The Effects of Music on Consumer Behaviour in a Fine Dining Restaurant

“Don’t the music make you feel good?”

Ilia ZOLAS
Tutor: Dr Ray IUNIUS

June 2012

This dissertation is submitted in part fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of BSc in International Hospitality Management

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Honour Code
As a student at the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, I uphold and defend academic integrity, academic rigor and academic liberty as core values of higher learning. I attest, on my word of honour, that work submitted in my name is my own work, and that any ideas or materials used in support of this work which are not originally my own are cited and referenced accordingly.

Ilia ZOLAS

567486143

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Acknowledgements
The contents of this paper would not have been attainable without the help and guidance of various people: Firstly, I would like to express my gratitude towards my advisor, Dr Ray Iunius. Although your schedule is one of the busiest schedules in the world, you still managed to make time for me. Your thoughts and understandings have influenced me beyond the realms of this dissertation and onto my outlook on life. To Dr Laaroussi and Dr Hebali, thank you for your much needed support and understandings. Without them, this paper would not have been possible. Furthermore, as you are both fellow musicians, I am grateful to have been able to include you in this research process and hope that my findings prove as interesting and useful to you. To Mr Iunker, the BDS Management team, Mr Lebret and the students who took part in the experiment; your participation was vital in giving life to this paper. Thank you for allowing me the opportunity to combine my passions with my studies and contribute to your service offer. I trust the champagnes will continue to flow! To Russell Stirling and Tyrone Mayer, my most valued music mentors, your assistance in developing a structured music treatment consistent with the literature made the process smooth and enjoyable. My song database and theory of music is significantly larger now. Finally, to my dear friend Dushyant, thank you for your ongoing support. Although this was a major learning process for the both of us, I doubt that my survival would have been prolonged without you. I look forward to maintaining this relationship with our time share prospects!

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Abstract
The transition from the service economy to the experience economy is one that is encouraging business establishments to consider different schemes in being able to develop a competitive positioning, higher customer satisfactions and alignments with the consumer‟s emotional construct. Of the many possibilities to achieve this, the intelligent use of music is one method that is being given attention in growing proportions due to its powerful ability in affecting consumer behaviours and perceptions. The present study is an attempt to identify these musical properties and apply them in a structured manner to the restaurant environment which is known for its extensive yet intuitive approach to utilizing music. The use of the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne‟s fine dining establishment, Le Berceau de Sens, acted as the restaurant property in which the field experiment was held in during the month of March. Hence, a total of 348 restaurant patrons expressed their evaluations via the use of a survey while dining under the two contrasting musical environments; structured music treatment and unstructured music treatment.

Independent Samples T-Tests were utilized in determining whether a significant difference existed between restaurant patron‟s evaluations of the dining experience under the contrasting music conditions. Analysis showed that consumers dining under a structured music treatment expressed greater awareness of the music, higher enjoyment evaluations, shorter time perceptions and higher intentions to return to the Berceau de Sens.

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Contents
Honour Code ............................................................................................. 3 Acknowledgements ..................................................................................... 4 Abstract .................................................................................................... 5 1. Introduction ............................................................................................ 9 2. Objectives ............................................................................................ 10 3. Methodology ......................................................................................... 11 4. Secondary Research .............................................................................. 13
4.1. The Servicescape .......................................................................................13 4.2. Servicescape and Musicscape ........................................................................15 4.3. Musical Components ...................................................................................17 4.3.1. Introduction..........................................................................................17 4.3.2. Musical Congruency ...............................................................................17 4.3.3. Consumer Music Preference .....................................................................19 4.3.4. Volume ...............................................................................................20 4.3.5. Modality ..............................................................................................20 4.3.6. Tempo ...............................................................................................22 4.3.7. An Interactive effect of Tempo and Modality ..................................................23 4.4. Cognitive understanding in the Literature ...........................................................23 4.5. Music in service environments ........................................................................24 4.6. The Retail Environment ................................................................................24 4.7. The Restaurant Environment ..........................................................................25 4.8. Literature Summary .....................................................................................26

5. Hypothesis ........................................................................................... 27
5.1. Application of Hypothesis in the BDS Environment ................................................29 5.1.1. The Dining Phases ....................................................................................30 5.1.2. The Pre-Phase .....................................................................................31 5.1.3. The During-Phase..................................................................................31 5.1.4. The Post Phase ....................................................................................32 5.2. Conceptual Framework .................................................................................33

6. Music Treatment Development .................................................................. 33
6.1. Unstructured Music Treatment ........................................................................34 6.2. Structured Music Treatment ...........................................................................34 6.2.1. Pre-Phase Music Selection .......................................................................35 6.2.2. During-Phase Music Selection ...................................................................35 6.2.3. Post-Phase Music Selection .....................................................................35

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6.3. CD Control ................................................................................................36

7. Survey Design ....................................................................................... 37
7.1. Introduction ...............................................................................................37 7.2. Survey Structure .........................................................................................37 7.3. Survey Questions .......................................................................................38 7.3.1. Pre-Phase Questions: Spending ................................................................38 7.3.2. During-Phase Questions: Experience Evaluations ...........................................38 7.3.3. Post-Phase Question: Intentions to Return and Time Perceptions ........................38 7.4. Sample ....................................................................................................39 Table 1. Sample Participants ...........................................................................40

8. Primary Research .................................................................................. 41
8.1. Data Collection ...........................................................................................41 8.1.1. Survey ...............................................................................................41 8.1.2. Receipts .............................................................................................41

9. Methodology Part 2 ................................................................................ 41
9.1. SPSS ......................................................................................................41 9.2. Reliability..................................................................................................41 9.3. Independent Samples T-Test..........................................................................42 9.4. Independent Samples T-Test on Spending .........................................................42 9.5. Methodological Limitations .............................................................................43

10. Findings and Analysis ........................................................................... 44
10.1. Receipts .................................................................................................44 Table 2: Independent Sample T-Test on beverage receipts ..............................44 10.2. Perceptions on spending .............................................................................44 10.3. Awareness of music ...................................................................................44 10.4. Overall Experience Evaluation .......................................................................45 10.5. Time Perceptions ......................................................................................45 10.6. Return Intentions .......................................................................................45 Table 3: Independent Samples T-Test on survey evaluations ...........................46

12. Discussion.......................................................................................... 47
12.1. Awareness towards the Music .......................................................................47 12.2. Perceptions on Spending vs. Actual Receipts ....................................................47 12.3. Overall Experience Evaluation .......................................................................48 12.4. Time Perceptions ......................................................................................48 12.5. Return Intentions .......................................................................................49

13. Conclusion and Implications................................................................... 50

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14. Further Research Recommendations ........................................................ 51 15. Bibliography ....................................................................................... 54 Appendix ................................................................................................ 60
Appendix 1- Phase schedule from interview .............................................................61 Appendix 2- Survey...........................................................................................62 Appendix 3- Structured Music Treatments ................................................................64 Appendix 4- Reference descriptions .......................................................................67 Appendix 5- Online sources for music .....................................................................98

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1. Introduction
Much of my life has been dedicated to understanding and growing my musical abilities with regards to my grasp of various instruments (guitar, bass guitar, piano and drums), music theory, composing and song writing as well as sound engineering and recording for TV shows and producers. This does not go to say that music performance is my chosen carrier. Instead, I have been fortunate enough to extend my abilities into the hospitality industry which greatly incorporates music into its service scheme and offer. As a student at the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, as well as the researcher of this paper, I am presented with the opportunity to combine my greatest passion, music, with my current carrier choice of hospitality. Through my various experiences within the industry, I have come to understand and believe that the use of music extends beyond the realms of performance and recreation. Under more recent understandings, music can be utilized by intelligently incorporating it into the service schemes of many an establishment to induce certain emotional and behavioural states. However, it is also known that many establishments which implement music within their schemes often do so without realizing the effects that music has on the consumer. This understanding is particularly prevalent in the restaurant industry where managers tend to rely on their own intuition and preferences in choosing and playing music during the dining experience. Often times, such methods of music selection and implementation do not consider the consumer‟s biological and psychological reactions to the individual properties of the music chosen. Hence, in this paper, I aim to highlight and add to the notion of music as an important and easily implementable tool that can significantly create value for the organization‟s service/product offer. As my interests currently lie within the restaurant environment, I seek to test the effects of music on consumer‟s evaluations of the dining experience by applying

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a structured music treatment tailored to the goals of the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne‟s fine dining restaurant; Le Berceau de Sens (BDS).

2. Objectives
To extend the understandings of what effects music has on consumers, various questions had been determined through an interview with the BDS Restaurant Manager, Mr Iunker. These questions had arisen due to Mr Iunker and the management team‟s search for alternative means of improving the BDS‟s service offer and possibly induce increased spending in restaurant patron‟s behaviours. Below are the determined research questions: 1. Do restaurant patrons spend more money in the presence of music? If so, what music is best at making them spend more? 2. Does music have an effect on the restaurant patron‟s enjoyment of the dining experience? If so, what music is optimal at enhancing this perception? 3. Does music have an effect on the restaurant patron‟s time perceptions? If so, what kind of music is best at shortening these perceptions? 4. Are the restaurant patron‟s intentions to return to the restaurant higher in the presence of music? If so, what music is best at maximizing these intentions? These questions posed as potential hypotheses which required further research to be able to answer.

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3. Methodology
Secondary research was necessary to determine whether relationships had already been determined with regards to music‟s effects on consumer behaviours. Furthermore, as the focus is on music‟s effects on consumers in a dining environment, secondary research required the researcher to concentrate on sources which adhered to the restaurant environment. Limited literature in terms of the dining environment then required the researcher to incorporate understandings of music from literature based on other service environments such as retail stores and test whether they held true in the restaurant environment. Figure 1 indicates the first phases of exploration: Figure 1. Develop research questions Interview the BDS Management Team to determine research questions Secondary Research Consult existing literature to be able to answer research questions

Conclusions and Hypothesis Determine whether questions have been answered. Unsatisfied questions will become hypothesis subject to primary research

Research questions that were not satisfied by the literature made it necessary to conduct primary research in order to emerge with conclusive results. Via agreement between the researcher and the BDS management, the BDS restaurant was utilized as the field study environment to conduct further research. In order to gain the necessary data to produce useful results, a quantitative research design was adopted via the use of surveys. The survey required the

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restaurant patron to evaluate certain criteria via a Likert Scale which aided the researcher in developing conclusions that could satisfy the posed questions. Furthermore, two music treatments needed to be developed in order to provide contrasting environments for testing. These are referred to as 1) a structured music treatment which incorporates music that the literature had identified as determinants in affecting particular consumer behaviours 2) an unstructured music treatment which simply represented the BDS‟s original methods of utilizing music which was heavily based upon the intuition of the management team and absent of any particular structure. Hence, over a period of time, consumers dined either under the structured music treatment or the

unstructured music treatment and their behaviours were reflected in their survey evaluations as well as the BDS receipts. Thereafter, data was imported into the statistics tool SPSS and subjected to the relative analyses to produce conclusive results. Hence, Figure 2 represents the manner in which the primary research was conducted: Figure 2. Music Treatment Development Structured Music Treatment Vs. Unstructured Music Treatment Phase Implementation CD Control and implementation Survey Design Quantitative Research Survey development Conduct and collect survey

Data Collection Import data into SPSS Cronbach‟s Alpha test for Reliability Analyse data- Independent sample t-tests Interpret Results

Organization and Presentation of Results Discussion and implications Future Research Recommendations

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4. Secondary Research
Since Kotler (1974), there has been increasing interest amongst researchers to investigate the effects of visual, audio, and other stimuli on the consumer‟s behaviour in various environments (Jain and Bagdare, 2010). These studies have branched out into the various environments emerging with findings that provide the establishment with a new means of creating a distinctive and competitive performance thanks to the undeniable effects of such stimuli‟s powerful ability to influence consumer spending, loyalty, time perceptions, choice and satisfaction (Cronin, 2003). In fact, certain atmospherics, such as music, are not only used for commercial reasons, but also in industries such as treatments within healthcare and optimal or even persuasive communication within media. Manfred (1982), a specialist in neuro-physiology as well as music, showed that music structure triggered emotional responses in the brain. In movies and education, Seidman (1981) had explored human cognition and attention of which music was found to hold significant influence and is now integrated within media related industries. As the shift in consumerism has become growingly captivated by an experience as opposed to the traditional service formula (Pine and Gilmore, 1998), research findings of atmospheric determinants and their implications are increasingly considered as useful tools in connecting with the consumer‟s emotional construct which is known for its heavy influence over the rational mind (Sylwester, 1994). Knowing this, applying the relevant information can provide businesses with the opportunity to analytically design their service experience with lesser margins of error (Liu and Jang, 2009).

4.1. The Servicescape
It is generally agreed upon that the perceptible elements of a service and its environment has an influence on the customer‟s perceived quality of an

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experience and purchase intentions. According to Bitner (1992, p. 67), a “total configuration of environmental dimensions” provides an effective framework known as the servicescape. Kincaid et al., (2010, p. 211) state that the “servicescape components involve factors such as ambient conditions (e.g. temperature, sound, aroma), spatial layout and functionality (e.g. arrangement of furnishings and their relationship to customer and employee needs), signs, symbols and artefacts (e.g. restaurants, theatres and sporting events)”. While independent variables are associated with the venue‟s physical environment such as room temperature, scents and background music, evidence has shown that consumers are affected by the presence of fellow consumers (Li, Kim and Lee, 2009) as well as the employee‟s personality and actions (Ekinsi and Dawes, 2009) which have a considerable effect on the customers decision making process and satisfaction. The determinants to what influences customer satisfaction has been of great interest to researchers (Babin and Griffin, 1998). Of the components understood to have some sort of effect, the consumer‟s perception of quality has been widely accepted as the most influencing variable on consumer satisfaction (Churchill and Surprenant, 1982). It is the consumer‟s evaluation on the performance of a product or service and its environment that determines the consumer‟s perceptions on quality (Zeithaml, 1987). Hence, quality may be considered as dependent on the interaction of the five senses within the store environment, or more specifically, the servicescape. With a growing knowledge of the consumer‟s tendency to rely on the servicescape as a means of facilitating and developing a personal experience, managerial perceptions on the importance of attaining congruent

environmental stimuli is gaining wider acknowledgement and incorporation in a growing proportion of establishments (Kozinets et al., 2002). The transition of

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the service economy to the experience economy has brought research to further identify the need for managers to understand and integrate what theatrical productions often use as a means of creating an assimilated and complete experience for the audience via harmonious design of visual and audio stimuli (Harris et al., 2003). As mentioned by Oakes and North (2008, p. 63), “experiences are as different from services as services are from goods” and that the efforts of involving the five senses within the service design is required in order to create memorable experiences. Jain and Bagdare (2011, p. 294) describes the interaction of the consumer and in-store environment as one that “provides sensory, emotional, cognitive, behavioural and relational values.” Hence, correct engagement of the 5 senses acts as a significant playing piece in developing considerable competitive leverage (Berry et al., 2002).

4.2. Servicescape and Musicscape
An in-depth analysis conducted by Guégeun et al., (2007) revealed that music played a vital role in affecting satisfaction. Of the various components of the servicescape, researches have paid most attention to music because of its lowcost, easy to use nature, its strong influence on consumers and its ability to facilitate and enhance the interaction of other servicescape variables within an environment (Beverland et al., 2006). It is better defined by Yalch and Spangenberg (1993 p. 632) that “music is a particularly attractive atmospheric variable because it is relatively inexpensive to provide, easily changed, and is thought to have predictable appeals to individuals based on their age and lifestyles.” Oakes (2000) proposed musicscape as an extension to Bitner‟s (1992) model of the servicescape, highlighting the incorporation of music as an important variable in creating an in-store experience and associating customer emotions to the store (Morrison and Beverland, 2003) via the use of music. Similarly,

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integrating

music in coherence with adhering to

other atmospheric variables while of brand image, market share

simultaneously

constraints

demographics and their emotional connections with music can greatly assist in conveying a comprehensible message and support positioning strategies (Oakes and North, 2007). Hence, research suggests that there is a need for service based organizations to pay close attention to music and other atmospheric variables in attaining a harmonious design so as to encourage favourable consumer behaviours (Harris et al., 2009). Favourable consumer behaviours, such as patronage, are known to be influenced by the servicescape of the environment such that it affects the consumer‟s decisions to continue or discontinue a relationship with the specific service provider due to their emotional responses (Lovelock, 2001). In the context of the musicscape, the sheer occurrence of music in an environment already increases patronage intentions as well as pleasure (Garlin and Owen, 2006). Another critical factor to consider is the consumer‟s notorious relationship with waiting times, which have shown negative correlations to general satisfaction of an experience. The longer the consumer thinks that they have been waiting for, the lower the consumer‟s satisfaction will be. This applies to various settings such as retail stores (Tom and Lucey, 1997), restaurants (Jones and Peppiatt, 1996) and healthcare (Pruyn and Smidts, 1998). Managing customer

perceptions of how long they think they have been waiting is therefore important when developing a pleasant and differentiating experience (Bailey and Areni, 2006). Of the various elements known to affect perceived waiting time, music has yet again proven to be a favourable variable due to its easily wrought nature and low cost.

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4.3. Musical Components 4.3.1. Introduction
Various experiments have highlighted specific components of music which have demonstrated effective results in managing consumer behaviours and

perceptions. This section reveals the general understanding of the effects of music on consumers in two categories. The first category describes

understandings according to musical congruency and consumer preferences, while the second describes the impact of the individual compositional components of music upon consumers. Such components involve volume, modality and tempo as well as their interactive effects which are known to significantly influence consumer behaviours and perceptions (Dowling and Harwood, 1986).

4.3.2. Musical Congruency
In various studies (Cox et al., 2005; d‟Astous, 2000; Maxwell and Kover, 2003), it was revealed that a poorly designed in-store experience can induce confusion and influence consumers to leave the establishment. Beverland et al. (2006) further explain that the benefits of music which is well fitted with other stimuli of the service environment allows consumers, who are not familiar with the brand in question, to determine a benchmark of expectations as store cues allow them to derive some meaning prior to any interaction with the product. An example stems from the research of Baker et al. (1994) which describes a retail environment playing classical music coupled with low lit lighting and numerous sales people. Before a product is experienced, consumer perceptions are that of a prestige image with high expectations of service and quality ratings. Radocy and Boyle (1997) extend the notion of congruent music such that successful integration of musical variables can influence consumers to allocate more time and money to the environment in question.

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In the context of music which is well „fitted‟, Areni and Kim (1993) provide evidence of music affecting the purchasing decision of both educated and uneducated consumers. In an experiment conducted in a wine cellar, customers were exposed to either Top 40 music or classical music. The results showed that consumers under the classical music environment purchased more expensive items than those under the Top 40 music environment. These results were further supported by the findings of North, Shilcock and Hargreaves (2003). Prestigious music induces prestigious buying. Another finding is that of North, Hargreaves and McKendrick (1997) where playing German music in a wine cellar showed an increase in the sales of German wines. Similarly, playing French music led to sales in French wines outweighing German wines. Further research revealed that the better the “fit” of music appropriateness, the higher the loyalty intention (Harris and Ezeh, 2008). However, the use of classical music in an environment is one that is somewhat peculiar and has shown evidence to provide similar effects of prestigious buying in environments which would not typically suit the genre of music. In an experiment where different musical styles were played in a student cafeteria, students were prepared to pay higher prices when classical music was played as opposed to other styles of music which had been tested in the same student cafeteria. Perceptions of the same environment under the classical music condition were that of sophistication and an up-market image. Similarly, such perceptions had further been reflected in diners‟ actual spending (North and Hargreaves, 1998). One explanation to the described phenomena is that knowledge associated with “sophistication” and “up-market” is activated in the consumer exposed to classical music and encourages general behaviour such as spending. North and Hargreaves (2006) also suggest that behaviour, such as spending, “fits” with certain emotionally evoked in-store atmospherics. Areni

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(2003) revealed that jazz was also related to environments of up-market consumption.

4.3.3. Consumer Music Preference
The consumer‟s preference for a certain style of music and ability to differentiate between different musical aspects is argued as influenced by certain biological developments in the individual‟s growth from birth. It has been reported that children below the age of 6 can differentiate between slow and fast tempo music but their ability to differentiate between modes is a skill that is only acquired at the age of 6 and later (Dalla Bella et al., 2001). Apart from age, gender is also known to differ in emotional and behavioural responses (Mehrabian and Russell, 1974). Females differ from males such that their time estimates of a song are considerably shorter when exposed to soft volumes (Kellaris and Altsech, 1992). Furthermore, the female gender display preference towards slow and soft music while males tend to prefer music which is loud and fast (Kellaris and Rice, 1993). Apart from biological determinants, it has also been discussed that a majority of consumer preferences for certain types of music is learned (Scott, 1990). It is thought that music preference of a particular segment can be determined based on the segments age and lifestyles (Yalch and Spangenberg, 1993). Holbrook and Schindler (1989), in an experiment involving consumer‟s sensitivity to pop music, revealed that bonds created with individual songs in the consumer‟s early 20‟s age bracket creates lasting impressions on their preferences for music. Furthermore, research has revealed that aligning in-store music with consumer preferences has a significant influence upon shopping intentions (Broekemier et al., 2005). Broekemier et al., (2008) further established that music found as happy and liked had a significant effect upon patronage as well as spending behaviour in retail environments. In an experiment where consumers were

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presented with a pen under the conditions of “liked” or “disliked” music found that consumer‟s liking of the product was influenced by liked music or music that is happy (major mode) and vice versa. Gorn (1982) says that this behaviour might be explained by consumers transferring their positive emotions for the music to the product.

4.3.4. Volume
Studies have shown that the volume of music has a significant effect upon shopper‟s actual length of stay in supermarkets. Loud music was compared to soft music and showed that consumers under the loud-music environment spent significantly less time in-store with a faster rate of spending, while low volumes revealed longer consumer lengths of stay which gave them the opportunity to browse more and ultimately spend more (Smith and Curnow, 1966). With regards to restaurant environments, lower volumes were found to produce behaviours of higher spending (Lammers, 2003). Other experiments measured the effects of volume via the use of headphones due to its highly controllable nature (Oakes and North, 2008). However, there appears to be minor credit on the impact of musical dynamics on consumer. One explanation to this is that it is difficult to measure and perceive volume from different areas within the service environment as consumers are usually at different distances apart from the source of amplification and are therefore not experiencing volume under identical conditions even if music volume is set at a constant level (Oakes and North, 2008).

4.3.5. Modality
An element of music which has been accepted as important in inducing significant responses from consumers is “modality” and has been incorporated in research for an extensive period of time (Kellaris and Kent, 1991). In western culture, the most commonly used modes are that of major and minor

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keys. These modalities are known to create distinctive emotional responses such that musical compositions in major keys are generally associated to positive feelings and musical compositions in minor keys are associated with less positive feelings such as nostalgia, melancholy and even romanticism (Hevner, 1935). Of the more traditional western associations concerning modality, human emotions such as happy and sad are associated with major and minor modes respectively (Bruner, 1990). Alpert et al., (2003) state that music which is perceived as happy, induces a positive emotional condition as opposed to listening to sad music. In one experiment conducted in a women‟s clothing store, it was determined that shopping intentions and evaluations were higher if shoppers were exposed to music which they perceived as “happy”. Furthermore, studies have shown that shoppers who were exposed to time spans under minor modes underestimated time spent in-store as opposed to equal time spans executing music in major modes (Kellaris and Kent, 1992; Knoferle, et al., 2012). Interestingly, this finding goes against the popular belief used by Kellaris and Kent (1992, p.365) that “time flies when you‟re having fun” as their studies indicated that time perceptions were shortest when exposed to music which is not associated with positive emotional evaluations. Cognitive theories suggest that consumers listening to music which generate positive emotions might contribute higher levels of attention to the composition resulting in heightened cognitive functions inducing the belief that more happened and thus expanding time perceptions (Block, 1990). Therefore, for environments where lesser time perceptions are favourable, music in minor modes are most effective. This proves highly beneficial for environments such as restaurants, banks and waiting rooms which might require longer waiting times to prepare a finished product or waiting for the cheque at the end of dining experience while simultaneously.

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4.3.6. Tempo
Music tempo has received as much attention as modality as it is highly associated with generating consumer responses (Knoferle et al., 2012). Similar to modality, the effects of tempo on the consumer can be described via a “storage size” model of cognitive function. Thus, time perceptions can be affected such that fast tempo music induces longer time perceptions while slow tempo music induces shorter time perceptions (Oakes, 2003). Furthermore, studies have associated fast tempos with elevated consumer physical activity (e.g. heart rate, blood pressure and rate of breathing (Lundin, 1985) which is supported by the findings of various studies that indicated high correlations of tempo with arousal (Chebat et al., 2001; Kellaris and Kent, 1993). This understanding supports the findings of numerous experiments which

incorporated tempo as a variable that may influence time perceptions. Kellaris and Kent (1991) demonstrated that fast tempo music was judged by listeners as longer in duration as opposed to music set at slow tempos. It has been further reported by Caldwell and Hibbert (1999) that slow tempos encourage higher spending than fast tempos. In the context of supermarkets, Milliman (1982) displays the effects of slow tempo music and fast tempo music on consumer behaviour and in-store traffic flow. The results indicated that under the slow tempo music condition, consumer pace of in-store traffic is decreased thus leading to higher sales. Under the fast tempo music condition, in-store traffic accelerated resulting in a decrease in spending. A study conducted later by Milliman (1986) in restaurants, using the same music-tempo conditions, revealed that consumers spent more time in the restaurant establishment and exercised higher spending on alcoholic beverages under slow tempo music.

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4.3.7. An Interactive effect of Tempo and Modality
The literature shows us that combinations of musical variables are known to have similar effects. Concerning modality, music which was in a minor key induced shorter time estimates while compositions of slow tempos were also recorded as producing decreased time perceptions as well as encouraging higher spending. Furthermore, slow tempos and minor keys are associated with music induced sadness which has been revealed to elevate spending in shopping environments (Alpert and Alpert, 1990; Knoferle et al., 2012). Garge et al. (2007) showed that “sad mood inductions” increased food consumption and in another study, increased spending (Cryder et al., 2008). Knoferle et al. (2012) indicated that similarities between the effects of slow tempo music as well as minor keys hold stronger significance on consumer time perceptions if combined.

4.4. Cognitive understanding in the Literature
As mentioned above, it has been strongly established that background music has an impact on the consumer‟s behavioural, emotional and cognitive responses (Mehrabian and Russell, 1974; Donovan and Rossiter, 1982; Bruner, 1990). Various theories have been proposed in an attempt to explain the

interaction of music with the consumer‟s psychology (Herrington, 1996). With concern on environmental psychology, Mehrabian and Russell (1974) propose a model known as “approach-avoidance behaviour”, also referred to as „PAD‟. Such behaviours comprise of emotional evaluations on the environment, service experience, patronage decisions, and attitudes towards others,

spending behaviour, time perceptions and actual length of stay (Donovan and Rossiter, 1982). The most popular (Newman, 1966) of theoretical explanations have incorporated this model which provides a platform designed around a three dimensional emotional structure consisting of pleasure-displeasure, arousal-non arousal and dominance-submissiveness. It further describes the

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process through which evaluations of time function through memorization and is hence described by means of a “storage model” (Ornstein, 1969). It states that the more stimulation that is incurred during a set period of time, the longer the consumer‟s time perceptions will be. Heightened emotional states and memory allocation can thus be optimized by attaining congruity between environmental stimuli such as lively music and vivid colours as well as calm music and low-lit lighting (Donovan et al., 1994).

4.5. Music in service environments
It is to no surprise that an individual would prefer an environment which is pleasant in atmosphere and offers a sense of welcoming as opposed to the contrary (Martineau, 1958). In effect, such environments have proven that in particular situations, the servicescape can be more influential in the purchasing decision than the actual product (Kotler, 1973). As musicscape is described as a sub-category of the servicescape, music can act as a differentiating factor in reinforcing brand image and can hence promote a competitive positioning (Dube and Morin, 2001). Concerning the research that involves music‟s impact on behaviours in service environments, a major portion of the research has been conducted upon retail stores and shopping malls while service environments such as restaurants, bars and student cafeterias have been receiving a growing portion of attention. This branches the literature out into two directions.

4.6. The Retail Environment
In the light of retailing, the powerful effect of music as a sensory stimulus has propelled it into extensive incorporation into the retail environment. Care is taken in selecting and playing music which is congruent to the target markets preferences to induce higher patronage intentions (Jain and Bagdare, 2011). Further use of music in the retail environment utilizes it as a method of enhancing brand image (Baker et al., 2002) and creating emotional bonds with

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the consumer (Schmitt and Simonson, 1997). In a study where the managers of 52 retail stores were surveyed on their experiences with music in the shopping environment, managers agreed that they felt customers exercised higher spending behaviour and that music induced positive effects upon customer moods. Similarly, 70 % of 560 customers who were surveyed in the same study preferred stores that incorporated music into their service scheme (Burleson, 1979). Other research reported that shoppers enjoy music during their shopping experience and that stores which utilize music express greater care for their customers than environments which do not (Linsen, 1975).

4.7. The Restaurant Environment
There is a limited understanding of consumer behaviour and the determinants involved with consumer satisfaction and enjoyment in the restaurant

environment (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002). Lovelock (1985) goes to explain that the core attribute of a restaurant is its food offering, leaving the service and environment as secondary attributes which might complement the consumer‟s experience. Dulen‟s (1999) findings, which were later supported by the works of Susskind and Chan (2000), state that the food offering, service and tangible environment significantly determine the consumer‟s evaluations of the restaurant quality. As customer satisfaction is also a trait that is significantly influenced by quality, understanding and optimizing the

servicescape should complement the dining experience. Furthermore, as musicscape can be thought of as a sub-category of the servicescape, music can be considered as a viable tool in elevating the servicescape offer and even more so due to its easily implementable characteristics. As it is currently understood, music can be used to induce time perceptions (Caldwell and Hibbert, 2002; Milliman, 1986), increase satisfaction (Namkung and Jang, 2007) and influence moods (Alpert and Alpert, 1990; Herrington, 1996) in casual restaurant environments.

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4.8. Literature Summary
Figure 3 acts as a summary of the literature review extracting the known effects of music on consumer behaviours as well as other understood interactions. Figure 3.

Category Musicscape

Author
Oakes, (2003) Guégeun et al.,(2007) Yalch and Spangenberg, (1993) Oakes and North, (2008) Garlin and Owen, (2006) Beverland et al., (2006) Radocy and Boyle, (1997) Harris and Ezeh, (2008) Areni and Kim, (1993) Areni (2003) North and Hargreaves, (2006) Dalla Bella et al., (2001) Kellaris and Altsech, (1992) Kellaris and Rice, (1993) Holbrook and Schindler, (1989) Broekemier et al., (2008) Cain-Smith and Curnow, (1966) Bruner, (1990) Kellaris and Kent, (1992) Knoferle et al., (2012) Oakes, (2003) Milliman, (1986)

Description
Proposed musicscape as subcategory of servicescape Music plays a vital role in affecting consumer satisfaction Music is an attractive atmospheric variable because it is inexpensive, easily changed, has predictable appeals to individuals based on their age and lifestyles Successful integration of music can convey comprehensible messages and strengthen positioning strategies The sheer occurrence of music increases patronage and pleasure Well fitted music allows uneducated customers to determine a benchmark of expectations Well fitted music can affect consumer decisions to allocate more time and money to the store The better the musical fit, the higher the loyalty intentions Classical music is associated with higher socioeconomic behaviours which induces higher spending Jazz music is associated with higher socio-economic behaviours which induces higher spending Music associated with higher socio-economic values (e.g. classical, jazz) induces prestigious behaviours such as higher spending People below the age of six can only differentiate music according fast and slow tempos. After the age of six, people are able to differentiate between major(happy) and minor(sad) modes Female time estimates are shorter than male time estimates under soft volumes Females prefer slow and soft music, males prefer loud and fast music Music preferences at age 23 leaves lasting impressions on future music preferences Major moded music increases liking of product Softer volumes induce longer lengths of stay and are more pleasurable than loud volumes Major mode=happy, Minor mode =sad Minor modes induce shorter time perceptions than major modes Fast tempo= longer time perceptions, slow tempo= shorter time perceptions Slow tempo music induced longer lengths of stay and higher spending on alcoholic beverages in restaurants Minor modes and slow tempos are best at decreasing time perceptions.

Musical Congruency

Musical Preference

Volume Modality

Tempo

Tempo and Modality

Knoferle, (2012)

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5. Hypothesis
This section states whether the research questions previously posed have been answered by the literature review. Questions which have not been answered will be taken into the primary research phase in the form of Hypotheses. 1. Do restaurant patrons spend more money in the presence of music? If so, what music is best at making them spend more? According to the literature, classical and jazz music are associated with higher socio-economic behaviour which is known to induce behaviours of higher spending (Areni and Kim, 1993). However, these findings apply to retail environments and student cafeterias and not a fine dining environment. Hence, this question will be incorporated in the Primary research under the following hypothesis: H1a): Restaurant patrons of the BDS will exercise higher spending in beverages under a structured music treatment which incorporates classical music. Furthermore, to understand whether restaurant patrons are conscious of their higher spending or not, the following hypothesis was formulated: H1b): Restaurant patrons of the BDS will feel that they exerted higher spending than they intended to under the structured music treatment. 2. Does music have an effect on the restaurant patron’s enjoyment of the dining experience? If so, what music is optimal at enhancing this perception? Music which is considered as happy or in major modes will positively affect consumer‟s enjoyment evaluations (Alpert et al., 2003; Garlin and Owen, 2006) Furthermore, softer volumes are perceived as more pleasant than loud volumes (Lin and Wu, 2006). While this has been repeatedly mentioned in the literature, no research has been expressed as to these effects in a fine dining

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environment. This question can hence be carried into the Primary Research phase in the form of the following hypothesis: H2: Restaurant patron‟s evaluation of their enjoyment of the experience will be higher under a structured music treatment which incorporates music that is considered as happy or in major modes. 3. Does music have an effect on the restaurant patron’s time perceptions? If so, what kind of music is best at controlling these perceptions? Background music in minor modes and slow tempos will induce shorter time perceptions (Oakes, 2003; Knoferle, 2012). These findings have however been conducted in retail environments and briefly in a casual restaurant. As this has not been examined in the context of a fine dining establishment, this question requires further research and is carried over into the Primary Research Phase in the form of the following hypothesis: H3: Restaurant patron‟s time estimates will be shorter under a structured music treatment which incorporates music of slow tempos and minor modalities. 4. Are restaurant patron’s intentions to return to the restaurant higher in the presence of music? If so, what music is best at maximizing these intentions? It is evident that music has a significant impact on consumer behaviour when utilized and applied correctly to the environment such that the mere presence of music positively affects consumers‟ intentions to return (Garlin and Owen, 2006). Furthermore, music which is liked significantly affects consumers‟ intentions to return to the store environment (Broekemier et al., 2008). Yet again, these results have been obtained via experimentation within retail environments which does not satisfy the current research question with regards

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to a fine dining establishment. This question is hence carried into the Primary Research Phase in the form of the following hypothesis: H4: Restaurant patrons evaluations on their intentions to return will be higher under a structured music treatment which incorporates music that is liked (preference). The contents of the structured music treatment will incorporate the musical properties revealed in the literature into the process of selecting the relevant music. However, to be able to do so, it is important to determine the correct time and place to be able to measure the relative effects e.g. if the BDS management wanted consumers to purchase expensive items, the literature suggests that classical music would be played during the time period where consumers place their food and beverage orders. To do so, a better understanding of the selected dining environment was required.

5.1. Application of Hypothesis in the BDS Environment
The Berceau des Sens (BDS) is a fine dining restaurant found in the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne (EHL), based in Switzerland. Its name translates to the “the basket of senses” and caters to an upmarket clientele with a capacity of 70 covers. The BDS sports a classy and upscale- segment design fitted with automated lighting and an overhead sound system which is controlled within the backoffice. It offers an extensive array of wines from different parts of the world as well as various menus to choose from which are changed weekly. It is comprised of a management team and further serves as a practice ground for the students at the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne such that the service and kitchen staff is comprised of students and teachers who guide students through the restaurants processes. The BDS is operational from Mondays to Thursdays with lunch and dinner services lasting from 3 to 4 hours maximum each.

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As the BDS functions as one of the on-campus restaurants, large portions of its clientele are students, staff and external guests. The ratio between students, staff and external guests is 40%, 13% and 30% respectively (BDS statistics, 2011). House guests make up the remaining clientele of the BDS. These guests were not included in the survey as they do not pay for the experience and are often attending for business purposes. Ages of BDS clientele range from 18 till 55 years of age.

5.1.1. The Dining Phases
The process of dining at the BDS is one that is comprised of 3 significantly different periods unique to the concept of fine dining. These periods were determined after interviewing the BDS management team about the general activities within the consumer experience at the BDS. At the start of the service, guests are presented with menus, given water and offered bread. It is at this moment where guests will select their preferred menu‟s and wines. Guests then wait for a series of 7 meals to be presented to them after the completion of each one. Upon completion of these meals, guests are then offered a selection of desserts which are shortly followed by the optional coffee and the bill, a period which is notorious for long waiting times. The nature of the BDS service presents various opportunities to study the effects of music on consumers. To better segment each period within the dining process, „Pre-Phase‟ is the term given to the first 60 minutes of the dining process, „During-Phase‟ refers to the next 90 minutes and „Post-Phase‟ is the term given to the last 60 minutes of service at the BDS. Hypothesis are further derived an implemented in the corresponding sections.

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5.1.2. The Pre-Phase
At the beginning period; consumers decide on what they will spend on and to what extent their spending will be taken to. As this time period commences the dining experience and acts as the point of sale for the BDS, it is favourable that consumers order high revenue items. Once, the order has been recorded, guests receive their first beverages which are generally comprised of the different wines at the BDS. As this period involves activities such as wine purchasing, wine tasting and consumption, associations are of higher socioeconomic status, prestige and intricacy (Areni and Kim, 1993). Music that matches these social values should be considered when developing a sonic profile. It is important to choose music that would complement the contextual environment of the BDS. As it is by concept a fine-dining restaurant, music of prestigious associations need be executed to retain and enhance the formal beginning of the BDS service. Furthermore, as the target is to influence heightened spending, music should either be regarded as prestigious or be in minor modalities with slow tempos. Furthermore, as the beverage offer is the only menu that remains constant, beverages were implemented as part of the research measurements and the food offer discarded from further tracking. Hence, for the sake of enhancing the prestigious image of the restaurant while simultaneously influencing increased spending, classical music is regarded as the variable most suited to achieving the mentioned results. We can therefore measure the effects of H1a and H1b in this time frame and accept or reject the hypothesis according to the findings.

5.1.3. The During-Phase
The second period consists of serving the meals that had been ordered in the „Pre-Phase‟ period and is heavily dependent on the waiter‟s ability to anticipate and synchronize the guest‟s consumption speed with the kitchen‟s processes as

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well as the time that it takes to prepare each dish. As this period is heavily associated with customer evaluation of the dining experience, the opportunity to measure music‟s effect on consumer‟s evaluation of the experience can be applied. At this phase of the dining experience, lights are lowered to promote a sense of relaxation and comfort rather than the initial atmosphere of formality. During this period, it is still possible to order additional beverages. Hence, inducing behaviours of higher spending is favourable along with positive mood inductions which require music which is slow and in major modality or perceived as happy. As classical music is associated with emotions of prestige and sophistication, it is not congruent with the newly altered atmosphere of relaxation and ease. Therefore, a musical genre which is also associated with higher socio-economic status but complements the newly defined atmosphere is that of Jazz music (Shepherd, 1986). Furthermore, music should be chosen which is known to positively affect consumer‟s patronage intentions as well as their product and service evaluations. According to the literature, music which is happy (major modality) has significant effects in positively influencing product and service evaluations. We can therefore measure the effects of H2 in this time frame and accept or reject the hypothesis according to the findings.

5.1.4. The Post Phase
The third period offers the guest a moment to relax and end the service with a coffee or any other choice in beverage selection as the period to order food ends at 8 pm. The Post-Phase is associated with guests using their time to relax after the lengthy service and consumption of many meals. As customers usually display a sense of fatigue from the prior meals consumed and time spent in the restaurant, waiting for the bill can become a tiresome task due to service staff catering to other customers still dining or also enquiring on other‟s bills. Hence, the opportunity is provided to exploit music which is known to

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shorten customer time perceptions. Music known to have such an effect is that of slow tempos and in minor modalities. We can therefore measure the effects of H3 in this time frame and accept or reject the hypothesis according to the findings. Furthermore, as the management would like the last impressions of the consumer to be that of heightened return intentions, care was taken to select music which was liked by the target the audience. Hence, the pre-phase serves as an appropriate segment to test H4.

5.2. Conceptual Framework
In the framework below (figure 4), the proposed hypotheses and its relevant musical treatments, which were derived from the literature, are displayed in relation to the variables proposed for measurement. Figure 4. H1a)

H1b)

H2)

H3)

H4)

6. Music Treatment Development
Music has been identified as significant in the development of memories which promotes the creation and recollection of judgments about oneself, others and

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the environment (Jänke, 2008). Knowing this, consumers may rely on the musical treatment of the restaurant to better facilitate and recall their experience at the end of the evening. To our knowledge, no attempts have been made to assimilate a structured musical treatment that adheres to the objectives set out by management in terms of managing consumer behaviours that may be beneficial to both the store and the consumer‟s experience. Hence, the BDS will serve as the environment suited for experimentation where the use of a structured music treatment will be implemented and tested against an unstructured music treatment.

6.1. Unstructured Music Treatment
Music that pertained to the unstructured treatment was compiled by the BDS management team. Music was selected according to the management team‟s own tastes and beliefs as to what type of music should be played and was controlled according to the intuition of the staff on duty. Unstructured music adhered to no particular time boundaries or theoretical application and was again controlled via the intuition of the service staff. Their music treatments involved putting an artist‟s CD into the sound system and playing it through the night as the staff pleased. CD‟s of artists involved Diana Kral, Miles Davis, Cannonball Adderley and Kazumi Watanabe. Although the music does pertain to the higher socio-economic values known to Jazz music, compositional elements of the music were executed at random meaning that these elements (slow tempo, fast tempo, major mode, minor mode etc.) were completely mixed with no purpose within their placement.

6.2. Structured Music Treatment
Music herewith was determined from an interview with the management of the BDS. Please consult Appendix 1 for a representation of the interview in table format.

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Music was then selected and organized according to the time period in question and the desired restaurant patron behaviour associated to the segment in time.

6.2.1. Pre-Phase Music Selection
As stated in the literature, music with higher socio-economic associations such as classical music is known to elevate the consumer‟s perceptions of an environment such that it is regarded as more prestigious and higher in quality. Classical music compositions were therefore derived from the works of North et al. (2002) where classical music was used in a casual restaurant to determine if classical music could induce higher spending in an upmarket restaurant.

6.2.2. During-Phase Music Selection
Music which is regarded as happy (major modality) is known to have positive effects on service/product evaluations. Furthermore, as the guest still had the opportunity to order more F&B items, music selection was kept at slow tempos for its understood effects upon heightened spending. The compositions were chosen under the genre of Jazz for its higher socio-economic associations.

6.2.3. Post-Phase Music Selection
Music which is liked is known to have positive effects on patronage behaviour. Also, as the aim was to shorten time perceptions, care was taken in selecting liked music that was slow and in minor modes. However, the process to selecting “liked” music required a complicated procedure in musical selection which then had to be approved by the BDS management. As the majority of the BDS clientele are students and staff from the campus of the Ecole Hôtelière de Lausanne, an informal survey was dispatched which asked them what type of music they would prefer listening to in a fine dining establishment as well as any song suggestions. A portion of these were incorporated into the playlist.

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The second part of the procedure involved determining music that would fit the preferences of consumers according to their age. As stated by Holdbrook and Schindler (1989), musical preference at the age of 23.5 remains a stronger preference over music which was liked at different stages in one‟s life. Hence, to cater for clientele who may not have been part of the informal survey and are also considerably older in age, care was taken to incorporate music that was liked by older generations in their earlier years. Billboard and Top 40 charts between the years of 1970 and 2012 were consulted in choosing the relevant musical compositions. Finally, music was further filtered to ensure that compositions in this section were in minor modes and slow tempos. Hence, compositions which were in major modalities and/or fast tempos were discarded.

6.3. CD Control
As the experiment is based on the segmented dining service at BDS, it was necessary for the researcher to control the start and ending of the music per phase. 3 CD‟s had to be developed which contained the 3 separate playlist treatments; „Pre‟, „During‟ and „Post‟ phases. Hence, the first CD contained the musical playlist „Pre-Phase‟, the second CD contained the playlist „‟DuringPhase‟ and the third CD contained the Playlist „Post-Phase‟. The contents of each CD can be found in Appendix 3. The researcher commenced the musical treatment at 7 pm and changed the CD at the shift in dinner service segments. Volumes were kept at background volumes.

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7. Survey Design 7.1. Introduction
A quantitative approach was necessary in order to collect large amounts of usable data. To do so, it was necessary to develop a survey that gave respondents the opportunity to evaluate the different perceptible qualities of their experience. Hence, by obtaining mass amounts of observable data, analysis could be made to obtain conclusive results. Surveys were distributed at the end of the dining service to all of the BDS‟s guests by the service staff and later collected by the service staff after the guest(s) had completed their survey(s).

7.2. Survey Structure
The survey required the respondent to indicate their gender, age and guest type (student, staff, external guest). As the survey required respondents to evaluate their attitude or opinion upon a topic, a 5 point Likert Scale was applied to all questions where 1 represented complete disagreement and 5 represented complete agreement (Likert, 1932). Each question incorporated into the survey measured the characteristics determined within the conceptual framework and was designed to incorporate three phases of the dining experience mentioned earlier, namely, the „PrePhase‟, „During-Phase‟ and „Post-Phase‟. Questions pertaining to the „Pre-Phase‟ segment measured perceptions of spending. Questions associated to the „During-Phase‟ measured evaluations of the over-all dining experience. Finally, questions related to the „Post-Phase‟ measured consumer time estimates as well as their intentions to return. Furthermore, as the clientele of the BDS speak either French or English, questions were kept in English while a French version of the same survey was

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given to French speakers. This translation was done by the EHL campus French teacher, Madame Philippin-Cotillon. Please consult Appendix 2 to view the surveys.

7.3. Survey Questions
The survey is introduced by the question “I was aware of the music tonight” in order to measure whether the respondent took notice of the music playing. This may indicate whether these reactions took place at a conscious or unconscious level.

7.3.1. Pre-Phase Questions: Spending
The question “I feel I spent more money than I intended to” was asked to measure to what extent people felt their spending was exerted. This was done so as to understanding if consumers felt that they had exerted greater spending. The intention was to further couple the relative responses with the actual receipts.

7.3.2. During-Phase Questions: Experience Evaluations
“I had an enjoyable experience” was the question posed to measure the respondent‟s general level of enjoyment within the BDS experience under the different music conditions. To further segment what may have influenced the respondent‟s perception of what affected their evaluation of an enjoyable experience, the respondent was asked to agree to what extent they enjoyed the company of the people they went with to the BDS, the BDS décor, service staff, music and the food.

7.3.3. Post-Phase Question: Intentions to Return and Time Perceptions
Time perceptions were measured by the question “I felt that time went by quickly”. The respondent rated their level of agreement with the statement according to the previously mentioned scale.

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The ending question on the survey, “I intend to return to the BDS in the near future”, was included to understand to what level the respondent may have been influenced by the two musical treatments in terms of their intentions to return to the BDS in the future as a means of measuring patronage. Whether the guest had come back on future occasions was not tracked.

7.4. Sample
The field experiment was conducted in the BDS over a 4 week period during the month of March. The two music treatments were employed in the BDS environment to investigate the effects of a structured music treatment and an unstructured music treatment on restaurant patrons without revealing to them the difference in music conditions. As the restaurant is operational for 4 days of the week (Monday-Thursday) and has two separate services; lunch and dinner, the dinner service was selected for experimentation. To equally distribute the two music treatments, structured music treatments that were played on Tuesday and Thursday of the first week were swapped with the Monday and Wednesday of the second week. Unstructured music that was played on Monday and Wednesday in the first week was played on Tuesday and Thursday of the second week. Volumes had been pretested in the BDS environment to ensure that music was kept in the background as opposed to the foreground and the separate CD content had been put on shuffle to randomly assign the musical content per CD. The final sample consisted of 348 total participants, 158 of who had dined under the unstructured music treatment and 190 under the structured music treatment. Of the 348 respondents, 151 were male and 197 were female. 181 of the respondents were students, 7 were staff and a 158 were external guests. 2 respondents had failed to indicate their guest type and age. Please refer to Table 1 represents the previously stated information.

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Table 1. Sample Participants Category Gender Selection Male Female Total Age 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55+ Total Guest Type Student Staff External Total Total Missed Amount 151 197 348 220 50 21 25 30 346 181 7 158 346 2

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8. Primary Research 8.1. Data Collection 8.1.1. Survey
Surveys were distributed and collected at the end of the dinner services from Monday to Thursday by the staff of the BDS.

8.1.2. Receipts
As the food menus at the BDS are changed on a weekly basis, it was decided to only measure the spending on beverages as these remain constant on offer. The cost control department of the BDS records all of the orders and transactions made at both lunch and dinner services. It was hence employed in separating the beverage receipts for each night service and determining the spend per head on BDS restaurant patrons per night. These values were then organized according to their appropriate nights under the two music conditions. This information could then be incorporated into the relative analysis.

9. Methodology Part 2
This section describes the processes involved in analysing the data that was collected from the 5th till the 15th of March, 2012.

9.1. SPSS
The program SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data collected from the surveys. A frequency test was executed to count the number of participants, gender, guest type and age differences that were present in the experiment at the BDS. Responses from the survey were recorded on excel and then imported into SPSS.

9.2. Reliability
In order to continue further analysis, Cronbach‟s Reliability Test was conducted on all questions. As the result displayed and alpha value greater than 0.6

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(α=0.606), reliability of the questions were satisfactory and further analysis could be done.

9.3. Independent Samples T-Test
It was necessary to determine whether a significant difference in responses under the two music conditions existed. To do so, Independent Samples T-test proved appropriate in providing means and significance levels to confirm a significant difference in the responses under the two musical conditions of structured and unstructured musical treatments. In order to determine whether a significant difference existed, the 2-tailed significance had to be below 5% (0.05). This test was applied to all data that was related to the survey questions.

9.4. Independent Samples T-Test on Spending
After identifying the average spend per head, the averages were then imported into SPSS to the corresponding days and respondent numbers. Furthermore, as the figures determined were average spend per head of the different beverage categories; wines, beers, liquor and minerals, these values were hence aligned on the number of respondents that had participated in the test. This was done so as to make Independent Samples T-tests possible in order to determine whether the two music conditions produced significant differences in terms of spending. If the value presented by the 2-tailed significance was under 5% (0.05), the difference in spending was hence considered as significant.

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9.5. Methodological Limitations
1. Experimentation was conducted in only one environment and hence the data set pertains to only the BDS environment. Further research might consider executing the experiment in various environments of similar characteristics. 2. As answering the survey was voluntary, the absence of certain participant‟s evaluations may have deterred from the data set. This may have affected the results. 3. The cost control department had presented the researcher with final values. As it was already against their policies to release financial information, the values used may not have been representative of the real spending at the BDS on beverages. 4. Although analysis had received an acceptable size of data from a large sample size, choice in analyses was kept simple so as to merely indicate the difference in responses under the two conditions. Such as simple manner in analysis may thus be considered a limitation and that future research might consider more vigorous methods of analysis upon closer investigation of the variables. 5. It was difficult to control the dispersion of surveys due to the large number of staff distributing them under limited monitoring. Hence, such an error may result in affecting the reliability of the data.

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10. Findings and Analysis 10.1. Receipts
Higher spending was recorded under the condition of a structured music treatment and lesser spending under the unstructured music treatment such that spending on wines experienced an average increase of 4.35 CHF, 30 C increase on minerals and 7 C increase on beer. These increases were considered as significantly different due to the 2-tailed significance being below 5% (0.05). The only beverage item that did not experience a significant difference in increase was liquor. These values can be further found in Table 2 presented below.

Table 2: Independent Sample T-Test on beverage receipts

Music

Structured Mean

Unstructured Sig. (2-tailed) Equal Variances Equal Variances Assumed Not Assumed 27.80 0.14 0.15 0.47 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.142 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.16

Receipts Per Day Wine Mineral Beer Liquor 32.15 0.44 0.22 0.40

10.2. Perceptions on spending
Average scores for respondents perceptions on how much they feel they spent was higher under the structured music treatment (2.46) than under the unstructured music treatment (2.03). These differences were prompted as significant and can be found in Table 3.

10.3. Awareness of music
The survey revealed that there was a significant difference in the respondents evaluation in their awareness of the music played under the two music treatments. They were more aware of the presence of music under the

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structured

music treatment

(3.34)

than

under the unstructured

music

treatment (2.24). The relative values presented in Table 3.

10.4. Overall Experience Evaluation
Respondents indicated that their overall experience was higher under the structured music treatment (4.68) as opposed to the unstructured music treatment (4.38) at significant levels. However, when respondents were asked to evaluate individual aspects of the service environment, no differences were reflected in their evaluations under the two different musical treatments. The only variable that was significantly different was their higher preference evaluations for the music under the structured music treatment (3.48) as opposed to the unstructured music treatment (1.99). These values can be found in Table 3.

10.5. Time Perceptions
Under the structured musical treatment, respondent evaluations indicate a higher response (4.34) in their time perception evaluation under the structured musical treatment than under the unstructured musical treatment (3.65). It was indicated that these values were significantly different as represented in Table 3.

10.6. Return Intentions
Respondents indicated higher evaluations of their intentions to return under the structured music treatment (4.54) than under the unstructured music

treatment (4.27) which were indicated as significantly different. Furthermore, these values can be found in Table 3.

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Table 3: Independent Samples T-Test on survey evaluations Music Structured Mean Consciousness I was aware of the music tonight Spending I feel I spent more money than I intended to Overall Experience Evaluation I had an enjoyable experience I enjoyed my evening because of the: People I went with to BDS BDS décor Service staff Music Food Time Perceptions I felt that time went by quickly Intention to Return I intend on dining at the BDS again 4.54 4.27 0.00 0.00 4.34 3.65 0.00 0.00 4.84 3.92 4.14 3.48 4.25 4.8 3.8 4.01 1.99 4.11 0.47 0.24 0.17 0.00 0.15 0.46 0.24 0.17 0.00 0.15 4.68 4.38 0.00 0.00 2.46 2.03 0.00 0.00 3.34 2.24 0.00 0.00 Unstructured Sig. (2-tailed) Equal Variances Assumed Equal Variances Assumed Not

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12. Discussion 12.1. Awareness towards the Music
According to the analysis, higher awareness of the music under the structured music treatment was likely due to the respondent‟s heightened exposure to the music which was kept at pre-tested volumes. Furthermore, the continuous duration of the structured music treatment may have given the respondent greater opportunity to recognize that there was music playing over the BDS‟s sounds system. In light of the unstructured music treatment, which was controlled by the intuition of the BDS management, inconsistent volumes and time durations of the music may have hindered the respondent‟s ability to acknowledge the presence of music. Due to the respondent‟s higher evaluations of certain elements under the structured music treatment, it would be beneficial for restaurant environments (and more specifically the BDS) to keep their musical profile under consistent usage of time and volume levels as opposed to control based on intuition. Further research is however required to understand whether these restaurant patrons‟ decisions were made at a conscious or unconscious level.

12.2. Perceptions on Spending vs. Actual Receipts
Receipt tracking revealed that restaurant patrons attending the BDS displayed behaviour of higher spending under the structured music treatment which incorporated classical music played during the order-taking period.

Furthermore, restaurant patrons of the BDS felt that they had spent more money than they had intended to under the structured music treatment than under the unstructured music treatment. These findings supports the research of Milliman (1986) as well as North and Hargreaves (1998) who highlight the higher socio-economic associations of classical music and its ability to induce prestigious behaviour such as higher spending. Therefore, H1a) is accepted.

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Furthermore, as consumers indicated that they exerted higher spending in their survey evaluations under the structured music treatment, H1b) is also accepted.

12.3. Overall Experience Evaluation
Under the structured music treatment, respondents indicated that their overall enjoyment of the dining experience was higher than respondents under the unstructured music treatment. This finding further supports the findings of researchers such as Alpert et al. (2003) and Garlin and Owen (2006). However, this did not seem to be reflected in respondent‟s evaluations of the individual elements that composed the dining experience, except for the higher appreciation of the music indicated in the survey responses. It might be argued that the elements put to question were not the appropriate elements to measure and that there are other factors which may have been affected but not incorporated into the survey such as questions related to “atmosphere” and “mood”. As respondents did indicate a higher enjoyment of the overall experience, accepting H2 might be a viable option as a structured music treatment which incorporated music that was in line with the customer‟s musical preferences, coupled with music associated with positive mood inductions (major mode) positively influenced restaurant patron‟s evaluations of their dining experience. However, it remains tentative as to what variables were actually affected in their experience evaluations. Further research is necessary to better

understand this phenomenon.

12.4. Time Perceptions
Survey responses indicated that consumers felt that time went by faster when exposed to the structured music treatment. These findings support the research of Oakes (2003). This means that such treatments which incorporate music at slow tempos and in minor modes could have a significant effect upon decreasing consumer estimates on time durations. Hence, H3 is accepted.

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12.5. Return Intentions
Under the structured music condition, respondents indicated higher evaluations on their intentions to return to the BDS in the future as compared to evaluations under the unstructured music condition. This finding hence supports the workings of Harris and Ezeh, (2008). As the structured music treatment incorporated music known to positively affect patronage, H4 is accepted.

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13. Conclusion and Implications
Although intuitive means of selecting music is not necessarily a destructive activity, by adhering to a rigorous process of musical selection, the restaurant can forego the hazard of incorrectly selecting music which might produce counter-productive effects. This is achieved by incorporating music that pertains to the market segments musical preferences and correctly matching these tastes to the identity of the restaurant environment in question. Furthermore, paying attention to the numerous theoretical components of music, such as genre, tempo and modality; restaurant establishments are able to make musical decisions based on conceptual knowledge instead of judgments supported by intuition. As it has been demonstrated, music has a significant effect upon the restaurant patron‟s dining experience. If an analytical approach is incorporated into designing and applying the musicscape to the restaurant environment, it is possible to produce behaviours which are favourable in optimizing the restaurant experience and hence complement operational procedures aimed at bettering customer evaluations of the restaurant environment. These findings add to prior research such that restaurant establishments can look to music as a useful tool in increasing revenues with regards to beverage purchases, increased evaluations of the overall enjoyment of the experience, induce shorter time perceptions over periods which require long waiting times and positively affect the restaurants patron‟s intentions to return to the establishment. As these findings add to an existing but limited content with regards to the use of music in restaurants, such establishments can look to music as a tool which complements its service offer and differentiates itself from its competitors.

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14. Further Research Recommendations
1. The use of only one restaurant environment may not be representative for the whole population, especially since the restaurant caters to a very specific type of clientele. Further research might incorporate more than one restaurant establishment under the same music treatment conditions to see if findings remain consistent within various restaurant environments. 2. As the restaurant environment wished to keep a prestigious atmosphere during the main part of the BDS service without it being as formal as the classical music atmosphere, the use of Jazz music was incorporated. However, the nature of Jazz music is one that is synonymous with constantly changing modalities. Hence, Jazz music might start off in a major mode and then transition into a minor mode. This may explain why music played during the dining experience didn‟t have a particular effect on respondent‟s evaluations of the service, décor or product. Although the structured music treatment produced higher evaluations of enjoyment than the unstructured music treatment, it might be said that the consistent presence of music during this period as well as its incorporation due to its song structure remaining predominantly in a major mode, had a general positive effect. Future research might consider selecting music which does not incur too many modal changes within the structured treatment. 3. By dealing out the surveys at the end of the night, it does not allow the researcher to isolate what variables may have had a direct impact on the restaurant patron. Ideally, the different parts of the survey should have been dealt directly after the corresponding period e.g. Perceptions of time would have been more accurate if the respondent received the survey directly after phase designated to music known to induce such effects. 4. Some tables had experienced unisex seating while other tables experienced same sex seating. These differences may have had an effect on the respondent‟s evaluations. However, these factors were not tracked. Future

51

research might consider tracking such information to determine more accurate results. 5. Table size varied between 2 per table till 9 per table. As there was intention to track this variable, staff often forgot to indicate the table size of the respondents table. This resulted in abandoning the tracking of table size due to the inconsistency in collections. However, this variable may have had some influence over the results. Further research should incorporate this into the research design. 6. Guests seated at different ends of the restaurant environment were all at different distances from the sources of amplification. Hence, this may have affected the respondent‟s evaluations as the volumes may have been inconsistent amongst the different seating plans. Future research could consider conducting experimentation on only the tables which are nearest to the sources of amplification. 7. Service staff who was meant to distribute and collect the surveys often distributed the surveys at different times. Although this is expected due to different tables finishing their dining experience either sooner or later than others, this may had some effect on the level of evaluation from the different respondents. Furthermore, attitudes and behaviours of the service staff when handing out the survey may have affected respondent‟s evaluations. Future research might consider developing some form of monitoring staff in their distribution of surveys. 8. The survey questions may have been worded incorrectly as certain words and phrases may not have been understood by everyone under the same context. As a result, this may have resulted in inconsistencies within the respondents evaluations. Future research might consider evaluating the wording of the surveys via a focus group to produce more accurate wording structures. 9. The quality of the sound system within the BDS may have deterred from the music‟s ability to be well perceived by everyone dining at the BDS.

52

Furthermore, the equalization controls for the sound system were very limited and did not allow much opportunity to adjust the sound of the CD content and contextualize it to the acoustics of the BDS environment. As a result, the hindrance sound technology led to lower sound quality which may have had an effect on the respondent‟s evaluations. Future research should be conducted in environments that have a high quality sound system to avoid deterioration in sound quality. 10. Although literature exists concerning the effects of music on consumer behaviour in service environments, a very limited portion of it is focused on dining environments. Hence, using information that was more related to other environments may have had an effect on the experiment. More research in the fields of a dining environment could help avoid this problem in the future. This finding however deals some contrasting information. 11. According to Ornstein‟s “storage model”, the more stimulation cognitive processes are subjected to, the longer time estimates should be. Hence, by theory, silence should have the most optimal effect in decreasing consumer‟s time perceptions. Often times, BDS management would refrain from playing music when the environment was experiencing full capacity as management felt that the noise produced by “chatter” would come into conflict with the music. Although this management of the music was not consistent, it still brings to question as to why a structured music treatment produced shorter time perceptions, especially since its music acted as an additional layer of sound over the existing chatter. This might be that the music exposed by the structured music treatment distracted people from the disorganized sound of the “chatter” and provided a more organized platform of sound for cognitive processes to decode. Whatever the reason, it is clear that further research is necessary to better understand the proposed model and its implications in the context of music and restaurant environments.

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Appendix

60

Appendix 1- Phase schedule from interview Phases Pre-Phase Time (pm) 07 : 00 08 : 30 Dining Period Selection of wine and course meals for the rest of the evening Dining Experience commences with series of meals Desired Results Prestige and formal atmosphere Induce higher spending Perceived (+)Experience Relaxed atmosphere which is still formal Use of Music from lit. Classical music Tracking evaluations Receipts Survey

DuringPhase

08 : 30 10 : 30

Jazz music in slow tempos and major modes

Survey

Post-Phase

10 : 00 11 : 00

Sit-down and coffee before the end of the evening

Short Time Perceptions High intentions to return

Music in minor modes and slow tempos (+) music must be liked

Survey

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Appendix 2- Survey
We thank you for dining at the BDS this evening. Please take a moment to fill out the survey below
Gender Guest Type Age Category Male Student Female Staff 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 +55 External

Please indicate to what level you agree with the following statements, where 1= completely disagree and 5=completely agree
1 I was aware of the music tonight I feel I spent more money than I intended to I had an enjoyable experience 2 3 4 5

I enjoyed my evening because of the: People I went with to BDS BDS décor Service staff Music Food

1

2

3

4

5

1 I felt that time went by quickly I intend on dining at the BDS again

2

3

4

5

Thank you for your time and we wish you a pleasant journey home

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Nous vous remercions pour votre présence au BDS ce soir. Nous vous serions gré de prendre quelques minutes pour remplir le questionnaire suivant:
Genre Vous êtes… Catégorie d’âge Homme Etudiant Femme Externe 18-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 +55 Employé

S’il vous plait, dites si vous êtes tout à fait d’accord ou pas du tout d’accord avec les affirmations suivantes: 1=pas du tout d’accord ; 5=tout à fait d’accord
1 J’ai remarqué la musique pendant la soirée J’ai l’impression d’avoir dépensé plus d’argent que j’en avais l’intention J’ai passé un moment (très) agréable 2 3 4 5

J’ai aimé cette soirée pour les raisons suivantes: Les gens avec lesquels je suis venu au BDS Le décor du BDS Le service (du personnel) La musique La nourriture/le repas

1

2

3

4

5

1 Le temps a passé plus vite que prévu J’ai l’intention de revenir dîner au BDS

2

3

4

5

Merci d’avoir pris le temps de remplir ce questionnaire, nous vous souhaitons un bon retour chez vous.

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Appendix 3- Structured Music Treatments
Phase Desired Result Style Songs

1. Minuet in G- Bach 2. Orchestral Suite no. 3- Bach 3. Concerto in E Flat- Bellini 4. Waltz in A Flat- Brahms

Prestigious Music identified as classical

5. Nocturne- Chopin 6. Courante and Sarabande- Bach 7. Dvork 8. Fure Elsie- Beethoven 9. Harp Concerto- Handel 10.Love Dream- Liszt 11.Concerto Harp and Flute- Mozart 12.Pachabel Canon 13.Romantic Classical 14.Serenade- Schubert 15.Turkish March 16.Violin Romance- Beethoven 17.Summer- Vivaldi

Duration of music: 96 minutes

Select of High Revenue Items

Pre-Phase

64

Phase

Desired Result

Style

Songs

1. Bye Bye Blackbird- Public Enemies 2. Body and Soul- Freddie Hubbard 3. Do I love you „cause you‟re beautifulColtraine 4. Everytime we say Goodbye 5. Here‟s that Rainy Day- Freddie Hubbard 6. I Love Her

Perceived (+)Experience Short Time Perceptions

Jazz in Major Keys Slow Tempo Music

7. Girl from Ipenema 8. Guess I‟m Falling for you 9. All I have 10.Lions Song 11.Stardust 12.My One and Only Love- Coltraine & Hartman 13.Prelude to a Kiss- Duke Ellington 14.Sensual Saxophone 15.Slow Dance 16.Sophisticated Lady 17.Travellin Blues 18.When I fall in Love 19.William Hernandez 20.You leave me breathless

Duration: 102 minutes

During-Phase

65

Phase

Desired Result

Style

Songs

1. Air 2. La Mangrave

Slow to moderate music in minor modes

3. Behold These Days 4. Cinematic Orchestra 5. French Lounge Music 6. Summer Madness 7. Lights 8. Matrix 9. NERD 10.Can‟t Take that Away from Me 11.Fly Me to the Moon 12.Que Sera- Wax Tailor 13.L‟amour 14.Destiny- Zero 7

Duration: 60 Minutes

Decreased Time Perceptions Intentions to return

Post-Phase

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Appendix 4- Reference descriptions

1-Music & Consumption Experience

Authors
Rajanish Jain, Shilpa Bagdare (2010)

Definitions
Literature reviewTo Examine the influence of music on consumption experience ,explore the relationships between musical variables and consumer responses in the context of retailing Providing resources useful for selecting popular sound recordings while emphasizing the need for monitoring trends and new releases in popular music The effects of

Dimensions
1) Musical Construct Structural elements, Liking 2)Response Cognitive, emotional and behavioural 3)Experience 4)Moderators Customer profile, Type of store, ambience factors Online world

Scales of Measurement
Literature review

Domain
Consumer Experience

Hypothesis

Findings
Accumulation of findings in the context of retailing

none

2-Resources for Selecting Popular Music

Eamon Tewell (2009)

none

Musical Resources

none

Refer to table titled „Resources for selecting popular music‟

3- Effects of web

Jung-Hwan

Product

Mehrabian

Consumer

H2: those

H2 rejected

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site atmospherics on consumer responses: music and product presentation

Kim, Minjeong Kim, Sharron J. Lennon (2009)

4-Effects of Background Music on Consumer Behaviour: A field Experiment in an Open-Air Market

5- Are highly satisfied restaurant customers really different? A quality perception

Nicolas Guéguen, Céline Jacob, Marcel Lourel, Hélène Le Guellee (2007) Young Namkung, Soocheong Jang (2007)

6- Meaning, communication, music: towards a revised communication model

Charles Inskip, Andrew MacFarlane, Pauline Rafferty

web site atmospherics such as music and product presentation on consumers‟ emotional, cognitive and conative responses The effects of music on consumer behaviour outside ( from without the confines of a building) Identifying the key quality attributes that significantly distinguish highly satisfied dinners from non-highly satisfied diners Examining the meaning of music, how meaning of music is communicated

presentation Music Emotional States Attitude Purchase Intent

and Russell (1974)

Experience

exposed to background music in online shopping will exhibit more positive emotion towards the website

Length of stay Sales rate Average amount of sales per customer Background Music Quality of food Presentation Quality of Atmospherics Service Quality

numerical

Consumer Behaviour

Survey questionnaire -restaurant experience -perceived quality -customer satisfaction Logistic Regressions none

Customer Satisfaction

H1:pleasant music retains clientele vs. no music at all H2: Background music will have a positive effect on sales volume H1: atmospherics have a significant importance to high customer satisfaction

H1 accepted H2 accepted although tenuous

H1 accepted

Literature review

Music Information Systems

none

None useful but contents of research very helpful

68

(2007)

7-How can Music be used in Business

8- An exploration of happy/sad and liked/disliked music effects on shopping intentions in women’s clothing stores

Darrell Coloma, Brian H. Kleiner (2005) Greg Broekemier, Ray Marquardt, James W. Gentry (2005)

and suggests this may affect music retrieval Management Research News

Time Perception Advertising

none

Consumer Behaviour

none

Please refer to the table titled „ Music Business findings‟ H1 accepted H2 accepted H3 accepted

Which two dimensions of music have significant effects on shopping intentions

Happy/sad Liked/disliked

Focus group

Consumer Perceptions

9-Purchase Occasion of Music

Mark I. Alpert, Judy

The use of variations in

Major and minor modes of music

Surveys Seven-point

Consumer Behaviour

H1: Subjects who judge the stimulus music as happy have greater intentions to shop in stimulus store than subjects who judge the stimulus music to be sad H2:Shoppping intentions will be greater if exposed to liked music H3:Music that is both happy and liked will be associated with the greatest intentions to shop in the stimulus store H1: Music whose structural

H1 accepted H2 rejected yet

69

in the Role of Advertising

I. Alpert, Elliot N. Maltz (2003)

formal music structure of background music in commercials which may have a significant influence over the emotional response of the consumer

Emotional state of the person at question

bipolar scales

10- The Influence of Music Tempo and Musical Preference in Restaurant Patrons’ Behaviour

Clare Caldwell, Sally A. Hibbert (2002)

The effects of music on consumer behaviour in the casual dining experience

Tempo Musical Preference Money spent Time spent Dining experience

Selfcompleted questionnaires

Consumer behaviour

profile is happy influences listener moods to become more positive than if exposed to sad music H2:when evoked mood is congruent with the mood of the purchase occasion, buying intention is higher than when the buyer and occasion moods are inconsistent H1:Music tempo will affect actual time spent in the restaurant such that individuals dining under the slower tempo condition will spend more time in the restaurant than those exposed to fast tempo music H2: Musical preference will

tentative

H1 accepted H2 accepted H3 rejected H4 rejected H5 rejected H6 rejected H7 accepted H8 accepted H9 rejected H10 rejected H11 accepted H12rejected

70

be positively associated with time spent in the restaurant H3:There is an interactive effect of music tempo and preference on actual time spent in the restaurant H4:slow tempo music will lead to underestimating the time spent vs. faster tempo will overestimate H5: people who like the music being played will underestimate time spent H6: the interaction of music tempo and preference on time perceptions H7:slow tempo conditions will induce higher spending than fast tempo

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condition H8: Musical preference will have a positive influence on spending H9: Music Tempo and preference will have an interactive influence on the amount of money spent H10:Music tempo will have a positive influence on individuals evaluation of the dining experience H11: Music preference will have a positive effect on individuals evaluation of their enjoyment of dining H12:music tempo and preference will have an interactive effect on the

72

11-Having the Right taste for Music

12- Effects of music in service environments: a field study

Adrian North, Amber Shilcock, David Hargreaves (2002) J. Duncan Herrington (1996)

The effects of musical styles on consumer spending in a dining experience The effects of background music on consumer behaviour in a supermarket environment

Pop Classical Silence receipts

none

Consumer behaviour

Tempo Volume Musical preferences Size of household Mood state of Gender Time constraints

Factor Analysis

Consumer Behaviour

consumer evaluation of their dining experience H1: different styles of music have different effects on consumer behaviour H1:Loud music will reduce the time shoppers spend shopping H2: The amount of money spent will be unaffected by loud music H3:The tempo of background music will affect the total shopping time of shoppers H4:The tempo of background music will affect the amount of money spent by shoppers H5:Preference for background music will affect shoppers length of stay

H1 Accepted

H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6

rejected accepted rejected rejected accepted accepted

73

13-The experience of time as a function of musical loudness and Gender of Listener

James J. Kellaris, Moses B. Altsech (1992)

The influence of music and gender on the experience of time

Loudness volumes Perceived service duration LAB

Duration estimate item and perceived pace scale

Consumer Behaviour and Perceptions

14-The influence of background music on the behaviour of restaurant patrons

Ronald E. Milliman (1986)

Music tempo variations can greatly affect consumers

Slow and fast music Time perception:

Replicated randomized block experimental

Consumer Behaviour

H6: Preference for background music will affect the amount of money shoppers spend in the service environment H1. Louder music will be perceived as longer in duration H2: The effect of music loudness on time perception will be more positive for female listeners H3: The loudness of music will have a positive effect on perceived pace H4: the effect of music loudness on perceived space will be more positive for females Tempo of music will have a significant effect on consumer

H1 H2 H3 H4

accepted accepted accepted rejected

Slow music influenced diners to spend more time at

74

purchasing intentions, length of stay and other variables examined

Waiting time Length of stay Actual waiting and dining time

design Observers

behaviour in a dining venue

15-Exploring managers implicit theories of atmospheric music

Charles S. Areni (2003)

16-A model of consumer response to advertising music

Geoffrey P. Lantos, Lincoln G. Craton (2012)

Interviews of a total of 90 hotel, rest and pub managers explaining their experience and theories of incorporating music A model of consumer response to music in broadcast

Different manager types perception of on the use of music

Survey Interviews

Managerial perception

NA

venue Waiting time is greatly reduced when fast tempo music is played Bar receipts increased with the incorporation of slow tempo of music Slow music>patrons stayed longer, ate the same amount of food but consumed more beverages Hotel managers have a more sophisticated theory of music than pub and rest. managers

Listening situations Musical stimuli Listener characteristics

Thorough literature review

Consumer behaviour

NA

A model of consumer response sufficiently robust to

75

commercials

17-Environmental background music and in store selling (labelled as 1999)

Jean-Charles Chebat, Claire Gelinas Chebat, Dominique Vaillant (2001)

Measuring the use of music via a proposed model which focuses on cognitive responses rather than emotional

Attitude towards the brand Purchase intention Brand choice Cognitive Affective Cognitive activity Attitudes Music familiarity Music fit Music arousal Music induced dominance Music induced pleasure Ecological validity

provide food for thought amongst practitioners

Control groups

Consumer behaviour

H1: The relationship between music tempo-induced arousal and cognitive activity is significantly stronger when arguments are rather than strong H1.2: The relationship between music tempo-induced arousal and cognitive activity is significantly stronger when the involvement is low rather than high H2:The effects of music tempo on cognitive activity are strongest under

H1 accepted H1.2 Rejected H2 accepted H3 accepted

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18-The influence of background music on shopping behaviour; classical versus top 40

Charles S. Areni, David Kim (1993)

A study conducted in a wine cellar according to consumer choices vs the music played at the current moment

19-The influence on consumer’s temporal perceptions: does time fly when you are having fun?

James J. Kellaris, Robert J. Kent (1992)

The perceived duration of a time period may be influenced by properties of the environmental

Ind. Var.:Classical vs Top 40 Dep Var.:Information search Purchase behaviour Consumption behaviour Additional Measures Music: major, minor, atonal

Field environment Receipts and observations

Consumer behaviour

soothing music than under novs-moderate tempo-vs- fast tempo H3: Under soothing music(slow tempo), the effects of cognitive activity on the attitudes are stronger than under no music conditions exploratory

More expensive merchandise is purchased under classical music conditions

Controlled environment of 150 upper level business students

Consumer Behaviour

Music in H1 Major H2 Minor H3 Atonal Modes will decrease time perceptions

Music pitched in minor keys produced significantly shorter average time perceptions

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20-How does verbal non-diagnostic information affect product evaluation?

Heribert Gierl, Verena Huettl (2012)

21-In-store music and consumer brand relationships

22-Influence of audio effects on consumption emotion and temporal perception

Michael Beverland, Elison Ai ChingLim, Michael Morrison, Mile Terziovski (2006) Dr. ChienHuang Lin, Shih-Chia Wu (2006)

stimuli The study of the interaction effect of the dilution effect and the connotation transfer effect on product evaluation The role of instore musicbrand „fit‟ in reinforcing brand position using in-depth interviews

NA

NA

Consumer Behaviour

NA

NA

Questioning respondents on their opinions and understanding various characteristics

Background interviews, observational research, indepth interviews

Consumer perceptions

exploratory

Conceptual model Music plays a central role in integrating other atmospheric variables -Lower music volume induced positive emotions as compared to louder volumes -Low music volume led to shorter time perceptions -joyful music elicits better emotional responses than neutral/sad music

Audio effects in all aspects on consumers shopping behaviour

Pretesting of music, Virtual retail store experience

Music familiarity

Consumer behaviour

H1: Music familiarity will not cause variation in consumption emotion H2: Variation in time perception is affected by the change of music familiarity not by consumption emotion H3:Radio broadcasting will not cause

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23-The interactive effect of music tempo and mode on in-store selling

Klemens M. Knoferle, Eric R. Spangenberg, Andreas Herrmann, Jan R. Landwehr (2012) Brian Wansink, (1992)

24- Listen to the music: its impact on affect, perceived time passage and applause

25-Does atmospheric music expand or contract perceived time?

Nicole Bailey, Charles S. Areni (2006)

A field experiment wherein the positive main effect of slow tempo and musical mode on actual retail sales is discussed Relation of interesting findings to how one responds to musical stimulus The use of familiar opposed to unfamiliar music on consumers time perceptions

Tempo of music Modality of music

Field experiment

Consumer behaviour

the variation of consumption emotion H4: Variation of time perception is affected by radio broadcasting and not by consumption emotion Exploratory Minor vs major Slow vs fast

Minor music in slow tempo are most effective

Wendt Model

Literature review

Musical complexity in information absorption

Familiar Music Unfamiliar music

Laboratory setting Interviews Surveys

Consumer Behaviour

Music in minor modes is regarded as less common and hence requires more retrieval of information H1: The estimated duration of an interval is shorter for individuals engaged in a non-temporal

NA

H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 H7 H8

accepted accepted rejected tentative tentative accepted accepted tentative

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task during the interval compared to individuals waiting for an upcoming event H2: For individuals waiting for an upcoming event during an interval time, estimated duration is shorter when familiar as opposed to unfamiliar atmospheric music is played H3:For individuals engaged in a non-temporal task during an interval of time, estimated duration is longer when familiar as opposed to unfamiliar music H4: For individuals engaged in a non-temporal

H9 tentative H10 tentative

80

task during an interval, estimated duration is longer when many rather than few familiar songs are played during the interval H5: For individuals engaged in a non-temporal task during an interval, song number has little or no influence on perceived duration when familiar music is played. H6: The subjective experience of an interval is shorter for individuals engaged in a non-temporal task during the interval compared to individuals

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26- Music influence on Mood and Purchase

Judy I. Alpert, Mark I. Alpert

Examing the relationship between

Happy, sad and no music

Laboratory study Looking and

Consumer behaviour

waiting for an upcoming event H7:For individuals waiting for an upcoming event during an interval time, the subjective experience of the interval is shorter when familiar as opposed to unfamiliar atmospheric music is played H8: For individuals engaged in a non-temporal task during an interval of time, the music elements remembered as having occurred during the interval is larger when familiar as opposed to unfamiliar music is played H1: All else equal, music whose structural

Sad music had significantly higher purchase

82

Intentions

(1990)

music and consumers moods , attitudes and behaviours

marking experience of greeting cards while listening to the various proposed musical compositions

27-Background music pleasure and store evaluation Intensity effects

Laurette Dubé, Sylvie Morin (1999)

A field study where the effects of music on

Slow background music, no music

Field study

Consumer Behaviour

profile is happy will influence listener moods to become more positive than music analysed prior as sad H2:Variations in musical structure may not necessarily influence perceptions of happiness, sadness of the greeting cards H3: Variations in musical structure may not necessarily influence overall attitude towards the greeting cards H4: Variations in musical structure will influence behavioural intentions towards the greeting cards H1: the background music pleasure intensity will

intentions than happy music or no music

H1 H2 H3 H4

rejected accepted rejected accepted

83

and psychological mechanisms

different pleasure intensity on store evaluation is examined

influence directly and positively the store evaluation H2:The background pleasure intensity will indirectly and positively influence the in store evaluation via the attitude towards the servicesacpe H2a: the background music pleasure intensity will directly and positively influence the attitude towards the servicescape H2b: The attitude towards the servicescape will directly and positively influence the store evaluation H3 The background music pleasure intensity will indirectly and

84

28-Music and consumption: an experience review

Rajnish Jain, Shilpa Bagdare (2010)

29-practical applications of music in service

J. Duncan Herrington, Louis M.

Exploring the relationship between consumer behaviour and musical variables in the context of retail A discussion of the various musical

Literature review

NA

NA

positively influence the store evaluation via the attitude towards service personal H3a: The background music pleasure intensity will directly and positively influence the attitude towards the sales personal H3b: The attitude towards the sales personnel will directly and positively influence the store evaluation NA

Refer to table titled accumulated findings

Literature review

NA

NA

NA

-Music and store selection: Image

85

settings

Capella (1994)

characteristics of music that potentially evoke certain desirable consumer behaviours, thus resulting in some practical implications A literature review which highlights significant findings from empirical research This paper seeks better to conceptualize, operationalize and test a multidimensional and more social view of servicescape and the direct and moderated linkages with loyalty intentions Literature review NA NA NA

reinforcement, product credibility -Music and shopping experience: Appropriately fitted music will fulfil customers shopping intentions/needs Please refer to table titled „Congruency Table‟

30-Reviewing congruency effects in the service environment musicscape

Steve Oakes, Adrian C. North (2007)

31-Service scape and loyalty intentions: an empirical investigation

Lloyd C. Harris, Chris Ezeh (2007)

Literature review Music Aroma Décor Service staff

Item scale gauging?

Consumer behaviour

H1: The greater customer perception of music appropriateness, the greater the intention of customers to be loyal

H1: rejected

86

32-A meta-analytic review of the effects of background music in retail settings

Francine V. Garlin, Katherine Owen (2006)

A study of music on consumer behaviour in retailers

148 samples from 32 studies

Meta-analysis

Consumer behaviour

NA

33- Some exploratory findings on musical taste

Morris B Holdbrook, Robert M. Schindler (1989)

Popular music tastes seem to be acquired during late adolescence or early adulthood.

30 second excerpts of 28 musical stimuli

Empirical investigation Correlation Approach Survey(10 point scale)

Consumer musical tastes

NA

Familiarity/liking has a positive effect on patronage The mere presence of music has a positive effect on patronage as well as pleasure Slower tempo, lower volume and familiar music results in subjects staying marginally longer at a venue A higher tempo and volume and the more less liked music, the longer customers perceive time duration Tempo has the greatest effect on arousal Popular music which was liked during the age of 23.5 remains a stronger preference over other music

87

34-The influence of store environment on quality inferences and store image

Julie Baker, Dhruv Grewal A. Parasuraman (1994)

This paper analysis this proposition This study examines how combinations of specific elements in the retail store environment influence consumers inferences about merchandise and service quality This paper examines the effects of music on consumer behaviour in a mall Review of the literature of a variety of fields in order to develop a conceptual framework This paper

Classical music Top 40 Western Oldies Jazz

Questionnaire

Consumer behaviour

35-Effects of background music on consumer behaviour

Diogo Conque Seco Ferreira, Jorge Mendes OliveiraCastro (2011) Wayne D. Hoyer, Nicola E. StokburgerSauer (2012) Jochen Wirtz,

Brazilian Popular music

Observation and Questionnaire

Consumer Behaviour

H1 Consumers will infer higher merchandise quality in a prestige-image ambient environment H2 Consumers will infer higher service quality in a prestigeimage ambient environment than in a discount-image ambient environment NA Exploratory

H1 & H2 supported

Reports of pleasure were higher with music than without( although negligible) NA

36-The role of aesthetic taste in consumers

A literature review of a very broad spectrum of research about consumer taste High, moderate

Literature Review

Consumer Tastes

NA

37- The role of

3x2 valence

Consumer

H1: In pleasant

H1 accepted

88

arousal congruency in influencing consumers’ satisfaction evaluations and instore behaviours

Anna S. Mattila, Rachel L.P. Tan (2007)

aims to investigate the matching effects between arousal-level and perceived stimulation on satisfaction and in store behaviour.

and low levelled arousal video clips £(music tempo and volume, pleasurable environment etc.)

factorial design in a music store and book store (field study?) Questionnaire Six item semantic differential scale

Behaviour

environments, satisfaction will be maximized at the point of arousal congruency. Over or under stimulation will result in reduced satisfaction H2: Arousal congruency will be a more important predictor of satisfaction in pleasant than in unpleasant environments. Specifically, satisfaction in the latter will be uniformly low as it is mostly driven by the valence of the environment rather than by arousal congruency H3. In pleasant environments, in store approach behaviours will

H2 H3 H4 H5

accepted accepted accepted accepted

89

38- The role of pleasant music in servicescapes: a test of the dual model of environment

Sylvie Morin, Laurette Dubé, Jeancharles Chebat (2007)

This article explores the psychological processes by which background

Classical music , no music on baseline videos

Participants functioning in small groups, three item seven point scale

Consumer Behaviour

be maximized at the point of arousalcongruency H4: In pleasant environments, understimulation will lead to higher levels of in-store approach behaviours than over-stimulation H5: In unpleasant environments, in-store approach behaviours will uniformly low as such behaviours are mostly driven by the valence (i.e. unpleasantness) of the environment rather than by arousal congruency H1: The servicescape and service provider are perceived according to

H1 accepted H2 accepted H3 accepted

90

perceptions

music in servicescapes influence service evaluation and purchase intention

ambient and focal modes, respectively, and the former has both direct and providermediated effects on service outcomes. H2: The presence of music has a moderating effect on the mediating role played by the service provider for the impact of the servicescape on service outcomes. Specifically, the power of the provider to influence service out comes is stronger in a music-present condition H3: The effect of music valence on service outcomes is accounted for by a double mediation, such

91

39- The influence of the musicscape within the service environments

Steve Oakes (2000)

A literature review of relevant empirical research examining the effect of background music with the context of service environments is presented.

Literature review

Music on consumer behaviour under various segments

that the effect of music valence on service outcomes is mediated by: (a) the direct effect of the servicescape and (b) the providermediated effect of the servicescape on service outcomes Areas of focus: Music Framework Detailed focus Individual musical variables Managerial applications Musical Tempo Supermarket shopper study Musical examples Major mode more appealing Musical volume Decibal meter settings Time Period Musical

NA

92

Preference Single gender target advertising Show musical preference Music and consumer expectations Positively valanced music Music in advertising Behaviour Primary Research Loud music increases the rate of spending per minute Classical music induced customers to purchase more expensive items Fast music causes fast drinking 40-The effects of music, wait-length evaluation and mood on a low-cost wait experience Michaelle Ann Cameron, Julie Baker, Mark Peterson, Karin Braunsberger Waiting time research has implicitly assumed customers incur high waiting costs Classical music Tempo 90-120 bpm Handwritten questions Consumer Behaviour H1: In a lowcost wait, music likeability is negatively related to waitlength evaluation H1 H2 H3 H4 accepted accepted accepted rejected

93

(2003)

during service delays. This study examines the effect of judgement on music, waitlength evaluation and customer moods on overall experience

41- What really brings them back? The impact of tangible quality on affect intention for casual dining restaurant patrons

Clark Kincaid and Seyhmus Baloglu, Zhenxing Mao, James Busser (2010)

Evaluating the usefulness of Tangible Quality (TANGSERV) by examining the effect of tangible quality constructs on restaurant patrons affect

Dimensions: Ambience, Social, Accessibility, Building, Cleanliness

Two part questionnaire, 7 point bipolar scale

Consumer behaviour

H2: In a lowcost wait, music likeability is positively related to customer moods H3: In a lowcost, waitlength evaluation is negatively related to evaluation of the consumers overall experience H4: In a lowcost wait, mood is positively related to evaluation of the consumers overall experience Exploratory

Restaurants should strive for cultivating positive feelings for their brand name by manipulating tangible attributes

94

42- Performing music can induce greater modulation of emotion-related psychophysiological response than listening to music

Hidehiro Nakahara, Shinichi Furuya, Tsutomu Masuko, Peter R. Francis, Hiroshi Kinoshita (2011)

and behavioural intentions This study examines the effect of playing piano vs. listing to music on heart rate

Performing a composition and listening to a composition

Measuring systems determined by machines to calculate perspiration, Heart rate etc.

Human Biology and music

Exploratory

43- Clinical Issues: Music Therapy in an Adult Cancer Inpatient Treatment Setting 44-Staff Attitudes and Expectations about Music Therapy: Paediatric Oncology versus Neonatal

Clare O'Callaghan PhD, (2006) Annie Bouhairie BEng, Kathi J. Kemper MD, MPH, Kathleen

The use of music therapy on cancer patients Employee perceptions on the use of music on patients

Patients Psychological and physical health Psychological and physical health

Subjecting patients under different musical conditions Staff attitudes

Music and Medicine

Music will improve moods of patients Music will induce positive moods and act as a means of relieving stress.

2 findings: 1)emotion induction during perception of the selected piece of music as well as during performance of the same music modulated Heart rate and indices autonomic nerve activity 2)such modulations were much greater during performance than during perception Accepted

Music and Medicine

Accepted

95

Intensive Care Unit

45- Music in Business Environments

Martin BA, Charles Woods MD, MPH (2006) Adrien North, David Hargreaves (2006)

A review on music in the various segments of business

Consumers and Employees within the workplace

46-The effects of dining atmospherics: An extended Mehrabian and Russel model

Yinghua Liu , SooCheong (Shawn) Jang (2009)

A review on the Mehrablan and Russel Model on consumers perceptions of value

Consumers perceptions of value

Consumer behaviour, moods, purchase intentions, time perceptions Employee mood, work ethic Emotions Perceived value Behaviour

Consumer behaviour

Literature review

NA

Consumer behaviour

H1a. Dining atmospherics has a positive effect on positive emotions. H1b. Dining atmospherics has a negative effect on negative emotions. H2a. Positive emotion has a positive effect on behavioural intentions. H2b.

All Hypothesis accepted

96

Negative emotion has a negative effect on behavioural intentions H3. Dining atmospherics has a positive effect on perceived value H4. Perceived value has a positive effect on behavioural intentions.

97

Appendix 5- Online sources for music
Type Online Source Directories Review Sources Reference: All music (www.allmusic.com) Billboard (www.billboard.com) CD Hotlist (http://cdhotlist.btol.com) Retailers: Barnes & Noble Music (http://music.barnesandnoble.com) Amazon (www.amazon.com) Country www.countryweekly.com Electronic www.thewire.co.uk Folk www.dirtylinen.com www.singout.org Jazz www.downbeat.com http://jazztimes.com Latin www.descarga.com Metal and Alternative Rock www.altpress.com/reviews Pop and Rock www.rollingstone.com Rap and Hip Hop www.hiphopdx.com Reggae www.unitedreggae.com Rock www.nme.com World www.rootsworld.com Notes www.musiclibraryassoc.org Last.fm www.last.fm Music Library Association E-mail Listserv www.musiclibraryassoc.org Description Extensive directory of music listening resources “All Music”, “Billboard” & “Barnes & Noble Music” offer the most accredited reviews on music, artists, albums etc.

Periodical Tools

Specific information and music regarding different styles etc.

Staying Current

Music libraries which constantly update themselves with the latest in music consumption information.

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