This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
perfectly round form at the top of a bounce, whereas it will stretch more dramatically at the bottom of a bounce.This is why the bouncing ball is such a good exercise for demonstratingthe principlesof timing, slowing-in and slowing-out, and squash and stretch.
Of course, if our ball was not rubber and bouncing, but was heavy and inflexible or light and much more flexible, the actions would look far different. Following are three different examples of balls with varying weights and mass.
The Bouncing Ball
V s i e Animated Rims
first 5lc+v-in b i n g (9) for the new lightly trace its center po$fllm:
reate the breakdown markthe center poinl at action gulde and
The Bouncing Ball
Then, separatethe three drawings and place them on the pegs (now with the lightbox off) so you can now roll the drawings to make sure the action is correct.
Move on to drawing 7 and do the same thing between 1 and 9. Finally, create drawing 5 between drawings 3 and 2 ( added an extra in-betweenhere and 1 numbered it with an even number,although it should still be shot on two's). Having done all this, you will have completed the first slow-in sequence to the first half of the actlon. As a last check, flip the drawings on the pegs to see if all is moving well.
In-Betweeningthe Second Part of the Bounce
Remember that there will be no in-betweensbetweenthe breakdown drawing coming into the squashed hit or the breakdowndrawing coming out of it.This is because not doing so will ensure a nice snappy bounce. Consequently, we will have to imitate the stretch position we created in drawing 9, although this time we will have to angle it away from the hit position along the path of action. It should also not be quite so elongated in shape, as the velocity (and thereforethe speed distortion) has been reduced by the bail hitting the ground.
The Bouncing Ball
As M t f a halfefheactlon, Ih
you w1l Cfstmed IQ umtety
other,nmotp$lPadupwnh center of-, bfrbfno cmfe t eoecaru k
Distorting Mass and Volume
Remember when applying squash and stretch to any object, character, or i this case ball, you can only distort the shape in accordance with that objec inherent volume and mass. As mentioned before, a solid metal cannonball hardly distort, whereas a very soft, rubber ball will distort significantly beci its mass will enable it to do so.The volume of objects do not change when you apply squash and stretch to theirshape. An acutely squashed or stretc bail cannot increase or decrease its volume just because it is changing shal Therefore, when you apply distortion to a shape, make sure that its size, mi and volume remaln plausiblein the shape you choose to make it.
The Bouncing Ball
Note how the added shadow really does g~ve senre ofmntact when the a
ball h~ts gmund the
artier (@, IWW an nuon the en suentfsl aspect ofanimation as it
I Hnw to Make Animated Filmc
Top pegsfl~pplnglmlilng)IS somethcng that pun many am ontmm uslng thlr appmach However, the f m l top e g r m huge'wnefitsder~yedfrcn~dmw~ngwth p perfecr the art1
In this partkular case, you need to lookout for specific things as you flip your drawings. ! k e s the ball fdlaw a nice smooth, arced path of action?Do any f of the drawingsjump out o place durmng the requence?is the ball actlon slowing intn the toppositlanand then accderating out of It. It will be hard for you t o t e s t t h e i m p m d t h e h position on the ground untll you have i another bounce complete, but look out for its effectivenesswhen you do. However, this fllpplng test for now, wlth the drawing you have, will show ydu ~f you are on the right track. If there are errors, fix them immediately. If not, then you are reedy to move on.
Flipping IS extremely useful but it doesn't entirety matchthe real test, whlch comes when you see your animatiwr playfng In real time on a real screen or monltor. However, befaregobrgthmughallthe efbftof Shooting your w o k make a last check on emythirrg on the pegs, any errors t h g will upwt yw when you blew y o u r h t pencll test on the screen Checkthatthe ball In-beweens b e a m widerapart as theydcscandand closer together as the ball d~ agaln.Thls will Dnrure thetrhe s k w v w 6 h i n g - i n appmach youbve adopted isworkrng.
The Bouncing Ball
Remember, the closerthe drawings, the slower* actton Consequently, thlr acnon downwardwill accelerate as ~tgoes
you an understandingof how fast or slow the action appears when shot at different frame rates, and also show you that some things work perfectlywell on two's as opposed to one's.That said, we will eventually demonstrateto you that one's is the best way to go, especiallywith fast, large-move actions. although It is twice the work to produce, of course. Anyway, be honest with yourself when you view your first pencil test. Is it really moving as you anticipated?Is it jerky, or are there one or two drawings that seem out of place and jumpy compared with the rest of the action?If so, you definitely need to go back and fix the problem before moving on. if not-congratulations-you have passed your first test and are ready to go on to the next assignment! (If you can't decide whether or not the action is working fine, show it to an honest-speaking friend,? better still, an animatior professional, to ascertain if the ball is really bouncing correctly.)
White,T. TheAnimator'sWorkbook. New York: Watson-Guptili. 1988, pp. 74-75. White, T. Animation from Pencils to Pixels: ClassrcolTechn~ques Digital for Animators. Boston: Focal Press, 2006, pp. 332-348.
One of the great Disney intern challenges was for them to create a bouncing flour sack sequence. Essentially, with the backgroundsupplied (you have my permission to photocopy the backgroundlayout from the following figure or download it from www.desktopocademy.com), you need to create a bouncing sequence using the flour sack character in the following figure. (Don't forget to enlarge your photocopy beforeanimating [strongly recommended!] ~f you're working larger than the background size printed in this book!)
Mort young pcopit M a h v mnr d y ae w n heardo a flour rack, let alone e f s e o e i cn Imaginetheir only en n1 a contact wtth flour a through me pxbgesfwndo monsuprrmrket n shelves However, ths ISwhere ywr anlmatds lmaglnatlon has to come m play W a d e a bg roft canvas u ht os sack, filledvnth fine, yet malleable, powdera d tied u a ail four cr n pt o w i d a d m v Ilke? n oe
Treat the flour sack a if it were a bouncing ball and createa sequence that is s orlginal and amuslng, incorporatingthat bounce.You can effectively create anythingyou like but challengeyourself by including a number of bounces and a variat~on timing.You may want the flour sack to bounce in from in ofkcreen, bounce off some object In the background, and then fly offscreen at the end.Yw may want to have the flour sack start off still and then bu~ld up to a bouncingsequencewithin the scene, arrivingat an ultimate condusian. The storyline for your assignment is entirely up to you.You can use the backgroundsupplied or create your own, but you do haw to draw a bouncidg flour sack scene.
* b c -r u d . ak o n q that theDiiPen students usefcfmei si n e t. h o r sack a sg m nsT ecinula fu l shape in t e middlea a trampoline h that thesack can bounaon ifrequid f ( o r e Su e twork, courtesy o S uc : t d n D ~ einstituteofTechnology) i Pn g
~ s s i ~ n m eObjectives nt
The key th~ngs are seelang to ach~eve th~s you w~th assignment 1 to produce s a bel~evable bounc~ng sequence using an object that IS not a rubber ball (Althoughall the squash and stretch, slowrng-m and slwtng-aut pr~napier of mwement and tim~ng apply here, o course!) Remember that the flour still f sack IS a very different k~nd object In mass and substanceto the rubber of ball you haw been working w~th IS veryfluld andilexlbleexternally, bemg It essenhally made of soh sack~ng fabnc, but contafnsan ahnost full bulk of flurd, powdery flour that will always tend to srnkm masseto the bottom due to gravlty
Wote how b~ mund shapes donate wetghi and mm pull of grav~iy d ~
If bent In haAf~tb&w%iM skn~brlytondlcrsjnkto 4 s of thesack,ar both this fendency and capabdby should be ~mphedinlhewtur sackaction.
W w ,R M fh fo r W nt e ot cf u
t Q e p rW gt I ~ k w n at n IoA n
h - MWa d eF r * n @ mbwRy*4owsdt a sw3 a goad one for
Speed and Distance
Avary~~g~rm&k~youue1*wywrkingina3D space (he backgrwnwt in -f, ar$mhhg should reflect mat Vim&&,anythbrgfk4mows in* d l a a ~ ~ ~ mt appaar to m e m& o h e r tkan mythin#ttrrtk9rwingbmh-. Consequent&, if the t)wr sack bowncufmn t b neer#em&*$he dismcc, y u wiH need o to inuwsingly add in-betwemto thc autbmrr,@vethe effect of rtgening slower as it moves away.
The Bouncing Ball
These are two key areas that you should focus on when attemptfng thls assignment-that IS, In addttion to applylng the bouncing ball principlesyou have already learned
Whether you are attempting an assignment or a scene ln a film, you need to apply a diligent process to the approach you will take We did thls In the first lesson of the bounclng ball Rrst, we drafted the path of actlon we wanted th ball to take We then blocked In our key posit~ons.Then applied d~stort~on we to the key drawlngs we had arrlved at Then we plannedand charted how we wanted to tlme and posltion our tn-between drawtngs Next, we produced oi ~n-betweens flipped the final drawlngs to ensue that all IS well Finally, n and shot the entlre sequence and v~ewed runnlng In real tlme on a screen of ou ~t IS process IS, and ~t precisely the approach that IS cho~ce Th~s what a dtl~gent you should take w ~ t h partlcylar apignment (Indeed, all the assignments this you will be faced wtthl) So, take the backgroundyou have been prov~ded wlth and tape ~tto a the area you are punched sheet of paper, so that ~tfalls w~thln field gu~de using. A 100 percent copy of the backgroundlayout provided will most l~kely not fit 1 the actual field size you are worklng wtth. Consequently, you will n have to enlarge ~tto fit espectally ~f are worklng wlth a 12 or 16 field you
> & ? *
le Bounrina Ball
Mow that you have the backgroundtaped into positianen apunched shece of paper sired m your chosen ffeld s~m, shouid you a dean shcet of paper m it and mugh out the key prsitms of the 8ow sr r ad the sequenceyou we planning. Dcf~'tsettle fw first h w g k R$yuotky~ur Idea until you comeup with romding quItPOrtgi~~1 d w c l w Wywt d an a0 o 30 sheets of paper to achkve the ideal mqu(~mdonr r wany &but it. bmamber, wim anything y u do, you only get &Bf a jmjeef as much o a you put in. The preptanningis a importantas the exceutknr.%&ote, s s don't just jumpin with the first thought you have.lt isnellytmpwtw to pry due process to your ideas at th~s stage Ultimately, hourrpsw,,pu shod$ have ywnethxng &it looks a little h'kethe followingfigure overthebedqmund layout.
yu , top of &o d
can now break down the wW&thinginto+ate h y s mm separate hseU
'Remember to add some pauses in the action and not make d l in-betweens ,
evenly paced throughout. Check-out other great animatiodandseethe variat~ons t~rn~ngandpace the best actlon contains Bu~ld in as a In that this
breakdowndrawings on sepwate sheets of paper, numbering them as you pc
I always number my draw~ngs before I actually complete them Thls Is a *, 2 ' good hab~t get Into If you don t number the drawlngs wh~le are to you drawlng. ~tcan be a challenge to rearrange them later ~fthey get knocked onto the floor or rearranged In any unexpectedway It IS better to be
tiamesthmshowthesequenceofadon lnan anlmahiNote that the chamctersareononelevel wh~le e th backgroundlayout 18 used beneaththem (Source Student work, courtesy ofD~giPen stduteofTethnology1 ln
moves cred~bly across the screen, or 1 ~ttoo fast, or too slow, Do the s s look awkward or too far apart In the sequence?Does the perspective contact between the character and the background reallywork' Ask
betweenmg everyth~ng then havlng to go back later and change and nlficantly more drawlngsto put thlngs r~ghtl
When you are satisfied that the pose test 1 working as you want ~t put In s to, the ~n-betweens you d ~ w ~ t h bounc~ng sequence. Don't forget t as d the ball value of supenmposltionand the appl~catlon slow~ng-in of and slowinpout wlth your anlrnation It IS these thlngs that makelife easier and movement
A :limbin[,character k e t h ~ sia prife:t card cat? f r a sow-r tnvinrd t t r e r ~ Iincr 5 hattl~nq [ qravii, o l ~ h all ti crrfr~re wade to goilc'iurr thr higher it m3ues l ource Studentu,~rk, uetrlg S cctrteiy of Dig e lnstilitr 'n 0fTe:hnciogy I
When all the ~n-betweens , sho to ascertain if everything moves correctly and what timing works best for what action.You will be surprised at the difference both film speeds offer. However, viewing both will begin to give you a sense for how many drawings per second produce a certain speed of movement. Fix or adjust any parts of the test that don't work, even mixlng and match~ng onesversus two's when you shoot your final plece Don t be afra~d do this-much of the best 2D to animation ever produced IS a subtle mlxer of one's and two's
my job in guiding you toward ultimately being an accomplished, capable animator in your own right is well on the way!
The Lower Body
As i noted, Ichoose to first present only the lower part of the body when teaching walks, because Sth~s is created correctly, everyth~ng will part else easily fall into place. Consequently, let us focus only on the leg and lower tor principlesfor now to ensure that you have a solid grasp of what is involved.
Basicallythere are two key positions in a walk: onewith the right leg forward and the other with the left leq forward. For conveniencesake, we'll call these
body ofmy pssiw pasftlaf M a w btaisedfmany~h~nq arpeddtxd or eccentric,walk but
Indeed, a simple g e o r n 4 t r i c r l i - e with a CWI)P&SS will reveal that the hip joint in either of the key stride position ~llllb.ncmtotheg~~ndbeuu~dtheaqlehatth contact leg makes with the ground. With poorly animated walks, the body actlon on the passing pcdthn rarely has t i upward mowment during the hs middkdthc nride. Indeed, 20 annnaMn MI1quite ofter unkmmrv$y make* contact kg on the passhng pasitichg 1 shorter than in the strlde posttions on these occasions, x, that the body does not rlstat a#. H w m this is entirely wrar a e , and 1 the major reasonwhy most poorly drawn walkdo s not work.
B c u eme leg WIN n v r c a g I& Iengm, unless In a ea s ee h n e crazy,rubh.hox canmway when devatedroa wrml posltton, a will automatically Ihftthe pehr~ ad area, n thus tbe mt ofthe body, Mth ~t
I will remind you agsln that byflipping (rolling) your drwvlngii Y U will get an immediate idea of what 1 going on long O s before you go to the effort of doing all the in-betweens and '
Iryto keep y u nonfl~pp~ngd assteady as pois~Me h n renewing yourwork, then thesubtlet~es or hn a we o f rnowrnentwlll be eailer t see o
For the purposes of our basic generic walk exercise, we will assumethere are two basic in-betweens that need to go in to complete our first stridenumber 3 (betweenthe opening stride position and the passing position) and number 5 (betweenthe passingposition and the closing stride position).This will give us a sequence that looks like the following figure.
Again, notl e that t e body riser up as it r a h sthe p s 1 1position c h ece as 1 9
Note how on drawing 3 the back toe remalns In contact wlth the ground untll the last poss~ble moment (g~ving more dynamic push to the walk), and a drawing 7 has the free foot up and forward before the downward h position i of key drawing 9.
used, but reversingthe legs as we do =The M t n g ~ d w ~ h k s M e k . m b e R 11.13 (the other legs parsing position), 15, and t7. (Note that 17 is actually idantlcalto 1 as we n e e d t o e h u l n ~ ~ a t t d t ? e r c a n d h h~ step we are back in e x a m the satwestride m Wwe were at in the R i beginning.)
When aeating t second unde w ~ t h opposne l g yw can preny much trace the or~glnal k the es mlde pos~tlo although the foot cwtact pornlans of rhe near and far faotwll be Merent, due to the effects oiperspemue
Now we hwetwp w p l e t e str~des have completed all the elements and we nwd to mate a continuouswalk. However, when attempting walks, ~t is pooslble to appmachthe completewak action in two ways.The first is to createa sequenceof drawingsthat wtll walk the character from one side of the screen to the other.Thrs w e n t d l y means that you will have to draw as m y different drawings asnnrssaryto haw the character move the requlred distanceacross themeen.Th~sIS actuallyfar more work than is necessary at thlf learning stage A mwh betterway to test and play w~thh t walk action is t do a walk cycle. o
T s is the number u f d m wydu wok# k h i ~
mgt ~ hahead1
Place another clean sheet of paper over the top of lhis and draw an identicall stride to the first, but thls time with the legs reversed. Number there drawing 1 and 9 as indicated earlier. . Hr I h v pa e key draw~ng9 ee a e l c d over key draw~nq and ta e ~tI 1 rcd s a e t e legfarthestaway,soaso hdd h t h er differentiateit fmm t e n a iq.
caWhdtt-W kupon the &thcmdIkH#lt&.That
Now you have completedthe drawings of the first stride and the second stride in an identicalmanner (except for the fact that this time the legs are reversed, of course).
Yeu cw wake this easier f o r y o u r r d f b y ~ k p~d a d l o n ) t an &ymg b r o batnheet Mdiesunrhsr t h e f a r f m t a l w ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I h r i y l nearerfoottothel~~erkse.Tki w a n d e wit! mure that yu get a correct o rafksu.
Two Important thlngs you need t o know about when you do t h ~ s F~rst, for 10 draw~ng make sure you keep the toe down on the back foot before ~tllhs 11 w l extra u p and beglns t o come forward on draw~ng Th~s ~ lglve you a l ~ t t l e push on the back leg However, on walk cycles all the sl~de d~stances have t o be even for every contact foot posltlon on the ground, so you w ~ lneed t o l calculate the average foot sl~de d~stance backthroughout the preced~ng str~de and add ~tt o the draw~ng posltton for draw~ng (see the following figure) 9 10
walk to pm a definite bend on the kneawkh t M n p @ @ $ k q f i contact position. In the following figure you Fan see the n o r m a f leg ~ posttlonfordrawing 3 and the airenwive M-bg very m w e w m e w a * I c ~ ~ w ~ ~ ~ .
) . - i " ' -
~ ' - 3
w~th e kind of weigh$tahdle. m
Testing the Walk
Now that you have all the in-betwens in, you arcrp#lytowstthellction agaln.This t h e , apart from flipplngthe action manually, shaotthllhreecycle w', of drawirrgs on both one's and t o s so you can see what the speed lookr l~ke this number of drawings being used. Just asanhmtbn drawings with numberedwith odd numbers usually means that the antmatian Is m a d to be shot on t o s even numbers usually spnbokzepositionsforone's. w', Consequdy, ,thecorrect way to shoot the new set of drawhgs w d d be to shoot tkc*a!wcycIecmone's. Hawever, by aiso %hoothrp these drawin- . tos y o t r ~ f s slower theaction wiU b??ifthey are $hat w', h ~ insteadd8nc%Ther+fbre,this time shoot yovr animation cycle a minim& 61
11,12,13,~4,T5,16,l.l'hls orderwill deftnltclyshowyou how much smwtha the new one'ssequence ofwalking will be compared to me orlglnalt o s w' version ofodd numben,and it will also show you what the walk will bokllke when shot twice as slow as before by shooting the one's drawingsontwq'r
N w that y hwssurarrsfuUycompletedttwwlk w Mticnfor the b o r n ha of the body,you can movefwward and complete the top half throughowtthc walk.& ge backfayair original stride key posltiws, 1 and 9 and add* , upper body to them.
Ite how thetorso leans a littleforward.Th1s is becausefor any walkacn'on o look realistic and plausible, a character needs to angle forward somewhat o get momentum. Note how most people in the street walklike that. We take his for granted when we try to walk ourselves, but notice what happens in our Iwn body when we try to walk and don't lean forward or push off from our :ontact leg first We just don't move at all. However, if we lean forward slightly ?willfind that we have to put our free foot forward and down to create the st stride, or we will fall flat on our face! (This is effectivelywhat babies do ?en learning to walk-they forward lean but don't know yet that they have quickly put their free leg forward to stop themselvesfrom falling over.)
lyway, because of this, all walks should have a sllght forward lean when n draw our key positions, as should all the walk positionswe subsequently m (unless we are animating a drunk person destined not to rno t o n his or her face).
Again, this 1 just another remlnderthat wlth a genencatlywalhng c h a r ~ r s the forward and backwardarm poslttons oppose k h ~ l v e on each key. s
With the key stride positions i,take the original lower-body passing posit n and put the upper body, arms and head in on those too. Don't forget to keep the slight forward lean to the body here also.You can do this by superimposing one key over the other, andaddingthe first passing positic overthe top ofthat, milking sure to line up the pelvic area one with the other and making sure theupward sidesof the paper are all parallel with a another. (ifthey are not, then you will tend to put an unwantedadditional
Note that the arms in the passing positionsare now down by the sidesof the body.This is because they are moving from forward to backwardat this point, or backwardto the forward, de~endina what arm vou are considerino. on
Not only does the bee kg par-'
am (Iwill e p m w h y b c k r b . r rs xi a bent in relal~on the amW to
With all the keys and passing positions in place and working as you roll the drawings, you can now go ahead and put in the upper bodies on all the other drawings. I would actually only work on the odd-number drawings at first, then test them by flipping and shooting before you put in the in-betweens for the one's drawings.
Oe final renunde~ n youactually shoot d
gmt ded ~hDW~VllmBtm ng long before IS wnrkl
Wh~te,T.TheAn#rnator'sWorkbook Now Yo& Watson.Gupt~ll, 1988, p p 46-5 Whlte, T. Antmatran fmm Pencfls toPwds: Uass~al Teshnrquesfor D ~ g ~ t o l An~motm. Baston: Focal Press, 2006, pp. 234-244.
Create a generic walk cycle on one's, as indicated In t h ~ chapter lesson. s
This natural twisting ofthe uKsa bath we will bring a more natural fluidity a fa tht entire action.
Now w y a m ah y rppi g Wmaion El n *t bl t c t r u R
alone will make it look that much more flyhi and M N I ~ L T ~it! ~
~emeroba thtthe timanbody is not a machine& th!WfW m n g g d s a ' , IS rigld or n w ~ ~ l n a r r hands f~ r i m W a m m w n s o + k-.
\ h '
m o m kwq?, .hod mnds t drag back a Whln#d m .mbtThe the o h s a m c c m k ~ @ ~ t u n d s t h t r n - ~ k ~ n r h ~ l d d q l a
A lil back.
Overlapping Action on the Mad
Wh~le welreWng at taktng our gener~c walkmttanexr kd,WShoukl bokat~~actionandsaewhdltcanbadcne.JurJ~4hhand~hpF w~th am's zlction,the he& cw o v e r b p w i r h ~ T h i meats W q s the s ~eWyleaupm,the~ridethatisthepazsing.praritisir,~hahgbdcanrk-lg back a httleIbn&at theneSkarjawlme.Then,astbbey dmpidom, toward the key stnde position, the head can rise wd f W
dour dram c h n & s t
It isclearthat iftheba?.lsnothnrC~m,fkcAg~M17iwmtalnIy r OR a pa pc balance
In-Between Placement and Timing
Now that we have covered all the essential elements of walks, ~tis time to dlscuss the way we can glve them more lndlv~dual~ty personal~ty and Th~s be additionally done through h t h pose and chart modlficat~on. can As we have seen, the key to a basicpnec~c walk 1 to place the key str~de s posltlons correctly, make sure thepass~ng posltlon IS well balanced, and then place the in-between drawings in the correct place However, by modlfylng any of these clemene, wecan glve the walk a defin~te personality
Dynamic Key Pose Modi%x@on
'It is all In the pose."So say all the great old animators who once graced the golden age of traditional animation.Furexample, in the next figure, look at the two passing position modifications beside our generic one, and you can immediately see that the personalityOfthe walk varies quite considerably from one to the other.
PlsnsgpCtsW~s be ~nfintem can Wfp~srarrrmgement,but even nm d exaggerated, eccMilr wy wh h should st111nemheks l z $ - w a n d m balance
$ : , A
&micrS center of gnwlytEsrgmRomthe fwt'r Wm!m pmt on k ground
Modifying the Passing Position
Any posltlon can be changed to ~mply emotion or personality Just rememb to keep the body we~ght over the contact foot at a tlmes and anyth~ng H IS posslble.The next figure IS an exampleofthe k ~ n of n r ~ d posltlon that d e you m~ghtfind ~ t h t~red burdened character. Note how the bent back w a or slgnlfies a huge welght on the shoulders
iKheakh,btlt&WG Mthin the a M ~ mn f qrm the ~ n o n
F~nally, can conslder adjustingthe in-betweens to enhanceth- a3*#+paA- a, ," we --A m=, . LL,L"u= personality d t h e walking character.Tha followlng figure IS an ~ r a , nnf~ -- . l m ~n-betweenlng follow-through that we mlght expect for an eccentric.aanalv wa
I put acontlnu~ng teversalofthefoorldirect~ononthel a leg, givinga haitant,shakyfeel to theaction. ed
Chart Timing and Variatiomw8-~irSnf%in
Sofar we have charted our action wrth even ~ n - b generlc walk was created w ~ t h twokeys, o n t p m ~ n posltlon In the ml g and one ~n-between the middle o these-working In f on two's. HowQag~ve ernphas~s any part ofthe walk%-and to rnod~fy t s ~ ttrnlng, I~ add~ng slow-~n the passlng pontlon a to the end of th a to & yig can gtve an ent~rely d~fferent effect to the walk's att~tude standard, generlc walk draw~ngs
TkirRme, w ~ t h breakdown the the beg~nn~ng oftheaalan In
Create a'personal~t)rwlk cycle on two's that either expresses pain iperhap r a limp) o excitement (perhaps a sklp).Alternatively,your second walkcould show a heavy, slow character trying to walk hst or a small, nervouscharactc trylng to look btg or strong. Actually, as long as yow secondwalkcycle is vastly different from the g&c one created for Asigntnent 3 and your character displays a clear quality, attitude, personality,or emotlon in h ~ or t s action, you can do pretty much anyfhlng you like hereto demonstrateyour commandofthe walking action.
b s s objeetiwTo learn and replicate the actlon of a bipedal runnlng actlon biprnent raq*red: Lightbox, pencil. and paper.
any people think that a run is just a faster action than a walk But this IS not the case. If you lookcarefullyat a running &Ion in a slow-mot~on replay you'll seethat whereas a walking character always has contact foot on the ground at any moment in time, a running figure s actually have both feet off the ground during one point In h stride.
wlrcnmg psixmrt pttke
Here we start a run stnde w~th character pushlng off from the ground the Note in the following figure the strarght contact l g push~ng body u e the and forward, while the oppostte leg bends dramaticallyupward, w~th th
The dnve-offpor~t~onud a a s o l h? h be sr n and dynam~c the to g Note strong he t r u h u the leg and ln ho g o t body I th~s o e c r m nc t g n p s , on u l am theseth~ngs
10 Make Animated F i m i
Now we return to the lnit~al drive-off posthon, althoughthis tlme it is with tl opposite foot on the ground with the other free k g driving up and forward, e thereby completingthe first stride sequence and beginning the second.
As suggested, a run is essentially a five-pose sequence that really does not have any in-betweens. So, as an exercise, you should now create your own hve poses per the key posltionsjun noted, then complete the second stride in the same way but with the arms and legs reversed.When you have done this, shoot the drawngs on b t h one's and two'sThis basrc exerose will gcve y w a sense ofthesped the run will take when using thhrnimbec ofdrawktgs. Actudly, r a t M than ammate thts on a run cycle, justlk you did the watk cyde,t time you should draw the character r u n n i n g a ~the screen b r~ addmg enortglrdditional stride postt~ons extend thedistance f h n to one slde tathe o t k beyondjust two saidesThis will give you a grrabe( app&i&on of how the number of drawings you have created actually move in speed and velocity.The first hva strrdes of the run, drawn in this way, Mll losk like the squence shown in the next fgure (although your draw~ngs will be each on a separate sheet of numberedanimation paper of course).
NoteLedegrqafupa down mwernentthroughout the actton With flaner runs, wirh perhaps %w&t d
h m f , w a e chafacters, h a wlii be l s prwncpd Wh lighter, m r energet wd spnngy ckaraGEers thls ekr es n oe K
by rnowment might bemnsiderablymore-that is, wheredistanoafrui&maybecm~d tlle requirementsef height (Note:In y u actualanimationdrawingsthe contactfeetwill b overlappinge c or e ah other Intermsoftheir contactporitlono thegmund, o course. Hwei haveseparatedthemt s o the key n f o hw b d positionsinvolvedm r clearly.) oy oe Note that each drawlng 1 numbered on two's (even numbers) in this Instance s Now that you have created these two strldes, you can use them to trace the requlrednumber of extra stride positions to take the characterfurther across the screen (remember, all on separate sheets of paper).Thiswill give you a sequence of drawings that look somethcng llke the following figure.
How to Make Animated Fiivi
If the ~n Is workinp fuw atthis stage, rnigight chose to further Crrbcnmen everyrhhg, p t t h g In the one's (oddnumbers) that are missing.Now film the Sine'acywrrc one moretlme, this t h e sheottwoo om's and twdJ fwycur tlming.TWswH gtwyou gnster m m e a p p 1 p t ~ how fast or sinmththis of number of & w i i M r n ~ ~ ~ y ~ ~ r t h a r a c t e r .
Additional Pointersfor Runs
The generic run should work fine as a startingpoint. However,there are addMoMl pointem relatlngto run anlmatlonthatyoushwM know.Theftrst is the speed you can &mate runs at.
Runs, by nrtue of h r very nature, cannot be too slow, w a character GYULM plaus~My hang in the alr In the stnde posltlon forever However,R nposstMe to slow a run down, as we dld wah the prwlous exeruse when putung In the one's and then shootlng a all on two's Clearly t h ~ s actlon would be too slow for a sprlntlng actlon though unless you aredeilberatelytrytng for a slowmotton effect, in which case you will probably have to add slgnficantly more ~n-betweens make tt work best A slower marathonrunner-type actton, to for example, hasto work ar a different speed, as marathon mners canna afford to burn up the dynam~c, expbvve energy that a sprfnter requires. They also have to adjurt their running ppse p o n t m to asstst this process happerung econom~cally Follow~ng some t~p we repsrdlng tedrfferences h betweenthe two
Unl~ke walkthat requtrespst a sl~ght a body lean, a run--espec~ally fast a run-will require your character to Increaseh ~ o her lean forward the faster s r he or she runs.The following figure shows a cornpalson betweenthe lean antlc~pated a sprlnter as opposed to the more energy-conserving actlon of for a longer-d~stance athlete such as a marathonrunner
How to Make Animated Films
How to Make Animated Films
How to Make Animated Films
Hyllp, we must consider seelng a run from a different v~ewpoint. Spccificblly, f~ the front, perthe W n g figures. AN the main facton of the generic nin q p t y , but the pfinciple of shrfting h e body mass From side to side wlth
the weight tran&rrfng to a point above the point of contact on the gmund, is addklonaliy impartant.
How to Make Animated Filr
Whita'T. ?7wA&m?mrS Wwkbook.NewYork: Watson-Guptill, 1988, pp. 64-70. Whitet. AmmCtfim fram P M s tat%& Clas~al Techn~ques LVgftal for Aninrarorr GLorton. Fwd W,7006,pp. 244-248 Wtlliams,R TfhcAnimtoJI 5tqcrhrolXir. London: Faber and Faber, 2001, pp, lf6-m. W.0 Laa,m"tnMnlc Fttm4rrp.K and " ~ C ~ ~ FRun--We". IC
beginJ ~&thlacun assignment, l wouJd flke you Now thtlurd to Whmay me &%heQfacters mem3oned i this lesson and create a n to Intensify this challenge b n d c h a r ~ ~ r ; trun for hlm or her. -err ic t e m h e +n your understandkrgof the principlesof a walk action) I o wntptd to take the drcular, SSMlehenge-styletrack backgmundsu&icd (youcan photoropy it fmn thefollowmg figure or download ~thm www. aQskt~ycam, enlargrng t t to the slze you me working at1 and animate Bwohractsn c i ~ l i t the track, one walklng and one running l doing this, i q n wilnt ybU to make the cyclic-that is, both t& walk and the run $ho;ld # n k h W & o f ~ n e l w t o h beginning ofthe next sa theactiensum tOn$lwendlpsJy Wths u s q m a n t , &ever, the walklng chamfer s h o u M n i n i d y compleg t h m l a p of the entlre circular track.Ta&iew the c& sbk,n,thcIaS W n g of each hp needs to itnk to ~ t frrstdmwng. # s Tha W g g t h e m W drawCngs can be shot over and over again.
bating a mnandawtktogether around a clrcular track, you will be Ing the vanaweof speedand I d e n each needs, the differences ynamtc poslng,and thevarylngfoot location polnts as both c h a r a m
drdsZhsttwk'RtaaSws,befew inflictlhg ukch a assignnrantonvgu, lttdnk n wwld only bc fair for ma to shmr fewtips w!th 6 . , YOU tint.
Spe&d.. Actiarr and Distance o M of f &
there will be many mdrawlng~mq&& than inthe nn Ad&hnally, the wak wiH co conrplete an mire I p
Body leans uwnething many anlmamrsforget, even though characterr a be hilsing and n twnlng In acttonsof great speed and maneuverahllry
IW t o
m foot pattern b+tRam t
33, e t fhei, there dtbe t h m m - b a ~ y n ~ Iawngs on &&turnbar twef).
How to Mdke A n i n l d t ~ d l i r l s l
Make Animated Films
lfallworirr wrtl when y w pose test the drawings, then you are atreadyon yourw~ymd hEetlrlng a master animator! If things look wrong, hcwpwr, go W a n d cwraet whaP*fer I$ necessary.When you have finally compltrtcd 15t*hemectlom, shoot another pose test. Repat thispmtess until the
m w w
pemPark8sgouln@ndLtOtOThisis thepa~nstakhqpcesthmweall tca@#b,hytkewrry,xrdon't bedwtntectlfittakaslimctoget
tham-ofin all theln-hweenr If this seernruke aas)sp see @r f a y , m w t w h not tobe an anffaatorw a y . ~ f ~ t * l l s h ~ & ~ g e o f d o i n q s N ~ % e d ~ ~ I t WW-dh right stufi7 (Itbto&u(tlkert ...mSnatlon,
Iwas m-herweening t at on the PP(P b c ue1 k w the kr h ea s m h a m so wn But for e y u asdgmm l de re~ummdthff w a cemtnamounto s p lm o l o to a 5 5 or yotl f u ei p sD n 5 1 ywb Extreme t asesvhrw~ ble possi
Wtth the in-batwee~comptete. you can now shoot the entlre final %em as a pencilteston W. When this is done, play back the actton and see how ftlooks. h it jerky or too fast? Do the characters look to be moving as ~f they are either wallnng or running correctly around the path?Are you keeping the characters successfully in proportionas they move around the circular track? These are all questionsyou must bravely ask yourself as you reviewyour work, unless you have an experienced colleague or teacher who can cralqueforyou
T1Wrr!a n also questions that, if work~ng alone,you kswtolmwct