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Masonry infilled walls are provided within the reinforced concrete structures without being analyzed as a combination of concrete and brick elements, though in reality they act as a single unit during earthquakes. The performance of such structures during earthquakes has proved to be superior in comparison to the bare frames in terms of stiffness, strength and energy dissipation. There are plenty of researches done so far for infilled frames, however partially infilled frames are still the topic of interest. Though it has been understood that the infills play significant role in enhancing the lateral stiffness of complete structure, the past experience in various earthquakes have proved that the partially infilled framed structures somehow are affected adversely. This report intends to highlight the need of knowledge on partially infilled frames and the composite action. It also summarizes the findings till date done by various researchers on the behavior of partial infilled frames under lateral loads. Reinforced concrete frames with Masonry infills are a popular form of construction of high-rise buildings in urban and semi urban areas around the world. The term infilled frame is used to denote a composite structure formed by the combination of a moment resisting plane frame and infill walls. The masonry can be of brick, concrete units, or stones. Usually the RC frame is filled with bricks as non structural wall for partition of rooms .Social and functional needs for vehicle parking, shops, reception etc are compelling to provide an open first storey in high rise building. Parking floor has become an unavoidable feature for the most of urban multistoried buildings. Though multistoried buildings with parking floor (soft storey) are vulnerable to collapse due to earthquake loads, their construction is still widespread. These buildings are generally designed as framed structures without regard to structural action of masonry infill walls. They are considered as non structural elements. Due to this in seismic action, RC frames purely acts as moment resisting frames leading to variation in expected structural response. The effect of infill panels on the response of RC frames subjected to seismic action is widely recognized and has been subject of numerous experimental and analytical
Dept. of Civil Engineering 1 BIT, Bangalore
Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls
investigations over last five decades. In the current practice of structural design in India masonry infill panels are treated as nonstructural element and their strength and stiffness contributions are neglected. In reality the presence of infill wall changes the behavior of frame action into truss action thus changing the lateral load transfer mechanism. Infill panel elements, as part of the building RC structures, play a very important role on the seismic performance of the building structure. If rightfully accounted for its mechanical properties in the analysis and design process, as well as in their implementation in practice, they can markedly increase the total structural strength and energy dissipation abilities of buildings. Infill walls are usually provided for functional and architectural reasons and they are normally considered as non-structural elements and their strength and stiffness contributions are ignored in the analysis works despite significant advances in computer technology and availability of modern computational resources. The reasons for ignoring their presence may be due to the complication involved in analysis and also the uncertainty about the non-integral action between infill and the frame. Thus, the analyses of structures are being based on the frames. When subjected to gravity loads only, the infill walls only add their self weight. However, an infill wall tends to interact with the frame when subjected to seismic forces. The performance of structures can be greatly improved by the increase in strength arising from the non-structural components; on the contrary, this increase in strength also accompanies an increase in initial stiffness of the structure, which may consequently attract additional seismically induced lateral inertia forces. An infill wall also exhibits energy dissipation characteristics under earthquake loading as the frame members compress the infills at some locations. The infill walls when compressed carry a part of the load by providing strut action to the frame. As such, the infill walls contribute as a surplus benefit during the times of earthquakes. Generally, all parts of the frame may not include infills as they are provided as per the functional and architectural needs. It has been observed from past earthquakes that the infills contribute in the enhancement of overall lateral stiffness of the structure. Strong infills have often prevented collapse of relatively flexible and weak reinforced concrete frames. Brick masonry, in cement mortar, exhibits highly non-homogeneous behavior due
Dept. of Civil Engineering
Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls
to relatively weak shear strength of mortar and sometimes due to weak compressive strength of bricks.
1.2 Types of Infill Provisions
Infills are provided fully or with openings as per the needs for provisions of partitions or for doors and windows. The four different general types of frames are shown in the figures below: 1. Bare frame (Fig.1) 2. Fully infilled frame (Fig.2) 3. Infilled frame with opening (Fig.3) and 4. Partial infilled frame (Fig.4).
Fig.1.1 Types of Infill Provisions
Dept. of Civil Engineering
normally consist of anisotropic materials with a wide range of strength. of Civil Engineering 4 BIT. Infill walls provide durable and economical partitions having relatively excellent thermal and sound insulation with high fire resistance. Dept. reinforced concrete frames behavior and length of contact between infill and frame. They are made of many materials.1 General Infill walls are interior or exterior walls that „fill in‟ between structural elements of a building. 2. It is a general practice in developing countries to provide brick masonry infill walls within the columns and beam of Reinforced concrete frame structures. or completely isolated from the RC frame. these infills are made in brick masonry and in other areas.2 Properties of Infill Walls The presence of infills does not affect the structural response. masonry materials vary significantly from one country to another based on the local constituent materials (the bricks and the mortar) and workmanship. deformation and energy dissipation properties. to some extent. The behavior of reinforced concrete frames with brick masonry infills depend upon the composite action of the frame and the infill. This can be the case if the infills are very light and flexible. Masonry panels. Such composite structures formed by the combination of a moment resisting plane frame and infill walls is termed as "infilled frames".Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls CHAPTER 2 INFLUENCE OF INFILL WALLS 2. or so brittle that a total failure is expected even for a moderate ground acceleration. which contribute a large proportion of the mass of the infillframe. Unlike other conventional materials such as concrete and steel which have. In the areas where the burnt clay bricks are easily available. Bangalore . Different local materials are used to produce masonry units with different shapes. hollow or solid concrete blocks are used. The structural response is quite complex as it involves an interaction of infill behavior. standard properties regardless of the region (country) in which they are produced. they might be solid or hollow units.
when they are properly designed. higher base shear force). This is the most common design practice in the developing countries. The ductility capacity should be set to 1. in many cases. The in-plane stiffness offered by the infill walls is considered in the analysis of the Dept. sometimes. The infills are assessed to have a significant contribution to the response. Considerable reduction of the probability of collapse. even in cases of defective infilled frames. 2. In this case a linear elastic analysis can be performed. of Civil Engineering 5 BIT. and they are expected to remain in the elastic range. Infills are built integral with the RC frame. Redistribution of action-effects and. leading to: Considerable increase of the overall stiffness (and. The entire lateral force on the building is carried by the bare RC frame alone. with columns acting as tension or compression boundary members. unpredictable damages along the frame.4 Design Practice of Infill Walls The design of masonry infilled RC frame buildings is handled in different ways across the world.3 Advantages of Infill Walls It has been shown that there is a strong interaction between the infill masonry wall and the surrounding frame. Infills are built integral with the RC frame. and they are expected to suffer significant damage during the seismic event. unless inelastic structural wall behaviour can be expected. and the infill acting as a connecting shear element. but considered as non-structural elements. In this case the high probability of the formation of a soft storey has to be recognized and taken into account. 2. The entire lateral force on the building is carried by the bare RC frame alone. Bangalore . Some of the prevalent design practices are: Infills are adequately separated from the RC frame such that they do not interfere with the frame under lateral deformations. and considered as structural elements. Increase of dissipated energy.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls The infills are assessed to have a significant contribution on the response.
constitute additional sources of analytical burden. Dept. 2. Bangalore . 1980). the panel will still tend to stiffen the supporting beam considerably. with a breakdown of the weak-beam. strongcolumn concept. depend very much on local construction conditions. In spite of its broad application and its economical significance Infill walls were not considered in the analysis and design due to the following complexities: Computational complexity: The particulated infill material and the ever changing contact conditions along its interface to concrete. However. The non-linear behaviour of infilled frames depended on the separation of masonry infill panel from the surrounding frame. or forcing migration of hinges into columns. It should be noted that even where sufficient separation is provided at top and ends of a panel.5 Consideration of Infill Walls In Structural Design The usual practice of ignoring the structural interaction between the frame and infill in the structural design of infill-frames. Structural uncertainties: The mechanical properties of masonry. This would be appropriate if the frame and infill panel were separated by providing a sufficient gap between them. concentrating frame potential plastic hinge regions in short hinge lengths at each end. windows. electrical and hydraulic installations (Tiedeman. of Civil Engineering 6 BIT. The forces from this analysis are used in the design of RC frame members and joint.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls building. as well as its wedging conditions against the internal surface of the frame. Infill frames have often demonstrated good earthquake-resistant behaviour. at least for serviceability level earthquakes in which the masonry infill can provide enhanced stiffness and strength. This implies that the infill has no influence on the structural behavior of the building except for its mass. Approximately 80% of the cost of damages of structures from earthquakes is due to damage of the infill walls and to consequent damages of doors. gaps are not usually specified and the actual behaviour of infill frames observed during past earthquakes shows that their response is sometimes wrongly predicted.
2. It has been recognized that frames with infills have more strength and rigidity in comparison to the bared frames and their ignorance has become the cause of failure of many of the multi-storeyed buildings. of Civil Engineering 7 BIT. and Failure of masonry infills – out of plane and in plane failure results which become the cause of casualities. Horizontal irregularities – significant amount of unexpected torsional forces since the centre of rigidity is moved towards the stiffer infilled frames of increased stiffness and as a result occurrence of very large rotation and large displacements in the extreme bare frames.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls The infill wall enhances considerably the strength and rigidity of the structure.6 Effects of Infill Walls Unequal distribution of lateral forces in the different frames of a building – overstressing of some frames. The main reason of failure is the stiffening effect of infilled frame that changes the basic behavior of buildings during earthquake and creates new failure mechanism. which constraints its lateral deformation over the height of contact resulting in premature brittle failure of columns. Bangalore . Dept. Vertical irregularities in strength and stiffness – soft storey or weak storey as a result higher interstorey drifts and higher ductility demands of RC elements of the soft storey in comparision to remaining stories. Inducing the effect of short column or captive column in infilled frame – a captive column is full storey slender column whose clear height is reduced by its part-height contact with a relatively stiff masonary infill wall.
1). separation of frame and infill takes place along one diagonal and a compression strut forms along the other. of Civil Engineering 8 BIT.3. The structural load transfer mechanism is changed from frame action to predominant truss action (Fig. strength contributed by the infills may be comparable to the strength of the bare frame itself. infills add lateral stiffness to the building. Fig. When infills are strong. Dept. Thus. Bangalore . Infills possess large lateral stiffness and hence draw a significant share of the lateral force. the separation may not be adequate to prevent the frame from coming in contact with the infills after some lateral displacement. the frame columns now experience increased axial forces but with reduced bending moments and shear forces.1 Change in lateral load transfer mechanism owing to inclusion of masonry infill walls.1General Infills interfere with the lateral deformations of the RC frame. the compression struts may be formed and the stiffness of the building may increase. Even when the infills are structurally separated from the RC frame.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls CHAPTER 3 BEHAVIOUR OF INFILL WALLS 3.
the corresponding failure modes need to be known and the failure loads for different modes of failure have to be computed in order to determine the ultimate capacity of the structure and additionally the serviceability criteria have to be checked using working loads. The state of stress in the infill gives rise to a principal compressive stress along the diagonal and a principal tensile stress in the perpendicular direction. if the frame strength is sufficient enough to prevent its failure by one of these modes. failure occurs eventually in either the frame or the infill. The usual mode of frame failure is either due to tension in the windward column or due to shear on the column or beams.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls Masonry is mostly designed to “allowable stress” standard. At moderate loading levels the infill of a nonintegral in-filled frame separates from the surrounding frame and the infill acts as a diagonal strut (Fig. in the case of designing a structure for ultimate strength. In the most common situations. the in-plane lateral load applied at one of the top corners is resisted by a truss formed by the loaded column and the infill along its diagonal that connects the loaded corner and the opposite bottom corner. the increasing racking load eventually produces failure of the infill. Bangalore . As the racking load increases. 2). Fig 3. although it may be better to carry out the design under “ultimate strength” methods in terms of cost effectiveness. However. of Civil Engineering 9 BIT.2 Equivalent diagonal strut Dept. However.
the compression struts may be formed and the stiffness of the building may increase. In such structures.1969] proposed a dimensionless parameter λh. the separation may not be adequate to prevent the frame from coming in contact with the infills after some lateral displacement.the height of the masonry panel. Dept. and plan-torsion effect (when infills are unsymmetrically located in plan) cause excessive ductility demands on frame columns and significantly alter the collapse mechanism.1 The Relative Stiffness between the Infills and Surrounding Frame Stafford Smith [1966. Bangalore .2 Parameters Influencing The Behavior of The Infilled Frame It is very difficult to determine specific parameters which will influence the behavior of the infilled frame.thickness and height of the masonry panel.2. the short-column effect (when infills are raised only up to a partial height of the columns). as many factors are involved in this type of structure. there is a large concentration of ductility demand in a few members of the structure. a hybrid structural load transfer mechanism with both frame action and truss action. Even when the infills are structurally separated from the RC frame. Em and Ec are the modulus of elasticity of the masonry and the concrete. some major parameters will be briefly discussed. However. In the following section. of Civil Engineering 10 BIT. Another serious concern with such buildings is the out-of-plane collapse of the infills which can be life threatening. as well as constructive quality and workmanship. may develop.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls When infills are non-uniformly placed in plan or in elevation of the building. θ . the soft storey effect (when a storey has no or relatively lesser infills than the adjacent storeys). 3. which expresses the relative stiffness of the infill panel to the frame: λh h 4 Emt sin 2θ 4EcIchm (3.1) Where t . hm. it is normally acknowledged that mechanical and geometric attribution of frame and infills. For instance. are very important factors.the inclination of the diagonal of the panel. 3.
The smaller values of λh indicate that the frame is much stiffer than the infill panel. et al. 1971].. mortar and bricks. Tests [Dawe. 3. 1970].2. 1978]. such as the hydration conditions at the mortar –brick interface.2 Strength of the Masonry Infill The compressive and shear strength of masonry panels depends on the properties of their constitutive materials. Empirical equations have been proposed to evaluate the stiffness. [Liauw. Bangalore . [Stafford Smith.2. Experimental results [Fiorato. A better quality of the constitutive materials leads to a stronger masonry. al. and vice versa. [Mainstone. as excessively strong masonry will result in the premature failure of the frame members. et al. [Shrive. 1994]. [Liauw. 1988] indicate that the use of poor quality mortar will considerably reduce the force at initial cracking and the lateral strength of the infilled frame. [Valiasis. Solid masonry units usually show a higher compressive strength when compared with that of the hollow masonry units. 3. 1983]. of Civil Engineering 11 BIT. but it significantly increased the ductility that could be attained. 1992]. [Meli. [Kato. the strength of the composite structure depended on the resistance of the frame to bending moment. the lateral strength or the contact length between the frame and infill panel as a function of parameter λh [Konig. 1984]. 1991]. but not necessarily to increase the lateral strength of the infilled frame.the moment of inertia of the columns. However. Benjamin and Williams  observed that the variation of concrete and steel area does not influence the stiffness in the uncracked stage. as does the contact length between the panel and the frame. 1989] show that the amount of longitudinal reinforcement at the column had only a limited effect on increasing the ultimate capacity of the frame structure. et al 1969. et al 1989]. The amount of transverse Dept.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls Ic . the characteristics of the brick surface and compressive strength of the mortar. axial force and shear. et. It has been observed that for low values of λh (the frame is stiffer than the infill panel). the lateral strength of the infilled frame increases.3 Characteristics of the Reinforced Concrete Frame The concrete area of the members and the amount of the longitudinal and transverse reinforcement are the most important parameters which can affect the response of infilled frames.
4 Gaps between Infills and Surrounding Frame Gaps between the masonry panel and the surrounding frame can develop in nonintegral infilled frames due to the shrinkage of the mortar and constructive defects.1. The presence of vertical gaps between columns and the masonry panel provides slackness and reduced stiffness in the initial stage. The simultaneous effect of in-plane and out-of-plane loading has usually been ignored in the research conducted to date. However. especially in columns. the effect on the response is negligible. Bangalore . to sustain large deformation without a brittle shear failure. The horizontal gaps between the panel and beam can also change the response of the structure significantly. iv) Soft storey. Dept.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls reinforcement of the columns can change the response of infill framed in the ultimate stage. It is necessary to provide sufficient transverse reinforcement. 3. although in actual earthquakes this effect will usually be present. of Civil Engineering 12 BIT. the effect of vertical gaps can significantly modify the response of the structure. if the gap is large.3. iii) Infill frame with opening. because these gaps close rapidly when the lateral force is applied and the diagonal strut mechanism develops. ii) Partially infilled frame.3 Structural behaviour The structural behaviour of the following infill provisions is discussed: i) Fully infilled frame. 3. 3.2. When the gaps are very small. Behaviour of fully infilled frame The structural behaviour of an infill-frame can be divided into two parts: a) In-plane behaviour and b) Out-of-plane behaviour.
The inplane capacity of the wall depended on the relative strength of the masonry and the mortar. 1992).g. indicating the flexural mode of failure. The level of the axial load significantly controls the type of failure. The crack propagation either follows the mortar joints or passes through the masonry units.1 In-plane behavior Various in-plane examples of unreinforced masonry walls subjected to seismic lateral loads can be seen in several text books (e.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls 3. It happens when the shear resistance still strong enough when compared to the shear demand. 1999) Sliding shear failure. The strength and stiffness of the infill wall will degrade rapidly following formation of a diagonal shear crack. along head or bed joint because of low normal stresses and/or low friction coefficients. The performance of Uinfill wall is linear-elastic before the flexural tension stresses at the wall heel exceed the tensile Dept. Bangalore .1. of Civil Engineering 13 BIT.3 Comparison between the actions in a bare-frame and infill-frame Flexural failure. exceeds the tensile strength of masonry materials. which may be due to poor quality of the mortar . as follows (Tomaževič. Fig 3. Shear failure should be avoided as it will cause a limited/lower ductility for infill walls. Paulay and Priestley. crushing of compressed zones at the ends of the infill wall usually takes place.3.Shear failure takes place where the principal tensile stresses developed in the wall under a combination of vertical and horizontal loads. There are several failure conditions for in-plane infill walls due to the form of construction and the combine effects of axial load and bending. or both.
g. the infill panel is replaced by one (or more) compressive diagonal(s) in the frame as shown in Figure 2. the idea of a strut model was first proposed by Polyakov (1956). and Flanagan 1999) on out-of-plane behaviour of infill framesindicate that infill panels restrained by frames can develop significant out-of-plane resistance as a result of arching effect. In order to consider the local effects of the infill on the frame. Bangalore .Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls strengths capacity. 3. It is shown by Angel (1994) that the out-of-plane strength deterioration may reach as much as 50% for infill panels with high slenderness ratio where they have already been cracked under lateral in-plane loading. the URM wall will start to rock about its toe. toe crushing or rocking system.1. many studies (Angel 1994. The limit lateral strength of the wall depends on the diagonal tension.. reported that the flexural tension strength at the wall heel does not limit lateral strength. It is important to note that the diagonal properties are heavily empirical. Bashandy et al. The wall can still transfer the shear through the friction at the wall toe and also depends on the axial compressive force. As reported by Shing and Mehrabi (2002).2 Out-of-plane behaviour The out-of-plane behaviour of infill-frames has been investigated since the 1950s. Correspondingly. In this method. The rigid body of the wall will rotate about its toe and displace to quite large a drift with limited crack damage and predictable performance. Based upon truss action (interaction) in an infill-frame system as shown in Figure 3. 1995. Mander et al. Opposite diagonals represent the infill panel as the direction of the lateral load changes. Calvi et al. of Civil Engineering 14 BIT. for slender walls that the shear strength capacity will not exceed. 1993.3. The rocking system can be advantageous system for strengthening an existing URM wall. or diagonal tension or bed joint shear stresses exceed the shear strength capacities. (1996) and Costley and Abrams (1995). Dept. bed-joint sliding. the triple strut model and the single eccentric strut model are recommended. The out-of-plane strength of a masonry infill is mainly dependent on its slenderness. this implies that there may be some substantial deterioration in either in or out-of plane strength under the loading in the opposite direction (Angel 1994). shear and moment actions in beams and columns. e. If an “x” pattern of cracks develops under both inplane and out-of-plane loading.
(1997) to study the in plane behaviour of masonry walls.e. A similar approach. it has been shown that they exhibit substantial out-of-plane displacement capacity and hence more ductile behaviour than is conventionally accepted (Griffith et al.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls Based on the results of tests conducted by (Angel. (2003). Fig. 1994).4 Out of plane loading Regarding the out-of-plane behaviour of masonry (bare) walls. 2007). The displacement-based method of design has been used by Magenes et al. approximately between 20 and 30 (this limit depends on the crushing strain of the masonry which usually varies between 0. The displacement-based method has also been used for the analysis/assessment of out-of-plane behaviour and stability of masonry walls and validated by experimental results (Doherty et al.002 and 0. (2007). 2002). A comprehensive study on the damping of masonry walls in out-of-plane (on-way) flexure can also be found in Lam et al.3.005). considering the effect of amplification of the acceleration at different levels and the P-delta effect is proposed by Priestley et al. Bangalore . the following behaviour can be expected due to different values of slenderness ratio: a) Crushing along the edges for low hm/t (where hm and t are the height and thickness of the infill panel. of Civil Engineering 15 BIT. b) Snap-through (small effect of arching) for high hm/t i. Dept. respectively).
the cause usually is due to the non-structural elements which impose the pattern of response to the earthquake motions different from the expected behavior of the column itself without the non structural elements. The cracking in captive column generally initiates from window headers and sill level.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls 3. Dept. numerous cases of captive column have occurred. It is observed that such walls on one hand contribute in enhancing the lateral stiffness of the structure while on the other hand they play ironic role with an adverse effect called "short column effect". The direct visual effect is on the column itself however. with few exceptions worldwide. If the designer has not considered the short column effect. The term short column effect is defined as the effect caused to the full storey slender column whose clear height is reduced by its part height contact with a relatively stiff non-structural elements such as a masonry infill. The short column effect arises mostly due to accidental modification to the original structural configuration by restricting its freedom to deform laterally due to the presence of non-structural elements that partially confine it. partial infills are provided to attain light within the rooms. which constrains its lateral deformation over the height of contact. Bangalore . Few damages due to short column effect on building structures are shown in the following photographs (Fig. of Civil Engineering 16 BIT. 6 and 7). The need to study on short column effect for lateral loading may also be justified by observing the photographs. The column which gets its effective height reduced due to such partial infill walls is termed captive column. From the available earthquake damage reports. The non structural elements keep some portion of the column captive and only the free portion of the column can deform laterally. The shear required to develop flexural yield in the effectively shortened column is substantially higher than shear required developing in full length column.2 Behaviour of Partially Infilled Frames In majority of hospitals.3. the short column. academic institutions and commercial complexes. or in general. shear failure may occur before flexural yield and often fail in brittle manner.
the stiff walls restrict the horizontal movement of the lower portion of a short column and get deformed by the full amount over the short height adjacent to the window opening.6 Lateral deformation in bare frame Fig. it offers more resistance to horizontal motion and thereby attracts a larger force as compared to the regular column.5 Captive column failure When the floor slab moves horizontally during an earthquake. without taking any consent of the involved architect or engineer.3. the short column sustains more damage. However. As a result.3. The regular columns get deformed over the full height. the designers and contractors should understand the problem to avoid short column effect.7 Lateral deformation in partial infilled frame 17 BIT. Since the effective height over which a short column can freely bend is small.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls Fig. Such problems originate in the architectural designs of most of the buildings.3. Fig. Thus. of Civil Engineering . Contractors often add partial height walls between columns at the request of the building owners (after the building is occupied). Bangalore Dept. the upper ends of these columns undergo the same displacement.
the contribution of partial infill walls must be well identified so that while analyzing models for real structures. When it is not possible to avoid short columns.3. requires special confining reinforcement to be provided over the full height of columns that are likely to sustain short column effect. the composite action of the frame and infill would be realized. The lessons from the past earthquakes also indicate that partial infilled frame structures are vulnerable to ground motions and if there is a method identified to model such structures. door or window openings are provided in masonry infill panels because of the functional and ventilation requirements of buildings.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls It is observed from the various research works that there is no doubt that the infill walls contribute in enhancing the structural strength. it has been recommended that the best location for a window or door opening is at the center of the infill panel. Furthermore.. Also. More researches need to be done. So far. closely spaced closed lateral ties) must extend beyond the short column into the column vertically above and below by a certain distance. 3. the lateral strength and effective stiffness of infilled frames is reduced Mallick and Garge experimentally investigated the effect of opening position on lateral stiffness of infilled frames with and without shear connectors. of Civil Engineering 18 BIT. the earthquake hazard to structure would be reduced significantly. respectively when compared to those of a similar infilled frame with solid infill panel.e. this effect must be considered either in the analysis or during the design of column member. and in fact by experimentation the validation would be better quantified. due to the presence of openings in infill panels. Mosalam et al. Introducing openings in an infill wall alters its behavior and adds complexity in behavior. The conclusion was that if an opening is provided at either end of the loaded diagonal of an infilled frame without shear connectors. The special confining reinforcement (i. From the knowledge that there would be significant increase in shear in the case of captive column the Indian Standard IS:13920-1993. However. for ductile detailing of RC structures.3 Behaviour of Infill Frames With Openings In most cases. exact scenario regarding analysis for captive columns is yet to be understood for précised responses on shear and bending and the convenient modeling method is also not postulated for such structures. Bangalore . reported that the presence Dept. the strength and stiffness are reduced by about 75 and 85%– 90%.
stiffness and energy dissipation of infilled RC frames under cyclic loading. Also.8 Cracking pattern of infill wall with central opening 3.3. They found that infills with openings and strong masonry can significantly improve the performance of RC frames. Weak stories are subjected to larger lateral loads during earthquakes and Dept.4 Soft storey The base floors of the existing buildings are generally arranged as garages or offices. As a result. the upper floors of most buildings are more rigid than their base floors. This phenomenon is called as the weak-story irregularity. Also. of Civil Engineering 19 BIT. In these arrangements. But upper floors have walls separating rooms from each other for the residential usage. They found that the location of the opening as near to the edge of the infill as possible provides an improvement on the performance of the infilled frame. Fig. Kakaletsis and Karayannis experimentally investigated the effect of masonry infill compressive strength and openings on failure modes. strength.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls of openings reduces solid infill panel stiffness values by about 40% for lateral loads below the cracking load level. it was observed that the energy dissipation is more significant in the case of the larger piers where a better distribution of cracks in the wall is developed. openings in infill walls lead to a more ductile behavior while ultimate load capacities of solid infills and infills with windows are similar. the seismic behaviors of the base and the upper floors are significantly different from each other. No walls are built in these floors due to its prescribed usage and comfort problems.3. Bangalore .
3.9 Schematic view of soft story mechanism Dept. Some weak-story models were structural systems of existing buildings which were damaged during earthquakes. 12. So first story act as soft story. in this case columns are imposed to large deformation and plastic hinges are formed at top and bottom of the element. One of the main reasons of failure of structures due to earthquakes is discontinuity of lateral force resisting elements like bracing. It was observed that negative effects of this irregularity could be reduced by some precautions during the construction stage. This phenomena is so-called story mechanism (severe drift of the story). Also some recommendations were presented for the existing buildings with weak-story irregularity. Kirac et al.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls under lateral loads their lateral deformations are greater than those of other floors so the design of structural members of weak stories is critical and it should be different from the upper floors. The upper stories have infills and consequently their stiffness is much more than the first story. Conceptual figure is obtained from actual earthquake observation as shown in fig. shear wall or infill in the first story as show conceptually in Fig. 11. Bangalore . Calculations were carried out for the building models which are consisting of various stories with different storey heights and spans. Most of these buildings have collapsed. of Civil Engineering 20 BIT. Fig. (2010) studied the seismic behavior of weak-story.
10 Soft story failure in a building during earthquake (Italy 1976) The performance of a building in earthquake is shown in Fig. This building is RC structure and has parking in the first story. Bangalore . passing collapsed limit (4% of height). Dept.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls Fig.3. there is no infill in the parking story. Deformations are localized in the first story and the columns of this story undergo large deformation. of Civil Engineering 21 BIT. 12.
depending on several factors.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls Chapter 4 FAILURE MECHANISM OF INFILLED WALLS 4. while in other cases a combination of different modes may lead to failure. which may impose an influence on the behaviour of the structure. Dept. (c) ductile detailing of the frame when plastic hinging in the frame controls the failure. The failure of masonry panels can develop by debonding of the mortar joints. Bangalore . of Civil Engineering 22 BIT.2 Modes of Failure The mode of failure of an infilled building depends on the relative strengths of frame and infill (Table 1). The occurrence of the different types of failure depends on the material properties and stress state induced in the panel. In this chapter. It is however hard to isolate those factors. cracking or crushing of masonry units or a combination of these. the strength of components and the dimensions of the structure. 4. Crisafulli  summarized the different modes of failure which may occur in masonry. the major failure modes and influential factors will be the focus under discussion. The mechanisms of failure affecting the components of the infilled frames are referred to as failure modes in a general sense. as they are interacting with each other. (b) relative strengths of frame and infill. Sometime the final failure of the structure results from one principle mode. such as the relative stiffness of the frame and infill panel. And. its ductility depends on the (a) infill properties. and (e) distribution of infills in plan and elevation of the building.1 General The type of failure that will occur in an infilled frame is normally difficult to predict. (d) reinforcement in the infill when cracking in infills controls the failure.
the combination of shear Dept.2. of Civil Engineering 23 BIT. Plastic hinges in columns.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls Weak Infill Weak Frame Frame with Weak Joints and Strong Members Corner crushing of infills Strong Infill Diagonal cracks in infill. the tensile strength of the masonry units and the relative values of the shear and normal stress. Bangalore . Depending on these parameters.4.1 Failure modes in masonry infills 4. Cracks in beam-column joints Diagonal cracks in infill - Strong Frame Horizontal sliding in infills Fig.1 Shear Cracking Cracking in the masonry panel due to shear stresses is the most common type of failure which is mainly controlled by shear strength of the mortar joints (bond strength and coefficient of friction).
Bangalore . to the shear stress τ. can be utilized to approximately represent stress state along the diagonal when subjected to lateral forces. hm Lm Aspect ratio hm is the height of the masonry panel. The ratio of normal stress fn. When the mortar joints are weak in comparison with the masonry units or when the shear stress predominates over the normal stress (low to medium aspect ratio). Fig. cracking usually occurs by debonding along the mortar joints.4.2. of Civil Engineering 24 BIT.1.2 Shear cracking with stepped cracks Dept. Lm is the length of masonry panel. Figure 4.1 Stepped Cracking Along the Mortar Joints. 4. fn τ Where.2 illustrates the case in which one or two large cracks formed along the diagonal with stepped pattern.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls stresses with vertical axial stresses can produce either cracks crossing the masonry units or debonding along the mortar joints (also termed as shear friction failure). This mode of cracking is widely observed and regarded as the most common type of failure.
The Sliding Shear (SS) mode. Then the cracks propagate horizontally. crossing the panel. Brokken and Bertero [1981. 1983] in tests of infilled reinforced concrete frames.3. the horizontal crack increases its length.2. Dept. When the following equation is satisfied. in which the panel fails by shear due to the formation of a horizontal crack. as shown in Figure 4.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls 4.3 Shear cracking with horizontal sliding When the direction of the force is reserves. The relative dimension of the masonry units and the infill panel may be one major factor contributing to the formation of the horizontal cracks. which represents horizontal sliding shear failure through bed joints of a masonry infill is associated with infill of weak mortar joints and a strong frame. This type of failure was reported by Fiorato et al.2 Horizontal Sliding Along the Mortar Joints A different mechanism has also been observed.1. Bangalore . the horizontal crack could form: hm Lm 2b d Where d and b are the length and height of masonry unit.4. Fig. Tests results indicate that the major crack usually starts a few courses below the upper loaded corner and continues diagonally downwards to approximately the centre of the panel. . of Civil Engineering 25 BIT.
2.4 Shear cracking due to diagonal tension 4. Bangalore . of Civil Engineering 26 BIT.3 Cracking Due to Diagonal Tension This type of cracking usually occurs when the mortar joints are strong in comparison with masonry or when the normal stress predominates over the shear stress (medium to high aspect ratio).2. as shown in Fig. Fig.1. resulting from the different stress states which develop in the infill panel at the loaded corner and along the diagonal.2. where failure results from out-of-plane buckling of the infill.2. Figure Dept. The Diagonal Compression (DC) mode. where a biaxial compression-compression stress state develops due to the lateral loading.1 Crushing of the Loaded Corner Compressive failure can occur in the region close to the loaded corners. 4.2 Compression Failure Failure of masonry due to compression has been observed following two mechanisms.4.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls 4. This mode is associated with a relatively slender infill. which represents crushing of the infill within its central region.
Fig.5 Compressive failure due to crushing of the loaded corners 4. After the cracks occur. due to the weakness of shear and diagonal tension failure [Smith and Carter. Dept.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls 4. The Diagonal Cracking (DK) mode. Bangalore .4.2.4. which is seen in the form of a crack across the compressed diagonal of the infill panel and often takes place with simultaneous initiation of the SS mode. The Corner Crushing (CC) mode.5 illustrates this case. 1969].2 Compressive Failure of the Diagonal Strut This mechanism is associated with diagonal cracking as illustrated in Figure 4.2. which represents crushing of the infill in at least one of its loaded corners is usually associated with in-filled frames consisting of a weak masonry infill panel surrounded by a frame with weak joints and strong members. of Civil Engineering 27 BIT. the tensile stressed along the diagonal are relieved and the masonry between the cracks behaves like small prisms axially loaded. This type of failure would be rare to occur in masonry infilled reinforced concrete frames. This mode is associated with a weak frame or a frame with weak joints and strong members in-filled with a rather strong infill.
3 Flexural Cracking In those cases where flexure effects are predominating. This mode is associated with a weak frame or a frame with weak joints and strong members in filled with a rather strong infill. of Civil Engineering 28 BIT. which is seen in the form of plastic hinges developing in the columns or the beam-column connections. and the columns of the frame are very weak. The Frame Failure (FF) mode. Dept. Bangalore . 1973].Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls 4.. flexure cracks can open in the tensile side of the panel due to the low tensile strength of the masonry [Leuchars et al. such as multistory infilled frames.2.
of Civil Engineering 29 BIT. analysis and design. to decreased shear forces on the frame columns. the shear forces acting on columns are considerably higher than those obtained from the analysis of the bare frame. in general. 4) A classification of the failure modes (crack patterns) enhances considerably the understanding of the earthquake resistant behavior of in-filled frames and leads to improved comprehension of their modelling. in the case of infilled frame with a soft ground story. Consequently. associated with the added walls. Such elements show high strength at the first step of seismic loading. but by reaching to the maximum strength. the infill walls fail and high loss of strength occurs in small drifts. more research is needed to evaluate the strength and stiffness of masonry-infilled frames with openings. 1) Masonry infill wall panels increase strength. However. stiffness. considering them as structural elements leads the initial stiffness of structures to increase. Bangalore . overall ductility and energy dissipation of the building.More importantly. 2) The better collapse performance of fully-infilled frames is associated with the larger strength and energy dissipation of the system. 3) The presence of infills leads. Dept. 5) Because of high stiffness of the infill walls. they help in drastically reducing the deformation and ductility demand on RC frame members.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSIONS Many structural engineers ignore such infills when assessing the seismic vulnerability of these frames.
M. India. B.. Bureau of Indian Standards. Electronic Journal of Structural Engineering 11(1) . 2) Mulgund. A thesis. 11-20. "Beneficial Influence of Masonry Infill Walls on Seismic Performance of RC Frame Buildings".. Z.P. Murty. Issue No. (2011). D. of Civil Engineering 30 BIT. VOL. General Provisions and Buildings”. V. 142-152. 1790. 6) Asteris. European School For Advanced Studies In Reduction Of Seismic Risk. “Earthquake Resistant Design of Structures”. 2. vol78 No7: 39-43. & Maskey. (2012). Chrysostomou. “ A Review On Partial Infilled Frames Under Lateral Loads”. No. Vol No. Ltd. “Parametric Study On The Influence Of Infills On The Displacement Capacity Of Rc Frames For Earthquake Loss Estimation” A Dissertation.Behaviour And Failure Mechanism Of Infill Walls REFERENCES 1) Agarwal. P. I. 9) Wijanto L. (2006). and Jain S K. P. Bangalore . Auckland. L. and Priestley.. 10) ZHANG B. M. 5) Das. Engineering And Technology. Pradhan. E. 7) Pradhan. & Kulkarni.J. Kakaletsis. USA. (2006). V. C. (2000). New Zealand..G. J. P.. 1893(Part I)-2002. (2004). 8) Murty C V R. Paper No. 8. R.K. C.. R. (2007). Proceedings of the Twelfth World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. 4) I. & Smyrou. 2. E. A. “Criteria for Earthquake Resistant Design of Structure. (1992). S. New Zealand. “Seismic Assesement Of Rc Frame Buildings With Brick Masonry Infills”. “Seismic Assessment of Unreinforced Masonry Walls”.S.N. M. Kathmandu University Journal Of Science. 3) Pauley. International Journal Of Advanced Engineering Sciences And Technologies. “Brick masonry infills in seismic design of RC framed buildings: Part 1 –Cost implications” The Indian Concrete Journal.. G. 140 – 147. D.. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. & Shrikhande.. T. “Seismic design of reinforced and masonry buildings” Wiley Interscience Inc. New Delhi. Dept. (2011). University of Canterbury Christchurch.
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