorem.12 and 22.12 and 22. is the quotient space obtained from Y x [1.21. n Let Y be a topological space. Then. Let X be a finite or countably infinite Cartesianproduct. which we denote by C(Y). where each coordinate space is a fan or a smooth dendroid. Use Fugate’s theorems stated above 22.DENDROIDS 195 Nonsmooth fan Figure 30 22. The suspensionover Y. Proof. n 22. Let X = Cone(Y). Use Fugate’s theorems stated above 22. where Y is a fan or a smooth dendroid.13 to apply the result in Exercise 22. Then. 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property.20. l] by shrinking Y x { 1) and Y x { 1) to (different) points.
2x and C(X) have the fixed point property.8 and Exercise 20. f : C(X) + C([O.18 Theorem. our result for 31 follows from 18. f. Thus. Young [43.10 by using the following theorem of Young [44.9 and Exercise 18. then C(Y) can be constructed geometrically in a manner similar to that of the geometric cone over Y (near the beginning of section 7). Then.3. n We note that 22.15 can be considered a corollary of the theorem about suspensions in 22. of X onto [O.16 Theorem. since aC([O. Use F&ate’s theorems the result in Exercise 22. 22. p. Moreover. 22. It is not known whether or not 2x has the fixed point property for any particular nondegenerate.l]) is an AHessential map. contractible Hausdorff continuum.196 VI. n den stated above 22.8 and 20. Since X is a nondegenerate continuum. there is a continuous function. C(X) has the fixed point property. then dim[C(X)] > Proof.17 Theorem. Let X = C(Y).l]) x S’ by 5. Proof. if 31 is an arcwise connected subcontinuum of C(X). then Y has the fixed point property. L. hereditarily indecomposable continuum. S’ is not an extensor .3.1.12 and 22. Hereditarily Indecomposable Continua 22. Proof. then ‘?i has the fixed point property. Therefore. Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. we give an application fixed point property. our result for C(X) follows from 18.13 to apply We remark that the theorem about cones in 22. p. Then. 4931: Any arcwise connected Hausdorff space in which every monotone increasing sequence of arcs is contained in an arc has the fixed point property. By 22.17 also follows from 14. where Y is a fan or a smooth droid.22. Similarly. Addendum: Dim[C(X)] 2 2 of 22.24). If Xis a nondegenerate continuum. 8831 has proved the following theorem: If Y is a uniquely arcwise connected.3 not related to the As promised earlier.l].16 (see Exercise 22. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY We remark that if Y is a compactum.29.
p. . where Y is a continuum. although the proof here is from [24]. Y.5 of [24]. 22.3 is extrapolated from the proof of 4. of Xi onto a Peano continuum in Xi such that fi. 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property. Let X = IIy=iXi. the continuum in Figure 27. by Theorem VI 4 of [22.) 22. Assume that for each E > 0. 22. fL. there is a continuous function. then the induced map f : C(Y) + C(X) is a universal map.3 of Krasinkiewicz [24]. Exercises 22. Prove that 2” and C(X) have the fixed point property when X is the continuum in Figure 25. 22.1 has been known since Wojdyslawski’s paper [42]. where it is stated for X being circlelike. If f is any continuous function of a continuum.22 Exercise.19 Exercise. where Y is a continuum. Assume that for each E > 0.15. Let X = C(Y). 2” and C(X) have the fixed point property.c is within E of the identity map on X.2 is 1. Then.2 of [32]. (Used in the proof of 22. which is devoted to a proof of 73. Let X be an arclike continuum. fc. 158. of Y onto a Peano continuum in Y such that fc is within z of the identity map on Y. 22.12 and 22. 168. fi.13 are 7. More about dim[C(X)] is in Chapter XI. p. 2x and C(X) have the fixed point property. 831.8.) 22.5 of [33].5 is Theorem 3 of Segal [40]. interest is sec Original Sources The result in 22. onto X. there is a continuous function.20 Exercise. Then. H SOURCES 197 Therefore. pp. 22.2 of [24].) 22. Let X = Cone(Y). of Y onto a Peano continuum in Y such that fL is within E of the identity map on Y. 22.14.11 is 3. where n 5 00 and each Xi is a continuum.9. and the continuum called the Infinite Ladder in Figure 31 (top of the next page). there is a continuous function.4 is 2. p.17 for C(X) is from Rogers [38.1 in [24].6 is 3. 22. 22.23 Exercise. 22. 22. p. 2842851 (the second proof we mentioned is from Krasinkiewicz [23.21 Exercise. Assume that for each i and each E > 0. Then.ORIGINAL for the closed subsets of C(X).1 of [24].c. 1801).16. w h ere it is stated only for C(X). 22. (Used in the proof of 22.18 is Theorem 1 of EberhartNadler [12]. dim[C(X)] > 2. (Used in the proof of 22. of particular tion 73.7 is 4.
19) Figure 31 [Hint: Use Exercise 21. 22. HYPERSPACES AND THE FIXED POINT PROPERTY I Infinite Ladder (22. then C(Cone(Y)) has the fixed point property. X. of Y such that f(B) = A).23 and Exercise 21. 22.5 that the range of a universal map has the fixed point property.24 Exercise.5. Recall from the comment preceding 21.16. 22.13.198 VI. See section 35. is in Class(W) provided that if f is any continuous function of a continuum. The fact that arclike continua are in Class(W) follows immediately from 22.10. If 2’(‘) has the fixed point property. hence. Let Y be a continuum.23 is 2.1 Remark. B.11 of [34].) . onto X and if A is any subcontinuum of X. Also. Y.23 implies 22. if C&(Y)) has the fixed point property. (Recall comment following the proof of 22. This result about Class(W) is due to Read [37]. then 2Co”e(Y) has the fixed point property. 22.23 implies that arclike continua are in Class(W) (a continuum. then there is a subcontinuum.
119132. Charatonik and Carl Eberhart. 2261. Interscience Publishers.) References 1. Beweis des Jordanschen Kuruensatzes. Schwartz. 8. R. K.47 of [30]). Fund.and ’ 6. (1959). Borsuk. (See second comment following the proof of 22. Vol. Amer..he 22. (1931). Linear Operators: Part I: General Theory.2 of [41. (1969). E. K. JamesDugundji. Mass. 10. p.19 and 12.. 6. Math. Dissertationes Math. Fund. K. 152170. Sci. New York. . 5. 1967 (third printing). 4. On smooth dendroids. 7. then Cone(X) has the 22.5 of [41. (3) t.5 of [41. If X is an arclike continuum. (4) Fz(X) 1scrS’ by (3). (1910).2 of [41. H. N. Polish Scientific Publishers. 2261. then FZ(X) has the fixed point property.) If X is a circlelike continuum. Brouwer. Acad..REFERENCES 199 22. fixed point property. Ann. 2. L.he natural map of X x X onto F2(S) is an open map. E. On fans. C. 2.] If X is an arclike continuum. Poland. Math. we sketch a proof of this fact: (1) X is crS’ since X is an inverse limit of arcs (12. J. 7. p. Topology. p. 69. Borsuk. Pac. Charatonik. Allyn and Bacon. J. (1954). Bing.7. Pol. 67. 7. (2) X x X IS crS’ by (l). 653659. Math. fixed point property.7. 169175. Sur les re’tractes. Warszawa. 3. 54.28 Exercise. Bull. (1970). [Hint: Use that Fz(X) is crS’ when X is an arclike continuum. 9. J. Borsuk. (1967). (See second comment following the proof of 22. Burgess.) [Hint: Use that X x Y is crS’ (see (2) of Hint for 22. 1967. 1720. Monthly 76. then X x 1’ has t. Math. 297322.Y. 9. Monografie Matematyczne. If X and Y are arclike continua. 1964 (second printing). Math. A theorem on fixed points. The elusive fixed point property. 44. 2281.25). have the fixed point property. J. 2281. J.25 Exercise. p. Chainable continua and indecomposability. the Cone(X) and C(X) 22. Inc. 17. and 6.7.27 Exercise.26 Exercise. Theory of Retracts. Boston. Nelson Dunford and Jacob T. 7. (See second comment following the proof of 22.
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44. 26. Math. Amer. Sam B. Providence. Sot. Modern Dimension Theory. J. Math. and J. 880884. Rogers. Z. 49. Sot. Gordon Thomas Whyburn. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. Jr. Vol. Math. N. Segal. Publ. Math. Sot. M. 35. Math.. Colloq. G. 221235. 42. Am36. Confluent and related mappings. 41. Colloq. Amer. J. Zur Theorie stetiger Abbildungen in Funktionalr&umen. (1962). Math.. Nagata. (1960). Colloq. Amer. 479494. 114. Math. 11. (1972). 255257.Y. Amer. 32. 34. Math. Nadler. Schauder.. 1965. cSeEections. 32. Sot. . Jr. Jr. 29.REFERENCES 201 31. Math. Jr. 110. 237248. 100. 1978. Amer. Co. Nadler. Vol. (1974). David R. 28. Math. Analytic Topology. R. 749754. 68. The introduction of local connectivity by change of topology.. T.. Read. Induced universal maps and some hyperspaces with the fixed point property. G. 279285. (1972). J.. Math. Rogers.. 33. Marcel Dekker. 50. 233239. 4765. 43.I. Jr. (1946). Fixedpoint theorems for arcwise connected continua. Sot. Fund. Hyperspaces of Sets. NorthHolland sterdam. 40. Sam B. 37. J..S. Fund. The cone = hyperspace property. 39. 24. (1927). Amer. A fixed point theorem for the hyperspace of a snakelike continuum. Holland. Universal mappings and weakly confluent mappings. Young. Can. Wojdyslawski. Jr. New York. 287293.. (1939). Jr. Proc. Proc. Pub. Young. (1987). Nadler. Re’tractes absolus et hyperespaces des continus. Inc. Proc. 1942. 184192. Sam B. 38. (1980).. Sam B. James T.. 25. Math.. S. A note on hyperspaces and the fixed point property. Math.. (1992). Fund. Sam B. J. Nadler. Nadler.
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1 Theorem [37. Existence and Extensions Whitney maps were defined in section 13 where it was shown the existence of Whitney maps for the hyperspaces of compacta. He certainly succeeded.1 of Ward [36]. asked the following question. the following theorem by Watanabe shows limitations for the existence of Whitney maps. he extended the notion of Whitney map to partially ordered spaces and. it can be noted in Definition 13. Although in this chapter we are only considering hyperspaces of continua.1 hold for CLC(Y)? In [35].H.10 we showed how to prove the following theorem using Theorem 3. in [36] he proved a useful extension theorem for Whitney maps. Then does Theorem 23.) + R' for some bounded metric p for Y. Related to Theorem 23. 23. Then the following conditions are equivalent: (a) Y admits a Whitney map . (b) Y admits a Whitney map ~1: (CL(Y).VII. Question 61. Whitney Maps Part two of this book is mainly devoted to hyperspaces of continua. However.2 Question [37. locally nected metric space. CL(Y).Tv) (c) Y has the Lindeliif property. Ward recalled that certain hyperspace problems are more tractable if hyperspaces are regarded as a special type of partially ordered spaces. con 23.u : (CL(Y). 205 . using some Nachbin’s results. (d) Y is separable. From now on the letter X will denote a nondegenerate continuum. 23. of an arbitrary topological space Y. Let Y be a metric space. Watanabe + R'. Theorem 11. Let Y be a connected.1. In Theorem 16.1 that Whitney maps can be defined for the hyperspace.
Proposition 1. WHITNEY MAPS 23.11 (see Theorem 16. Theorem 3. with the “sup. metric”. defined on 71.J for each p E W(Z). 23. Let p : F(X) + R’ be a uniformly continuous Whitney map.31. A is said to be an antichain if A. Then there exists an embedding ‘p : such that cp(p) is an extension of /. In particular. then &(A.21. B E F(X).71.3 was given in [18. Let X be a continuum. This was done in order to prove the following result. this theorem answered in the positive. 23. in [18] it was considered the space of Whitney maps. A c B and p(B) p(A) < 6. W(U) + W(27 Exercises 23. Let X be a continuum. and if A # B.3 Theorem [36. then PA # pg. the respective questions by Hughes and Nadler: “For a continuum X. where F(X) is the space of finite subsets of X defined in 1.5 Exercise. can every Whitney map for C(X) be extended to a Whitney map for 2x?” ([3I. Let X be a continuum. For each A E 2x. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X. B) < 6 (compare with Lemma 17. Theorem 1. W(R). Give an example of a continuum X and a Whitney map p for F(X) such that p can not be extended to a Whitney map for 2X.8. Then p can be extended to a Whitney map for 2x if and only if for every E > 0 there exists 6 > 0 such that if A. Let A be a compact subset of C(X) . B E A and A c B implies that A = B. Question 14. Let X be a continuum. Then A is a Whitney level for C(X) (see Definition 24. Then PA is a Whitney map for 2x. Let ?i be a nonempty closed subset of 2x.17) if and only if A is an antichain and A intersects every order arc Q in C(X) such that Q joins a onepoint set and X.21. can every Whitney map for C(Y) be extended to a Whitney map for C(X)“? For a nonempty closed subset 3c of 2x.7 Exercise.4 Theorem [18. Let p be a Whitney map for 2x. 23.8 Exercise [20.51) and if “Y is a subcontinuum of X. Let X be a continuum. Theorem 4. Theorem 4. Let ?k be a nonempty closed subset of 2x.21. Let WL(X) = {d E C(C(X)) : A is a Whitney level for C(X)} (see Definition .206 VII.({X} U Fl(X)).6 Exercise. define PA : 2x + R1 by PA(B) = p(A U B)p(B). 23. 23.10). Then every Whitney map for 3c can be extended to a Whitney map for 2x. Following Ward’s ideas a selfcontained proof of Theorem 23.3).9 Exercise [20.
9. + A and B. respectively. provided that f‘(B) is connected for every subcontinuum B of f(X).20). C(X) is an element of of C(C(X)). Whitney maps for C(X) are monotone and open (see Theorem 19. 24.9 and in Exercise 14. then A = B. + B. define A 5 B existsBEUsuchthatAcBanddefined<Bifd<f3anddflB=4).25. (d) A < t? or f? + A if and only if A n f? = 8. This fact is generalized in the following theorem. l] (see Exercise 19. (c) A + B if and only if there exists a Whitney map p for C(X) and there are numbers 0 5 s < t < p(X) such that A = pr(s) and 0 = p‘(t). 24. Eberhart and Nadler proved in [9] that.17). (2. provided that f‘(y) is connected for every y E Y or. even when X = [0. Charatonik in [2]..2) Chapter VIII] or Exercise 24. provided that f is surjective and for each subcontinuum B of Y and each component C of f‘(B). there exists A E A such that A c B. provided that f(U) is open in f(Y) X. each Whitney level for C(C(X)). we have f(C) = B.16).6 and Exercise 14.21). The space has been studied in [20] if for each A E A there (b) A + a if and only if for every A E A. However.9 or Exercise 27. A continuous function between continua f : X + Y is said to be (a) monotone. We repeat here these definitions for the convenience of the reader.1 Definition. OPEN AND MONOTONE WHITNEY MAPS FOR 2’ 207 24. Whitney maps for 2x need not have either of these properties.}~zI are sequences in WL(X) such that A. equivalently (see [40. . 5 23. 3. In that paper he observed that monotone surjective maps and open surjective maps are confluent (Exercise 24. (e) A 5 U if and only if for every B E 8. Open and Monotone Whitney Maps for 2x Monotone and open maps were defined after Theorem 19. Confluent maps were introduced by J. the following properties hold: (a) if d c f?.24. for each open subset U of (c) confttient. there exists B E B such that AcB#B. (f) if {dn}r=r and {B. Given A$ E WL(X).0 E WL(X). For A. (b) open. By Theorem 19. Then WL(X) h as a metric as subspace WL(X) is called the space of Whitney levels and it and in [23]. for a continuum X. then A < B. for every n and A.25).
p(X)].u‘(0) # 0.p) t d(b.3 Theorem [6. ?i is compact and Y is continuous.p)) and B = cZx(B(c. b}) = f + d(a. 24. For each point {a. WHITNEY MAPS 24.q). there exists a Whitney map p : 2x + R’ which extends u. Let C be a component of p‘([O. Notice that. q}. However. (b) p is confluent. where a E A and b E B.p(X)] and {p.3. t]) is connected.p(X)] and U n p‘(i) = {p. b} E 2x : a E A and b E B}. then Y({a. p(C) = [0. Proof. define d{a. Then there exists a Whitney map for 2x which is neither open nor monotone. Hence every component of cl‘(IO. then C c A U B. C rl A # 0 and C n B # 0. t]).p(X)]. J. By Theorem 23. We will show that pl([O. Then AnB = 0. Let X be a continuum. Fix two points p # q in X.q).{p. Let d denote a metric for X.b)) > iIt follows that $ E p(U) c [&. b} E 7l. Define A = cZx(B(c.19. Hence u is a Whitney %.21. Let X be a continuum. t]) is connected for each t E [O. Prajs) The equivalence (a) H (c) is included in Exercise 19. b} of Ifl . For a Whitney map p : 2x + [0. b) + (a. (J. q}. q} is an isolated point of p‘(i). (c) pl ([0. t]) is connected. Let E= v. Let 31 = {{a.9>. Let t E [O. p‘([O. (b) + (c). Hence CL(C)2 d{a.2 Theorem. Let U be the eball in 2” around {p. Then C n .q)). R. b}) = 5 if and only if {a. Since fi is confluent. for Whitney maps for 2x both concepts coincide as it is shown in the following theorem by W.{p. b} = {P. If C E U . b} is a homeomormap for phism. Then p(U) is not open in [O. b} E 3c. Charatonik. t]) intersects the connected set p‘(O) = Fr(X). q}. t]. Proof. The implication (a) + (b) follows from Exercise 24. Therefore. Therefore.208 VII. ~1is neither open nor monotone. Theorem 21. the following conditions are equivalent: (a) p is monotone. n . Then C contains an element {a. p(X)]. Since the function A x B + ‘2fgiven by (a. n It is easy to construct confluent maps which are not monotone. if {a.
Then the following statements are equivalent: (a) p is monotone. z.. xi). t]) = 31 U K. (b) F. Then ‘14does not have singletons.A) < 6.p(X)] such that Fn(X) npl ([O. Then every open Whitney The following two theorems show that monotoneity of Whitney maps is intimately related to finite sets.)E31(m<n). we only have to prove that pLl([O.(X) r?p‘([O. Then B E 3c rl pL’ (s). where Z and K are nonempty disjoint compact subsetsof 2”. for each i 5 m. t]) is connected and contains the connected set PI(X). for each n = 1..fix6A>OsuchthatBH. t]) = 7tUK and B.4 Corollary. 4) 1sconnected for every n = 1.(X) n pl ([0. . F. we obtain that the set C = U { F. Let X be a continuum.. We will prove that (1) u n pl(~) = 7f n pl(s) Clearly. every element in p‘(s) is finite. A) : A E R}. s 5 p(Bo) < p(B) = s. Suppose. But s > 0 implies that /. (b) 3 (a). so the number s = minp(‘fl) is positive and s 5 t.. Let X be a continuum. Let U = U{ BH~ (by. Then there exists A = {XI.Y + R’ be a Whitney map. (a) =+ (b). In particular. Then U is an open subset of 2x. 24.) are pairwise disjoint. OPEN AND MONOTONE WHITNEY MAPS FOR 2’ 209 24. t]) :n = 1. that there exists a positive integer n and there exists t E [O. .. Theorem 1. . . .2. Rnp‘(s) c Unpr(s). A) < bA. .ym}. . Let Bo = {yr.. This completes the proof of the equality (1). By the definition of s.p(X)]. to the contrary.z. Since . Proof..5 Theorem [22. 4 K. .(X) n P’ (P. Thus Bo E F. By (l). Then. Since we are assuming that pl(s) is connected.. ForeachA={2l. . . zr). This implies that Bo = B.t]) is connected for each t E [O.4. B(6A. ?f n pl(s) is an open and closed subset of p‘(s). map for 2x is monotone. Since Fr (X) is a connected subset of F. Since. we may assumethat Fr (X) C K. .(X) n pl([O..} is connected. . Hence Bo E ‘fl. it is possible to find a point yi E B fl B(~. we conclude that p‘(s) C 7f. Let d denote a metric for X.A)n x = p)and the sets B(6A.21.J. By Theorem 24.24. . and every t E P? P(X)l. Now take an element B E Unp‘(s).~l (s) has nondegenerate subcontinua of X.. Let p : 2.2.(X) n p‘([O. t]).(dA.3. zm} E Ifl such that Hd(B. This contradiction completes the proof that (a) 3 (b). Then BO c B and Hd(Bo.2.
Proof. .61). Define g : D + F(X) by g(z) = p(B U {z}).12. Lemma 1./. . p(X)]). n 24. then a Whitney map /J for 2.p(S)]). WHITNEY MAPS every element A in 2” can be approximated by finite sets contained in A.p(X)]). there exists B E F(A) such that p(B U {p}) > t and Hd(A.51. . Then f is continuous and A.~n}. F. In order to prove that pl(t) = pl(t). t]) : 11= 1. Theorem 1. 24.} .p(X)]) Define f : X + {z)l>~.(X) n j1l ([O. p(X)]) is connected. Lemma I. we conclude that F(X) n 11l ([0. We is connected it may assumethat t < p(X). F(S) n p”‘([t.(X) npI ([0. By Theorem 12. Lemma 3. Let t E [O. . From the connectedness of D. F(71) flp‘([t.J(X)]. Take a component C of A. p‘([O.6 is based in the unicoherence of F(X) when X is a Peano continuum ([22.210 VII. Similarly. Notice that D is not contained in A.. let A = In order to prove that F(X) n p‘([t. Let d denote a metric for X.41. 011 the other hand.31 or [7. If X is a Peano continuum.’ is monotone if and only if (plF(X))“(t) is connected for every t E [0. NECESSITY.t]) = U{F..2. Choose a point p E D . By Theorem 24. Since F(X) n CL1([0. B = (41. there exists a subcontinuum D of X such that c C D C Nd(c. . is unicoherent SUFFICIENCY. We do not know the answers to the following questions. B and Therefore. Therefore. Lemma 3. 2. t]) F(S)n~‘([t. Thus A and AU { q1} are in the same component of F(X) n 11l ([t. t]) is connected.6 Theorem [22.y (F(X) n p’ (t)) = pl (t) and the proof of the theorem. BU {z}) < E and B U {x} E F(X) flpl(t)). is connected. Then C # X. then g(a) 5 p(A) = t. Then WConly need to prove that the sets 8’(X) n pl ([O..5. This completes the proof that cEz.p(X)])..p(X)]. If z E C. f]) and are connected. AU (41) E f(X). g(p) > t. p(X)]. Notice that Hd(A. Since F(A) is dense in 2”.4 U B are in the same component of F(X) n p’([t. t]) is connected. t]). Question 1. C) and C # D. we conclude that C is dense in pl ([0.7 Question [22. Let t E [O. we will use that F(X) when X is locally connected ([22. . Is Theorem 24. is enough to prove that C&X(F(X) n pl(t)) Let il E p‘(t) and 6 > 0. Here.61).6 true without the hypothesis that X is a locally connected continuum? .qm} E F(X) n p‘([t. Repeating this procedure we can conclude that A and AU B arc in the same component of F(X) n p‘([t. there exists x E D such that g(z) = t. n The proof of Theorem 24.jL(~)l) is connected for every n = I.31or [7.p(X)]) by f(z) = AU {z}. .A. . B) < E..
63 and 14. .61. . Let X be a continuum. J.)) are pairwise disjoint. Charatonik answered both questions in the negative with the following example. a. By Theorem 12. < 6 there exists a point c E C n Bdx (B( e. . u B(c..ui)). Then [b(Bs). Question 1. Thus.22. . Let p : 2aY+ J = [O. & is a compact subset of F(X) and s > t. Let A = {al. U {c})] c p(D) c p(U).n}. B(2c. .9 Theorem [22. (c) if t E J and {tn}rzl is a sequencein [0. Let C be the component of clx (B(E.} E U and t = p(A).)). Theorem 1. Then CL(&) < t. u {c}) > t. . A is not a local minimum of . Then the following statements are equivalent: (a) p is open.ui).p(&.u. we have . then b(G) . W. Let 6 > 0 be such that S < E and if G. choose a point bi E B n B(6. K E 2x and Hd(G.it was asked whether for every continuum X there exists a monotone (or an open) Whitney map for 2x.ui) u . . .. the case t = 0 is left as Exercise 24. p]F(X) is open.24. n In [31. p. B(c. Notice that 2) is a connected subset of U.(B(e. We will consider the case t > 0. al)) that contains bi. a.11.. . compare with [29. 24. . Theorem 11. Clearly.ar) # X and the sets ClX(B(GW)). we have the following equivalences. Let d denote a metric for X. 68. We will only prove that (d) * (e). . . Let E = X . E = {A U {e} : e E E} and s = min{p(D) : D E E}. In the caset > 0..8 Question tinuum X? [22. B) < 6 and p(B) < t. .ai). .u.22. Since H~(Au{c}.. .10.&U{C}) s. and (e) plF(X) : F(X) + J is open. Define Bc = {bi. (d) the local minima of ILoccur only on Fi (X). Let U be an open subset of F(X). For each i E (1. .p(X)] be a Whitney map. t) such that t. Proof. Therefore t is an interior point of p(U). (b) the function t + pl(t) from J into 22x is continuous. K) < S. OPEN AND MONOTONE WHITNEY MAPS FOR 2’ 211 24.)) c U. and AA u 1~)) L Consider the set D = {Be U {z} : x E C}. Let E > 0 be such that A E F(X) n (B(2e. Questions 14. . Is F(X) unicoherent for every con With respect to open Whitney maps for 2”.t. a. + t.u(&. Then there exists B E 2Y such that H(A. The rest of the proof is left as Exercise 24. then pl(&) + p((t) (in 22x).AWI < s .1 clx (B(E.bn}.641.
f. consider the continuum illustrated in Figure 25. These examples show that. X3 is contractible and 2”~ does not admit monotone Whitney maps. then the Whitney map defined in Exercise 13. 2aYl is not contractible and 2”’ admits open Whitney maps.24). even for plane dendroids. Charatonik showed that there are no confluent Whitney maps for 2” and then there are neither open nor monotone Whitney maps for 2”.W. 2. Let S denote the unit circle in R”. 2x admits open Whitney maps (see Exercise 24. X2 is contractible and then 2”2 is contractible (see Corollary 20. exp(it). Generalizing Charatonik’s ideas.11 Theorem [17]. then it is called an R3continuum of X.s a continuum X which has a monotone (an open) Whitney map for 2aYand such that 2aYis not contractible? This question was solved in [22] where three plane dendroids Xi. If an R3set of X is connected.3). m)) u g([l. 0)).212 VII. the contractibility of 2~~is not related to the existence of open (or monotone) Whitney maps for 2*Y. W. g : [l. X2 and Xa were constructed such that: 1.8 is open. co) + R2 by f(t) = (1 + f) exp(it) and g(t) = (1 . Then define x = s u f(P. For this space X. 24. WHITNEY MAPS 24. Question 251. the following theorem shows that for every Peano continuum X. Define functions f. 2aY2 admits monotone Whitney maps but there are no open Whitney maps defined in 2”~) 3. then 2” admits no confluent Whitney map. On the other hand. If the metric for the continuum X is convex (see Theorem 10. p. Awartani introduced the notion of skew compactification of the real line. For a simple example of an R3set. A nonempty proper closed subset A of X is said to be an R3set of X provided that there exists an open subset U of X and a sequenceof components {C. Charatonik asked the following question: Does there exist.12 Definition. J. He proved ([l]) that if X is such a compactification.}~Yr of U such that A c U and A = lim inf C. where exp is the exponential map. 158. Let X be a continuum. In [5. J.. The set consisting of the point which joins the two . 24.10 Example [3].2).
PN+I. . . E C.E~. .[cZx(B(t.Bd..p.xi)) = 0. Let V be an open subset of X such that A C V C clx (V) c U.15)..13 Theorem [5.x. .UHmandBnH~#Oforeach i 5 m}. let ni > N be such that C.z)).36). such that LJ({P. Clearly. E Bd. xm). For each point z E Bd. By Lemma 17. Define Hi = H.2. .. 2 4 lim inf C. X contains an R3 Proof. Let U be an open subset of X thath contains A and let {Cn}F=r be a sequence of components of U such that A = lim inf C. and there are xi. the existence of an R3set in a continuum implies that it is not contractible (see [5.24. . Let cti be the component of &x(V) containing pni. Thus A is nonempty. (see Exercise 78. for each n = 1. Theorem 241.. there exists N = 1. s]). 24.Ki) n V.y(V) = (X . there is m = 1. Theorem 2] or Theorem 78. . s])..~(B(2~. Foreachi E {l. Fix a point p E A. . Then Hi is an open subset of X. . for each B E pl ([0. .. . . . By Theorem 12. . Letd={B~~Ll([O. ... J.2. Let E> 0 be such that E < min{c.y (V). cl~(V)ncl~y(B(2~. .v. Since the closed sets {p.*. Notice that the set {Pm. then it has no monotone Whitney maps for 2. Let A # X be an R3set of X.} and B(c. .pn.. . . z))nC. implies that 2x does not admit a monotone (or open) Whitney map.. Then Di n cl.p.x. nclx(B(2E.} is an element of A.2.xm))l. there exist disjoint compact subsets H.s]):B~HIU~~... and such that cZ. The concept of R3continuum was introduced by Czuba in [8]. OPEN AND MONOTONE WHITNEY MAPS FOR 2’ 213 harmonic fans is an R3continuum...)) C I(. Charatonik.p) c v .)) = 0. More about R3sets is in sections 58 and 78.x (B(2c.+l...y(V) such that Bdx(V) c B(c. . . there exists s > 0 such that.. Notice that U # X. diameter (B) < E. there exists a sequence{pn}p=r of points in X such that pn + p and p. A is a closed subset of pl ([0. . By the compactness of Bdx(V)..I) < s. p $! cl.. Then there exists cz > 0 = 0 for infinitely many positive integers n.~(B(2c.PN.x1)) u ‘~~uclx(~(~. and Ki of clx(V) such that Di C Hi.3. Since p E lim inf C. it is shown that the existence of an R3set in a continuum X. .m}.. If a continuum set.9.} tend to {p}. . In the following theorem by W. x. .. Let p be any fixed Whitney map for 2”.x1)lJ~~~U B(%m. and Hi U Ki = clx(V).
Whitney levels for C(X) have played an important role in the study of C(X).17 Definition.. They are continua (Theorem 19. s]).9). Thus A = p’ ([0. does 2x have monotone Whitney maps? 24. Question 261. If p is monotone.A. Then there exists i 5 m such that B n clx(B(~. A is open in p”‘([O.! # 8 for each i < m}. Give a necesssaryand/or sufficient conditions for a continuum X to have a confluent (a monotone. for each fixed Whitney map p the Whitney levels corresponding to p constitute a continuous decomposition .11) and (b) arcsmooth continua (see Theorems 25. 24.p(X)) (respectively. Suppose that B n Bdx(V) # 0. Charatonik has posed the following question.9 and 25. s]). then pL’ ([0. This is impossible since B n Hi # 0. 3. s]) is connected.zi)) # 0..s]):BCH:U. take B E A. The contradiction proves that B n Bdx(V) = 0. then {z} E pL’ ([0. Therefore. and (b) continua having R3sets (Theorem 24.whereB={BECL‘([O.214 VII. J. 24. it is enough toshowthatd=B. This is impossible since if 2 is a point in X . t E (O>PW))). If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum.14 Question [5. The known classes continua X for which 2x does not have monotone of Whitney maps are: (a) Awartani’s skew compactifications of the real line ([l]). s]) .15 Question [22. And the known classesof continua X for which 2” has open Whitney maps are: (a) Peano continua (Theorem 24. can 2x have open Whitney maps? 24.61. s]).11). an open) Whitney map for 2x.. Now.U. WHITNEY MAPS We claim that A is open in pL’ ([0. H W. Hence B E A.16 Question. Let X be a continuum and let ?l = C(X) or 2x. A Whitney level for 7f (respectively. B C cl~(V) f~ clx(B(2~. We have proved that A = B. Since diameter (B) < E.13). where p is a Whitney map for 3c and t E [O. positive Whitney level) is a set of the form p‘(t).UH~and B II H. This contradiction proves that p is not monotone and completes the proof of the theorem. In order to prove this.zi)) c K. If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. It is clear that f? c A.
the Whitney levels of an open Whitney map for 2” have very nice properties. then there is a Whitney map p for 2eY and there is t > 0 such that p‘(t) contains an arc with nonempty interior ([15. Goodykoontz and Nadler have shown that if X is a simple closed curve.151). We will see in the next section that. under additional assumptions.18 is very general and offers many possibilities. (c) if the Whitney (e) if the Whitney connected? levels of p infinitedimensional are the Whitney levels of . then the respective levels p‘(t) are continua and constitute a continuous decomposition on 2*Y.22 Exercise. A map between continua f : X t Y is monotone if is a subcontinuum of X for every subcontinuum B of Monotone surjective maps and open surjective maps 24. 24. Example 4. Exercises 24. are confluent. 24. Complete the proof of Theorem proof of the case t = 0 in the implication (d) + (e).EXERCISES 215 of C(X) ([31. In this case.U also contractible? is X contractible? then is X locally levels of p locally connected? levels of p are contractible.20 Exercise. (d) if X is locally connected.21 Exercise. We have seen that when a Whitney map 11for 2~~ is open. 24. On the other hand. Theorem 14. What topological do the Whitney levels of open Whitney maps for 2Y have? Question 24.18 Question. including the . some of them in the following questions.19 Questions. as we will see in Chapter VIII. the Whitney map p is not open. properties we mention Suppose that p is an open at each one of (a) are positive Whitney their points? (b) if X is contractible. Whitney levels for 2’ are not necessarily continua. Let X be a continuum. Let X be a continuum. Furthermore.9. Whitney levels for C(X) share many properties with X. and only if f‘(B) f (W. are Whitney levels of ~1 are locally connected.441) and. Whitney map for 2”. 24.
Let X be a continuum and let U = C(X) or 2x. 25. l] + 31 satisfying (a) and (b) is called an . A homotopy h : 31..x [0. .1 Definition [15. Section 21Goodykoontz considered an extension of the notion of admissible Whitney map. h(A.O) E F*(X).a. let t. Then A E F(X).a(&)} by F(t) and prove that w(F(t)) < w(A) for each t < 1.uadmissible deformation for 7L. 11. Let X be a continuum. Definitions 2. .11. A Whitney map p for ?i is called an admissible Whitney map for 7lprovided that there is a (continuous) homotopy h : RX [0. t)) > 0 for some A E 3t and t E [0. Admissible Whitney Maps 25. Their paper was the first in determining positive Whitney levels for the hyperspace 2x. .zo) 5 WI(A)}. s)) < .11. l].23 Exercise. 1) = A and h(A. there is an isometry CJ~ : = ai. Suppose that w has a local minimum at .. . For each i E (1. A Whitney map p for ‘li is strongly admissible if p is admissible and there is an padmissible deformation h for ?l which satisfies the additional condition: (c) h({s}. If C(X) c 3t c 2x and 3c II (F(X) . In [15]. In [14. ti] + X such that ai = 20 and ui(ti) = {a(~~).. t)) whenever 0 5 s < t.az). They proved the following theorems. [Hint: Let d denote a metric for X.O) be the same singleton for all A E 7t.l] + F(X) [0. 25..u(h(A. . then p(h(A.t) = {z} for each z E X and t E [0. Define F : [O.1 24.25 Exercise.F’i (X)) # 0. . 1] + ?t satisfying the following contitions: (a) for all A E ‘?f. Since the metric d is convex.2 Definition [25. Goodykoontz and Nadler introduced admissible Whitney maps to obtain conditions under which positive Whitney levels are Hilbert cubes. Notice that it is not required in (b) that h(A. = d(zo. Definition 2. Let X be a continuum and let /I : 2x + R’ be a Whitney map. 24. .24 Exercise. (b) if p(h(A. Prove Theorem 24. Then there exists ze E X such that A C {z E X : d(z.4 = {al. Suppose that A E 2x is such that p has a local minimum at A.} E F(X).216 VII. WHITNEY MAPS 24.. Let X be a continuum and let U = C(X) or 2Y. . Then there exists a nonopen Whitney map for 7l.11. where n > 1. An extension to other spacesis presented in [33]. n}.
6 Theorem [25. then is a trivial bundle map with Hilbert cube fibers. then there is a strongly admissible map p for 3c such that is a trivial bundle map with Hilbert cube fibers. .3. . p(X)).).tl) + v4tl is a trivial bundle map with X x Q fibers.. .7 Theorem [25.. Theorem 3. Theorem 3.25. Theorem 3. Let X be the Hilbert cube Q and let 7l = 2x or C(X). Let X be a Peano continuum.n(X). (b) if there is an admissible map p for C(X) and if X contains no free arc.4 Theorem [15. then IL‘([O.3 Theorem [15. If h is an admissible Whitney map for 3c. then p‘(t) Hilbert cube whenever 0 < t < p(X). Using Theorem 25. for some t E (0.11. However Kato has extended Goodykoontz and Nadler’s ideas to obtain the following theorem. ADMISSIBLE WHITNEY MAPS 217 25. . ..18). 25.n(X)]) are Hilbert cubes whenever 0 < t < . 25. Theorem 4.51. AK1 ((03 : CLl tl) ((0. Kato gave the following more precise version.2. If ‘?f = C(X).1 (ii)]. then .3. . Let X be the nsphere S” (n = 1. 25. (a) if there is an admissible Whitney map ~1for 2x. assumethat X contains no free arc.) or C(X) (n = 2. Spheres in Euclidean spacesdo not have admissible Whitney maps (see Corollary 25. then pl ([0.5 Theorem [25. t]) and p‘([t.101.2.) such that. Theorem 4. . t]) and pLl ([t.u‘(t) is a Hilbert cube whenever 0 < t < p(X). Let X be a Peano continuum. Let X be a Peano continuum and let 31 = 2x or C(X). Then there is a Whitney map ~1for ‘fl = 2x (n = 1. p(X)] are Hilbert cubes whenever 0 < t < p(X). (b) if there is an admissible Whitney map p for C(X) and if X contains no free arc.1 (i)]. 25. is a (a) if there is an admissible Whitney map p for 2x..
The following continua are known to have admissible Whitney maps for 2aYand C(X) (Theorem 25. Now. Q(Z) is an arc from p to z. This results show that Whitney levels of admissible Whitney maps have very nice acyclicity properties.3]).31. Then arcsmooth continua can be contracted in a very nice way (see Exercise 25.9 Theorem [19. we will present results by Goodykoontz and Nadler ([15]). (b) arcsmooth continua. (a) convex compact subsets of Banach spaces([25.15]). the following theorem was proved.11). dendrites (locally connected dendroids. 25. (c) finite collapsible polyhedra ([26.218 VII. In [19]. we will develop some of the basic theory of Whitney levels of admissible Whitney maps. see Exercise 25. Theorem 2. Generalizing the concept of arcsmoothnesson dendroids.9): (a) cones over compact metric spaces([15.{p}. The following continua are known to ‘have strong admissible maps for 2x and C(X). then there exists an admissible Whitney map /I for 2x such that p]C(X) is also admissible (Exercise 25. For dendroids the arc joining two points is unique and the condition (c) is automatically satisfied. Theorem 3. Theorem 1.8 Definition. WHITNEY MAPS 25. Examples of arcsmooth continua include: compact convex subsets in Banach spaces. If a continuum X is arcsmooth. and (c) if 2 E o(y).37).35).10 Examples.Gordh and Lum defined the concept of arcsmoothness for general continua in [ll] and [12]. In those papers they showed that arcsmooth continua coincide with the freely contractible continua of Isbell ([24]). 25. Fugate.34) and cones over compact metric spaces. Mainly. Then. Theorem 2. A continuum X is said to be arcsmooth provided X is arcsmooth at some point. the only requierement is the continuity of cr. Then X is arcsmooth at p ([ll] and [12]) provided that there exists a continuous function CY X + C(X) satisfying the following conditions: : (4 4P) = {P)t (b) for each 3: E X . in this case. (b) dendrites ([25. then o(x) c o(y). Theorem 2. Let X be a continuum and let p E X. Dendroids which are arcsmooth are called simply smooth dendroids. .4]).
See comment after Question (14. This space is illustrated in Figure 32 (top of the next page). If p is an admissible Whitney map for 2x.11 Theorem [15.14 for the particular case when X is the Bing’s house. Proof. Hence X is an AR. (c) if ?/ = 2x. X is an AR. It was shown in [19] an example of a contractible continuum X such that. then C(X) also is contractible (Corollary 20. If X is a compact AR. Property (b) in Definition 25.9 we conclude that ~1is open.25. 1901911or Theorem 10. Supposethat p is a strongly admissibleWhitney map p for ‘U = 2x or C(X).8). then ~1is open.1 in [13] it follows that: since X is a strong deformation retract of 2”. pp. Theorem 2. Then (a) X is a strong deformation retract of Z.20. C(X) is AR ([41. Thus 2” is an AR ([41.p(X)].8). Proposition 2. Appliying Theorem 24.14 Question.1 implies that there is no local minima of p at any element A E 2x . is there an admissible Whitney map for 2x or C(X)? It would be interesting to answer Question 25. Since X is contractible. n 25.43.pi(X).12 Theorem (compare with [25. 25.13 Question [25. pp.21). Let X be a continuum. C(X) does .12) in Chapter XV. (c) From Lemma 2.2. then X is an AR. Then X is a retract of an AR. and then pi(t) is a continuum for each t E [O. (b) If X is locally connected. is there a strongly admissible Whitney map for 2x or C(X)? We do not even know the answer to the following question. Question 3. then X is an AR. ADMISSIBLE WHITNEY MAPS 219 25.121. Notice that X is a retract of the solid cylinder and then X is an AR. we have that X is locally connected. Let X be a continuum.2). 4 Kato has asked the following question: 25. 1901911or Theorem 10. Hence. The second part of the theorem follows from Corollary 24.4. Proof. If X is a compact AR. for each Whitney map p for C(X) there is a number t E [O. by Theorem 25.41. (a) is an immediate consequenceof condition (c) in Definition 25.p(X)] such that pl(t) is not contractible. (b) if ‘$f = C(X) and X7 is locally connected. Since X is a retract of 2x.
15 Question [26. 1) = A and h(A.30). h(A. l]? . t)) whenever 0 5 s < t 5 1. t) = {z} for each x E X and t E [0.O) E Fl(X)./~(x)) there is a homotopy h : Pl([o> to)) x [O. WHITNEY MAPS . 3081. 11 + P‘([Wo)) satisfying the following conditions: (a) for all A E pl([O. to)). (b) if p(h(A.220 VII. contractibility of X is not a sufficient condition for the existence of admissible Whitney maps for C(X) (compare to Question 25. Let X be a compact connected ANR (or a polyhedron). Is there a Whitney map p for 8 = 2x or C(X) such that for some to E (0. to)) and t E [0. then p(h(A. (c) h({z}. 11. s)) < p(h(A. 25. t)) > 0 for some A E /. p. Therefore.J‘([O. Entrance to Room 2 Entrance to Room 1 / Bing’s house Figure 32 not have admissible Whitney maps.
17.41. Assume that there is an admissible Whitney map p for ‘?i = 2x or C(X). If p is an admissible Whitney map for 3t = 2x or C(X).l) Then .31).ifO<s<t<l.1 (Exercise 25. Then. then h(‘H x (0)) is an arcwise connected subset of Fl (X).u(h({z}.1. Proof.O) = {z} and f({z}. . I]) is a path in Fl(X) joining {z} to a point in h(R x (0)). By Corollary 20. Let h be an admissible deformation for R. if i 5 t 5 1. 1)) = 0. then X is contractible. for each {z} E Fl(X). h(3t x (0)) C Fl (X).t) = V(z). Also. Proof. It was shown in the proof of Theorem 20. Let X be a continuum. n 25. Let h be an padmissible deformation for 31. Assume that 71is contractible.19 Theorem [15. Thus it follows from (b) in Definition 25.14). If there is an admissible Whitney map p for ?f = 2x or C(X).35). l] into Fl(X). 0). If there is an admissible Whitney map for 2x or C(X) and X is a Peano continuum. if X is contractible. Corollary 2.51.2t W.1. then ?f is contractible (no assumption that there is an admissible Whitney map is necessary). l] + 3c such that for all A E ‘Tl. Define f on E(X) x [O. then 2x and C(X) are contractible (Corollary 20. then.9).s)CG(A.2. This proves one half of Theorem 25.G(A.16 Theorem [15. for any to such that 0 < to < A9 pl (to) and CL~ b]) are strong deformation retracts of ([O.l).71. then X is arcwise connected. ifOIt< i. X is contractible if and only if 31 is contractible. therefore. p(X)]) and of ‘lt. By ( a) in Definition 25. G(A. W 25. If X is a Peano continuum. By property (a) in Definition 25.11by f({zl. Proof.25.O). Hence.31) that f maps FI (X) x [0. Let X be a continuum. Fl(X) is arcwise connected.18 follows from Theorem 25.1 that h({z}. = {z}. Fl (X). l] (Exercise 25. It follows from Definition 25. 1) = X and. Let X be a continuum. G(A. Therefore. X is contractible.31.1 that there is a contraction G : Yfx [0. Theorem 2. Theorem 2. p‘([to. respectively. t) E Fl(X) for every t E [0. . ADMISSIBLE WHITNEY MAPS 221 25.17 Theorem [15. Hence h({z} x [0.l) = h(X. Theorem 2. 0) = A. Then Corollary 25.17.t) (see Exercise 78. Since 31 is arcwise connected (Theorem 14. h({z}. f({z}. n 25. 1 h(G({x}. Fix a point {z} E Fl(X).18 Corollary [15.
Proof.u‘(to) by r(A) = h(A. t)) implies that p(h(A.B(A)). define R : 3t + p‘([O.222 VII. Therefore. G(A. by (b) in Definition 25. continuous. 0) = A and G(A. to]) And define F : 3c x [0. Therefore p’ (to) is a strong deformation retract of Pwo~ /4X)1) In order to prove that p‘([O. t)) = [0. I] + ?i be an padmissible deformation for Fix to such that 0 < to < p(X). Now. WJ. A > ifAEK if A E pl ([0. define G : K x [0. Let h : R x [0. G(A. r(A) = A. for each A E K. Thus. 11. 0)) = 0. r is a retraction from K onto . to]) is a strong deformation retract of ?l. l] such that p(h(A. since p(h(A. r is a strong deformation retraction.))) to. n Using Theorem 25. If A E pi(ta).B(A. p(h(A. to]) by R(A) = T(A). Since 8 and h are Define T : K + . 9. p(h(A. WHITNEY MAPS Ifl. then 8(A) = 1. Thus. 1) = A.19. This contradiction proves that 0 is continuous. to]) is a strong deformation retract of ?I!. By (b) in Definition 25. t) E K for every t E [0. .p(X)]). Since h(A. to]) Using R and F it is easy to show that hl ([0. we have. t) = h(A. + A and 6(A. G(A. 1)) > to and since h(A.1.B(A))) = to.O) E Fl(X). that there is only one such tA. l] by letting. We will prove that 8 is continuous. l] + K by G(A. Suppose to the contrary.u'(to).l].t>= A1 ifAEK if A E p‘([O. r is continuous. l] such that p(h(A. there exists a sequence {An}~EP=l in K such that A. t) = A for every A E p”‘(to) and t E [O. Since [0.1. 1) = r(A) for every A E K.t)). l] is compact. to(A) + (1 . Let A E K. and let K = cl‘([tc. that 0 is not continuous at an element A E K.) + t for some t E + p(h(A. Clearly G is continuous. tA)) = to. Hence. l] {B(A)}. furthermore.17. tA)) > 0. Moreover. B(A) be the unique number in [0. But p(h(An. Goodykoontz and Nadler obtained the following more definitive version of half of Theorem 25. there exists tA E [0. l] 4 ‘R by G(A. Hence we can define a function 0 : K + [0. by the continuity of h and p. Thus t = B(A).
17.&‘([(I. So. then 11l(to) and . Proof.20 Theorem [15.81.21 Theorem [15. to]) are contractible for each to E P. Example 30. p‘(to) = (X}.22 it is enough to prove that K is an rimage of the hyperspace C(K). 11 maps K x [0. then p‘(to) is homeomorphic to X and hence. pL’ (to) has all those properties which are common to rimages (see [6. Hence K is contractible. We also assume that to < p(X) since if to = p(Y). The following general result determines many properties of positive Whitney levels when the Whitney map is admissible (see Theorem 30. l] into K. W ~l([t~. So we only have to prove that p‘(to) is contractible. f is a well defined continuous function. Proof. Theorem 2. . Then g is continuous and g is a right inverse of f./~(x)]. Let X be a continuum. f is an rmap from C(K) onto K.19. Example 46. 25. 091 that 25. by Theorem 25.19. It follows from the properties of G that GlK x [0. By Theorem 25.22 Theorem. Assume that there is an admissible Whitney map .4.PWl. cl‘(to) is a retract of K.25.l] + ?t be as in the proof of Theorem 25. ADMISSIBLE WHITNEY MAPS 223 25.19.91. If to = 0.2 and Example 53.5.19. By Theorem 25. P(X)]) is an absolute retract. Thus. If there is an admissible Whitney map p for 2.17. . Define g : K + C(K) by g(A) = {A}.t0]) is a retract of Ifl. By Exercise 11. in order to prove Theorem 25.8). Proof. Thus p‘(to) is contractible. Let X be a continuum. Therefore. by Theorem is an absolute retract. for each to such that 0 < to < p(X). we assume that to > 0.LLfor R = 2” or C(X). Let G : ?f x [O. p‘(to) is an rimage of the continuum K = /J~([~oJ~WI>. If 31 is contractible. then p‘(to) is an absolute retract for each to such that 0 < to < p(X). we have by the remark in [27. Let K = p‘([tO. Fix to E [0.1 in Chapter XV] for the definition of rimage) of all hyperspaces. Thus pl (to) is an rimage of C(K). to]) is contractible. Therefore.to]) is contractible.3. ~~([0. n 25. If p is an admissible Whitney map for R = 2x or C(X). then. p‘(to) is an arcwise connected continuum which has trivial shape (and thus it is acyclic).uI (to) = pLl ([0. By Theorem 25. In particular. thus P’ ([O. Theorem 2. p(X)]). /I’ Since X is a Peano continuum.Y or C(X) and if X is a Peano continuum. Define f : C(K) t K by f(d) = ud.
Theorem 2. Theorem 2.24 Theorem [15. 2. Observe that Fl(X) = ll{K./li(X)) let KCt = pP1([O. If there is an admissible Whitney map p for 3t = 2” or C(X). Goodykoontz and Nadler proved that. we have to show that each map from 5”’ into A is null homotopic. Let B = pm1([to.3 it is enough to prove that A is 2connected. As a partial inverse of this result we have the following. it follows easily that Kt has trivial shape (use [28. So the following theorem is an immediate consequence of Theorems 25. then X has trivial shape. Let X be a continuum. If /J is an admissible Whitney map for 2x or C(X). then p is an open CE map.22 are known to be rinvariants and are known to be properties of all hyperspaces. Let 1 _<n 5 2 and let f : S” + A be a map. then X is a dendroid. : 0 < t < p(X)} Hence J’i (X) is a nested intersection of compacta having trivial shape. all positive Whitney levels have trivial shape when the Whitney map is admissible.11. We now show that X has trivial shape.22.10). by Theorem 25. Kt is a retract of ti. In [15. That is. WHITNEY MAPS This completes the proof of Theorem 25. 25. Let X be a continuum.121.22. it follows easily that Fr(X) has trivial shape ([28.19 there exists a retraction r : B + A.171.224 VII. If X is a continuum with the property that every Whitney map for C(X) is admissible. 25. Thus. n By Theorem 25. We are assuming that p is admissible. Let C(f) : C(P) + C(d) be the induced map defined by C(f)(A) = f(A) (the image of A under f). p‘(to) is arcwise connected.19. Proof. Proof. Then we may assumethat 1 5 n. p(X)]). where Sn is the nsphere and 0 5 n < 2. since ‘?i has trivial shape (Theorem 19. Thus. then every Whitney map for C(X) is admissible. 25. Theorem 2.23 Theorem [15. n Recall that a celllike map (or CE map) is a map whose point inverses all have trivial shape. _Y has trivial shape. then.23. For each t E (0. Therefore.11).22 and 25. By Theorem 25. since Fl(X) is homeomorphic to X.25 Theorem.22 since the properties listed in the second part of Theorem 25.t]). By Theorem 25. Let A = p‘(to) be an arbitrary positive Whitney level for C(X). By Theorem 53.111.11). 25. . 2. if X is a smooth dendroid. Then C(f) is continuous.
Suppose that p is a Whitney map for Z = 2x or C(X) and h is an p admissible deformation for 31.EXERCISES 225 Since S” is locally connected.1 and 25. Let X be a continuum. is there an admissible Whitney map for C(X)? By Theorems 20.131.11an example of a noncontractible dendroid D such that every Whitney map for C(D) is admissible and such that no Whitney map for 2O is admissible (Exercise 25. I] + C(P) such that G(({p}. Exercises 25. Question 4. l] 4 A by Fb. If there is an admissible Whitney map for 2x. Is the restriction to C(X) of every admissible Whitney map for 2x an admissible Whitney map for C(X)? If there is an admissible Whitney map for 2x. Goodykoontz has shown in [13. t) E Fl(X) for some (A. then must X be contractible? 25. an affirmative answer to this question would answer Question 41. Show directly that if X = [0. The following questions remain open.33). F(p. Let X be a continuum.l].32 Exercise.14).30 Question. Therefore. If X is a dendroid and there is an admissible Whitney map for 2x then must X be smooth? (smooth dendroids have been completely characterized in [16]) 25. Then there exists a map G : Fr (P) x [0.l]. 1) = r(UC(f)(Sn)). t) = WW)(G(({P).141. homotopic to a constant map.O)) = {p} and G(({p}. l] x [O. Let X be a continuum.29 Question. Define F : 5’” x [0. n 25.31 Exercise. 25. for every p E We conclude that f is Sn.5. Questions 4. If X is a contractible dendroid. then there is a strongly admissible Whitney map for 2x. . Fi(Sn) is contractible in C(P) (Theorem 20.s) E Fl(X) for each s < t.28 Question [15. 0) = f(p) and F(p.t) E 7l x [O. Since.20.If h(A. then h(A.26 Remark. t)))) The continuity of F follows from Exercise 11.3.1 and Corollary 20. is there an admissible Whitney map for C(X)? 25. 1)) = S" for every P E S”. 25.27 Questions [15. Answering questions in [15]. Example 3. X is a dendroid.
35. t) = f(x. 1) = A and G(A.35 Exercise. min{s.1) + 2x by h(. Let A E 2”. If X is the continuum represented in Figure 25. 25.s)) 5 M(G(A. p. G. and M be as in Exercise 25. s)) = max{s.t)). l] by M(A) = sup{L(a) : u E A}.l]. (f) M(G(A. and (cl f(f(z. l] by M(A) w(A) = s0 P. s). then M(G(il. h!(A)}. Define w : 2” + [0. (g) G(A.33 Exercise. p. t) E C(X) for every t E [0. t) = f(A x {t}) and define M : 2~~+ [0.34 Exercise. t))dt. t)). (b) f(z. Let X. (d) G(A. 11by L(z) = ~(cY(x)). p. Let X.226 VII.l]. In particular. Q. (c) G((z}. Define L : X + [0.(G:(A. Define f : X x [0.37 Exercise. 1) = z for every z E X.4. t)). t) = G(A.36. t) = G(A. I] + 2x by G(A. 0) = (p} and f(z. l] + S by f(s. Let (Y : X + C(X) be a map satisfying the conditions of Definition 25. h have the following properties: . 11. M(A)) = A.O) = {p}. and (h) If s 5 t. if L(z) 2 t Then f has the following properties: (a) f is continuous. (4 G(G(A.t)= 2qunique point y E o(z) the if L(2) < t such that L(y) = t. Then G and M have the following properties: (a) G and M are continuous.min{s. with p(X) = 1. X is contractible.8. (b) if A E C(X) then G(A. 25. A dendroid X is a dendrite if and only if X is smooth at each of its points. 158. Then w and And define h : 2aYx [O. WHITNEY MAPS 25. then there is a strongly admissible Whitney map for C(X) and there is no admissible Whitney map for 2*Y. 25. UK’(A)). 25. Define G : 2” x [0.36 Exercise. L and f be asin Exercise 25. Let X be a an arcsmooth continuum at some point p E X. s>.t) E Fr(X) for every z E X and t E [O. Consider a Whitney map p : C(X) + [O.
w(A u C) < w(B) .. p(X)].5 Exercise.1 Question [4. For A. wjC(X)) is an admissible Whitney map for 2” (respectively.4. Question 91.w(A). A Metric on Hyperspaces Defined Maps by Whitney Let X be a continuum.26. and let A c 2x be an order arc.(A. B) = maxMA U B) . J. C(X)). is a metric on 2* and D.4 has prop There is a Whitney map p for 21°~‘]such that p does Let X be a continuum. not satisfy (1). Let p be a Whitney map for 26. He posed the following question: 26.3 Exercise. W. w (respectively. p(X)] into [0.AA U B) . d oesthere exist an embedding h from [0.@)I.. l] : C(X) x [O.6). oo) such that h o p is a Whitney map satisfying property (l)? Exercises 26. J. and (c) h(C(X) x [0. (b) h is an wadmissible deformation of 2x. be as in Exercise 26. W. B E 2x with A w(B c B and for every C E 2x.2 Exercise. is equivalent to the Hausdorff metric on 2x. erty (1).l] + C(X) is an w]C(X)admissible deformation of C(X) . Given any continuum X and any Whitney map p : 2x + [0. 26. B E 2x. 26.p(A). Then D. 2x that satisfies (1).4 Exercise. u C) . In [4]. define D.u(d : A + [0. A METRIC ON HYPERSPACES DEFINED BY WHITNEY MAPS 227 (a) w is a Whitney map for 2x. Consider 2x with the 26.226. Then . co) is an isometry. The Whitney map w defined in Theorem 13. Charatonik has shown that Whitney maps with property (1) induce a nice metric on the hyperspace 2x (see Exercises 26.4 has the following additional property: (1) For every A. metric D. Therefore. . Charatonik observed that the Whitney map w defined in Theorem 13. Let D.
V. Jr. Let x E A E 2x. Polon. Hyperspaces of finite subsetswhich are homeomorphic to Nodimensional linear metric spaces. and L. Topology Appl. 535538. 6167. Sci. 11. References 1. Sixth Prague Topological Symposium 1986. R. 8. 19 (1971).. Math. T. Sci. Nhu. Math. 9194. Frolik. Jr. 94 (1985). J. Math. Charatonik.228 VII. A metric on hyperspacesdefined by Whitney maps. General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra VI. 299302. Ricontinua and contractibility of dendroids. M.. 11 (1985). Phys.T. 9. Fugate. Jr. Charatonik. Proc. J. Fugate. Amer. 14. Amer. Fedorchuk.. On arcsmooth continua. 2 (1977). 7589. W. C. T. V. Sot. 56 (1964). 10.4. G. Geometric models of Whitney levels. Sci. W. Sot. Sot... Jr. W. 251260. Heldermann Verlag Berlin (1988).. B. 102771034.. Math. Math. Z. Acad. Eberhart and S. J. Lum. Gordh. Acad. An open Whitney map for the hyperspace of the circle. and L. J. 2636. R.. Jr. 207216. Nadler. Charatonik.Topology Appl. Goodykoontz. The dimension of certain hyperspaces. R’continua and hyperspaces.6 Exercise. Math. which are trivial bundles. Questions Answers Gen.. 21 (19851. 23 (1986). Springer. G. 7. J.. J. M. Editor.. 313314. J. On hypermaps. Polon. 3. W. In other words... Arcsmooth continua. B. Lum. {x}) = p(A). Lecture Notes in Math. J.. Gordh. Curtis and N. Let D. . B. Fund. 545561. 6. 3. 2. Ser. 213220. Conjkent mappings and zlnicoherence of continua.. the distance between a set and any point in the set does not depend on the choice of the point. Some retractions and deformation retractions on 2x and C(X). Czuba. S. Houston J. 4.Bull. 645656. 5. 1060 (1984). Math. 92 (1984).. Proc. Proc. Then DP( A. T. 265 (1981). Astronom. Awartani. Topology Proc. W. be as in Exercise 26. D. WHITNEY MAPS 26. 121133. A continuum X which has no confluent Whitney map for 2x. 19 (1985). Topology Appl. 11 (1993). Charatonik. Sci. Goodykoontz. BerlinNew York. Amer. 27 (1979). Whitney maps on hyperspaces of skew compactifications. S&. J. Charatonik. 12 13. Topology. Bull. Trans.
Vol. Grace and E... 1968. Allen. 39 (1964).167. Nadler. Pacific J.. 19.. 53 (1993). Colloq. Charlotte Topology Conference (University of North Carolina at Charlotte.. . T. Math. 6777. H.. 56 (1988).Y. B. Sot. A. J. H. Topology. B. Illanes.. Colloq.. Jr. 31.. Proc. 233260. 49. Math. Kuratowski. 2236. Some basic connectivity properties of Whitney map inverses in C(X). Nadler. Six theorems about injective metric spaces. 1978. 1975. Amer. Kato. II. 40 (1991). Hyperspaces of sets. E. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. Proc. 17. Y. Monotone and open Whitney maps defined in 2. Math.. Isbell. 26. J. Fund.. Inc. 52 (1942). Illanes. Math.. Spaces of Whitney maps. Illanes. Goodykoontz of 229 certain Peano continua. 21. Curves which are continuous tinua are movable. Sot. Math. 299309. K.. J. Vought. 157174. Krasinkiewicz. A. 16. 1974). Amer. 25. Amer. Stavrakas and K. Math. Arcsmoothness and contractibility in Whitney levels. Illanes. B. Illanes. Illanes. 89 (1975). 140 (1992). Math. Math. Proc.REFERENCES 15. Academic Press. L. 30. M.. l11. New York.. 14 (1988). Polish Scientific Publishers and Academic Press. Topology Appl. Sot. A. Concerning hyperspaces of certain Peano continua and strong regularity of Whitney maps. E. Amer. Pacific J. Topology Appl. A. S. Whitney levels in hyperspaces Trans. 29. Math. J. Fund. and open Whitney maps. 98 (1986). 157169.. Math. 18. The space of Whitney levels is homeomorphic to 12. Weakly monotone images of smooth dendroids are smooth. Hyperspaces of a continuum. Houston J. Math. N. 191200. and S. New York. 6576. A. Jr. 10691074. 22. Illanes. 24. Studies in Topology.R. Comm. 271288. A characterization of dendroids by the nconnectedness of the Whitney levels. Kato. N. A. 20. 671694. A.. Monotone Sot. 516518. 110 (1990). The space of Whitney levels. 23. Editors.. J. images of treelike co7128. R. 139 (1989). 159. 119 (1985). Math. Jr. 274 (1982).. 393410. Helv. On admissible Whitney maps. 27.. Vol. Trans. S. Marcel Dekker. 65 (1993). Kelley. Nadler.
U. Math. H. Fund. 52 (1984). Ann. Math. I. H. Providence. . Traslation: Math. 93 (1981). Sot. 4756. Radul. Whyburn. T. 244270. Sot. Sci. (Russian) Mat. West. Math. Compositio Math.. 243255. 1942. 34.A.. Vol. Colloq. Amer. 38. Zametki.. Regular families of curves.. 117122. 32 (1939). Acad. Analytic Topology. G. Publ. L. 147151. Whitney. B. 465469. 33. 18 (1932) 275278. 39.E. Jr. Ward. Canad. Pacific J.. T. and T. 28. Proc. Extending Whitney maps. Whitney mappings for a space of inclusion hyperspaces. Fund. Ward. A note on Whitney maps. Whitney..S. N.. Math. 35. I. M. van de Vel. 52 (19921. 34 (1933). S. 23 (1980) 373374. E. 37. Notes. 41. 52 (1992). On generalized Whitney mappings. Regular families of curves. R/I. 960964.. 15 (1989). Bull. Math. of Math. Size levels for arcs. Math. Wojdyslawski. Jr. Houston J. Re’tractes absoluset hyperespacesdescontinus. A Whitney map and the Lindeliif property. 40.230 VII.. WHITNEY MAPS 32. T.. Jr.. 141 (1992). Nat. Nadler. Math. Amer. 184192. Watanabe.. R. 36. L..
9 (see also Exercise 27. Whitney Properties and WhitneyReversible Properties 27. As it was shown in Theorem 19. This implies that the map t + is continuous. Definitions In this chapter the letter IL will denote any Whitney map for C(S). + 0 as n + 00. 11 is a monotone and open map.). p‘(tll) is a continuum which we visualize as being a horizontal level in C(X) (see Figure 33. It follows easily form the definition of /J that p‘(0) = ({z} : z E X} = Fl(X). or equivalently. with the three notions of 231 . then /~l(&) + p‘(O). top of the next page). On the other hand.p(X)] into C(C(X)) is a continuous monotone decomposition of family {/l‘(t) : t E [O. These properties are called Whitney properties (see Definition 27.6) and Exercise 14. and in particular. those properties induced by the space S to the Whitney levels. are homeomorphic in a natural way by asNote that X and Fi(X) sociating z with (~1.p(X)]} C(X).1). from [O. Then it is natural to study the topological properties of the Whitney levels for C(X). Thus it is also natural to study those topological properties which are preserved under the approximation of X by the levels pl@.25. if we consider a sequence {t. This idea was formalized in [80]. the p‘(t). For each 71. /L(X)] such that t.L}rZ1 in [0.VIII..
232 VIII. (c) a strong Whitneyreversible property provided that whenever X is a continuum such that p‘(t) has property P for some Whitney map p for C(X) and all 0 < t < p(X).U for C(X) and for each t. 0 I t < P(X). WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. 27. Then (a) a Whitney property provided that if a continuum X has property P. (c) and (d) in the following defini [66] and [80]. Let P be a topological property.. (b) a Whitneyreversible property provided that whenever X is a continuum such that p‘(t) has property P for all Whitney maps p for C(X) and all 0 < t < p(X). then X has property P. . Whitney levels Figure 33 Whitneyreversible tion). then X has property P. . so does p‘(t) for each Whitney map .1 Definition P is said to be: property (see (b).
EXERCISES 233 (d) a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property provided that whenever X is a continuum such that there is a Whitney map b for C(X) and a sequence{tn}~Tl in (0. Notice that: (a) a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property is a strong Whitneyreversible property. 14. Hence A is homeomorphic to an arc.2 Question [79. Question 14. The following question remains open.55. We will see in section 30 that the property of being an AH. (b) a strong Whitneyreversible property is a Whitneyreversible property. Whitneyreversible properties. Consider the function f : A + [0. In Chapter XIV of [i’9] there is a complete discussion of what was known in 1978. Exercises 27. 11. 11). The hyperspace C(X) some levels homeomorphic to [0. and (c) the negation of a Whitney property is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. = 0 and pl (tn) has property P for each n. 27. p(X)) such that lim t. l] given by f(A) = the middle point of A.5 Exercise.11. Many authors have studied Whitney properties and Whitneyreversible properties. Then f is a homeomorphism onto its image. of the sin($)continuum has 27. then X has property P. A table summarizing the results in the chapter is at the end of the chapter preceding the references. . The property of being a circle is a Whitney property. 27. strong Whitneyreversible properties or sequential Whitneyreversible properties.3 Exercise. has these characteristics. In [79. Is there a strong Whitneyreversible property which is not a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property? As we will seein this chapter. Let A be a Whitney level for C([O. there are many Whitney properties which are not Whitneyreversible properties and vice versa.4 Exercise.561 it was asked if there is a Whitneyreversible property which is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. The purpose of this chapter is to give a complete discussionof the known topological properties which are Whitney properties.
. and An+1 and contained in the 2sphere in R3 with center (0. ANR The interested reader can find the theory of Absolute Neighborhood Retracts (ANR) and Absolute Retracts (AR) in the classical monograph by Borsuk [5]. Here we do not use the unicoherence of C(X) (cornpare with the proof of Theorem 19. Let X be a continuum.. Some information about ARs and ANRs is in section 9. Let A be a Whitney level for C(X). Let contractible. $$r) and radius 4%.2. and let p denote the restriction to C(X) of the Whitney map constructed as in Exercises 13.6 Exercise. be the closed “bulging annulus” bounded by the circles A.2. The basic Petrus ideas used to do this are similar to those in Example 30. for each n = 1. Then H and K are nonempty disjoint closed subsets of X whose union is X.. 0 . .) for each n = has shown that p‘(to) is not locally 1. 27. Define H = U?i and K = UK. Let A0 = {(z. where ‘Il and K are nonempty disjoint closed subsets of A.5 and 13. A) E R3 : x2 + y2 = I}.1. Suppose that A = ?i u K. Let x = Cl~3(U~~lXn) = (U~lW UAo. . Then (I3 E p‘(t) : B c A} and (I3 E pr(t) : B f~ A # 0) are connected. y. Assume the metric d for X is the usual Euclidean metric for R3 restricted to X. let An = {(x..4.. The property of being an absolute neighborhood retract is not a Whitney property. and the details to= p(AO)(= p(A.. . Example 51. E R3 : x2 + y2 = 1) For each n = 1.1 27. Let .. 28. This exercise gives an alternative proof of the connectednessof Whitney levels. . Example 501 or [86.7 Exercise.1 Example [84. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.y.9).O) and. X is represented in Figure 34 (top of the next page).2.18 or Exercise 28. Let X be a continuum. [Hint: Use Exercise 16.LL a Whitney map for be C(X) and let A E C(X). let X.6. ..234 VIII.). 28.
being locally contractible and having finitely generated homology groups are not strong Whitneyreversible properties. Next.571. In her dissertation ([15. see Exercise 28. it was asked whether the property of being an absolute neighborhood retract (ANR) is a strong Whitneyreversible property (or a Whitneyreversible property). the example shows that being an absolute neighborhood retract is not a Whitney property (absolute neighborhood retracts are locally contractible.28. In [79. we will use the powerful theorem by Lynch presented in Theorem 66.13). p.l]. It was suggested that the continuum X which is the union of a sequence of circles joined only by a point (the continuum called Hawaiian earring illustrated in Figure 26. Theorem 161) Dilks used this continuum X to show that the properties of being an ANR. Since X Z S1 x [O. .1) will not be done here. ANR 235 Being an ANR is not a Whitney Figure 34 property (28. could be used to see that being an ANR is not a Whitneyreversible property.4 of the next chapter ([74]) and the same continuum X to show that the above mentioned properties are not Whitneyreversible properties. Question 14. 162).
is an arc. Let X be a continuum. Then it follows easily that A is an ANR ocally contractible (Exercise 28.18 is obtained. Since the sequence{X. : n > I}. Define q(t) = a(st) U@(t).0 : [0.) > t} is finite. (a) being an ANR.3 Theorem [75. In this exercise a more precise version of Exercise 16. n f3 = {A.13) and A has ([5. Chapter V. . p. Define A = p‘(t) and B = {A E A : p f A}. It is easy to show that G.4 Exercise. Exercises 28. Since p is the common point of all the So circles X. Consider X the continuum illustrated in Figure 26. and (c) having finitely generated homology groups are not Whitneyreversible properties. Theorem 1. 2. Then t = p(A) < p(X. By Theorem 14. a is an AR. 28.. Let P be any Whitney map for C(X) and let t E (O...}r=i tends to {p}. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.} Let A E A . The property of being an ANR is a Whitney property for ldimensional continua. there exists st E [0. ~(0) = A.).B. Let A = ~1l (to) be a positive Whitney level for C(X). let 3.9]). Since X does not have any of these properties. l] such that o(st) u /3(t) E A. 28.2 Example. if s < t. = {A E A : A c X. B E A be such that A # B and AITB # 0. have the and the sets &.))l(t) and 6. I] + C(X) such that (Y(O) = C = p(O). with a finite union of pairwise disjoint arcs joined to t3 only by their end points. A is the union of the AR. a(1) = A. and B. 11. are pairwise disjoint.. Let C be a component of AnB. where each X. This proves that A = B U (U{& : n E F}). .p(X)) be an arbitrary number. For each t E [0. Then q is a well defined map. of 6. is a circle in R2 and p is the common point of all the circles.. The following properties: (b) being locally contractible. then 4s) 5 49 and P(s) $ B(t). By Lynch’s theorem in [74] (Theorem 66. Fn is a circle.B. we conclude that these properties are not Whitneyreversible properties. the set F = {n : p(X. Suppose that X = u{X.l]. .6 there exist maps cr. there exists n such that A 9 X. r](l) = B and C c q(t) C A U B for every t E [O. = ck&{A E 3n : p $ A}). By Exercise 27.. p(1) = B and. 162.4. . t3. Therefore. the end points A. Then p 4 A.236 VIII. Let A. For each n E F.} = (&Z’(X. A is 1 finitely generated homology groups.. property that 6.4).1 (i)]. n E F and A E &.
l]). A.9 Exercise. By Lynch’s theorem in [74] (Theorem 66.. If X is a continuum and X is not hereditarily unicoherent.] 28. then A n B is connected.4 and 66. If there is only one arc joining A and B in A. 28. cr.4. Let X be a continuum. .1 X.} be a countable dense subset of X. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for Let {ur.8. p and q be as in Exercise 28. Let n be as in Exercise 237 an arc in a conbe a monotone : Imcr + R’ by map.13 ible. If there is only one arc joining A and B in A. Let p : C(X) + R’ be a Whitney map.6 Exercise.8 Exercise. .12 Exercise. Let (Y : [0. Then f is a well defined onetoone 28. Suppose that there exists a finite subset F of X such that X . then: (a) v(t) n B = P(t) for each t E [O.1 28. .10 Exercise. [Hint: Use Exercises 28. e. 28. 11) is an arc 28. 28. Define f f(4t)) = ~(4[0.7. Let A be a Whitney level for C(X) and let p E X. then some positive Whitney level for C(X) contains a circle. Then locally connected Whitney levels for C(X).4. (b) {D E C(B) : An B c D} = p([O. then P(t) .] is an f : X + [O. and (c) if s < t. l] + X map. tl)). Prove. A and B be as in Exercise 28. Let A. B. Then the map given by f(z) = [a.11 nonempty there are [Hint: Exercise.4. A nondegenerate monotone image of tinuum is an arc.F is not connected.p(s) is connected. . [Hint: Let X be a continuum. Exercise.7 Exercise.l]” embedding. Use Proposition 10.4) the space a = {A E A : p E A} is an AR.~.EXERCISES 28. Absolute neighborhood retracts are locally contract . in A. Then n([O. Let X be a continuum. without using Lynch’s theorem that Z? is locally connected. Let A.5 Exercise.l]. 28. 28..
there exists a subcontinuum M of X such that p E intx (M) and M n F = 0. .4 answered questions by van Douwen and Goodykoontz (see [17. 29. Propositions 9. (c) mutual aposyndesis. there exists a subcontinuum M of X such that intx (M) contains one of the points p. The following are Whitney properties: (a) semiaposyndesis. if for any p E X and any finite subset F of X such that p $ F. Aposyndesis 29.4 Example [44. if for every p E X and any zerodimensional closed subset F of X such that p $! F there exists a subcontinuum M of X such that p E intx (M) and M fl F = 0. if for every p # q in X. A continuum X is said to be: (a) semiuposyndetic. Theorem 29. There exists a nonaposyndetic dendroid X such that every positive Whitney level for C(X) is zerodimensional closed set aposyndetic.. Countable closed set aposyndesis is a Whitney property. there exist subcontinua M and iV of X such p E i&x(M). The concept of aposyndesis was introduced by Jones in [46].238 VIII. p. 29. 29.2 Theorem [85. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.3 and Example 29. 10. (c) mutually uposyndetic. where several authors surveyed the relationships among aposyndesisand other topological concepts. q E intx(N) and M f~ N = 0. and (d) finite aposyndesis. if for every p # q in X. Questions 3 and 41). if for any p E X and any countable closed subset F of X such that p $! F there exists a subcontinuum M of X such that p E intx(M) and M f~ F = 8. An excellent reference for aposyndesis properties is the book [93]. even for dendroids. there exists a subcontinuum M of X such that p E i&x(M) and q 4 M. Theorem A].3 Theorem [44. 601. (b) aposyndetic. Therefore. if for every p # q in X.1 Definition. the following properties are not Whitneyreversible properties: . (e) countable closed set aposyndetic. (d) finitely aposyndetic. q and X .M contains the other one. (b) aposyndesis. 29. 11 and 121. (f) zerodimensional closed set aposyndetic.
10 Exercise. Prove that the positive Whitney levels of X are aposyndetic while X is not aposyndetic. Let X be a continuum. 471). Example 461. 29. there exists a neighborhood U of A in C(X) and there exists 6 > 0 such then every order arc joining an that if 1s . The continuum X in Figure 36. Example 2] or Example 30. 29. (c) countable closed set aposyndesis.1 30. [86. erties. Deduce that C(X) is countable closed set aposyndetic.1) discovered the important fact that there is a Whitney level A. Let 13 be a closed subset of Then C(X) and let A E C(X) . The continuum 2 is a dendrite without free arcs (every arc has empty interior) and X is the union of a sequence of copies of Z converging to another copy Za of Z.p(X)]. p.5 Example (see [17. Is zerodimensional desis a Whitney property? and mutual aposyn closed set aposyn Exercises 29.EXERCISES 239 (a) aposyndesis. Question 31.3. [Hint: Use Lemma 17. then every Whitney level for C(X) which contains A is connected im kleinen at A. element in U to an element in p‘(s) is disjoint to f?.8 Exercise.7 Exercise. Let p be a Whitney map for C(X).6 Question [17. Example 29. . Semiaposyndesis desis are not Whitneyreversible properties.p(A)! < 6 and s E [O.9 Exercise. In her dissertation.B. p.1. and (d) zerodimensional closed set aposyndesis.4 is represented in Figure 35 (next page). (b) finite aposyndesis. If X is a continuum and X is locally connected at a point p and p E A E C(X). 29. 29. all of them joined by a point p. Aposyndesis and finite aposyndesis are Whitney prop 29. AR See comments preceding Example 28. 241 is the union of a sequence {Cn}r=i of circles in the plane joined by a point and converging to a limit circle Cc. Petrus ([84.
240 VIII. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE..4) Figure 35 . ++ X // Some aposyndesis properties are not Whitneyreversible properties (29. .
(f) having the fixed point property.30.9) for the hyperspace C(D) of the plane unit disk D. Thus her example showed that the properties listed in the next example are not Whitney properties: 30.1 Example [84. (e) being nconnected. Example 21. (b) being acyclic. [86. (d) being contractible. The following erties are not Whitney properties: (a) being an AR. such that A contains a 2sphere S which is a retract of A. Example 461. AR 241 Aposyndesis is not a Whitneyreversible Figure 36 property (29. prop and properties goes as follows: (g) having trivial shape. (c) being arcsmooth. The proof that (a)(g) are not Whitney .
+l)}.O. l). 2).(O. The formulas in (3) and (4) define a function g from S” into .O. z) n S’(a) which is nearest. 1) = S2(. The . It is easy to see that g is a homeomorphism. it.’ (to) such that g( S2) is a retract of p‘(to).0. z) E s2 : z = zo) Note that.Z).+l)). z)) = to and such that $(.1 in Chapter XV]).y.to (2.y. We will define a homeomorphism g from S2 into p. (0.the metric d for . Next. Then by (2)..p(S2($)) > to.l).)) (2) /G”(z)) > = /@(+.4(x.v. from the formula for p.0. For each z0 E [1. S2 is an rimage of p‘(to) . First. g is an embedding of S’ into p‘(to). whenever $ < z < +i..O. (1) implies that the values of & in (3) are members of .{(O. We define: (4) if (z. then g(z.u‘(to) (in particular. y. there is one and only one subarc .z) (as above). For each (s.e. Let p denote the restriction to C(X) of the Whitney map constructed in Exercises 13.c. Let S” be the unit 2sphere in R” and let Thus >y is a 2cell.0. y.+1)) and let. Now we define y. y.K’(to)).242 VIII. y. (##) $(z. Thus.)) t0 = to.y.O. 2) denote the longitudinal great circle in S2 containing {(GYY. follows that. To show that g(S2) is a retract of 11l (to). WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Let to = p({(x.Y is the usual Euclidean metric for R3 restricted to X x .y. z) is the midpoint of A(z.{(O. let (z. (1) and (2) below hold: (1) &9.O. .$1 and g(O. let S’(z0) = {(x.l). g.y.z) E S2 . y. . .. 9.O. +l].(O.z) denote the unique point in G(z. g.z) = A(z.e.see [6. (O. (0.yz) E S{(O.z.O.z) E x : z = +i}). +l) = S2(+$). since S’( 5) is a circle. z) of S”(f) such that i~(A(.z) E S2 .l). Petrus defines a continuous function f from ~~l(to) onto S2 such that f o g is the identity mapping on S2 (i.5 and 13.6 .+l)}. let (#) G(s. i. z).Y. let (3) 9(0.
Theorem l. 30. Let A E pl(to). then p(A) > to. Then p(A) < +f).1 (a) for ldimensional continua.c’ (to) onto S2 and that f o g : S2 + S2 is the identity mapping. which is more general than (2): (5) if A is a subcontinuum of U{.~‘(to) onto a 2sphere. . we have shown: (8) there is a retraction of . Therefore. homeomorphism.4 does not satisfy (7).2 Theorem a Whitney property [75.$. 531 or [86. The following theorem shows that it is impossible to obtain an example such as 30. then let f(A) = (O. 2781). as it would be true for any subcontinuum of X (actually. since A does not satisfy (6). . we will give a descriptive one (an analytical definition is in [84.30. p.(ii)]. Also. A # S2 (+ i) and “projects along longitudinal great circles” onto S2(0). note that p(A) 5 +i. let m(A) denote the midpoint of Ao. assume A is not as in (6) or (7).$) . 1). 5 z 5 +i} such that il # S2 (. p(A) > 4. we see that. It can be seen that f is a continuous function from . AR 243 mapping f is defined with the help of the following fact. g(S2) is a retract Since g is a of pl(tO) (the mapping g o f being the desired retraction). Let f (.!?“(z) : . Instead of giving an analytical definition off. Then. Hence 1 5 2p(A) < +1 and so S2(2p(A)) “makes sense”.O. including the property of being an AR are not strong Whitneyreversible properties. (5) that A “projects along longitudinal great S2(0). A is not contained in S(+t). then let f(A) = (O. p.4) denote that unique point in This completes the deG(m(A)) n S”(2p(A)) which 1s nearest to m(A). +l). we have by circles” onto a subarc A0 of Letting p(A) = N ow. since p(A) = to. If (7) A = S(+$). The property for ldimensional continua. since . Therefore.l.O. scriptive definition of f. pcL’ (to) does not have any of the properties (a) through (g). of being an AR is The following general theorem shows that many properties. inf{z : An S2(z) # 0}. Since the disk has each one of these properties we conclude that properties (a) through (g) are not Whitney properties. If (6) An (U{S”(a) : 1 I z 5 +}) # 0.
Corollary 4.5 Theorem [25.41. Goodykoontz and Nadler have observed that such an example is impossible in dimension one.244 VIII. Proof. . The property of being an AR is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property for the classof ldimensional continua.51.6 Theorem. Let X be a continuum such that every positive Whitney level is an AR.9). Corollary 13. Therefore. Then K is not an AR.4 is a 2dimensional continuum. 30. Then they have property P.561. P is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. If P is a topological property which the Hilbert cube has but which the cone over some Peano continuum does not have. Theorem 4.. Notice that K is not locally contractible at q.51). Remarks 4. 30.3 and 52. property.O) E K. Question 14. By Theorem 25. X is an AR ([5.it was asked whether there is a Whitneyreversible property which is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. . 30. we conclude that the property of being an AR is such a property. The property of being an AR is the first and the only known property having these characteristics.2. Combining results 30. Then there is an admissible Whitney map p for C(K) (Theorem 25. Notice that the example given in 30.6.3 implies that the property of being an AR is not a strong Whitneyreversible property.2. Then every positive Whitney level is a 2connected locally connected continuum. then P is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. X is a dendrite.13]). Let X be the continuum in Example 28. The property of being an AR is a Whitneyreversible Proof. that is. X is a IocaIly connected dendroid. Let K be the cone over X and let q = (p. By Theorems 53. the positive Whitney levels for p are homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube. m 30. Theorem 30. q is the point which corresponds to p in the base of the cone.4 and 30. Chapter V. 2. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WKITNEYREVERSIBLE.3 (b). n In [79. Let K be the cone over some Peano continuum X such that K does not have property P. Chapter V. The property of being an AR is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. That is.31. Since the Hilbert cube is an AR (see [5. Therefore.3 Theorem [25.4 Example [25.
Take a proper nondegenerate subcontinuum B of A = p‘(t). Since X has : C E D} is a nondegenerate the covering property.6.1 Theorem property (Exercise Being an Arc of being an arc is a Whitney [62.3 Theorem [79.521. is not 31.5 Theorem uum is a Whitney property. Let N be a positive integer such that t. The property of having a basis of compact connected unicoherent neighborhoods is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. Then there is a nondegenerate subcontinuum B of X such that B n A = 0.13).~(B)} for every n > N. A continuum X is said to be an arccontinuum each of its nondegenerate proper subcontinua is an arc. see Definition 35. p(X)) such that lim t. Let X be a continuum. 31. if [16. Let X be a disk.4 Definition.501. Corollary 14.4 (a)].p(X)). The property of not containing an arc is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 31. The property of being an arccontinproperty for the class of continua having the covering Proof. < min{~(A). and hence B is an arc. The property 27.EXERCISES 245 Exercises 30. So 23 is a nondegenerate Hence. . 31. Let X be a continuum. the set B = U{C proper subcontinuum of X. Suppose that there is a Whitney map p for C(X) and there is a sequence{tn}rzr in (0.8 Exercise. Proof. Corollary 14. = 0 and pel(tn) is an arccontinuum for each n. 30.2 Theorem [79.13). For the definition of covering property. Theorem 71. Let ~1be a Whitney map for C(X) and let t E (O.3.6 Theorem. converges to Fr(X) and an AR for any n.1). n 31. Then there exists a sequence of Whitney levels for C(X) such that A. The property of being an arc is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 31. 31. t3 is an arc. The property of being an arccontinuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. 31.7 Exercise. Whitney levels of arcs are arcs (Theorem 31. because subcontinuum of A n C(B) = (p]C(B))l(t). Let A be a nondegenerate proper subcontinuum of X. {dn}pz=1 A. 31.3).
the choosen point q. we can apply Theorem 31.] 31. Let X be a continuum. an arc.p(X)] by f(q) = p(the unique arc in X joining p and q). Then f ]Y is continuous. If X is a nondegenerate locally connected continuum without circles or simple triods (the definition of a simple triod is in the paragraph preceding Example 5. Therefore. Example 11. Since p(A) > t.7 Example [16.ujC(A))’ (tn) is nondegenerate.8 Exercise.) .11 Exercise. For each n 2 N. n Dilks and Rogers ([16. Now.uJC(A))l (tn).12 Exercise. of being an arccontin Exercises 31. then X is an arc. then X is decomposable.. Suppose that X is an arcwise connected continuum and it does not contain circles.25]).(.3. Example 11) also showed that the covering property is an essential hypothesis in Theorem 31.2 and we conclude that A is an arc. [Hint: Use Theorem 52. If C(X) has a level homeo 31. Then f is not necessarily continuous.2 and 31. a subcontinuum of CL’ (tn). [Hint: Fix a point p E X and define f as in Exercise 31.9 Exercise.9 for such that f(q) = max{f(z) : 2 E X}. Then C E p‘(tn) . 31. 11. Fix a point p E X. then (pJC(A))’ (tn) is an arc.13 Exercise.9. (.. (&Z(A))‘(t. 31. Let p be a Whitney map for C(X). Prove Theorems 31.5. [Hint: Y is locally arcwise connected ([81. morphic to [0.12. Define f : X + [O.10 Exercise. define f’ as in Exercise 31. Theorem 8. Let y E X be such that f’(y) = max{f’(s) Prove that X is equal to the unique arc joining q and y.1 .246 VIII.] 31.9. An atriodic locally connected continuum is a circle or 31. The property uum is not a Whitney property. Since is p(B) > t.. there is a subcontinuum C of B such that p(C) = t. pLl (tn) is an arccontinuum. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Let f be as in Exercise 31. By hypothesis.. Let Y be a locally connected subcontinuum of X..2 and Exercise 31.4). Let q E X be : z E X}.
2 Example (Quinn.1 Theorem (see [79. [39].81). As we will see in this section a more radical example can be constructed. The property of being an arcwise connected continuum is a Whitney property (Exercise 33. 32. 33. In Exercises of arcsmooth continua.2 Theorem smooth continuum [23. The property of being an is not a Whitneyreversible property (Exercise Quinn’s example in 33. arcwise connected continuum 33.15). X is not contractible and then it is not arcsmooth (Exercise 25. for each rational number z. 32. [78. In [39] Goodykoontz’s example was modified and it was shown that every positive Whitney level for the continuum in Figure 37 (b) is arcsmooth. the following theorem by Goodykoontz shows that being arcsmooth is a Whitney property for ldimensional continua (see Exercise 25.35).2 ([78. Definition of arcsmoothness 25. Theorem 14.37 there are some properties ArcSmoothness is in Definition 25. The Since ldimensional contractible continua are dendroids [lo. Proposition 121).1 Example [84.n) = 1.35 to 32. [86.32. a vertical segment of length i is constructed. The property of being an arcis a Whitney property for the class of dendroids. ARCSMOOTHNESS 247 32.3 Example erty. 30.35). Example 461. In that continuum X. Arcsmoothness is not a Whitneyreversible prop 33. Theorem 5. Arcwise Connectedness 33. Example 21 (Example property of being arcsmooth is not a Whitney property. In [24] Goodykoontz constructed geometric models for Whitney levels of some nonlocally connected continua. p‘(t) is arcsmooth for every t > 0. Using Petrus’ technique (Example 30. Notice that.16). Proposition 11.1).41. In this way he showed that the continuum in Figure 37 (a) (top of the next page) admits a Whitney map ~1 such that. This theorem generalizes the respective previous result by Petrus for dendrites ([86. . Example 31). with (m.8.1) it is possible to prove that this continuum has noncontractible (and then nonarcsmooth) positive Whitney levels. Example 31) contains arcs. 25.
and (d) every positive Whitney level for C(X) is arcwise connected. (b) there is a Whitney map and there is a sequence {tm}~zl in (0. pEAl.} of X such that diameter (Ai) < e. Notice that each arcwise connected continuum is continuum chainable. 33. . . A continuum X is continuum chainable if for each positive number E and each pair of points p # q in X.3) 33.4 Theorem. p(X)) such that tm + 0 and p‘(tm) is continuum chainable for every m. (4 Arcsmoothness is not a Whitneyreversible Figure 37 lb) property (32.248 VIII. . continuum chainability is more general than arcwise connectedness. Recently. A. . However. For a continuum X the following statements are equivalent: (a) X is continuum chainable.qEA. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.andAinAi+i#Iforeveryi<n. (c) there is a Whitney map p for C(X) such that p‘(t) is arcwise connected for every t > 0. . even in the plane. Hagopian and Oversteegen used inverse limits and a technique of Janiszewski to construct a continuum chainable plane continuum that does not contain any arc ([34]). . there is a finite sequence of subcontinua {AI..3 Definition.
. If D is an element in dindi+i then D c Ai n A. Fix points p E A and q E B. A is arcwise connected. (d) + (c) and (c) =+ (b). Let 11 a Whitney map for be C(X) and let {tm}~=i be a sequencein (O. 33. . B E A.+1 # 0 for every i < n. (b) + (a).} of X such that diameter (Ai) < E.+1 # 8 for every i < n. then p.5. There is a plane continuum X such that every positive Whitney level for C(X) is arcwise connected and X does not contain arcs. nd... . q E B c A. it follows that there exists t > 0 such that if C E C(X) is such that p(C) 5 t. An D1 # 0. Dnel n D. dn} of subcontinua of A such that A E di. Notice that A. Let oi be an order arc in C(X). Hence. ARCWISE CONNECTEDNESS 249 Proof.4 each one of the pairs {A. then diameter (C) < 2. the continuum X can be very far from being arcwise connected. Let A = pl(t) and take A. Let A. A. C Nd( 6. For each i 2 n.33.. Since A is continuum chainable. This completes the proof diameter [Nd(i.6 Corollary. and Ai n A. The property of being continuum chainable is both a Whitney property and a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. A.5 Example [34]. . From Lemma 17. define Ai = U{D : D E A. to X. Fix an element Di E A. {Dn1. By Exercises 16. C Di. p(A2) < t. Dn} and {Dn. 33. there exists a sequenceof subcontinua {Al. we have that the example of Hagopian and Oversteegen in [34] shows that even if every positive Whitney level is arcwise connected. d iameter (Ai) < E. . p E Al. . . (a) 3 (d).. E C(X). W As a consequence of Theorem 33. Therefore. Clearly. B E A. then Ai n A. diameter (di) < f (with the Hausdorff metric) and A. Then there exists an element Di E oi II A.p(X)) such that t. Dl}. then diameter (Di) < $. . By Exercise 11. (01. B) can be connected by a path in A. .Di)] that X is continuum chainable and the proof of the theorem. A. B E A be Take M > 1 such that TV < t and let A = II‘( such that p E A and q E B. from A. Since X is continuum chainable.4. Let ~1be an arbitrary Whitney map for C(X) and let t > 0. . # 0 and D. n B # 0. . Notice that p E A c Al. Let d denote a metric for X. For each i 5 n.+1 # 0.+l.18 or 28. Take two points p. .3.}. By the continuity of ~1there exists c > 0 such that if diameter (C) < 6. Dz}. Since diameter (AL) < a. Di).(C) < t.. Dl n D2 # 0. . q E X and E > 0. q E A. there exists a finite sequence { di. . . + 0 and pl (tm) is continuum chainable for every m. Since 5 F. A and B can be connected by a path in A.
. in F p(O) = x and p(l) = y. Hence. < tk = 1 such that for each i E we have diameter [p([t*1.4 and 33. Theorem 2. Lemma 1.61.. A continuum X is said to be uniformly provided that there is a family . Is the property of being uniformly pathwise connected a Whitney property? Is this property a Whitneyreversible property (strong Whitneyreversible property.F = {p : [0.9 Theorem [l.10 Question. 33. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. 33. . If X is a continuum chainable and hereditarily unicoherent continuum. then X is an arc or a circle. .12 Theorem [55.0 Question. connected pathwise of paths such that there are { 1. if a continuum X is continuum chainable and it does not contain coods. .11 Definition [67]. sequential strong Whitneyreversible property)? .7 Theorem [40. hereditarily arcwise connectedness is a strong Whitneyreversible property. l] + X} satisfying (a) for every two points x and y in X there is a path I.4). The property of being uniformly pathwise connected is a Whitney property for the class of continua that have property (K). By Theorems 33. Corollary 3.31.13 Questions. k} The notion of “uniformly pathwise connected” was introduced by Kuperberg in [67] where he showedthat a continuum X is uniformly pathwise connected if and only if X is a continuous image of the Cantor fan (the cone over the Cantor set).21.7. .17).. 33. Assume that p‘(t) is hereditarily arcwise connected for each t E (O. . ti])] 5 E. the property of being arcwise connected is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property for the classof hereditarily unicoherent continua. 33. Is the property of being an hereditarily arcwise connected continuum a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property? 33.p(X)). 33.250 VIII. then X is arcwise connected (Exercise 33. (b) for each c > 0 there is k such that for each path p E 3 numbers 0 = to < tl < . is X arcwise connected? 33. Is the property of being an arcwise connected continuum a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property for the class of continua which do not contain coods? Or equivalently (Theorem 33.
Prove Theorem 33. (b) in the particular case that Z is the harmonic fan (see Figure 23. sequential strong Whitneyreversible) property? When Z is locally connected.15 Exercise.] 33.14 Questions. This example is due to Rogers [88] and it is represented in Figure 38 (a) (top of the next page).23 in [81].2). Question 33.18 Exercise.1 and 52.7. Notice that for small t > 0. This implies that A is an arc joining p and q.14 has been solved affirmatively (Theorems 52. 92) and W is the sin($)continuum. by Theorem 8. the continuous images of Z are precisely the locally connected continua. In the case that Z is the Cantor fan (the cone over the Cantor set). . let A = n{B E C(X) : p.20. show that %2(Z) is properly contained in m(W).1.16 Exercise. Example 5.8. which are continuous (a) m(Z) = m(W) For a continuum 2 let m(Z) be the class of continua images of Z.61. connected. Then. Then for this case the Question 33.14 becomes Question 37. [Hint: Use Exercises 16. Then A is a subcontinuum of X. [Hint: If p. Prove Theorem 33.2).13 and in the case that Z is the pseudoarc. 34.q E B}.17 Exercise. p.18 or 28. Let Z be a fixed nondegenerate continuum. Question 33.5). Being Atriodic 12. Construct continuum chainable continuum an example of a nonarcwise (Example 33. Exercises 33.q E X.1 33. A is arcwise connected.EXERCISES 251 33. strong Whitneyreversible. The property of being an atriodic continuum is not a Whitney property (see Theorem 34. p.14 becomes Question 33. 34. Then: if and only if Z E m(W) and W E m(Z).1 Example [88. Whitney levels for C(X) are as the space represented in Figure 38 (b). 33. An atriodic Definition of a triod and an nod is in Exercise continuum is a continuum without triods.q E A and A is connected im kleinen at each of its points. Is the property of being a continuous image of Z a Whitney (Whitneyreversible.4.
Theorem 2. .. In fact. (4 lb) Atriodicity is not a Whitney property (34. The property of being atriodic and treelike is a Whitney property.11.4 Theorem [79.2 Question.21.5 Theorem [31.252 VIII.8).1) Figure 38 34. Theorem 14. The property of being an atriodic continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 34.6 Question. then there exists 6 > 0 such that p‘(t) is a triod for each 0 5 t < 6. . Is the property of being atriodic a Whitney property for continua having the property of Kelley? 34. The property of being atriodic and having k’(. Is the property of being an nod a Whitney property? 34. 34. 34. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Theorem 3.491.) z 0 is a Whitney property. 34.41.49.3 Theorem [79.7 Theorem [83. The property of not being a triod is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. if X is a triod. Theorem 14.
C*Smoothness. provided that no proper subcontinuum of p‘(t) covers X for any Whitney map 11 C(X) and any t E [O. 35.10 Exercise. be an nod.31). Let Y E C(X) Then there exists 6 > 0 such that. for each 0 < t < 6. for A continuum X is said to have the covering property hereditarily written X E CPH if every nondegenerate subcontinuum of X has the covering property.. provided that every map from any continuum onto X is weakly confluent. For each n 2 1 there is an atriodic continuum that there are Whitney levels for C(X) which contain nods. p‘(t) nod.1 Definition [79. define C* : C(X) + C(C(X)) by C*(A) = C(A).e.9 Exercise. Class(W) and Covering Property 35.51. there exists a component C of f‘(K) such that f(C) = K. written X E CP.p(X)]. 34. It is easy to see (Exercise 77. 35. The concept of Class(W) was introduced in 1972 by Lelek in his seminar at the University of Houston. then the function C* : C(Z) + C(C(2)) is continuous at X. The continuum X is said to be in Class(W). A continuum X is said to be Vsmooth provided that C* is continuous on C(X).2 Definition. Let X be a continuum. 34. nod.EXERCISES 253 Exercises 34. An onto continuous function between continua f : X + Y is said to be weakly confluent provided that for each subcontinuum K of Y. contains an Prove that if X contains an contains an (n .1)cell ([66. Definition 15. then there is t > 0 such that p‘(t) Corollary 3. A continuum X is said to be C*smooth at A E C(X) provided that the function C* is continuous at A. For a continuum X. i. Later in [28.3) that f is weakly confluent if and only if the induced map C(f) : C(Z) + C(Y) given by C(f)(A) = f(A) is surjective.8 Exercise. then X E Class(W).73. written X E Class(W). Let X be a continuum. Theorem 14.211appeared a theorem by Hughes which says that if X is a continuum and X E CP.3 Definition. A continuum X is said to have the covering property. X such 35. at each A E C(X). A continuum X is said to be absolutely C*smooth ([28]) provided that if X is a subcontinuum of a continuum 2. In [79. .
In Exercise 35. Consider the spacesrepresented in Figure 39 (next page). 35. Is the property of being in Class(W) (or equivalently having covering property) a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property? 35. Take a nondegenerate subcontinuum A of X. versible property.8 Theorem.76. Grispolakis and Tymchatyn proved that the following statements are equivalent: (a) X is absolutely C*smooth. Charatonik ([ll. and for each t E (O. Thus. [79.. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Let X be a continuum. The property of being in Class(W) is not a Whitney property.254 VIII. we can use the following simpler example by W. 35.1). The property of having CPH is a Whit The property of having CPH is a strong Whitneyre Proof. Since we know that being in Class(W) is equivalent to having covering property. . Then . 35.u(A)). Proctor in [87] showed that (a) (and then (b) and (c)) are also equivalent to the following property: (d) every compactification Y of [O..5 Example [29. Notice that PIG’(A) is a Whitney map for C(A).51.1) with remainder X has the property that C(Y) is a compactification of C([O.7 Theorem ney property. Example 81) to show that being in Class(W) is not a Whitney property.18 it is asked to prove that X has CP and X has some nonunicoherent Whitney levels. The first example showing that being in Class(W) is not a Whitney property was given by Grispolakis and Tymchatyn in [29. p‘(t) f~ C(A) is a positive Whitney level for C(A) and it is a subcontinuum of p‘(t).4 Theorem [79. Furthermore. and (c) x E CP.55 (ii) and (iii)]. Example 51. Theorem 14.13 there are someWhitney levels for C(X) which are not in Class(W). by Exercise 35. (b) X E Class(W). The property of being in Class(W) (and then having the covering property) is a strong Whitneyreversible property. 1)).51 and Ill.6 Question. 14. Theorem 3.81. 35. J.21 (see Theorem 67. Let the continuum X obtained by identifying the circle Si to the circle S’sby the identity map. Example 4. Example 4. Suppose that there exists a Whitney map p for C(X) such that p‘(t) E CPH for each t > 0.
CLASS(W) AND COVERING PROPERTY 255 (4 (b) Having covering property is not a Whitney Figure 39 property (35. C*SMOOTHNESS.5) .35.
9 Question.256 VIII.: Suppose that X = A U B. a positive answer to Question 35. Consider the space Y = Ao U Bo. 2 be the continuum obtained by identifying the copy of the point p in A0 with the copy of the point p in Bo.11). [Hint. p‘(t) n C(A) E CP. that the simple triod and the circle: (a) are not absolutely C*smooth. we conclude that A E CP. Theorem 2.. An indecomposable continuum does not necessarily .15).12 Exercise. and (c) do not have the covering property. The simple triod is useful to show that C*smoothnessis not a Whitney property (Example 35. m With a similar argument as in Theorem 35. 35. have CP.4). 35. where A0 is a copy of A.1 35.15 Exercise. If X is a triod.101. 35. .11 Example [l. Prove directly.91. (b) are not in Class(W). WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Is the property of having CPH a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property? 35. then X is not 35. then X is not in Class(W). If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. Let X be a continuum. Define the natural map from 2 to X. then X E CPH. Bo is a copy of B and A0 rl Bo = 0.14 Exercise.8. Therefore. where A. B E C(X) and A II B is not connected. Since the covering property is a strong Whitneyreversible property (Theorem 35. 35. X E CPH. Remark 2. If X is a nonunicoherent continuum. in Class(W).6 would give a positive answer to the following question. C*smoothness is not a Whitney property (Exercise 35.10 Theorem [l. The property of being a C*smooth continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. Let.17 Exercise.13 Exercise. Fix a point p E A n B. Exercises 35. 35.16 Exercise.
.. For a continuum X.] 36. then the Tech cohomology groups (over the integers) of X are the same as those of pl(t) whenever 0 I t < p(X).1). Acyclicity 36. If p(each subarc of Si which joins two opposite points of 5’1) < t < k~(Si) then A is not unicoherent. HI”(. 37.36. If X is a circlelike continuum.1 Theorem [88. Let Ai be the unique element in A which contains xi (i = 1. ACYCLICITY 257 The continuum X of Example 35.2). Being acyclic is a Whitney property for the class of onedimensional continua. Un) such that Vi n U.) z 0) is a Whitney property. tech Cohomology Groups. 36. some Whitney levels for C(X) which does not have CP. . The property of being acyclic in dimension one (i. H’(. The property of being acyclic is not a Whitney property (Example 30. 36. Chainability.e.1 Definition. Corollary 71. 37. .121.31. we mean a finite collection of open sets Z4 = {VI. there is a chain in X.18 Exercise. # 0 if and only if ]i .) M 0) is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property.e. If n > 1.11 and 12. (b) X is arclike (in the senseof Definiton 55. TECH COHOMOLOGY GROUPS.3 Theorem [89. Corollary 4.191. the property of being acyclic in dimension n (i.5 Theorem [SO. 37. Theorems 12.1 (c)) (c) X it is an inverse limit of arcs with onto bonding maps. the following statements are equivalent: (a) X is chainable. Example 21. Corollary 4. covering X such that each link has diameter lessthan E. A member of l4 is called a link of U. Corollary 61. [Hint: Let A = pl(t) be a Whitney level. (ArcLikeness) 37.3 Theorem [81. .4 Example [86. 36. A continuum X is said to be chainable (some authors say snakelike or arclike) provided that for each E > 0. By a chain in a topological space.. 36.j] 5 1.5 has CP but it has 35.2 Theorem [89. Then A is irreducible between Al and ilz.2 Definition.
5 Theorem [47. which is a partial answer to [79.. Suppose that X is the inverse limit of arcs with open bonding maps. m). .X.. (see Question 33. of a continuum X is said to be a weak chain provided that X. 6..2 (a)].4 and 2. for each n 2 1. . In [70] and [20].258 VIII.kjjl < 1 if Ji . are sequential strong Whitneyreversible properties. 37. is a weak chain. Aweakchaind={Xi. The property of being a chainable continuum is a Whitney property.11.36 and 14. . strong Whitneyreversible.j = 1.8 Questions [79.inX. A continuum X is said to be weakly chainable provided that there exists an infinite sequencedi. Some partial answers to this question appeared in Theorems 2. . . Therefore. Corollary 3.5 (4) of [80]. of finite open covers of X such that each A. using techniques of ANR and shape theory. Question 14. 37. has diameter less that i and A. Finally Kato in [47].. the property of being a particular continuum X constructed as an inverse limit of arcs with open bonding maps is a Whitney property. 2721.#IJforeveryi>l.X. Yp} provided that each element X. . each element of A. 37. solved this question by showing that both properties. Is weak chainability a Whitney (Whitneyreversible. Then X is homeomorphic to each of its positive Whitney levels. . Theorem lo]. ... the property of being the Buckethandle continuum (see Example 22. A. The property of being a chainable continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property.14). 37. Using this characterization. Corollary 3. Kato proved the following theorem.jl 5 1 (i.11) is a Whitney property. . .31.6 Definition [70.361.}issaidtobe a refinement of a weak chain B = { ‘li . p. ... . WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. . . . In particular. A finite sequenceof nonempty subsets Xl. sequential strong Whitneyreversible) property? 37. The general question about weak chanability remains open. Lelek and Fearnley respectively defined the notion “weakly chainable” and they proved that a continuum X is weakly chainable if and only if X is a continuous image of the pseudoarc.571. . of A is contained in some element Yk.5 of [l] and Theorems 5. Question 14.+) is a refinement of A. .4 Theorem [62.571it was asked if the property of being chainable or circlelike is a strong Whitneyreversible property. chainability and circlelikeness. Question 14. of L3such that jki ... The property of being weakly chainable is a Whitney property for the classof continua having property of Kelley. 37. .7 Theorem [55. In [79.9 Theorem [16..
n}.11 Exercise. 6.2.12 Exercise.10 Exercise.4). then there exists to > 0 such that p‘(t) is an arc for each t > to ([66. The property of not containing a circle is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 38. (b) Vi has diameter less than e for each i = 1. . If X is a chainable continuum. 39. B E C(X){X).4). Prove Theorem 38.EXERCISES 259 Exercises 37. 38. CircleLikeness 39. 37. The property ney property (Exercise 27.2 and Exercise 31.2 Theorem [79. This exercise shows that the “natural” definiton for weakly chainable continua is not a good one.4 (a)]). The property of being a circle is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 38.1 Theorem [62. covering X such that: (a) & II vj # 8 if and only if ]i .n. there exists a finite collection V = {VI.4 (b)].511. .12.531. Vn} of open subsets of X.3 Theorem [79.4 Exercise. Every continuum X has the following property: For each E > 0 there exists a weak chain A which covers X and diameter (U) < E for each U E A. . . 38. then X is atriodic. .5). Let X be a continuum. Theorem 4.1 Definition. Being a Circle of being a circle is a Whit 38. Theorem 14. .5 Exercise. [Hint: Suppose that X = AUB. where A.13 Exercise.j] 5 1 or i. [Hint: Use Theorem 52. p(B).] 37.j E (1.3. If X is chainable and decomposable. Exercises 38.. If X is a chainable continuum. Prove Theorem 38. then X is hereditarily 37.. then An B C E. unicoherent. A continuum X is said to be circlelike provided that for each E > 0. Then AnB is connected and if E E C(X) and p(E) > p(A). . 38. Corollary 14.1 38.
1 and Definition 55. Definition 39.6 Theorem [47. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.2 Theorem [62. The space consists of two copies of the Buckethandle continuum (seeExample 22. 39.7 Exercise. then A = X.51.12). Circlelike continua are atriodic. 39.51.9 Exercise. If X is a decomposable continuum which is both chainable and circlelike.11.11) joined by their end points. 39. For a particular example which ilustrates the Corollary 39.1 and Definition 55.5 Theorem [47. A continuum which is circlelike and not chainable will be called proper circlelike. 39.5). The continuum in Figure 40 is both chainable and Definition 39.3 Theorem [88. If X is a circlelike continuum and A E C(X) is nonunicoherent. 39. The property of being a circlelike continuum is not a Whitney property. Corollary 3.9). 6. It is well known and not difficult to prove that for circlelike continua. For general facts about circlelike continua we refer the reader to [4] and [8]. . The property of being a proper circlelike continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. The property of being a circlelike continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (see comments preceding Theorem 37. circlelike.2 (a)]. 39. Exercises 39..1 (d) coincide.4 see Figure 40 (top of the next page). then there exists to < p(X) such that p‘(t) is not circlelike for any t > to (see Exercise 37.8 Exercise. 39.1 (d) coincide (Exercise 39. The property of being a proper circlelike continuum is a Whitney property. Theorem 5. 39.10 Exercise.4 Corollary. Corollary 3.260 VIII.
4) 40. Cone = Hyperspace Property property 40.2 Theorem [45]. A continuum X is said to have the cone = hyperspace if there is a homeomorphism h : cone(X) + C(X) such that h maps the vertex of the cone to the point X in C(X) and maps the base of the cone onto the set of singletons in C(X). CONE = HYPERSPACE PROPERTY 261 Circlelikeness is not a Whitney Figure 40 property (39. A very complete discussion about the cone = hyperspace property is included in [79. Answering a Question by Dilks and Rogers ([16. If X is a finitedimensional continuum with the cone = hyperspace property. recently it has been proved in [45] the following theorem. Additional information can be found in section 80. 40. p. the property of being a finitedimensional continuum with the cone = hyperspace property is a Whitney property. 636]).40.1 Definition. In particular. . then X is homeomorphic to each of its Whitney levels. Chapter VIII].
and (d) being absolutely neighborhood contractible. Is the property of being contractible a Whitney property for the classof dendroids? 41.Corollary 3. The property of being contractible with respect to a fixed ANR Y (definition of “contractible with respect to” is in the paragraph preceding Lemma 19. 41. 41.3 Question [86. may be found in the references in the proof of Theorem 41. The property of being contractible is a Whitney property for the class of dendrites. p. Proof. (b) being a fundamental absolute retract (=FAR). Contractibility 41.6.11.2. then it is an arc or a circle. 41. The property of being locally contractible is not a Whitney property (Example 28. 41.compare with Question 25.4) is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. (c) being a weak approximate absolute retract. The following theorem of Petrus is a particular case of Theorem 32. For continua it is known that each of the properties listed above is equivalent to contractibility with respect to every ANR (see for example [7].. Proposition 121.6 follows from Theorem 41.] 41. 2. Theorem 3. The property of being contractible is not a Whitney property (Example 30. If a finite graph X has the cone = hyperspace property. .2 Theorem [86.21. Exercise 40. [37] and [64.3 Exercise.6. [Hint: Prove that if a finite graph with the cone = hyperspace property is atriodic.5 Theorem [80.262 VIII. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. 2881. . Therefore Theorem 41.1 Example [86.5.1). Example 21. n Some properties which are equivalent to contractibility with respect to every ANR.4 Example [86. but which are not listed in Theorem 41.11). Example 51.1).30. then X must be an arc or a simple closed curve.6 Theorem 180. Each one of the following properties is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property: (a) having trivial shape. Therefore these properties are sequential strong Whitneyreversible properties.
Let A4 be an ANR. CONTRACTIBILITY 263 In [80. In particular they are contractible with respect to X.21. 41. it was shown that for the dendroid X illustrated in Figure 25. every positive Whitney level for C(X) is contractible (Exercise 41.51. 41. Is the property of being contractible a strong Whitneyreversible (or sequential strong Whitneyreversible) property for the class of Peano continua? 41.7 Example [80. The property of being contractible with respect to a fixed continuum is not a Whitneyreversible property.12 Example [41.5 to spaceswhich are not ANR. the property of having contractible hyperspace is not a Whitney property. even for dendroids.16). Remarks 4. 41.71. p.9 Question [25.11. Example 2.10 Definition.71.71. However X is not contractible and. . and then Whitney levels for C(X) are contractible with respect to any space (Lemma 19.A of X and any continuous function f : A + M. Example 3. There exist a contractible continuum X and a positive Whitney level A for C(X) such that A has noncontractible hyperspace C(A). The property of being extendable with respect to a fixed ANR is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. 41. Then we have the following two results. The property of being contractiblr is not a Whitneyreversible property. there exists a continuous extension f: x 9 A4 off. The following theorem is useful to prove that the property of having dimension 5 n is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (see Theorem 45. then it is not contractible with respect to itself. Therefore. 158.4). Example 3. Example 3.41. The second one says that it is not possible to extend Theorem 41.11 Theorem [47. The example is the cone over the compact space Y represented in Figure 41 (a) (top of the next page).1) 41. A continuum X is said to be extendable with respect to M provided that for any closed subset.8 Example [80. The following example answered Question 18 of [14]. The space Y is a union of a circle S and a sequenceof arcs converging to S. Theorem 2.
Question 41. 41. . Y . 11) = A. l] + X is X is said to be homotopically a map such that H(x..O) = x for each z E X.14 Exercise. then H(A x [0.264 VIII.16 Exercise.. finite graphs. WHITNEY PROPERTIESAND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.12) Figure 41 Exercises 41. If X contains a homotopically fixed subset then X is not contractible. Q Q 0 ’ s l . p. Positive Whitney levels for the space of Figure 25.15 Exercise. (4 (b) Having contractible hyperspace is not a Whitney property (41.12) of a continuum X is homotopically fixed.13 Exercise. Every R3subset (seeDefinition 24.9 has a positive answer for the class of 41. . A proper nonempty closed subset A of a continuum fixed provided that if H : X x [0. 158 are contractible and X is not contractible. 41.
X is a continuum without cut points. B) : 2 E X and B E d}. 265 Convex Metric Convex metrics are defined in section 10. + 0 as n + 00.21. a Whitney map p for C(X) and a number to E (O. There is an arc X. The same question as 42. J) = Hd(A. Let X be a circle.3 but with 2x instead of Exercises 42. define X = CU(U{Z. Prove the following particular answer to Question 42.42. Prove that if J’ E A and Hd(J.3 Question. let Z. Prove Theorem 42. Theorem 3.y) E R2 : 0 <x 5 l’and /sin($) yJ < f}. Characterize those Peano continua X for which it is possible to define a Whitney map p for C(X) such that for each t E [0. to). A point p in a continuum that X . Clearly. the Hausdorff metric restricted to p‘(t) is convex (see Exercise 42. Prove that for each metric d for X.2 Example [l. a convex metric d for X. 42.{p} is disconnected. ZO = ((0) x [l.Y) E Zo}. .5).l].O] x [l. p(X)). Example 3. A) = max{d(z. : n 2 I}). then Hd(A. J’).p(X)) such that the Hausdorff metric restricted to p‘(t) is not convex for any t E (0.1 Definition. Define C = [l.6 Exercise. The property of having a cut point is not a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. Finally. and for each Whitney level . 42.1 Theorem [l.5 Exercise. $b) : (X. 42. 43. the continuum X is represented in Figure 42 (top of the next page). For each 72.2 Example. then the original metric d for X is convex (Exercise 42. 42.11. Cut Points X is a cut point provided 43. Let X be a continuum. the Hausdorff metric Hd restricted to A is not convex.l])U{(x. Let J E A be such that p is in the interior of J.1. C(X).6).4 Question.3. = ((0 7&Lr) + (gr.] 43. [Hint: Let p E X and A E A be such that d(p. Assume that there is a sequence {tn}Fzr such that t. J’) is small. CONVEX METRIC 42. and the restriction of the Hausdorff metric to p‘(tn) is convex. 42.4 for C(X).
266 VIII. For each n 1 1.Z. Z... has cut points and X does not have cut points. contains A.. X C A. let A.3 Question. each A. Therefore. These two sets are nonempty.&.2) Figure 42 Let p be any Whitney {Olx[ 3 Then t~$. or B $ A. : B c Cu(u{Z..}u{B E A. : B C : m # n})}. ible property? Is the property of having cut points a Whitneyrevers . and X . WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.. .) and A. closed in A. and then B = A.&l map for C(X). is a cut point of A. = pL’ (k). = {B E A. = Z. Thus. A2 A3 Having cutpoints is not a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (43. A.. Hence.A. = Wenwill show t.at each A. 43. . is a cut point of A. First. This implies that A. = p(A. and their only common element is A.. and let t. note that every subcontinuum B of X that intersects Z. the property of having cut points is not a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property.
46 (l)]. Let X be a continuum. Theorem 4. Theorem 14.4 Example [66. being a cut point of a Whitney level is independent of the Whitney map.6 generalizes Theorem 44.11). The property of being an indecomposable continuum is not a Whitney property. B c A u U or B C A U V. with A E An 23. for any B E A.2. Example 5. 44. 43.1]). 44.2 Theorem [66. Let A E A.A = U u V and such that. even for circlelike continua (Exercise 44.5 Theorem [66. The property of being a decomposable continuum is a Whitney property (Exercise 44. Theorem 4. 44.41.41. Since chainable continua have the covering property ([66.14).then A is a cut point A if and only if A is a cut point of B.6 Exercise. .3 Corollary [79.31. If A E C(X) and A and Z?are Whitney levels for C(X). 44. The property of being an indecomposable chainable continuum is a Whitney property.10) 44. Proposition 281. 44.13).EXERCISES 267 Exercises 43. Thus. The property of being an hereditarily indecomposable continuum is a Whitney property (Exercise 18. Theorem 3. The property of being an indecomposable continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property.21 or [79.13.1 Theorem [57]. Lemma 14. Theorem 44. The property of being an indecomposable continuum is a Whitney property for continua with the covering property (Exercise 44.11). The property of having cut points is not a Whitney 43. Let A be a Whitney level for C(X).4 Exercise. 44. Then A is a cut point of A if and only if there exist nonempty disjoint open subsets U and V of X such that X .5 Exercise ([35. Theorem 2. property.5. Let X be a continuum.6 Theorem [85. Decomposability Notions related to decomposable and indecomposable continua were defined after Theorem 7.
2.9. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.. Apply Exercise 80. Theorem 31. we may assumethat p(A) 2 t. we may assumethat A = C = B. for some to E [O.7 Theorem [35. Letd={C~C:C~A#0}andB={C~C:C~B#0}. . 44.11. Theorem 11. Theorem 3. Then A and B are subcontinua of C with nonempty interior (see Exercise 27. Then di is a nonempty subcontinuum of C and every element in C can be joined by an arc to an element in di.13 Exercise. Theorem 2.] 44. 44. Let di = C(A)nd. The property of being an hereditarily indecomposable continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 44. [Hint: Suppose that Y is an indecomposable subcontinuum of X. Then X is an indecomposable continuum but Whitney levels for C(X) are decomposable.6.12 Exercise. If p(A) < t. Dimension In [60. Let X be a continuum.10 Exercise. Theorem 14.] 44. [Hint: Let X be a continuum. Prove Theorem 44. The property of being an hereditarily decomposablecontinuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 44.p(X)) the level hi (to) is decomposable and irreducible (about two members of 11l (to)). enlarging A with an order arc. 44.15]).13). Prove Theorem 44.7).14 Exercise. Let X be the continuum obtained by identifying two points a and b in different composants of the pseudoarc.268 VIII. Exercises 44.54 (l)].21 to obtain a minimal subcontinuum A of p‘(t) n C(Y) with the property that U{A : A E A} = Y.9 Theorem [1.8 44.12). Prove Theorem 44.8 Theorem [79. the problem of whether the property of being of dimension < n is a Whitneyreversible property was partially solved by . Then.21. If there is a Whitney map p for C(X) such that. Suppose that X = A u B. If A or B are properly contained in C. then C is decomposable. Prove Theorem 44.11 Exercise. Let t > 0 be such that p‘(t) rl C(Y) is nondegenerate. where A and B are proper subcontinua of X and let C = pi(t) be a Whitney level for C(X). 44. then X is decomposable. 45. Then C is decomposable (see [81.
If X a 2cell or the harmonic fan (Figure 23.12 implies that the answer to the questions contained in 45.21. n 45. As a consequence of his theorem on extendability with respect to a fixed ANR (Theorem 41.2 Corollary (compare with [80. sequential strong) Whitneyreversible property? A positive answer of Question 73. 4 in [36]). Corollary 2. p(X)) such that t. For any given n < co. 45. Theorem 2. s < t.4 Exercise. assuming additional hypothesis on the continuum X.1. Theorem 2.6 Exercise. the property of having dimension 5 n is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. Let X be a continuum. By Theorem 45.10. dim[X] 5 n. then every positive Whitney level for C(X) is infinite dimensional. the answer to this problem is affirmative. and for some fixed n < co.91).111. Exercises 45. 45. 92).71 it was shown that no additional conditions are necessary and it was asked (180. By Theorem 73. there exist 0 < s < t < p(X) such that dim[pl(s)] < dim[hl(t)]. there exists to > 0 such that dim[(p]C(Y))‘(t)] = 00 for every 0 < t < to.5 but with t < s instead of . If there exists a Whitney map ~1for C(X) and there exists a sequence I n {tm}~=r of elements of (0. He proved that.11) and the theorem relating dimension 5 n with exandability with respect to the nsphere (see Theorem VI.10)) if the property of being of dimension 5 n is a sequential Whitneyreversible property. 45. Kato obtained the following affirmative answer.)] = 00 for infinitely many positive integers m.3 Question [80. 45. The same as in Exercise 45.6). then X contains a subcontinuum Y such that dim[Y] = 2 (Theorem 72.)] for each m. Then dim[pl(t. Question 2.1 Theorem [47. p. In [80. Question 2. + 0 and dim[p‘(t. Find an example of a continuum X with the property that for each Whitney map /I for C(X).EXERCISES 269 Koyama. If dim[X] 2 2. Is the property of being finitedimensional a strong (or. Proof. This contradicts the hypothesis and completes the proof of the corollary. then dim[X] = 1.5 Exercise.3 is positive.
46.9).4 Definition [91]. A continuum X is said to have the complete invariance property (CIP) provided that for each nonempty closed subset A of X there exists a continuous function f : X + X such that A is the fixed point set of f. it is enough to find a locally connected continuum X such that its topological cone K does not have the fixed point property. Whitneyreversible Is the property property? of having the fixed point property a 46.3. Corollary 4. For a continuum X and a continuous function F : X + C(X) the fixed point set of F is the set {z E X : x E F(x)}.5 Question. Example 5.6 Questions.. Some of them are locally connected. Therefore. The property of having the fixed point property is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. The property of having the fixed point property is not a Whitney property (Exercises 46. the property of having the fixed point property is not a strong Whitneyreversible property.61.8 and 46.41.. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. 46.3 Question.2 Example [25. By Theorem 30. 46. 46. is a sequen 46.8 Exercise.7 Exercise. Fixed Point Property 46. . define the fixed point set off as {x E X : f(x) = x}. Fixed point property is preserved under retractions.270 VIII.1 Example [66. Show that having the fixed point property tial strong Whitneyreversible property. For a continuum X and a continuous function f : X + X. sequential strong Whitneyreversible) property? Exercises 46. A continuum X is said to have the complete invariance property for continuumvalue maps (MCIP) ([26]) provided that for each nonempty closed subset A of X there exists a continuous function F : X + C(X) such that A is the fixed point set of F. Knill has contructed a family of continua with the property that their topological cones do not have the fixed point property. property? Is the property of having CIP (MCIP) a Whitney 46. In [59]. Is the property of having CIP (MCIP) a Whitneyreversible (strong Whitneyreversible.
We do not know if results in [43] are valid for Whitney levels.10 Exercise. Then X has the fixed point property and there are Whitney levels for C(X) which are circles. if for every two points p.4 Exercise. 47. 46. The property of having trivial fundamental group is not a Whitney property. The answer to Question 47. Thus.1 Definition. 63. The property of not having trivial fundamental is not a Whitney property even for the class of finite graphs. Fundamental Group 47. Exercises 47. t). FUNDAMENTAL GROUP 271 46. Is the property of having trivial fundamental group a Whitneyreversible property for the class of arcwise connected continua? and for Peano continua? This question is related to the results in sections 53 and 68.6 Exercise. 47. p. In [43]. group 48. 46. . 63 has trivial fundamental group and it admits Whitney levels which have nontrivial fundamental group. 47.9 Exercise. A continuum X is homogeneous. then X has MCIP. we do not know the answer to the following questions. These results are mentioned in section 68. Example 81.47. Let X be the Warsaw circle illustrated in (4) of Figure 20. If a continuum X has CIP. it was studied the fundamental group of spaces of the form pl(. The arc and the circle have CIP and MCIP.2 is positive for the particular case of finite graphs.s. having the fixed point property is not a Whitney property.3 Questions.11 Exercise. even for contractible continua. Homogeneity 48. Is the property of having trivial Whitney property for the class of Peano continua? fundamental group a 47. p.5 Exercise. The Warsaw circle in (4) of Figure 20. 47. q E X there exists a homeomorphism f : X + X such that f(P) = 4.1 Example [86.2 Question. In particular. where p is a Whitney map for C(X) and X is a Peano continuum.
2. In [90. a dense Ghset) Whitney levels of p homogeneous? 48.1 and 61. the property of being homogeneousis not a Whitneyreversible property. By Theorem 2. there is a positive Whitney level which is not homogeneous.3 Example. 48. Is there a characterization in terms of other topological properties of homogeneouscontinua where every Whitney level of every Whitney map is homogeneous? By Theorems 38. then there are positive Whitney levels for C(X) that are not homogeneous. 56. 3121. Exercise 48. Then by Theorem 25.7 Exercise. Hence homogeneity is not a Whitney property. As it is shown in [25. S’ mce every dendrite contains points that are end points and points that are not end points. p. p..5 Question [12. from Theorem 30. Let D be the a dendrite without free arcs (see. for example 10. are most (e.17 in [25] every Whitney map for C(D) is admissible. If a continuum X has a free arc (seeparagraph preceding Theorem 11.272 VIII. Rogers showed that for the circle of pseudoarcs.37 in [81] or the continuum 2 in Figure 35. 240). Corollary 4. with the results developed in the same paper [25].g. D is not homogeneous. If X is a homogeneouscontinuum and p is a Whitney map for C(X).2 for definition of free arc) and X is different from the circle. the circle. Does there exist a homogeneous continuum X such that for every Whitney map p for C(X).2 Example [90. Charatonik showed that for the 2sphere there are nonhomogeneous positive Whitney levels.6 Question [12. W. Theorem 111(another example was given in [12]). it is possible to prove that homogeneity is not a Whitneyreversible property. Theorem 111. Homogeneity is not a Whitneyreversible property.3 it follows that homogeneity is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. Homogeneity is not a Whitney property. there exists a t with pi (t) nonhomogeneous? 48. Therefore. 48. later in [12].1. Therefore: . the pseudoarc and the solenoids have this property. p.3 (b).41. as we will seenext. In the same direction. 3121. 3121. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. 48. J. p.. every positive Whitney level for C(D) is homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube which is homogeneous (see [56]).4 Question [12. However.
Let A* E (Y be such that A1 is not in the subarc y of X that joins AZ and Bo.71). By Exercise 28.2 Lemma (compare with [19./3(s) is connected. A2 n Bo is connected. then X is irreducible. Let P. If A +! v([O.{Bo}.Q be as in Exercise 28. A continuum X is said to be irreducible about a snbset Z of X provided that no proper subcontinuum of X contains 2. Let t E [0. Since p E An Bo. 11). Irreducibility 49. then AZ separates A and B. c D} = {P(t) : t E [0. (b) the unique homogeneouscontinuum with free arcs for which homogeneity is a Whitney property is the circle.4s and Bo. We may assumethat Bo nAl # 0 for someAI E A . I]). then p(t) . This result is generalized in Theorem 49. Thus A’L E X and A2 n Bo # 0. Proof. in A. Let p E A n Ct. 1) be fixed and let A E A be such that A n Ct # 0. By Exercise 28. 49.11. l]}. # 8 for every A E X. there is an arc X in A. A continuum X is irreducible provided that X is irreducible about {p. By Exercise 28. let A = v(r).7.l].4.q(t) = Bo . Then: (4 v(PJl) = 7.3. if A E q([O. c q(t). Notice that A2 E D then p E A2 n B.~(C~).4./3(t) and Q = cl. see Exercise 31. l]). joining A1 and Bo such that AnB. let Ct = Bo . (b) r](t) n B. Then Bo g u(d . (I} for some p and q in X. = P(t) for each t E [O.1 Definition. Let X be a continuum. Then A2 separates A1 and Bo in A. Lemma 2. [Hint: For the first part. and (d) if s < t. Notice that y is the only arc in A that joins A2 and Bo.4 there is an arc 0.l). Let A be a Whitney level for C(X) such that A = f? U a. Now. cy is an arc with end points . IRREDUCIBILITY 273 (a) all the positive Whitney levels of a dendrite X are homogeneous if and only if the X does not have free arcs. . t]). where B is a subcontinuum of A. We claim that A E ~((t. Answering a question by Hughes it was proved in [19] that if a positive Whitney level for C(X) is irreducible.49. For (a) see explanation of Example 483. in which case sometimes X is said to be irreducible betweenp and q. (c) {D E C(Bo) : A2 n B.1 49. This is a contradiction since p E Ct.{Bo}). For each t E [O. and t3 n a = {Ao}. Suppose to the contrary that A Q!~((t. joining A and Bo in A such that p E B for each B E IT.
From (c). Let E be the composant of Dt that contains 0 Given s E [r. BO is connected and /3(t)flGt = 0.l)}). tz E [0. p(t) U Gt is a proper subset of Bo. We may assume that tl 5 t2. there exists st E [0.u(A .0(t) u Ft U Gt c .)cGt. If there exists an element A E A . Similarly.J and Dt c Bo.. Hence C is a proper subcontinuum of Dt. 1) such that P(t) U Ft = P(st). We will prove that q(t) n Ff = 0 or v(t) n Gt = 0.3 Theorem [38]. (2) For each t E [0. Given t E [O. From the preceding paragraph t2 < 1.P(t)). Thus q E E.. let Dt = Ft U Gt. we can choose a point q E ~3. Ct is a nonempty open subset of Dt...{Bo}) and completes the proof for this case.. . . A = q(r) for somer E (t. t. Since intD. This completes the proof for case (2) and the proof of the lemma. . since 3 f Ct. Let A E A be such that y E A. This implies that A = Bo.. This is again a contradiction which completes the proof that A E q((t.{Bo} such that q E A. # 0 and p(t)nG. Since C.C. <St. we will show that the family F = {Gt : t E [0.8(t). l). Let X be a continuum. is a nonempty open subset of B. We analize two cases: (1) There exists t E [0. where T 5 t. Then y E Bo .(U{q(t) : t E [O. 0 # Ct . 1). ThenO#BoP(st. has the finite intersection property. then there exists se > t such that A = q(se). 1) such that Dt is indecomposable.8(t2) $ P(1) = Bo which is a contradiction. Then q E ~(so)flBo = p(so) and q 4 . I].nG. . Since 0 # Be . n 49.n. we have p(t)nFt # 0. l). Choose a point y E nF.P(t)) is a proper subcontinuum of Dt that contains C. we may assumethat v(t) n Gt = 0. l). # 0. But Bo = .Ft C Bo (/3(t) U Ft). Then C is a subcontinuum of /3(r) n Dt. Therefore.. Then P(t) U F t is a proper subset of Bo.274 VIII. (E) = 0. Since /3(t)UFtlJGt = Be. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. where Ft and Gt are proper subcontinua of Dt. I]). Suppose to the contrary that q(t) n Ft # 0 and q(t) rl Gt # 0. E [0. If there is a Whitney map p for C(X) and there is to E (O. . Dt is decomposable. l).E. I: St2 I ‘.p(r) c Dt . Then p E V(T) n Bs = /3(r) c /3(t) c q(t).p(X)) such that p’ (to) is irreducible . Then P(t)uF t and p(t) uG. For each t E [0. Let C = cZ~(p(r) . By (c) there exist tl. are subcontinua of BO containing AZ n Bo. cZx(p(s) . reasoning as above. 1). Now.p(t)) c E. Therefore.. Since Ct is not contained in Ft.. l] such that p(ti) = P(t) U Ft and /3(t2) = p(t) U Gt. This contradiction proves that q 6 BO . Take tl. Then P(t) n F. Then clx(p(s) . Fix a number r E (t. t2. y E BeU(d{Bo}). We may assume that HenceF Sf. 1)) has the finite intersection property.
E E. there exists an arc pi in V. . Suppose also that such pi does not exist for all i. qm}. . Let J = {i E {k. By Exercise 28. by (a).{Ek} c A and & $! A. C B.. IF&l. Ek g U(2> . By Lemma 49. By (b). {E}). . A E C(X) and p E E n A be such that. By (c). . then there exists a proper subcontinuum A of X containing it. zm}. . .‘. E.{k}}) pi..10). c A then A = X  (b) let E E 27. n . we may assume that to < p(A) < p(X). . with i # j. Then Ei # Ai. p $! U(D then A c E or E c A (Exercise 49. .. then Ei and EJ are the end points of cy (Exercise 49. C A. IRREDUCIBILITY 275 about a set with n elements. . By (a). Since X is not irreducible about the set {pi. p. .p.. Then A is not contained in Ei for any i. Proof. (c) if a: is an arc in V containing Ei and Ej. Suppose that 2) is irreducible about a finite subset C = {Ei.. Since A # X. for each i. _.. Given i E J... Then the set A = (2. then X is irreducible about a set with m elements for some m 2 n.12).&&I.. . . m} : Ei g A). First. U . . Since we are assuming that X is not irreducible about the set there exists a proper subcontinuum B of X such that . Then A U Q is a subcontinuum of V that contains C. Let ‘D = p‘(to). there exists a point pi E Ei U(V . U E. Ekvl there exist points with the mentioned property and that for Ea. Enlarging A if necessary (using order arcs). U&i is not contained in A. walking form Ek to Ak and let o be the subarc of Pk that joins A0 and Ek.49. we will prove that. such that the end points of pi are Ei and Ai and xi E D for every DE pi.. . Ek $ pi. xk. let Ai E V be such that zi E Ai C A. Suppose that this is not true. Th is contradicts the choice of k and completes the proof of the existence of the points pl ..‘. . . This contradiction compietes the proof of the theorem. where m 5 n. we may assumethat Ek By (b) El u.11). E.. B = X. Then we may assumethat for El. it is enough to seethat there exist points qi E Ei such that X is irreducible about {ql.. To prove the theorem. there are no such points (1 5 k 5 m)..p. .{Ei}).2.. .} C B. If i # k... C . Let A0 be the first point in A belonging to the arc ok.{Ek})... then Ai # Ek and Ei # En..} but ‘D is not irreducible about any proper subset of C. Thus 2) = A u o. The following three facts are easy to show: (a) if A E C(X) has the property that El (Exercise 49. We may assume that t < p(B) < p(X).. . . Choose points xk E &.4.. n C(A)) U (U{pi is a subcontinuum of V. .. . . .}. . Then Ek is not an end point of the arc : i E J .. . . x. . U E.
Kelley introduced the now called Property of Kelley in [57. Then A U a([O.{Ej).5 Corollary. a(t) = Ej and 0 5 s < t < 1. irreducible continua. The example presented by Eberhart and Nadler for showing that irreducibility is not a Whitney property is the example in Figure 38.9 Question.21. there exists a Whitney map ~1for C(X) and there exists a to E (0. Is the property of being irreducible about a countable closed subset a Whitneyreversible (strong Whitneyreversible. irreducible about a countable closed subset. Kelley’s Property Property of Kelley (= property (K)) was defined in section 20.10 Exercise. [Hint: There is an element B E 2) such that A c I3 or B C A.3. 3.] 49.7 In other words. The property of not being irreducible about a set with at most n elements is a Whitney property. He used this property for studying the contractibility of hyperspaces (Theorem . p./1(X)) such that p‘(te) is irreducible about a countable closed subset. Is there an irreducible continuum X such that every positive Whitney level is not irreducible.276 VIII. 49. Question 2.8 Example [19.11 Exercise. The property of being irreducible is not a Whitney property.3. is the property of not being irreducible a Whitneyreversible property? Exercises 49.3. sequential strong Whitneyreversible) property? 49. Prove (a) in the proof of Theorem 49. [Hint: Suppose that a(s) = Ei. but X is not. Notice that X is irreducible. small positive Whitney levels for C(X) are not irreducible and large Whitney levels for C(X) are arcs. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.21.] 50. Prove (c) in the proof of Theorem 49.11. 49. 49. 49. and hence.4 Corollary.12 Exercise.6 Example [38. Prove (b) in the proof of Theorem 49. Example 2. 49. 252. There exists a continuum X.e set is a Whitney property. Let A be a proper subcontinuum of D that contains C . Example 3.21. The property of not being irreducible about a finit. t]) is a proper subcontinuum of 2) and it contains C.] 49.. IHint: Consider (p)C(A))1 (to).7 Questions [38.
then Hd(A. let f). 50.. E B. there exists n > 0 such that if C E C(X) and p(C) < 7.. we may assumethat A. and if B E C(X) and q. Suppose that there is a Whitney map p for C(X) and there is a sequence {tn}r?. Then A is a subcontinuum of AN and D E A.3. In [92. Taking subsequences necessary. Let M be such that Hd(An4.7). Define A = C(A U D) n AN = (p]C(il U D))‘(TV). Since diameter (D) < 5.4 E C(X) and D E dN.. The property of Kelley is a Whitney property in the classof continua having the covering property hereditarily (Exercise 50. 50. Wardle asked the question whether the property of Kelley is a Whitney property. It has been solved only for some particular cases (see Theorems 50. of X with the property that d(p. + p.. 11471. Kato has found a surprising result.q. Proof.10). + 0 and each of the continua A.1. 2951. He has proved ([50. f?) < 5. p(X)) such that t. Then A U D is a subcontinuum of X. to the contrary that this is not true..B) 2 6. p. Is the property of Kelley a Whitney prop erty? Trying to solve Question 50.8 there are a point p E X and an E > 0 such that for every m > 1.. then there exists B E C(dN) such that E E B and HH~ (A. Hd(D.4 Theorem. Suppose. For each m 2 1. Corollary 3. By Exercise 50.31) that in order to obtain an affirmative answer to Question 50. Choose N such that tN < n. A U D) < 5. From Lemma 17.. be an element of dN such that qm E D. We need to prove that X has the property of Kelley. p.. there exists 6 > 0 such that if E E dN.3 Theorem [13. E) < b and D E A E C(dN). If a continuum X has property (K). Since dN has the property of Kelley at D. is it true that X x [0. The property of Kelley is a sequential strong Whitney reversible property. p. + A and D.) < A.1 Question [92.3 and 50. Since q.i in (0. p E D.. there are a point qm E X and a subcontinuum A.50. 91. then diameter (C) < 5. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X. = pL‘(tn) has the property of Kelley. l] has property (K)? 50. 2951. Hd(A.1 it is enough to obtain a positive answer to the following question... KELLEY'S PROPERTY 277 20.12). 50. ‘4) < 5 and .2 Question [55. p E A. This problem has turned out to be very difficult. + D for if some . p.
p E A and q E B(6. then there exists B E C(X) such that q f B and Hd(A. we consider the set Chain. .2. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. ..8 Exercise. Since AU D = U{B : B E A}. ..7 Theorem [52. .bIj ..61.a. Corollary 2. Then Bs is a subcontinuum of X (Exercise 11. n 50. 50.. Kato has shown that if a continuum X has property (K. F is said to be an cchain (6 > 0).)*.. Bo) < $ (Exercise 11. a). DM) < 6.. then for each x f A and C > 0 there is a finite open covering U of A with mesh(U) < E (diameter (U) < E for each U E U) such that if { U1. U2. if d(pi.bq .p2.5 (2)). Bo) < E..pi+l) < c for each i < n. Let E> 0. there exists 6 > 0 with the property that if A E C(X). Define BO = U{B : B E B}. . Urn} E Chain.c)* for each t > 0.. Consider the following conditions (A.bk . then thereisacchainb=bi. Theorem 2.. bf(‘). . b22). Hd(A u D. (K) * with respect to (A. 50. Let U be a finite open covering of A.(U) of all finite weak chains (see Definition 3’7. Proposition 1. The property of KeIley is a Whitney property for continua having property (K)*. .91. Also X is said to have property (K)* if X has property (K)* with respect to each (A. c)*: there exists J(e) > 0 such that if b E B(~(E).. This property has some similarities with property (K). a) if A continuum X is said to have property X satisfies the condition (A. B) < E..278 VIII. Thus there exists B E C(dN) such that DM E B and HHd(d. Thus Hd(AM.. The property of having property (K)* is a Whitney property.clx(Uj)) < e for each j = 1.2 . .. Us.6 Theorem [52. Hd(D. .6) {Vi. . . a.p). This contradicts the choice of qM and completes the proof of the theorem. b&. .5 Definition [52]. For each zcE A.. Property (K)* was introduced by Kato in [52]. He also showed that if X is the union of a circle S with two spirals spiraling around S in opposite senses.“‘of points of X such that Hd({b:}..bi. . bi. Example 3.11).pn} be a finite sequence in X. Let a E A E C(X). Exercises 50.. . .. Let F = {pl. .. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X.61). Urn} ofUwithaEUiandxEi7. A continuum X with metric d has property (K) if and only if for every point p E X and for every E > 0..(U).m and k=1. .B) < 2.5 (3)) and qM E Bo. . then X has property (6) ([52. .a) (a E A E C(W).. i(j).then X is a continuum having property (K) and not having property (K)* ([52..
~CONNECTEDNESS 279 50. 851) provided that for any two points a and b of X there exists an irreducible continuum of type A from a to b.4). Define Suppose that B. Let B E A. CQ). Charatonik and answered a question by Krasinkiewicz and Nadler ([66. the small Whitney levels for C(X) (t near to 0) are compactifications of S whose remainders contain 2cells. Since the square is not hereditarily decomposable. i. + C for some C E C(d).3. + A. b E X there is an hereditarily decomposable continuum containing a and b. # 0. J.51) to show that being in Class(W) is not a Whitney property (see the preceding paragraph to Theorem 35.] 51. Notice that X is hereditarily decomposable and irreducible. Then UC = D. the remainder of X is a simple triod T. The example 51.51. Then they are irreducible between the end point of S and any point in the 2cell.~ such that p E A and pn + p. Note that each continuum which is hconnected is Xconnected. Let {D. A continuum X is said to be bconnected ([32. A continuum X has property (K) if and only if for every point p E X. Originally. + D and D.9 Exercise. The sameexample was previously constructed by Grispolakis and Tymchatyn ([29. = (plC(D.l}~zl be a sequence in C(X) such that D. 5. and A. for every subcontinuum A of X and for every sequence {P~}. Charatonik also used this example to show that the covering property is not a Whitney property.. An explanation about the origin of this terminology can be found in [32]. for each n. The continuum X has the additional property that every subcontinuum of X is the limit of subcontinua of S. there exists a sequence {An}?=* with pn E A. p. 50. However.1 Definition.))l(t).10 Exercise.. Hagopian called Xconnected continua to 6 connected continua. [Hint: Let A = p‘(t) be a Whitney level for C(X).2 Example [ll. Theorem 21). p. 1791). 51. we conclude that the small Whitney levels for C(X) are not &connected. AConnectedness 51.2 was constructed by W. Prove Theorem 50. .}$!?O=l be a sequence in A such that B. an irreducible continuum from a to b whose indecomposable subcontinua have empty interiors. Then X is bconnected.11. Let D = uB. 1171) if for each two points a. Example 4. U B. A continuum X is said to be Aconnected ([58. + B and B E f?. He was not the first author to present such an example. The property of being a dconnected continuum is not a Whitney property. Then t? = (plC(D))l(t). These two concepts coincide for plane continua ([33. H is example is a continuum X which is a compactification of the halfray S = [0. n B.“. let B E C(d) and let {B. B. p.e.
3 Question erty? [ll.7 Exercise. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE..5 Exercise. nected continua. Is Xconnectedness (konnectedness) a Whitneyreversible property? Exercises 51. Is Xconnectedness a Whitney prop 51. A metric compactification X of [0. The positive Whitney levels of the continuum represented in Figure 43 are Sconnected continua. A continuum with Bconnected Whitney levels (51.4 Question [79. Question 71. .571.7) Figure 43 . There are Xconnected continua which are not &con 51. 1) is &connected if and only if the remainder of X is hereditarily decomposable. 51.6 Exercise.280 VIII. 51. Question 14.
where Si denotes the isphere. 52.2. The property of being a locally connected continuum is a Whitney property (Exercise 52.1. A continuum X is connected im kleinen at each of its points if and only if for each E> 0. Theorem 8.251). If there is a sequence {tn}rzl such that t.1 53. Let X be a continuum. + 0 and p‘(tn) is hereditarily locally connected for each n. Theorem 14. If U is an open subset of a Whitney level A. LOCAL CONNECTEDNESS 281 52. 52. A space k’ is mconnected if it is nconnected for every 71. each continuous function f : S” + Y is homotopic to a constant map.8 Exercise. 52. then X is an arc or a circle. 52.1 52. U is a connected open subset of X and A is a Whitney level for C(X). Then being hereditarily locally connected is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. The property of being a locally connected continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 52. [Hint: Use Exercise 52. Prove Theorem 52. Exercises 52.4 Exercise. [Hint: See Exercise 31.9 Exercise.5. A is connected and diameter (A) < E.5 Exercise. [Hint: Locally connected continua are locally arcwise connected ([81. for every 0 5 i 5 n. The property of being hereditarily locally connected continuum is not a Whitney property. then A1 = {A E A : are open and arcwise connected AcU}anddZ={A~d:AnU#O} subsets of A. nConnectedness 53.52. then UU is not necessarily an open subset of X.471. Prove Theorem 52. 52. 4 metric space Y is nconnected if. If X is a locally connected continuum.11.1 Definition.] 52. Theorem 31.1 Theorem [78.6 and Exercise 11.5).2 Theorem [79. .3 Exercise. there exists a finite closed cover U of X such that for each A E U. Local Connectedness 52.7 Exercise. Let X be a continuum.7).6 Exercise.
5 Question. For each n 2 2. if for each y E Y and each neighborhood U of y in Y.21. By Theorem 53. The property of being a locally lconnected continuum is a Whitney property for the classof ANR continua contained in a 2dimensional manifold. and (c) every positive Whitney level for C(X) is ooconnected. In order to prove that X is nconnected. 53. The following unexpected result was obtained in [40].1).3. Since 1connectednessis the same as having trivial fundamental group. let 1 5 i 5 n and let f : Si + X be any map. (b) every positive Whitney level for C(X) is 2connected. As a consequenceof Theorem 53. . Proof. A metric space is locally nconnected.4 can be extended to n = 1 is included in Question 47. is the property of being an nconnected continuum a strong Whitneyreversible property? Since 0connectedness is the same as arcwise connectedness and this property is not a Whitneyreversible property (Example 33.282 VIII.6 Theorem [51. there exists a neighborhood V of x in U such that each continuous function f : Si + V is homotopic in U to a constant map. 53. Corollary 2. Since Y = f(S) is a locally connected subset of X.3.4 can not be extended to 0connectedness.. we have the following result. . Let n 2 2 and let X be a continuum such that each positive Whitney level for C(X) is nconnected. for every 0 < i 5 n.35).34 and 25. then Y is a dendrite. Let n >_ 2. Since dendrites are contractible (Exercises 25. 53. X is a dendroid. The property of being nconnected is not a Whitney property (Example 30. the question whether Theorem 53.2 Example. the property of being an nconnected continuum is a Whitneyreversible property. Then the following statements are equivalent: (a) X is a dendroid.5). Let X be a continuum. it follows that f is homotopic to a constant map. Then every positive Whitney level for C(X) is 2connected.3 Theorem [40]. n 53. Therefore.4 Theorem. 53.3. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. X is nconnected. Theorem 53.
21. that is. of being a locally 283 l 53. ible property? Let n 2 2. q is the point which corresponds to p in the base of the cone. [Hint: Use Exercise 80.11 Exercise.3. is homeomorphic to a 2cell.6 of [49]. [65. Consider the continuum X in Example 28. Corollay 4. 54. is local nconnectedness a Whitneyrevers Exercises 53. Example 3. For the class of circlelike continua the property of nonplanarity is a Whitney property.ps} if i # j.1 53. Corollary 4. U [Hint: A = A1 U A2 U A3 U 131 Us. 53.(ii)]. where di = {A E A : oi C A} and f?j = clc(x)({A E A : pj 4 A}). 54. we conclude that local 1connectedness is not a strong Whitneyreversible property.EXERCISES 53. For each n 2 1.9 Question. Corollary 4.10 Exercise.3. For the class of circlelike continua the property of planarity is a Whitney property.11. The property connected continuum is not a Whitney property. 53. then A = p‘(t) can be retracted to a 2sphere and then it is not 2connected. by Theorem 30. Let q = (p. Prove that the arc is the unique 2connected continuum which is homeomorphic to each of its positive Whitney levels. it is enough to find a Peano continuum X such that its topological cone K is not locally nconnected.2 Theorem [88. Corollary 3. Each di is homeomorphic to a tetrahedron and each L?. Since the Hilbert cube is locally n connected.] 54. the property of being a locally nconnected continuum is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. Then X is a Peano continuum.7 Example [51.2.101.8 Example [25. Is planarity a Whitneyreversible property? .3 Question. 165.12 Exercise. A contractible space is ooconnected. This exercise is a particular case of Proposition 2.31.81.1 Theorem [88. Planarity 54. If ~1is a Whitney map for C(X) and t is near to p(X). Since K is not locally lconnected at q.41. Let X = ~1 Ua2 ~a3 be a finite graph. 0) E K. where each CY~ an arc joining is the points pi and pf~ and cri n crj = {pi. Corollary 3.
284 VIII. Corollary 3. .6 Exercise. (e) If P is the collection of trees (finite acyclic connected graphs). 54.5 Exercise.4. then weak Plike and Plike continua are the same and they are called treelike. 55. (a) Let Y be a continuum and let P be a given collection of continua. Then the property of being a weak Plike continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. weak Plike and Plike continua are the same and they are called arclike (Exercise 55.. [Hint: See Example 65. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. PLikeness In the following definition. every Whitney level for C(X) is planable. Kato proved the following theorem.4 Exercise. of P. Theorem 2]). (d) In the case that P consists only of the unit circle in R2. ties.1 Definition.2 Theorem [47. 55.21. we extend the definition of Plike given in section 22 to a family of continua. A continuum Y is said to be weak Plike provided that for each E > 0 there is a (not necessarily surjective) emap fe from Y into a member 2. . Characterize the finite graphs such that their small Whitney levels (t near to 0) are planable. (b) Let P be a given family of continua.7 Exercise. Find an infinite family of continua F such that for every X E F’. l] clearly. Characterize the finite graphs such that their Whitney levels are planable. Let P be a family of ANR continua.31 and [60. Generalizing previous results ([80. there is an emap fe from Y onto a member 2. then Plike continua are called circlelike. of P.4).1 54. Theorem 5. 55. Then Y is said to be Plike provided that for each c > 0. (c) If P consists only of the unit interval [0. Planarity and nonplanarity are not Whitney proper 54. Exercises 54.
then weak Plike and Plike continua are the same. If P consists only of the unit interval [0. Theorem 55. Therefore.5) Figure 44 . Then there are no maps from X onto Y. Small Whitney levels (t near to 0) for C(X) are homeomorphic to the continuum Y represented in Figure 44 (b). Exercises 55.11. 11. Let P be a family of compact connected ANRs. Then the property of being a Plike continuum a is sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. Theorem 2.5 Exercise.EXERCISES 285 55. X is not {Y}like.3 is not true if the elements in P are not assumedto be AN%. [Hint: Consider the continuum X in Figure 44 (a).3 Theorem [53.] X (4 (b) Plikeness is not a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (55. 55.4 Exercise.
The property of being the 58.3 Exercise. p. 56.1 and 56.54 (3)]. A pseudosolenoid is any hereditarily indecomposable proper circlelike continuum. Theorem 14.2 Theorem [79. Prove Theorems 56. p. 7911 and [88.1 Example [41. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE..11. 10321. p.241). Definition of R3continuum R3Continua is in Definition 24. PseudoArc By [3.. To know more about this interesting continuum we refer the reader to the paper [73].231. The property being any particular pseudosolenoid is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. It is known that there is only one pseudocircle ([21]). Example 2. Its construction can be found in [81.54 (2)].1 Definition. of containing no R3 58. Remark 14.1 Theorem Whitney property. Exercise 1. 14. The property of being a pseudoarc is a 56. we may say that the pseudoarc is the only hereditarily indecomposable chainable continuum.241). 5801. 57. The property pseudoarc is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. More information about pseudosolenoids can be found in [2.4 Theorem (see [79. Remark pseudocircle is a Whitney property. 57. [18. PseudoSolenoids and the PseudoCircle 57. 57. The property continuum is not a Whitney property. The property particular pseudosolenoid is a Whitney property. 441. A pseudocircle is a planar pseudosolenoid. of being a Exercise 56.2 Theorem (see [79. 56.286 VIII. Theorem 14. p.12.2 Question. Is the property of containing Whitney property for the class of dendroids? no R3continuum a . of being any 57.2.3 Theorem [79. 58.
Theorem 60.3 Exercise. such that the boundary of each member of & is at most countable.. The property of having an R3continuum is not a 59. Is the property neyreversible property? of being a rational continuum a Whit Exercises 59. A continuum X is said to be ratzonal provided that each point p of X has a local base L$. 60. fz+‘} to its inverse limit.4 Exercise. The property of being a rational continuum is not a 59.4 Question. Corollary 3. n+1} and 3 satisfies the following condition: if S is a simple closed curve in Gn+i. Whitneyreversible Is the property of containing no R3set 287 a Whitney Is the property property? of containing an R3continuum a Exercise 58.1 has been extended by Kato to strongly winding curves.e.2 Question. then f. Whitney property. Whitney property.1 Definition.“+‘} of finite graphs such that X = l?{G.. Rational Continua 59.3(i)].+‘} is an inverse sequence. If X is a circlelike continuum. 59. property? 58. f. then the shape of X is equal to the shape of pl(t) whenever 0 I t < p(X). f.“+‘(S) = G.5 Exercise.EXERCISE 58. f. of not being a rational continuum is not 60. Shape of Continua For notions related to this section we refer the reader to the books by Borsuk [7] and by Mardesic and Segal [77]. a ldimensional continuum) is said to be a strongly winding curwe if there is an inverse sequence F = {Gn. . The property a Whitney property.. A curve X (i. we will denote by lip{ G. If F= {G..3 Question.1 Theorem [65..
t. Theorem 60.1).. l] + M satisfying the conditions: (a) ~(9.oo). 1) E W for every point y E U.51. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.3 Theorem [49. 1) = T(Z. co) x [0. A compact subspace Y of the compact metric space Z is said to be an approximate strong deformation retract of Z provided that for any ANR M containing 2.11) c v.1. there exist mappings T : 2 x [0.3 can also be obtained as a consequenceof the following theorem by Lynch.4 Theorem [75.O) = z. 60. Corollary 3. t) for each z E Z and each t E [O. A compact metric space Y lying in the Hilbert cube Q is said to be nmovable provided that for every neighborhood V of Y in Q there is a . 60. When Y is an approximate strong deformation retract of Z. 60. the inclusion from Y to 2 is a (strong) shape equivalence (e.oo). Hence Sh(Y) = Sh(Z).1 (iii)]. Kato also obtain the following theorem as a corollary of Theorem 60. then the shape of X is equal to the shape of p‘(t) whenever 0 < t < p(X). t. Theorem 1. If X is a strongly winding curve. 60.5 Example [86. A compact metric space Y lying in the Hilbert cube Q is said to be movable provided that for every neighborhood V of Y in Q there is a neighborhood U of Y in Q such that for any neighborhood W of Y in Q there is a homotopy cpw : U x [0. every treelike continuum and every circlelike continuum are strongly winding curves. D(z. oo)) c U.288 VIII.oo) and each s E [0. D(z. 0) = y and cpw(y. The property of having trivial shape is not a Whitney property (Example 30. l] + V satisfiying the following conditions: ‘pw(y. s) = y for each y E Y. For Idimensioual continua the property of having trivial shape is a Whitney property. ok) + M and D : Z x [0.6 Definition.. see[7] or [77]). then Sh@‘(t)) is trivial for every 0 5 t 5 p(X). Clearly.2 Theorem [49. each t E [O.g. l]. If X is a treelike continuum. (d) for any neighborhood V of 2 in M there is a real tl > 0 such that D(Z x [t1. . (b) for any neighborhood U of Y in M there is a real to 2 0 such that T(Z x [to. t. and (c) D(y. t) = y for each y E Y and each t E [O. Besides Theorem 60.71. Theorem 3.00) x [O. 60.2. Example 21.
Theorem 1. t]) for 0 5 s 5 t 5 p(X).13 Question [54.51. The property of being nearly lmovable is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. The property of being lmovable is a Whitney property.31. 60. Let 3c = C(X) or 2”. Theorem 3. The property of being movable is not a Whitney property. If p is any Whitney map for 3t. 60.10 (3)].11 Theorem [54. It is well known that those properties are topological properties. 60. Sh(b‘(t)) = Sh (/~l([s. the property of being (pointed) 2movable is not a Whitney property. SHAPE OF CONTINUA 289 neighborhood U of Y in Q such that for any neighborhood W of Y in Q.O)= f( a1 and cpw(u. Corollary 1. The property of being pointed movable is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property for curves (= ldimensional continua). w‘(t) is not 2movable. p. 60. The property of being an approximately mconnected continuum (A(F) is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property.8 Theorem [47. 60. The property of being pointed lmovable is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. Problem 3. Let X be a continuum.11. Corollary 1. Clearly. 60.21. More precisely. “pointed movable” and “pointed nmovable” are defined (see [7] or [77]). Hence.51.7 Theorem [47. there exists a movable curve X and a Whitney map w for C(X) such that for some 0 < t < w(X).10 Theorem [54. Theorem 3. then p‘(t) is an approximate strong deformation retract of p’ ([s. 1) E W for every point a E A. Similarly. 3161).60.14 Theorem [48. t])). The property of being nearly lmovable is a Whitney property. Theorem 2. Theorem 1. Is the property of being pointed movable a (sequential) strong Whitneyreversible property? Let X be Borsuk’s nonmovable Peano continuum [6]. . there is a homotopy cpw : A x [0. any compact metric space A with dim[A] 5 n and any map f : A + U.51 ([60.15 Theorem [47. “(pointed) movable” implies “(pointed) nmovable” for each n > 1.11. Is there a Whitney map p for C(X) such that p‘(t) is movable (or 2movable) for each t > O? 60. In particular. l] + V satisfiying the following condition: c~w(a.12 Theorem [54. 60.9 Theorem [54. Corollary 2. 60.11.
Solenoids 61. 60.10 (S)]. Is the property of being an FANR a Whitney property for ldimensional continua? 60. let fP : S’ + S’ (S’ is the unit circle in R2) be given by f”(z) = 9’ for each t E S1. Example 21 (Example 30. The property of having fundamental dimension 5 n is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. GO. .18 Definition (see [77]).. 60. Corollary 1.3. Is the property of being an FANR a strong Whitneyreversible property? 61. Corollary 3. The property of being an FAR is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. Example 21. Fd(X)? of a continuum X is defined as Fd(X) = min {dim[Z] : 2 is a continuum such that Z has the same shape as X) 60. Theorem 4.21 Example [86.21 (Theorem 41.neyreversible 60. . For definitions of FAR and FANR. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. 60. Theorem 11.1 Definition.10 (4)].4)].290 VIII. The property of being an FAR is a Whitney property for ldimensional continua. [47. Corollary 2. For each p = 2. 60.1). The property of being an FAR is not a Whitney property.. 60.6). where zp is the pth power of z using complex multiplication. (5. . 60. The property of being lshape connected is a Whitney property. The properties of having trivand fin(.20 Example [86. .(..23 Theorem [60.11.17 Theorem [48. 3161.16 Theorem ial groups proH.19 Theorem [47.21. The property of having fundamental dimension 5 n is not a Whitney property. [80.24 Question [47. The fundamental dimension. we refer the reader to [77]. Corollary 1.) properties. p.25 Question [60.) are sequential strong Whit.22 Theorem [47.
c X x X such that pr(C.. h(X)] such that lim t.) = X = X) and d(z. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for projection for i = 1.. The continuum C. of X are defined by and and the semispan oc(X) g(X) = = sup{a*(A) sup{a. 4.62. let cp = yxz.3 Question [79.571. (tn)) = 0. Kato extended Koyama’s results with the following theorem. is called the pa&c solenoid. pi(C=) The span a(X) C. For a given p. Let pi : X x X + X be the it”coordinate The snrjective span g*(X) (respectively.2 Theorem [66.. .(X)) of X is the least upper bound of the set of all real numbers Q which satisfy the following condition: there exists a continuum (respectively.11.. 62. where p(i) E 61. = S’ and each fi = fP.2.. go(X) Koyama in [61] proved that zero and zero semispan are sequential strong Whitneyreversible properties. }foreachi=1. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X. o. of being any particular solenoid 61. y) 2 cy for each (z:. of solenoids see [81. Theorem 3...2 Theorem [53.(A) : A E C(X)}. SPAN 291 fi>E”=. X. The property is a Whitney property. (TO}.) = pz(C.1 Definition. : A E C(X)}. surjective semispan o.2 For some properties . A solenoid is any continuum of the form l@{Xi. {1. Let r E {u* . sequential strong Whitneyreversible) property? 62.51. Span 62. where each X. Question 14.3 .81. If there exists a decreasing sequence {tn}rzl in (0. y) E C... ai.2. = t and Iim r(fil then ‘(F1 (Q) = 0. Is the property of being a particular solenoid a Whitneyreversible (strong Whitneyreversible. fP(i)}&. 2.
It is known that if X is a chainable continuum. p.14 is a unicoherent continuum with some nonunicoherent Whitney levels). Example 5. [88. The property of being a treelike continuum is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property.3 Theorem [79. is defined using the The concept of span was introduced by Lelek in [71]. The property of being an hereditarily indecomposable treelike continuum is a Whitney property.2 Theorem [47. 4.11). Corollary 3. [79. The multicoherence degree. More results related to unicoherence of Whitney levels are in section 68.61.4 fl B) : A. 64. respectively. 64. The property of being unicoherent is not a Whitney property. Example 5. Example 5. 2101). 63.51.4 Definition. 63.9).292 VIII. and bc(2) = 00.1 Example [66. where (Y is a real number with o > 0 and r@‘(s)) Hausdorff metric Hd. [79.121.41. Theorem 14. The most important problem about span is if the converse of this implication is true ([721). r(Y). Unicoherence is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Exercise 64.31. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Nonunicoherence is not a Whitney property (Exercise 64. 64. TreeLikeness The definition of treelike continua is in Definition 55.151. If 2 is a topological space.11. Theorem 14. then c(X) = 0 ([71.46 (2)]. Notice that Y is unicoherent if and only if r(Y) = 0. otherwise.2 Example [66. 64. 63.7 and follow Example 22. even for circlelike continua (the example in Exercise 44. Unicoherence Definitions of unicoherence and hereditary unicoherence precede Lemma 19. . if this number is finite.21. let be(Z) denote the number of components of 2 minus one. of a connected space Y is defined by r(Y) = sup {be(. Example 14.1 Theorem [63. B are closed connected subsets of Y and Y=A U B}. 64.1 (e).. .
Verify Example 64. The continuum X in Example 35. Theorem A].6 Corollary. Peano continua. 64. Unicoherence is a Whitney property for the class of Exercises 64.3. The following table summarize the results of this chapter.EXERCISES 293 64. The noose presented in Example 5.Y and Whitney levels 64.7 Exercise. 64. .11 Exercise.10 Exercise.9 Exercise.5 is a unicoherent continuum such that C(X) has nonunicoherent positive Whitney levels. The property of having multicoherence degree 5 n is a Whitney property for the class of Peano continua. Prove Theorem 64. There are unicoherent A for C(X) such that r(d) = CO. continua . 64.5 Theorem [42.3 is a nonunicoherent continuum with some unicoherent Whitney levels.8 Exercise. 64.1.
.294 VIII.. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Table Summarizing Chapter VIII Topological Properties .
12 1 .Strong W. Reversible Reversible yes no yes no yes no Contractible. Dendroids Contractible for Peano Contractible Hyperspace 1 (41.TABLE SUMMARIZING CHAPTER VIII 295 Topological Properties Whitney Property yes no Whitney Strong Sequential Reversible Whitney.
Topological Properties Property Reversible 1 .296 VIII. .. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE.
 .TABLE SUMMARIZING CHAPTER VIII 297 Topological Properties Property Whitney Reversible Strong Whitney Strong W.
298 VIII.121 . Con.)133. Path. WHITNEY PROPERTIES AND WHITNEYREVERSIBLE. Prop. (r.. Topological Properties Pro Un.
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from the circle and p denotes a Whitney map for C(G). For finite graphs different from the circle. The elements of 3 are the segments of G. We assumethat the metric d for G is the metric of arc length and each segment of G has length equal to one. we ask that all the vertices of the graph are of order different from 2. The order. the elements of 3 are arcs or circles. A finite graph G is a continuum that can be written as the union of a finite family 3. o(v). 305 . it is convenient here to reformulate the notion as follows: 65. This condition eliminates unnecessary segmentsand vertices. Finite Graphs Levels In section 5 we constructed models for the hyperspace C(X) of some finite graphs X. We defined the notion of a finite graph in section 5. We need some conventions. In this section we will see tools that can be used to construct models for Whitney levels of finite graphs. An end point of G is a vertex of order 1 and a ramification point of G is a vertex of order > 3. (l)~].1 Conventions. Whitney 65. In this section the letter G denotes a finite graph different.IX. For each segment J in G we identify J with a closed interval [(O)J. Any two elements of 3 can intersect only at their end points. of a vertex v is defined by: o(v) = (the number of segmentsof the graph which are arcs and contain v) + 2 (the number of segmentsof the graph which arc circles and contain v). each circle C in 3 has a choosen point which is called the end point of C. The end points of the segmentsare the vertices of G.
The following theorem is useful for studying Whitney levels of finite graphs.r.{(O)J. .Cj] U [dj. Let n = is homeomorphic to [0. I. where 0 < t < min{p(H) : H is a segment of G}. Notice that (Exercise 65. If A E C(G) and E > 0. A subgraphof G is a subcontinuum H of G such that H is the union of some segmentsof G or H is of the form H = {v}.4 ED?s(t). We say that A is in the relative interior (A ~RI(ms(t))) of c331s if 0 < a.J) = J. lln’ and homeomorphisms 2s + r.. S) and B n Iv(1. 9&(t) and Q( 1. l]+l send RB(337s(t)) to the boundary of [O. We write 0 (respectively. for each j. mm. For a proper subgraph S of G. for each i. S) is connected) if p(S) < t < p(Q(l.ne (respectively.lln‘.a) 5 6). be the segmentsin G such that. from 9&(t) It is possible to extend the definition of 9&(t) for S = 8. (1)~) if it causesno confussion.41 and [24.S. and 0 < cj < dj < 1 for each j. If 0 < t < p(J). define Q(c.RI(!Yk(t)). Let Ii.(t). } (here.S) and m.Cti] 1 15 i 5 T}) U (U{[O.. 1) instead of (0)~ (respectively. Then (m.0)) instead of ‘?J$ (respectively. SnJj = { (0)~~. . define !7Jk = (B E C(G) : S c B c Q(l. If A does (t) not belong to the relative interior. A small Whitney level for C(G) is a set of the form IL’ (t).(~)J} J is connected} and Q(l. Define Me . J.306 IX.I. Theorem 1. . J)) if it causesno confusion.(t) = ms npl(t). Notice that (Exercise 65. .he union of S and all the segmentsin G intersecting S. be the segments in G such that. WHITNEY LEVELS Notice that it is possible that (0)~ = (1)~. 65.S)). where max{p(H) : H is a proper subgraph of G} < t < p(G). Sets of the form 332swere introduced by Duda in [8].A) = (2 E G : there exists a E A such that d(s.(t) onto [0. define %$(t) = 9J$ n p”’ (t). Notice that Q(l. Then RB(!.30) each element A E 9&(t) can be written in . Proposition 2.11. (l).2 Theorem [26.J(t)and Q(l. where u is a vertex of G. Then. We write 3. < 1 for each i. . 0. . it is possible that (0)~~ = (1)~) ). 5 1 for each i and 0 5 cj 5 dj 5 1 for each j. Let J be a segment of G. is an arc and Ii intersects S in exactly one of its end points (we may assumethat Ii n S = { (0)li }) and let J1.31) !lJlo(t) is an arc. Let G be a finite graph. the form (*) 24= SU (U{[O.%‘s(t)) = !JJ?s(t). and a large Whitney level for C(G) is a set of the form p‘(t). Let . we say that A is in the relative boundary RB(Ms(t)) of mm. is t. the subgraphs of G are nonempty and connected.{ A E C(G) : A c J and A . l] 1 1 5 j 5 S}). by definition. . where 0 5 a.
!Bl~. If u E J. In this caseAl and AZ are the end points of !JXi (t) and Al. 0 < t < p(J).. then A = U{m.. for two different segments J and L of G. be the segmentsof G which are circles and contain ‘u. In this case A is an end point of the segment ?%$(t) and A E RB(!XXf.l(t) n 9X.2. then !JX{.(t) contains exactly one element which is . Let 11. Let u be a ramification point of G. !&(t)n m. If A = p‘(t) is a positive Whitney level for C(G) and 3 = (S : S is a fine subgraph of G for which : S E 3}. {v})). In this example we describe the small Whitney levels of a finite graph G.3. Then ~({v}) = 0 < t < p(Q(1. By the in Theorem 65. 9X.)(t) n DZi(t) # 8 if and only if r~ E J.DIs(t). . then A contains a segment of G. J.}(t) is a subset of A. A = U{ms(t) definition of !.l(t)) (the rest of the “coordinates” of A in %l{.3 Theorem. If A E C(G) and A contains two different vertices. there are exactly two elements pi. A2 E C(G) such that v E A. 65. FINITE GRAPHS 307 If S is the empty set or S is an acyclic graph without end points (of G) then S is called a fine subgraph of G.(t) = 0. either S = 0 or p(S) < t. .(v) is connected. then there exists a subcontinuum A of G such that v E A c J. there is a unique element A E C(G) such that v E A c J. Thus A $! A. M{. Then !lX{.l(t) are equal to zero). By Theorem 65. Let J. .(t) n !%$(t) # 0. if n 9X. On the other hand if !TLT{. taking an order arc from {v} to J.33). Let A = p‘(t) be a small Whitney level for C(G) and let 3 be as : S E 3’). since P(V) < t < p(J).31). Notice that. Since A is a small Whitney level. The following theorem is easy to prove (Exercise 65.(t) is defined}. This proves that if v and w are two different vertices of G.. for each S E 3.3. l]“‘.l(t)n %2{. be the segmentsof G which are arcs and contain v. Let G be a finite graph.s(t) 65. . AZ E RBW{tg (t)). . A maximal fine subgraph is a fine subgraph of G which is not contained propertly in another fine subgraph of G.65. Thus v E J.)(t) = 8. then either S = 0 or S is a onepoint set which contains a ramification vertex of G.l(t) J is an arc. Thus (Exercise 65. it can be shown that there exists A E !DIt. Let J be a segment of G and let 21be a ramification point of G. I. Then m:(t) is an arc contained in A (Exercise 65. ..32) S is a maximal fine subgraph if and only if S is a fine subgraph of G which contains all the ramification points of G. Furthermore. by Theorem 65. Then n = s + 2r is the order of w and.(t). In the case that J is an arc. In the case that J is a circle. then !JJ$. c J and Ai . For each segment J of G. .4 Example.)(t) is homeomorphic to the cube [0. Therefore. If v is a ramification point of G.
we need to change each ramification point ZI for a cube of dimension o(w) .308 IX. Let G be a finite graph.(t) and a point in RB(mf.1. In Figure 45 we illustrate a small Whitney level for a particular graph G. Let p be a Whitney map for C(G) and let G Small Whitney level 4dimensional cube Small Whitney levels for finite graphs (65.4. From Example 65. All these cubes must be joined by arcs in the sa. Proposition 2. then Im{.31. the small Whitney levels for a finite graph G are all homeomorphic.l(t)).me way that vertices are joined in G.l(t) n !JYli(t) contains exactly two elements which are the end points of the segment !JJ$(t) and they are points in RB(lmf.. Moreover.l(t)). Therefore. This fact was generalized by Kato in the following theorem.4) Figure 45 . If J is a circle. Suppose that G contains circles. we may say that for obtaining a model for the small Whitney levels of a finite graph. small Whitney levels are homotopically equivalent to G. WHITNEY LEVELS an end point of the segment m.5 Theorem [26. 65.
where each Li is an arc from ~11 wz and Li fl Lj = (~1. For some particular graphs.8 Theorem [26. Let G = G(m) = U{.21and [25. Question 3.~i (t) is homotopically equivalent to G. 65. it is possible to obtain information from the large Whitney levels for C(G).34). That is.9 Definition [24. a finite graph is completely determined by its small Whitney levels. then y is a segment of G.61.4. Then for each t E [O. It is not known if the converse of Theorem 65. then G has cut points? In [26] are analyzed the large Whitney levels of the family of graphs described in the following theorem. Theorem 2. . If G has a cut point. I]“. 65.65. Another family for which large Whitney levels for C(G) have been analyzed is described in the following definition. The finite graph G is said to be a fruit tree if the following condition holds: if y is a circle in G.4 shows that models for small Whitney levels for C(G) are easy to construct. if we know the small Whitney levels for C(G) then we know the finite graph G.to). The most general result is the following easy to prove theorem (Exercise 65.61 (seeExercise 65. ~2) if to i # j. 65. l]“. Proposition 2.10 Theorem [24. FINITE GRAPHS 309 to = min(p(S) : S is a circle in G).l)sphere Sm’ (see Exercise 53. then large Whitney levels for C(G) are contractible. Definition 3.36).& : 1 5 i 5 m} (2 5 m).51. Then each large Whitney level for G(m) is homotopically equivalent to the (m . For a finite graph G the following statements are equivalent: (a) G is a fruit tree. 65. By Example 65. where n = (number of end points of G) + 2(number of circles in G) 1. Example 65. This is not true for large Whitney levels. 65. Theorem 3.6 is true. Is it true that if large Whitney levels for C(G) are contractible. This is not true for other Whitney levels for C(G). (b) there exists a positive Whitney level A for C(G) which is homeomorphic to some cube [0. Let G be a finite graph. Let G be a finite graph.7 Question [24.11. and (c) each large Whitney level for C(G) is homeomorphic to the cube [0.12).6 Theorem. /.
38). In [29]. Suppose that G and H are finite graphs without cut points. then (Fundamental Dimension of p‘(t)) 5 i(G) . 65. then there exists a Whitney level A for C(P) such that the msphere is homotopically dominated by A. Let A = p‘(t) be a positive Whitney level for C(G). large Whitney levels also contain a lot of information of the graph as it is shown in the following two theorems. In [25] some properties of the dimension of Whitney levels of finite graphs are studied. (Fundamental Dimension of A) 2 m.14 Theorem 125.71. see Theorem 68. Theorem 3.10.310 IX. He showedthat if P is any n dimensional compact connected polyhedron (n > 2) and m > 2. then G and H are homeomorphic if and only if large Whitney levels for C(G) are homeomorphic to large Whitney levels for C(H). The results in [25] are based in the combinatorial formula described in the following theorem. .12 Theorem [24. 65.37). Kato defined an index i(G) of G such that if p is any Whitney map for C(G). for every t E [0. then dimA[d] = max{dim[ms] . In [26] and [29].11. where dimA[d] is the dimension of A at A (Exercise 65.31. it is natural to ask if for polyhedra of greater dimension it is possible to define an index with the properties as those of i. Characterize those finite graphs G for which large Whitney levels are homotopically equivalent to the ndimensional sphere S”. If A E A. it was studied the fundamental dimension of Whitney levels for C(G). it is possible to construct two different fruit trees with homeomorphic large Whitney levels (Exercise 65. Let G be a finite graph. Theorem 2.1 : 5’ is a fine subgraph of G.13 Question. p(G)] Since finite graphs are ldimensional compact connected polyhedra. It would be interesting to solve this question for the particular case n = 2.10. A E ms and S $2 A 4 Q(LS)). WHITNEY LEVELS Using Theorem 65. 65.11 Theorem [24. where G is a finite graph. In particular.1. G is a circle if and only if large Whitney levels for G are not unicoherent. Lemma 1. This problem was solved in the negative by Kato in [28]. For a generalization of the next theorem. However. 65.
Let G be a finite graph and let p be a Whitney map for C(G). In [26.71. dimA[d] 311 does not depend on A 65. If 0 < t < T < 1. Kato showed that Whitney levels for finite graphs are polyhedra. 1. Given a polyhedron P. Theorem 2.21. 65. Rogers proved that.81. . [25. dim[B] + 1 5 dim[C(X)].21 Theorem [25. Let G be a finite graph.41. Proposition 2. Theorem 21. and the following statements are equivalent: (a) A is a fine subgraph of G. Then the following question arises naturally. Let G be a finite graph.22 Theorem [21. Theorem 1. Theorem 2. consider the finite graphs G which admit a Whitney level A such that A is homeomorphic to P. then dim[p‘(t)] 5 dim[p‘(r)] (Compare with Exercise 45. 65.15 Corollary (Exercise 65. Corollary 1.19 are the following three the 65.17 Theorem [25.1 if and only if there exists A E A such that A contains all the ramification vertices of G and A is not a fine subgraph of G. Theorem 1. and (b) dimA[d] + 1 < dimA[C(G)].51. the formula dimA[d] + 1 = dimA[C(G)] holds. If A is a positive Whitney level for C(G) then dim[d] = dim[C(G)] . answers to Questions 65.6).91.65. 65. Theorem 1.71. For each finite graph G there is only a finite number of topologically different Whitney levels for C(G).16 Theorem [25. for any continuum X and any Whitney level B for C(X). There is a Whitney level for C(G) which is homeomorphic to [0.18 Theorem [25. In [39. Is it possible to determine those finite graphs G? Is it possible to say how many of those finite graphs G there are ? Is it possible to give an upper bound for the number of those finite graphs G? Two particular orems. 65.20 Theorem [25. l]* if and only if G is a simple triod or a noose.51. P there exist to a positive 65.39). Given a polyhedron only finitely many graphs G such that P is homeomorphic Whitney level for C(G). Let A be a positive Whitney level for C(G) and let A E A. Then dimA[d] + 1 < dimA[C(G)]. FINITE GRAPHS 65. the following theorem shows exactly for which elements A E A (A is a positive Whitney level for C(G)).19 Questions. Let G be a finite graph. In the case of finite graphs.
every polyhedron can be obtained as a positive Whitney level of a finite graph.i.} = {p(H) : H is a subgraphofG}U(0).. such that (a) (p(A. I&‘(T) x {t} is a homeomorphism from p‘(T) x {t} onto p‘(t).T) = A and cp(A. how many topologically different Whitney levels are there for C(G)? (Compare with Question 65. 65. Given a finite graph G. t) if s < t and A E p‘(T). homotopically speaking.T. Characterize those polyhedra which are homeomorphic to some Whitney level of an acyclic finite graph. Proposition 2.41 not every polyhedron can be obtained as positive level of a finite graph.25 Theorem [21.27 Theorem [27.26 Theorem [4].. the following theorem by Kato shows that. Two natural questions are: What is the class of continua that can be obtained as positive Whitney levels? What is the class of continua that can be obtained as positive Whitney levels of finite graphs? The first question as been solved by W. positive Whitney levels of finite graphs are polyhedra. This is the motivation of the following question. However. Let p be a Whitney map for C(G)..24 Question. .whereTo<T1 <e.. 65. as Kato showed in [26. . With respect to the second question.n}and Then there exists a homeomorphism let T E (T. Every continuum is a positive Whitney level of some continuum.41. The following theorem shows how a Whitney map induces a nice decomposition in the hyperspace C(G). Theorem 11.. and (b) for each t E (Tii. .Ti. . LetiE (l. Suppose that {Te. Let G be a finite graph.Z’i)..28) In [9]. J. Theorem 3. 65.Ti).312 IX. WHITNEY LEVELS 65.. Charatonik in the following theorem. 65. Duda characterized those polyhedra which are homemorphic to the hyperspace of an acyclic finite graph. there exist a finite graph G and a Whitney level A for C(G) such that A is homotopically equivalent to X.h<T.23 Question. For every compact connected ANR S. By Exercise 65. s) c cp(A.31.
65.37 Exercise. where n = (number of end points of G) + 2(number of circles in G) . Prove Theorem 65. 65. Prove the claim (*) in 65. Let A be a Whitney level for C(G).38 Exercise. Let G be a finite graph. All the maximal fine subgraphs have the same number of segments.EXERCISES 313 65. If A = pl(t) is a positive Whitney level for C(G) and F = {S : S is a fine subgraphs of G for which : S E F}. If A is a Whitney level for C(G) and A E A. Question 11.14.31 Exercise. 65. Let G be a finite graph. Then S is a maximal fine subgraph of G if and only if S is a fine subgraph of G which contains all the ramification points of G. Does there exist a curve (ldimensional continuum) Y such that Y admits a Whitney level f3 for C(Y) with the property that ShB = ShX? Exercises 65. Furthermore. then every ramification point is a cut point of G and there exists a unique maximal fine subgraph T. 65.1. Let G be a finite graph.41 65. ms(t) is defined}.32 Exercise. then dimA[d] does not depend on the Whitney map which is used to define A.30 Exercise. Find all the fruit trees G such that their large Whitney levels are homeomorphic to the cube [0.36 Exercise. Question 21. . If G is a fruit tree.29 Question [27. then large Whitney maps for C(G) are contractible [Hint: Use Theorem 66. if A is a large Whitney level for C(G).28 Question [27. Let X be a continuum. then A = ~{9Jls(t) 65. lln. Sets of the form 9$(t) are arcs. Let G be a finite graph. 65.33 Exercise. then every element in A contains T. Let G be a finite graph. then each large Whitney level for C(G) is homeomorphic to the cube [0.39 Exercise.34 Exercise. 117. If G has a cut point. What is the homotopy type of A? How many homotopy types do Whitney levels for C(G) admit? 65. 65. 65.35 Exercise.1. If G is a fruit tree.
we present a simpler convex structure given by W. For each s E [O. D is a metric for A. with r E [s. His proof uses a Dugundjitype construction. Hence. f? E As(X) are such that D(d. let A. f3) < c. 11. let E > 0.~.26. B E C(X) and Hd(A.(X) (Exercise 66. 11such that Hd(d(t).Ij) and 13c N(c. D(d. Consider the metric defined on As(X) by = sup{Hd(d(t). B) < f. Proof. Then HHd(d. Now. If A. WHITNEY LEVELS 65. Let T(D) and be the respective topologies on As(X) defined by D and HH~. Since the product of a positive constant by a Whitney map is again a Whitney map. Prove the following particular caseof Theorem 65.l].p(B)1 < 7. t) are ARs.40 Exercise. where D is the unit disk in the plane centered at the origin and L is the segment [1. This proves that D(d. This section is devoted to present Lynch’s Theorem. Every finite graph is homeomorphic to a positive Whitney level of a continuum. Lynch used a convex structure defined on certain subspacesof the space of order arcs. Define c~(X. 11).a(r)) < 6.41 Exercise. J. Hence T(D) c r(H). there = exists a(r) E . l] x {l}.a) < E. In [31]. 11. let d denote a metric for X and let p denote a Whitney map for C(X).f? E A. = {A E p‘(t) : Let E E C(X) be such that p(E) _< t.(X) = {d E C(C(X)) : A is an order arc joining an element in pl(s) with X}. a) < E.5). For proving the main theorem of this section.D(t)) < 5. f?) < 6. B) < 6. Clearly. Then Itr] MA(t)) . we may assumethat p(X) = 1. Given t E [s. B E C(X). t) Are ARs As usual X denotes a continuum. 11.(X) such that HH~ (d. there exists n > 0 such that if A.13.t) E c A}. 65. then Hd(d(t). There exists a polyhedron which is not homeomorphic to a Whitney level of a finite graph.B) Then D is equivalent to the Hausdorff metric HH~ restricted to As(X).314 IX.let d(t) be the unique element in A f? p‘(t). then H(A. A C B and jp(A) p(B)1 < r. Lynch proved that the sets of the form CE(X.1 Lemma. [Hint: Let P = D U L.d). Take d. W r(H) .3. Thus Hd(d(t).Ij(t)) : t E [s. Here.~(a(~))1 < 7). then Ip(A) .] 66. By Lemma 17. Spaces of the Form Q(X.B(t)) < c. Charatonik in [3]. B(t)) < E for every t E [s. 66. Let S > 0 be such that b < f and if A. For each A E As(X) and for each t E [s. Then Hd(a(r). Thus A c N(c. r(H) c T(D).
.&(n.. ((C. AA (tl. tn))) = e(((dl.Tz..t.t.I. = {(tl. . . . ..B2. ... .):rE[O. .. {Al(s)}.l]n : t1 + . .. .))) = X P. (b) c(((d.d. . .O. 11.(l). + t.ti+l. . . .. . . A. .}.. . .66. . . define M(T) For each s E [0. define A. (~. {Al(s)}... .(X) by g(((dl.Cz..d.(tl. 74. tn))) = Wd. . . n}.). For T = (tr. .. .)......t.0..xA. . k.).((lrt. . (4 e( ((Al.))).731)s+ rtl) U .)..di+l. . ud. tn>)> = 4 (c) c(((d1.. c has the following properties: M(T)]} . . . . . 1 (a) E is well defined.. M. . .2.). ) tn) E [O. ... . .. &+I.A. O. .til. .. : Al(s) = . .. .. .. . For each n = 1. . . Define c : M + A. and Given E = ((Al.:n=1..tn) E In.. . tn}. .) E (As(X))” = u{M.))) = {A1 ((1 . (tr. In this way we have a metric defined on M. = An(s)). . .2 Construction [3]. .(l)>.. . (wru2. t) ARE ARs 315 66. (tl.)) in (C(C(X)))” Consider this product with the metric o*(((&.)s+rt. . Let = max{tr. SPACES OF THE FORM CE(X.A. . .. . . .))) for every permutation u : { 1. . (tl .2.tn)) E M> associate to & the element ((Al.dn).).. .. (t. ..(tl. b1. .(n..3 Theorem. .. (e) c is continuous.. .(tl. . ... .66. M = {(A. . = 1). ....dil. . ... . . n} + { 1..... . .)).. . . .
.. . By Lemma 17. and (3) ]I . . . . for someic 5 71.. WHITNEY LEVELS Proof. . (b) Since c(((d.+v.+~<6. for each to X (4 T) E M. M(V) = M(U). U))) < 6.++h$!d+. ..)s + rti) contains the common set &(s). then 0 5 rt. then D(D. .p(A) < 77. (e)Let(d.)s+rt. 4 Take (a. . Thus each set of the form di(( 1 .) E e(B. < . then: (1) &]ti~li]<z.~n)~Inand~+l~+.&) and U = (~1. .&) Since M(T) > 0 and ti +.foreachi=l. there exists Since I’& .. < p.. .. < z.j.T)EM.. then u.. = 1. M(u) 1 ] such that (T .rt. . (a) If T E [0 .&) < 5.!in c(d.and let 6 > 0. Then If i 5 m.. If r = &.rti)s + rti).)andT=(ti . &I. since o*((d. Suppose that D*((d. . where T E [0. U) E M. <_ 1..6).T)).rtj)s f YQ)= X. .(211 +. . A c B and p(B) . it is clear that M(V) = M(U). it is equal to A.)s + rti). (0.(Z3.. REP&j Define F = B1((1Ru~)s+Ru~)U~~4J&((1Ru.316 IX.. In the proof of Lemma 66.)~+R~.. where vi = Ui if i 6 m and vi = 0 otherwise.E) < f & E As(X) and HHd(DD.rt.hat there exists p > 0 such that if ID... Thus.+b+ inequalities (1)) (2) and (3) hold for V. where i 5 n.) < f. ..v). Take a typical element E = d1((1rtl)s+rtl)U. In the case that m 5 n.. < 6 < &.T). Let p E di((1 . (2) 9 < M(V) < 2M(T) and ]& n.. U)) < 6. e(@. This implies that M(V) = M(U).whered=(di . .((lrt.)] < M(T)v . . T)) is an order arc from the common value Ai (see Exercise 66.R( < 5. then rtj = 1 for somej and dj( (1 .+wrr) < v < M(V) = UiO Ifm > n.Ud. there exists n > 0 such that 77< f and if rl.. + t. c((d.Bi((l . (B. HHd(di. be an element in E.U)) D(d..A).rti)~ + rti)) < f. T). &).. Thus Since D*((d.. We will show that Hd(E. in any case. (ti.. Thus Hd(di((l . d. B) < f. ... h].3.. T). then there exists 6 > 0 such that S<~andifV=(211.f?i) < $.tn))) is an order arc from d(s) to X and it is contained in 4. F) < E.. w.1 it was shown t.).+um = I(vi+.B E C(X). then b.7).+i+. . We will prove that HHd(&((d.. where D = (&. U)) < 6.T). . Therefore.I Mf”.. (c) and (d) are easy to check (Exercise 66.then Hd(A.um). . .. Define V = (VI. .
define G(p) = g(p). Hence HH~(E(A. If i 5 n. a closed subset A c 2 and a map g : A + A. .rti)s + rt. & < :.) (by (2) and (3)). s] < z.+u. Ban. F) < 6. Take a metric space (2.RI < z (by (l)). n 66.66. .RUi)S + RU*)) < 5. Then each set of the form A = c~(X. (. ai) < 1. as follows: If p E A. F). . : p E Z . the choice of 17implies that H&?i((l . E U.1). Hd(&((l . U)).) < 2p(pL1. Define G : Z + d. proceeding as before.5 such that f?.. 2) < $P(P.RQ)S + &)I 5 17% .. Then define 4l= WI. E). . Let U = {V.Ruil 5 T+ . Since HHd(di. I . (That is. s N(E.Z?i) < p. we conclude that p E N(E.A. g(a=) E 13. t) ARE ARs 317 Since I(1 . then wi = 0.&((l .. IfpE ZA.)s + rti). a. We need to prove that g can be extended to a map G : Z + A. Let X be a continuum. This completes the proof that e is continuous.. where i 5 m. Therefore.T)). Hd(di((l .). I(1 I &(l(vl+~. Then p E P E N+W)). dr (s)) C N(c.)s + rtl) .+v. This proves that E(d.T).. If m < i. U) C N(E. By (l).. . E). F). From the choice of q.t) (where p(E) 2 t) is an AR. Then [(I . .8r) < p. E A such E that p(pcl. E(a.rt. E).)) < 5 Rui)s+Ruis( 5 Rui 5 R(u n+l+f. : cr E J} be a locally finite open refinement of {B. Then p E N(e.A}. let d denote a metric for X.rt. choosea point p.4 Theorem [31]. Let P = {& : a E J} be a partition of unity subordinated to U.di(s)) < 5. This completes the proof that F C N(E. If i > n. (PI.‘.((1 . .(s)) c N(E. Thus mce HHd(dr. As usual. U)) < E. Similarly. p). Th is completes the proof that E C N(c.)s + Rui). ban (P)) and G(P) = Wt).?(a. E A. Let AE = {a : 23is an order arc from E to X} and let s = p(E) Given p E Z . alsochoosea point a. define BP = (2 E Z : P(P. So p E N(c.uil + uilr .r&)s + ?q. D(di. D(di. B. Proof.letcq. SPACES OF THE FORM CE(X. let p E &((l . finally chooseZ?.&(s)) < f. &) < 5.&)s + RUG) be an element in F.T) c iV(e. F). We will prove that A is an absolute extensor for metric spaces(see Theorem 9. da.E(B. Now.. Hd(E.A)I. For each CY 3. on be those elements in 3 such that #ni (p) > 0. c(d. By the choice of n.(t) = g(au) A).Ru..
Since the function q + (&. Suppose that Q E J is such that &(p) > 0.A.318 IX.8 there exists q > 0 such that.3 (e). 25E B. (ri) C D. . (rl)U.&. By Exercise 66. Let A be an order arc from A to B. This implies that dq..A) < 26. A) 5 $p(q. then Hd(A. 66. (rn) and it is an element in the level A = p‘(t).7 Exercise. of J’ such that UnU. By Theorem 66. n Exercises 66.(q). &. . Take a point a E Bdz(A) and let E > 0. be the elements in 3 for which q&.. .A. Let cq.10).. for some q E 2 . B E A. Hence G is continuous on Z . the set e(d. Let A be a Whitney level for C(X). B E A. if B c N(6. Let X be a continuum. .(t)) < n... A). for each pair A. Hence G(p) C N(q. A). WHITNEY LEVELS First. T) in Theorem 66.3 Cc) and (4. q) + p(q. Notice that p(q.3. Finally. Therefore.. . . we conclude that G is continuous on U. the set {o E J : &(q) > 0) is contained in ((~1. Verify (c) and (d) in Theorem 66. (P). aa) 5 P(~. .. &. . Take a point p E z A. Since * LJ > . 66. then Hd(A. . Th en.. . . .c+ G(P) = (WL. g(a)). if B c N(q. Then p E U. B) < E (compare with Exercise 13.O. it follows that ri 5 t for each i.1 is a metric. and let T be as in 66.p) + ~P(P. Then the map t + d(t) from [p(A). 4 < 36.(t) c N(q.5 Exercise. This completes the proof that G is continuous on Bdz(A) and the proof of the theorem. a) < 96. Thus %(G(P). . (Y. Thus a. Given q E U. O. &.A. Take p E 2 . 66.. .6 Exercise. z) < 26 and P(Y. a. .. B.(t) C NC777 da)). c B. .8 Exercise. B) < E. . . for each pair A. 66. Let 6 > 0 be such that if 6 E A and p(b. we will show that G is continuous on 2 . Hence Hd(g(a). . . .p(B)] onto A is continuous. . we will show that G is continuous on BdZ(A). A) I P(Y. g(u)) < c. . then Hd(g(b). for every y. G(q) = (WL. . kl (q). . . A) < 96. (q). .) from U in Im is continuous. (p)))(t) is ofthe form &. Let E E C(X).}.p) < 6. # 0. by Theorem 66. ph 2) L P1ylq) + dq.. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X. . Let U be a neighborhood ofp in Z such that U~IA = 0 and there is only a finite number of elements ol. a). Then for every c > 0 there exists 6 > 0 such that. . Thus Aa.p) < 6 and p(q.P) + P(P~P~) + d~db) < 36+2 p (p. (q)))(t). Let cE(X) be the containment hyperspace for E in C(X) as it was defined in Chapter .. &. G(a)) < E. . .(p) > 0. Verify that D in Lemma 66.p) < $p(q. and U. g(a)).A such that p(a.2. (Y. Then D.3 is compact and connected.9 Exercise. &.
Some of the abundant results related to Class(W) are the following: (a) all hereditarily indecomposable continua are in Class(W) (Cook. If X has a cut point. (b) chainable continua are in Class(W) (Read. section 61. Question 14. [5]) (Exercise 67.22 CE(X) is an AR.PI). Regarding next theorem: Implication (a) + (d) was proved by Hughes ([34. for all t in some neighborhood of 1. The notion of Class(W) was introduced by Lelek in 1972. Hughes asked if the converse implication was true ([34. pl(t) is an AR. [13]). [34. ABSOLUTELY C*SMOOTH. By Exercise 14.211). 66. then. 67. Theorem 14.11 and Theorem 67.67.21.251). Theorem 3. Let X be a continuum. 319 t]) is a II. Absolutely C*Smooth. Theorem 2. if X is in Class(W).73. [15. [38]). t]) is an AR.73. Therefore. retract of CE(X). Two generalizations to the notion of Class (W) appeared in [7] and [33]. Since then several authors studied which continua are in Class(W) and have looked for different characterizations of those continua in Class(W).1). In [34. A characterization of continua with the covering property in terms of irreducibility of Whitney levels appeared in 14. CE(X) n p‘([O. then X is irreducible (Hughes. The concept of Covering Property was introduced in [30. Prove that CE(X) n p‘([O. Class(W) and Covering Property are given in section 35. In that paper the problem was raised of characterizing continua with this property. The equivalence (f) .73.4]). Implication (a) + (b) was proved in [14.73. (d) metric compactifications of the half line [O.3 of [34].10 Exercise. CLASS(W) AND COVERING. (e) atriodic continua with trivial first Tech cohomology are in Class(W) (Davis. (c) nonplanar circlelike continua are in Class(W) (Feuerbacher... Theorem 14.14). Class(W) Property and Covering Definitions of Absolutely C*Smooth. The beauty of this theorem resides in the way that it comprises four notions defined in very different contexts. Chapter 141 it was included a discussion about covering property.oo) which have remainder in Class(W) are in Class(W) (Grispolakis and Tymchatyn. In the next theorem it is shown that being in Class(W) and having the covering property are equivalent and they are also equivalent to two more properties.
) for each n = 1.)r=. + Z?. 00)). in order to show that C*(X. and (d) X E Class(W). Hence. (b) X is absolutely C*smooth. = X. there is a sequence {A. Since A. Let p : C(Z) + R’ be a Whitney map. 0 C A.. Then B covers X. E C*(X. Hence. Finally (b) + (d) and (d) + (a) were proved by Grispolakis and Tymchatyn in [16. take A E C*(X).) 0. (a) + (b). E lim C*(X. Thus A E A. Y is a . .1 Theorem. . Take a compactification Y of [O. A E a c A.. We will prove that C(Y) is a compactification of C([O..13. t X. Then A = lim X. Suppose that X is absolutely C*smooth. For each n 1 N.. If to = p(X). there exists a subsequence{f3. by Exercise 78. define B. (b) 3 (c).19. Now. If to < p(X). .}~E?=l in C(Z) such that A. 67. B is a subcontinuum of C and C is a Whitney level for C(X). Proof. is a subcontinuum of C(Z). in C(Z) such that X. for each n = 1.co) with remainder X. oo))..}~=i and there exists f3 E C(C(Z)) such that t?. then A = X. Take a sequence{X. First of all. (c) every compactification Y of [0.5.36.. = . + X. Let Then A E C. We need to prove that C* is continuous at x.))’ (to).) + A and we will prove that A = C*(X). alent: For a continuum X the following statements are equiv (a) X E CP. by Exercise 67.ul (to)fK’(X.&‘(X. This ends the proof that C*(X) = A. Therefore. Thus t? c p‘(to) fl C(X) = C. c X.}~& of {&. then there exists N 2 1 such that to < n(X. . by Exercise 11... + Uf?. U&.21. we conclude that t? = C. it follows that A c X.) = A.320 IX. Given A E A. Consider the function C* : C(Z) + C(C(2)) given by C*(A) = C(A) (the set of subcontinua of A).03) with remainder X has the property that C(Y) is a compactification of C([O. Assume that X is a subcontinuum of a continuum 2.. + D. + A and A. Then N. A c C*(X). Since &. Since C(C(Z)) is compact. X is absolutely C*smooth.) + C*(X) we may assumethat C*(X.. Therefore.. Thus X = uB. Since C(C(2)) is compact. to = p(A) and C = (PIG’(X))‘(to). Theorem 3.2.).) for each n 2 = (/. WHITNEY LEVELS between (b) and (c) was showed by Proctor in [37].2. Since we are assuming that X E CP. c C*(Xnr. Since .. Supposethat X E CP. But U&.
Since [0. 00)) + C(Y) g’rven by C(h)(A) = h(A) (the image of A under h) is an embedding also. we identify each of the points p E [O. there is a metric compactification W of [0. 00)). 1) with remainder 2. co))).oo) with h(p). In order to show that X.18. co) f or some real number t. c N(E.. take a continuum 2 and an onto mapf:Z+X. there is an embedding h : [0. Then ([35..67. Let X. E C(X. oo) is a IIsaturated dense open subset of W and II][O. .(X.20) II(Z) is homeomorphic to X then we will identify X with II(Z). Formally speaking. = [n. SuPpose that every compactification Y of [0. there exists N > 1 such that H. Then h([O.. let E> 0. [n.. XtL). m.) + C(X). co) with remainder X has the property that C(Y) is a compactification of C( [0. Define an equivalence relation N on W by setting p N q if and only if p = q or p. By Exercise 67. Then A is a compactification . 00)) is a densesubset of Y which is homeomorphic to [0. CLASS(W) AND COVERING. (iii) A c X. we have that II( [0.. co) u X) < E and & < E.101) the space Y = W/N is a continuum..) < E for every n > N.X). Since we are assumingthat X is absolutely C*smooth. In order to prove that X E Class(W). 321 metrizable continuum. 00)). (ii) A = X U [t. for each n 2 N.(X. let U. co) + Y and X is homeomorphic to Y . It is easy to show that the equivalent classesof N form an upper semicontinuous decomposition. Since 2 = II‘(II(Z)).oo) and X are subspaces of Y and C([O. Hence A E A. 00)) is a subspace of C(Y). then A = lim A. For each n = 1.. + X. m. In this way we may think that [O. co).] intersects every element in U. for some A. In this case A is the limit of the sequence A. CQ)). Since [n. Then X c N(A. Let A E C(Y). Hence X. X. oo). 03) is the identity map.co)) is an open subset of Y and the function C(h) : C([O. .2. there exists m.4 c [0. 2 is closed in W and II]2 has the same fibers that f we have that (see Exercise 67. It is easy to show that A must satisfy one of the following three conditions: (i) . ABSOLUTELY C*SMOOTH. Then.. 00)). as usual. = [t. C(X. We will prove that A = C(Y). Then H.co)).]. be a finite family of open subsets of Y which covers X and with the property that diameter (U) < f and U n X # 8 for every U E U..h([O. + X.Xn) and X. 00) such that [n.) c C([O. co) U X tends to X. (cl * (4. X c N(c. let p be a compatible metric for Y.. This completes the proof that C(Y) is a compactification of C([O. Let A = &(y)(C([O. E [n. of C([O. Theorem 3. Let II : W + Y be the natural map. t + n] and then A E A. . Since X c cly ([n. In this case >4 E d. Then. 00)).q E 2 and f(p) = f(q).
where H and K are nonempty disjoint closed subsets of Y..A). (d) + (a).m]) The space Y is considered as a subspaceof the continuum X x [l.(A1 U. Then A x {i} C H or A x {i} C K.5. This implies that B c N(6. Fix an element B E D . Let f : Y + X be the restriction of the natural projection from X x [l. .322 IX. For each i = l. .m}}) U ((X . there exists a number t E [O. If there exists A E A ...m. Notice that f is onto... . = 0).m] into X. Let d denote a metric for X. there exists a finite family of open subsets VI. diameter (Vi) < 6 and Vi f~ B # 8 for each i= l.}. D). K: = {i} .). is compact.p(X)] and there exists a proper subcontinuum d of the Whitney level B = /~l(t) such that X = u{A : A E A}. D) < 6. . Since B is compact. . . m. This contradiction proves that A = Al UB.ud. then Hd(C. 00)))) = C(Y).. . B) and B g N(6. Then A. for each A E d. U X. . such that B c U1 U . In order to prove that f is not weakly confluent.m.m} such that A x {i} {A E A : there exists i E (1. . . . We are ready to prove that f is weakly confluent. By hypothesis. . By Exercise 11. . first we will show that Y is a continuum.. A c II‘(X) = 2. A g N(6. Then there exists a Whitney map ~1 for C(X). Then A is a subcontinuum of Z such that f(A) = II(A) = B. Clearly Y is a metric compact space. m} such that A E Ai. Then.m} such that A x c c H} and K}..(X) = pi(O) and we have that t # 0 and t # p(X). Since X = u{A : A E A}.co) such that B = limlI(A. X = Xi U .8 there exists 6 > 0 such that if C..A.(c(~([o. then An Ui # 0 for each i = l. .Y.. For each i = l... U A.. D E t3 and C c N(6.. . define Xi = u{A : A E A.... Since F.. m]. + A for some subcontinuum A of W.m. 00) with remainder X.. Let e > 0 be such that &(A.. Given an element A E A. Since A x {i} is a connected subset of Y.. ckT. Suppose to the contrary that Y is not connected. U U..}rfl of subcontinua of [O. Then A x {i} C X. Take a subcontinuum B of X. WHITNEY LEVELS Then Y is a compactification of [0.... Taking a subsequence if necessary we may assumethat A. Xi is compact. We will prove that ix> = P‘Mm x 4 Class(W).. Define 3t = {>4 E A : there exists i E (1.). Then Y can be written in the form Y = H U K. Then there exists a sequence {A. . B) > E. A). Suppose that X $ Cl’. B)) x [l. x {i} C 1’. This proves that f is weakly confluent. .N(b. x {i} : i E (1. By Exercise 66. U.. . Since II(A) = B C X.. Consider the space Y = (u{X. define di = {A E A : A n U. . there exists i E {l.. .
. Then there exists A E Ai such that p E A. Now. . E {l.)~=i in E which converges to an element A E A. Hence A E E. Since D is connected. B). . This is impossible since B fl Vi # 8. B). Similarly... Then (Ax {l. Then D c U{Xi x {i} : i E (1. there exists a continuum B of X such that B n R # 8. . Theorem 2. Then A. (where Y is a continuum) there exists a subcontinuum B of Y such that f(B) = A.2 Theorem [20. Then B = f(D) c Xi. .. t) E H and let i E (1.. ml) u ({al x [km]) is a connected subset of Y. Therefore ‘R is closed. Therefore. 67.. x {in} c H. . Taking a subsequence if necessary. Hence X $! Class(W). x {j} + A x {j}. A subcontinuum A of X is said to be a Wset in the continuum X provided that for every onto map f : Y + X.. A 1sa Wset in X.N(S. For each n = 1.. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X. . Then A is not a Wset in X if and only if there exists some E > 0 and a neighborhood IJ of A such that (1) for each z E U there exists a continuum B in X such that 2 f B. CLASS(W) AND COVERING. ..11.m}}.B). K is nonempty.. Now. Then there exists a subcontinuum D of Y such that f(D) = B. . . . Since A. . K is closed. = j foreveryn=1. Thus the set A x {i} is a connected subset of Y that is contained in H. This implies that 7l II K = 0.. if and only if for every A E C(X).. supposethat g is weakly confluent. m} such that A. Notice that X E Class(W) . Let A be a proper subcontinuum of X. n] be such that p E Xi. This contradicts the connectednessof A and proves that Y is a continuum. m} such that D C Xi fl {i}. Grispolakis and Tymchatyn introduced the notion of Wset. This completes the proof that (d) + (a) and the proof of the theorem. B). Since A g N(6. Choose a point (p. Similarly. 323 Thend=%UK. They showed the following characterization of Wsets. . f is not weakly confluent. we may assume that there is a j E { 1. . there is a point a E A .. . This shows that ?f is nonempty. x {j} C H for each n > 1. BnS#OandAgiVNd(e.. there exists i E { 1. . A x {j} c H.2. and (2) for each decomposition of Bdx (U) = R U S into disjoint closed sets R and S... we will prove that 3f is closed. Take a sequence {A.. there exists i. .2.67. Thus A E 31. m} such that i. Let A E A. ABSOLUTELY C*SMOOTH. . B II Bdx(U) # 0 and A g N~(E.. w In [20].
Theorem 2. Let A be a subcontinuum of the continuum X. + X. A continuum X is a graph if and only if every minimal cover is finite. X = Ud and A is minimal with respect to these properties in the sensethat no proper closed subset of A covers X. A closed subset A of C(X) is a minimal closed couer provided that A consists of nondegenerate proper subcontinua of X. 67. B) or (2) there exists a decomposition of Bdx(U) = R U 5’ into disjoint nonempty closed sets R and S such that for every continuum K C cl.). 67. Let X be a continuum.y(U) which intersects R and S we have that A C Nd(c.1. Let X be a continuum and let d be metric for X. Then the following are equivalent: (i) A is a Wset in X. then X is hereditarily locally connected. (ii) for every Whitney level A for C(X) such that A E A and for every subcontinuum B of A such that X = U{B : B E B} we have A E B. Recently.7 Theorem [32. 2041.y(U) we have that A C N~(E.Z}~Z”=lis a sequence of arcs in the Hilbert cube such that Y.y(U) which contains z and intersects Bd. K).324 IX.8 Question [32. for each E> 0 and each neighborhood U of il we have that either (1) there exists z E U such that for every continuum B C c1. 67. 67.21. Then X is in Class(W) if and only if for every subcontinuum A of X.6 Theorem [32. If every Whitney level for C(X) is a minimal closed cover. Ma&s obtained some results on the structure of X in terms of its minimal closed covers. 6’7.4 Theorem [20. p. Let X be a continuum. Corollary 2. In this way Grispolakis and Tymchatyn added the following intrinsic characterization of Class(W) to Theorem 67.31. Theorem 71. Theorem 51.3 Theorem [20. 67. If X is a continuum such that all the minimal closed covers are countable. then A E lim inf C(kl.1. Ma&s in [32] has defined the following notion which is related to the covering property.5 Definition [32]. is X hereditarily indecomposable? . WHITNEY LEVELS Grispolakis and Tymchatyn also showed the following local version of part of Theorem 67. and (iii) if X is contained in the Hilbert cube and {Y.
Then uclc:(Au)(d n C([O. Then a continuum X is in Class(Ms) if and only if X is hereditarily indecomposable (151). Every hereditarily indecomposable continuum is in 67.oo). Let X be a continuum. Let X be a metric compactification of the halfopen interval [O. Let 2 be a continuum.9 Question [32. a continuum X is said to be in Class(M) provided that all maps from continua onto S are in class M.15 Exercise. oo)) ([2. If A E C([O. Let X be a continuum. co))) = X. we may assume that 2 is contained in the Hilbert cube [0.13 Exercise.1 67. there is a finite set . 67. p(X)]. PIwl@)) : Wl(t)) j P‘h4w1) is a homeomorphism ([36.18 Exercise.10 Question [32. If B is a subcontinuum of A and Uf? = X.C([O. l]O”. then A n C([O. For each n 2 1. 67. Then X has the covering property hereditarily if and only if for each Whitney map p and each t E [0. 2041. 00)) n A and 0 $ A. Is it true that X is hereditarily locally connected if and only if all its minimal closed covers are totally disconnected? Exercises 67. Let ‘u.EXERCISES 325 67. Fix a point z.: C(C(X)) f C(X) be the union map defined in Exercise 11. 1) with remainder 2. Then X is in Cla. Given a class of maps M. set. E 2. Then a continuum X is in Class M2 if and only if X is a onepoint. p. [Hint: Project an appropiate subcontinuum of X x [0.12.17 Exercise. Let X be a continuum.ss(Ml) if and only if X is a onepoint set. 67.5. 2041. If every minimal closed cover for C(X) is connected. then A separates A. Let A be a Whitney level for C(X). Let M1 be the class of monotone maps. Let Mz be the classof open maps. Let X be a metric compactification of the halfopen interval [0. Let M3 be the class of confluent maps. m).11 Exercise. Proposition 41). [Hint: By Exercise 28. p.16 Exercise.14 Exercise. then there exists a metric compactification of [0. is X hereditarily indecomposable? 67. Class(W).12 Exercise. co)) c 8. 67. Corolary IS]). Then X E CP if and only if C(X) = cZccx. 67. l] onto X.
Let bi = max{b E [0. Ch. Let bz = max{b E [0. WHITNEY LEVELS F C 2 such that 2 c Nd. l]03. Then b2 2 26. In [40. be] E A be such that a0 = 0. l]O”. then Y is metrizable. VI]). Theorem 3. F) c [0. Rogers proved the following theorem. b] E d}. ($. Every minimal closedcover of [0. such that an(&) = ~0 = (w.oo) such that the remainder of Y is a (metrizable) continuum. 11.20 Exercise. Then define W = (2x {O})~(~{{(a. Corollary 9.22 Exercise. F) is an arcwise connected subset of [0. [Hint: By Urysohn’s metrization theorem ([ll.( $) and E (O. where ~1is a Whitney map for C(X) and 0 L: s < t 5 1. $1 + NdI(irF) . no new onedimensional holes are created. and perhaps some onedimensional holes are swallowed”. the letter p denotes a Whitney map for C(X). for each continuum X. Holes in Whitney Levels As usual.] A continuum X is decomposable if and only if there 67.). where di is the metric in (0. IX]) it is enough to prove that 2’ has a countable basis.l] : F c Im(cr. l] : there exists a E [0.(t).] 67. This intuitive statement has found several formulations. Al> : n 2 11.2. 11). b] E A}. [Hint: Use the Transgression Theorem ([ll.then there exists E > 0 such that 6 < i and diameter (A) > 6 for every A E A. Since Nd.2. orem 41). The67. Theorem 51.1 67. A Whitney block is a set of the form pLl(s. 1]03. (A. As we have seen in Theorem 19.1 67. C(X) and 2x are unicoherent.1 prove that II(Z) is homeomorphic to X. there exists a map an : [A. l] is contained in a Whitney level for C([O. l] : there exists a E [0. If Y is a compactification of [O. .l]” x [O. The following observation was done by Rogers in [40]: “As we go higher into the hyperspace C(X). l] is finite ([32.21 Exercise. In this section we suppose that p(X) = 1.19 Exercise. t). 68. In the proof of (c) 3 (d) of Theorem 67. Find a continuum X and a minimal closed cover of X which is not contained in a Whitney level for C(X).t) t E [A. l] such that bl E [a. Ch.23 Exercise. Every minimal closed cover of [0. For Whitney levels the situation is different. [Hint: Let A be a minimal closed cover of [0.326 IX.8. l] such that bo E [a. exists a finite minimal closed cover. Let [as.
cohomology group denote the reduced nth Alexandertech With respect to fundamental group. Let X be a continuum. + Hl(pl(s)).5 Question 123. 68.21. Then the following statements are equivalent: (a) X is a circle.2 68. If X is a Peano continuum and if 0 5 q < T < s < t 5 1. denotes the fundamental 68.2 Theorem [23. xl(Z) group of 2. Is Theorem 68. then there exists an epimorphism where.68.3 Theorem [23. t)) is a nontrivial group. Question 6. 68. . the following results were shown in WI.4 Theorem [23. If X is a Peano continuum and if 0 5 s < t 5 1. Theorem C]. HOLES IN WHITNEY LEVELS 327 68.6 Question [23. 68. (b) ~1(P‘(~7 t)) is a nontrivial group for every 0 5 s < t 5 1. If X is a Peano continuum. Theorem B]. for an arcwise connected space 2. then ~1(CL’(s. Is Theorem 68.1 Theorem [40. t)) is finitely generated. Theorem A]. Question 6. then does there exist an epimorphism A positive answer to Question 68.3 true for Whitney levels? That is: are the fundamental groups of the positive Whitney levels of a Peano continuum finitely generated? Rogers statement about the onedimensional holes also can be expressed in terms of multicoherence degree defined in section 64. there exist r < s < t < 1 such that 7r1 (pl (s.2 true for Whitney levels? That is: if X is a Peano continuum and 0 5 s < t 5 1. If p is a Whitney map for C(X) and 0 2 s 5 t 2 1. and (c) For each T < 1.5 would give a positive answer to Question 47.21. Theorem 51. then there exists a monomorphism y* : H’(pl(t)) where H’(Y) of Y. The following results were proved in [22].
For ndimensional holes. 68. there are Whitney levels for the hyperspace of a disk which have 2dimensional holes. then +l(s)) 2 r(pl(t)).10 Theorem [22. Theorem B]. Question 6. Is Theorem 68. then r(d) is finite.7 is not true for nonlocally connected continua. If A is a Whitney level for C(X) and m is an integer such that 0 < m 5 r(X). Is the implication (b) 3 (a) in Theorem 68.9 Theorem [22.4 true for every arcwise connected continuum (instead of Peano continuum)? .9 true without the hypothesis of local connectedncss. where n 2 2.11 Question [22. Theorem C]. An example as it is asked in Exercise 64.9 for the fundamental group of Whitney blocks? 68. by Theorem 65. Is Theorem 68.328 IX.11. Question 6.4 true for Whitney levels instead of Whitney biocks? 68. Theorem A]. (b) there exists a Whitney map w : C(X) + R’ such that w‘(t) unicoherent for each 0 _<t < w(X). If S is a Peano continuum and if 0 5 s < t 5 1. there are finite graphs which have Whitney levels with ndimensional holes.8. What could be an appropriate version of Theorem 68.14 Question [23.7 is not true for nonlocally connected continua as it is noted in Exercises 64. 68.1.31. 68. then there exists a Whitney level A for C(X) such that r(d) = m.8 Theorem [22. Let X be a Peano continuum. the situation is different. and (c) every positive Whitney level for C(X) is not unicoherent.21. WHITNEY LEVELS 68. If A is a positive Whitney level for C(X) and X is a Peano continuum. is not All the results in this section are for ldimensional holes.12 Question [23.10 also shows that Theorem 68. for all n 2 2. Question lo].13 Question [23. As we seein Example 30.8. For a Peano continuum the following statements are equivalent: (a) X is a circle. Question 6.7 and 64. 68.7 Theorem [22. Theorem 68. Theorem D]. 68. Furthermore.
. Continuum covering mappings. 11. Math. Feuerbacher. On the hyperspace of subcontinua of a finite graph. Proc. Fund.. Sci. there exist T < s < t 5 1 and there exists an integer n 2 1 such that n. Duda.16 Question [23. R. 39 (1991). Duda. Sot. Some properties of Whitney continua. W. Intervals of continua which are Hilbert cubes. W. J. 7173. 63 (1968). Topology Proc. 241249. 13511352. 12. Inc.. 9.51. Duda. Univ. J. Sci.. 7. 207211. AboZeid. 1974. Weakly chainable circlelike continua. Is the following greater dimensional version of implication (c) + (a) in Theorem 68. Polish Acad. 4. J. Math. Charatonik. G. E. Fund. 3 (1978). Math.REFERENCES 329 68. Bull.Proc. 118 (1993). 10. Dugundji. 31 (1983). Question 6. Cook. 225255. 3. H. Amer. Bull.(p‘(s. Math. 69 (1970). 220224. 385391. 301312. Continua which admit only the identity mapping onto nondegenerate subcontinua... Editor. J.. . Question 6.41. Davis. II. Frolik. I. 6.. 62 (1968). 60 (1967). Duda. Amer. On the hyperspace of subcontinua of a finite graph. Fund. Math. of Houston.4 true: Let X be a Peano continuum and let p be a Whitney map for C(X). Charatonik. Math.. Heldermann Verlag Berlin (1988)) 173175. Some counterexamples concerning Whitney leuels. Continua as positive Whitney levels. Atriodic acyclic continua and class W. Allyn and Bacon. If for each T < 1.7). 5. 265286. Sixth Prague Topological Symposium 1986.C. References 1. R. 477482. C. 2. 8. J. Amer.. Fund. Z. Dissertation. 68 (1978). then is X a connected finite graph? 68. 90 (1984). Houston. 13. E. A. I”. Characterize those finite graphs which satisfy the assertion in Question 68.15 Question [23. Proc. Eberhart.15 (compare with Question 65. Math. General Topology and its Relations to Modern Analysis and Algebra VI. Proc. t)) is a nontrivial group. Charatonik. Sot. Convex structure on the space of order arcs.. Correction to the paper “On the hyperspace of subcontinua of a finite graph. Sot. R. Math. 1966. Polish Acad. Math. W. Topology.
Illanes. Math. 129 (1988). 21. J. 137147. Fund. D. Sot. Tymchatyn. Tymchatyn. D. Sot. and E. H. Grispolakis and E. 60 (1994). 36 (1995). 347362.. Grispolakis and E. 19. Illanes and I. Trans. Rocky Mountain J. 5 (1979).. Topology Appl. A note on fundamental dimension of Whitney continua of graphs. 243250. A. J. 41 (1989). Proc. Topology Proc. Proceedings of the International Conference of Geometric Topology. Topology Appl. to appear in Glasnik Mat. 26. Continua which are images of weakly confluent mappings only. Spaceswhich accept only weakly confluent mappings. 161166. 3 (1978). 15. Kato. 31 (1979).. Math. Topology Appl. Tymchatyn. 23. Carolinae. Math. Kato. Jr. D. Continua which admit only certain classesof onto mappings. 25. 24. Math. 18.. (I). Proc. Multicoherence of Whitney levels. J... Math. PWNPolish Scientific Publishers Warzawa 1980. Puga. 28. Illanes. Grispolakis and E.. 173184. A. H. Various types of Whitney maps on ndimensional compact connected polyhedra (n 2 2). D. Whitney blocksin the hyperspace of a finite graph. 300 27. 367381. Tymchatyn. Amer. A. Kato. J. Determining finite graphs by their large Whitney levels. J. Grispolakis. Math. Grispolakis and E. On a characterization of Wsets and the dimension of hyperspaces. The fundamental group of the Whitney blocks. Japan. Grispolakis and E.. Tymchatyn. 28 (1988). A. A. J. D. Sot. H. 14251441. 483502. 22. Grispolakis and E. Nadler. 26 (1996). 68(1996). (1987). J. Whitney continua of curves. Whitney continua of graphs admit all homotopy types of compact connected AN&. 557563.. . 6 (1980). Amer. Kato. Tymchatyn. Houston J. 1721. Math. 74 (1979). 16. J. Amer. Tymchatyn. H. Canad. 251265. 177182. 100 (1987). 17.330 IX. D. Illanes. Some properties of hyperspaceswith applications to continua theory. S. (II).B. 29. J. WHITNEY LEVELS 14.. Weakly confluent mappings and the covering property of hyperspaces. Houston J. Math. 375387. D. 197210. Torres. Sot. Continua which are images of weakly confluent mappings only. Illanes and R. Univ. Comment. Math. 175176. The dimension of Whitney levels of a finite graph. Math. 20.
Nadler. N. 96 (1978). M. 293296. Hyperspaces of sets. 37. 1655180.. New York. Inc. 748750.. D.. Inc. Whitney levels in C. Fund. Continuum Theory. 235250. 315319. Whitney properties. Rogers. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. 36. Coverings of continua. Math. Houston 3.REFERENCES 331 30. 34. Amer. Jr.Y.. Lynch.. 98 (1986). Jr. Nadler. .. 20 (1995). J. Colloq. 6 (1976). 38.T. 40. 1 (1976).. Topology Proc. New York.R. J.. 35. Dimension and the Whitney continua of C(X). 1992. Confluent and related mappings. M. A characterization of absolutely C*smooth continua.. N. 191205. Rogers. T. Jr. Tymchatyn. B. W. B. Topology Proc. Proctor.. 158. S. 31. Whitney maps and Whitney properties of C(X). Math.. General Topology Appl. 39. Nadler. A. 1978.. Macias. Marcel Dekker. An introduction. Proc. S. Math. Math.Y.. 91100. Petrus.B. 18 (19921.Krasinkiewicz and S. 49. Vol. 33..(X) are ARs. Sot. Read. 147172. Inductively weakly confluent mappings. C. 32. D. Jr. Math. Math. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. 22 (1976). Vol. 233239. S. Proc. J. 29 (1974). 92 (1984). Jr. Applications of a VietorisBegle theorem for multivalued maps to the cohomology of hyperspaces.. Marsh and E. M.. Marcel Dekker. Amer... Sot.. Michigan J.
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B) (Exercise 69. B). B E C(X) such that A 5 B.{[O. (b) A E Sb(A) for every A E C(X) .{X}. l] + C(B) such that cr(0) = C. SemiBoundaries be 69.C(A)}. 11) . th en there exists an onetoone map (Y : [0. The semiboundary of C(A) in C(B) is defined by Sb(A. then Sb(A) is an arc and A is not an end point of this arc. In this section we prove several results for Sb(A).l]} and A is nondegenerate. o(s) 5 a(t) ifs < t and a(s) is not contained in A for each s > 0.6). (c) if A E C([O. B) = {C E C(A) : C is order arcwise accesible from C(B) . in the terminology of Exercise 15. Let X be a continuum.{X} such that Sb(A) is not closed in C(A).X. Notice that. (e) let X be the harmonic fan. Let A. With some obvious small changes.7): (a) Sb({z}) = {z} for each 2 E X. General Properties of Hyperspaces 69. Then there exists A E C(X) .{C}}. we may write Sb(A. If C E Sb(A.1 Definition [14].{X}. In the case that B = X. we have that these results are also true for Sb(A. then Sb(A) is an arc and A is an end point of this arc if and only if 0 f A or 1 E A. (d) if X is a circle and A E C(X) . we write Sb(A) instead of Sb(A. 333 . B) and u is an order arc with the properties mentioned in the de& nition of Sb(A. Such a map 0 will be named a removing map for C in B.18. Let us consider some examples (Exercise 69.X). B) = {C E C(A) : there exists an order arc g in C(B) such that II Q = C and D g A for every D E c~.
D is not contained in A. Then C.. Let X be a continuum.3 Theorem [14. (b) if B E Sb(A) and B c D c A. + B. is not contained in A.{B). = B u B. Thus cr([O.l + C X by o(t) = @l(t). C. Let A E C(X) . Define Q!: 0.+l U Bn+2 U . is not contained in A and B. l] + C(X) such that Q(O) = B and o(s) is not contained in A for each s > 0.BnD#O.. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF HYPERSPAGES of semi The following theorem describes some elementary properties boundaries. . for each n. then E E Sb(B.+l c B. B U D). if t E [&.. (b) For each n 2 1. 11) and.DEC(X). . for every D E 4[0. 11) is an order arc. B. and s 5 t an : [$. is not contained in A and B.8. ift=O i] for some n 2 1. Let A E C(X) .I + Wn) such that o. and (f) ifB. Then each one of the following conditions implies that B E Sb(A): (a) if B. and It is easy to show that the following properties hold: (1) cy is continuous. u B.31.. n B # 0 for each n. 69. Therefore. (b) if B.{X} and B E C(A). 69. (2) ifs 5 t. Let {B. and (3) if s > 0.BD#0#DBandEisacomponent of B n D. there exists a map 7 Bn71. B u D) n Sb(D.. .2 Theorem [14. then D E Sb(A).11) . (4 WA) c B~c(x.. C. By (a) we obtain that B E Sb(A). Its proof is easy and it is left as Exercise 69. then WA) # B&(x)(CtA)). . B = m([o.}~c=l c C(X) be a sequence such that B. The following theorem is useful for determining when a subcontinuum is in a semiboundary.6. Theorem 1. (c) Sb(A) is arcwise connected. + B.(q) implies that (Y. Let X be a continuum.m (a) B E Sb(A) if and only if there exists a map cy : [0.(W)L (e) if X is the sin(i)continuum and A is the limit segment of X. then o(s) is not contained in A. let C. applying Theorem 14.21. n B # 0 for each n. B E Sb(A). ~~(a) = B. is a subcontinuum of X. Proof.+l c C. Theorem 1. .(S) c an(t).334 X. and (c) if B. then (Y(S) c a(t). E Sb(A) and B. (a) For each n 2 1. and C.
A. . > 1.4).69. SEMIBOUNDARIES 335 (c) Let d be denote a metric for X. E U clx(Di)) c Sb(E). This contradicts the choice of (Y. in X. Theorem 1. In the case that E C clx (Di). Then we can apply Theorem 69. Therefore Mi n Di # 8.5 Theorem [14. l] + C(X) be a removing map for Mi in X.4 is true. Since this follows from Theorem 69. . In the case that E . > 0 such that Hd(crY. Choose t. and crn(tn) + B. we obtain that B E Sb(A). Let A. are pairwise different. Then X contains nods if and only if there exists E E C(X) such that m(E) has at least n elements. . If A E C(X) . then there exists a minimal element (with respect to the inclusion) C E Sb(A) such that C c B.). Theorem 69.(tn) is a subcontinuum of X. Fix an open subset U of X such that A C U and Di . Given i E (1. Thus A U a(t) c E. be components of B . Then a. We will show that Mi is not contained in A. 611or Exercise 80. we can set C = E. . . For each R.4 Theorem [14. Then A U a(t) is a continuum contained in U. an(tn) n B # 0 for each n.. Since o(0) c A c U. . p. n 69.) < i.A has at least n components.clx (U) is nonempty for every i.2 (f) to obtain that C E Sb(E. M. Applying (b). Let D1. Theorem 4. This completes the proof of the necessity..4.clx(Di) # 8. . By Exercise 12. there exists a minimal element Mi of Sb(E) such that Afi C C C cZx(Di). E n clx(Di) # 0. NECESSITY. there exists a removing map cr. Thus A&i.3 (c). clx (Di) n A # 8 and AU Di E C(X) for each i. there exists t > 0 such that a(t) c U. since E E Sb(E). B.{X}. We will show that there is an element C E Sb(E) such that C c clx (Di).. a. B E C(X) be such that B . Suppose to the contrary that Mi c A. Let X be a continuum.&) is not contained in A. for B. Proof. By the Brouwer Reduction Theorem (see[18. n Given an element A E C(X) . Suppose that n 2 2. Let cr : [0. By Theorem 69. minimal elements in Sb(A). Let E be the component of clx(U) such that A c E. Let n > 1. let C be a component of E nclx(Di). . . n}.19) it is enough to show that the intersection of a countable nest of elements in Sb(A) n C(B) is an element in Sb(A) II C(B). Hence Mi .(t.A # 0. Proof.21. . we denote by m(A) the set of 69.{X} and B E Sb(A).15 applied to the continuum B. Let X be a continuum. D.
&.. Reformulate Theorems 69... there exists t. thereexistslk E {l.. .. This proves the existence of s. n}. For each i E (1..6 Exercise..i is miGma1. B) instead of Sb(A). we will show that there exists s > 0 such that oi (3) n q(Q) c E. Since 0# DknE. By the assumption. Let 10 E { 1. B E C(X). i). D E Sb(E). fI.. n}.(s. are such that 10 = lg. we may choose si E (0. C Da.3 (a). .69. . C Dk.. Thus we may assume that Ei II czj(tj) # 0.lJcr. Cl. Since Dk. Since Cl. . (b). Then B is an nod. .4 and 69. Check the examples before Theorem 69. .7 Exercise. .{X} be such that Sb(E) has at least n minimal elements El. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF HYPERSPACES SUFFICIENCY.. . the component Dk of c~i(i) flczj(tj) which contains 2 meets Ei. > 0 such that Ej is not contained in cri(tz) for every j # i. ti) such that oi(si)noj(t. Let k be a positive integer. for each m. C. .E. = lim &.. c Ei n ai C ai rl ajftj). (c). be the components of Ei n aj (tJ). n Exercises 69. If EifIaj(tj) = 8. we may assume that An B has a finite number of components for every A.)CEforeveryj#i. Dk. Since E. then in fact there is as > 0 such that oi(s)floj(tj) = 0.. . is not contained in E. C oi( &) and CY~(&) + Eiy D C Ei C E.) n}. choose a removing map q for Ei in X.E. .r}suchthat Dk fl Cl. . . C DknEincrj(tj). .20.). . for every j # i.5 for spacesof the form Sb(A. .. we conclude that cl. Let C be the union of the components of oi( i) n cq (tj) which do not intersect Ei. (d). Let D = Dkl nDk. . is &) rl oj (tj). Suppose that kl < kg < . such that (Yi(zk) n C = 0. Therefore. DefineB=EUcq(sl)U.2... Then C is a compact set disjoint from Ei. By Theorem 69.. Since ~(0) = Ei. Given i # j. 69. . Let Ci. # 0..336 X. Ej is not contained in Ei. given i E { 1. that there is no such s. . Let E E C(X) . a component of oi (&) n crj (tj) which is contained in CY~( Thus Dk_ C . In order to prove the existence of s. . we can choosea point z in oi(i&) ncrj (tj) . D = Ei. Thus there exists zk E (0. and Dk. . . By Exercise 14. E C(X). This is a contradiction since D c oj(tj)..3. 69. Then the following properties are true for each m 2 2: Dk. . By construction of C. suppose to the contrary.2 (a).. r} be such that lo = lk for infinitely many k. Given i E { 1.
Theorem 5. Let d denote a metric for X. it is useful to know if they contain cells or Hilbert cubes. Then C(X) if and only if X contains nods (n 2 2). the following statements are equivalent: (a) X is locally connected. 70. The sufficiency was asked to be proved in Exercise 14.{A) is arcwise connected if and only if Sb(A) # {A}. then C’(X) . 69. From Exercise 14.18. This result was extended in [13] where it was proved that a necessary and sufficient condition in order that C(X) contains Hilbert cubes is that X contains ooods (see Exercise 70.8 it follows that C(X) contains a 2cell if and only if X contains a decomposable subcontinuum. The purpose of this section is to present the proof that the existence of ncells in C(X) implies the existence of nods in X. Theorem 1.18).1 Theorem [13.~(~4).12).{X} and p E Bd. 337 69.70.{X}.19 and Theorem 18. 70. Cells in Hyperspaces In studying the structure of hyperspaces. Let X be a continuum. p. (b) if A E C(X) . namely if the fact that C(X) contains ncells implies that X contains nods (the question for n = 3 was proposed by Ball). Rogers in [26] proved that if X contains nods. and 69.(W)) for every A E C(X) .8 Exercise. 671).1471. then C(X) contains ncells (seeExercise 14. Prove Theorem 69. In this direction Mazurkiewicz in [21] proved for every continuum X. This proof is based in the classical theorem of Dimension Theory . The latter suggested the question asked in [25. and Cc) W4 = Wqx.3). A continuum is hereditarily indecomposable if and only if Sb(A) = {A} for every A E C(X) .91. 2dYalways contains Hilbert cubes (see Theorem 14. A positive answer to this question was given in [13].10 Exercise. then {p} E Sb(A).2. Let X be a continuum.11 Exercise [14. contains ncells Proof. For a continuum X.11.{X}. CELLS IN HYPERSPACES 69. In [24] it was given a sufficient condition in order that C(X) contains Hilbert cubes. then C(X) . Question 1.{X} (a) if A is indecomposable. (b) if A is decomposable.9 Exercise ([14.{A} is arcwise connected if and only if every composant Ii’ of A contains an element of Sb(A). In order to show the necessity we assumethat X does not contain nods and then we will see that C(X) does not contain n cells. Let A E C(X) .
(A) For each D E Sb(A. (B) Sb(A. E) < 6.3 (c). Let Ml = {M E M : M is not contained in D}. D C A. (C)Let D E C(A) . Ck of G n A such that .B) such that Dk + D. En D # 0. Since MI is finite. Since C is upperly closed with respect to A. Therefore. we say that C has property S(m) if it is not possible to construct mods with the elements of C. we conclude that D E Sb(A.338 X. E E C(X) and D C E c A. This means that if D.1 components (for m = 1.2)IV. then E 4 C. B) which is upperly closed with respect to A.41). E c D and there exists a map cr : [0. That is. . E) < E. Then we need t. A) nC. E E Sb(D. (D)Let G be a closed subset of X such that A rJJG. Then B&(C(D) nC) = Sb(D. B) such that M C E. By Theorem 69. Therefore. D) does not intersect C. tl iere exists E > 0 such that BH~(E. this means that D = E). Let E E Sb(D.2 (a)). by Theorem 69. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF HYPERSPACES which says that: An ncell can not be separated by any of its (n .A). Since each Dk is contained in A.3 (b).i”=l be a sequence in Sb(A. Since o(i) + E.4. there is a minimal element Al of Sb(A.o dimensional subsets ([12. B) and Hd(D. B)} is finite. since C c Sb(A.D has at most m . Given m 2 1. then D n E # 0. the set M = {M E C(X) : A4 is a minimal element of Sb(A. we may assumethat EI. there exists E> 0 such that if E E Sb(A. Since D $ L. If E E Sb(A. Corollary to Theorem estimate the dimension of some subspacesof G(X). The letters A and B denote subcontinua of X such that A $ B and C denotes a subcontinuum of Sb(A.{A}. A) n C. From (A). . the set C = {E E C(X) : E contains some element in Mi } is closed in C(X). C is a subcontinuum of Sb(A. Then there is a finite number of components Ci. B) and Hd(D. E E C and D C E then E . we conclude that E E Bdc(C(D)nC). Then E E C. By (A). .5. B). B) is closed. By Theorem 69.. . l] + C(A) such that a(O) = E and o(s) is not contained in D for each s > 0 (Theorem 69. then E E C. By Theorem 69. E E Sb(D. A) n C. we may assume that Dk n D # 0 for every k. Since we are assumingthat X doesnot contain nods. Then E is a subcontinuum of D. Let D E C(X) and let {Dk}. each a(i) is in CC(D). We need the following conventions. This completes the proof of (C). B). B) with the property that if D E C. Suppose that the set C(G n A) = {D E C(X) : D c G n A} is nonempty. E E C and there exists a sequenceof elements { Ek}& of C such that Ek + E and Ek # C(D) for each k. Then A4 4 Ml and A4 c D. B). Now take E E B&(C(D) nC). n E # 8 for each k. This will be done by proving a seriesof auxiliary results.
Suppose that C n Sb(D. Suppose that Ml. Then this minimal element is some Mi. U (G. there are m . U B&(C(Ck) n C). Let Gi be the component of G n A which contains ngi. Then there exist E. . .+rC..A) is upperly closed with respect to D. B).E. Proceeding as in Exercise 12. A)) n C...~.70. F E C n Sb(D. B).4.)C) = 0 and clx(cr(tl)C)n(GiC) c a(tl)n(DC) = 0. .)) n C.) n D such that E c C. Fix points pi E Gi .1). U Sb(Cn. A) U . of F such that F =G1 u. Let C be the n D) . Then each order arc from an element in C n Sb(D.. A) is arcwise connected and.G.uG.C = (G1 .. Then (I and it does not intersect E. then C n Sb(D. By Theorem 69. . . Theorem 69.1 subcontinua E =G1 n. A) doesnot have property S(m.l. . Sinceclx(GiC)n(a(ti)C) c Dn(a(t.A)) nC.. This proves that C(G n A) fl C C (C(Ci) U .A).1 components.C) = 0.C).. A) has property S(m .C and 0 # a(tl) .2 (b) implies that C n Sb(D.C.. A) is a subcontinuum of Sb(D.. Then a(tl) n D c C. a(ti)Carenonempty. Since C is upperly closed with respect to A.{A}. Gl.A). and Gi .A) to D is contained in C n Sb(D.. Since pi E Gi . the sets G1C. Applying (C) we obtain that Bdc(C(G n A) n C) = (Sb(Cr . Mk are the minimal elements in Sb(A.. then either C(Ci)nC = C(Cj)nC or (C(Ci)rlC)rl(C(Cj)nc) = 0. Let Fl = FUa(tl). And F. there is only a finite number of minimal elements in Sb(A.20.. Sb(D. If i # j. by (B). Thus C n Sb(D.. Thus D E (C(C. .1 . then D c G n A and D E C. CELLS IN HYPERSPACES 339 B&(C(GnA) nC) = (Sb(Ci.pk} n a(to) = 0..i Gi n Gj = E if i # j.E is nonempty for each i. . If D E C(G n A) n C. U C(Ck)) n C..C) u (a(h) . The other inclusion is clear. l] + C(A) such that a(O) = E. Hence D is contained in some Ci.E has at least m . we have that the continua FI and C belong to C. B) contained in G n A.1).C) U. *. A) such that E c F and F . G. B) which is contained in D. Thus there exists ti > 0 such that tr < to and a(tl) n (cr(to) n D . A) which is upperly closed with respect to D and C n Sb(D. (Y(S) C$a(t) if s < t and (Y(S) is not contained in D for each s>O. there exists a minimal element in Sb(A. Hence B&(C(G n A) n C) = B&(C(C1) n C) u. By Theorem 69. .nG.A) u. A) is closed.5.uSb(Ck.. u C(C. (E)If C has property S(m) (m > 2) and D E C(A) . .. there exists a map cy : [0. Since C is upperly closed with respect to A.) u .C is closed component of a(&. This implies that C n Sb(D. A) is a subcontinuum of Sb(A. Lettc>Obesuchthat{pi.. Since E E Sb(D.. Since X does not contains nods. . . @(to) n D has a finite number of components.
C. Given i E (1.. This proves that D E (U n U1.2. .D does not have components. . (F) If C has property S(m). U uk. Since the set Si = C (L&nC) = {E t C : E c Gi)={E~C:EcGinA). We will show that dim[Bdc(Ui n C)] < m . G. . This contradicts the fact that C has property S(m) and completes the proof that C n Sb(D. Let C = clx (Co).. Hence D E intc(C(C) n C). En D # 0. Let Cc be the component of U n A which contains D.lc}. we only need to prove that dim[Bdc (Gi)] 5 m . . We will find an open subset.C. .. then dim[C] 5 m . Take an open subset U of X such that D C U C c1.x(U) C UI U . This proves that C = (A}.Gi.1 . Then by the induction hypothesis. Since points in D n Vi belong to A . A) n C. . Bdc(C(C) n C) = Sb(C. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF HYPERSPACES the sets Gi .EEUnC.1. Take an element D E C and an open subset U of C(X) such that D E U.. V of C such that D E V c U n C and dim[B&(V)] 5 m .. Then A = D. By (E). o(ti) . Theorem III 2]).1 (m 2 1). We may assumethat & is nonempty. dim[C fl Sb(Ci. Since C is upperly closed with respect to A. dim[Bdc(Gi)] 5 7n .1). .2.C are mutually separated. In the case that C = A.U. A)] 5 771 .A)U. . A) with is upperly closed with respect to C. n A such that Bdc(!&) = (Sb(Ci. Define Then V is an open subset of C. If D is an element of C.n mod in C.2. A E C.A) n C and we conclude that dim[Bdc(C(C) nC)] 5 m . we can apply the induction hypothesis to Sb(C..2. Uk be open subsets of X such that D E (r/l. NOW suppose that the claim in (F) is true for m .A) is subcontinuum of Sb(C.. By (A). and C n Sb(Ci. Thus E c Co. By (E). C fl Sb(Ci. Therefore ([la.2. . . Hence Ei is a.U Sb(Ck. . .. .1 and m 2 2. . .2. then D c A. Then we are assuming that C has property S(m) and we need to show that dim[C] 5 m . Then we may apply (D) and we obtain a finite number of components Cl. Since C has property S(l). A .inordertoshowthat dim[Bdc (Ui nc)] < m .. . the set Bdc(C(C) n C) = Bdc(C) is empty. . The proof of (F) will be done by induction. U n uk) rY C C(C) n C.1). we may assumethat far each E E U n C. let Ui = {E E C(X) : E n Vi # 0} and let Gi = A . UnUk)flC.2.. ThenEcUnAand Given E E (U n U1. . Therefore D E V.. Hence dim[C] = 0. . In any case dim[Bdc(C(C) n C)] 5 m .2. . . by (C). Uk) C U.A) has property S(m . .A))nC. A g Gi.340 X. . D n E # 0. Ck of G. For m = 1. If C # A.. A) has property S(m. Let Ui.
1) for every A E C(X) . Since dim[Sb(A. Fix a point p E E . X)) such that o(O) = G and o(1) = E. then C(X) .1). then there is a Whitney level A for C(X) which contains an (n . Corollary to Theorem IV 41).3 Exercise.9) that if X contains an nod (n > 2). Then A E C(X) and p 4 A. If a continuum X does not contain nods (n 2 2).. Let X be a continuum. Since X does not contain nods. Thus there exists a map a : [0. By (F). Sb(A. If there exists a Whitney level A for C(X) which contains an ncell (n 2 2).1. [Hint: Use Exercise 69. Let X be a continuum.Sb(A. We may assumethat E is not contained in D. (G)C(X) does not contain ncells. X). then does X contain an (n + 1)od? Exercises 70. Finally.{X}.10.4 Exercise. . Therefore dim[C] 5 m. This completes the proof of the properties of Y. Let to = max{t E [0.1 70.EXERCISES 341 Since B&(U) C mc(cnUl)u. Then there exists a neighborhood U of D in C(X) such that p 4 F for every F E U. If dim[C(X)] is finite and A is an indecomposable subcontinuum of X. H It is easy to prove (seeExercise 34. Supposeto the contrary that there exists an ncell D contained in C(X). Take two elements D # E in ID. Fix an element G E E.we have that dim[Bdc(V)] 5 m .. by Exercise 70. Let f be an ncell such that D E & and & c D n U. Then to < 1.2. by [12. 5 n . l] + (D.{A} is not arcwise connected.1)cell. then C(X) contains 70.2. dim[Sb(A. This completes the induction and the proof of (F). it is clear thatI/‘CUnC.X). Theorem III 21. This is a contradiction which proves (G) and completes the proof of the theorem. Then Sb(A. u B&(C n&) u B&(C(C) n C). then Sb(A) has property S(n .2.X). X) nD does not separate ‘D ([12.D.5.X)] f is not contained in Sb(A. X)] I n . If a continuum X contains coods.2 Question. Hilbert cubes. and it is easy to show that a(ts) E Sb(A.X) has property S(n . 70.5 Exercise. Let A = u{F E C(X) : F E E}. l] : a(t) c A}.Sb(A. It is not known if the converse is true.
70. Theorem 2.51) gave an example of a smooth dendroid for which conditions (a). answer. 71. The continuum X has a neighborhood U in C(X) which is locally connected at each of its points if and only if there is a locally connected Whitney level for C(X) (Exercise 71.1 Theorem [6. From the point of view of local connectedness the element X has a privileged position. Let X be a continuum. Then X has a neighborhood U in 2x which is locally connected at each of its points if and only if X is locally connected. (b) and (c) of Theorem 71. Theorem 1. Example 3. Neighborhoods of X in the Hyperspaces Properties of local connectednessin hyperspaces of continua have been studied by several authors ([2]. provided that for every neighborhood U of p in X. [17] and [22]). [9].15). .{X).3 Theorem (Exercise 71. [5].13). GENERAL 70. there exist a neighborhood V of p. Example 1.6 Exercise PROPERTIES OF HYPERSPACES ([14.14). [3]. [lo]. a point u E U and a map H : V x [0. [ll].O) = w and H(v. Recall that a continuum X is said to be locally contractible at a point p. then Sb(A) is a onepoint set or an arc for every A E C(X) . 71. [6].71. 1) = u for every u E V.2 fail. Any of the following conditions implies that X has a neighborhood U in C(X) which is locally connected at each one of its points: (a) there is a finite subset F of X such that all sufficiently large continua in X meet F.5). 71. The hyperspaces C(X) and 2x are always locally arcwise connected at X (Corollary 15. [4].71.11 (Exercise 71. (b) any two sufficiently large continua in X have a point in common.342 X. Prove that for n = 1.81. Question 70. Theorem 1. If a continuum X is atriodic. l] + U such that H(w.2 has a positive 71. Eberhart ([6. Let X be a continuum. For the hyperspace 2x the answer is very simple and it is given in the following theorem. and (c) each sufficiently large continuum in X contains a point at which X is connected im kleinen. Theorem 4. [8]. [7].7 Exercise. Then it is natural to ask: when does X has a neighborhood L4in C(X) which is locally connected at each of its points? A complete answer to this question was given by Eberhart in [6.2 Theorem [6.31). An example with similar properties was also given in [23.
71. If 2AY is locally contractible at X.8 Theorem [20]. The continuum X has a closed neigborhood homeomorphic to a 2cell in C(X) if and only if C(X) has a Whitney level which is homeomorphic to either an arc or a circle.4 Theorem [16.5 Theorem 116. where an example of a continuum X was given such that C(X) and 2x are not locally contractible at any of their points. Lopez also showed the following results.11.71.16). Let X be a continuum. Dilks’ question was also answered in [15]. If X is a locally connected continuum. then S has a closed neighborhood homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube in C(X) if and only if X is not a finite graph. For the particular case n = 2. In [23] MontejanoPeimbert and PugaEspinosa studied someconditions on a smooth dendroid X in order that sets of the form {A E C(X) : p E A and p(A) 2 t} are homeomorphic to the cone over the set {A E C(X) : . Let X be a continuum. NEIGHBORHOODS OF X IN THE HYPERSPACES 343 Answering a question by Dilks (119. then C(X) is also locally contractible at X (Exercise 71.6 Theorem [20]. 71.11) gave an example of a chainable continuum X such that C(X) and 2x are not locally contractible at X. Proposition 2. 71.p(X)]) is contractible for any to < t < p(X).21 gave an example of a dendroid X such that C(X) is locally contractible at X but 2x is not locally contractible at X. Kato in [16. Thus the converse of Theorem 71.4 is not true.31 (Exercise 71.16).7 Theorem [20]. Kato in ([16. then ‘ll is locally contractible at X if and only if there exists 0 5 to < p(X) such that pL‘([t. He has given some combinatoric conditions on X which imply that X has a closed neighborhood in C(X) homeomorphic to an ncell.Proposition 2. Let p be a Whitney map for Z = C(X) or 2x. Recently.17). 71. he proved the following result. Lopez has studied conditions for which X has a closed neighborhood U in the hyperspace 3c = C(X) or 2” such that U is homeomorphic to an ncell (n 2 2) or to the Hilbert cube. Then X has a closed neighborhood homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube in 2” if and only if X is locally connected (Exercise 71. Kato also showed the following results. Question ill]). Example 3. 71. Example 3. Let X be a continuum.
The continuum X E C(X) only if X is a finite graph with no cut points. It is easy to prove that there exists 6 > 0 such that 6 < E. Thus A is unstable if and only if {A} is a Zset in C(X). Let X be a continuum. 2591. B) < e. Exercise 66. then p‘&(A)) Let E > 0.21.1. Let U be a closed connected neighborhood of A in C(X) such that U c BH~(~.9 Theorem [l. Let X be a continuum. p(X)]. If A = p‘(t) is a locally connected Whitney level for C(X) with p(X) > t.8. for every continuous function f : C(X) 4 C(X) sufficiently close to the identity map.10 Exercise [6.3. A E f(C(X)).15 Exercise. is stable if and Exercises 71. [Hint: Use Exercises 71. [Hint: Let d be a metric for X.21.11). Thus B U DA U E E C(X) and Hd(B U DA U E.10 and 71. and if E E BH~(~. Theorem 1. Let X be a continuum. An element A E C(X) is said to be stable if. B) < E. B E 13and c > 0.2 (Compare with Exercise 28. Then use order arcs to connect E and B in BH~(E. p.11 Exercise. 71. Theorem 1. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF HYPERSPACES p E A and p(A) = t}. Prove Theorem 71. Prove Theorem 71. where p is a point of smoothness of X and 11 a is Whitney map for C(X).13 Exercise. There are continua X with the property that X is the only element of local connectedness of C(X). Let V = An C(U{B : B E U}). A). there is a closed connected neighborhood CA of A in A such that if DA = ~(0 : D E CA}. B). If C(X) is connected im kleinen at an element A E C(X) and ~1is a Whitney map for is connected im kleinen at A. p(X)] is locally connected. Curtis gave a characterization of the elements in C(X) which are stable. In [l]. B).] 71.] 71. Prove Theorem 71. C(X).12. By [Hint: Let d denote a metric for X. 71.344 X. then Hd(A. then p‘(t. then there exist F E C(E) n A and A E C(B) n A such that F E CA.12 Exercise [6. Let B = pl(t. A).1 71. Given an element A E C(B) II A. then I < p(B) and Hd(A. there exists b > 0 such that if B E A and B C Nd(S. Curtis obtained the following theorem. 71. DA) < 5.14 Exercise. Let A = p‘(p(A)). Applying this characterization to the element X in C(X). .
Amer. Theory. Connectedness 11 (1982). For the necessity. J. continua. Topology Proc. Mat. Math. 165173. and product spaces. More on connectedness im kleinen and local connectednes in C(X). and other properties of hyperspaces of h& spaces. 387397. Moon and C.10. 18 (1996). C. J. . 8. Connectedness im kleinen and components in C(X). [Hint: Use Theorem 71. 10 (1985). J. Connectedness im kleinen and local connectedness in 2x and C(X).. Rend. K.R. Hur... Prove Theorems 71. 113124. J.. im kleinen in hyperspaces. Dorsett. J. Hur. Korean Math. R. Wallman. Prove Theorem 71. let p E X. W. 113123. 65 (1977). For the sufficiency use Exercise 15.REFERENCES 345 [Hint: Let d be a metric for X. Moon and C. Connectedness im kleinen and local connectedness in C(X). C. 16 (1979)..17 Exercise. Dorsett. Goodykoontz. C. 189197. Jr. 4. C. A). Rhee. Let U = U{B : B E U} and let C be the component of U which contains p. in hyperspaces. Chronicle. Rhee. ( $.3 and Theorem 11. 1974. 4 (1978). Goodykoontz. Circ. Local arcwise Houston J. J. W. Math. connectedness in 2x and C(X).4 and 71. 225231. Math. J. Dorsett. Sot. J. Dorsett. Stable points in hyperspaces of Peano continua. Hous C.. Let U be an open connected subset of 2x such that A E Z. 2. Bull. 6. Proc.3). 34 (1997). T. 3136.7.] 71. 53 (1974). connectedness im kleinen. Princeton Univer 12.. Jr..4and 24 C BH. Dimension sity Press. 3. Connectivity properties in hyperspaces Fund. Eberhart. Jr. D. 357364. Local connectedness Palermo. 7. ninth printing. 259276.5 71. Honam Math..T. Math. 4147. By hypothesis there exists 6 > 0 such that 6 < 6 and 2x is locally connected at A = {p}U(X Bd(b.p)).. Continua with locally connected Whitney ton J. Goodykoontz. let e > 0. Curtis. Math. T. Hurewicz and H. 137144. Then C = Bd(i. K. Pacific J. 10 11 II. Sot.16 Exercise. 9. Vesnik. 5. 31 (1982). 121 (1984). Local connectedness.] References 1.p) n U.. Math.. Mat. 4 (1978).
Houston J. Sur le type de dimension de l’hyperespace d’un continu. S.Topology Proc. 17. Topology... Continuum theory problems. Semiboundaries in hyperspaces. 191192. 18. Locating cones and Hilbert cubesin hyperspaces. 363369. Rogers. K.B. 25. 14 (1988).. L. Math.. GENERAL PROPERTIES OF HYPERSPACES 13. Sci. Vol. PugaEspinosa.. Misra. N. On local contractibility at X in hyperspacesC(X) and zx. 20.. J. A continuum having its hyperspacesnot locally contractible at the top.. New York. Kelley. H. 4154. Kato. Berlin. 5765. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. A. New York.Fund. A. Houston J. Sot. SC. Vol. 177179. Acad. 1978. 24 (1931).. 111 (1991). 46 (1992). Math. 19. MontejanoPeimbert and I. 21. preprint. T. 130 (1988).346 X. 14. 6387. A. L6pez. H.Y. Inc.. 467485. S&. 227233.Bull. A. (French) C. L.. Csupersets. Katsuura. Jr. Nadler. Phys. Cells and cubes in hyperspaces. 16 (lggl). Graduate Text in Mathematics.. 26. Hyperspaces which are locally euclidean at the top. Springer Verlag. Varsovie. Jr. 15. Math.. Illanes. B. Shore points in dendroids and conical pointed hyperspaces. W. Topology Proc.. 27. Math. 15 (1989). Illanes. Math. 8 (1983). 11771182.. Concerning generalized connectedness im kleinen of a hyperspace. 20 (1972). Astronom. 16. Hyperspaces of sets. piecewise orderarcs and local arcwise connectednessin hyperspaces. Fund. Amer. Jr. 361394. R.. 22.. 8 (1990). Mazurkiewicz. Illanes. Sci. 23. Math. 49. Heidelberg. 79 (1973). Marcel Dekker. General Topology. 233250. Sot. Polon. 24. J. S. . Proc.Questions Answers Gen. S. Dimension of hyperspaces. S. Lewis.Topology Appl. Nadler.
XI. The following 72.9.1101. we list the main results related to this topic.21.51 and Exercise 72. For every continuum X.18. see [9. 72. Corollary l].51. Dimension Previous of C(X) of Results about Dimension Hyperspaces One of the most interesting problems in hyperspace theory is to determine the dimension of C(X). 72. then dim[C(X)] < 00 if and only if X is a finite graph (see Exercise 72. If X is a continuum. Next. Theorem 11. 2x contains a homeomorphic copy of the Hilbert cube and then dim[ 2x] = 00.13). Theorem 21. Theorem 2.4 and 5.5.4 and Theorem 347 . 72.2 Theorem [9. 72.109 and Remark 1.9).6. Theorem 1. Hence.3 Theorem [5. The first part of the following theorem was proved in Theorem 22. [5. A complete discusion of what was known up to 1978 appeared in Chapter II of [21]. 72. [21. involving the order of the vertices of X can be obtained for calculating dim[C(X)]. Theorems 5. If X is a locally connected continuum. dim[C(X)] = 2. if X is a chainable or circlelike continuum. [21.4 and 5.4 Theorem [5. then dim[C(X)] = 2 or dim[C(X)] = oo. In the case of finite graphs a very simple combinatorial formula. If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. then dim[C(X)] > 2. theorem is a consequence of Theorem 72.1 Theorem [18] (Corollary 14.
Theorem 21). In particular. Their solution depends on a clever way of modifying previously developed methods. implies that dim[C(X)J = 00 This problem has been one of the most important questions in hyperspace theory for many years. 72. Theorem 51). 2. [21. Theorem 51.33).21). We adopt the conventions and the notation of section 65. (b) X contains a subcontinuum which is homeomorphic to the product of two nondegenerate continua ([24. Any (n + 1)dimensional continuum contains an ndimensional hereditarily indecomposable continuum. [21. = U{Dls : S is a fine . [17. One of the keys of their proof (Lemma 73. DIMENSION OF C(X) 72. Exercises From Exercise 72.348 XI. For X as above.6 Theorem [l. 72. a fundamental tool of the proof is the following result by Bing. If X is a continuum 2 3. we assume that X is different from a circle and all the vertices of X are end points or ramification points.10 we assume that X is a finite graph.31. [26. The problem has been finally solved by Levin and Sternfeld in [15].11.21). Question 1061. for every continuum X. Question 2.41. They have proved that the implication is true when X is a continuum satisfying additional conditions such as: (a) X is arcwise connected ([24. Then it is natural to ask if. Question 361 and [8]. Corollary 31). At the end of the chapter we include a discussion of dim[C(X)] when dim[X] = 1. Theorem 2. Corollary 21. (c) dim[X] 2 3 ([24.7 Exercise [2.7 to 72. The main object of this chapter is to reproduce Levin’s and Sternfeld’s proof. In order to make the proof as selfcontained as possible. Theorem 7. It appeared in [20. indecomposable (IS.21. dim[X] = 2. we will prove some elementary results of dimension theory.8 below) has its roots in a result which appeared on Kelley’s paper 19. then dim[C(X)] = 00.5 Theorem such that dim[X] [24. Some authors have offered partial solutions of this problem.81 in 1942. Exercise 14. Theorem 2. (d) X is hereditarily (e) the rank of the first tech cohomology group of X is finite ([8. C(X) subgraph of X} ( compare with Exercise 65. As in many other results in hyperspaces. 5. Theorem 51.
1 72. c W. Apply the Cut Fence Wire Theorem (Theorem 12.7 and 72. Then dim[C(X)] = 2(1 + s . Proof.. then there exists an open subset V of Y such that A c V c cly(V) c U and dl(ClY(V)) < E. diameter (cly (UP)) < E and A g U. be the component of A such that p E C.ofYsuchthatA=A1U.32.. (a) It is a consequence of the compactness of C(A) (Exercise 73. .)<~ foreveryi=l.9 Exercise [2. Let X as above. of A}. then dim[%JZs] < dim[MT]. Then the dimension of C(X) determined by the maximum integer n such that X contains an nod. of A and to the closed subset A .8 Exercise [2. Then: (a) in the definition of di (A) the word “sup” can be changed by “max” . [Hint: Use Exercises 65. Let s be the number of segments of X.UA. to the component C. For X as above. where U is an open subset of Y.9) to the space A.. (c) if di (A) < c and A c U.15). Dimension of C(X) for 2Dimensional Continua X We start with a definition..) < 6. 73. 72. let ‘u be the number of vertices of X and let e be the number of end points of X. is 73.8.2 Lemma.. 7.10 Exercise..A. lemma shows some properties 73.. if S.. Define Let Y be a compact metric space and let A E 2’. Since diameter (C.Up of A. then there exist pairwise disjoint closed subsets Al.11. DIMENSION OF C(X) FOR ~DIMENSIONAL CONTINUA X 349 of 72. Notice that diameter (W... let C.V) + e.21.anddiameter(A.1 Definition. (b) We may assume that A is not connected. di (A) = sup{diameter The following (C) : C .is a component of di ..) < E. For each p E A.n...73. there exists an open subset UP of Y such that CP c VP. Let Y be a compact metric space and let A E 2=. Let X as above. Then there exists an open and closed subset W. c A f~ Up. of A such that C.. (b) if dl(A) < c.T are fine subgraphs X such that S 5 T. 7. 72.
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By the compactness of A, A can be covered by a finite union of sets WI,... , W,, where each Wi is of the form W,, , for some i. Defining Al = W,, Ag = W, WI,.. W+l), we obtain the .,A, = W,  (WI U..U desired family of subsetsof A. (c) Take a finite collection of subsets Al, . . . , A, of A as in (b). Using the normality of the space Y, one can obtain open subsets Ui ,..., U,, of Y such that cZy(Ur),. , . , cly (U,) are pairwise disjoint and Ai C Vi C Cly(Ui) C U, for each i. Since each diameter (Ai) < E,we may assumethat diameter (dy (Ui)) < E for every i. Define V = U1 U . . . U U,. Then, for each component C of cZy(V), C c cly(Ui) for some i. Thus diameter (C) < E. This proves that dr (cly (V)) < 6 and completes the proof of the lemma.
n
73.3 Definition. A continuous function between compact metric spaces f : Y + X is said to be light provided that f‘(f(g)) is totally disconnected for each y E Y. 73.4 Theorem [15, Theorem 1.11. Let X be an ndimensional continuum, with n < 00. Then there exists an ndimensional hereditarily indecomposablecontinuum Y and a (not necessarily onto) light map f : Y + X. Proof. Since dim[X x [0, I]] = n + 1 ([7, lines 1314, p. 341). By Theorem 72.6 there exists an ndimensional hereditarily indecomposable subcontinuum Y of X x [0, 11. Let II : X x [0, l] + X be the projection and let f be the restriction of II to Y. In order to prove that f is light, let A be a subcontinuum of a set of the form f‘(f(y)) = Y n [{f(y)} x [0, l]]. Then A is a subcontinuum of Y (so A is indecomposable) and A is contained in an arc, thus A is a onepoint set. Hence f‘(f(y)) is totally disconected. Therefore f is light. n The proof of the following lemma is left as Exercise 73.16. 73.5 Lemma. Let f : Y + X be a light map, where X, Y are compact metric spaces. Then, for each e > 0, there exists 6 > 0 such that if A c X and diameterx(A) < 6, then di [f‘(A)] < 6. 73.6 Lemma. Let Y be a compact metric space. Then dim[Y] 2 2 if and only if there exist two disjoint closed subsetsFl and F2 of Y and there exists t > 0 such that every closed subset L of Y which separates FI from Fz in Y must satisfy c&(L) 2 c
73. DIMENSION
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FOR ~DIMENSIONAL
CONTINUA
X
351
Proof. SUFFICIENCY. Suppose that dim[Y] 5 1. Then Y has a basis of neighbohoods f? such that, for each element U of B, dim[B&(U)] 5 0. Take two disjoint closed subsets Fl and FJ of Y. For proving the sufficiency, it is enough to show that there exists a closed subset L of I’ such that L separates Fl from F2 in Y and dl(L) = 0. Since Fl is compact, there exists a finite number of elements U1, . . . , U, of t3 such that Fl c U1 u ... U U,, and cly(U1 U .. . U Un) Cl FZ = 8. Define L = Bdy (VI U . . u U,,). Then L separates Fl from F2 in Y and L c Bd~(U~)u...uBdy(U,). By [7, Theorem111 21dim[Bdy(U1)U...U Bdy (Un)] 5 0. We conclude that dl (L) = 0. NECESSITY. Suppose, to the contrary, that there are no such Fl, F2 and E. We will prove then that dim[Y] 5 1 by showing that 2’ has a basis of neighborhoods I3 such that, for each element U of B, Bdy(U) = 0 or Bdy (U) is Odimensional. We will need the following: (a) let A be a closed subset of Y, let U be an open subset of Y such that .4 c U and let c > 0. Then there exist open subsets V and W of 1’ such that A c V c cly (V) c W c U and if P is an open subset,of 1r and cly(V) c P c W, then dl(Bdy(P)) < E. We will prove (a). Let A, U and E be as in the hypothesis of (a). By the assumption at the beginning of the proof of the necessity, there exists a closed subset L which separates A from Y  U in Y and dl (L) < E. Let V and VI be disjoint, open subsetsof Y such that A C V, YU C VI and Y  L = V U V,. Since L c U  A, Lemma 73.2 (c) implies that there exists an open subset R of Y such that L C R C cZy(R) C U  A and dl(cl~(R)) < E. Define W = VU R. Observe that Bdy(V) c L C R, so cly(V) C W. Now, if P is an open subset of Y such that cl=(V) c P C W, then Bdy(P) c cly(W)  cly(V) c cZy(R). Thus dl(Bdy(P)) < 6. This completes the proof of (a). Now, we are ready to prove that dim[Y] 5 1. Let p be a point in Y and let 6 > 0. Let VI and WI be open subsets of Y obtained by applying (a) to the closed set {p}, the open set B(6,p) and the positive number 1. NOW, let V2 and W2 be open subsets of Y obtained by applying (a) to the closed set cZy(Vl), the open set WI and the positive number f. In general, for every n 2 2, let V, and U;, be open subsetsof Y obtained by applying (a) to the closed set cl~(V,,~), the open set Wtlel and the positive number i. Notice that, for every n 2 2, cly(Vnwl) c V, c cly(Vn) c W, c Wtlvl.
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Define V = U{Vn : n = 1,2,. . .}. Clearly, p E V c B(d,p). Given n > 1, notice that V,, c IV,, for every m 2 1. Thus cly (l/,,) c < +, for each n = 1,2.. .. Hence dl(Bdy(V)) = V C W, and d~(Bdy(V))
0. Bdy(V)
Thus Bdy (V) is a compact totally disconnected subset of Y. Then is the empty set or it is Odimensional (see Theorem 12.11). Therefore, dim[Y] 2 1. This completes the proof of the lemma. n
73.7 Remark. Let S > 0. Consider the cover U of the ndimensional Euclidean space Rn formed by all the hypercubes of the form:
A = [&I, 6(al + l)] x . . . x [6an, s(a, + l)],
where (~1,. . . , a,, run on the integers. Observe that each hypercube A only can intersect (and intersects) the hypercubes of U contained in the hypercube [s(ai  l), 6(ni + 2)] x . . . x [s(a,  l),S(a, + 2)], w h’ h is formed of exactly 3” hypercubes of U. This rc . proves that A intersects exactly 3n  1 of the other elements of U. Thus, we have proved the following fact. 73.7.1. For each n = 1,2,. . ., there exists m 2 1 (m = 3n  1) such that for each c > 0, there exists a closed cover U of R” such that each element of U intersects at most m of the other elements of 2.4,diameter (A) < c for every A E U and each compact subset of R” is contained in a finite number of elements of U. The number 3”  1 is not the smallest value for m. For instance, if we put rectangles in R2 as bricks are usually put in a wall, instead of 32  1 we obtain that 6 suffices in the fact above. 73.8 Lemma [15, Lemma 1.31. Let X and Y be continua and let f : Y + X be a light map. Let K be a subset of C(Y) such that K is a decomposition of Y and no element of K: is a onepoint set. Define g : Y + C(X) by g(y) = f(K), where y E Y and K is the element of K which contains y. Suppose that g is continuous and g(Y) is a finitedimensional subset of C(X). Then, for each 6 > 0, there exists a closed subset 2 of Y such that dr(Z) < E and 2 intersects every element of Ic. Proof. Let d denote a metric for X. Let ‘ll = {f(K) E C(X) : K E K}. Since R is finitedimensional, there exists Ic 2 1 and there exists an embedding h : ?t + R”. Let m E { 1,2,. . .} be as in 73.7.1 applied to Rk. By the lightness of f we have that no element in ?l is a onepoint set. Let X = min{diameter (H) : N E R}. Then X > 0.
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FOR ~DIMENSIONAL
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X
353
Let 6 > 0 be as in Lemma 73.5; we may assume also that 6 < A. We will prove the following claim: (a) if H E ‘?l, then it is impossible to cover H with m sets of diameter less than or equal to 26. In order to prove (a), suppose to the contrary that H c B1 U . . U B,, where diameter (Bi) 5 26, for each i. We may assume that each Bi is closed, nonempty and it is contained in H. Since H is connected, applying a typical argument of connectedness, we may assume also that, for each i < m, &+I n (B1 u . . u Bi) # 0. Then, an inductive argument shows that, for each i, diameter (B1 U . . . U &) < 2id. In particular, we obtain that diameter (H) 5 2m6. This contradicts the choice of X and completes the proof of (a). By the choice of m there exists a finite closed cover of h(z) such that each of the elements of the cover intersect at most m of the other elements in the cover and each one of them has small diameter. Using the uniform continuity of h’ : h(X) + ‘H, we can obtain a similar cover for 31. Thus there exists a finite closed cover {VI,. . ,V,} of 71,such that, for each i, Vi # 0, diameter (Vi) < t and Vi intersects at most m of the other
Vj'S.
Notice that if A,B E Vi, then Hd(A,B) < i. Thus B($,p) n B # 0, for every p E A. Finally, we will inductively define Z = Z1 U . . U Z,, where each Zi will be a closed subset of Y, dl (Zi) < E, Zi will intersect every element I< E K such that f(K) E ‘Di and Z1, . . . , Z, will be pairwise disjoint. If we are able to construct such a set Z, we will have: Z will be closed in Y, dl (Z) < E and, for each I< E Ic, f(K) E Vi, for some i, so Z n K # 0. In order to construct Z1, fix an element Al E VI and choose a point x1 E AI. Define Z1 = f‘(clx(B(g,sl)))ng‘(V1). Then Z1 is closed in Y. By the choice of 6, dl(Z1) < E. n f(K) # 0. Take a Let K E K: be such that f(K) E VI, then B(i,zl) point p E K such that f(p) E B( i, x1). Thus p E Z1 n K. This proves that Z1 satisfies the required properties. NOW, suppose that Z1, . . . , Zj1 have been defined, where each Zi is of the form Zi = f‘(cl*y((B( :, XL))) n 9l (Vi), where z, is a point in Ai and Ai is an element of Vi. Let J = {i < j : Vi n Vj # 0}. Then J has at most m elements. Fix an element A, E Vj. By (a), it is possible to choose a point xj E ndx(B($,xc,)) = 0, A,  (‘J{clx(B(h, xi)) : i E J}). Then cl.y(B($,zj)) for every i E J.
354
XI.
DIMENSION OF C(X)
Define Zj = f‘(clx(B($, x3))) n g‘(ID,). Clearly, Zj is closed in 1’ and dl(Zj) < E. Let K E K be such that f(K) E Vj. Then B(i,zj) IJf(K) # 0. This implies that Zj n K # 8. Finally, if i < j and there exists a point y E Zi nzj, then g(y) E z)i nDj . Thus Vi nDj # 8, SOi E J. Hence, cEx(B($,z:j)) ndx(B(g,zi)) = 0. Thisisacontradiction,sinceyEfl(~l,~(B(~,z~)))nf‘(clx(B(~,si))). HenceZinZj=(bifi<j. This completes the proof of the existence of Z. n 73.9 Theorem [15, Theorem 2.11. If X is a continuum such that dim[X] = 2, then dim[C(X)] = 03. Proof. Suppose that dim[C(X)] < 03. By Theorem 73.4, there exist a 2dimensional hereditarily indecomposable continuum Y and a light map f : Y + X. By Lemma 73.6, there exist two disjoint closed subsets F,, Fz of Y and there exists E > 0 such that every closed subset L of Y which separates FI from FJ in ‘I’ must satisfy dl (L) 2 E. Let 11 C(1) + R’ be a Whitney map. : From Lemma 17.3, it follows that there exists t > 0 such that, for each A E p‘(t), diameter (A) < E. Since Fl and F2 are disjoint, the number T = min{dy(p, q) : p E Fl and q E Fz} is strictly positive. Let K: = p‘(t). Since Y is hereditarily indecomposable, K is a continuous decomposition of Y ([9, proof of 8.51, Exercise 73.20). Then f(K) = {f(K) E C(X) : K E K} is a finitedimensional closed subset of C(X). By Lemma 73.8 there exists a closed subset 2 of Y such that d*(Z) < T and 2 intersects every element of K. By Lemma 73.2 (b), there exist pairwise disjoint closed subsets Z1, . . , Z,, of Y such that Z = Z1 U . . . U Z, and diameter (Zi) < T for every i = l,...,n. Define G1 = Fl U (u{ Zi : Zi n Fl # 0)) and G:! = FZ U (U{ & : Zi n Fl = 01). Since diameter (Zi) < T, for every i, we see that G1 and G2 are disjoint closed subsets of Y. By normality of Y, there exists an open subset V of Y such that G1 c V c dy (V) c Y  G2. Then L = Bdy (V) is a closed subset of Y which separates G1 and Gz. By the choice of F, and F2, dl (L) 2 E. Thus L has a component 11/1 such that diameter (M) 2 E.
73. DIMENSION
OF C(X)
FOR ~DIMENSIONAL
CONTINUA
X
355
Since K is a decomposition of Y, there exists an element K E Ic such indecomposable, K C M or that K fl A4 # 0. Since Y is hereditarily M C K. But diameter (K) < E 5 diameter (M), so K c M. Since 2 n L = 0, 2 n K = 0. This contradicts the choice of 2. This contradiction proves that dim[C(X)] = oo and completes the proof of the theorem. W Levin and Sternfeld have also done several improvements of the result above. Next, we give the result in which they show how the infinitedimensionality can be detected in Whitney levels. Notice that only a bit of extra work is necessary.
73.10 Theorem [15, Theorem. 2.21. Let X be a 2dimensional continuum and let p : C(X) + R’ be a Whitney map. Then for all sufficiently small t, dim[pl(t)] = 03. Proof. Let dy denote a metric for Y. By Theorem 73.4, there exists a 2dimensional hereditarily indecomposable continuum Y and a light map f : Y + x. By Lemma 73.6, there exist two disjoint closed subsetsPi, F2 of Y and there exists E > 0 such that every closed subset L of Y which separates Fl from F2 in Y must satisfy dl(L) > E. Let T = min{dy(p, q) : p E FI and q E Fz}; then r > 0. By Lemma 73.5, it is possible to find 6 > 0 such that if A c X and diametery (A) < 6; then dl [f’ (A)] < E. Since f is light, p(f(Y)) > 0. From Lemma 17.3, there exists to > 0 such that to < p(f(Y)) and, for each 0 < t < to and for each A E p’ (t), diameter (A) < 6. Let 0 < t < to. We will show that dim[pl(t)] = 00. Suppose, to the contrary, that dim[pl(t)] < 00. Notice that Kc is the inverse Let Ke = {A E C(Y) : f(A) E p‘(t)}. under the map A + f(A) from C(Y) into C(X). Thus Its image of p‘(t) is closed in C(Y). For each point u E Y, let cr = {A E C(Y) : y E A}. It is easy to show that a is closed and connected. Since Y is hereditarily indecomposable, if A,B E Q, then A c B or B c A. Then Q is an order arc in C(Y). Since ~(f({~l)) = 0 and P(W)) > 4 Q rl Ice # 0. Then there exists the largest element KO E o n Ke. If L E Ku and KO c L then L E cy, so KO = L. This proves that Ko is a maximal (with respect to inclusion) element in Ke. Define Ic = {K E X0 : K is a maximal element of Ku}. Since Y is hereditarily indecomposable, if, K, L E K: and K n L # 8, then K c L or
356
XI. DIMENSION
OF C(X)
L C K, by the maximality of the elements of K, we have K = L. Thus, by the paragraph above, K: is a decomposition of Y. Given K E K, p(f(K)) = t > 0, so K is not a onepoint set. Define 71 = {f(K) E p‘(t) : K E K}. Then 3c is finitedimensional. Define g : Y + p‘(t) by g(y) = f(K), where K is the element of K: which contains y. In order to apply Lemma 73.8, we need to prove that g is continuous. To this end, let {yn}rzl be a sequence in Y and let y E Y be such that Y,~ + y. For each n = 1,2, _. ., let K, E K be such that yta E K, and let K E K be such that y E K. We may assume that K, + Ku for some KO E C(Y). Then y E Kc and f (K,) + f (l(o). Thus f(Ko) E p‘(t). By the choice of K, KO c K. Then f(Ko) c f(K) and f(Ko), f(K) E p‘(t). This implies that f(Ko) = f(K). Hence dyn) = fWn) + f(Ko) = f(K) = s(y). Applying Lemma 73.8 to the positive number r, we obtain that there exists a closed subset 2 of Y such that dr(Z) < r and 2 intersects every element of K. By Lemma 73.2 (b), there exist pairwise disjoint closed subsets 2, of Y such that 2 = Zr U . . . U 2, and diameter (Zi) < r for Zl,..., every i = 1,. . . , 72. From now on, the proof of the theorem is analogous to the proof of Theorem 73.9. Define Gi = FiU(U{& : ZinFr # 0)) and Gz = FzU(U{Zi : ZinFl = 01). Since diameter (Zi) < T, for every i, we have Gr and Gs are disjoint closed subsets of Y. By normality of Y, there exists an open subset 1’ of Y such that Gr c V c cly (V) c Y  Gs. Then L = Bdy (V) is a closed subset of Y which separates Gr and Gz. By the choice of Fl and F2, dl(L) >_ c. Thus L has a component M such that diameter (M) 2 c. Since ic is a decomposition of Y, there exists an element K E K such K C M or that K n A4 # 0. Since Y is hereditarily indecomposable, M c K. But diameter (K) < E 5 diameter (M), so K C M. Since 2 n L = 0, then 2 n K = 0. This contradicts the choice of 2. This contradiction proves that dirn[pl (t)] = 00 and completes the proof of the theorem. n 73.11 Corollary (Exercise 73.17, compare with [21, Corollary 1.861). Let X be a continuum such that 2 5 dim[X] < 00. Let ~1be a Whitney map for C(X). Then there exists to > 0 such that dim[pl(t)] = 00 whenever 0 < t < to. The following question is still open.
EXERCISES 73.12 Question [21, Question 1.871 (compare with Question Does Corollary 73.11 remain valid if the assumption that dim[X] is deleted?
357 45.3). < 00
Looking for another improvement of Theorem 73.9, Levin and Sternfeld have found that actually the Idimensional subcontinua of X are responsible for the infinite dimensionality of C(X). They proved the following result. 73.13 Theorem [14, Theorem 2.11. Let X be a 2dimensional cont,inuum and let n be a positive integer. Then X contains a ldimensional continuum T,, with dim[C(T,)] > n. Although the general idea of the proof of Theorem 73.13 has some similitudes with the idea of the proof of Theorem 73.10, it is more complicated and we will not include it here. Answering Question 1.1 of [14], very recently Levin has extended Theorem 73.13 as follows. 73.14 Theorem [13, Theorem 1.11. Let X be a 2dimensional continuum, then X contains a ldimensional subcontinuum T with dim[C(T)] = co.
Exercises
73.15 Exercise. 73.16 Exercise. Prove Lemma 73.2 (a). Prove Lemma 73.5. 73.11.
73.17 Exercise. Prove Corollary [Hint: Use Theorem 72.6.1
73.18 Exercise. If X is an arcwise connected continuum and X contains a nondegenerate indecomposable subcontinuum, then X contains an coad. [Hint: Indecomposable continua have infinitely many composants and each of them is dense ([22, Theorem 11.15 and Exercise 5.20 (a)]) 73.19 Exercise. Prove Theorem 73.14 for the particular wise connected continua. [Hint: Use Theorem 72.6 and Exercise 73.18.1 case of arc
73.20 Exercise. If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum, then for each Whitney level A for C(X), A is a continuous decomposition of X. Let f : X + A be the function f(p) = (the unique element A E A such that p E A). Then f is continuous and open.
358
XI. DIMENSION
OF C(X)
74.
Dimension
of C(X)
for lDimensional
Continua
X
After Levin’s and Sternfeld’s Theorem (Theorem 73.9), for a continuum X, dim[C(X)] is undetermined only for the case dim[X] = 1. Next, we will discuss some results and questions for this case. In some ldimensional continua, such as finite graphs, the dimension of C(X) is determined by the maximum integer n such that X contains an nod (Exercise 72.10). Continua without, nods (n 1 2) are exactly the hereditarily indecomposable ones (Exercise 14.19). Theorem 73.14 improved the following previous result by Lewis. 74.1 Theorem [16, p. 2943. There is a ldimensional decomposable continuum X such that dim[C(X)] = 03. hereditarily in
Lewis’ example has infinitelygenerated cohomology groups, and he asked if a ldimensional continuum with finitelygenerated cohomology groups can have infinitedimensional hyperspace. This question has been answered by Rogers who showed the following result. 74.2 Theorem [25, Theorem 11. If X is a ldimensional, hereditarily indecomposable continuum and H’(X) (the first Tech cohomology group with integer coefficients of the space X) has finite rank, then dim[C(X)] = 2. Rogers’ result has been generalized by Grispolakis and Tymchatyn. continuum such
74.3 Theorem [6, Theorem 3.41. If X is an atriodic that a’(X) has finite rank, then dim[C(X)] = 2.
74.4 Questions. Let X be a continuum. If n > 2 is an integer such that X has nods but X has no (n + 1)ods and k’(X) has finite rank, then dim[C(X)] < co? Is dim[C(X)] = n? On the other hand, Oversteegen lowing result. 74.5 Theorem [23, Corollary uum, then C(X) is 2dimensional. and Tymchatyn have obtained the fol
2.51. If X is an atriodic by Rogers.
treelike
contin
We finish this chapter with two questions
74.6 Questions [17, Question 1071 (this question also appeared in [6, p. 5621). If dim[X] = 1 and X is a planar and atriodic continuum, is dim[C(X)] = 2? Is C(X) embeddable in R3?
REFERENCES
359
Krasinkiewicz in [lo] (see [21, Theorem 2.81) has shown that if X is an hereditarily indecomposable planar continuum, then C(X) is embeddable in R4. Hence, by Theorem 72.4, dim[C(X)] = 2. Tymchatyn ([27]) has improved this theorem by proving that, under the same hypothesis, C(X) is embeddable in R3 and dim[C(X)] = 2. Therefore, the answer to Question 74.6 is yes if X is hereditarily indecomposable. In the case that X is an atriodic locally connected continuum, we have that, X is an arc or it is a simple closed curve (Exercises 31.11 and 31.12). Then C(X) is embeddable in R2 and dim[C(X)] = 2. Thus the answer to Question 74.6 is also yes for locally connected continua.
74.7 Question [17, Question 1081. If dim[X] = 1 and X is an hereditarily decomposable and atriodic continuum, is dim[C(X)] = 27
References
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. R. H. Bing, Higherdimensional hereditarily indecomposablecontinua, Trans. Amer. Math. Sot., 71 (1951), 267273. R. Duda, On the hyperspace of subcontinua of a finite graph, I, Fund. Math., 62 (1968), 265286. R. Duda, On the hyperspace of subcontinua of a finite graph, II, Fund. Math., 63 (1968), 225255. R. Duda, Correction to the paper: “On the hyperspace of subcontinua of a finite graph, I”, Fund. Math., 69 (1970), 207211. C. Eberhart and S. B. Nadler, Jr., The dimension of certain hyperspaces,Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci., SQ. Sci. Math. Astronom. Phys., 19 (1971), 10271034. J. Grispolakis and E. D. Tymchatyn, On a characterization of Wsets and the dimension of hyperspaces, Proc. Amer. Math. Sot., 100 (1987)) 557563. W. Hurewicz and H. Wallman, Dimension Theory, Princeton University Press, ninth printing, 1974. H. Kato, The dimension of hyperspacesof certain 2dimensional continua, Topology Appl., 28 (1988), 8387. J. L. Kelley, Hyperspaces of a continuum, Trans. Amer. Math. Sot., 52 (1942), 2236.
6.
7. 8. 9.
10. J. Krasinkiewicz, On the hyperspaces of certain plane continua, Bull. Acad. Polon. Sci., %r. Sci. Math. Astronom. Phys., 23 (1975), 981983.
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OF C(X)
11. P. Krupski, The hyperspaces of subcontinua of the pseudoarc and of the solenoids of pseudoarcs are Cantor manifolds, Proc. Amer. Math. SOL, 112 (1991), 209210. 12. M. Levin, Hyperspaces and open monotone maps of hereditarily indecomposable continua, Proc. Amer. illath. Sot., 125 (1997), 603609. 13. M. Levin, Certain finite hyperspaces, preprint. dimensional maps and their application of two dimensional
of
to
14. M. Levin and Y. Sternfeld, Hyperspaces Fund. Math., 150 (1996), 1724.
continua,
15. M. Levin and Y. Sternfeld, The space of subcontinua corltinu?Lm is infinite dimensional, Proc. Amer. (1997), 27712775. 16. W. Lewis, Dimensions of hyperspaces continua, Proc. Geometric Topology publishers, Warzawa, 1980, 293297. 17. W. Lewis, 394. Continuum
a 2dimensional Math. Sot., 125
of hereditarily indecomposable Conf., PWN  Polish Scientific
theory problems, Topology Proc., 8 (1983), 361Fund. Fund.
18. S. Mazurkiewicz, Sur l’ensemble des continus pe’aniens, (French) Math., 17 (1931), 273274. 19. S. Mazurkiewicz, Sur l’hyperespace Math., 18 (1932), 171177. d’un continu, (French)
20. S. B. Nadler, Jr., Some problems concerning hyperspaces, Topology Conference (V. P. I. and S. U., 1973), Lecture Notes in Math., vol. 375, Springer Verlag, New York, 1974, R. F. Dickman, Jr. and P. Fletcher, Editors, 190197. 21. S. B. Nadler, Jr., Hyperspaces of sets, Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math., Vol. 49, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1978. 22. S. B. Nadler, Jr., Continuum Theory, An introduction, Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math., Vol. 158, Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York, N.Y., 1992. 23. L. G. Oversteegen and E. D. Tymchatyn, On atriodic Proc. Amer. Math. Sot., 83 (1981), 201204. treelike continua, Sci., coho
24. J. T. Rogers, Jr., Dimension of hyperspaces, Bull. Acad. Polon. SCr. Sci. Math. Astronom. Phys., 20 (1972), 177179. 25. J. T. Rogers, Jr., Weakly confluent maps and finitelygenerated mology, Proc. Amer. Math. Sot. 78 (1980), 436438.
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26. J.T. Rogers, Jr., T+eelike curves and three classical problems, in: Open problems in topology, North Holland, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford, Tokio, 1990, J. van Mill and G. M. Reed, Editors, 303310. 27. E. D. Tymchatyn, Hyperspaces of hereditarily indecomposable plane continua, Proc. Amer. Math. Sot., 56 (1976), 300302. 28. G. T. Whyburn, Analytic Topology, Amer. Math. Sot. Colloq. Pub]., vol. 28, Amer. Math. Sot., Providence, R. I., 1942.
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XII.
Special Types Maps between Hyperspaces
75. Select ions
of
75.1 Definition. Let X be a continuum and let I? c 2”. A continuous function f : I? + X is called a selection for r provided that for each A E JT, f(A) E A. We introduced selections in Exercises 5.12 and 5.13. Observe that a selection for 2” or C(X) can be seen as a special kind of retraction of the hyperspace onto Fl (X). The dual to the notion of a selection a coselectionis defined in [5.22] of Chapter XV. Definition 75.1 was given by Michael in [56, p. 1541. Michael considers more general spaces than metric ones. A discussion about selections can be found in Chapter V of [60]. For the case of l? = 2x, the problem of the existence of selections is completely solved by the following theorem. 75.2 Theorem [56, 1.9 and 2.71. For a continuum X, the following statements are equivalent: (a) there is a selection for 2x, (b) there is a selection for Fz(X), and (c) X is homemorphic to the interval [0, 11. The implications (a) + (b) and (c) =P (a) in Theorem 75.2 are immediate. The implication (b) =P (c) is left as Exercise 75.19. Notice that if Y is any topological space, the notion of selection can be defined in the same way as in Definition 75.1 for subspacesof CL(Y). The implication (b) =S (a) of Theorem 75.2 was generalized for locally compact 363
364
XII.
SPECIAL
TYPES
OF MAPS
BETWEEN
HYPERSPACES
separable metric spaces in [50, Theorem 21. In [59], van Mill and Wattel proved the following theorem. 75.3 Theorem [59, Theorem 1.11. Let Y be a compact Hausdorff space. Then the following statements are equivalent: (a) Y is orderable, (b) there is a selection for F!(Y), and (c) there is a selection for CL(Y). A topological space Y is called weakly orderable (abbreviated WO) provided that there is a linear order 5 on Y’ such that for each p E Y, the sets and {q E Y : p 3 q} are closed. It is easy to see that if Y {4EY:q5Pl is WO, then Y is a Hausdorff space and Fz(Y) admits a selection (Exercise 75.20). It is not known if the converse is true. 75.4 Question [59, p. 6051. Let Y be a Hausdorff space. Is Y a WO if and only if Fs(Y) admits a selection? 75.5 Definition. A continuum X is said to be selectible provided that there exists a selection for C(X). Selectible continua have not been characterized. In this direction, the most general result is the following theorem. 75.6 Theorem is a dendroid. 162, Lemma 31. If a continuum X is selectible, then X
Proof. Assume that X is a continuum such that there is a selection f : C(X) +x. Given a subcontinuum Y of X and given a subcontinuum K of Y, C Y. For each y E Y, f(K) E K c Y. This implies that f(C(Y)) f{(g)) = y. Therefore, f(C(Y)) = Y and Y is also selectible. Since C(Y) is arcwise connected (Theorem 14.9) and f is continuous, we conclude that Y is arcwise connected. Hence f(C(Y)) = Y and Y is arcwise connected for each subcontinuum Y of X. In particular, X is arcwise connected. Now, suppose that X is not hereditarily unicoherent. Then there exist subcontinua A and B of X such that A II B is not connected. Since A and B are arcwise connected, it is easy to show that A U B contains a circle S. By Example 5.2, C(S) is a 2cell whose manifold boundary is the circle Fl (S). Let g denote the restriction of f to C(S). Then g(C(S)) = S. Let j : S + Fl(S) be given by j(z) = {z}. Then jog: C(S) + Fl(S) is amap such that j o g({z}) = {z} for each z E S. Therefore, j o g is a retraction
75. SELECTIONS from the 2cell C(S) onto its manifold boundary Corollary la of [48, p. 3141. Thus X is hereditarily X is a dendroid. n
365 Fi(S). This contradicts unicoherent. Therefore,
75.7 Definition. A selection s : C(X) + X is said to be rigid provided that if A, B E C(X) and s(A) E A c B, then s(A) = s(B). Continua which admit rigid selections have been completely characterized by Ward who proved the following result. 75.8 Theorem [65]. A continuum X is a smooth dendroid if and only if there exists a rigid selection for C(X). An important class of selectible dendroids is the class of smooth dendroids (Exercise 75.21). In Exercise 75.25 it is asked to prove that there are nonselectible fans. In [60, Question 5.111it was asked if each contractible dendroid X is selectible. This question was answered in the negative by MaCkowiak with the following example. 75.9 Example [53]. There exists a contractible and nonselectible dendroid X. The dendroid X is represented in Figure 46 (next page). X is the union of a simple triod T and two sequencesof subcontinua {A,}~fl and {B,}p!l such that A,, + T and B, + T. The dendroid X was rediscovered in [44]. In this paper, X was presented as a nonselectible dendroid for which there exists a retraction from C(X) onto Fi(X). Recently, J. J. Charatonik, W. J. Charatonik, Omiljanowski and Prajs have shown that, in fact, there exists a retraction from 2x onto Fr(X) ([23, Theorem 5.591). The proof that X is contractible is left as Exercise 75.27. We will prove that X is nonselectible. Suppose, to the contrary, that there exists a selection f : C(X) + X. For this example we adopt the following convention. Given two points p # q in X, let (p,q) be the unique arc in X which joins p and q. By Exercise 75.24, f(T) = ps and f((a,b)) = b. Let d be the metric induced by R3 on X. Suppose that d(a, b) = 2 and d(po, e) = 2. Let b > 0 be such that Hd(A, B) < 6 implies that d(f(A), f(B)) < i. Let N 2 1 be such that d(bN,b), d(hN,a) < g and Hd((eN,c,v),(a,b)), &((po,m),T), d(eN,e) and WN,e)< fM(fN,sw), (a,b)), K~Po,cN),T), 6. Let 00, (~1,CJZ [0, l] + C(X) be the maps defined by: :
go(t)
m(t) m(t)
=
= =
(a, b) U @PO + (1 (eN,cN) (fN, gN) u u @PO + (1 (1
t)e,

4 ,
t)eN,eN), t)fN, fN)
@PO +
366
XII.
SPECIAL
TYPES
OF MAPS
BETWEEN
HYPERSPACES
Al
A2
PO
B2
Bl
PO
PO
T PO I e
a
A contractible and nonselectible dendroid (75.9) Figure 46
75. SELECTIONS Notice
367
that ac(0) = (a,b), a0(1) = T, m(0) = (eN,cN), n(1) = 02(o) = (fjV,gN), “a(1) = @O,gN) and Hd(go(t)roi(t)) < 6 for each i = 1,2 and each t E [0, 11. Then f(u0(0)) = Let R = {p E X : d(p,a) 5 $ or d(p,b) I f}. and f(ae(1)) = f(T) = po $! R. Let to = max{t E f((a, bj) = b E R [0, l] : f(ao(t)) E R}. Then to < 1. Since f(ae(to)) E UO(~O) R c T n R, n f(ao(to)) E b,b). We will analize the case d(f(~~(te)), a) 5 i. The case d(f(ao(to)), b) i i is similar. Since d(f(oe(te)), f(ar(te))) < $, d(a, f(crr(to))) < f. Since
(J&,&v), f(m ibN). Since d(f(al (l)),pO) = d(f(al (I)), f(aO(l))) < iT f(al (1)) 4 (to)) E 01 (to) c ( PO, CN) and d(a, f(ul (to))) < i, f(gl (to)) E
(CN, teN7
brv)

w).
We have obtained that f(ar(to)) E (cN, b,v)  {bN} and f(ar(l)) $ (eN, cN). Thus there exists ti E (to, l] such that f(gr(ti)) = biv. + d(bN,b) < f. Thus Then d(f(uo(tl)),b) I d(f(uo(tl)),f(al(tl))) f(oo(tl)) E R. Th is contradicts the choice of to and completes the proof that C(X) admits no selections.
75.10 Definition. Let X be a dendroid, given two points p and q in X (p # q) the unique arc joining p and q in X is denoted by pg. The dendroid X is said to be of type N (between points p and q, p # q) provided there exist in X: two sequences arcs p,pL and qnqk and points px E q,,qk  {qn, qk} of and 4:: E P,PL  {P,, ~3 such that the following conditions are satisfied: P9 P = = lim P,P~ = lim 91X 4h,
limp, = lim p; = lim pz, limq, = limqk = limq:.
9 =
75.11 Question [60, Question 5.111and [ll, Problem 8.61. What is an internal characterization of selectible dendroids (of selectible fans). 75.12 Questions [ll, Question 8.71, [8, Question 111. Does there exist a contractible and nonselectible dendroid which is (a) planable, (b) hereditarily contractible, (c) a fan, (d) has at most two ramification points?
In [52] it was was shown that neither monotone nor open maps preserve selectibility of dendroids (see Exercise 75.26). The following questions remain open.
75.13 Questions [22, Question 14.141. Is selectibility invariant under maps of fans that are (a) light and open, (b) open, (c) light and confluent?
Therefore. The proof of this exercise can be done by following the steps (a) through (c) below: (a) define. Question 14. q E X.. then X is homeomorphic to the interval [0. Let X be a continuum. .17 Question [B.theset{A~2~:Afll~#0ifand only if i E L and pj E A if and only if j E M} admits exactly 2]L] + ]M] selections. Question 291.368 XII. 11. +I = {p}. . fn}rzi of selectible dendroids (of dendrites.thenp+r. Consider the connected set {S(I?c7))E x : 2 E I+. Then [+. For each p E X. Question 14. is selectibility of X. is an arc and the sets Ii.161 (some related questions can be found in [8. . let [t. for each p. What (nonselectibility) of fans? 75. +] are connected.1 . . Under what conditions with respect to the bonding maps f. ... .12 (1) to prove that for each L C (1. transferred to X if the bonding maps are monotone? Exercises the compact metric space Y = Ii U . If there is a selection s for Fz(X). +I are closed subsetsof X such that X = [t. Question 261)..16).a is the dendroid X selectible? In particular.] 75. [Hint: Assume that q # T.m}withL#0orM#0. ...18 Exercise. p 4 q if and only if s({p. .P]. p]U[p.n} and M~{1. {pi}.14 Question [22. u {PTn).15 Question preserve selectibility case of a more general one.. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 75.411.+] = {q E X : p 4 q}. . Then r $ [t. b. of selectible fans). Consider [Hint: Use Exercise 5. Question 3. +] and [C.. [t.p] = {q E X : q 4 p} and [p. Does there exist a nonselectible fan which is not of type N? 75. Do there exist a nonselectible fan and a light open map defined on it such that the image is a selectible fan? The above question is a particular 75.. In. U where each I. q].16 Question [9. . kind of confluent maps [22.p] and [p. {pm} are pairwise disjoint.p] n [p.19 Exercise. q}) = p. Assume a dendroid X is the inverse limit of an inverse sequence {X. (b) ifp+qandq*r. . 75.171. Then ([64]) the number of different selections for 2y is equal to In u {Pl) u .
Then f(A) = a. An eselection for Fz(X) ([Sl]) is a map (T : Fz(X) + X such that a(A) E Nd(c.22 Exercise [62. Each dendroid of type N is nonselectiblc. o(1) = AN. Suppose that there exist two in C(X) such that A. [Hint: Suppose that f(A) # u. for each E > 0.34. the first open map is obtained by identifying symmetric points. there is an cselection for Fz(X) then X does not contain a simple triod.21 Exercise [62. Let a. 75. l]} U {BN U a(t) E C(X) : t E [0. Then each element in A is close to A.] 75. Consider the connected set A = {AN U .20 Exercise.1 75. + (1 for some a E A. [Hint: Find the appropriate maps in Figure 47 (next page). The dendroid in Example 75.25 Exercise. then Y is a Hausdorff is a selection for Fz (Y). = {a. a nonselectible fan.28 Exercise. Exercise. [Hint: Suppose that X contains a simple triod T.27 Exercise.23 ible. 75. A.9 is contractible. [Hint: Use Exercise 25.1 Construct 75. Smooth dendroids 369 R’ by space and there are selectible. Suppose that f : C(X) + X is a selection. Then: X is selectible if and only if X is a dendrite.EXERCISES (c) let p : C(X) + R’ be a Whitney map.24. n sequences {A. 75. p(1) = BN and ifs 5 t.} for each n 2 1. B. then a(s) C a(t) and p(s) C b(t). {&)El B. Let X be a dendroid. Selectibility is not preserved under either open or monotone maps. Nonselectibility is not preserved under either open or open maps. l] + C(X) b e maps such that o(O) = {a~) = p(O). Define f : X + f(p) = p([t. Let X be a locally connected continuum. Theorem 11.0(t) E C(X) : t E [0. l]}. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X. + A.}El.. + A.A) for each A E F2(X).24 Exercise. 75.. Then f is a onetoone map./3 : [0.~]). If Y is a WO. Consider the subcontinuum A of Fz(X) consisting of all the elements of F2(X) of the form .] 75. 3711. If. and a. [Hint: Use Exercise 75. p.26 Exercise [52]. There are noncontractible dendroids that are select 75... Fix a large enough number N.
26) Figure 47 .370 XII. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES Selectibility and nonselectibility are not preserved under either open or monotone maps (75.
(b) a deformation retract of X if there exist a retraction r : X + Z and a map H : X x [0.25.11. in the casethat X is locally connected. (6) PI (X) is a strong deformation retract of 2”. (7). (7) Fl(X) is a retract of C(X). (2) C(X) is a deformation retract of 2”.76. (8) Fl(X) is a deformation retract of C(X). then (Exercise 76. Furthermore. (5). (3) and (6) never hold in the casethat X is not locally connected).Y. as it is proved in [61. (2).24 and 76. (4). and (9) Fl(X) is a strong deformation retract of C(X). b}. (8) and (9) imply any of the others (by Exercises 76. Goodykoontz studied the relationships among the following statements: (1) C(X) is a retract of 2x. In the following table we summarize what is known and what is not known (each entry in the table refers to the question of whether the statement of the column of .1 Definition. (3) C(X) is a strong deformation retract of 2. A 2 a subcontinuum of a continuum X is said to be: (a) a retract of X if there exists a continuous function T : X + 2 (called retraction) such that T(Z) = z for every z E 2. (c) a strong deformation retract of X if there exist r and H as in (b) with the additional property that H(z. Retractions between Hyperspaces 76. RETRACTIONS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 371 {a. for each c > 0.61). there is an cselection for Fz(X). this result is true for an arcwise connected continuum instead of a locally connected continuum). Let X be a continuum. 0) = 2 and H(z. t) = z for every z E Z.1 76. If X is a locally connected continuum and. In the case that X is not locally connected.51. then X is an arc (in fact. l] + X such that H(z. 1) = T(X) for every z E X.23) each of the statements (l). In [36]. (2) and (3) hold.] 75. where a is an end point of T and b is in the union of the two legs of T which do not contain a. Goodykoontz studied the problem of determinig whether any of the statements (l). (4) Fl (X) is a retract of 2sY. Corollary 2.29 Exercise. [Hint: Use Exercise 31. (5) Fl (X) is a deformation retract of 2dY. then each of the statements (4) through (9) is equivalent to the statement that X is an absolute retract ([36. Corollary 2. If X is locally connected.
Therefore.. * I (1) I (2) I (11 I ves I no I t (2j ) >es ] yes i (4) 110 no I10 no no no . Therefore.3 Example [44]. (8) (9) (4) 76. We will verify some properties of F: If t = i.}~!i converges to the set eb U cd.O) = A E C(X).. f). if t E [0. In Exercise 76. by Exercise 15. Let X be a continuum.t) E C(X) f or each A E C(X) and each t E [O.3 yes no yes yes no yes yes no no ?. If Fi(X) is a deformation retract of 2”.O) = A and F(. Since H is continuous. l].1) = r(A) for each A E C(X).t) = no no yes I (5) I (7) I (8) (9) 76. Define F : C(X) x [O. p.(X) and H : 2” x [0. both definitions of F give the value U{H(A.l) E Fl(X)). 1) = r(A) for each A E 2. then Pi(X) is a deformation retract of C(X). .2 Theorem.. the set {H(A.12 I no I no I no I I 4 1 no 1 no 1 no no yes d ~~ dz IlO no. f] iftE[$. 76.}F!l set af U cct and the sequence {B.s) : 0 < s 5 1).9 (2). l] + 2* be maps such that T({P)) = {P> for each p E X and H(A. Let I‘ : 2x + F. Then.‘. In [44.26 it is asked to give a geometric argument to show that Fl (X) is not a deformation retract of C(X). 76.3 ? yes u{H(A. the sequence {A. The dendroid X is represented in Figure 48 (next page).. (X) is a deformation retract of C(X).l] i ~{H(A. F(A. n 76. Proof. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES the left implies the statement in the row at the top). it was described a selection for C(X). F is well defined. 68691. s) : 0 5 s < 2t) is a connected subset of 2” that contains the element H(A. There is a selectible dendroid X such that FI (X) is not a deformation retract of C(X).t) E C(X) for each A E C(X) and each t E [$. This table is similar to Table 1 of Goodykoontz ([36.4.}F=. By a similar argument (H(A. pp.s):2tl<s<l}. It is easy to check that F is continuous and F(A.4 ? no. 76. with bold faced letters.l] + C(X) by: EH F(A. X is the union of two sequences {An}F!l and converges to the (B. We only have added. the information that was discovered after [36]. F. and the set Y = c&U cd. F(A.s) : 0 5 s < 2t}. H(A..O) = A. 1301).372 XII.
3) Figure 48 retract of . RETRACTIONS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 373 a e a’ A selectible dendroid for which Fl(X) is not a deformation C(X) (76.76.
48 of [23].) = (~l. l] is a mean. By Exercise 76. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 76.+~ = IC. If X is the dendroid described in 76. The following example is the first known ldimensional and indecomposable continuum admiting a mean.. Define m : CZ x C2 + CZ by: ~((z~.21.). y) = m(y.z3y3. m(z.(21.4 Question. . z) for every (2. Here. y) E C2 x C2. If m : r + [0.). .Q. then there is a continuum I< c I? . We denote the product [0. for every n 2 1. . = yn for every n 2 1. Continua which admit a mean are far from being characterized. (yl..l] x {O.27. Clearly. Next we will present Bell’s and Watson’s criterion..7 Lemma [4. is FI(X) a retract of 2x? A positive answer to this question would solve two of the four open questions included in the table preceding Theorem 76.. we conclude that CZ admits a mean. and yi+. The diagonal of r is denoted by A. l] x [0.6 Example [John Franks.y.)) = (~y2.l]) U ([O.23. Kawamura and Tymchatyn ([46]) extended Bell’s and Watson’s criterion to a more general class of continua. Two excellent references on this topic are [lo] and [23]. For related results see[l].+~y~+l)~ = z. 5/2.x) = x for each 5 E X. There are many open questions about means. Corollary 3. 1)) which intersects A and which also intersects the manifold boundary C = ({O.5 Definition.l}) 0f r. y) E C2 x C2. m is continuous and m(z. Bacon proved that a continuum admitting a mean must be unicoherent [3]. . 76. y) = m(y. Recently.).Q. y) E C2 for each (z.... we wiIl mention somerecent important results about means and we will offer a list of open questions.. Bell and Watson ([4]) provided a criterion for the nonexistence of a mean on a certain classof continua (which include the sin( $) continua). s$.. By the definition of Cz. A mean is a retraction from F2(X) onto X.y3.). .374 XII.. Bacon in [2] also showed that the sin($)continuum does not admit a mean. . By Exercise 76.2. Since m((21. 76.zZ. z) for each (2.~3. Let C2 be the dyadic solenoid as it is defined in Definition 61. This gave the first example of an acyclic continuum without means.ml ((0..3.27 we may also think of means as maps m : X x X + X such that m(z...z) = x for each x E C2.~2. This implies that m(z. 76. unpublished]. Let X be a continuum.l} x [O.)) = (&&.1.22. Then (~. l] by l?. This example answersquestion 5. y) E X x X and m(x. The dyadic solenoid C2 admits a mean. .
e. f(z)) < E. strongly converging to bu. Then A and B are compact. (z. and k : ab + anen such that h(a) = a.m(z. = k(a). Since (p. n 76. contains a. By uniform continuity of m. i. By Exercise 76. Let K = KiUKz. Assume that X contains an arc A = ab and two sequences of arcs {a. Since (0.76. Notice that order is relevant in this definition. We consider the space X x X with P((W ~1. 438.~) E Wu . nonempty and disjoint.O). there exists an eidy map h : ab + anbn such that h(a) = a. Let d denote a metric for X. Let E > 0 be such that B(26... d(z. 4)) c Ki and KI is disjoint from m‘(a). A and C intersect K.c.l}). (a. d(v.31. Let X be a continuum and let cl denote a metric for X. q E A such that {(p. the same as {anbn}Fz. A sequenceof arcs {anbn}~!i is said to be strongly convergent to an arc ab if for every E > 0 there exists N 2 1 such that for each n > N. (s.v).O) $! D and (1. From Exercise 76. Y)) = m={d(w x).9 Lemma [4.8 Definition [4. Put B = {(h(z). K is connected.a) E A x A : (5. y)) < E. for every subcontinuum K of A x A such that K n {(z.~) E K. section 57.W which contains the point (1. Chapter VIII of [49]).a) U m(K) = 0. that there exist a subcontinuum K1 of A x A and points p. h(b) = cn and k(b) = e. Choose n 2 1 and &idy maps h : ab + a.1) E D. the metric Suppose.m‘({O.h(y)) : (xcl~) E K) u i(G). and e. I? .}. Proof.D is connected. y)) < 26 implies that d (m(u. Therefore. ~1).c. p.p) E K. RETRACTIONS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 375 Let A = ml (0) and B = m‘(l). Let m : XXX + X be a mean. Kzflm‘(a) = 0.O) and (1. Define K = B&(D)..}r& and {anen}Fz?=1 both strongly converging to ab.1) intersects K. let 6 > 0 be such that 6 < E and p((u. Let X be a continuum... Definition 3. and h(b) = b.l). z) : z E A} # 0 and K n ({al x 4 # 0. Proof.nK. every connected subset of F containing (0.30. that X is such that every subcontinuum containing c.. A c U and B c V. symmetric and a 4 m(K). 76. p). Bdr(D) c Bdr(W) c Bdr(U).31. to the contrary. Let U and Ir be open subsets in F such that clr(U) n clr(V) = 0. A continuous function f between two subspacesof X is said to be an eidy map if for all z. Let W be the component of U which contains the point (O. Then K c I’ . Since m is symmetric. Bdr(D) = clr(I?D)nD is connected. Lemma 3.41. Let Ka = {(~. From the unicoherence of I? (Theorem 3.. let D be the component of I? . Then. h(y)) : (2. we have that K rl ml (a) # 0. (anbn}F& strongly converging to ab is not.v).
(m = 0. This contradiction proves the theorem.) = d(m(z. and X is such that for every n.. Put M = (r o m)l(A x A).}F==. let r : X + A be a retraction. E m(B). by the choice of S. h(a)) = (k(q). = m(z). h(q)) = (a. The point a belongs to each A. Thus B is a subcontinuum of X x X. Y)7m(z)) < E. 1 76.~) E I<.10 Theorem (The No Mean Theorem) [4.) m(B). is represented.e. By hypothesis. A. bcrn)+ b and ccrn) + b. since a and b have symmetric status.. h(g)) < 6. By Lemma 76. h(q)) = (k(a).s no mean. ..11 Example [46.m(a. Let X be a continuum. .~..9.51. k(a)). Theorem 3. every subcontinuum containing cn and e. where A0 = ub is an arc and A. (respectively. Let X be an hereditarily unicoherent continuum which contains a pseudoarc. with (5. In Figure 49 (next page) a typical A.c. d(a. h(q)). {fnbn}rzl and {gnbn}Fzl of arcs with each of these sequencesstrongly converging to A. The dendroid X is defined as X = (A0 U. . Proof. 2) : 2 E A} # 8 and K n ({a} x A) # 0. 1. Let C = m(B)Uh(p)c. 76. and gn contains b. (respectively.Uk(p)e. to the contrary. + A0 and B. Since A is an absolute retract. Then C is a subcontinuum of X containing c. = T.. Suppose. Since d(z.2.) = d(u. Example 5. Then X does not admit a mean. k(u)) < E. Since d(u.41 UAz U..376 XII. K n M‘(u) # 0. k(p)e. y) E m(K) n B(26. there exists a subcontinuum I( of A x A such that K II M’ ({a. y)) < 25 Thus m(z. We analize the casein which z is of the form z = (k(z). U (U{R?) : n > 1)) U (U{S~m’ : n > l)).). This contradicts the choice of 6 and completes the proof of the lemma. h(p)) E m(B) and k(p) = m(Q). that there is a mean m : X x X + X..a.51.. contains a.}~!~. a.531. k(p)) E where h(p)c.e.. n 76.. There exists a smooth dendroid admitting no mean. Then X admit. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES Notice that each of the sets of this union is a continuum. .. This implies that a.).) U (BlUBzU. Let z E B be such that a. a. the other casesare similar.). {a.) = (k(q).. a.. E C. and the second one and the third one have the point (k(q). On the other hand. we may assumethat K II {(z. y). . h(y)). d(m(z. is the subarc of a. a. k(z)) and d(y. + Ao.7. b}) = 8 and.) joining h(p) and c. k(p) and e. Theorem 2.12 Example 123. (respectively. Then M is a mean on A.. each A. Suppose that X contains an arc A = ub and four sequences {a. is a smooth dendroid.. The first one and the second one have the point (h(a). Notice that h(p) = m(h(p). and e. and every subcontinuum containing f. u). By Lemma 76.
(m) l (m) A smooth dendroid admitting no mean (76. RETRACTIONS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 377 a \ f e (ml I f \ f ntrn) I Am (m) I I 5 n 0N l ON en (m) wn Cm) Rntm) “n I / ~ I / L (m) (m) / Sn / / / I I dtm) J : ’ d.76.12) Figure 49 .
In particular. p. n B. b?’ and him. It is known ([5. Does the Buckethandle continuum (Example 22. Question 5.17 Question [2. 131. .441. 76. and S?’ + T.“)and the end points of Sim) are a. The end points of T. pi(Y) is a strong deformation retract of C(Y).378 XII. for the dendroid of Example 76. then is X uniformly pathwise connected? 76. is constructed in such a way that A. Then the following question naturally arises. 9irn’ and cim).. Let X be a locally connected subcontinuum of R3.32 it is asked to show that for every smooth dendroid Y.11) admit a mean? 76. = {u} if lc # 712. then is X contractible? 76. Question 201.13 Question [57. Question 5. Question 5. Does there exist a dendroid X such that it admits a mean and for which there is no retraction T : 2” + S(X). btm) and ccm). 131.14 Question [2. [23. Is there an acyclic locally connected continuum that admits no mean? 76. pi(X) is a strong deformation retract of C(X).19 Question 76. Is the arc the only arclike continuum that admits a mean? 76. is a dendroid which is symmetric to A. If X is a dendroid with the property of Kelley.11). Proposition 21) that selectible dendroids are uniformly pathwise connected (see Definition 33. p.501. 1961.491. with respect to the line in R3 containing the points a and dcm).18 Question [23.16 Question [2. p. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES R(‘“) + T. the end points of Rim) are a. Each of the sets Tm. and in Exercise 76. The dendroid B. = TnE and Ak II B.33 it. Is the arc the only arclike continuum containing an open dense half line that admits a mean? 76. 131.15 Question [lo. is asked to give a geometric argument to show that X does not admit a mean.. then does X admit a mean? By the main result of [28] (see Theorem 78. If X admits a mean. If a dendroid X admits a mean. In Exercise 76.30) dendroids with property of Kelley are smooth. p.12. are a. The continuum B.20 Question [23. RF) and Sim’ are tryods.
z) for each (z.] 76.1 (b). Let X be the cone over the Cantor set. A continuum X admits a mean if and only if there exists a map m : X x X + X such that m(x:.(Y) is a retract of 2’. Theorem 2. y) E X x X and m(z. l] x { 0) C R2 and the vertex of the cone is the point (i.71. then. Fl(X) IS not a deformation retract of C(X). [Hint: Suppose that H : 2x x [0.2).25 Exercise [36.24 Exercise [36. A). t) = C(ta(A).21 Exercise.1 (c).31. The continuum X is locally connected if and only if C(X) is a strong deformation retract of 2x.’ such that the vertex of X is not in A. 1). 76.A) is connected}. [Hint: Let d be a convex metric for X (see section 10). . For each r > 0 and A E 2x. Fl(Y) is a retract of 2’. Let X be a continuum. Let p E X.23 Exercise [36.3. Give an example of a continuum X such that X is not a dendroid and Fi (X) is a strong deformation retract of 2x. for every subcontinuum Y of X.EXERCISES 379 Exercises 76. Given A E 2. Give a geometric argument to show that.22 Exercise. then U{ff({P. is a connected subset of X (see Exercise 15. Corollary 2.’ + R’ defined as a(A) = inf{r 2 0 : C(r. IHint: The subcontinuum cd U ef can not be moved under a map H as in Definition 76. Then Fi(X) is a retract of 2x. z) = z for each z E X. [Hint: As usual suppose that the Cantor set is contained in [0. Furthermore. then each of the statements (l). then X is locally connected. 76. Corollary 2. (2) and (3) at the beginning of this section holds.A) = {x E X : d(a. y) = m(y. such that A c C and two sides of C are horizontal segments and the other two sides of C are segments contained in X. 413 : t E [O. l] + 2x has the properties asked in Definition 76. l] + 2x by H(A. for every smooth fan Y. If X is a locally connected continuum. . Proposition 11. Then define H : 2*’ x [0. F. Let (Y : 2.1 76. define C(r. If q E X and q is close to p. If Fl(X) is a strong deformation retract of 2x.2]).27 Exercise.9 (2)) t) 111 and this set is close to the set {p}.] 76. Since every smooth fan can be embedded in X ([22.z) < r for some a E A}.] 76. for the example X described in 76.26 Exercise [44]. consider the minimal quadrilateral C.
31 Exercise. then Fl(X) deformation retract of C(X).c~M’}) E uL~)&~) Udi”)c&M’. m( (p.{IcAM’}.30 Exercise. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 76. Then m( { hL”‘. Third movement: p moves from hL”’ to . Then m( {p.{h}. In particular m({g (M).= ab such that z has the same height than p and {p.32 Exercise. Since all the time (height of m({p. At the end.33 Exercise. Take a pair of points {p. [Hint: Use the map defined in Exercise 25. If there is a retraction from 2. ql)) N Sleight ofp).q}) = m({fi”‘}) = &MI E AM. First movement: p moves from ji”’ to bL”’ and q from fi”’ to c$?‘. At the beginning. with respect to Figure 49. m({&“‘. for each position of {p. [Hint: Let d be the metric in R 3. Then m({p.28 Exercise.v~~‘}) .29 Exercise. then X admits a mean. m({PT 41) remains in zi”)hAM).12 does not admit a mean. it follows that m({lci”). 76.q}) # {a}.~). 76. q} there is a point z E AC. q} along different positions. then Bdy (D) c Bdy (U). In the case that m({&“‘.h~M’}) is close to hi”). This movements will always be done in such a way that p and q will have always the same height. Since p does not reach the height of ft”). 377. Suppose that there exists a mean m : Fs(X) + X. If Y is a locally connected space and D is a component of a subset U of Y. We will move {p. If Y is a connected spaceand D is a component of the complement in Y of a connected subset E of Y. Give a geometric argument to show that Example 76. dlM’)) E z~i’~)bk~) and rn({/~!~~‘. 76.380 XII. q}) remains in RLhf).“) and q from vk”’ to SAM’.~~M)}) E zli”)bkM).(2). B) is small). h}) . q}) .q}) E AM. Let A N B means A is close to B (Hd(A. q} . Then m({g~“‘. If X is an AR.] 76. h(M)}) N {g(M)}. This is a contradiction. The converse is not true. p.] is a strong 76. Since p does not reach the height of ec”).35. then Y . Second movement: p moves from bk”) to hk”) and q from ci”’ to ei”’ and then to v$. m({p. . Let X be a continuum. This implies that m({g. Since A4 and n are very large. viA4’}) belongs to the segment zui”)hiM). q} in AM = R~“‘US~M’. [Hint: The dyadic solenoid is not arcwise connected. Fix very large integers M and n. If X is a smooth dendroid.’ onto Fl(X) then X admits a mean.q})) N (height of p) then m({p.wk”) and then returns to h$.{z} and (height of NP.D is connected.
we denoted 2f by f* and C(f) by f^. light.2 and 73. (C*) and (2*) for confluent. [38]. [24]. (C*) and (2*) for the most common classesof maps. [20]. Given a (not necessarily surjective) continuous function between continua f : X + Y. [41]. Let f be a continuous function from X onto Y and let M be a class of maps. [15]. = Previously. monotone. open and weakly confluent maps. INDUCED MAPS 381 Analyze the case m({b~“). Induced Maps 77. the induced maps associated to f are the functions: 2f : 2x + 2’ and C(f) : C(X) + C(I’) given by 2f(A) C(f)(A) = f(A) for each A E 2x (the image of A under f) and f(A) for each A E C(X). . monotone. respectively). by Lemma 13. Consider the following three statements: (*) f E M. [40]. The following table gathers what is known about possible implications among (*).1. [19].77. [25].1 Definition. [18]. [16]. light. 35. An excellent survey on induced mappings is [14]. [39].3. 1421 and [45]). each of the functions 2f and C(f) is continuous. Note that. Here we only discussdetails of the interrelations between (*). (C*) and (2*) for several classesof maps ([12]. and (2*) 2f E M. (C*) C(f) E M. [21]. [17]. [26]. [33].] E dh’*‘cL”) and obtain a contradic 77. [14].c~?}) tion using BM instead of AM. open and weakly confluent maps (see Definitions 24. Namely.3. A lot of work has recently been done to find interrelations between statements (*). confluent.
The proof that (2*) + (*) is similar.p)). > 0 such that B. This proves that f is open.qd (2e. . . f(A)) n 2f(ZX) c 2f(U). Then there exists A E U such that C(f)({q}) = C(f)(A). We only prove that (C*) + (*). A) c U. f(m)) U . f(pi)) < ForeachiE {l.4 Theorem (see[41. Then Fl(D) is a subcontinuum of C(f)‘(Fr (B)). there exists 6.201). Let U be an open subset of 2x and let A E U. Let e > 0 be such that B. Since C(f) is confluent. Suppose that f is open.. Theorem 6. By the choice of Spi. We claim that Bp(c. Suppose that C(f) is open.pi) such that f(uy) = y.2 Theorem [41. C(f)(D) = Fl(B). Let U be an open subset of X and let p E U. Choose uy E Bd(e. there exists vi E f(D) such that p(~i. It follows that C(f)({q}) E C(f)(U). f is confluent. Let 6 = min{b. Let c > 0 be such that B~p(~C(f)(bl)) n C(f)(C(X)) c C(f)(U)..p)) is an open subset of f(X). Let DO = U{E : E E D}.(c.Theorem 3. f(pn)) and A C Bd(c. .f(p)) 17f(X) c f(U). (C*) + (*) * (2*).25]. Let U = (A E C(X) : A C U}. Since f(A) is compact. n}.. By Exercise 15. Let B be a subcontinuum of Y. Then D c DO c f‘(B) and f(Do) = B. there exists zi E Bd(e. f(pi)) < 26.. compare also 140. Then f(a) = f(q) and f(a) E f(A) c f(u).pl) U . For the class of open maps.. Suppose that C(f) is confluent. Let D E 2x be such that H. . there exists a E A such that p(y.382 XII. Proof. f(p))nf(X) c f(Bd(~. . . Thus f(q) E f&J).. Therefore.9 (2). . (C*) 3 (*) (the proof that (2*) 3 (*) is similar).. Given y E f(D).}.pi)). since f(Bd(~.f(A)) < 6. Y). For each point p E A.(26. [24. Proof.. .31. Question 4.. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 77.U Bd(qp.(6. For the class of confluent maps.).3 Question [41. p) denote a metric for X (respectively. . (C*) +. Then y E f(Bd(c. . Thus C(f)(U) is an open subset of C(f)(C(X)) and C(f)({p}) E C(f)(U). f(a)) < 6.21).P.(f(D). (*) + (2*). Let 2) be the component of C(f)‘(Fr (B)) which contains Fl(D). U BJb. . there exist n 2 1 andpi.(&. . DO is connected. We claim that BH..&+. n 77.f(p)). Does there exist a map f such that 2f is confluent while C(f) is not’? 77. Theorem 4.. Theorem 4. Let d (respectively. Then D = DO. Let f(q) E B. 6 < 2Spi. . E A such that f(A) c B.(*) and (2*) + (*) hold. n} such that p(y. .. Fix a point a E A. Let D be a component of f‘(B). Problem 31..pi) such that f(%) = Vi.. This means that {f(q)} = f(A). Then U is an open subset of C(X).31 (f or a generalization see[24. Thus f(D) = B. Then there exists i E (1.
Thus f (II) = f(B). {Pl.B) < 2~. E X : !/ E f(W))) E k’ : v E f(W)) u Uf(D) {Rr.6 Theorem [24. Let B be a subcontinuum of Y. . Therefore.. C c H and f‘({q)) c K.. then f is weakly confluent too. . n Since Thus 2f(U). By construction. that f(C) # B. Proof. On the other hand.9) to the compact Then there exist two metric space A and the closed sets C and f ‘({q}).21). Since there exists an element E E A such that 2f (E) = {q}. disjoint closed nonempty sets H and K such that A = H U I<. Suppose. . Proposition 6.pn}) C Nd(2E. 77. In [45] it was proved the following result. . to the = contrary. it follows that A C Nd(2e. 3t and Ic are disjoint and closed in 2~~and A = 3c U Ic.{xl. Fix a point q E B . Then C O f ‘({q}) 0. Let A = there exists a subcontinuum A of 2x such that 2f (A) = Fl(B). U{D E 2x : D E A}. Since f is continuous. 2x + 2y is weakly confluent. We can apply the Cut Wire Fence Theorem (12. .. Then A is a closed subset of X and f(A) = B. C(C(f)) then f is a homeomorphism. . If 2f . Theorem 7.%I} c Nd(f. . f(B) = f (cZx({u. Clearly. If f : X + Y is a surjective map between con: C(C(X)) + C(C(Y)) is open and Y is nondegenerate. B E U. we have that E c . 77..77. of the In Exercise 77.~n~ E TY. Since 2f is weakly confluent.3 %I> c dY({f(U~) = f(D). B C Nd(2c. Define3C={DEd:DOH#0}andX:={DEd:DCI<}. B).. .5 Theorem [45]. Hd(A. We have proved that 2f(D) E This proves that 2f(U) is open in 2f(X) and completes that proof implication (*) * (2*). A).38 it is asked to show an example of an open map f such that C(f) is not open..f(C).z}). INDUCED MAPS 383 Define B = CZX({Uy E x : y E f(D)}) u (21... tinua.101(for a generalization see[24.. (~1. Let C be a component of A. . We claim that f(C) = B.
Question 6.8 Definition [24. The continuum K is arcwise approximated at the point p provided that there is a sequenceof arcwise connected subcontinua I(. Let f : X + Y be a confluent surjective map between continua.9 Theorem [24. Let K be a subcontinuum of X and let p E K.51and [40. Theorem 2. f is weakly confluent. for each n 2 1 and K. 77. C n{K. Theorem 4. a continuum K C X is strongly arcwise approximated provided that there is a sequenceof arcwise connected subcontinua K. of X such that K = limK. + K. of X such that p E K. n 77.41. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES f‘(q) c K. this condition is satisfied in the case when K c K. 77. for each n 2 1. The properties of ‘?i and K imply that A is not connected.121. section 31. In [24] W. then C(f) and 2f are confluent.7 Questions [24. 2f) is confluent. Therefore. If Y is locally connected. Then we say that K is strongly arcwise approximated. Charatonik for the study of confluence of induced maps. Let f : X t Y be a confluent surjective map between continua. J.9 is a generalization of the following result by Hosokawa..10 Theorem [38. J. Let X be a continuum. Then D fl H # 8.591. Charatonik studied properties of continua which have the arc approximation property. In other words. The continuum X is said to have the (strong) arc approximation property provided every subcontinuum of X is (strongly) arcwise approximated. He offered the following sequenceof interesting questions. A subcontinuum K of X is said to be arcwise approximated provided that it is arcwise approximated at each point of K. F’1x a point x E C. 2’) has the arc approximation property. Then there exists D E A such that x E D. For the class of weakly confluent maps. Questions 3. then C(f) (respectively. 77. does (C*) imply (2*)? Does (2*) imply (C*)?. The arc approximation property was introduced by W. Thus 3t # 0. : n 2 1). In particular.. 77. If C(Y) (respectively. He obtained the following result.11 Questions [24. Theorem 77.41. Theorem 4.384 XII. Thus K # 0. (a) for what dendroids X does the hyperspace C(X) arc approximation property? have the (strong) . This is a contradiction and proves that f(C) = B.
191(Compare with [24. nearOM) if it is the uniform limit of homeomorphisms (respectively. such that. Question 3. 77. (c) the hyperspace C(X) has the arc approximation property. either f(K1) C f(K2) or f(Kd c f(Kl). f = 11 g). Does it follow that every arc component of X is a dense subset of X? 77. For what continua X do the hyperspaces 2” and C(X) have the arc approximation property? 77. Questions 3.18 Questions 124. (a) Is C(f) confluent? (b) Is 2f weakly confluent? . where g is open and h is monotone. Are the three statements: (a) the continuum X has the arc approximation property.’ have the (strong) arc approximation property for every smooth fan X or for every smooth dendroid X? 77.621. l]? 77.16 Questions [24.13 Questions [24.17 Definition. (b) the hyperspace 2x has the arc approximation property. monotone maps.611. (a) Does it follow that the product X x Y has the (strong) arc approximation property? (b) What if Y = [O. equivalent ? If not. nearmonotone. Question 3.77.15 Question [24.631.18 and Example 4.171). Let f : X + Y be any (confluent) map between hereditarily indecomposable continua.601. what implications between them are true? 77. Do the hyperspaces C(X) or 2x also have the strong arc approximation property? 77. Suppose that X is an arcwise connected continuum and it has the strong arc approximation property. Let X be a continuum and let the hyperspace C(X) have the arc approximation property.12 Questions [24. A surjective continuous function between continua f : X + Y is said to be: (a) semiconfluent provided that for each subcontinuum L of Y and for every two components Ki and K2 of f‘(L). Question 3.641. Question 3. f = g o h (respectively. INDUCED MAPS 385 (b) does C(X) have the strong arc approximation property for every hereditarily arcwise connected continuum X? (c) does 2. Assume the continua X and Y have the (strong) arc approximation property.14 Questions [24. OMmaps) from X onto Y. MOmap) if there are maps g and h. (b) OMmap (respectively. o (c) nearhomeomorphism (respectively. Question 4. Question 4.
Question 5. (b) curves X and Y and an open surjective map f : X + 1’ such that.24 Questions [18.25 Questions [18. (C*) + (2*) and (2*) + (C*)? 77. Suppose that C(f) is a nearhomeomorphism (in particular. Does it imply that 2f is a nearhomeomorphism? The same question if X = Y. locally connected) continua? 77. Let f : X + Y be a surjective map where X is a dendroid and Y is a continuum. Question 5. Questions 5. For the class of nearmonotone (or nearOM) maps. Under what conditions (concerning the domain and/or the range space) (a) openness.325.21. 77.27 Questions [18. Question 5. SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES 77. does (C*) imply (2*)? Does (2*) imply (C*)? 77. C(X) and C(Y) are homeomorphic).21 Questions [15. which of the following implications hold (C*) j (*).23 Questions [18.341. Do there exist locally connected (a) continua.11.(b) nearopenness of a surjective map between continua f : X + Y implies nearopenness of the induced map C(f) : C(X) + C(Y)? 77. then is C(f) an MOmap? 77. .171. (a) Does nearopenness of 2f imply nearopennessof C(f)? (b) If not. Question 5. For the class of semiconfluent maps. Question 5.26 Question [18. Suppose that C(f) is open. C(f) is not nearopen? More generally. does (*) imply (C*)? Does (C*) imply (*)? Does (2*) imply (*)? If f is open and surjective.51. For the classof MOmaps. Question 5. Questions 5.91.Question lo]. Are lightness of C(f) and 2f equivalent conditions for a map between arcwise connected (in particular. (2*) 3 (*).386 XII.19 Questions [24.20 Question 121. under what conditions concerning the structure of either the domain or the range space (or both) the implication holds? 77.101.22 Questions [41. Does there exist a surjective map between continua f : X + Y such that C(f) is nearopen while 2f is not? 77. Problem 21.28 Question [14.161. does it follow that f is a homeomorphism? 77.
Then f is light and C(f). Fix a Whitney map /A : C(Y) + R’. (C*) and (2*). p.35 Exercise [15. 51. Let B = cZc(u)({B E pl(t) : q 4 B}). 0.33 Exercise (Hosokawa and Kawamura) [40. then f is light. If 2f is light. For the class of homeomorphisms.32 Exercise [51] and [40.101.g : X + Y are homotopic maps between continua.EXERCISES 387 Exercises 77. Let f : X + Y a map between continua. f is confluent and 2f is not confluent. Let f : X + Y be the natural quotient map. Example 4. 381. Fix a positive small t. In fact in [24. The elements of p‘(t) are arcs.34 Exercise [24. 77. Theorem 3. (*). Example 5. 381. are equivalent. . 77. Example 3. on p.36 Exercise [15.11. ([60. The converse is not true.30 Exercise. [Hint: Consider the continua represented in the Figure 50 (next page). For the class of confluent maps. The continuum Y is obtained by identifying antipodal points in the circle contained in X. If f.] 77. Thus this is an example where f and C(f) are confluent but 2f is not confluent. 77.51).] 77. (*) + (C*) and (*) + (2*). then C(f) is light. 77.51. Consider the space Y obtained by identifying antipodal points in the circle S1 c X. 2f are not light.31 Exercise. If C(f) is light. [Hint: Consider (2f)‘(Fl (Y)).29 Exercise.81. For the class of monotone maps. Example 4.67. on p. (C*) and (2*). Theorem 3. (*).121.121 it is proved that C(f) is confluent. Let X be the continuum represented in Figure 14. are equivalent. Prove that Y is homeomorphic to X. then C(f) and C(g) (respectively. 2f and 29) are homotopic. Let f : X + Y be the quotient map. 2f is a surjective map. where S1 is the unit circle in R 2. Then f is weakly confluent if and only if C(f) is surjective. Let f : X + Y be a surjective map between continua. 77. Let f : S’ + S’ be given by f(z) = z2.
388 XII.33) Figure 50 . SPECIAL TYPES OF MAPS BETWEEN HYPERSPACES X n\\ Confluence is not preserved under induced maps (77.
77. I] x [0.91.38 Exercise [38. 11)U ([I. Let Xr be the sin(t)continuum and let Lr = (0) x [1.] H Weakly confluence is not preserved under induced maps (77. l] be the limit segment of Xr. Let L2 = (2) x [1. t). [Hint: Let A = ((0) x [I. Let Y be the space obtained by identifying each point (0.21. l] and let X = Y U (2 E R2 : z E Y}. Let f : X + Y be given by Then f is open and C(f) is not open. l] be the limit segment of X2. Example 3.39) Figure 51 X .37 Exercise [15. Then C(f) is light while 2f is not.EXERCISES 389 77. t) in X with the point (2. Let f : X + Y be the natural quotient map. Let X2 be the image under the reflexion of the plane R2 with respect to the line x = 1. Put X = X1 U X2. Example 3. Find subcontinua B of Y such that B is close to f(A) but I3 is not the image of subcontinua of X which are close to A. l] x (0)). Let Y = [0. Then C(f) is not open at the point A.
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35. o(z) is an arc from {z} to B (in the case that B = {b} E Fl(X). we ask that o(b) = {B}).1 Definition. if X is arcsmooth at a point p. o(z) is an arc from p to X is said to be weak arcsmooth provided that such that X is weak arcsmooth at p. then X p. there exists a point p is weak arcsmooth 78. A continuum X is said to be weak arcsmooth at p E X provided that there exists a continuous function (Y : X + C(X) satisfying the following conditions: (9 4~) = (~1. 78. Clearly. equivalent: (a) C(X) For a continuum X.{p}.XIII. 395 .37. and (ii) for each 2 E X .2 Theorem. arcsmooth continua are contractible. 2. on of More on Contractible vs. The converse is not true as it is noted in Exercise 78. More Contractibility Hyperspaces 78. (b) there is an element B E C(X) and there is a map cy : X + C(C(X)) such that for each 2 E X. Smoothness Hyperspaces in Hyperspaces Contractibility As it was noted in Exercise 25. statements at the following are is contractible. We start this chapter by introducing a weaker version of arcsmoothness which is equivalent to the contractibility in hyperspaces.
396 (c) C(X) (d) C(X) XIII.x] = [&xl. On the other and D. Put G({G&J = [An. tn) + D.) be the subarc of a(~.z. and. we may assume that G({zn}. and (A. Since their size is the same.. Therefore. C(X). for some D E C(X) . then A c a(x). Up(Z(i) . Thus G({x}. tn) fi G({x}.t) is well defined for t E [0. Let B E C(X) and let cy : X + C(C(X)) be a map such that ~(2) is an arc from {z} to B for each {z} E Fl(X) . Let (An.x.E E a(x) are such that p([A. (a) + (d) is easy to prove (Exercise 78..5. We only prove (b) + (a). Suppose that G is not continuous on this set.1) = D. $1 converging to a number t E [0..]. E : A E Q(Z)}.) = p([E.) and cu(x. . = U{A and fix a map p : [0.6 and By Exercise 11. ifO<t<i ifist< If A.x.x] and [E. and {z~}. we conclude that [A.t)}.) + a(x). with any of the two definitions of G.l] + C(X) by : C is in the subarc of (Y(Z) ( [A747 W(x). Taking subsequencesif necessary. Then since O(Z) is an arc. Hence A is a subarc (or a onepoint subset) of Q(Z) that contains the point {z}. 1)) = X for every x E X.x]) = ~(0~) = 2(i)p(D.) c cy(x. such that G({xn}.x]). we have that one of the continua [A. is weak arcsmooth Proof. let D.. Define G : Fl (X) x [O. z]) = 2tp(D. For each 2 E X.O) = {x} and G({z}. Up(O) = hand. D.l).) that joins A. where A E a(x) is choosen in such a way that A[A. Then there exist a sequence{ {z. x. For each eIement A E Q(Z) let [A. p(l) = X and p(s) Lemma 14.x] is contained in the other. l] + C(X) such P(t) if s 2 t (see Theorem 14.{G({x}. i]. $1. (d) * (c) and (c) (b) are immediate.) D. f].2).38). OF HYPERSPACES is weak arcsmooth.{B}.}}~=~ in Fl (X).s] = u(C that joins {z} and A}. t) = Dz u PW . We will show that G is continuous on the set Fl(X) x [0. Since (An. c Fix a Whitney map p for C(X) that p(O) = B. G is well defined. Notice that G({z}. t). 2) = D. This proves that G({x}. a(b) = {B}. MORE ON CONTRACTIBILITY and at X. xl) = WDz). p([B.) + A for some A E C(C(X)). converging to an element {x} E Fl (X) and a sequence{ tn}rZ1 in [0. in the case that * B = {b} E Fl(X).
If C(X) is arcsmooth. Let X be a continuum.6 Questions [30.]) + p([Ao.t) = [Ao. if X is a continuum such that C(X) and the cone over X are homeomorphic. Goodykoontz asked if this theorem can be generalized to arcsmooth continua.x. + 2tp(D.) Thus p([Ao.1. Therefore.5.51. We have proved that Fi (X) is contractible in C(X). C(X)) is arcsmooth at some point.. Let X be a continuum. we conclude that C(X) is contractible. her proof contains a mistake. Then 2t. By Exercise 11. By Theorem 20. G is continuous. SMOOTHNESS IN HYPERSPACES 397 be the end points of A.. Goodykoontz has offered the following variatons to this question. is 2” arcsmooth? In particular. It is easy to check that G is continuous on the set Fi (X) x [f .CONTRACTIBILITY Let A0 and {z} vs.~]. Question 6.}. t).. Unfortunately.3 Questions [30. i]. Then 2t&Dz. C(X)) arcsmooth? If X has property (n).) = p([A.. is 2x (respectively. This contradiction proves the continuity of G on the set Fi(X) x [0.4 Question [30.” + D. Thus G( {z.. is 2x arcsmooth? 78. is 2x (respectively. is C. Question 6.] = u{E : E E A natural question is whether arcsmoothness is equivalent to contractibility of hyperspaces.z.5 Questions 130. An attempt to solve this question in the positive was done by Dilks in [22]. 78.).5 G({z. D. tn) + G( {z}.41. C(X)) arcsmooth at X? In Theorem 8 of [24]. If X is an arcsmooth continuum at a point p and p is not in the interior of a finite tree in X.61.). n [A.71. is 2x (respectively.}. Question 6. Eberhart proved that if X is a dendroid smooth at a point p. arcsmooth.(X) homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube? . Question 6. Since a(~. applying again Exercise 11. Question 6. This proves that G({z}.z].7 Question [30.&) = (An. then C. zn)} tends to U{E : E E A} = [Ao. If 2x (respectively. Does there exist a continuum X such that C(X) is contractible but not arcsmooth? If X is contractible. all of them are still open. Let X be a continuum.p(D. 11. C(X)) arcsmooth? 78.101. is C(X) arcsmooth? If 2x is 78.) + a(z)..z]).x]) = 2tp(D.(X) = {A E C(X) : p E A} is homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube if and only if p is not in the interior of a finite tree in X. 78.
we have p(z)xn + p(z)z. The hyperspaceC(X) is contractible if and only if there exists a lower semicontinuous set valued function F : X + C(C(X)).40).9 Theorem [16. 2021whether pointwise smooth dendroids are hereditarily contractible (the converse was proved in [20. W. Theorem 78. converging to 5.10) p.10). J. 2021).(X) is the space of order arcs in C(X). is X contractible? Using Theorem 78.11.2. The dendroid X is said to be pointwise smooth ([20.8 Theorem.. such that for every x E X we have: {x). that join an element of Fi (X) and X. p. (2. p. (a) Suppose that X is a dendroid. W. MORE ON CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES The following theorem it is easy to prove (Exercise 78. (3. q E X. . the following statements are (a) C(X) is contractible. there exists a point p(z) E X such that for each sequence {~~}p=i in X. let pq denote the unique arc in X joining them if p # q. (b) there is a map a: : X + he(X) c C(C(X)) such that. (3. which is an open problem.X E F(X).398 XIII.10 Question [20.39) 78. J. Charatonik obtained the following corollary. Theorem 5. equivalent. Charatonik proved the following result. (2. 78. and (b) if M E F(z). and pq = {p} if p = q. then there is an arc between {z} and M contained in F(Z) n C(M). 1981)provided that for each point z E X. If X is a pointwise smooth dendroid. Czuba has asked in [20. o(z) is an order arc from z to X.9. for each 2 E X. given points p. the problem is equivalent to the problem of contractibility of pointwise smooth dendroids.41. where A.2). For a continuum X. Let X be a continuum.2). 1981. As a consequence of Theorem 78. 78. Since each subcontinuum of a pointwise dendroid is again a pointwise smooth dendroid (Exercise 78.8 follows from Theorem 78.11 Theorem Ill]. Pointwise smooth dendroids have contractible hyperspaces C(X) and 2x. It also follows from the next theorem by Curtis. 78. p.
O) = {z} and G(z.11 implies that Question 78.. Theorem 3. c U for each n > N.tl) c U for each n 2 N. Proof. 4111. If X contains an R3set (see Definition 24. there exists a map G : X x [0. there exists ti > to such that G(p.9). Given a pointwise X. Question 11. Theorem 78. + p and pn E C.. 78.12). Let X be a continuum. {pn} = G(p. 1) = X for each z E X.13 Question [ll. then G(z. Then K # X and there exist an open subset U of X and a sequence of components {Cn}F=i of U such that K = liminf C. Define to = max{t E [0. t) c K}. to < 1. Note that there are such continua which are not dendroids. Characterize those continua such that their subcontinua have contractible hyperspaces.10 has a positive answer. c U.12. Charatonik questions. By Exercise 78. tl) c U. and (b) if s < t and 2 E X.. to) c U. p. 2021 and from Corollary 78. (3. for dendroids it follows from [20.. R3Sets The following theorem gives one of the most useful conditions contractibility of C(X).t). = K. has raised the following two 78.. Related to these results W. l] + C(X) such that (a) G(z. p. then C(X) is not contractible. By property (b). In particular: is it true that such continua are exactly those which do not have subcontinua containing R3continua? (see Definition 24.. ti) c C.21. Since G(p.36.O) c G(p.12 Corollary [II. Suppose that C(X) is contractible. A dendroid X is pointwise smooth if and only if each subcontinuum Y of X has contractible hyperspaces 2’ and C(Y). Question 21.. Since G(p. G(p. does there exist a retraction r : C(X) + Fl(X)? smooth dendroid If the answer to Question 78. Corollary 41 and [3. Let K be an R3set in X.12). ti) = lim G(p. for non 78.35. J. ti) c lim inf C. since contractibility is preserved under retractions. Fix a point p E K. l] : G(p. for each n 1 1.s) c G(z. Therefore.15 Theorem [12.14 Question [ll.14 is positive. Then there exists N 2 1 such that G(p. for example the sin( $)continuum. .R3S~~s 399 78. there exists a sequence of points {pn}~Tl of X such that p.tl) Thus G(p. 1) = X. By Exercise 78.
J.44 it is asked to prove the properties of X.}r!l of converges to the arc ab. 78. MORE ON CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES This contradicts the choice of to and completes the proof of the theorem... respectively. (e) 3 (d).19.19 Problem. and (f) 2” contains an R3set. it was claimed that for dendroids (a). In Exercise 78.17 Questions. using Charatonik’s Theorem.48).(X) and 1. With respect to Problem 78. (f) j (e) and (f) 3 (d)? t In Theorem 6 of [12]. is a dendroid similar to A. Each A. Each B.61). Theorem 31.7 78.5 of [37]. (d) + (e) ([3. W.400 XIII. The sequenceof dendroids {A. 78.46. Theorem 3. (b) C(X) contains an R3continuum.1]).71) and (d) + (f) ([3. Lemma 3.8. Theorem 3. (d) X contains an R3set. the following facts are known: (a) if X is locally connected. (a) 3 (c) ([12. (e) C(X) contains an R3set.6]). for dendroids. The situation is that. (4 * (4 (W Ques ion 20]). Exercise 78. claimed that implication (a) 3 (b) is true.18 Question. (a) and (c) are equivalent and (b) implies (a). Does (a) imply (b) for the casethat X is a dendroid? Spaces of Finite We defined symmetric products F. (c) 2. So the following question has special interest. Subsets and the hyperspace F(X) in 1. Characterize the continua X for which F(X) (F. then F(X) is an AR ([17. It is known that (b) + (a) ([37. is a dendroid consisting of a triad and two sequences segments. His proof has a mistake which is discussedin Exercise 78. So the question whether this implication is true or not is still open. Charatonik. The dendroid X is represented in Figure 52 (next page).(X)) is contractible. n 78. Example 51. Example 2.16 Example [12. .’ contains an R3continuum. Which of the following implications are true (c) 9 (b). Consider the following statements: (a) X contains an R3continuum. In Theorem 1. (b) and (c) are equivalent. There exists a dendroid X such that C(X) is not contractible and X does not contain an R3set.
16) Figure 52 and X does not contain .SPACES OF FINITE SUBSETS 401 A dendroid X such that C(X) is not contractible an R3set (78.
[43]. Proposition is contractible. l] + C(X) such that: (a) G(A. then T(F~ (X)) = 1 ([36. by [SO]. Let X be a continuum. there exists a map G : C(X) x [0.) For locally connected continua X. and (c) F(X) is arcwise connected if and only if X is arcwise connected ([17. [51]. [35]. [52].(X) is unicoherent for each 71 2 3 and for each continuum S.81. [50]. then is X contractible? If Fa(X) is contractible.O) = A and G(A. if X is unicoherent. [32]. [3]. Theorem 1.B) < 6. we will only show that contractibility of C(X) implies admissibility of X and a counterexample showing that the converse of this implication is not true.49). Let Suppose that C(X) is contractible. He also has shown that r(Fx(X)) 5 1 for each continuum X. (r( ) represent. is the set T(z) = {A E C(X) : z E A}. there is a 6 > 0 such that for each y E B(6. [55] and [56]. [54].20 Question. Castaiieda in [4] has shown an example of a unicoherent continuum X such that Fz(X) is not unicoherent.s the multicoherence degree defined in 64. The relations between this concept and the contractibility of hyperspaces have been studied in [2]. then Fz(X) is also unicoherent [28] and if X is not unicoherent.20.61 and [28]. Macias in [47] has proved that F. An element A E F(z) is said to be admissible at 2 if. 78.61). z). Let X be a continuum. then X is admissible. [34]. .402 XIII.. Admissibility was introduced in [53].35. The continuum X is said to be admissible if for each 2 E X and for each Whitney level A for C(X). Let X be a continuum. for each E > 0.21 Definition [53]. 1.(S1) is not contractible for any n 2 1. If F. Recently. t) if A E C(X) and 0 < s 5 t 5 1. MORE ON CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES (1~) if X is contractible. Admissibility 78.(X) is contractible for some 11 2 2. there exists B E F(y) such that Hd(A. there exists A E A n 7(z) such that A is admissible at z. 78. Let d denote a metric for X. then F(X) is contractible (Exercise 78. let d denote a metric for X and let 2 E X.4. 1) = X for each A E C(X). Here. Generalizing results of [36. If C(X) Proof. [33]. [53]. F. The total fiber at the point z. By Exercise 78. then is X contractible’? Related to Question 78. Lemma 2. Theorem 2.31). s) c G(A. and (b) G(A.22 Theorem [51.
In order to do this. let E > 0. there exists t E [0.G({y}. 78. n The following example is a slight modification of Example 6.z). is symmetric to 2.11. We will see that G({z}. GivenaWhitneyleveldforC(X).G({~/).MAPS PRESERVING HYPERSPACE CONTRACTIBILITY 403 is admissible at 5 for each Let z E X.t))< c. with respect to the point b. In Exercise 78.9 Curtis extended these results with the following theorem. Proposition 7. so is C(X).31. . contractibility of hyperspaces is preserved by open surjections and maps with right homotopy inverses.11. each 2. respectively. t) E d. Kato proved that refinable maps preserve Kelley’s property and he asked the following question. This proves that G({z}. Theorem 3. Each Y. 78. l] and Hd(A. where dy denotes a metric for Y. Let b > 0 be such that if t E [0. is a topological copy of 2 with its respective triod Tn.t)) < E. In [39. Theorem 2. then Hd(G(A. The fundamental part of the contruction of X is the continuum 2 represented in Figure 53 (a).t). In the continuum X.11. ThenforeachyEB(6.t) t E [0.g(z)) : x E X> < E. Example 6.t)..3 of [16]. 11.1)= X. Using Theorem 78.sinceG({z}.t)EF(y) andHd(G({z}. Maps Preserving Hyperspace Contractibility As it is observed in Exercises 20. Thus X is admissible. 78. There is an admissible continuum X such that C(X) is not contractible.25 Definition [25]. 11such that G({z}. Then if C(Y) is contractible.51 it is asked to show that X is admissible and C(X) is not contractible.23 Example [16.O)={~}andG({z}.25 and [50.G(B. The continuum 2 is the union of a triod T and a sequence of arcs converging to T. and supposethere exists a lower semicontinuous setvalued function @ : X + Y such that 29 o @ : X + X is a singlevalued function (therefore continuous) which is homotopic to the identity map defined on X. Let g : Y + X be a map between continua. t) is admissible at 2.B) < 6. The sequences{Z. and sup{&(f(z).l}~zp=l and {Tn}rcl both converge to ab. A continuous function between continua g : X + Y is refinable if for every E > 0 there exists an onto map f : X + Y such that diameter (f‘(y)) < E for each y E Y. The continuum X is illustrated in Figure 53 (b) ( next page).24 Theorem [16.
I! . . a* 1 . T (4 a I An admissible continuum X such that C(X) Figure 53 is not contractible (78.23) .404 XIII. MORE ON CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES z 7 .
then does C(X) have property (K)? If 2x has property (K).31) has discovered that a positive answer to Question 50. .MORE ON KELLEY’S PROPERTY 405 78. Theorem 2.29. A dendroid X is a dendrite if and only if X has property (K) hereditarily.11. If X has property (K). Is C(Y) contractible? More on Kelley’s Property The following questions are still open (seeRemark after Exercise 20.29 have been completely answered. 78. J. 78.5 (see [41. If a dendroid X has property (K). 78. Charatonik and W. J. Corollary 3. Characterize dendroids having prop An important step in the solution of Problem 78. Is it true that C(X) has property (K)? In [7.5).61). Question 2.27 has been affirmatively solved for the property (K)* defined in 50.31. [7. Problem 61. Problem 61.29 Problem erty (K). Let X be a continuum. Theorem 2. Let X and Y be continua. was given by Czuba with the following result.30 Theorem smooth.371. J.26 Question [39. does X have property (K)*? (see Definition 50. Questions 16. Charatonik have proposed the following problem. then X is For dendroids with property (K) hereditarily (a continuum X has propif every subcontinuum of X has property (n)). 78. Recently.28).27 Questions [48. If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum. then does X x [0. Kato ([42. in [l] it has been showed the following generalization of Theorem 78. I] have property (K)?) implies a positive answer to the first question of 78.31 Theorem [49. Question 21. 78. then does C(X) have property (K)? The first part of Question 78.27.2 (if X has property (K).61. Suppose that g : X + Y is a refinable map between continua and C(X) is contractible.28 Questions [41. Questions 78. erty (K) hereditarily [21].
for any continuum A containing p and for any open subset U of C(Y) with A E U. continuum X such that X is weak arca point p and X is not arcsmooth at p. there exists an open subset U of X such that p E U and if q E U. Question 71. 111. E R’ : q E C.11. t]) x {t}) = p‘(t) and for each A E /. homogeneous continua have property (6). 78. For each n 2 1.‘([t. Exercises 78. for each E C.] that d(p. Then X has property (K) hereditarily if and only if X is hereditarily locally connected. G(A. MORE ON CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES 78.}~=r of nonempty subsets of X.s) c G(A. Consider the continuum which is obtained by rotating around the continuum illustrated in Figure 54 (top of next page). then is X the limit of an inverse sequence of finite trees with confluent bonding maps? The notion of property of Kelley can be extended to Hausdorff in the following natural way.18.406 XIII. G(p‘([O. t) = A.] . [Hint: Let d denote a metric for X. Recently. As it was shown in the proof of Corollary 20. continua 78.p. J. Let X be an arcwise connected continuum. Theorem 4.33 Question [7. The hyperspace C(X) is contractible if and only if for each Whitney map p for C(X) with p(X) = 1..q) 78. 11. Let X be a continuum and let {C. l] + C(X) such that: (a) G(A.37 smooth at [Hint: the yaxis be a sequence if there exists E C.)z!r of X such that p. There is a. We say that Y has the property of Kelley if for any point p E X. + p and p. Then p E lim inf C. and (c) for each t E [0. 0) = A and G(A. Let Y be a compact connected Hausdorff space. Let X be a continuum.t) if A E C(X) and 0 < s < t < 1. Charatonik has shown in [14] that there is a homogeneous Hausdorff continuum Y such that Y does not have the property of Kelley. there exists a map G : C(X) x [0.) < inf{d(p. W. Let X be a dendroid having property (k). (b) G(A.} + i.35 Exercise. if and only a sequence of points {p.36 Exercise.34 Definition [14]. n 2 1. 1) = X for each A E C(X).. let p. be such Exercise. then there exists L E C(Y) such that q E L and L E U. 78.32 Theorem (1.
39 Exercise.EXERCISES 407 P . 78.1 Let X be a continuum. Theorem 4. is contractible. . 78. (a) =S (d) of Theorem 78. Then C(X) is contractible if 78.37) 78. [Hint: See Exercise 20. then x Y) is contractible if and only if C(X) and C(Y) are contractible. Weak arcsmoothness does not imply arcsmoothness Figure 54 (78. Let X and Y be continua. is again a pointwise of a pointwise smooth dendroid C(X 78. If K is an R3set of X. [50.41 Exercise.42 Exercise..24.8. Prove the implication Prove Theorem 78.2..43 Exercise. then X is not locally connected at any point of I<.40 Exercise.21. Each subcontinuum smooth dendroid.38 Exercise. Let X be a continuum. . and only if C(C(X)) 78.
Hyperspace contractibility of type sin($)continua. is admissible at b. then 2K is an R3continuum of 2aY. and K C U.S.}~Zp. If K is an R3continuum of X. Show that for the case that I< = ef U cd in Example 76. Then contractibility of C(X) is preserved by maps with right homotopy inverses. Lim and C. 78.l] + C(X) with the properties stated in Exercise 78. In the proof of Theorem 6 of [12].35. p.. each vertical segment containing b.).48 Exercise [12. K. Let K be an R3continuum of X. Baik. If the continuum X contains an R3set. Illanes. preprint. 78. Let X be a continuum. K. [Hint: K is an isolated point of lim inf C(C. 2. observe that the set {b} can not be moved under any homotopy G : C(X) x [0.51 Exercise.1 References 1. Sot. J..] 78. Theorem 31. it is claimed that lim inf C(C. Let X be a continuum. 29 (1992). If U is a nonempty open subset of X and C is a component of U.50 Exercise [50. The dendroid in Example 78.. Theorem 3. [Hint: It is impossible to move the point c under any homotopy G : X x [O. G. In order to show that C(X) is not contractible. 373). J. Then 78.23 is admissible and C(X) is not contractible. B. then 2c is a component of 2”. [Hint: For each b. Fl(X) is contractible in F(X) if and only if F(X) is contractible.30.16 doesnot have R3sets and it does not have contractible hyperspaces C(X) and 2x. l] + C(X) with the properties stated in Exercise 78.1 78. Rhee. MORE ON CONTRACTIBILITY OF HYPERSPACES 78. Let X be a continuum. The continuum X in Example 78.45 Exercise. Let X be a continuum. . Let X be a continuum. 78. lim inf C(C. P.44 Exercise. Let U be an open subset of X and let {C. Korean Math.408 XIII.) is a subcontinuum of X.3 (Figure 48. Proposici6n 3.. be a sequence of components of U such that K = lim inf C.(X) and F(X) are not contractible.35..46 Exercise. Acosta and A. Hur.31.47 Exercise.49 Exercise [29.1 78. Continua which have the property of Kelley hereditarily. then F.) is not connected. The horizontal segmentscontaining b are admissible at b. [Hint: Use Exercise 77.11. 1542.
Charatonik and W.. Polon. W. J. 1060 (1984). 710. J. BerlinNew York.S. On pointwise smooth dendroids. Sot. J. Hyperspaces of finite subsets which are homeomorphic to Nodimensional linear metric spaces. Rhee. 6.J. Sci. 15. J. J. Castafieda. Acad. J. Warszawa. Czuba. T. preprint. 33 (1985).REFERENCES 3. Baik. Polish Acad. 13. 197207. W. 1980). Hyperspaces and the property of Kelley. Math. A unicoherent continuum for which its second symmetric product is not unicoherent. Polon. Proceedings of the International Conference on Geometric Topology (PWN. Springer. 23 (1986). On the property of Kelley in hyperspaces. 27 (1979). 251260. l6.. 12. J. Polish Acad. 309319. J. 37 (1985). 18. Czuba. Bull. 11. Charatonik. J. Charatonik and W. 34 (1997). T. Curtis and N. Charatonik. Charatonik. I?sets and contractibility. R2continua and contractibility of dendroids. Makuchowski. K.. 9. Bull. J. A homogeneous continuum without the property of Kelley. D. Sot.T. Smoothness of hyperspaces and of Cartesian products. Some problems on generalized homogeneity of continua. T. W. J. preprint. Charatonik. 19 (1985). Lecture Notes in Math... D. 7579. W.. 457459. 1060 (1984). 4. S. 409 B. Topology Appl. 14.. Math. Lecture Notes in Math. J. 30 (1982). Pointwise smooth dendroids have contractible hyperspaces. 19. Topology Appl. 747759. 3. Springer. Smoothness and the property of Kelley. 207216. Math. J. W. 299302. Bull. Charatonik. 20. Charatonik. Fans with the property of Kel 7. Topology Appl. Math. The property of Kelley and confluent mappings. Topology Appl. to appear in Proc. F’und.. Hur and C. 8. 912. Sci. Nhu. Acad. Ricontinua and hyperspaces.. 29 (1988).. Sci. 114 (1$X31). SQ. W. Czuba. Math. Korean Math. Sci. Sci. 16. Some functions on hyperspaces of continua. BerlinNew York. J. J. W. Math. preprint. Charatonik. W. 22 (1986). 5. Sci. ley. Application of a selection theorem to hyperspace contractibility. Math. 31 (1983). Bull. 17. 10.. J. J. Amer. E. Charatonik.. J. 409412. 211221. S. Charatonik and W. Canad. Charatonik. Curtis.. 7378. .. W. Charatonik.. S. %r. Ricontinua and contractibility.
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. Obstructing sets for hyperspace contraction.. J.. New York. The property of Kelley. 377381. M. 47. Math. L. H. Admissible fibers and Tadmissibility ogy Appl. Rhee. Math.. V. . Rhee. 50.. A note on continuous mappings and the property Kelley. Rhee. N. 49. Topology Appl. Rhee. Topology 52. NeumannLara Proc. 45. J.. 749771. 119127. Rhee. 112 (1991). S. An admissible condition Proc.. PugaEspinosa. Contractible hyperspaces 24 (1984). 118 (1993). Kim. 64 (1995). T.Y. Nishiura and C. 215225. 55. Charatonik. Nishiura and C. Math. de la Sot. Rhee. Bull.J. 159173. Sot.. hyperspaces. 1060 (1984). 8 (1983). Shore points and dendrites..REFERENCES 411 40. Rhee. Amer. Amer. Wregular convergence continua. 29 (1981).. On the property of Kelley in the hyperspace continua. Inc. P.. The property of Kelley in circularly chainable and in chainable continua. 46. C. S. van de Vel.. B. Nishiura and C. Sot.. 105113. 303314. 56. Hyperspaces of sets. Mset and contraction of C(X). 31 (1994). Korean Math. P. Houston J. R. Krupski. C. Math. 7683. and Kelley Trans. H. 1978. Marcel Dekker. $ci. J. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. H. 54. On symmetric products of continua. Topology Proc. Sci. Krupski. 7 (1982). 114331148. Sot. York. for of sub contractible subcontinua.. Royale in hyperspaces. Kim and C. Amer. J. J. Topolcontinua. 13 (1987). Jr. des Sciences de Liege. 7583.. 57. Kato. Invariant arcs. On a contractible hyperspace condition. Bull. Nadler. and I. Ser. Bull. 56 (1987). Houston J. Contractibility of the hyperspace continua. Polon.. S. 49. Rhee. Vol. T. Acad. BerlinNew Open images of solenoids. Kyungpook Math. J. Proc. J. to appear in Topology APP~. C. 41. Math. Math. C. 48. Houston J. Math. 51. Sot. 147155. I. 43. of R’ 44. Lecture Notes in Math. Generalized homogeneity of continua and a question of J.. 30 (1988). Springer. 939942. 1433154.. Krupski. S.. local end points and homogeneous continua. J. of 53. 10 (1985). Ma&s. J. 165174. P. Kato. 5163. 5570. and Whitney of 42. T. 10 (1984). Topology Proc. J. Kato. Whitney levels. 326 (1991). 8 (1982)..
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We assumethat X is a continuum.3).4 and 5.11 it was shown that there is a nonlocally connected continuum X such that C(X) is homeomorphic to x x [O.7 of [3].2 are the following. Combining Theorems 5. Products. The steps for the proof of Theorem 79.81. for a continuum X. 79.5 of [8] and 9. The rest of this section is devoted to present the proof of the following theorem.11). or write C(X) M Y x 2 when C(X) is homeomorphic to the Cartesian product of nondegenerate continua Y and Z. then X is an arc or a circle (and conversely).0 of [12]. recently it has been proved in [5] that the hypothesis of local connectednessis not necessaryin Theorem 79.2 Theorem [5. then C(X) is homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube (Theorem 11. Answering Question 2. Cones and Hyperspaces Hyperspaces Which Are Products 79. In this section we will discuss. 79. Theorem 3. in [5. Let X be a locally connected continuum. Example 4. 1. Let X be a continuum.1.11. If C(X) is a finitedimensional product. the following theorem follows. Answering a Question in 3.XIV. 413 . We say that C(X) is a product.1 Theorem (see paragraph above).19 of [12]. when the hyperspace C(X) is a product. If X is a locally connected continuum and X does not contain free arcs. C(X) is finitedimensional and C(X) = Y x Z. Then Y and Z are arcwise connected (Exercise 79. Then C(X) is a finitedimensional product if and only if X is an arc or a circle. Thus there are many continua X for which C(X) is a product.
E A.1). for each n > 1 and. a.... The proof presented here of Theorem 79. 3. + a. Proof. Lemma 3.A and a sequence {An}rzl in C(X) such that a.7). choose a point a. The necessity is left as Exercise 79. Then there is an open subset U of X and there is a component C of U such that C is not open.~) c U.1 to obtain Theorem 79.3 Definition [5. if B E C(A1) and {n 2 1 : a. Let E > 0 be such that B(E. We prove that.. E B} is infinite. So we only prove the sufficiency.intx(C). then either Y or Z contains a fold. E B(. Let d denote a metric for X. Suppose that X is not locally connected. 79.9 and Theorem 79. This will be a contradiction since C(X) is finitedimensional (see Theorem 70. The main difference is that we substitute the results about arcs of wrinkles (Lemma 3. + A.4 Theorem [5.Fi(X) if there exist a point a E A. CONES AND HYPERSPACES We also assumethat X is not locally connected. then X contains mods for every m 1 1.2 is shorter than the original one presented in [5].8) that if Y x Z contains a fold.6 of [5]) for the simpler arguments contained in Lemma 79.4. 79. since C(X) contains a wrinkle. We say that C(X) has a wrinkle at an element A E C(X) . We prove (Theorem 79. since X is not locally connected. + a.21. Then there is an arc (Y in Y x Z (E C(X)) such that Y x Z has a fold at every point of cy. Lemma 3. for a topological space W the notion of folds in W. 4. For each n 2 1.C. Theorem 3. then C(X) contains a wrinkle (Theorem 79.10) that if C(X) has a fold at every point of an arc cy.a) . A.10.2.5 and Theorem 3. Theorem 1. Definition 1. PRODUCTS. then C(X) contains a fold (Theorem 79.4). We define. Wrinkles At this moment we are not assuming that C(X) is a finitedimensional Cartesian product. Then a. Let X be a continuum..3.2. We show (proof of Theorem 79. .}~& in X .18 and it will not be used for the proof of Theorem 79. Suppose that X is an hereditarily decomposable continuum and there exists M > 1 such that X contains no Mods. This is done because we want specify the necessary hypothesis in each of the theorems. then A C B. Fix a point a E C . Then C(X) has a wrinkle if and only if X is not locally connected.2. 2. . The notion of a wrinkle is specifically defined for hyperspaces. We define the notion of wrinkles in C(X) and we prove that. The contradiction will prove that X is locally connected. Thus we can apply Theorem 79.31. Al > AZ > . a sequence {a. .414 XIV..
. Thus Bo = A and Bo c B. If A = {a}.}~~l be a subsequence of {Dm}~=l for some Bo E C(X)..u)(d). $ A for each n > N.. and A. For each n 2 1. E B1 c AI. Foreachm>1. By Exercise 11.E4. Let {B. Notice that Al > A2 > . Proceeding in this way it is possible to construct a sequence N < nl < 712 < . and proves that A # {u}. there exist two proper subcontinua D and E of A such that A = D U E.u(Bo) 5 p(A). Then B. Then D.. Since B = {B E C(X) : a E B} is a closed subset of C(X) and A C 13.}~=.. Then Bo E clccx. BO c A rl B. 415 Fix a Whitney map p : C(X) + R1. Then{k>l:a.. + A. Thus C contains infinitely many a. of A.B) < 6. n B such that {k 2 1 : utlb E Dn} is infinite.. is connected since u E B. $Aforeverym>l. By the choice of A. Since X is hereditarily decomposable. In particular. Since X contains no Mods. a.(d)}. E 2x. Then . Thus A. 4 E for each n > N... This completes the proof that C(X) has a wrinkle at A. Then B C B(e. in X satisfy the properties in the definition of wrinkle at A. for every m 2 1. We will show that C(X) has a wrinkle at A.1 components... Thus there exists a component D.. E B} is infinite}. where J.. a E A. $! D and a. + A.. E B} is infinite.+~u. l] x {A} and J = [0.FOLDS Let A = {B E C(X) : {n 2 1 : a. let A.... Notice that B E A and a E B. m Folds 79. Let n2 > n1 be such that a. This implies that B c C.. E B2 C AZ. n B has at most M . &(. such that D. Finally we will show that the continuum A.5 Conventions.. E C(X).}pi be a sequence in A such that B.=AuB. Then a E B for every B E cZc(. l] x (0). c Anr n B..5. and A. n A for each m >_ 1.{u. This contradicts the choice of a. such that a. let B E A such that Hd(A. E A.(d) and p(A) 5 p(Bo)..nB} is infinite. defined by P* = J u (u{Jn : n > l}). the sets D and E do not belong to A. the sequence {A.x)(A) c B....+. A # 0. A.20. So there exists A E &(x)(d) such that p(A) = min{p(B) : B E clccx. c A and p(Bo) = p(A)..uB. by Exercise 14.. Let ni > N be such that a. = [0. Since X E A. Let B E C(A1) be such that {m > 1 : a.? + Bo Let (Dm. Then there exists N > 1 such that. A. the point a.... Since D m. E A...a) C U. .. Notice that a..u. Thus a.. Hence A c B. The symbol P* denotes the subset of R2.}~A..}$l in C(X) and the sequence of points (a.
. Suppose that X is an hereditarily decomposable continuum and there exists M 2 1 such that X contains no Mods. By Theorem 17. where . 79.~ + u.41. Proof. The converse of the implication contained in the following theorem is also true ([5.416 XIV. 79.t).7 Theorem [5. .21.19. If C(X) has a wrinkle at A.(01. cr is a segment from {a} to A.. is a segment in C(X) with respect to ~1from {a.a) + 0. if (t.}~xI is a sequencein X . with the uniform metric p defined in section 17. 4s). A continuum W has a fold at a point w E W if there exists a continuous function f : P + W such that f (0) = w and for each p E J .s) = ~(1 .6 Definition [5. then C(X) has a fold at A. PRODUCTS. Here.41). Let d denote a metric for X. we conclude that ~(0) = {a}. Let 0 = (0. For each p = (x. If U is an open subset of a continuum X and p is a point of U. For each n 2 1. if s = 0.Js = (0) x [O. there exists a map 0: : [0. l] + C(X) such that o.A and {An}FcI is a sequencein C(X) and they satisfy the conditions in the definition of a wrinkle at A.p) the component of U containing p. k).. 11.} to A. Let A E C(X) . if s = E for some k 2 1. S. F(t.*~. ~(1) = A. Define F: ‘P + C(X) by gnk(l . Then there exists a subsequence and there exists a map B : [0. Suppose that a is a point in A. Let S. Then Since ~(o. Similarly. by Theorem 16. Fix a Whitney map /L : C(X) + [0. for each Ic > 1.4. Theorem 2. l] + C(X) such that ~~n. CONES AND HYPERSPACES We also define P = P* U JO. we denote by comp(U. f(p)) does not intersect {f(p(n)) : n > 1).Fi(X). l] such that p(X) = 1. Definition 2. Then p(n) + p.O) E R2..(C(X)) is compact.(C(X)) be the space of segments in C(X) with respect to p.9 there exists a map cn : [0. {a.l~1 of {Gltp. By Exercise 79. Theorem 2.l]. Therefore. we only prove the implication that we will use in this section.l 0 is a segment in C(X) with respect to p and o.0) E J and n > 1. define p(n) = (5.s) E (0) x [0. there exists an open subset U of W such that f(p) E U and comp(U. l] + C(X) such that a(O) = A and o(k) = A.t).
.t)) < i.(Cr)). Suppose to the contrary t.. Let Cr = comp(Ui.hat No is infinite. S E C(X).FOLDS 417 If (t..cr~~) < 5 for every k 2 K. We will show that there exists an open subset U of C(X) such that F(p) E U and comp(U.fr(l t)) . By the definition of {a. Since (ftnk : k E No} does not intersect A. Let b = min{&.s) = 0. We will show that Ns is finite. n S such that the set {k 2 1 : a.t)p(a(l)) = (1 .} = crlle(0) c ~~~(1 t) = F@(k)) c S.9. F(t.}r!i. Then p(E) = p(g(l t)) = tp(a(0)) + (1 .t( < 60. If s = 0.20). Then Ui is an open subset of C(X) and cl~(x~(Ui) c {B E C(X) : B c cl. nS has a finite number of components (Exercise 14..g(l . then LT. E S} is infinite. Now..s)) = Hd(a(l If s = i for some k > K. then Hd(F(p).$)I = Kd4 &(a(1 . Let 6s > 0 be such that if Ir .E) c . s) E P* be such that Ir . Let (t. Notice that if k 2 1 and F(p(k)) E Ci. . 0) E J.~1.(~ . Let K 2 1 be such that p((~.. Hence No is finite. : lc > 1)..t)p(A) < p(A). F(t. We will seethat FlP* is continuous.r). By the previous paragraph {k 2 1 : a. Since a is continuous. Fix a point z E A . i). E S. then Hd(a(l r). This proves that Fl’P * is continuous at p and completes the proof that FI’P* is continuous.t) = A.. s) is of the form (t. Then there exists a component B of A. let p = (t.. then Hci(F(p). then {a. then a(1 . o(1 t)) < f.(0). In both casesHd(F(p). Notice that E c S and z $ S.s) = (0. k}. This is a contradiction since B c S and z $ S. F(p)) rl {F@(k)) : k > 1) = 0. let c > 0. Let No = {k 2 1 : F(p(k)) E Ci}. In It is clear that FlP* is continuous at the points of U{Jk order to show that FIT’* is continuous at a point p = (T. A C B.tl < 6 and s < 6. Thus E is properly contained in A. If (t. Thus a. we conclude that F is continuous. s)) < c.gnk (1 . . This proves that F is well defined and F(O) = A.c&(1 t)) < 2 + 5 = E.O) E J .t)) 5 E t + Hd(cr(1 . there exists an open subset VofXsuchthatE~Vccl~(V)cU{a.r). Then U is an open subset of C(X) and E E U C Ur. E B} is infinite. A.:kENc}.E. F(t. Let Ui = {B E C(X) : B c 17). By Exercise 15..y(U)}. Let E = F(p). Define U = {B E C(X) : B c V}. If there exists k > 1 such that F(p(k)) E comp(Z4. = a($). Then s = 0 or s = i for some k > K.t). E) and let S = u{B : B E &cx.t) = A = a(O). Let U be an open subset of X such that E c U and z 4 cl~(U). Since X contains no Mods.
z(q)) c comp&.. 1 f I. Given an open subset V of Y such that y(O. .. comp(U. then y(L x {A}) is a connected subset of V. so . Suppose that Y x 2 has a fold. y(q))} is infinite. Let t E I. l] and let K 2 1 be such that & < 6.. where n1 < n2 < . for each p E J . such that (y(q). . Proof.l]. Therefore. Theorem 2. Let f : P + Y x 2 be a map such that f(o) = (yo. E F(p(k)) c V and k E No. For each p E P. Let X be a continuum. Since {k L 1 : ~(1. we will show that Y has a fold. Then we may assumethat the set N*= {n > 1 : y(q(n)) $comp(Yq. PRODUCTS.y(q))) = {k 2 1 : y(q(m)) E comp(Y*. Let I = {t E [0. Let 6 > 0 be such that ((t6.S] x [O. respectively. Since Y((P~~l P> rl is connected.51.O).z(q))) n {f(q(n)) : n > 1) = 0.418 XIV. This implies that the set of positive integers is equal to in 2 1: y(q(n)) compOl’. Given s E L. 0))) is finite}.8 Theorem [5.O) E V and the set {k L 1 : Y(C . 0)). E) n {F(p(k)) construction of U. t+6) x [O. Under this assumption. x 4) v Thus {k > 1 : ~(0. n Cl.. there exists an open subset UP of Y x 2 such that f(p) E4 and cow&.O))} is infinite.{O}. z(q)) E ‘I< x Z.zo) and. y(q))x comp(Z. n2. Define L = (t . We will show that I is open in [O. y(O. 61x [0. .S]) n P) c V. the connectednessof y(L x (0)) implies that y(s. let f(p) = (y(p). then a. This contradicts the choice of V : k > 1) = 0. $) E comp(V. be open subsetsof I’ and Z. &) E comp(Yqb. y(([O. CONES AND HYPERSPACES and proves that. 0) E comp(V. y(q)) x comp(Z. Supposethat C(X) x Y x 2. f(p)) n U(P(~)) : 12 2 I)= 0. y(t. y(O.Q)n P c y‘(V).. Let Yq and Z.6]) n P) C comp(V.y(q))} = 0. Then Y has a fold or 2 has a fold. U{n 2 1: z(q(n)) cow(Z. 4 y(4))) 4 z(q))). This proves that 0 q! I. l] : there exists an open subset V of 1’ such that y(t. c U. z(p)).}.O)). Since comp(Yq. Let V be as in the definition of 1 for the number t.O) E V. This completes the 79. If k 2 K. Let q = (1. Suppose that N* = {nl.) E comp(V.6. C(Jri) has a fold at A.. y(t. there exists S > 0 such that y(([O. t + 6) n [0. f(s))... Let 7ry and ~/TZ the respective projections from Y x Z onto be Y and 2. (cow(Y.
In particular. Therefore. = camp (Vm.11: ~(4 $) E y([O..s] < S. Thus s E I. Then y(rk. Define r = max([O..O)). This contradicts the choice of V and completes the proof that rk + T..6. We may also assumethat s.O) = y(so. = {k 2 1 : y(r. Irk.s + S) n [c. Define pe = (r. Then r < 1. Then th e sets y(((s .y(r.. &) E comp(V. 0)) = 8 or y(L x { *}) 419 C comp(V. that the sequence{rk}r?i does not converge to r. + SO. Let V be as in the definition of I for the point SO. $) Y(S.I).O).. Suppose. for every m 2 1. Thus there exists (sm. let rk = max{t E [O. the set N.. $1 Il(~. 11x (0))) U {r} We claim that rk + r.. l] x (0)).y(se.FOLDS y(L x {&I)” implies that comP(V. This {k 2 1: {k 2 1: {k>l: Y(S. ..K1).. y(se.1l)x(~)) .. $) E C. 11. Since T 5 rk for each k 1 1.} is infinite. Hence {k 2 1 : y(s 0. I is open in [0. 0)).~0+4n[o. For each m 2 1.. we have that se E 1.O))}U{l.l] x (0) such that y(rk. + s for some s E (0. Since r 4 I. l] and there exists a subsequence{rh. 0))) is infinite. y(hO))} = C E comp(ll.O). let V. to the contrary. * < 6.SO]< 6 and Is. $) and the first one contains the point y(s. We have proved that L c I.y(t. . For each k 2 1. By the choice of T. We will show that Y has a fold at y(po). k) E ?drk comp(V. y(s.. &) E y([O..s+6) x [0.O). We may assume that r < fk.$~ E comp(V.6))flP)U (((so .. y(r. 0).6. 11) x (0)) and ~(((so are connected.O) E J = [O. there exists se E (r.O) = y(se. l] . k) = y(sm.O))) E comp(V. for each m 2 M.6)) flP) c y‘(v) Let A4 2 1 be such that.O)) c Y and let C. y(se. y(t.O)).so +6) x [0.O)). 0) = ~. = B(i. Then y(s. . 11. Thus they are contained in comp(V. ds0.Let 6 > 0 be such that (((s 6. both contain the point y(sm.}E’i of {rk}r=r such that Tk. y(t.
. F(p))..s)rk. .) x {z(r. we will define three coltinua A. By Exercise 15.. By the definition of rk. Then o. . . F(t~ s. = y((1 . + A and ry(B. . )t + rk. 0) = g(r.O). then ~((1 . . Notice that A. Let me 2 1 be such that F(p(mo)) ~1 > 0 be such that k) # ~((1 r)t+r. Then A.(0). F(p)). that there is no such a U. . i Y(S).20.$) E C.420 XIV. $) fj! y([O.)t+rk. 0) = ry(A) = y(O).. Then y(r. F(p(m)) # F(P). Then ~((1 rk.+ sr. This proves that F is well defined.)t + rp..O) E J .. D. . 4 and B(Q.. In order to do this. F(p)). F(P)) n {F(P(~)). For each m > 1. for each m 2 1. For each m > 1.(s) = ~((1 . and D. Since 0 < t .) = dr. For each m 2 1. if s = 0. + A. F(p)).&). Let ml > 1 be such that F(p(ml)) E comp(B(ci. : [O. can be chosen in such a way that. rk. 11) tends to {y(r. Suppose.. if s = A. That is.. E N.. &).O).. 0)) (in C(Y)). there exists a map y : [0.. $)}}. . we will show that for each m > 1. D. By Exercise 79.z(r. we wil1 identify C(X) and Y x 2. . c D. Let E comp(B(1.) and am([O.l] X (0)).. B. B.r)t + r. F is continuous. Then . If t = 0 and s = 0. CONES AND HYPERSPACES Then a sequence kl < kz < . PRODUCTS. F(p(mo))) = 0. F(p(ml))l = 0.rkm)t + rk.rk. we need to prove that there exists an open subset U of Y such that F(p) E U and comp(U. y( (1 . Clearly. . . ift=O. and D. &)I. = y(rg..O).. = U{E E C(X) : E E cLy(C. Let A = f(r.(O) for each m 2 1 and y(O) = ry(A).)t + rk. define cry. First.9.O). In order to finish the proof that Y has a fold at the point y(r. 0). Define F : P + Y by Y((l . l] + Y such that y(k) = a. U B.rk.rk.(l) = ry(A. < 1 and k. define A... T&h JL = b(r. ml > me. .. in X. Bh F(P)) n {F(P(~)). + A. r$.. 0) = TY (%+I) for each m 1 1. then ~((1 .. $) = If t = 0 and s = A. = f(r.. F(p) # F(p(m)).l] + Y by a.. < (1 . Let p = (t. $) @n(Q) = Y($).r)t + r. to the contrary. F(p)) n {F(p(n)) : n _> 1) = 0. is a subcontinuum of X. Then we will think that the points in Y x Z are subcontinua of X. . Let 62 > 0 be such that 62 < cl..
)t + Tk.)) E comp(B(cj.ni) E B~~(c. A). Define u = (1 . This contradicts the choice of V and completes thz’proof of the existence of U. Notice that F(p) = y(u. If f(l. cj < E. by Theorem . < 1. 0).f(l.po) II A = 8. . By Exercise 15. 0))) is finite. . By Theorem 69. )  (r  rk.. F(P)) and Q + 0. cow (B(~j.  uI = It(r  rk.A. F(P)) C comp(K F(p)). f(&. x {*I. 1 Since I(1  rk. < E and Let js > 1 be such that.. t.. nkm.. F(p)) c V and y( ( (U . y(u. Then f(1. B E C(X).1 minimal elements {El. Let E > 0 be such that B(2c.. . Y has a fold at y(r. Since f(1. = C BH. $ ) E comp(V.F(p)). Let f : P + C(X) be as in the definition of a fold at A. Ek} in the semiboundary of B.O)) for each n 2 N. = max{t E For each n 2 N. B(c.(E. Thus for each j > jc.F(p)) c If.O) E V. For each n > 1. i) B # 0.A # 8. $) . can be constructed such that F(p(m. sequencescl.) c B}. Therefore. Y(((uh~+f)nP?ll) F(p(mj)). is a connected subset of V which contains Hence this set is contained in comp(V.5 there are at most M . ~1 E comp(K F(p)).O) . .e)) n P) C V. Choose a point po E f(l. Then there exists an open subset V of Y such that y(u. In particular. Suppose that C(X) has a fold at an element A E C(X). F(P)).r)t + T and p* = (u.~ )t+w.) f(l.B # 0.po) # 0. u + E) x [O. Proof. let P.A) and ([0. then. k) n B(e.. for each M 2. . Then ~((1 v+. y(u. &) E comp(V. $mJ rkm.9 Lemma. 0).O)). Suppose that X contains no Mods. For each j 2 jo. . Notice that B c N(E. X contains an Mod. y(u. Then there exists 6 > 0 such that B(E. 1 )I < c.O) E V and the set {k > 1 : y(u. Let N > 1 be such that f(P. Define B = U{c : C E I}.. and mo < ml < . ~2.A) $11 : f(t... Let X be a continuum.PROOF OF THE MAIN THEOREM 421 Proceeding in this way.c.9. C B. For each n > N. n Proof of the Main Theorem 79. Y(% . Let d denote a metric for X. I<E.O) . F(p)). “1 x [0. Then we can define t. so F(p(mj)) .. 1. Thus. f(1. i]) rl P..l )E comp(V. Then u E 1. F(P)). for each j 2 jc. .
(Q. by Theorem 69. By Theorem 79..C). II C.6. In particular C. for each A E C(X). there exists A E C(X) .4. PRODUCTS. &) E comp(U.11). Let f : P + Y be a map as in the definition of a fold at y. C) c U. E.Fi(X) such that C(X) has a wrinkle at A. Ek} which is contained in infinitely many C. Let 60 > 0 be such that BH~ (co. Let wy and ~2 be the projection maps from 1’ x 2 onto Y and 2. C).. Since E c C.C).71. This contradicts the choice of U and completes the proof of the lemma. Then there exists r > 0 such that (f (r.tl < d 6) x [0. Exercise 79.11).. We may assume that t.. C). where Y and Z are finitedimensional nondegenerate continua....(co. o(l)) ~ there exists M 2 1 such that X contains no Mods (Theorem 70. C(X) .. . Then there exist positive integers ni < ns < . “E cOmp(BH. + t for some t E [ $. Exercise 79.{A} is arcwise connected ([12. Theorem 2._ for every m 2 1. Lemma 2. . Exercise 79..11.C)). h m) (or L = {(t. This implies that f (p(n.51. Let X be a continuum. If C(X) is a finitedimensional product. Lemma 2. Let C = f(p). Let 6 > 0 be such that ((t ..4. E (1. there exists i. w 79. By Theorem 79..o(l)). CONES AND HYPERSPACES 69. = f(tn. This implies that there is an element E in {El. C).and 2 are arcwise connected ([12. .. f (p)) does not intersect {f (p(n)) : n 2 1). 0).15)..A # 0. we may assume that Y has a fold at a point y E 1’..10 Theorem [5.21 implies that C. Then f (0) = Y.31. then X is locally connected. A # 0. By Theorem 79. Let p = (t. . Then A and B are different subcontinua of X.8. Let A = (y. 11.. .422 XIV. there exists an open subset U of C(X) such that f(p) E U and comp(U.7. . t + .. l] + 2. the continuum C. Ic} such that Ein C C. C(X) has a fold at A. = f(tn. Proof. . Then we may assumethat B .1).)) = f (t. . We identify C(X) with Y x 2. Hence. Then X is hereditarily decomposable ([12. Theorem 3. Let L be the segment in R2 which joins the points (t.C). $ if these points coincide). Suppose that C(X) M Y x 2.o(O)) and B = (y. $) E BH~(EO. Suppose that X is not locally connected.. Then f(L) C comp(BH. Exercise 79. Notice that 0 < t < 1 and E c C. i) is in Sb(B). 5)) BH.. Let m > N be such that It. Fix a onetoone map (Y : [0. and & < S. C). respectively. .2. Then f(L) c and (in. such that E c C. 0). By the choice of f..(cs. .6)) nP C f‘(BHd(Eo.
11 Exercise [12.(0). 40)) = A. We will check that g satisfies the properties of the maps used in the definition of a fold at (Y.g(p)). Theorem 79.9. Then C(>X) is a finitedimensional product if and only if X is an arc or a circle. i) E comp(U. If B is a (nondegenerate) proper indecomposable subcontinuum of a continuum X and K is a composant of B. NECESSITY. Since C c U is connected and g(p) E C. U and f(tr.2. C(X) has a fold at A.2 Theorem [5. i) E C. First.2 and Theorem 11.{B} or there exists an element D E Sb(B) (seeDefinition 69. This contradicts the choice of U. is not contained in A = g(O). Let U = U x 2. then Y and 2 are arcwise connected and C(X) .a(O)).1 . If C(X) is a finitedimensional cartesian product. Lemmas 2.cr(t)).1 and 5. i)) = f(tr.(0). ry(g(t. If X is an indecomposable continuum.{. there exists an open subset U of 1’ such that f(tr.O) E J . n 79. of f. 0)) does not intersect {f(tr.] {X} 79.O) = (f(r.1) such that D C K.g(p)) does not intersect the set {g(p(a)) : n > 1). O). Then (tr. notice that g is continuous and g(0) = (f(o). 0)).4} is arcwise connected for every A E C(X). f(tr. Then U is an open subset of Y x Z and g(p) E U. X is locally connected. n Exercises 79. f(tr.81. o(0)).1. by Theorem 79. i) : n > 1). If C(X) M Y x 2.s).EXERCISES 423 Define g : P + Y x 2 by g(t.O) E J . Hence we have t. Therefore. a(0)) = (g. then either C(K) = {A E C(B) : A c K} is an arc component of C(X) . [Hint: Use Proposition 18.1 implies that C(X) is an arc or a circle.31. Proof.O) E KY(C). then C(X) has an uncountable number of arccomponents.13 Exercise. This completes the proof that g has the properties of the maps used in the definition of a fold at (g.s) = (f(tr. KY(C) is a connected subset of In particular. By the choice Let p = (t.O) E U and comp(U.2. Suppose that there exists n 2 1 such that g(t. Let C = comp(U. This contradiction ends the proof of the theorem. 79. Then Q(C) c comp(U.hat comp(U.15 of [13]. Let X be a continuum. The sufficiency is immediate from 5. f(tr. Let X be a continuum. by Lemma Since g(l. X contains mods for every m > 1.1 and 2.12 Exercise. [Hint: Use Proposition 18.dl)) 79.O)). Theorem 3.10. Then.
15 Exercise. U B.}zzl from [0. + A. Then there exists a map 0 : [0.424 XIV. for each m 2 1.. we denote the cone over X by Cone(X). If E > 0.4.18 Exercise.4)} (in C(Y)). Prove the necessity in Theorem 79. B(X) = {(x. A). More on Hyperspaces and Cones 80. l] into 1’ such that (w. Hd(A. then X is hereditarily decomposabie.5. The continuum X is said to have the cone = hyperspace property provided that there exists a homeomorphism h : C(X) + Cone(X) such that h(X) = v(X) and hlFl(X) is a homeomorphism from Fl(X) onto B(X). then B E comp(BHd(E. 80. + A.1 79... 79..20 Exercise. 79.. and let A = n{A. A homeomorphism h with the properties described above is called a . Let X be a continuum. [Hint: Use Theorem 69. the vertex of Cone(X) is denoted by u(X) and the base of Cone(X) is denoted by B(X).([O. and (Y. + A.1 Conventions. Let {A7L}rTt0=1 a sequence be in C(X) such that A1 > AZ > .. Let X be a continuum and let d denote a metric for X.( 1) = r(Am).1 79.{B} has infinitely many arc components. [Hint: Use Exercises 14.) = r(B. CONES AND HYPERSPACXS 79. for each n 2 1. That is.18 and 14. A. l] + C(X) such that a(i) = A. 79..17 Exercise. Suppose that there exists an integer M > 1 such that X does not contain Mods. for each B. If X is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum.(F1 (X) U {X}).(O) for each m 2 1 and y(O) = r(A).+l) m > 1. Tl len there exists a map y : [0.8. Let X be a continuum.. l] + 1’ such that. Let X be a continuum. Find all the wrinkles for C(X) when X is the sin(t)continuum and when X is the harmonic fan.. Let B be a (nondegenerate) indecomposable subcontinuum of X. Let Y be a continuum. Suppose that there is a sequence of maps {a. : n 2 1).19 Exercise. 11) tends to {7r(. then C(X) .}zzl and {Dm}zzl be three sequencesin C(X) and let x : C(X) + Y be a map such that A. 79. and n(B.14 Exercise. PRODUCTS. y(h) = a.. Let {A.}~=l. D. then C(X) has a wrinkle at every element in C(X) . If C(X) z I’ x Z and dim[C(X)] is finite. 79. c D.20.0) E Cone(X) : 5 E X}.16 Exercise.21 Exercise. This exercise is used in the proof of Theorem 79. B) < E and An B # 8. {B. A).. For a continuum X.
00) and (co. Exercise 80.21). Suppose that each composant of X is the onetoone image of the real line such that the images of [O. it is obtained that X has the cone = hyperspace property. MORE ON HYPERSPACES AND CONES 425 Rogers homeomorphism. We will discuss these continua in relation to the properties in 80. Theorem 11. we can ask that h({z}) = (x. 80. (g) every proper nondegenerate subcontinuum of X is an arc ([15. (b) dim[C(X)] = dim[Cone(X)] = 2 ([ll. every composant of X is a onetoone continuous image of [0. Using this Theorem and adding the hypothesis that X has the covering property. 0] are dense in X. Theorem 5. That means that a continuum can not be written as the union of more than one and at most countably many nonempty.161).16).0]).22).2). Theorem 71.0) for each x E X.2 Theorem. in Corollary 3 of [2]. then every proper nondegenerate subcontinuum of X is an arc.oo) and (oo.10 and 80.3 Theorem. 80. In the following theorem we show similar conditions that imply that X has the cone = hyperspace property. Corollary 11. Lemma 8. Figure 55 consists of three continua. Then: (a) dim(X) = 1 (see comments to Theorem 7. We do not know how justify this claim. Exercise 80. 0] are dense in X.Exercise 80. (h) if X is decomposable.2 later (80.23).33). Proof. Suppose that the continuum X has the cone = hyperspace property and dim(C(X)) is finite.18). (e) every proper subcontinuum of X is unicoherent (Exercise 80. Corollary 5.1). (f) every proper subcontinuum of X is arcwise connected(Exercise 80.15. (i) if X is indecomposable. closed subsets. (c) X is atriodic (Theorem 70. Let X be a continuum with property (K). then X is a circle or an arc ([15. For the proof of this theorem we will use that continua are aconnected ([13. In the proof of Theorem 1 of [2] it was claimed that if a continuum X has property (K) and each arc component of X is the onetoone continuous image of the real line such that the images of [0. for a Rogers homeomorphism h. mutually disjoint.17). Then X has the cone = hyperspace property. .51. (d) every composant of X is arcwise connected ([15.80. co) or R’ ([lo. By Exercise 80. Exercise 80.
426 XIV. CONES AND HYPERSPACES lb) (c) The cone = hyperspace property does not imply property of Kelley (80.10) Figure 55 . PRODUCTS.
l).9 and 28.) = Y. T is a nondegenerate. pairwise disjoint. G(z. u. Then there exists a < b x E B. nonempty. s) = U{A E C(X) : p(A) = s and 2 E A}. 1) = X for every z E X. p(h([u+. Since h is onetoone.s) E C(X) for each (5.24. dW27~11)) s. First we show that every proper nondegenerate subcontinuum of X is an arc. let B E C(X) be such that p(B) = s and is an arc.vy. u < a. hl(B) such that h([a. tl)) = sWe claim that h([u. u]) = G(a. Let u. l] such that p(X) = 1.) = x.O) = {z} for every 2 E X.wz. Clearly.cm)) and hK((m.Ah([$. hK([t. Then T is compact. This contradiction proves that the components of T are compact.4. let B be a proper nondegenerate subcontinuum of X. In order to do this. we prove that G is onetoone. T is the union of a countable family {Tn}~zto=l of nonempty. Since X has property (KC).80. subcontinuum of R’. s). Then G is a well defined function. s). s) = h([uz. it follows that B = X. h(t. Since h([t. h([u. Therefore.G is continuous (see Proposition 20. Let K be the composant of X such that G(x. By Exercises 15. Thus hlT : T + B is a homeomorphism. this implies that G(x.25.tz. tl)). Now. fix a map hK : R1 + K such that hK is onetoone. . Notice that G(s. co)) and hK( (co. 01) are dense in are X. by Exercise 80. t])) 5 p(B) = dh(b. let K be the composant and of X such that 2 E K. If T is unbounded.m)) h((oo. T) and s. T < 1. Fix a Whitney map p : C(X) + [0. s) C K.. Let T = h‘(B).&])) = s.. Let h = hK. pairwise disjoint and their union is B.) are compact. In particular. = uy and u. Let h = hK. b 5 w.t]) dense in X. t]) are both dense in X. s) = Gfy. compact subsets of R1. v]) = G(z.ty E R’ be such that h(t. Define G : Cone(X) + C(X) by G(z. s). Similarly. Then = G(z. In order to prove the opposite inclusion. Suppose that G(x. If T has an unbounded component C.r) = h([uy. Since p(h([a.v]). there exist 2r > t and u < t such that AW. We have proved that h( [u.uy. Given a point zr E X and a number s E [0.11). This contradicts the aconnectednessof B and proves that T is bounded. = vy. Notice that t E [a. for each t E R1. Then the sets h(T. by the density of h(C). MORE ON HYPERSPACES AND CONES 427 Given a composant K of X.qJ) = T. dh(by. b]. b]) = B. Notice that G(z.s) E Cone(X).]) and G(y. v]) c G(z. surjective map and hK([O. By Exercise 80. Thus B c h([u. As we saw before.ty])) = T.v. s) # X for every x E X and s < I. Then T and B are arcs. Then there is a composant K of X such that B C K. 4)) = dh(b. ~1). Let h = hK and 3: = h(t).
Define g : [a. # t. (c) + (a) was proved by Sherling in [17. for every Whitney level A for C(X). conditions in Theorem 80. p. Thus. The implication (b) + (c) is immediate. This contradiction proves that t. n It is known ([14. Since g is continuous. for example that t. Then the following statements are equivalent: (a) X has the cone = hyperspace property. G is onetoone. Then G(h(to). The following Corollary answers questions by Dilks and Rogers ([2.t])) . Let X be a finitedimensional continuum. = t. then X has the cone = hyperspace property. to]))) = B. assume. the following characterization has been obtained. X is not a circle and X has the cone = hyperspace property.u(h([a. 2801or Theorem 80. 80. b] + R’ by g(t) = . h([a.p(h([a. IJ~])) = s. Theorem 3. If X is a finitedimensional continuum. Finally. If X is the inverse limit of arcs with open bonding maps.b])). PRODUCTS.428 XIV. Hence. b]) = B.{X} + X and there exists a Whitney map ~1: C(X) t [0. Theorem 21and [15. 80. b] such that. Let B be a proper subcontinuum of X. < t. Corollary 121. l] such that p(X) = 1 and SIP~(~) : p‘(t) t X is a homeomorphism for every t E [0. then X has the covering property and it is Whitney stable (a continuum X is Whitney stable if it . 1).t2])) < P(N%&1)) = T = Pw!/~~yln < P(Wz. This implies that 5 = y and s = r. 80.5 Theorem [6]. we show that G is surjective.26. CONES AND HYPERSPACES If t.4 Theorem [2. G is a Rogers homeomorphism. Therefore. Let X be a continuum.27. Recently.p(h([t.. Therefore. (b) there is a selection s : C(X) .3. Then s = p(h([u5.b] such that g(ts) = 0.6 Corollary [6]. there exists to E [a. Then there exists an interval [a. respectively) that solenoids and the Buckethandle continuum have the cone = hyperspace property.4.11 and it is left as Exercise 80.. 6361) and it is left as Exercise 80.. p.3 are sufficient but not necessary for a continuum to have the cone = hyperspace property. and (c) there is a selection s : C(X) . Notice that the Buckethandle continuum does not satisfy the hypothesis of Theorem 80. X has the cone = hyperspace property. s]d : A + X is a homeomorphism.{X} + X such that. Let K be the composant of X which contains B and let h = hK.
80. Suppose that X is an indecomposable finitedimensional continuum such that every nondegenerate proper subcontinuum of X is an arc and X is not of type N .14 of [ll]. then X is not of type N at any of its proper subcontinua. there exist subcontinua {An}rEl.at any of its proper continuum. p. If X has the cone = hyperspace property. C.10 Example [6]. {C. we alternate complete “legs” with shortened “legs”. MORE ON HYPERSPACES AND CONES 429 is homeomorphic to each of the Whitney levels for C(X) 14.11 two non chainable and non circlelike continua were constructed with the cone = hyperspace property. Then X is said to be of type N at A if there exist four sequencesof {B.}~=r and {O. Answering Question 8. Definition The notion of type N was defined for dendroids in Definition 75.9. Let A be a proper subcontinuum of the continuum X. + c. Theorem 61 and [17. 426. + A. [ll. 80. in [2. 80. = {cn) for every n 2 1.39. See Question 80. then we would have an intrinsic characterization of finitedimensional continua which have the cone = hyperspace property. Sherling’s example in [17. + A.l}. Give an intrinsic characterization of finitedimensional continua with the cone = hyperspace property. For contructing X. There is a finitedimensional continuum X such that X have the cone = hyperspace and X does not have the property (K). + A.11). Another consequence of Theorem 80.}~zP=1 and {cn)~& in X such that a.11 has been shown to have property (K) ([7]). D. Example 4. n B.) and C. A. Then does X has the cone = hyperspace property? If the answer to this question is affirmative.80.8 Corollary [6].. + a. 636]). it has recently been found the following example. B.P=l of X. + A and A.10. Notice that X does not have property (K). Example 4. two points a # c in A and there exist sequencesof points {a.28. 80.7 Definition. It is a modification of the Buckethandle continuum illustrated in Figure 55 (a). Answering a question by Dilks and Rogers ([2. = {a.. p.. The continuum X is pictured in Figure 55 (b).}p=r. c.9 Question [6].5 is the following result which is also left as Exercise 80. n D. It can be extended to any continuum in the following way.11 Question. 80. . Let X be a finitedimensional continuum.
A model for the hyperspace C(T’.0]). Therefore. Let T.8. Macias [9.. By Theorem 80. The following theorem shows that X satisfies several properties mentioned in Theorem 80. Theorem 41 has proved the following result which corrects an error in [ll.41 and Let h : C(Y) + Cone(Y) be a homeomorphism. Exercise 80.30). where M. PRODUCTS.31. Y has the cone = hyperspace property. from now on.12 Theorem.2). (h) h(Fi(Y)) = B(X) ([lo. we showed the known properties of the finitedimensional continua with the cone = hyperspace property. 8. (b) dim[C(X)] = dim[Cone(X)] = 2 ([ll. (g) and (h).) has been discussedin section 5. (f) Y is a finite dimensional continuum such that C(Y) is homeomorphic to Cone(Y) and X Y is arcwise connected (combine 111. 80. we may assume that X is not an hereditarily decomposable continuum. Suppose that X is a finitedimensional continuum such that C(X) is homeomorphic to Cone(X). Theorem 41. Lemma 8. PI).13 Theorem [9. (e) X contains exactly one (nondegenerate) indecomposable subcontinuum Y ([16. p. p. then C(X) is homeomorphic to the cone over a finitedimensional continuum 2 if and only if X is an arc.12 (f). Macias showsthat C(Tn) is homeomorphic to the cone over h/l.430 XIV.1). CONES AND HYPERSPACES In Theorem 80. Recently. 80. denote a simple nod.2.2. p. . Y has properties mentioned in Theorem 80. This model is represented in Figure 9. Hence. 42. Theorem 81. Theorem 5.20. (g) h(1’) = u(Y) ([ll. (c) X is atriodic (Theorem 70. a circle or a simple nod. 63. (d) if X is hereditarily decomposable. then: (a) dim(X) = 1 (see comments to Theorem 7. an intrinsic characterization of the finitedimensional continua with the cone = hyperspace property (Question 80. 3331. Let X be a locally connected continuum.2.11) will lead to an intrinsic characterization of those finitedimensional continua X for which C(X) is homemorphic to Cone(X). Hence. Now consider a finitedimensional continuum X for which C(X) is homeomorphic to Cone(X) (not necessarily with a Rogers homeomorphism). then X is one of the subcontinua described in Figure 20. Exercise 80. Let Y be the unique (nondegenerate) indecomposable subcontinuum of x.20.31).71).
13) Figure 56 is the continuum represented in Figure 56 (a). J. J. Let X be a continuum.. If X has the cone = hyperspace property.) for some compact metric space Kn.) is homeomorphic to Cone(Z)..EXERCISES 431 n arcs \ (4 Hyperspaces of nods are cones (80. x M. then K.) x Cone(K. .) PZ Cone(L. is not homemorphic to M.0) for each 2 E X. such that C(T. 80.15 Exercise.. In Exercise 80.14 Theorem [l. for each n 2 5 there is a continuum L. Theorem 6. then there exists a Rogers homeomorphism h : C(X) + Cone(X) such that h({s}) = (x. Exercises 80. If n = 3 or 4 and C(T. Charatonik asked the following question: If 2 is a continuum such that C(T. Theorem 6. then must 2 be homemorphic to Mn? Charatonik’s question has been solved in [l. However.21. with the following theorem.21.) but L.32 it is asked to prove that C(Ts) is homeomorphic to the cone over Ms.
17 Prove (f) of Theorem 80. is decomposable.p U C. let B.x) (Theorem 71. are proper subcontinua of B.2. take a point a E X and a sequence{bn}F& of points of X such that ab. E ab. Since r(C(A)) is arcwise connected.0) for each x E X. [Hint: Let {U. Then B..p n C. then A has a point of local connectednessof X. : n > 1) be a countable basis for the topology of Y. Dendroids contain maximal arcs.19.. X). . otherwise define K. Thus. c K for each n 2 0. Formulate also the respective version of this theorem for minimal instead of maximal elements.. B.. By Exercise 31.] 80. This implies that b. $ a&+~ for every n > 1. This contradicts Theorem 80. an element K of K which is not contained in any other element of K)..2. this implies that X is a locally connected. Prove the Brouwer’s Reduction Theorem: In a second countable space Y let K be a nonempty family of closed subsetsof Y with the property that for each sequence& c K1 c Kz c . .+l = K. Then C(X) is locally connected at every A E B~. Then b. is arcwise connected.+l # 0 if such Kn+l exists.u(X) + B(X) be the projection.2 (d) and the fact that composants are dense to contruct a triod in X. n 2 1. Then K contains a maximal element (i.e.16 Exercise.. Let b be a limit point of the sequence {bn}pE1.C. Inductively define Kn+l E K with the properties that K. Choose an element KO E K.s 2 and y. PRODUCTS..] Exercise. We may assumethat C. E A. Prove (e) of Theorem 80. c Kn+l and Kn+l n V. where A. there is an arc in X which joins z and y.. In order to apply Exercise 80. Then B.. [Hint: Suppose that X contains a proper nonunicoherent continuum.. [Hint: Identify C(X) and Cone(X). . CONES AND HYPERSPACES 80. c ab for every n 2 1.2 (d). Let d denote a metric for X. Then X contains a free arc. 80. identifying {z} and (x. be such that b.2 (c). U C. is a subcontinuum of X. atriodic continuum. and b E C. Let B. = cly.b.20 Exercise. [Hint: Let X be a dendroid. Use Theorem 80. X is hereditarily arcwise connected. Since C(X) z Cone(X). Let p E C. and C. contains infinitely many b. = {p}.(c.(~{b.12 X is an arc or a circle. = b.] 80.1 . = A. [Hint: Suppose (f) is not true. Thus ab.] 80.19 Exercise. Then there exists E > 0 such that if A E BH~ (E. Since B. Let r : Cone(X) . there exists K E K such that K.18 Exercise.432 XIV. For each : m > n}).2). Prove Theorem 80. Suppose that 4 is a proper subcontinuum which contains two point. of elements of ic.
for each t E R’.1 80. Let p : C(X) + R’ be a Whitney map.1 80. 1] such that p(X) = 1 and s]p‘(t) : p‘(t) + X is a homeomorphism for every t E [0.1 . Then X has the cone = hyperspace property. [Hint: Use Exercises 79.8.2. [Hint: see Exercise 75. [Hint: Use Theorems 80.24 Exercise.~(4). 1). [Hint: Define h : C(X) + Cone(X) as follows: h(A) = (44. f]a is continuous for every arc cyC I<. For each T E K.11. 80.29 Exercise. v(X).5. For = P(TP) if rp fl pq # {p}.sof R’ 80. Let T be an unbounded closed subset of R’ which does not have unbounded components. 80.O]) are dense in X. h([t.Y.12. dendroid is the arc. Then.24.{X} + X and there exists a Whitney map ~1: C(X) + [0. For each p . The only atriodic quence. and f(~) = p(TP) if each r E K. E Cone(X)  80.25 Exercise. The inverse f’ : f(K) + I< is continuous. f(K) is an unbounded interval in RI. let rp denote the unique arc joining p and r in X if T # p.14 and 80. Prove Corollary 80.22 Exercise.6.2. t]) are dense in X. prove (g) of Theorem 80. Prove (e) in Theorem 80. oo)) and h((co. Theorem 3. Prove (i) of Theorem 80.2. 80. {v(W).{P) h as a. if A # x ifA=X’ 1 80.23 Exercise.2 and 80.27 Exercise. [Hint: Let K be a composant of X. Since cl. Prove Corollary 80.oo)) and h((co. Then f is onetoone. Coned) Let X be a continuum. define f(r) rpflpq = {p}. Fix two points p # q E K.30 Exercise.26 Exercise [17. Suppose that there exists a onetoone map h : R’ + X such that h([O. Then T is the union of a countable family {Tn}~Jl of nonempty pairwise disjoint compact subset.y(K) = .29.t most two arc components. and rp = {p} if T = p. Suppose that there is a selection s : C(X) . 433 As a conse Prove (h) of Theorem 80.21 Exercise.EXERCISES 80.] 80.28 Exercise.
1 80. Dilks and J. I. Sot.fs illustrated in Figure 56 (b). [Hint: Suppose that there is a Rogers homeomorphism h : C(X) + Cone (X) such that h({z)) = (x. p. This implies that It’ ({u} x [0. 230 (1977). T. Math. On the hyperspuce of subcontinua of a finite graph. A.. Fund. a characterization.. If !fy is a simple triod. Canad. preprint.l) such that a E h‘(b. 2. Amer.12. Without using Corollary 80.Proc. 633640. Bull. Nadler. Duda. 30(50) (1995)) 285294. Illanes. L.0) for each 5 E X. 30693073.2 and X does not have the cone = hyperspace property. Jr. 426 satisfies properties (a) through (g) and (i) in Theorem 80. Amer. A. 62 (1968). Topology Appl.33 Exercise. 34 (1991). Hyperspuceswhich are products. Ancel and S. Cone = hyperspaceproperty. F.31 Exercise. 83 (1981). L. Sot. R. Macias. 1)) fl h’ ({b} x [0. Nadler. M. Two continua having a property . Math. Math. Sherling. Trans. Amer. Illanes. Math. 69 (1970)..B. Hyperspuces and cones. Kelley. 125 10 S..he cone over the cont. (1997).B. Kelley. 8. Glasnik Mat. 321345. D.434 XIV. prove that the continuum X illustrated in Figure 55 (c). The continuum X is a modification of the Buckethandle continuum and it is constructed by enlarging and folding the “legs” of the Buckethandle continuum represented in Figure 55 (a). 265286 (also: see correction.inuum A. 52 (1942). then C(Ts) is homeomorphic to t.. Trans. 4. Hyperspuces of a continuum. Math.30.s) c ab for each s 5 t. A. Hyperspuceshomeomorphic to cones.. Cones that are cells. p. Then there is t E (0. and an upplicution to hyperspuces.. Math.] References 1. 79 (1997). t) c ab and h‘(b. . Illanes.. A.J. Fund. 5. Continua whose cone and hyperspuce are homeomorphic. 3.. W. . 1)) # 0 which is a contradiction. 351356. T.. 9.J. CONES AND HYPERSPACES 80. D. of SOC. Jr. 7.8. Math. 2236.32 Exercise. PRODUCTS. Amer.. S. 431. Jr. 229247.preprint. Whitney stability and contractible hyperspuces. SOL. 207211). Ingram and D. 80. Prove (g) in Theorem 80. 6. [Hint: Use Exercise 80. Proc. Rogers.
Sherling. D. S. 16.. 14. Vol. Monographs and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math. Concerning the cone = hyperspace property... Amer... New York. Math. T. 283289. Sot.B. 12. 10301048. 279285. An introduction. T. Rogers. Marcel Dekker. N. Hyperspaces of Sets.REFERENCES 435 11. Embedding the hyperspaces of circlelike plane continua.. Math. 1978.. Jr.. J. 108 (1980). S. Inc. Canad.. 4966. Y. Jr. Continua General Topology Appl. 165168. J. Jr. . 1992.Y. Inc.. Math. S. Jr. Vol. Math. Canad J. D.. Fund.. Monographs 13. Proc. Nadler. Nadler. 15. J.. New York. 49.. Continuum and Textbooks in Pure and Applied Math.. The cone = hyperspace property.T. B.. 29 (1971). B. with cones homeomorphic to hyperspaces. Theory. J. 3 (1973).. Nadler. 24 (1972). Rogers. 158. Jr. 35 (1983). Rogers. Jr. Marcel Dekker. Continua whose hyperspace is a product. N. 17.
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62 of [56]) Questions. What about the class of fans?” Comment.59) and (0. Theorem 0. “The members of a class A of continua are provided that if X. 437 . 9. After the references for the three sections. [l]). [21. (0. 81. Corollary 3. whose members are Cdetermined? In particular. (Duda. [18. Q uest ions The chapter has three sections. (c) smooth fans (Eberhart and Nadler. (d) indecomposable continua for which all the nondegenerate proper subcontinua are arcs (Ma&as. (e) compactifications of [0. Y E A and C(X) z C(Yr). it has been shown that the members of the class of smooth fans are Cdetermined. 1. the last section contains other questions. Unsolved and Partially Solved Questions of [56] (0. Theorem 0. The first two sections concern questions in the 1978 book Hyperspaces of Sets [56]. Theorem 3]). (Nadler. some of which are original with the book. what about the class of chainable continua? What about the class of circlelike continua? Recently [439].60). besides those in (0.11 or [56.3]).591)) (b) hereditarily indecomposable continua.601). Classesof continua known to be Cdetermined: (a) finite graphs different from the arc. then said to be Cdetermined x x Y. [53. [56.61 of [56]) Definition. we include a list of all the literature related to hyperspaces of continua that we found that appeared since 1978. oo) (Acosta.” “What are some other classesof continua.XV.
It is proved that X is not homeomorphic to Y and C(X) x C(Y).203. It would be interesting to obtain more information about them. Xs such that Xi is not homeomorphic to Xj and C(X. Example 3]).29)].3 of [56]) Question.. Question [45. Now there are some results in the literature about the spaces S(w) and I(X). is I(X) M 2x for any continuum X?” Comment.87 of [56]) Question. more specifically. Sw(2ay) and Tj(2x) here) “The spaces S(w) and l?(X) have never been investigated before [except for (1. . (1.96)] and. dim[C(X)] = co. L et p be any given Whitney map for C(Y). In [lo] a characterization of Peano continua for which S. [lo]. Remark and Question 51.” (1. So the following question naturally arises. Are there five chainable continua Xl. “Does the first part of (1.12. If X is a locally connected continuum. (1. there exists to > 0 such that dim[pr(t)] = cc whenever 0 < t < to. [23] and [51]. Besides the results in sections 17 and 66 the reader can find more information about S(w) and I’(X) in [7]. Then.86) remain valid if < cc is deleted?” see Corollary 73. (note: S(w) and l?(X) in [56] are respectively. Some results in this direction are in (1. In [45. (b) fans (Illanes. the assumption that dim[Y] Comment.) z C(Xj) if i # j? (1.11 and Question 73.3). then is I(X) an absolute retract” [see (1.97)]. ExampIe 31 it is considered a particular chainable continuum X and it is constructed another chainable continuum Y by adding a segment at one end point of X. This is the only known way to construct two nonhomeomorphic chainable continua X and 1’ such that C(X) z C(Y). [46]).97)]? More generally [see (1.86 of [56]) Corollary. The question: is l?(X) M 2” for any continuum X? is still open. is I(X) M 103 [see (1.438 2. [45.30). QUESTIONS Classes of continua known to be nonCdetermined: (a) chainable continua @lanes. The last of these implies that I’(X) and 2” have the same homotopy type. Hence. “Let Y be any continuum such that 3 I dim[Y] < co.32) and (1.(C(X)) is homeomorphic to the Hilbert cube is given... XV. Unsolved.27..
that Cone(Y) is embeddable in C(Y) [see (1.+l) onto C(P.81.lO)]?” (1. “For what classes of continua Y is it true that Y x Y is embeddable in C(l’) [see (1.) . 1331. Can C(Z) ever (topologically) contain the Cartesian product of two continua when Z is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum [see (1. . we obtain a decomposable continuum Y such that Cone(Y) is not embeddable in C(Y). [49] and [54].lO). [33]. see [13]. is a compact polyhedron for each n = 1.125)]?” (1.129 of [56]) Question. [15]. for each n = “[log. [20.) maps C(P. see [244. “Is there a circlelike continuum Y x Y is embeddable in Co’)? [see (1..2. (1. homeomorphic to Y x 1’ for any circlelike continuum ET]. p.123 of [56]) Question. “Is an arc the only chainable continuum 1’ such that Y x Y is embeddable in C(Y) [see (1. Goodykoontz. . [25].144 of [56]) Question. “([85] and [87]).{P. “[244. and + C(P.121)]? We remark that by letting Y be the join at a point of two (otherwise disjoint) hereditarily indecomposable continua. [16]. A continuum X is said to provided that there is an inverse sequence (ii) P. for a proof. (lO. Problem 11. a lot of work has been done about local arcwise connectedness and connectedness im kleinen on C(X)..” Y such that C(Y) is not (1.119 of [56]) Question.126 of [56]) Question. Example l] .. .” (1.128). What is the structure of those polyhedra which are homeomorphic to C(X) for nonacyclic finite graphs?” “For what classes of continua Y is it true (1.186 of [56]) Definition. “[Jack T.21. have a hyperonto representation {P.130 of [56]) Question. Even when there is no a characterization for local connectedness at elements in C(X). fn)El..128)]?” (1.]. for example. [14].128) and. Jr. fn}p& such that (i) X = l. also by (lO. [34]. Theorem 1. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 439 (1.117 of [56]) Question. What are necessary and sufficient conditions for C(X) to be locally connected at hl E C(X)?” Comment.
fluent mappings of circles onto circles? The converse of (1.6)]?” (3. Let. for X a circle is false [see (0.193).. 1341. such that where 7n maps C(P. “[log.” . .” (1. p.“)” (1.17 of [56]) Question. Problem 41. . . Does every continuum have a hyperonto representation?” (1. Also.202 of [56]) Question. p. . P.188 of [56]) Definition. “[log. for example. Then: C(X) can be cmapped into the plane for each E > 0 if and only if X is chaninable or circlelike. “[log. and (iii) is called a hyperonto representation for X. then must X be embeddable in the plane [see (3.Yn~~I.103) may be helpful in proving this.” “What conditions characterize weakly con(1.15) C(X) ’ dimensionally homogeneousif dim[C(X)] = 2 (as is is the case. I conjecture that C(X) is dimensionally homogeneous if X is any Cartesian product of (nondegenerate) continua the second part of (1.4) and (1.201 of [56]) Question.440 XV. If a mapping of a continuum X onto a circle is essential. “[106. by (2. p. .201) is “yes.67. We say that C(X) has a minimal representation provided that there exist onedimensional compact connected polyhedra PI.200) is “yes. Theorem 4..+l) onto C(P. when X is chainable or circlelike [by (2. (note: X connected in [56] is Jconnected here). does C(X) have a minimal representation? (if the answer to (1.” (1. An inverse sequence satisfying QUESTIONS (i).193 of [56]) Theorem. . 1341.%) for each C(X) = ~~wmJ. . “For what continua X is C(X) dimensionally homogeneous?The answer for 1ocaIly connected continua is given in (2. then it is weakly confluent [see (0.10 of [56]) Theorem.4)]. P2.67. 1291.189) the answer to (1. Let X be a X connected continuum. n = 1. If X is a continuum such that C(X) is embeddable in R3. Lemma 51.” then by (1. 2341. “[134. For any continuum X. p.5 of [56]) Question.202)]. .16).” (3.8)). (ii).200 of [56]) Question. “[176. 2. . X be a continuum.1)] or when X satisfies the hypotheses of (2. .” (2.
” (note: a space is said to be gcontractible (4. When. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 441 “[134. “For what dendroids D is there a selection for C(D)?" “I do not know if every contractible dendroid D admits a selection for C(D). When is there a mapping from 2x onto Y? Of special interest is the case when Y = X. etc.5 of [56]) Question.12 of [56]) Question.Hd) is isometric to a subset of &?” (4. and (0. C(X) is contractible [by (16. Is C(X) gcontractible for any continuum X? A partial solution will be given in (4.71.11.18)]. 3.6 of [56]) Question.10) remain valid (3.” (4.55).81.” (4.” (5. does a continuum (X. (0.162). “[250.1) and (4. without the assumption of X connectedness? The “if” part of (3.11 of [56]) Question. z E Y do there exist disjoint nonempty open subsets Vi and Uz of X such that X \ f‘(y) = Ui U U.12).” (4. However. if ever.22)]. Does (3. 2." . “[250. provided there is a mapping of the space onto itself which is homotopic to a constant map) “[250. p. 2341. (1.101.11.10) is valid without the assumption of X connectedness as can be seen using (1.d) have the property that (C(X).11 of [56]) Question. mapping between two of the spaces X. “When is there a mapping from X onto C(X)? By (4.l and z E [f(Ul) n f(Uz)]) “When does there exists an onto monotone.2) if X is locally connected or if X contains an open set with uncountably many components. 2”.169).15 of [56]) Question. Of course if X is a locally connected continuum. and C(X)? See (6. or open. C(X)?” “For what continua X is there a selection for (5.8) for a related question.6 of [56]) Question. then there is a mapping from X onto C(X).Hd) or (2x. or confluent or nonalternating.4 of [56]) Question. When is there a mapping from C(X) onto Y? Of special interest is the case when Y = X. 3.” (3. (note: a mapping f : X + Y from X onto Y is said to be nonalternating provided that for no two points y.54).11 of [56]) Question. “[250. let us note that C(X) and 2” are not always contractible [see (16. 3.
1551. What spaces are Sq spaces? See (5. Selections Question 5. solved.14) for a partial answer. A partial answer to question 5. “Call a Hausdorff space a uspace (cspace) provided that it admits a selection for each upper semicontinuous (continuous) decomposition of it into nonempty compact subsets (as usual.13 of [56]) Question. “[347. same as the first part of Question 5.442 Comment. “What continua are Whitney map selection continua? What chainable continua and what circlelike continua are Whitney map selection continua?” Comment. (5. The second part of Question 5. (note: an 5’4 space is a Hausdorff space which admits a selection for each covering of it by mutually disjoint nonempty compact subsets). If a (metric) S4 space.21 of [56]) Question. for every Whitney map p for C(X).14) we showed that a continuum which is an Sq space can not contain an hereditarily indecomposable continuum.” continuum is an (5. then must it be a dendrite? see below.” (5. 1091.5.19 of [56]) Question.11 of negative by MaCkowiak with the Example 75.9.11 of [56]. selection continuum provided there is a selection from pl(t) “What continua are uspaces? What continua “A continuum x’ is called a Whitney map that. QUESTIONS are discussed in section 75. the selection’s continuity is in terms of the Vietoris topology.20 of [56]) Definition.16 of [56]) Question. are cspaces?” (5.17 of [56]) Question.18 of [56]) Definition. p(X)].15 of [56]) Question. (5. “[225. p. into x’ for each t E [0. By Theorem 75.” It is easy to see that an Sd space can not contain a simple closed curve. “Can a continuum which is an Sq space contain an indecomposable continuum ? In (5. p.” (5.” (5. Theorem 80. This suggests the following question. in section 75. “Is every dendrite an Sq space?” (5.21 of [56] is contained in .6.6 of [56] is the This question is far to be [56] has been solved in the Some related questions are XV. not the decomposition topology).
Acoselection space]. Acoselection] for X of mesh lessthat e. is defined by: mesh(f) = l.81. 4131.. If f is a Acoselection for X where A c [2x \ (Fl(X) U {X})]. A function f : X + 2x is called a coselection for X provided that f is a mapping and z E f(x) for each z E X.see the paragraph following the proof of (6. “Let X be any continuum.” “[243. denoted mesh(f ).(X) a retract of 2”? Recall that Cl (X) means C(X) as it is naturally embedded in 2x by inclusion. provided there is a mapping g : Y + X such that I. C(X) is always such an rimage when X is locally connected. the example in (6.” (5. However. For what continua X is C. 3.29). “[250. In particular. C. Some important material related to this question is in (6. w hen is there an rmap between them? Also. p.10. “When do coselections of the various types defined in (5.71. then f is called a nontrivial coselection for X. If f is a coselection for X and f(z) E A for each 2 E X [some A c 2. see (6..22) exist? What continua are coselection or C(X)coselection spaces?” Comment.10). then X is called a coselection space [resp. What are necessary and suffi(6.7 of [56]) Question.u. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 443 (5.12).2) may be of interest to the reader at this point.22 of [56]) Definition.{diam[f (z)] : 2 E X) If X is a continuum such that given any E> 0 there exists a nontrivial coselection [resp. cient conditions in order that the space of singletons Fl (X) of a continuum X be a retract of 2x or of C(X)?” (6.b. “Is Cl (X) a monotone open retract of 2x when X is any locally connected continuum? By (6.6).1 of [56]) Question.12). Also. If f is a coselection for X.12) is not necessarily open .16.) “Given any two of the spacesX.3 of [56]) Question.23 of [56]) Question.28) and (6.2 of [56]) Question. then f is called a Acoselection for X.” (6. The following questions (6.(X) is always a monotone retract of 2x when X is locally connected. 2x and C(X).o g = ly. This topic is discussedin section 76. We refer the reader to the papers cited in Chapter XII for more information. the retract defined in the proof of (6.” .29 of [56]) are related to retractions between hyperspaces. (note: a mapping T : X + Y is called an rmap (6.‘]. by (6. then the mesh of f .
“For what continua X is there a retraction from Fi(X) U r onto some r.” “What continua X admit a mean?” “For what continua X is there a mapping (6. etc.” “Take r = C1 (X) in (6.” Comment. Is Cl(X) a retract of 2”? In fact. No information is available for circlelike continua which are not the circle. (6.71. this does not seemto imply there is no retraction form Fz(C(X)) onto Fl (C(X)) [camp. (6. “Let X be the familiar sin($)continuum defined in (1) of (8. [9]).(X) in (6.10. showed that if X is the sin($)continuum. In [9]. It is easy to see that the proof in (6.29)].” (6.17.1) except require the rmap to be monotone. Also.17. see (6. Let X be the sin(i)continuum. (0.444 XV. or confluent. (6. Take r = F.10. then C(X) admits a pseudomean. it is not known whether or not Cl(Y) is a retract of 2’ for any given chainable continuum Y.14).10. PI(X) C r C Cl(X)?” (6.14). or open. Curtis then C(X) is a retract of 2”.” Comment.1).see Chapter VIII]. from Fp(X) into Cl (X) which is the identity on J’l (X)? Does such mapping exist for the familiar sin($)continuum in (1) of (8.15 of [56]) Question. in particular.14 of [56]) Question.. (6.. It would be interesting to know if C(X) admits a mean when X is the continuum in (6. However. QUESTIONS (6.16 of [56]) Question.48)] onto Cl(X). where So is as in (1) of (8. “[see (6. Since C(X) is a retract of 2” (Curtis. except for the arc.21 of [56]) Question.1 of [56]) Question.8 of [56]) Question. [camp. (6.2) shows there is no retraction from Cz(X) [see (0.20 of [SS]) Questions.” .22)? We call such a mapping a pseudomean.2)].22) [note: C(So) M Cone($) .1)]. Is Cl (I”) a retract of 2’ when Y is the pseudoarc? Analogous questions are open when +etract” is replaced by “rimage”.22). “Same as (6.2).3 of [56]) Questions. I do not know if C(So) admits a mean. (note: So is the sin( i)continuum) ‘LFor what continua X does C(X) admit a mean? I do not know of any continuum X for which C(X) does not admit a mean.2).10.10. it is not known whether or not C(X) is an Timage of 2x if X is the continuum in (6.
” (6.26) except replace C(X) and C(A) by 2x and 2A respectively. Henderson’s proof is difficult and a new proof of it would be of interest. Fl (C(X)) is a retract of C(C(X)) for any continuum X. see (11.8. it may of course be assumed that X is hereditarily decomposable (instead of only decomposableas assumedabove).25 of [56]) Question.1).81.23 of [56]) Question.55)].27 of [56]) Question.18). Example 9. In particular. Henderson [140] has proved that a decomposable continuum which is homeomorphic to each of its nondegenerate subcontinua must be an arc. in [9]. Then the map {A. Curtis showed that: (a) there are continua Y such that C(Y) does not admit a mean ([9. if this generalization could be proved without using Hendreson’s Theorem.48) and (1. all of whose nondegenerate subcontinua are homeomorphic to X.22 of [56]) Question.52)].” . Thus.8.25) and (6. (14.” (6.” (6. Can there be such an X which contains no arc? It would be interesting if the answer to this question were “no. (6. “For what continua X is 2A an rimage of 2x for all subcontinua A of X?” (6. Also.92) and (1.109)].21)) (b) if X is the sin(i)continuum. from Fs(C(X)) onto C(X) is a mean. Among other results. To obtain his result. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 445 Comment. any continuum X. a circle is such an X. There is some hope for obtaining a hyperspace proof of Henderson’s Theorem since the arc structure for C(X) is a strong feature which is not available when working just in X as Henderson did.49).” The answer would then be a generalization of Henderson’s Theorem mentioned in (6. “For what continua X is Fl (C(X)) a retract of 2c(x)? Clearly. “For what continua X is C(A) an rimage of C(X) for all subcontinua A of X?” (6.1) might be helpful. Also [by (0. also. then X must be an arc or a circle [as is easily seen using (1.24 of [56]) Question. B} t r(AuB). the arc and the pseudoarc). “For what continua X is C(A) x C(X) for each nondegenerate subcontinuum A of X? Obviously [by (0.26 of [56]) Question. there are many arcs in C(X) “parallel to and near Fl (X)” by (14. then there is a retraction r : 2x + C(X). ‘Same as (6. by using (1. a new proof for his Theorem would be obtained.25). “For what decomposable continua X is C(A) z C(X) for each nondegenerate subcontinuum A of X? If such an X contains an arc. is such an X (for example.
Thus 6.2) [see (6. Example 76.12 is a smooth dendroid X such that X is a strong deformation retract of C(X) and X does not admit a mean (then C(X) is not a retract of 2. The first example of a continuum X such that X is a retract of C(X) but not of 2x was shown in [35].2) Fi (X) is a retract of C(X). have the fixed point property?” Comment. When does C(X).4). Which of the following four statements are equivalent to each other? (6.8 of [56]) Question.8. Theorem 21 that dendroids have the fixed point property. (7. Is Ci (X) being a retract of 2x equivalent to C(X) being an rimage of 2x? A continuum worth investigating in this connection is the continuum (6.2 of [56]..446 XV.Y). (6. p. QUESTIONS (6. it would be interesting to determine if X is an rimage of 2x.3) X is an rimage of 2x. In Chapter VI we discussed X a contin the fixed point property in (7. “[293.8.3)].1 of [56] is not equivalent to 6. (7. “[285.29 of [56]) Question.2) and the paragraph following it]. Then. 2481. (6.28.28 of [56]) Question.4) X is an rimage of C(X). It is known [39. (6.28.1 of [56]) Question.” (7. they are all equivalent when X is a locally connected continuum. (6.3)]? Partial answers are given in (7.10. a negative answer to the question would be a “onedimensional answer” to Knaster’s question [camp.” . If X is a treelike does C(X) have the fixed point property?” continuum.28. p. p. uum. In this connection. for the continuum X in Example in 76. (7. it would be of interest to know whether or not C(X) has the fixed point property for every onedimensional continuum X with the fixed point property [camp.10.28. 2341. 2831.28.” Comment.28.8. hyperspaces. Hence. For what continua X is C(X) a quasicomplex? The only examples for which it has been proved that C(X) is not a quasicomplex are the two above. By (6.1) Fi(X) is a retract of 2x. “Let X be a continuum.2).4 of [56]) Question. “Let X be a continuum.” (7..3)]. “Does C(D) have the fixed point property for every dendroid D [see (7. “[280.12.7 of [56]) Question.
10).2)]). (7. When does 2x.3)]?” Comment.9 of [59].2) can be applied.. that retractions can be defined from 2y onto 2z and from 2’ onto Ci (2) where Z C Y is as in (7. (7.9 of [56]) Question. The continuum Y is the union of 2 with a disk which has as its boundary the circle contained in 2. then 2” and C(X) have the fixed point property.2.8. for each n = 1. 3. where D.. result.10).31. Theorem 3. (7.2).2) and (7. from X onto X.3 of [56] can be “[250. The continuum 2 in Question 7. If X is a dendroid with metric (7.+l onto D.. for each E > 0.8. p. a finite graph X. In [9]. c X and a retraction T .2). .5)] continua? What about all dendroids [see (7.11 of [56]) Question.” Comment.. Theorem In [58].81. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED Q~JESTIONS OF [56] 447 “[442. As a consequence.8.3) .11).6) above]? What about chainable [camp. Theorem (7.” Comment. “Does 2’ have the fixed point property.10 of [56]) Question. (7.3)? I conjecture that the answer is “no” and.1)] or circlelike [camp. Curtis showed that there is a retraction from 2’ onto C(Z).81. in fact. Then 2z does not have the fixed point property and Z is the first known example with this characteristic.. p. (7. is a den drite and fn is a quasimonotone map (an onto map between continua f : X + Y is quasimonotone provided that for any continuum K in Y with nonempty interior. such that d(r.1).11 of [56] is the circle with a spiral represented in Figure 20 (6).. Two questions found in Remark 3. then is there.(z). It is known that C(Z) does not have the fixed point property ([56. an affirmative answer to this question would give an affirmative answer to the first question in (7. it is shown that if X is the Buckethandle (Example 22. 2611.8. It would also give an affirmative answer to the last question in (7. it was proved the following [58. 63. If X = 12{D.” “Does 2x have the fixed point property for all (7..8. x) < E for each 2 E X? By using the proof of (7.. related to Question 7. If it were possible to find a retraction . then 2 a’ has the fixed point property. hereditarily indecomposable continua X [camp.8.3 of [56]) Question. .see (6. continuum (7. have the fixed point property? This question was in part the motivation for (6. fn}. d. f‘(K) has only a finite number of components and each of these maps onto K under f) of D. where Y is as in (7. X a continuum. then of course..
H continua [also see (8. (7.33)].12 of [56]) Question. ‘LFor what cont.32)]? The “Buckethandle” (S.30) and (14.12 of [56] has been reduced to give answers to Question 8. A positive answer to Question 80. In particular Theorem 80. “What are the indecomposable chainable Ccontinuum [defined in (1.9 would give an intrinsic characterization of these continua. continuum provided that C(X) is homeomorphic CH continua?” (8.209. when X is a chainable continuum.448 XV. “[camp. (note: the continuum X is said to be a CH (8.” (8. By Theorem 80.13 of [56]) Question. What are the chainable CH continua [camp.{X} onto X.11 of [56]) Question. Let us also note that.12 of [56]) Question.l)] are examples of such continua.15)]?” .2) C(X) has the fixed point property?” two statements equivalent (7. QUESTIONS from 2y onto 2’.12.14) and (8. What are the finitedimensional Comment.12.” (8.12. as was noted by Rogers 1280.inua X does pi(t) have the fixed point property for every Whitney map p for C(X) and for each t E [O.LLfor C(X) an each t [as follows using (14. “What H continua [also see (8.43. then 2’ would not have the fixed point property. p‘(t) has the fixed point property for each Whitney map . “Are the following for any continuum X: (7.15 of [56]) Question.4)]. In section 80 we discuss some aspects of spaces having the cone = hyperspace property.. The important difference between Y and Z is that Y has the fixed point property while Z does not have it.” are the indecomposable circlelike Cand the solenoids [by (8. see (14. “[244. 2801... (7. an important part of Question 8.5 gives a characterization of finite dimensional continua having the cone = hyperspace property in terms of the existence of a particular selection from C(X) .31)]? The “Buckethandle” (8.11 of [56].31 of [56]) Question.U(X)]? For some examples showing that X can have the fixed point property and c1l (t) may not.1) 2x has the fixed point propertry. (8. p.3)] is an example of one.6). cone = hyperspace property?” “What finitedimensional continua have the Comment. to Cone(X)). Problem 21.16 of [56]) Question.
(8. “For what continua X is 2x M Cone(X)? Two comments are appropriate. this follows from (11. Recently.16) we will give another example. Second: If X is a locally connected continuum and 2.81. (8.34 of [56]) Question. we refer the reader to the proof of (10. The two questions contained in 8.35 of [56]) Questions. what can be said about the class of continua Y such that C(X) = Cone(Y)? Answers to these questions would even be of interest under the additional assumption that dim[C(X)] < oo.95).14) and (S. since C(I”) M 10° [by the second part of (1. (9. must there exist.” Comment.97). In (10. tinua?” “What are the circlelike CH continua “[244. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 449 (8.35) with C(X) Recall.2) and to (10.4 of [56]) Question.16)..” . C(1”) M Sus(1”). Let X be a locally connected continuum.” (8. then h(v) E C(X). First: if X is not arcwise connected and h : Cone(X) + 2x is any homeomorphism.98)].” replaced by 2x. Ma&s [52. ‘Same as (8. a circle or a simple nod.33 of [56]) Question.lS)]?” (8.36 of [56]) Question.3). then C(X) is homeomorphic to the cone over a finitedimensional continuum 2 if and only if X is an arc.37 of [56]) Question. then Cone(X) M 1” by (1. continuum Y such that C(X) M Cone(Y)? If X is any given such continuum. Theorem 41. dim[2”] = 00 by (1.32 of [56]) Question. For examples related to this and the two questions above. Problem 21. Under this assumption I can show that if X is a locally connected continuum and Y is a continuum such that C(X) M Cone(Y).35 of [56] are still open. a homeomorphism h : Cone(X) + C(X) such that h[B(X)] = Fi(X)?” “For what continua X does there exist a (8. The proof useslocal cut points and ideas and results in [85]. then X and Y must be arcs or circles. What are the CH con “If X is a CH continuum. (8. [camp. Theorem 41 has corrected an error contained in the previous paragraph by showing the following result: Theorem [52. For what infinitedimensional continua X is C(X) M Sus(X)? For example note that.’ M Cone(X). (note: Sus(X) denotes suspensionof X) “[252].
where it was proved that HS(X) has chainable continuum X.” In [43. It may in fact be true that if C(X) is a product. then is HS(X) homeomorphic to S(X)? This last question would have an affirmative answer if Question 8.2) can be modified by replacing C(Y) with 2”. then X is locally connected.5 of [56]) Questions. QUESTIONS (9.” then a complete characterization of those continua X such that C(X) is a product would be obtained.7 of [56]) Question. then (9. ‘&For what continua X does there exist a continuum Y such that C(X) z Sus(Y) [see (lO. Question 4. For what circlelike continua X does HS(X) have the fixed point property? If a circlelike continuum X has the fixed point property. If this is true and if the answer to the above question is “yes. “[241. “The continuum satisfying (10. This notion was introduced in [57]. the fixed point property for every questions are open: Questions [57.11. HS( X).5) with C(X) Given a continuum X.3).20. Comment. 3. replaced by 2~~. Question 4. .191.11 it was shown that there exists a nonComment. equivalently must Y be an arc?” (9.3) with C(Y) replaced by 2’ would be valid.21. Example 4.34 of [56] has an affirmative answer. then must X be an arc or a circle. For what continua X is HS(X) homeomorphic to the usual suspension Sus(X) of X? If C(X) is homeomorphic to the cone over X. If X is any locally connected (10.450 XV. locally connected continuum X such that C(X) is homeomorphic to X x [O.” (9.” “Same as the first two questions in (9.21 of [56]) Question.lS)]? If X is any given such continuum. what can be said about the class of continua Y such that C(X) x Sus(Y)? If X and Y are continua such that C(X) z Sus(Y) and dim[C(X)] < 03. ofX is the quotient space C(X)/Fi (X).11.6 of [56]) Question. If so. “For what continua X is 2x M Sus (X)? It appears that (9. then does HS(X) have the fixed point property? Questions [57. The following the hyperspace suspension. then must C(X) be a product?” question above is stated in the context of locally connected continua. and we would know that the continua X such that 2x z Sus(X) must be arcwise connected.
Corollary 2. The question about a compact zerodimensional subset of C(X) is still open.” Comment. then by (1. [67. l] + C such that u(t) E C \ Cl(X) for all t < 1.21.and ~(1) = A. Theorem 9. “[252.21)]?” “If X is a continuum such that C(X) x I” (10.5. Corollary 121). then C(Y) \ {Al.19. 12. see also [32. Let X be an hereditarily decomposable continuum and let p be a point of X which belongs to a subcontinuum of X with finite rimtype at p.22 of [56]) Question. this result has been recently rediscovered by Hosokawa in [32. then must X be locally connected? If the answer is “yes”.23. Let X be a continuum. “If X is a continuum such that C(X) M 2~‘. Let Y be any continuum. 12.27 of [56]) Question. .. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 451 “For what continua X is 2x a product? Note (10. 12. A member A of Cr (X) is said to be arcwise (segmentwise) accessiblefrom C \ C. 12. Theorem 1. As} is arcwise connected.}:& which is closed in C(X) (Illanes. We will say that A is accessible beginning with Ii’ [55] provided there is a CT above such that as u(0) = K. Corollary 4. Corollary lo]) and it has also been generalized for a countable family {A. 2. n finite? What about countably many? What about a collection {Ax : X E A} which is a compact zerodimensional subset of the hyperspace? The last of these questions is somewhat motivated by (2.26 of [56]) Question.26 of [56]. 12.1. Grispolakis and Tymchatyn have proved the following results: Theorem [30. Comment. Let C c 2x. If X is a continuum such that 2x is a product.Az E C(Y) such that C(Y) \ {Ai} is arcwise connected for each i = 1 and 2. comment near end of (10. If Al. Definition.2 of [56] has been generalized to finitely many An’s by (Ward.24. “How can (9.” (9.(X) [55] provided there is a homeomorphism (segment) cr : [0. With respect to Questions 12.21. then must X be locally connected [camp.41. then must X be locally connected?” z (10.25 and 12.2) be generalized? For example: Is it still true with the two sets Al and A2 replaced by n sets.. 12.” (11. then 2.98) we would know all such continua X. [38.2 of [56]) Theorem.81.97)].15). that if X is any locally connected continuum. Then p is arcwise accessiblefrom C’s(X) \ Cr (X).11.97) and (1.17 of [56]) Question.22. 2Y.’ is a product because 2Y z I” [by (1.
when X is a rational continuum or. Moreover. is the converse of (12. 1. “[234. Then every point of X is arcwise accessible from Cx(X) \ Cr (X). Then the set D of points of X which are arcwise accessible from C’s(X) \ Cr (X) is dense in X. “[234.(X) are (12. p.71. “[234.21. 1. let and C. Theorem 4. 471 of (12. able continuum X. 6. “[234.14) true?” Definition.11. What are conditions.41.51. is AA[X] always a Bore1 set?” AA[X] .24 of [56]) Question. QZJESTIONS Theorem [30.51. When is a member arcwise accessible from 2dY \ Ci (S)‘?” of Fr(X) “[234. For any hereditarily decompos(12.452 XV. (12. Let X be a chainable hereditarily decomposable continuum. Let X be a Suslinian continuum.31.22 of [56]) Question. the set X \ D contains no (nondegenerate) continuum.5 of [56]) Question. Theorem [30. 6. Theorem 4. Which arcwise accessible from 2” \ Ci (X)?” members of C. 6. Then the set of points of X which are arcwise accessible from C. AA[X] = X?‘” “What is the Bore1 type [185.(X) AA[X] = = {AE 2x : A has at most n components}. Corollary 4. which are at the same time both necessary and sufficient.31. when X is any continuum? In fact.1 of [56]) Question.23 of [SS]) Question. For a given continuum X. in order that {xc} be arcwise accessible from 2” \ Ci (X) for a given point 20 of a continuum X? What about such conditions when X is rational or when X is hereditarily decomposable? For hereditarily decomposable continua. For what rational continua X is (12.(X) \ Ci (X) is dense in X. {x E X : { x } is arcwise accessible from 2x \ Cr (X)}. more generally. Theorem [30.19 of [56]) Question. Let X be a rational continuum of finite rimtype. must there be a point 2 E X such that {x} is arcwise accessible from 2x \ Cr (X)?i” (12.
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(12.25 of [56]) Question. “[234, 6.61. What hereditarily decomposable continua X have the property that each [or someor no] singleton is arcwise accessiblefrom 2aY (X)?l It may be that each hereditarily decomposable \Cr continuum has some arcwiseaccessiblesingleton; see (12.19).” “[234, 6.71. Is there a continuum X such (12.26 of [56]) Question. that, for some 20 E X, (~0) is arcwise accessiblefrom 2x \ Cl(X) but not from C?(X) \ Ci (X)?” “Given a continuum X and an .4 E Ci (.Y), (12.32 of [56]) Question. what can be said about a K E [2x \C, (X)] such that 4 is arcwise accessible from 2.’ \ Ci (X) beginning with I<? What can be said about the set,of all such K? On the other hand, given a K E [2” \ C,(X)], what can be said about an A E Ci (X) such that A is arcwise accessible from 2Y \ Ci (X) beginning with K? What can be said about the set of all such A? One such A, for example, is a continuum which is irreducible about K.” Definition. Let X be a continuum. A nondegenerate subcontinuum I’ of 2x is a touching set provided I fl Ci (X) = {A} for some A E Cl (X), in which case I? is said to be a touching set at A. (13.2 of [56]) Question. “[234,6.10]. What monotone upper semicontinuous decompositions of X can be touching sets?” (13.3 of [56]) Question. “[234, touching sets? It might be true that erate continuum is a touching set at could produce a Hilbert cube which 6.91. What subcontinua of 2dYcan be if A is nondegenerate, any nondegenA. This would certainly be true if one is a touching set at A.”
(14.35 of [56]) Question. “[ZSS, Question 31. How are other properties of continua reflected in the continua p*(t)?” Comment. 14.35 of [56]. Chapters VIII and IX are plenty of answers to Question
(14.36 of [56]) Question. “[176, section 61. For a given topological property, determine whether or not it is a Whitney property. In particular, is homogeneity (resp., X connectednes, weak chainability) a Whitney property?”
454
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Comment. Homogeneity is not a Whitney property (Rogers, [62, Theorem 111 and W. J. Charatonik, [6]), see Example 48.2. X connectedness of [56] is &connectedness defined in 51.1, where a different notion of Xconnectedness is defined. It is known that &connectedness is not a Whitney property (W. J. Charatonik), see Example 51.2. It is not known (see Question 51.3) whether, Xconnectedness is a Whitney property. The question whether weak chainability is a Whitney property (see Theorem 37.7 and Question 37.8) is still unsolved. (14.39 of [56]) Question. “For what continua X is it true that for some Whitney map (all Whitney maps) p for C(X), pl(t) z X for all t E [O,p(X))?” (14.39.1 of [56]) Definition. “A continuum X is said to be weak Whitney stable (Whitney stable) provided that for some Whitney map (all Whitromeomorphic to X for all t E [0, p(X)).” ney maps) p for C(X), pl(t) ’is 1 Comment. Dilks and Rogers have proved ([12, Theorem lo]) that if ,Y is a continuum and X is the inverse limit of arcs with open bonding maps, then X is Whitney stable. This result has recently been generalized in Theorem 80.5 where it has been proved that if X is a finitedimensional continuum which have the cone = hyperspace property, then X is Whitney stable (see Theorem 80.4). Using Theorem 53.3 it can be proved that the unique Whitney stable 2connected continuum is the arc. “Is there a continuum which is weak Whit(14.42.2 of [56]) Question. ney stable but not Whitney stable ? By (14.42.1), the Hilbert cube is not Whitney stable; it may be weak stable  see (14.38). Is there a finitedimensional continuum which is weak Whitney stable but not Whitney stable?” Comment. By Theorems 25.3 and 25.10, the Hilbert cube is weak Whitney stable. This answers the first part of Question 14.42.2 of [56], the last question in 14.42.2 of [56] is still unsolved. (14.42.3 of [56]) Question. “(camp., [249, P. 4, p. 4071) If a continuum X is weak Whitney stable [resp., Whitney stable], then is every (nondegenerate) subcontinuum of X weak Whitney stable [resp., Whitney stable]? In other words: Are these properties hereditary? It might be that the Hilbert cube is weak Whitney stable [see (14.42.2)]; if so, then the property weak Is the property weak Whitney stable Whitney stable is not hereditary. continua? Note [resp., Whitney stable] h ereditary for finitedimensional
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that the continua mentioned at the beginning of (14.42) are hereditarily Whitney stable.” Comment. Since there are subcontinua of the Hilbert cube which are not weakly stable (e.g., a 2cell) and the Hilbert, cube is weak Whitne? stable (Theorems 25.3 and 25.10), we seethat the property of being weakly Whitney stable is not hereditary. “[267, p. 311. We say that a continuum X maps provided that there exist Whitney maps p and p’ for C(X) such that, there is some member A of one of the collections
admits essentially diflerent Whitney
(14.43 of [56]) Definition.
{p‘(t)
or {(IL’)l(t)
: 0 < t < p(X)}
: 0 5 t 5 p’(X)}
such that A is not homeomorphic to any member of the other collection.” “What continua admit essentially differ(14.43.11 of [56]) Question. ent Whitney maps? Are the arc and the circle the only locally connected continua which do not admit essentially different Whitney maps? We note that the Hilbert cube admits essentially different Whitney maps [camp., (14.38) and (14.42.1)]. Are the arc and the circle the only finitedimensional locally connected continua which do not admit essentially different Whitney maps? What chainable or circlelike continua do not admit, essentially different Whitney maps?” “If X is an absolute retract such that, (14.43.12 of [56]) Question. dim[X] > 2, then does X admit essentially different Whitney maps? In particular: Are there Whitney maps /L and p’ for C(X) such that p‘(t) is contractible for each t E [0, p(X)] but (p/)l (to) is not contractible for some to E [0, p’(X)]? This is true for the Hilbert cube [camp., (14.38) and (14.42.1)].” Comment. Suppose that X is an absolute retract such that dim[X] > 2. By Theorem 72.6, X is not hereditarily decomposable. This implies that X is not a dendroid. By Theorem 53.3, there is a Whitney map ,LL’ for C(X) and there is t E (0, p(X)) such that ($)l(t) is not 2connected (a.nd then (p’)‘(t) . not contractible). Then an affirmative answer to Question 1s 14.43.12 of [56] would be obtained if it is possible to construct a Whitney map p for C(X) such that pl(t) is contractible for each t E [O,p(X)]. Notice that if the answer to Question 25.14 is affirmative, then such a p can be constructed.
456
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Reasoning as in the previous paragraph and using Theorems 25.9 and 25.21, it can be shown that if X is an arcsmooth continuum and dim[?r] > 2, then X admits essentially different Whitney maps.
(14.55.1 of [56]) Question. “Is there a strong Whitneyreversible property P, which is not a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property? In particular, what about the properties in (14.55) (being irreducible, being in Class(W), having CP)?” Comment. By Theorem 49.3, irreducibility is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property. The rest of the questions contained in Question 14.55.1 are still open (see Questions 27.2 and 35.6).
“For a given topological property determine (14.57 of [56]) Question. whether or not it is a strong Whitneyreversible property [or, Whitneyreversible property]. Specifically, what about the following properties: Acyclic, absolute neighborhood retract, absolute retract, chainable, circlelike or proper circlelike, contractibility, hereditarily decomposable”, X connected, onedimensiona12, being a particular solenoid, weakly chainable? Perhaps S = z X,,, where each *Yn is the circle in R” with center (9,
11= 1
0)
and radius k, can be used to seethat being an absolute neighborhood retract is not a Whitneyreversible property; for t > 0, all but finitely many of the “holes” in X seem to disappear in pi (t) .” is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Nadler, see Theorem 36.5),  Being an absolute neighborhood retract is not a Whitneyreversible property (see Example 28.2, where it is shown that, for the continuum X suggested in Question 14.57 of [56], every positive Whitney level is an ANW,  Being an absolute retract is not a strong Whitneyreversible property (Goodykoontz and Nadler, see Example 30.4),  Chainability is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Kato, see Theorem 37.5),  The properties of being a circlelike and a proper circlelike continuum are sequential Whitneyreversible properties (Kato, seeTheorems 39.5 and 39.6),  Contractibility is not a strong Whitneyreversible property (Nadler, see Example 41.7),  Being hereditarily decomposable is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (AboZeid, see Theorem 44.9),
Comment.  Acyclicity
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 X connectedness of [56] is bconnectednesshere (Definition 51.1). A different definition of Xconnectednessis given in 51.1. It is not known if 6connectednessis a (strong, sequential strong) Whitneyreversible property (seesection 51), Beingofdimension<n(n=1,2,...) is a sequential strong Whitneyreversible property (Kato, seeTheorem 45.1),  It is not known if being a particular solenoid is a (strong, sequential strong) Whitneyreversible property (see Question 61.3),  It is not known if weak chainability is a (strong, sequential strong) Whitneyreversible property (see Question 37.8),
(14.58 of [56]) Question. “[see (14.60)]. For what continua X are there (onto) mappings between all the levels p‘(t), 0 < t < p(X), for all [respectively, some] Whitney maps ,U for C(X)? For given t and s, when there is a mapping from ,u’ (t) onto ~1l (s)?” (14.68 of [56]) Question. “Is there a circle Y such that the diameter mapping on 2y is an open mapping? More generally, for what continua X is there (for some metric for X) an open diameter mapping for 2x?” Comment. The answer for the particular caseof the circle is yes, (W. J. Charatonik and SW& see [8]). The general question is still open. (14.70 of [SS]) Question. “When are there mappings of any of the types mentioned in Question (4.15) from 2~~onto [0, l]? Of course, if X is a locally connected continuum, all these types of mappings exist because 2’ z I” by (1.97). H ence, the question is for nonlocally connected continua. Note that there is always a monotone open mapping from C(X) onto [0, l] by (14.44).” Notation. “For a continuum X, let W[C(X)] (resp., W[2x]) denote the space of all Whitney maps for C(X) (resp., for Zx) with the “sup metric” .”
(14.71.1 of [SS]) Question. “Are the conversesof the results in (14.71) true? In other words: If Y and 2 are continua such that W[C(Y)] (respectively, W[2y]) is homeomorphic, or both homeomorphic and algebraically isomorphic, to W[C(Z)] (respectively, W[2z]), then must Y and Z be homeomorphic?”
458
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Comment. In [39, Theorem 5.61, it was proved that W[C(Y)] is homemorphic to the Hilbert space & for every continuum Y, In [37, Theorem 3.11, it was proved that if there exists a homeomorphism ‘p : W[C(Y)] + W[C(Z)] (or ‘p : W[2y] + W[2’]) which p reserves products and a natural order defined on W[C(Y)] (or W[2y]), then the continuum Y is homeomorphic to the continuum 2. The “both homemorphic and algebraically isomorphic” part of Question 14.71.1 of [56] is still open. Questions. Is W[2y] homemorphic to & for every continuum this question true for locally connected continua? (14.71.2 of [56]) Question. “For what continua X are IV[C(X)] lV[2”] homeomorphic and/or algebraically isomorphic?” (14.71.4 of [56]) Question. “What other topological properties, sides those in (14.71.3), do the spaces W[C(X)] and W[2”] possess? example, are these spaces topologically complete?” Comment. By [37, Proposition 1.11, for every continuum and LV[ax] are topoIogicalIy complete. “[Bruce (14.73.26 of [56]) Question. pings preserve the covering property? In property, then does every monotone image do not preserve CP, or even CPH, since [by (14.73.17)] an d can be openly mapped X, W[C(X)] Y? Is
and
beFor
Hughes]. What classes of mapparticular, if X has the covering of X?3 Note that open mappings nonplanar solenoids have CPH onto a circle [by (1.207.5)].”
Comment. In Theorem 3.9 of [28], it was proved that monotone maps preserve the fact of being in Class (I/t’). Then by Theorem 67.1, monotone maps preserve the covering property. (14.73.27 of [56]) Question. ering property or have CPH?” “What classes of continua have the cov
“Let X be a continuum. Call C(X) a (14.73.28 of [56]) Definition. Whitney hyperspace [resp., we& Whitney hyperspace] provided that given any [resp., some] Whitney map /A for C(X) and any t E [O,p(X)), there exists a continuum Yt,fi such that
If C(X) is a Whitney hyperspace [resp., weak Whitney hyperspace], then we say that X has a Whitney hyperspace [resp., X has a weak Whitney hyperspace] .”
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(14.73.29 of [56]) Question. “For what classesof continua X is C(X) a Whitney hyperspace or a weak Whitney hyperspace [see (14.73.30)]?” (14.73.30 of [56]) Question. “Is there a continuum X such that C(X) is a weak Whitney hyperspace but not a Whitney hyperspace?” (14.73.31 of (561) Definition. “Let X be a continuum. Call C(X) an invariant Whitney hyperspace provided that for each Whitney map p for wo? Pw /4X)1) = C(X)
for each t E [0,/~(x)). If C(X) is an invariant Whitney hyperspace, then we say that X has an invariant Whitney hyperspace.” (14.73.34 of [56]) Question. “For what classesof continua X is C(X) an invariant Whitney hyperspace? Note the following facts: If X E CPH and if X is Whitney stable [see (14.39.1)], then it follows easily from (14.73.11) that C(X) is an invariant Whitney hyperspace. Hence, an arc, a pseudoarc [also see (14.73.15)], any particular pseudosolenoid [also see (14.73.16)], and any nonplanar solenoid [also see paragraph following (14.73.1?)] has an invariant Whitney hyperspace. So does the circle, by (1.213.2). The result in (14.73.33) leads to the following question which is more specific than the one above: Which indecomposable chainable or circlelike continua have an invariant Whitney hyperspace?” “What are classesof C*smooth continua (15.14 of [56]) Question. besides those given in (1.207.8), (14.76.6), (15.11), and (15.13)?” Comment. More properties of C*smooth can be found in [28].
“If X is a homogeneousC*smooth contin(15.21 of [56]) Questions. uum, then must X be indecomposable? If, in addition, X is planar, then must X be hereditarily indecomposable?” (16.34 of [56]) Question. “What are necessary and/or sufficient conditions in terms of X in order that 2x [equivalently, by (16.7) C(X)] be contractible?” Comment. See sections 20 and 78, where several conditions for contractibility of the hyperspaces are given.
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(16.37 of [56]) Question. “If X E property (K), then does 2” E property (K)? If X E property (IC), then does C(X) E property (PG)? If 2x E property (K), then does C(X) E property (K)? If C(X) E property (/G)? then does 2x E property (K)? The converse of the second question is true and is stated and proved in [329, 2.81; the proof shows the converse of the first question is also true.” Comment. W. J. Charatonik has shown ([4]) that two opposite spirals in R2 approaching the unit circle S1 Exercise 20.24), then X and C(X) h ave property (K) and property (K). The second and third questions in 16.37 of (see paragraph after Questions 78.27). if X consists of (see remark after 2x does not have [56] are still open
(16.38 of [56]) Question. “What kinds of mappings preserve property (K)? In (16.29) we saw that confluent mappings preserve property (IC); hence, so do monotone [329, 4.41 and open [329, 4.51 mappings. Also, Wardle [329, 2.91 has shown that retractions preserve property (K).” Comment. (see Definition In [48, Theorem 2.11, Kato showed 78.25) preserve property (K). that refinable maps
(16.40 of [56]) Question. “If X is a continuum whose hyperspaces are contractible, then what kinds of images of X have contractible hyperspaces? For example, open images do by (16.39).” Comment. See Theorem 78.24 for a.class of maps which preserve hyperspaces contractibility. See also Question 78.26. “When is 2y or C(Y) homogeneous for a (17.5 of [56]) Question. (locally connected) Hausdorff continuum Y? I do not know an example of a nonmetric Hausdorff continuum Y such that 2’ or C(Y) is homogeneous [see (17.6)].” “If Y is a locally connected homogeneous (17.6 of [56]) Question. Hausdorff continuum, then is it necessarily true that 2’ is homogeneous? Since the Cartesian product of homogenoeus spaces is homogeneous, it follows from [167] that any uncountable product 2 of closed real number intervals is a homogeneous Hausdorff continuum. I do not know if 2’ or C(Z) is homogeneous for these product spaces 2.”
81. UNSOLVED AND PARTIALLY SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56]
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“[255]. Let 2 be a subset of a metrizable real (18.1 of [56]) Definition. topological vector space L. We will assume 2’ has the “Hausdorff metric”. Now let cc(Z) = {A E 2’ : A is convex} with the restricted Hausdorff cchyperspace of Z.” metric. The space cc(Z) will be called the
“[256, Problem 3.51. Is cc(e,) M f?,? Since this (18.9 of [56]) Question. question was asked in [256], a related result has appeared  see (19.40).” (18.22 of [56]) Question. “For what 2cells X in R” is cc(X) x Ioo? By (18.21.1) we know that if X is a 2cell in R2 with polygonal boundary such that (1) each member or cc(X) has arbitrarily small infinitedimensional neighborhoods or (2) every maximal convex subset of X is a 2cell [see (18.29)] holds, then cc(X) M I”. This is a partial answer to the questions in (18.23) through (l&25).” Comment. In [ll], Curtis, Quinn and Schori characterized polyhedral 2cells X in R2 such that cc(X) M 10°. They proved that, for a polyhedral 2cell X in R2, cc(X) M I” if and only if X does not contain an alternating sequence of three collinear points of local nonconvexity. (18.23 of [56]) Question. “[256, Problem 2.41. If X is a 2cell in R2 such that (1) of (18.22) holds, then is cc(X) M 10°? A pertinent example is in (18.20).” (18.24 of [56]) Question. “[256, Problem 2.51. If X is a 2cell in R2 such that (2) of (18.22) holds, then is cc(X) M P?” (18.25 of [56]) Question. “[256, Problem 2.41. If X is a 2cell in R2 such that every maximal convex subset of X is a point or a 2cell, then is cc(X) w Ic”? A pertinent example is in (18.20). Also, the converse question for 2cells in R2 has a negative answer by (18.19).” (18.26 of [56]) Question. cc(X) M p?” “If X is a starshaped 2cell in R2, then is
(18.37 of [56]) Question. “Do there exist three convex Hilbert cubes in & whose pairwise intersections are Hilbert cubes, whose total intersection is nonempty and finitedimensional, and whose union is a Hilbert cube?”
462
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The following comment and questions appeared in section
4 of [21] ([l] in [21] is [2] here and [15] in [21] is [64] here):
“In [l], Anderson conjectured that if Qi, Qz and Qi n Qz are Hilbert cubes, then Qi U Qx is a Hilbert cube. He verified this for the case when Qr flQa is a Zset in each of Qi and Q2 [l]. Handel has shown that Qi nQz need only be a Zset in Qi , and Sher’s example ([I5]) indicates that Handel’s result may be the best possible in the general setting. In this section we will inquire into the exent to which Anderson’s conjecture holds when Qr and Q2 are embedded nicely in some hyperspace. Specifically we ask the following two questions. Question. Let p,q E X, C{,}(X) and C{,,(X) C{,l (X) a Hilbert cube? a metric continuum, and assume that
C{,}(X),
n Cj,l (X) are Hilbert cubes. Is Cipl (X)
u
We call a closed subset A of C(X) convex in C(X) if A, B E A and 4 C C c B, C E C(X) implies that C E A. Sets of the form CA(X) are special types of convex sets, and the previous Question can be asked more generally: Question. Assume that A, B are convex sets in C(X) (X is a continuum) such that A, B and A n f? are Hilbert cubes. Then is A U f3 a Hilbert cube?” “[256, Problem 3.31. Let W be an open (18.39 of [56]) Question. convex subset of P. What are necessary and sufficient conditions on VI; M I”?” in order that P\W ‘<Let M be a metric space. We will assume (19.1 of [56]) Notation. that 2M has the “Hausdorff metric”. The following notation is also adopted: (19.1.1) a(M) = (A E 2M : A is an arc}; (19.1.2) s(M) = {A E 2M : A is a circle}; (19.1.3) t(M) = {J4 E 2’f : A is a simple triod}; (19.1.4) B(M) = {A E 2M : A is a &curve} (a 6’curve is any continuum which is homeomorphic to S’ U B’); (19.1.5) P(M) = {A E 2M : A is a pseudoarc}; (19.1.6)&(M) = {A E 2M : A is a chainable continuum}; (19.1.7)/G(M) = {A E 2M : A is an hereditarily indecomposable continuum}; (19.1.8) L(M) = {A E 2M : A is a locally connected continuum]; (19.1.9) R’ denotes any of the spacesR”, n 2 2, or f!~.”
111.131.8 of [56]) Question.32 of [56]) Question. In particular: Is a(@) homeomorphic to s(R2)? (19. “[250.47 of [56] is also affirmative.the answer to Question 1.. by [56. Then.46 of [56].10 of [56]) Question.9)].411. (or for any) n 2 2?” Ys a(P) homeomophic to a(P) “Is a(R3). “Is a(&) homogeneous?” “Is a([.12) with the spacesconsidered there replaced by any of the spaces hi( ). homogeneous?” (19.44) true?” Comment. Corollary 381. Theorem 1. “For what dendroids D is u(D) U Fl (D) compact [as a subspaceof C(D)]? More generally: For what arcwise connected continua X is u(X) U Fl (X) compact?” (19. 3. I also mention that that I do not know the answer to the question at the beginning of (19. 71. (19. hi(R*). Solved Questions of [56] (1.11) with u( ) replaced by any of the spaces s( ).8” (1. it was announced a paper that was never published which contains positive answers to Question 1.33 of [56]) Question.47 of [56]. t( ).9 of [56]) Question.8) through (19. Is the converse of (1. Note that P(fi*). . p.20 of [56]) Question.82. Also. or e( ). > 2?” m (19. ch(R2) ] homeomorphic to &? I do not know if these spaces are homogeneous. Later.. I do not know if all these spacesare mutually homeomorphic. 2511.” 82. SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 463 for each (19. then so does C(X).” (19. and ch(R*) are topologically complete. ch(R2). “The same as (19. Also [camp.46 and 1. In [56. in [49.46 of [56]) Question. “Is P(R2) [resp. Katsuura gave an affirmative answer to Question 1.) homeomorphic to u(P) for some (19.11 of [56]) Question. I do not know if hi(R2). 3.44 of [56]) Lemma. or P( ). hi(R2).8) through (19. more generally a(P) for 122 3. ch( ).33) when R2 is replaced by any of the spaces 0’. or P(R2) is homogeneous.12 of [56]) Q uestion.4) and (19. The samequestions as (19. “[250. (19. If X contains an open subset with uncountably many components.
such that (1) Y. .8” (1. “[250. . . fl Y # 0 and yi g Y for any i = 1.1 of [29].147 of [56]) Question. . .103)?” Answer.45 of [56]) Theorem. (2. then D is a smooth dendroid. . satisfying (1) through (3) of (1. Ys.70 of [56]) Theorem. 2. . see Theorem 4.148).74 of [56]) Question..148 of 1561) Question. for a continuum X. If a dendroid D is embeddable in C(X). (2) (1.. If X is any twodimensional tinuum. Yr. “If X contains an open set with uncountably many components. “If C(X) contains a Hilbert cube. \ Y) n (Yk \ Y) = 0 whenever j # k. (1. see Theorem 70. . If the answer is “yes”. Yr .47 of [56]) Question. C(X) contains a Hilbert cube. . .I$.100) we could have a characterization of those continua X such that C(X) contains an ncell.464 XV. . “Is the converse of (1.21. then does X contain continua Y. in [36. Yi. “Let X be an hereditarily indecomposable continuum.” (1.103 of [56]) Theorem. Theorem 61. Theorem 2. then must dim[C(X)] = oo?” con .4 of [56]) Question. then A is smooth at UA. . Yr. 641). . “If C(X) contains an ncell for some 71 > 3. . p. Ys. . Ys. Then.” Answer. Ball asked me this question for the case when n = 3. . if A c C(X) is a dendroid.. which satisfies (1) and (2) in Question (1. and (c) there is a sequence of continua Y. then by (1. (3) diam[x] + 0 as i + co. Yes.1. Let X be a continuum which contains subcontinua Y. No ([36. Yes (Grispolakis “Is the converse of the first part of (1.45) true?*” (1. “[244.2. the following are equivalent: (a) C(X) contains a Hilbert cube. H owever. then there is a mapping of C(X) onto the cone over the Cantor middlethirds set. . then does X contain an nod? B. true?3” Answer. More specifically. (1.91 it was proved that. (b) X contains an oood. J.70) and Tymchatyn). QUESTIONS (1.” (1.
Two examples have been given. See the characterization given by van Mill and Wattel in Theorem 75. .10.22)? Some other special cazes are asked about in (6. (3. p.9. seeTheorem 73.14 of [56]) Question. For this continuum S. is embeddable in R”.9.7 of [56]) C(X) Question. Curtis in [9] has shown that C(X) is a retract of 2”. “Is there a nonlocally connected continuum X such that there is a retraction from 2x onto Cl(X)? In particular. Yes. then must X be onedimensional?” Answer. Theorem 61 and the second one by Sherling in [65. hereditarily indecomposable continuum X such that.1 of [56]) Question. Is there a onedimensional (2.7 of [56]) Question. “[250. Example 4. 2. Question 31. dim[C(X)] = 00 [see 2. p. (6.10. what. 63.11. The continuum X = (SP)l is the circle with a spiral represented in the Figure 20 (6). 465 “[93. about X = (SP)l as defined in (8.24 of [56]) Question. SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [5G] Answer. nected Hausdorff spacesadmit a (continuous) selection from their space of nonempty closed subsets?” Answer. Yes (Lewis). Yes (Levin and Sternfeld).11. seeTheorem 74. “[347.2). “Must a finitedimensional indecomposable CH continuum be chainable or circlelike?” Answer. see Theorem 73. the first one by Dilks and Rogers in [12. No.3). If S is a continuum such that.3.82.1.8]? By (2. 1091. (8. Yes (Levin and Sternfeld). What compact totallydiscon(5. this is equivalent to asking: Is there a onedimensional hereditarily indecomposable continuum X such that X admits a monotone open image of dimension greater than one?” Answer.” Answer. The first example of a nonlocally connected continuum Y such that C(Y) is a retract of 2’ was given by Goodykoontz in [27] (1’ is the harmonic fan).
12)]. Example 11). a “simpler” proof than the one Henderson gave would evolve. “[241.18 of [56]) Question. see pp.1) Question. it is completely known what X must be if X is hereditarily decomposable. 50 “[234.20 of [56]) Some Comments and Questions. (11.1 of [30]. for our purposes here. I do not know the answer to the following questions. see Theorem 4. “Assume X is any chainable continuum which is not an arc.31.” Answer. As we will see in (8. So. 2. and Grispolakis 53 of [66] and Example 5.l)].23) through (6.20. Yes (Grispolakis and Tymchatyn).27). Yes to both questions. then.” Answer. (8. “[234. C(X) is a finitedimensional We have seen that the answer show that the answer is “yes” being when X is atriadic [see (10. assume X contains a nondegenerate indecomposable subcontinuum 1’. the most general one (10. 6. then must. This is easily seen by examining various subcontinua of the continua listed in (8. then must X be an arc or a circle? is “yes” when X is locally connected.20.23) ( one such example is given in 1281.466 XV. 2 This may seem like an offbeat question. Yes (Thomas. the question is only open for the class of hereditarily decomposable chainable continua.20 of [56]) Question. However. Is there an hereditarily (12.23).9 of [30]. Is there an hereditarily decom(12. by (8. X contains only one such subcontinuum. If product. h[Cone(Y)] = C(Y)?” Answer. of it has a cut point?‘” posable continuum such that no subcontinuum Answer. In general. Note that. an affirmative answer may lead to a hyperspace proof of Henderson’s result [140].21. Must Y be a CH continuum? (8. and Tymchatyn).18).9 of [56]) Question. posable continuum which contains no rational continuum?‘” decom . “Let X be a finitedimensional CH continuum. must X contain a subcontinuum Y such that C(Y) \ {E} is not arcwise connected for some subcontinuum E of Y? Of course [see (ll.01. see [42].21 of [56]) Question. see section 79. Yes. QUESTIONS (8. 6.2) Q ues t’ Ion. If h : Cone(X) + C(X) is a homeomorphism. a nondegenerate subcontinuum of a CH continuum need not be a CH continuum. Some material which may lead to generalizations of Henderson’s result is in (6. but. We will under other conditions. Hopefully.
56 of [56]) Question. it has been recently proved in [47] that if X is a finitedimensional continuum with the cone = hyperspace property. In fact.38 of [56]) Question. (14. see[12. see 5.1).” Answer. “Let X be the “Buckethandle” continuum (14.50. Let pd denote the restriction to C(X) of the Whitney map constructed (using d) as in (0. Let p be a Whitney map for C(X) such that p(X) = 1. 2801. p. [defined in (1.2 of [30]. and that any conetohyperspace homeomorphism must take the base and the vertex of the cone onto /l‘(O) and X E C(X) respectively [by (8. which is not strong Whitneyreversible property?” . Yes (Grispolakis and Tymchatyn). Is pi’(t) a Hilbert cube whenever 0 < t < p(X)?” Answer. Theorem 111. seeTheorem 25.7)].3. then there exists such a homeomorphism h : Cone(X) + C(X).3)].22 of [56]) Questions. SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] 467 Answer.209.82. Yes (Goodykoontz and Nadler). Yes (Dilks and Rogers). Let d be the metric for X obtained from the norm on the Banach space. property ‘&Is there a Whitneyreversible (14. “Let X denote any compact subset of a Banach space such that dim[X] > 1. Is there a homeomorphism h : Cone(X) + C(X) such that the diagram [where p is the standard projection mapping] Cone (X) commutes? It is known that Cone(X) and C(X) are homeomorphic [280.
“[Bruce Hughes].63 and 14.hen there is an embedding 4 : W[3t] + W[2x] such that 4(p) is an extension of p for each p E W[31]. (14. Being an AR is the only known topological property having these characteristics.64 of [56] (W. “[179.468 XV.64)]?” “Given any continuum X. Charatonik and Illanes).1. then by (14.1 of [68]. Combining Example 30. J. have been characterized in (14. If X E CP.73. QUESTIONS Answer. J. since X is unicoherent when X E CP [by the second part of (14.64 of [56]) Question. it was proved in [37. is there a Whitney “IS there an open Whitney map for 2y where Answer.63 of [56]) Question.24). does the covering property characterize?” Answer.73. What classes of continua (14.11 and Exercise 24. In fact. where f(w) denotes the restriction of w to C(X) for each w E W[2x]? In other words: Can every Whitney map for C(X) be extended to a Whitney map for 2x?” Answer. see also Theorem 24. for every Peano continuum Y.u for C(X) and each t E [O.71.6. Let us also note that if X E CP. In fact. see Example 24.10 using Ward’s Theorem 3. is there a Whitney Answer. No to both questions 14. following Ward’s ideas. Continua with covering property several ways. see Theorem 67. “Given any continuum map for 2.14. then is /~l(t) unicoherent for each Whitney map . Theorem 4. there is an open Whitney map for 2’ (see Theorem 24.21 that if X is a continuum and ‘7t is a closed subset of 2sy. we conclude that the property of being an AR is a Whitneyreversible property which is not a strong Whitneyreversible property. onto W[C(X)]. Yes (W. t. map for 2” which is open?” (14. Y is a circle [see (14.10. see the more general version that we proved in 16.p(S))? Note that.’ which is monotone?” X.5 of [56]) Question.22 of [56]) Question. Charatonik). Yes (Ward).3) p‘(t) is irreducible .1)]. “Is the mapping f : W[2”] + W[C(X)] (14.73 of [56]) Question. (14. the answer to the question above is “yes” when t = 0.69 of [56]) Question.13. section 61.4 and Theorem 30.
see Theorem 49. (14. No to both questions 14. then does there exist a Whitney map ~1for C(X) such that pl (to) is irreducible for some to > O? Affirmative answers to (14.p(X)). generalization.L for C(X) such that cl‘(to) is irreducible for some to E [O.73.73.l’ Answer.23 of [56]) Question.1).9 of [56]) Question. Problem l] has asked for a characterization of those continua which are in Class(W). If X is any decomposable unicoherent continuum which is not a triod [in the sense of (0.5 ([5.21) true? Lelek [194.73.29)l.” Answer. SOLVED QUESTIONS OF [56] continuum 469 need not be for each t E [0.9 and 14.24) would give a hyperspace proof of Sorgenfrey’s Theorem [306.10 of [56]) Question. then must X be irreducible? Partial answers are in (14.3. Example 3.21.25 of [56]) Question. nonplanar circlelike continua are C*smooth. i. Yes (Grispolakis and Tymchatyn).73. (14. J. see Example 35. It is known that any continuum in Class(W) is unicoherent and not a triod (thus. J..h owever.76.21. An affirmative answer to (14. “Is CP a Whitney property?” Answer. (14.” (15. see [22. Is the converse of (14.1 in which it is proved that being in Class(W) is equivalent to having covering property.23) and (14.” . Theorem 3. irreducible). see Theorem 67. an irreducible see Example 35.” Answer. Theorem 1. unicoherent [see X in (14. No (Eberhart and Nadler).6).82. Yes (Eberhart and Nadler).11. see [22.15 of [56]) Question.73.11. (14. “What are the C*smooth circlelike continua [see (lS.73.73. (14.55.76.25). Charatonik).76.e. Example 81). If there is a Whitney map /.1. No (W.10 of [56] (Grispolakis and Tymchatyn. and W.5. “Is being in Class (W) a Whitney property? If the answer is “yes”.25) would give a hyperspace characterization.5) can then be used to give an affirmative answer to (14. Theorem 3. (([Bruce Hughes].” Answer.73.lS)]?’ A partial answer was given in (14. “[Bruce Hughes]. For a (14. Charatonik).21)].7324 of [56]) Question.76. by [306.76.1(X)) . “[Bruce Hughes].
T) is countably 83. then is there a metric. (ii) X E CP.) . Grispolakis. If able.3 Question.4.) (CL(Y). and (vi) X is not weakly chainable. C TV. as can be seen by using the mapping induced by the projection of X x Y onto a factor. (15. yes if compact and regular. “If X and Y are continua whose hyperspaces are contractible. separable space. see Exercise 78. g TV and TV $JT~I. QUESTIONS Answer.4.) 83. see Theorem 3. for Y such that TH.” Answer. then must (Y. In Theorem 4. 83. (iii) X is in Class (W).4 and 4. In fact.T) be a TOspace. Let (Y.T) is a metrizable space that is not separable.Tv) metrizable. by (15. “Must a C*smooth herent [hence.) (Y. (iv) X contains no local separating continuum.36 of [56]) Question. If (Y. then must (Y.” Answer. of [28]. Let (Y. then is there a metric.6.Tv) is metriz 83.? (If (Y.T) is a metrizable. see Corollary 3. then are the hyperspaces of X x Y contractible? The converse is true. hereditarily unicoherent]?’ continua the answer is “yes”.6). Nadler and Tymchatyn have shown that for a nonchainable circlelike continuum X. Let (Y.1 Question. (v) X is C*smooth. continuum For arcwise be unicoconnected Nadler and Tymchatyn). p.T) is compact Hausdorff. for Y such that TH. Yes (Grispolakis.4 Question. Yes (Nishiura and Rhee). see Theorem 3. see Theorems 4.T) be compact? (Yes if (Y.4 (16. More General Questions Spaces is 83.2 Question.1 of [28].18 of [56]) Question.T) be a topological space. If (CL(Y). Is Lconvergence for sequences in CL(Y) equivalent to TVconvergence in CL(Y)? (Yes if (Y. T) be metrizable? (Yes if (Y. p.42.T) is a Tispace. the following are equivalent: (i) X E CPH.T) be a countably compact Hausdorff space. T) is a Tispace.470 XV.
also. is 2’ or C(Y) a Tychonoff cube? (In the metric case.5 Question.) 83. 2’ z IM if and only if Y is a nondegenerate Peano continuum. is it true that if Fz(X) M Fz(Y).6 and 12. 2” or C(X) when X is a continuum. For what continua. a1 compact.11 Question. X. seeTheorem 8.(X) z P? (It is known that F.the CurtisSchori Theorem 11. closed subset. For what continua.GEOMETRIC MODELS 471 83.) IS so Geometric Models 83. Find geometric models for 2y when Y is any zerodimensional.9. if (Y. have the property that every countable. is F.(Im) z Im ([24.13 Question.) 83.) 83.10 Question. then is (CL(Y). infinite.6 Question.3. X. When are these models homeomorphic? (In the metric case.11.(X) (of two nondegenerate continua)? (See. Hausdorff compacturn with a dense set of isolated points.) a Cartesian product .T) . Y.12 Question.g. X.T) is a totally disconnected.5. TV) totally disconnected? Is (2x. Theorems 6. For what continua. TV) totally disconnected? (Yes. metrizable space. For what continua X do 2x and/or C(X) have Torunczyk’s property (= identity is a uniform limit of Zmaps. then X M Y? 83.7 Question. If (Y..of the hyperspace is a Zset in the hyperspace’? (Known if X is a Peano continuum.) ZSets 83.) (Known if X is a Peano continuum. X and Y.9 Question. e. there is one common model. is F. For what continua. and 9 of [63].3. by 3. 8.) 83. seeTheorem 11. see. For what Hausdorff continua. Corollary 5 of section 31. What hyperspaces.8 Question. is Fi(X) In 2x? (Known if X is a Peano continuum. 8.) a Zset in C(X)? Symmetric Products 83. C(Y) M IO0 if and only if Y is a nondegenerate Peano continuum and there is no free arc in Y.
Assume that 2 is a continuum. see [3]. mnp for 31 is a continuous function (T : 31 + [0. then is c(u(x)) = eg I~ c(c(7q~))) M e2? (It was proved in Theorem 5. Whitney levels) of a continuum X is homeomorphic to e. 83. see Exercise 19.) Size Maps A size Definition. and let 3t = 2x or C(X). and consider the following three conditions: (1) 2 is a planar AR. and {z} E ‘7i. let = (0 : ?1(X) + [0. if 2 satisfies (l)(3). such that the asphere S’ can be embedded in Fl(X)? (S” can not be embedded in the Cartesian product of any two ldimensional metric spaces. Any size level in C(X) for an arc X satisfies (l)(3). For any continuum C(N(X)) and let C(C(U(X))) x(%(X)) topologized = {A E N(‘. QUESTIONS 83. (2) a({~}) = 0 for all z E X. and C(l(Z(X))) is X and for Z(X) = 2x or C(X). 00) such that (1) ~(~4) 5 a(B) whenever A.14 Question. m) : 0 is a size map for N(X)} is topologized by the uniform metric. then 2 is a diameter level in C(X) for some arc X. conversely. X.472 XV. [40]) that the space of Whitney maps (respectively.9. (2) cut points of 2 have component number two. Characterize those continua that are size levels in C(X) when X is a simple closed curve (a simple triod.. (3) any true cyclic element of 2 contains at most two cut points of 2. 83.) Theorem [61].) . Note: size levels in C(X) are continua (the proof is similar to the proof of Theorem 19.B E ‘lt such that A c B.Q(X)) : A is a size level for B(X)}.6 of [39] (respectively.15 Question.18. by the Hausdorff metric for 31(%(X)). A size level in 7t is a point inverse of a size map for xc. any finite graph).16 Question. If X is any nondegenerate continuum.. Let X be a continuum. Is there a onedimensional continuum.
22. it was shown that 2x is countable closed set aposyndetic. Is WL(2x) connected space for every continuum X? 83.THE SPACE OF WHITNEY LEVELS FOR 2’ 473 The Space of Whitney Levels for Zx For a continuum X. for every continuum X.23 Question [60.21. Is C(X) (respectively. Theorem B]. Let X be a continuum. Question 2.) Aposyndesis 83. Is WL(2x) every continuum X? . l] or S1. then is WL(2x) locally connected? If X is a locally connected continuum. If B is a zerodimensional closed subset of C(X) and A E C(X) is not a onepoint set such that .18 Question [41. Question 2.1).20 Questions [41. If f maps a continuum X onto Y. then does there exists a monotone Whitney map for 2x? 83. Let X be a continuum. In [44. Problem 1. An affirmative answer to the following question might help to answer Question 83.51. 00) such that A = p‘(t)}.21 Questions [26.111. 00) and there exists t E [0. C(X) can not be separated for any of its zerodimensional subsets. we remark that Krasinkiewicz ([50]) has shown that.121.17 Question [41.{Fi (X)} an arcwise a connected spacefor 83. 83. Let Y = [0. if X is a locally connected continuum.16. Question 51. Universal Maps 83.22 Question [44. let WL(2‘) = {A E 22x : there exists a Whitney map p : 2x + [0. If WL(2x) is arcwise connected. What other topological properties does the space WL(2x) possess? For example.101. Question 2.4 4 L3. then must the induced map 2f : 2ay + 2’ be universal? An affirmative answer to this problem for the case that X is . Question 2. then does there exists a Whitney level A for C(X) suchthatdnf3=0andAEd? Related to Question 83.19 Question [41. 83. Questions 1 and 21 or [17.131. Questions 1 and 21. 2x) zerodimensional closed set aposyndetic? (see Definition 29. then is WL(2x) homemorphic to &? (see comment to Question 83.
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G(Y) W) N(lr 1 AR AE cd(r. crZ ANR C(X. B0 Y = EIF Bd ClC 4P) diamd c(V 2X(K). 6 x I” mo .. &a dim(Y) 2$. 4 Hd Hd THY TV oHd H.Special A. lim inf Ai.. lim sup Ai. P swwfl) WV. Ga (r.&) M ii 3 3 3 3 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 9 10 10 11 14 15 16 16 19 19 21 32 32 497 “f Cone(Y). lim A. cl(A) Symbols dZ I=. CKW 32 32 32 32 41 52 52 66 67 76 77 81 83 86 97 98 99 104 106 125 A) 125 134 134 137 156 156 0 CL(X) TV (Sl. 4) v CLC(X) 2” C(X) I4 KCY) F(X) S’ 4x7 A) Nd(r. TH 4 cik int(B)...
cc(Z) W2”l WL(X) p (for Chapter C* VIII) a(W.4[X] WC(Wl. exp FW USC f’. W. s(W. JWJ%(~)). c’(X). X E CP. r(Y) go’(X).) x 0 WL(29 CIP. hi(M). P(M). MCIP Chain. WA) 744 dl (A) 2f. CT&c) 290 290 291 291 292 305 306 310 314 314 327 333 335 349 381 413 416 424 o(w) ‘JJb.(U) (4. ms(t). NW. CPH. FANR =. t(M).498 ANE crANR. C(f) C(X) z I’ x 2 comma v(X) P) . X E CPH H”(. f)* Fd(X) FAR. IT(X). f^ W) SPECIAL SYMBOLS 156 157 163 169 173 188 195 206 231 253 253 257 270 278 278 mesh(f) Sus(X) HS(W 443 449 450 452 457 461 A. L(M). e(M).. FWJ%(~)>. “0” i(G) CE (x’. t) L3(W Xl (2) WA. C(W(X))) 462 472 473 CP. a. a* W(X)).
77 neighborhood extensor. 156 Whitney 216 map. 184 Arccontinuum. Aposyndetic. 156 crANR. 245 384 114 segmentwise. 263 206 238. 85 generalized. 286 (see Order arc) Arc approximation property. 32 end point of. 384 neighborhood retract. 216 pseudo. Arclike. Appoximate 253 ANR. 257. 127 451 AR. AE. Acyclic. Approximated arcwise. 156 76 Absolute Absolutely Accessible retract. C*smooth. 284 . 155 Admissible Admissible continuum. 32 402 free. 76 Arc. 499 187.Index A Absolute Absolute extensor. 77 AHessential ANE. 110 map. deformation bh 216 Admissible strongly. 157 with respect extendable to an. retract. Absolute 156 Antichain. 473 strong deformation 288 (arcwise). order.
connected. 48 Bin&s house. 65 decomposable. 32 manifold 461 437 boundary of. 126 (see Segmentwise Arcwise Arcwise approximated. 219 326 CH Chainabie. 32 Choice function. 81 Celllike map. 16 Base of cone. pathwise Middlethird set. 257 chainable. Block (Whitney). 224 Cell. 83 46 manifold boundary semi. 98 (see Cone = hyperspace warty) of I”. 395 Arcwise accessible. 257 weak. 333 . 140 con uniquely. 32 B Ball generalized. 258 (see Nest) open Hd. 52 of nfin. 248 continuum weakly. Boundary. Cik. CE map. 257 c. 451 accessible) 384 Buried in X. 224 Chain. Cdetermined. 258 448 continuum. 65 set. 127. (see Uniformly nected) Arcwise Arcwise Atriodic. n. 251 142 126 cchyperspace. 39 of cofin. 192 weak. disconnects.500 Arcsmooth. 80 143 C Cantor fan. 10. 218 INDEX Buckethandle continuum.
crANR. maps g. 279. 65 Closed space of order arcs. 11.6. 259. Warsaw.INDEX Circle. Complete. 83 Containment hyperspace. 67 of. Pelczynski. Circlelike. 474 IV. 52 Cone = hyperspace 424 (see CH Confluent continuum) property.24. 155 157 Complete invariance (CIP). 9 pseudo. 137 Comb(null). 19.2. 461 Compactification. Continuum property Contractible. (see Intersection Continuum. Composant. 164 15 (2.4. 270 for continuumvalued (MCIP). 62 62 187. remainder Compactum. 207 semi.13. 261. 453 im kleinen. Compact countably. 286 sin(l/z). map. Class M. 67 31 70 11. Compact 23 50 51 vertex of. 385 Connected s. 260 Circlewithaspiral. 66. 52 geometric. 270 . 279 A. 441 in 2.91. space of. 66. Cone. 31 101 248 hyperspace) Hausdorff. 325 0. 14.2214.7.19. 11. 284 Component. 51 base of. 32 convex sets [Theorems: 1.14) chainable. 253 Clopen. 198. 52 99 104 501 proper.
32 fundamental. 23 253. 194 398 L. 193 smooth. 257 eidy map. crZ. 156 C*smooth..502 with respect to Z (crZ). 21 TV. 442 (see uspace) Cut point. 142 61. 253 253 homogeneous. 32 of circle in finite graph. Decomposable arcwise. Deformation (~admissible). 367 Diameter Different map. 268 216 61. 443 Countable closed set aposyndetic. Convergence 156 INDEX Deformation retract (see Strong. 238 Countably compact. . ) Dendroid. Convex metric. 265 E Earring. 440 (see Totally disconnected) absolutely. 103 hereditarily. Dimension. 305 of x. 64 Dimensionally Disconnected 290 Covering property. 182 End point of arc. 319 (see Essentially. 80 Coselection. 375 D dconnected. strongly. zero. 106 Whitney maps . cspace.267 cmap. 305 of finite graph.) space. hereditarily. . 162 echain. 279 continuum. 443 type N. 375 pointwise smooth. 319 253. . 22 Convergent. Hawaiian.
property. 169 cretraction. 290 G Ga. 416 Follicle. 89 Free arc. Generalized Generalized 441 arc. 194 Cantor. 400 238 264 aposyndetic. 263 Extension Extensor (see Absolute Extensor) (of a function). Fiber (see Total fiber) Figure eight. 44 Fin. 305 fine subgraph of. 307 . 7. 10. 33. 309 Fundamental dimension. 48 181 181 F Factor Hilbert Fan. 19 gcontractible. 305 Finite subsets. 134 in first (second) variable. 455 Extendable with respect to an Whitney vertex of. 305 fine subgraph ramification subgraph of. 155 AH. Harmonic. Essentially 184 different maps. 307 point of. 85 Fruit tree. Finitely space of. 77 of a function. 48 Fine subgraph. 307 140 92 cube. set. cselection. 182 369 Essential map. 81 33. 270 Fold.INDEX 503 Finite graph. end point of. 305 end point of. 39 cc. 114 ball. 306 Equicontinuous. Fixed point ANR. Fixed homotopically. 305 of. 305 Graph (finite).
81. 14.12. 32 intersection. 32 [Theorems: 9. 15. 25.1. 188. 19 INDEX Homotopically fixed. 267 hereditarily. 125 (see Containment hyperspace) Invariance property (see Complete.15(3). 61. 11 (2. 61. 48 Infinite Ladder. 461 containment.9.9. . 267 Induced maps. 13 Hair. 11 (2. 281 mfin. 71.6. 61. 267 Hereditarily indecomposable. f&i. 155 Hyperonto representation. 122.21. 267 Hereditarily unicoherent.3. 197 Intersection hyperspace. 46 Harmonic fan. 13 Hawaiian Earring.325.450 I Indecomposable continuum.7. 14.5). 305 subgraph of. ) Invariant Whitney hyperspace. 125 invariant Whitney. 155 cc. 305 Gaset. 17.3. 439 Hyperspace. 70. 271 dimensionally. 440 Homotopic. 48 Hairy point. 15. 193 Hilbert cube.7. 61. 458 Hyperspace suspension. 306 vertex of.504 ramification point of. 264 Homotopy.381 Inessential map.5). 162 Hereditarily decomposable.13.3. 92 Hausdorff continuum. 11. 155 coconnected.7. 89 Homogeneous. 155 joining f to g. 14. 459 . 71. . 459 Whitney. 11. 101 Hausdorf metric. 15. 3 H H. Hilbert cube factor.
224 confluent. 188. 406 at a point. 216 L Ladder. 214 Lift. P. 65 Isometry. 453 Acoselection. 184 celllike. 75 (see Cik) Irreducible. 350 Like (see Arc. 381 inessential. 15 K K. 32 (see Boundary) Map (= continuous function) AHessential. 169 induced. 163 Light map. 325 padmissible deformation. 167. 273 Isolated point. 443 Lconvergent. (see Property (4’) Kato’s index. 182 cretraction. 257 Locally connected. 443 space. 406 (seeProperty (IC)*) (K). 310 Kelley’s property. 306 &connected. 106 cidy. 163 Whitney. 197 Large Whitney level.INDEX 505 Limit (of sets). 174 hereditarily. 182 essential. 282 M M Class(M). 216 padmissible Whitney map. 155 . 21 Limit inferior (of sets). Circle. 21 Level size. Property Locally nconnected. 375 E. 21 Link (of chain). infinite. 20 Limit superior (of sets). Tree) Manifold boundary of In. 155 Fw. 207 diameter (diamd). 279.
292 Mutually aposyndetic. 374 pseudo. 11 (2. 32 [Theorems: 14. 118. 385 Nearmonotone. 385 Monotone increasing sequence of sets. 281 locally.61. 79 Maximal fine subgraph. 253 Whitney. 447 Movable. 207 MO. 80 Hausdorff. 385 nonalternating. 110 Mean. 440 Moebius band. 385 .20. 403 semiconfluent. 207 quasimonotone. 447 r. 9 (1. 443 Metric convex. 183 weakly confluent. 385 NearOM. 32 manifold boundary of.5) universal. 134 Minimal closed cover. 238 Mutually separated. 110 Minimal representation.1814. 288 n. 385 size. 160. 162 union. 444 Mesh of f. 70. 350 monotone. (see Hilbert cube) Nconnected. 385 quasi. 282 Nearhomeomorphism. 97 (see Separated) N Ncell. 443 refinable.. 71. 307 Maximal member.5). etc.506 light.23). 441 OM. 207 near. 9 MOmap. 105 z.1. 324 INDEX Minimal member. 160. 385 open. 13 uniform. 385 near. 288 Multicoherence degree. 149 Monotone map. 91 (11.
385 near. 187 Plike. 441 Nondegenerate. 50 P Padic solenoid. 105 simple. 405 Property (K)*.INDEX 507 Order arc. 398 Positive Whitney level. 305 Orderable. 122 Order arcs. 207 weak Plike. 118. 364 Nested intersection. 385 Open ball (see Ball) Open map. 405 at a point. 75 Pelczynski compactum. 284 Pointed movable. 214 Proper circlelike.l)sphere. 111 begins in 3t. 80 uniformly. 39 (see Od) Nonalternating map. 443 Nontrivial sequence. 105 simple n. 39 OMmap. 122 from A0 to Al. 39 Nfold symmetric product. weakly. 250 Peano continuum. 289 Pointwise smooth dendroid. 167. 70 Perfect. 136 Order of vertex. 174 hereditarily. 111 from A0 to Al. 6 Nmovable.26 Noose. 291 Pathwise connected. 110 Nest. 119 stays in ?f. 153 Nfin. 32 Null comb. 32 Nontrivial coselection. 260 Property (n). 36 (N . 278 . 65 Plike. 284 0 Od Tb. 288 Nod. space of.
space of. 403 (of weak chain). 99 map. Whitney R Ramification Rational Refinable Refinement Remainder point. map. 182 (see Rmap) Rimage. c. Pseudosolenoid. 188 Q Quasicomponent Quasimonotone (qc). 134 Segmentwise accessible. 442 Segment w. 286 286 444 286 Puns. 212 425 212 76 (see Zset) Pseudoarc. mation retract) . 443 R3continuum. Rmap. Retract. 365 Representation hyperonto. R3set. 447 S & space. minimal. (see Selectible. 364 Selection. 305 Segments. 60. 258 of compactification.14). Pseudomean.r. 67 Removing map. map) 238 442 (see Rimage. 46 (5. 443 Rogers homeomorphism. 369 rigid.508 Property 2 INDEX Retraction. 128 Segment of finite graph. 76 Strong defor439 440 (see Coselection) Selection continuum. 305 287 continuum. 451 (see Accessible) Selectible. 46. 363 E.t. 333 map. Pseudocircle. Whitney Semiaposyndetic.
442 To. 7. 461 233 Space of finite subsets. 7 in X by B. 149 nontrivial. 385 Solenoid. 457 space of. Semiconfluent Semispan. 163. 7 TI. pointwise. 400 property. Triad) Sin( l/x)circle. 472 (see Whitney Size map.INDEX 509 Smooth dendroid. 62 62 Space of size levels. 286 Space c. Separated 291 333 map. Space of singletons. 20 Sq. 32 Spoke (of simple nod). 39 Strong arc approximation property. 473 maps. Snakelike. 472 (see Whitney Small Whitney level) simple nod. 32 Simple nod. 6 u.l). 291 pseudo. 39 (see Nod) Simple triod. 39 (see Od. Sequence convergence 98 monotone increasing sequence of sets. 207. 39 Stable. Singletons. 344 (see Whitney Standard map) stable) levels. space. 6 Size level. 98 mutually. 384 level. Sin(l/z)continuum. 162. (n . 26 Sequential strong Whitneyreversible Sierpinski twopoint Space of order arcs. 257 398 194 Semiboundary. 442 Space of compact convex sets. 134 6 Simple closed curve. 291 Sphere. 442 (of sets). 136 Space of segments. 472 Space of Whitney Space of Whitney Span. 306 .
91 [Theorems: 15. 291 195 450 6 U u Class(fi). 306 Type N. (see Boundary) . 1. Symmetric product. 142. winding 375 Triod. set. 367 semispan. 7 (1. Subgraph. 6 curve. hereditarily. Unicoherent. 250 Union map. 453 Whitneyreversible erty. 9. 216 approxiPeelike. TVconvergence.11) Tispace. 429 291 dendroid.23. 39 (see Od) Tospace. Totally Touching Tree. Topological 22 98 43 Chapter VIII. INDEX Total fiber. 309 map). span.9(2)]. 194 fruit.8. Uniform Uniform Uniformly metric. Subcontinuum. 11. pathwise nected.510 Strong deformation 371 approximate. 284 15 (2. 105 simple. Surjective Surjective Suspension. 402 Totally bounded. Strong 288 propretract.5. 11. boundary. T Table summarizing 294 Tame (simple nod in aP).12) 101 disconnected. 232 Strongly admissible (Whitney Strongly arcwise mated. topology. 384 Strongly Strongly convergent. 474 157 193 134 134 con hyperspace. 287 31 31 Subcompactum.
216 (see Size map) Whitney property. 232 Whitney stable. 216 essentially different. 442 (see cspace) V Vertex of cone. 287 . Space of Whitney levels) Whitney map. 253 (seeClass(W). 458 Weak Whitney stable. 454 Wild (simple nod). 457 strongly admissible. 233 strong. 183. 105 admissible. 473 Unstable. 323 Warsaw circle. 232 Whitneyreversible property. 253 Weakly orderable. 62 Warsaw disk. large. 198. 428 weak. 306 (see Size level. 43 Winding curve. 3 w W Class(W). 192 Weak arcsmooth. 459 weak. 395 Weak chain. Wset). 52 of finite graph. 305 of simple nod. 214 small. 258 selection continuum.173 uspace. 231 Uniquely arcwise connected. 364 Whitney block. 458 Whitney level.INDEX 511 Weakly confluent map. 442 space of. 159. 232 sequential strong. 258 Weak Plike. 253 set. 458 invariant. 326 Whitney hyperspace. strongly. 455 p (for chapter VIII). 454 Weakly chainable. 305 Vietoris topology. 39 order of. 143 Universal map. 284 Weak Whitney hyperspace. 344 Upper semicontinuous (USC).
414 Wset. 323 Z Zerodimensional. 78 .512 INDEX WO. 64 Zerodimensional closed set aposyndetic. 238 Zmap. 79 Zset. 364 Wrinkle.