As level Biology notes

Unit 1 – Biology and Disease

By Jonathan Curtis

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Contents
As level Biology notes........................................................................................................1 Contents...............................................................................................................................2 Section 1.1: Causes of Disease - Pathogens......................................................................4 Section 1.2: Epidemiology..................................................................................................6 Section 1.3: Lifestyle and Health........................................................................................7 Section 2.1: Enzymes and Digestion................................................................................10 Section 2.2: Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides..............................................................11 Section 2.3: Carbohydrates – disaccharides and polysaccharides. .................................13 Section 2.4 – Carbohydrate digestion...............................................................................14 Section 2.5 – Proteins.......................................................................................................15 Section 2.6 – Enzyme action............................................................................................17 Section 2.7 – Factors affecting enzyme action.................................................................18 Section 2.8 – Enzyme inhabitation...................................................................................19 Section 3.1 – Investigating the structure of cells.............................................................20 Section 3.2 – The electron microscope.............................................................................22 Section 3.3 – Structure of epithelial cells.........................................................................23 Section 3.4 - Lipids...........................................................................................................25 Section 3.5 – The cell surface membrane.........................................................................26 Section 3.6 - Diffusion.....................................................................................................28 Section 3.7 – Osmosis.......................................................................................................29 Section 3.8 – Active transport .........................................................................................30 Section 3.9 – Absorption in the small intestine................................................................31 Section 3.10 – Cholera .....................................................................................................32 Section 3.11- Oral rehydration therapy ...........................................................................33 Section 4.1 – Structure of the human gas-exchange system............................................34 Section 4.2 – The mechanism of breathing......................................................................36 Section 4.3 – Exchange of gas in the lungs .....................................................................37 Section 4.4 – Pulmonary tuberculosis..............................................................................39 Section 4.5 – Fibrosis, asthma and Emphysema .............................................................42 Section 5.1 – The heart and heart disease.........................................................................44 Section 5.2 – The cardiac Cycle ......................................................................................47 Section 5.3 – Heart Disease..............................................................................................51 Section 6.1 – Defence mechanisms .................................................................................53 Section 6.2 – Phagocytosis...............................................................................................54 Section 6.3 – T cells and cell-mediated immunity...........................................................55 Section 6.4 – B cells and humoral immunity ..................................................................56 Section 6.5 – Antibodies...................................................................................................57 Section 6.6 – Vaccination ................................................................................................58 Section 7.1 – Investigating Variation...............................................................................60 Section 7.2 – Types of variation ......................................................................................62 Section 8.1 – Structure of DNA........................................................................................63 Section 8.2 – The triplet code ..........................................................................................66 Section 8.3 – DNA and Chromosomes.............................................................................68 Section 8.4 – Meiosis and Genetic Variation ..................................................................71 Section 9.1 – Genetic Diversity........................................................................................73 Section 10.1 – Haemoglobin.............................................................................................74 Section 10.2 – Oxygen dissociation curves .....................................................................75 Section 10.3 – Starch, glycogen and cellulose ................................................................76 Section 10.4 - Plant cell structure.....................................................................................77 Page 2 of 114

Section 11.1 – Replication of DNA..................................................................................78 Section 11.2 – Mitosis......................................................................................................80 Section 11.3 – The cell cycle............................................................................................83 Section 12.1 – Cellular organisms....................................................................................85 Section 13.1 – Exchange between organisms and their Environment ............................87 Section 13.2 – Gas exchange in single celled organisms and insects .............................88 Section 13.3 – Gas exchange in Fish................................................................................89 Section 13.4 – Gas exchange in the leaf of a plant .........................................................90 Section 13.5 – Circulatory system of a mammal ............................................................91 Section 13.6 – Blood vessels and their functions ............................................................93 Section 13.7 – Movement of water through roots ...........................................................95 Section 13.8 – Movement of water up stems ..................................................................97 Section 13.9 – Transpiration and factors affecting it.......................................................98 Section 13.10 – Limiting water loss in plants .................................................................99 Section 14.1 – Classification .........................................................................................100 Section 15.1 - Genetic comparisons using DNA and proteins ......................................104 Section 15.2- Courtship behaviour ................................................................................105 Section 16.1 – Genetic variation in bacteria ..................................................................106 Section 16.2+16.3 – Antibiotics/Antibiotic use and resistance.....................................109 Section 17.1 – Species diversity ....................................................................................112 Section 17.2 – Species diversity and Human activities .................................................113

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Psychological disorders – diseases causing changes in the working of the brain E.g.g. etc. Nutritional deficiency – caused by inadequate or unbalanced diet or by overeating E. Infectious – Caused by pathogens Inherited – due to a mistake or alternation in the genetic make-up e.g. mosquitoes.g.1: Causes of Disease . free from disease.Section 1. Huntington’s disease etc. obesity. Interface – where internal and an external environment meet. Note: many diseases can be caused by multiple factors. Non-Communicable – disease caused by food/drink or animal vectors e. down syndrome. thick and water proof.Pathogens • • • • • • • • • • Health – A state of physical and mental well-being. Environmental – Abnormal bodily reaction caused by the environment e. Organs and tissue may not work as well due to slower cell renewal and repair. schizophrenia. scurvy. Interfaces are adapted for absorption but also make it easier for pathogens to pass through. U. • • • • Communicable disease – spread via close proximity or contact. Most microbes are harmless Pathogen –disease causing microbe. Platelets quickly produce scabs. cystic fibrosis. Non-infectious – Sometimes called disorders and can be caused by a broad range of environmental factors. Social/self induced – Influenced by living conditions or personal behaviour e.V rays. etc. Skin – Difficult to penetrate. lung cancer. Infection – process by which a pathogen enters and establishes it’s self.g. Gas exchange – airborne pathogens Page 4 of 114 . STIs.g. Disease – An abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and is associated with specific symptoms. Degenerate – wholly/partly caused by aging. They cannot be transferred. rickets.

Bacteria reproduction is called binary fusion. Epidemic – when a new disease spreads rapidly through the population. Bacteria present when disease is present. Defences Gas exchange – thick/sticky mucus traps pathogens. Robert Koch 1. Celia that is on the epithelial cells work together to remove microbes. It must be possible to isolate and grow the microbe. 2. When cultured. Endemic – a disease that is always present in the population. Pandemic – when an outbreak occurs on a global basic. they are introduced to a healthy host to see if it is infected. It kills bodily cells and rarely produces toxins. Fungi – Opportunistic pathogens. 4. It should be possible to isolate the microbes from the new host. Protease also kills microbes. Page 5 of 114 .Digestive System – Disease in contaminated food or water. Viruses – Invade bodily cells in order to reproduce thus preventing the host cell functioning as normal. 3. Fungal toxins are called mycotoxins. Digestive system – concentrated HCl kills microbes.

Page 6 of 114 . A correlation is different causal link. from high birth rate. How to prove a link • • • Wide samples must be used. In order for the correlation to be “strong”. causes a increase in another. Strong. positive correlation A positive correlation will occur when an increase in one variable.2: Epidemiology Is the study of patterns in diseases and the various factors that effect the spread of disease. Negative Correlation A negative correlation will occur when an increase in one variable causes a decrease in another.Section 1.g. there must be little spread in the data. Variables must be controlled. Weak correlation A weak correlation occurs when there is a wide spread of data shown in the graph. Data must be analysed over long periods of time. Demographic Transition Explains how the population changes over time e.

however can cause problems depending on where it grows. The process of moving to another area of the body is called metastasis. We need to look at probability that a hazard will occur as a consequence of the hazardous event. Genetics can cause approximately 5% of cancers. Maligment – grow faster and can spread throughout the body. A major concern is when both are high. Can have its own blood supply. Measuring risk • • • • • • • • • • • 0% (no harm will occur) 100% (will defiantly occur) A timescale is needed to give the data more weight. Usually harmless. Not fully understood how cancer starts. Most mutated cells are destroyed. Cancer – Cell division in an uncontrollable fashion. Benign – does not move from the point of origin. One mutated cell can cause a mass of mutated cells. Tumour producing genes (oncogenes). They are cancer causing agents. Age + = more likely. there is little cause for concern.Section 1. Lifestyle factors can expose you to more carcinogens. If the consequence of the hazard is high and the probability is low. Cancer cells cease to function normally. Carcinogen – Cause the DNA to mutate.3: Lifestyle and Health • • • • Risk – A measure of probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard. This continues if there are nutrients. Risk must be relative. Page 7 of 114 • • • • .

Alcohol – increases risk. Radiotherapy – ionising radiation that destroys tissue. Treatments • • • • • Prevention is better than cure. Hormones – high level of sex hormones can increase risk. Healthy cells suffer less so there are little side-effects. fruit etc. Early diagnosis. uv light and xrays are carcinogens. Chemotherapy – using drugs to kill cells in the body. Future treatments • • Hyperthermia may destroy cancer because the immune system is better at detecting cancer cells.• • • • • • More you smoke. Effects all cells that divide rapidly. Page 8 of 114 . higher the risk. The gene that mutates is called a tumour suppressor gene. Conclusive evidence • • • Tar in cigarettes contains Benzopyrene (carcinogen) Cancer cells were looked at and scientist found that mutations occurred in 3 places in the DNA. Diet – low fat. It may be possible to create drugs which can locate genes which are responsible for mutating and causing each type of cancer. There is a strong correlation. high fibre. Smoking • • Heavy smoking over a long period of time will drastically increase the risk of developing lung cancer. but not a causal link. Radiation. Surgical removal – Easiest when the tumour is benign. Physical activity – exercise reduces the risk.

Blood clot – thrombus Process of a blood clot forming is called thrombosis. Exercise can lower blood pressure. Diets high in saturated fats will increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Heart attack – myocardial infarction. even though it is very likely to be the cause.K Occurs when one of the arteries supplying heart tissue with oxygen is blocked. It is only a correlation because it is a multi-factorial disease. High blood pressure increase the rate at which cholesterol is deposited. If this happens to coronary arteries it is called coronary thrombosis. Anaerobic respiration does not release enough energy. Page 9 of 114 .• • This is still not a causal link because smoking does not defiantly cause cancer. Coronary Heart Disease • • • • • • • • • • • • Largest cause of death in the U. thus increase blood pressure. Smoking narrows blood vessels. Heart respires anerobically when there is a blood clot.

The enzymes enter the small intestine through its walls and through glands. The surface area of villi is further increased by millions of tinier projections called microvilli. Major parts of the digestive system • The Oesophagus is made up of a thick muscular wall and is adapted so that food can pass down it easily from the mouth to the stomach. The inner walls of the small intestine are folded into villi. Mucus is also produced in the stomach by glands. The digestive system provides an interface between the body and the environment because it allows food to pass through it. Food is further digested by enzymes in the small intestine. The microvilli are found on the epithelial cells of each villus. thus forming faeces. • • • • Page 10 of 114 . The small intestine is a long muscular tube. The large intestine absorbs water. There are glands within it that produce enzymes to digest protein. The rectum is where faeces is stored before it is removed through the anus in a process called egestion. as appose to digestion. Often the water is reabsorbed by the secretion of digestive glands. This adapts the small intestine so that it can absorb substances into the blood stream.Section 2. giving them a larger surface area. the food becomes drier. The stomach is a muscular sac with an inner layer that produces enzymes.1: Enzymes and Digestion • • Glands produce enzymes that are used to break down large molecules into smaller ones that are ready for abortion. Its roles are to store and digest food (especially proteins). Therefore it used for transport. Because there is little water within the large intestine. The mucus prevents the stomach being digested by its own enzymes.

It secretes pancreatic juice. Chemical digestion Chemical digestion is the process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones so that they can be absorbed.• • The salivary glands are positioned near the mouth. There are two stages of digestion. Enzymes function by hydrolysis. These smaller sections are then hydrolysed into even smaller molecules by additional enzymes. lipase and amylase. This is carried out by enzymes. an enzyme will break down a molecule into smaller sections. The pancreas is a large gland situated near the stomach. Because enzymes are specific. This secretion will contain the enzyme amylase. thus making it easier for chemical absorption. more than one is needed to break down a large molecule. The general term for these enzymes is hydrolases. This makes it possible to not only absorb food but to increase its surface area. Section 2. Lipase breaks down lips into glycerol and fatty acids. This contains protease. Physical breakdown Large pieces of food are broken down into smaller pieces by processes such as chewing and the churning of food in the stomach. Once these molecules have been broken down to become even smaller molecules such as monosaccharides. This is called assimilation. Hydrolysis is the process of splitting up molecules by adding water to the bonds that hold them together. Usually. physical breakdown and chemical absorption. These new molecules are incorporated into body tissue or are used in processes within the body.2: Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides Page 11 of 114 . they are absorbed into the body and are often built up again to form larger molecules again. They pass there secretion via a duct into the mouth. Protease breaks protein down to amino acids. Carbohydrases break starch molecules down until they become monosaccharides.

N can be any number from 3 -7. The making of Large molecules • • Carbohydrates are long chains made up of individual molecules called monosaccharides. Life based on Carbon • • Carbon atoms are able to readily form bonds with other carbon atoms Life on earth is based on the versatile carbon atom. However on the left of the diagram you can see how the Hydroxide and hydrogen atoms are arranged differently to glucose. Glucose Galactose Fructose Glucose is the most common sugar. Page 12 of 114 . Although its molecular arrangement is often shown as a straight line. A pair of monosaccharides is called a disaccharide and several monosaccharides joined together is called a polysaccharide. Monosaccharides • • • Monosaccharides are soluble and have the general formula (CH20)n. Glucose is a hexose because it has 6 carbon atoms and has the formula C6H12O6 Even though it has the same chemical formula. the hydrogen and oxygen atoms can be arranged in many different ways.• Carbohydrates are carbon molecules (carbo) combined with water molecules (hydrate). its atoms form a ring. Fructose has a very different structure to glucose and is often used as a sweetener. Galactose has the same chemical formula as glucose.

water is added to the molecule in a process called hydrolysis. This is called a condensation reaction. but instead are used to give support to plant cells.3: Carbohydrates – disaccharides and polysaccharides. polysaccharides break down into disaccharides or monosaccharides. • • • Polysaccharides • • • • Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharides combined together through glycosidic bonds. This means that they are very suitable for storage. When hydrolysed. Disaccharides When combined in pairs monosaccharides form disaccharides. Test for starch To test for starch. Page 13 of 114 . A glycosidic bond is an oxygen atom. Some polysaccharides such as starch are not used for storage. the iodine will turn from yellow to blue-black. The bond holding the two monomers together is called a glycosidic bond. If starch is present. • When two monosaccharides join together a water molecule is removed.Section 2. they are often insoluble. In order to break the bond. Because they are very long molecules. • • • Glucose with glucose forms maltose Glucose with fructose forms sucrose Glucose linked with Galactose forms lactose. add potassium iodine solution. Test for non-reducing sugars To test for a non reducing sugar it must first be hydrolysed then added to Benedict’s reagent.

milk makes up the majority of their diet. Sucrase which is produced by the epithelial lining breaks down sucrose into fructose and glucose. the enzyme is destroyed by the stomach acid where the pH is around 2. bacteria digest it and produce lots of gas. This breaks maltose into glucose. This enzyme breaks starch into maltose by hydrolysing the glycosidic bonds holding the molecule together. Once the food is swallowed. When undigested lactose enters the small intestine. The epithelial lining of the intestine produces the enzyme maltase. food passes into the small intestine where it mixes with pancreatic juices. Page 14 of 114 . Food is physically broken down by teeth to increase surface area. People who are lactose intolerant do not produce enough lactase to break down the lactose found in milk. To overcome the problem of lactose intolerance amongst children. Normally one enzyme breaks a large molecule into smaller sections. Firstly the enzyme “amylase” is produced in the mouth by salivary glands. nausea and diarrhoea.4 – Carbohydrate digestion • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • It usually takes more than one enzyme to break down a large molecule. The pancreatic juice contains pancreatic amylase which hydrolyses the remaining starch. and then other enzymes break these down to monomers. After the stomach.Section 2. For new born babies. where the pH is kept at neutral by mineral salts. Alkaline salts are produced by the intestine wall and the pancreas to maintain the pH at neutral so that the enzymes can work efficiently. This means that no more starch can be digested. lactose can be pre-digested before consumption. This can cause stomach cramps.

The hydrogen atom (H) The r group. Proteins are the most important molecules for life.5 – Proteins • • • Each organism has numerous proteins that differ from species to species.Section 2. The carboxyl group (COOH) this is an acid group. many monomers are joined together in a process called polymerisation. amino acids can join together to form dipeptides. The structure of one protein molecule differs from that of all other protein molecules. The chain of many amino acids is called a poly peptide. This repeating sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is known as the primary structure. Page 15 of 114 . They create a water molecule by combining the OH from the carboxyl group of one amino acid with the hydrogen atom of another amino acid. Structure of amino acids There are 4 main parts that make up the general structure of an amino acid. There is: The amino group (NH2) this is a basic part of the molecule where it gets the name amino. Primary Structure After many condensation reactions (removal of water molecules to form a peptide bond). When there is a repeating sequence of amino acids joined by a peptide bond it is called a polypeptide chain. Each amino acid has a different r group. The formation of a peptide bond Through the same process by which monosaccharide join to make disaccharides and polysaccharides. this can be a variety of chemicals.

They are weaker than disulphide bonds. Hydrogen bonds – there are many of these however they are easily broken down. Page 16 of 114 . not easily broken down. This causes the long chain to twist in on its self creating a coil known as a alpha helix. Quaternary Structure This structure appears when a number of complex molecules containing polypeptide chains that are linked in various ways are associated with non-protein molecules called prosthetic groups. It is formed by several different types of bonds. Ionic bonds – formed by the carboxyl and amino groups. A change in pH can affect an ionic bond. Tertiary Structure The secondary structure. which is an alpha helix can be further twisted and folded forming a unique 3D structure for each protein.Secondary structure The secondary structure is formed when the -C=O (which has a overall negative charge) is attracted to the hydrogen atom (which has an overall positive charge). Disulphide bond – fairly strong.

6 – Enzyme action • • • • • • • • • All enzymes are globular proteins → spherical in shape Control biochemical reactions in cells They have the suffix "-ase" Intracellular enzymes are found inside the cell Extracellular enzymes act outside the cell Enzymes are catalysts → speed up chemical reactions Reduce activation energy required to start a reaction between molecules Substrates (reactants) are converted into products Reaction may not take place in absence of enzymes (each enzyme has a specific catalytic action) • • • • Enzymes catalyse a reaction at max. distorting it into forming the transition state. Although enzymes can change the speed of a chemical reaction. rate at an optimum state The substrate and the enzyme must collide with sufficient energy. and so speeding up the reaction. This is sometimes called the induced fit mechanism. • It's a bit more complicated than that though. the enzyme changes shape slightly. distorting the molecule in the active site. • When a substrate (or product) molecule binds. Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy required to start a reaction Once the substrate is inside the active site. they cannot change its direction.Section 2. and making it more likely to change into the product. otherwise they could make "impossible" reactions happen and break the laws of thermodynamics. Page 17 of 114 . the active site change shape and fits itself around the molecule.

The rate of reaction doubles. e. For most enzymes this is about pH 7-8 (physiological pH of most cells). • Page 18 of 114 . which have an optimum of pH 1. but a few enzymes can work at extreme pH. such as protease enzymes in animal stomachs. once it reaches its optimum temperature it will begin to decrease as the temperature rises due to the active site being denatured.7 – Factors affecting enzyme action Measuring enzyme-catalysed reactions • • To measure the progress of an enzyme-catalysed reaction. For example a carboxyl acid R groups will be uncharged a low pH (COOH). enzymes from the arctic snow flea work at -10°C. approximately almost every ten degrees. so the properties of the active site change and the substrate can no longer bind. and enzymes from thermophilic bacteria work at 90°C.g. The thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and tertiary structure of the enzyme together. but there are enzymes that work best at very different temperatures. Then. but charged at high pH (COO-).Section 2. For mammalian enzymes this is about 40°C. The pH affects the charge of the amino acids at the active site. so the enzyme (and especially the active site) loses its shape to become a random coil. • • • Effect of pH • • Enzymes have an optimum pH at which they work fastest. The rate of reaction will increase as temperature increases. This is how long it takes to run its course. Effect of Temperature • Enzymes have an optimum temperature at which they work fastest. The two “events” most frequently measured are the volume of gas produced during a reaction and the disappearance of a substrate. its time course is measured.

Eventually all the substrate molecules will be in the active sites. reducing the rate of their reactions. They are found naturally.8 – Enzyme inhabitation Inhibitors inhibit the activity of enzymes. while those that tightly and cannot be washed out are called irreversible inhibitors. and it can fit into the active site of the enzyme. heavy metal ions and some insecticides are all non-competitive inhibitors. The inhibitor is not permanently bonded to the active site so once it leaves a substrate molecule can take its place. Non-competitive inhibitors therefore simply reduce the amount of active enzyme (just like decreasing the enzyme concentration). pesticides and research tools. be bind • • Page 19 of 114 . It is the difference between the concentration of the inhibitor and the concentration of the substrate that determines the affect it has on the enzymes activity. There are two kinds of inhibitors. depending on the concentration of the inhibitor.Section 2. the longer this will take. so the reaction is slower. so that it can no longer bind substrate molecules. but are also used artificially as drugs. Poisons like cyanide. including the active site. However. • • • Non-competitive inhibitors • Non-competitive inhibitors do not fit into the active site but instead they bind to another part of the enzyme molecule. It therefore competes with the substrate for the active site. Inhibitors that bind fairly weakly and can washed out are sometimes called reversible inhibitors. changing the shape of the whole enzyme. Competitive inhibitor • • A competitive inhibitor molecule has a similar structure to the normal substrate molecule.

Cell fractionation Cell fractionation is the process where cells are broken up and the different organelles they contain are separated out. Isotonic – to prevent organelles bursting or shrinking as a result of osmotic gain or loss of water. Beams of electrons have shorter wavelengths and are therefore able to distinguish between objects as close as 0.1 – Investigating the structure of cells Microscopy Lenses work more effectively if they are in a compound light microscope. An isotonic solution is one that has the same water potential as the original tissue. Magnification tells you how many times bigger the image is in relation to the actual size of the object. Light waves a have a relatively long wavelength.2micrometers apart. The greater the resolution. the material seen in called an image. Page 20 of 114 .Section 3. the greater the clarity of the image that is produced. Magnification When viewed under a microscope. Before fractionation begins. the cells are but in a solution that is: Cold – to reduce enzyme activity that might break down the organelles. they can only distinguish between objects that are at least 0. The fluid is called a homogenate. Size of object=size of image/magnification Resolution The resolving power of a microscope is the minimum distance two objects can be apart in order for them to appear as separate items.1nm apart. Buffered – to maintain a constant pH Homogenation Cells are broken up by a homogeniser that releases the organelles. It is then filtered to remove complete cells and large pieces of debris. It can be found using the following formula: Magnification=size of image/size of object The previous formula can also be rearranged to find the size of an object. therefore.

• • • • • The tube of filtrate is placed in the ultracentrifuge and spun at a slow speed.Ultracentrifugation Ultracentrifugation is the process by which the homogenate is separated in a machine called a centrifuge. The fluid at the top. The spins tubes of the homogenate. Page 21 of 114 . called the supernatant is removed. leaving just the sediment of nuclei at the bottom. The supernatant is then put in another tube where it is spun at an even higher speed than before. creating a centrifugal force that forces the mixture to separate. The heaviest organelles such as the nucleus are forced to the bottom where they form a thin sediment. The next heaviest organelles (mitochondria) are forced the bottom and the process continues until all the organelles are separated.

a near vacuum must be created within the chamber of an electron microscope for it to work effectively. A complex staining process is required and even then the image is only in B&W. Page 22 of 114 . There are two types of electron microscope: . The beam of electrons is directed over the surface of the specimen in a regular pattern.Section 3. Artefacts may appear on the image. As electrons are negatively charged. Because electrons are absorbed by molecules in the air. The electrons bounce on the contours of the specimen and are scattered. other parts allow the electrons through and so appear light. The specimen must be extremely thin.Transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. The image that appears on screen is called a photomicrograph. living specimens cannot be observed. This produces an image of the specimen.2 – The electron microscope Electrons have a shorter wavelength than light and so they have a greater resolving power. The scattering of the electrons can be analysed and from this an image can be produced using a computer. the beam can be focused using an electromagnet. Some of the electrons are absorbed by the specimen and appear dark on the image. The SEM has a lower resolving power than the TEM (20nm) but is still ten times better than a light microscope. Transmission electron microscope The TEM consists of a gun that fires electrons which are focused onto the specimen be a condenser electromagnet. these appear as a result of the way the specimen is prepared. Because the process takes place in a vacuum. Scanning electron microscope All the limitations of the TEM apply to the SEM but the specimen does not have to extremely thin as the electrons do not penetrate.

Section 3.3 – Structure of epithelial cells
Epithelial cells are eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a distinct nucleus and a membrane that surrounds each organelle. The function of an epithelial cells is top absorb and secrete The nucleus The nucleus controls the cells activities and contains hereditary material. • The Nuclear envelope is a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus. Its outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and often has ribosomes on its surface. It can control the substances entering and leaving the nucleus.

• • • •

Nuclear pores allow the passage of large materials into and out of the nucleus. Nucleoplasm is granular jelly like material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus. Chromatin is the DNA found within the nucleoplasm This is the diffuse form chromosomes take up when the cells is not dividing. The nucleolus is small spherical body within the nucleoplasm. It manufactures ribosomal RNA and assembles ribosomes.

The mitochondria • A double membrane surrounds the organelle, the outer one controlling the entry and exit of material. The inner membrane inner membrane is folded to form extensions known as cristae. Cristae are shelf like extensions of the inner membrane. These provide a large surface area for the attachment of enzymes during respiration.

• The matrix makes up the remainder of the mitochondria. It is a semi-rigid material that contains proteins, lipids and traces Page 23 of 114

of DNA that allows the mitochondria to control the production of its own proteins. The enzymes involved in respiration are found in the matrix. Mitochondria are responsible for the production of the energy-carrier molecule ATP. Because of this, high numbers of mitochondria are found in cells where there is a high level of metabolic activity. Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum – has ribosomes present on the outer surface of the membranes. Its functions are to: a) provide a large surface area for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins, b) provide a pathway for the transport of materials, especially proteins throughout the cell. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes on its surface and is often more tubular in appearance. Its functions are to: a) synthesise, store and transport lipids, b) synthesise store and transport carbohydrates. Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus is similar to the SER in structure but is more compact. It consists of a stack of membranes that form flattened sacks, or cisternae with small rounded hollow structures called vesicles. The proteins and lipids produced in the ER are passed through the Golgi apparatus in strict sequence. The Golgi apparatus modifies these proteins often by adding non-protein structures to them such as carbohydrates. It is also labels them so they can be sorted and sent to their correct destination. Once sorted and modified, proteins are transported in vesicles which are regularly removed from the edge of the Golgi cisternae. These vesicles move to the cell membrane where they fuse and release their contents to the outside. Lysosomes

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Lysosomes are formed when a vesicle contains enzymes. Lysosomes isolate potentially dangerous enzymes from the rest of the cell before releasing them outside of the cell or into phagocytic vesicles within the cell. Lysosomes digest worn out organelles so that the useful chemicals they are made of can be reused. They can completely break down cells after they have died. (Autolysis) Ribosomes Ribosomes occur in either the cytoplasm or the RER. There are two types depending on which cell they are found in: 80S Type – found in eukaryotic cells, is around 25nm in diameter. 70S Type – found in prokaryotic cells, is slightly smaller. Microvilli Microvilli are finger like projections of the epithelial cells. There function is to increase the surface area for diffusion.

Section 3.4 - Lipids

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Fatty acid molecules repel water whereas phosphate molecules are attracted to water. Take 2cm^3 of the sample being tested and add 5cm^3 of ethanol. They are insoluble in water. 3. Take a dry. lipids can be used as: An energy source. Lipids are insoluble in water and are therefore suitable for waterproofing. The proportion of oxygen to carbon and hydrogen is smaller than in carbohydrates. Each fatty acids combines with glycerol in a condensation reaction. Test for lipids 1. Roles of lipids Phospholipids contribute to the flexibility of membranes and the transfer of lipidsoluble substances across them. hydrogen and oxygen.5 – The cell surface membrane Page 26 of 114 . kept under skin to retain heat in the body. Lipids can provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrate. grease free test tube. Insulation. Fats are slow conductors of heat. 4. In addition to this. Triglycerides are so called because they have three fatty acids (tri) combined with glycerol (glyceride). 5. Add 5cm^3 of water and shake gently. Section 3. 2. Often stored around delicate organs.• • • • Lips contain carbon. Shake the test tube and dissolve the lipids. Protection. They are soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol and acetone. CH2OH + HOOC  CH2OOC + H2O (Glycerol) + (fatty acid) Phospholipids Phospholipids are similar to lipids except that the fatty acid is replaced with a phosphate molecule. Waterproofing. A cloudy white colour indicates the presence of a lipid.

Fluid-mosaic model of the cell surface membrane Fluid . Intrinsic proteins – Span the phospholipids bilayer. Proteins The proteins in the phospholipids bilayer are arranged randomly in two main ways: Extrinsic proteins – appear on the surface or partially imbedded. Make the membrane more flexible. The hydrophobic tales point inwards. The function of phospholipids in the cell-membrane are to: allow lipid-soluble substances to enter and leave the cell. giving it a flexible structure. Some transport water soluble molecules across the membrane others are enzymes. etc. Protein molecules in the membrane allow active transport by forming ion channels for sodium. interacting with the water surrounding the cell. They provide mechanical support or when in conjunction with glycolipids. Page 27 of 114 . potassium.because the phospholipids molecules can move relative to each other. The other has its head pointing outwards. Phospholipids Phospholipids are important in cell surface membranes because: • • One layer of phospholipids has its hydrophilic head pointing inwards towards the water in the cytoplasm.The cell-surface membrane is a plasma membrane that surrounds that surrounds cells and forms a boundary between the cytoplasm and the environment. act as cell receptors for molecules such as hormones. Prevent water-soluble substances entering and leaving the cell. Mosaic – because the proteins are imbedded in the structure in a similar way that stones are imbedded in a mosaic.

the greater the rate of diffusion. The proteins for special water filled channels. the greater the rate of diffusion The larger the area of an exchange surface. All particles are constantly in motion due to the kinetic energy that they posses. The channels only open for specific molecules. This allows water soluble ions and molecules to pass through. For example smaller molecules diffuse faster than big ones. Page 28 of 114 . When a molecule that is specific to the carrier protein is present. the carrier protein changes shape. Facilitated diffusion can only occur at specific point along the plasma membrane where there are special protein molecules. The nature of the plasma membrane. The motion is random and there is no set pattern to the way they move.Diffusion Diffusion is defined as the net movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are more highly concentrated to one where their concentration is lower. The thinner the exchange surface. Diffusion is proportional to: surface area x difference in concentration Length of diffusion path Facilitated diffusion Facilitated is a passive process as it only relies on the kinetic motion of particles. Rate of diffusion • • • • • The greater the difference in concentration. causing it to release the molecule on the other side of the plasma membrane. the faster the rate of diffusion.Section 3.6 . its composition and the number of pores. The size and nature of the diffusing molecule. Such molecules such as glucose and amino acids would take much longer to diffuse through the phospholipids bilayer.

Section 3. Water with a solute dissolved in it will have a water potential that is less than 0. a dynamic equilibrium is established and there is no net movement of water. A hypertonic solution is one where the water potential outside the cell is lower than the water potential inside the cell. This is called an isotonic solution. cells are often bathed in solutions where the water potential outside the cell is the same as the water potential inside the cell. Water molecules move from one side where the water potential is higher (less negative) across a partially permeable membrane to another side where the water potential is lower (more negative). To prevent cells bursting due to too much water entering the cells. pure water is said to have a water potential of 0. The cell-surface membrane will eventually burst if too much water enters the cells. At the point where the water potentials on either side of a partially permeable membrane are equal. Page 29 of 114 . Osmosis in animal cells If a red blood cell is place in pure water it will absorb water by osmosis because it has a lower water potential. The water moves along a water potential gradient. Water potential is measured in Pascal’s. A hypotonic solution is one where the concentration outside is greater than the concentration inside.7 – Osmosis Osmosis is defined as the passage of water from a region where it has a higher water potential to a region where it has a lower water potential through a partially permeable membrane. Under standard conditions of temperature (25c).

The carrier molecules accept molecules or ions to be transport on one side of it. which causes the carrier protein to revert back to its original shape. • • • • By using a concentration gradient that has already been set up by direct active transport. • Occasionally. This as a result.Section 3. causes the carrier protein to change shape.8 – Active transport Active transport allows cells to exchange molecules against a concentration gradient. Metabolic energy is needed in the form ATP. On the other side of the membrane ATP bind to the carrier protein causing it to split into ADP and a phosphate molecule. the molecule or ion is moved into the cell at the same time as a different one is being removed from it. The molecules of the ions bind to the receptors on the channels of the carrier protein. releasing the molecule onto the other side. Page 30 of 114 . Carrier molecules which act as “pumps” are involved. • Active transport uses ATP in two main ways: by using ATP to directly move molecules. Metabolic energy is required for this process. Active transport is the movement of molecules or ions into or out of a cell from a region of lower concentration to a region on higher concentration using energy and carrier molecules. This is known as co-transport. One example of this is the sodiumpotassium pump Sodium ions are actively taken in by the cell whilst potassium ones are actively removed from the cell. The phosphate molecule then recombines with the ADP to form ATP again.

Sodium ions are actively transported out of the epithelial cells by the sodium potassium pump. they are coupled with glucose molecules which are drawn in with them. 3. Page 31 of 114 . They are situated on the cell surface membrane.9 – Absorption in the small intestine Villi and Microvilli Villi have walls lined with epithelial cells. new glucose rich food replaces it. There is now a much higher concentration of sodium ions in the lumen than in the cells. rather than the ATP directly. As they flood back into the cells. thus reducing the distance over which diffusion takes place. Role of active transport in absorption The way in which most glucose is absorbed from small intestine is an example of cotransport. The sodium ions diffuse into the cells down a concentration gradient. 4. They are able to move and so maintain a concentration gradient They are well supplied with blood vessels so that the blood can carry away absorbed molecules and hence maintain a diffusion gradient. 2. that powers the movement of glucose into the cell. Their properties increase the efficiency of absorption because: • • • • They increase the surface area for diffusion They are very thin walled. 1. Villi are situated at the interface between the lumen of the intestines and the blood and other tissues inside the body. The epithelial cells possess Microvilli which further increase the surface area for diffusion. It is the sodium ion concentration.Section 3. The glucose diffuses into the blood through a carrier protein. Villi contain muscles which move the food ensuring the glucose is absorbed from the food adjacent to the villi. thus maintains a concentration gradient for diffusion.

Separate from this are smaller circular pieces of DNA. Ions move by diffusion into the epithelial cells. that the chloride ions that are normally contained within the epithelial cells flood into the lumen of the intestine. (70s type) Bacteria store food as glycogen granules and oil droplets. • • • How the cholera bacterium causes disease Almost all Vibrio cholerae bacteria ingested by humans are killed by the low pH in the stomach but many can still survive. The protein has two parts: one part binds to the carbohydrate receptors of the intestinal epithelial cells. Flagella occur at certain types of bacteria. but lowers the water potential outside the cells. This is a mixture of polysaccharides and peptides.5. Many bacteria also protect themselves by producing a capsule of mucilaginous slime around this wall. They then start to produce a toxic protein.Section 3. whereas the other part enters the epithelial cells. This causes water to move into the small intestine. called plasmids. • • • • All bacteria possess a cells wall that is made up of peptidoglycan. The genetic material of a bacterium is found in the form of a circular strand of DNA. When the bacteria enter the lumen of the small intestine they use their flagella to propel themselves through the mucus lining of the intestinal wall. The loss of chloride ions from cells increases the water potential in the cell. This establishes a water potential gradient that causes water to move by osmosis from the blood and other tissues into the small intestine. Inside the cell-surface membrane is the cytoplasm that contains ribosomes that are smaller than the ones found in eukaryotic cells. especially if the pH is above 4. Page 32 of 114 . The loss of ions from the cells establishes a concentration gradient.10 – Cholera Structure of a bacteria cell The bacterium that causes cholera is called Vibrio Cholerae. The causes the ion channels of the cell-surface membrane to open.

11. Indeed.Oral rehydration therapy What causes diarrhoea? • • • Damage to the epithelial cells in the lining of the small intestine Loss of Microvilli due to toxins Excessive secretion of water due to toxins What is oral rehydration therapy? Drinking water to treat diarrhoea is ineffective because: Water is not being absorbed by the intestine. Page 33 of 114 . the water potential falls and water enters the cells by osmosis. The drinking water does not replace electrolytes that are being lost from cells of the intestine.Section 3. As sodium ions are being absorbed. water is actually being lose from cells. to help prevent electrolyte imbalance The solution must be given regularly and in large amounts whilst the person has the illness. as in the case of cholera. A rehydration solution should therefore contain: • • • • • Water – to rehydrate tissues Sodium – to replace the ions lost from the epithelium of the small intestine and to make optimum use of the sodium-glucose carrier proteins. Glucose – to stimulate the uptake of sodium ions from the intestine and to provide energy Potassium – to replace lost potassium ions and to stimulate appetite Other electrolytes – such as chloride and citrate ions.

In addition to this.Section 4. The trachea (windpipe) branches into two smaller airways: the left and right bronchi. The lungs are a pair of lobed structures made up of a series of bronchioles. Mammalian Lungs • Lungs are kept inside the body because air is not dense enough to support and protect these delicate structures. These are the narrowest airways – as small as one half of a millimeter across. and has a smaller volume than the right lung it shares space in the left side of the chest with the heart. which is why this part of the respiratory system is often called the bronchial tree.1 – Structure of the human gas-exchange system All aerobic organisms require a constant supply of oxygen to release energy in the form of ATP during respiration. thus changing the size of the airway. which end in tiny sacs called alveoli. The left lung has two lobes. Within the alveolar walls is a dense network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. the millions of alveoli of the lungs form a surface of more than 100 square meters. It has an indentation. fibrous connective tissue called cartilage. Circular airway muscles can dilate or constrict the airways. Together. The right lung is divided into three lobes and each lobe is supplied by one of the secondary bronchi. The extremely thin barrier between air and capillaries allows • • • • Page 34 of 114 . The left lung is longer. At the end of each bronchiole are thousands of small air sacs called alveoli. Lungs provide efficient surface area for effective gas exchange. narrower. The larger airways resemble an upside-down tree. The volume of oxygen that needs to be absorbed and the volume of carbon dioxide that needs to be removed is large in mammals because there is a large volume of respiring cells. The bronchi themselves divide many times before branching into smaller airways called bronchioles. on its medial surface for the apex of the heart. which lead to the two lungs. Mammals must also maintain a high temperature and therefore have high metabolic and respiratory rates. keeping them inside the body prevents loss of water and so they will not dry out easily. The airways are held open by flexible. called the cardiac notch.

on the medial side. This is where the bronchi. It contains a thin film of serous fluid that is produced by the pleura. • Page 35 of 114 . lymphatics. which contains the heart. The visceral pleura is firmly attached to the surface of the lung.oxygen to move from the alveoli into the blood and allows carbon dioxide to move from the blood in the capillaries into the alveoli. The fluid acts as a lubricant to reduce friction as the two layers slide against each other. At the hilum. They are separated from each other by the mediastinum. blood vessels. called the pleura. • Each lung is enclosed by a double-layered serous membrane. or root. The lungs are soft and spongy because they are mostly air spaces surrounded by the alveolar cells and elastic connective tissue. The only point of attachment for each lung is at the hilum. the visceral pleura is continuous with the parietal pleura that lines the wall of the thorax. and it helps to hold the two layers together as the lungs inflate and deflate. The small space between the visceral and parietal pleurae is the pleural cavity. and nerves enter the lungs.

The decrease in volume causes an increase in pressure and so air is pushed out. and is then lower than the air pressure outside of the lungs.Section 4. thus increasing the volume. and flattens. During expiration. The internal muscles contract while the external muscles relax. the internal muscles relax whilst the external muscles contract. Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation = tidal volume x ventilation rate (dm^3min^-1) (dm^3) (min^-1) Page 36 of 114 . The process of breathing is called ventilation. During inspiration. Due to this. This is known as inspiration. breathing out is a passive process (requires no energy) this is because the force of gravity and the recoil of elastic muscle fibres pull the rib cage downwards and inwards. this decreases the volume. the external muscles contract. The diaphragm muscle contracts. There are two types of intercostals muscles that lie between the ribs. This further decreases the volume. air is drawn in. When air pressure in the lungs is greater than the air pressure of the outside atmosphere. air is forced out. The diaphragm relaxes and moves back into its domed shape. This further increases the volume.2 – The mechanism of breathing To maintain a steep concentration gradient. Due to the increase in volume. the air pressure drops. Inspiration Inspiration is an active process (requires energy) In order to respire. Expiration Normally. There is internal muscles and external muscles. This is called expiration. Air pressure in the atmosphere is greater than the air pressure in the lungs. air is drawn in. the external muscles relax and the internal muscles contract. The ribs. as a result move upwards and outwards. air must be constantly moved into and out of the lungs.

Particles move down a concentration gradient. Many organisms have developed specialised gas exchange structures called lungs. Cells in the alveoli wall are flattened with only a thing layer of cytoplasm between the cell membranes.3 – Exchange of gas in the lungs Gas exchange is the process by which 02 moves enters the blood and CO2 moves out. Page 37 of 114 . The delicate surface area is protected from damage by being tucked away inside the chest. Each alveoli is approximately 75 – 300 micrometers across. The movement of O2 is independent of the movement of CO2. Single cell organisms can use there cell membrane as a surface for gas exchange. This allows for efficient gas exchange. Diffusion occurs when there is a difference in concentration.Section 4. Alveoli Mammals exchange respiratory gases mainly through the alveoli. Gas exchange surface . Walls of the alveoli are very thin and close together. Breathing in air when there is a high concentration of CO2 can be lethal even when there is a rich supply of oxygen. This brings haemoglobin very close to the alveoli air.where gas enters and leaves the lungs. CO2 will not diffuse out if the concentration is higher outside the lungs. Cellular respiration creates a constant demands for oxygen. Ficks law Rate of diffusion = surface area of the membrane x difference in concentration length of diffusion path Having a vast number of capillaries is very important. The lumen of the capillary is so narrow that the red blood cells slow down as the pass through it. This reduces the distance for diffusion. They are flattened against the alveoli.

Alveoli structure The wall of the alveoli is made of epithelial cells. The film of water slows down the rate of diffusion because it has increased the distance the gases need to travel. Surfactant Surfactant prevents the alveoli from collapsing or sticking together.The inner surface of the alveoli wall is covered in water. For a membrane to be permeable to oxygen it must also be permeable to water. Endothelium is a specialised type of epithelium that lines the inner surface of blood vessels. Lung surfactant reduces the surface tension so that the alveoli remain open. Alveoli must be kept open to increase their surface area. this is because the plasma membranes of its cells are permeable to water. Page 38 of 114 . Epithelium and endothelium Epithelial cells – cells from epithelium tissue that lines the internal and external cavity.

When a person coughs or sneezes. Can survive week disinfectants. Almost any part of the body can be infected by the pathogen (extra pulmonary tb). The disease affects almost 1. TB is referred to as invasive because it enters and spreads into tissue. It is the biggest killer of women of reproductive age. People who are most at risk are: People who have HIV Those taking immune suppressant drugs Those under going cancer treatment The very young/old Those who live in LDCs Those who inject drugs or drink too much alcohol Skin test – the doctor would inject a very dilute extract of the bacterium into your skin. It has an extremely slow growth rate. Most commonly affects the lungs. Page 39 of 114 . can survive several weeks in dry state. droplets of water are expelled and may contain the bacteria.7 billion people world wide.4 – Pulmonary tuberculosis Tb is an infectious disease caused by an airborne. TB is the leading cause of death from bacterial infection. The disease only develops if the bacterium reaches the alveoli. causing pulmonary TB. Droplets of MTB can remain suspended in air for several hours.Section 4. the immune response will cause an area of inflammation. Contracting TB Most people with tb only exhale a few bacteria in each breath. You can only contract the disease after prolonged exposure. rod-shaped pathogen called mycobacterium tuberculosis. Divides once every 16-20 hours. It is very resistant. It kills approximately 2 million people each year. If the person has been exposed to the TB bacterium.

If the bacterium enters the blood. other areas of the body can be infected. waxy material that protects it from the macrophages. The infection can lead to inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes responsible for that area of the lung.Treatment MTB is a bacterium that can be treated with antibiotics.A can reduce the efficiency of gas exchange. They can then affect other regions of the lungs. bacteria are then engulfed by a type of white blood cell called macrophages which do not actually destroy the bacteria. Symptoms Persistent cough Chest pain Coughing up blood Chill + fever Night sweat Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Fatigue Death – occurs when the sufferer has lost too much weight. the bacteria could break out of the tubercles in the alveoli. The drug is taken for 6 – 9 months. The antibiotics are affective against most strains of the bacteria. Most TB is curable using a combination of 4 different types of antibiotics. The loss of S. Immune system responds. When you are most at risk When you are in regular contact with those who have the disease When your immune system is compromised. Fluid collects in the lungs and breathing becomes difficult. Disease progression Your immune system kills the bacteria and no further symptoms are experienced. Tb bacteria have a cell wall made of a complex. Page 40 of 114 . This is called active tuberculosis. Bacteria destroy the lung tissue. resulting in cavities and scar tissue where the lungs repair.

These bacteria are then engulfed by more macrophages and the cycle continues. releasing the bacteria.After 3 – 6 weeks another white blood cell called T-lymphocytes arrive at the site and activate the macrophages so they can destroy the bacteria. if any symptoms and the infection is controlled within a few weeks. Page 41 of 114 . Lysosomes in the macrophages contain enzymes that break down the waste materials. Active TB The bacteria can multiply within the macrophages and eventually cause the cell to burst. In a healthy person there are few.

Patients suffering from the disease cannot diffuse oxygen into their blood as efficiently.Section 4. Pain and discomfort in the chest – caused by the pressure and damage caused by the tissue. This makes it harder to ventilate the lungs.. silica and some gases Exposure to ionising radiation Autoimmune response to inhaling gas containing bacterial. Air laden with fine dust is drawn into the alveoli where there is no celia to sweep away the particles. the tissue is virtually irremovable. Chronic dry cough – bodies reflex to try and remove fibrous tissue. Often linked with occupation Most contaminants that reach the bronchi and brochioles are trapped in the mucus.5 – Fibrosis. Pulmonary fibrosis Occurs when scars form on the epithelium causing them to become irreversibly thickened. fungal or animal products. They engulf bacteria and foreign particles. However. Diagnosed by a lung biopsy The fibrous tissue also reduces the elasticity of the lungs. asthma and Emphysema Infection Can be caused by environmental agents such as asbestos. The muscles surrounding the bronchi and bronchioles contract Page 42 of 114 . which causes the airways to become thickened. Asthma Allergens cause a chemical called histamine to be produce. Fluid leaves capillaries and enters the lungs. White blood cells near the alveoli are called alveoli macrophages. Shortness of breath – occurs due to the lack of oxygen diffusing into the blood as a result of the lengthened pathway and shallower concentration gradient. The lining of these airways become inflamed Goblet cells secrete more mucus.

This causes the concentration gradient to become shallower. Chronic cough – bodies reflex to try and remove damaged tissue. Bluish skin colouration – due to the lower levels of oxygen within the blood as a result of poor gas exchange Page 43 of 114 . Shortness of breath – air cannot be ventilated as effectively.Difficulty breathing – due to constriction of airways A wheezing sound when breathing – caused by air passing through restricted airways A tight feeling in the chest – consequence of not being able to ventilate the lungs properly Emphysema In emphysematous tissue the elastin has become permanently stretched and the lungs are no longer able to force all the air out of the alveoli. As a result. the rate of diffusion is reduced and less gas exchange will take place.

Page 44 of 114 . They need a circulatory system to move substances around the body. Pericardium fluid is secreted by the membranes and reduces friction.Section 5. although contractions of skeletal muscles also push blood along veins. The circulatory system • • • Mammals have a double circulatory system as blood passes through the twice on one complete circulation of the body. inelastic membranes which form the pericardium. The heart produces the main pressure gradient. Blood moves down pressure gradients. The systemic circulation pumps oxygenated blood to every other part of the body that uses oxygen. from high to low pressure. allowing them to move freely over each other. • Pericardium • • The heart is covered by a double layer of tough. It is divided into a left and right side by a septum. The human heart • • • Lies in the thoracic cavity Consists mainly of cardiac muscle Its pumping action ensures that fresh supplies of oxygen and nutrients are constantly being supplied to all living cells of the body.1 – The heart and heart disease • • • • Mammals are too large to rely on diffusion. The pulmonary circulation pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated.

protects the heart. to the pulmonary circulation. Ventricle walls are thicker than that of the atria as they have to pump blood over a greater distance. the left ventricle has a thicker muscular wall. The pulmonary vein is the only vein to carry oxygenated blood. the left side pumps oxygenated blood. Heart Chambers • • • • The right side pumps oxygenated blood. Each side has two chambers. Atria have only a thin muscular wall as they only need to pump blood a short distance to the ventricle. The pulmonary artery is the only artery to carry deoxygenated blood. The right side of the heart • • • • • The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation through the vena cava. Although the volume of blood they hold is the same. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood through the aorta into the systemic circulation. Left side of the heart • • • • The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein. anchors its surrounding structures and prevents overfilling of the heart with blood. The atria receive blood from veins. Ventricles • • The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where the left ventricle has to pump blood to the whole body. Page 45 of 114 . The two upper chambers are called the atria and the two lower chambers are called the ventricles. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary artery. The ventricles pump blood into arteries.• This sac. Each atrium is elastic so it can stretch as it fills up with blood.

• A thicker muscular wall will allow a stronger contraction to push blood further. Coronary arteries • Some of the bloody leaving the left ventricle goes to the coronary arteries. How valves work • • • • • They prevent the back flow of blood. The bicuspid valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle has two flaps. Page 46 of 114 . and one at the base of each artery leading from the ventricles. The aortic semi lunar valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta. Valves in the heart are designed to open when there is high pressure forcing the blood on the correct direction. Does not tolerate a lack of oxygen or nutrients and soon dies if its supply of blood is cut off. If high pressure forces the blood in the wrong direction. • The coronary arteries are much narrower than many other arteries and so can become blocked more easily. unlike other muscles it never fatigues. Cardiac Muscle • • A special type of muscle. the valves shut. These tendons to not stretch. These arteries branch out to supply the thick heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients. The pulmonary semi-lunar valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. Thin tendons join to the edges of the valve flaps to the wall of each ventricle. one between each atrium and ventricle. they stop the valves turning inside out. The tricuspid valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle has three flaps. Valves • • • • • There are 4 valves in the mammalian heart.

Page 47 of 114 . Diastole • • • Ventricular and atrial myocardium relaxes at the same time. When a chamber is contracting it is in systole. forces the atrioventricular valves to open.Section 5. The higher pressure in the atria than the ventricles.2 – The cardiac Cycle • • • • The 4 chambers in the heart are constantly contracting and relaxing in a definite sequence. Even though the atria aren’t contracting. Blood returning to the heart fills the atria. This raises the pressure in the atria. When it is relaxing it is in diastole. This means that the atria will contract and relax at the same time and so will the two ventricles. Both semi-lunar valves are closed. More blood passes through these valves into the ventricles. Atrial systole refers to the contracting of the atrial myocardium (heart muscle). The atrioventricular valves open. This is known as diastole. blood flows from the atria to the ventricles. The cardiac cycle is the sequence of stages that take place in one heart beat. Both sides of the heart contract together. Atrial systole • • • • • The myocardium of both atria contract. Between heart beats the myocardium of both atria and ventricles are relaxed. The stages of the cardiac cycle • • • • • There are three stages of the cardiac cycle: atrial systole and ventricular systole and diastole. pushing more blood into the ventricles. Ventricle systole refers to the contraction of the ventricular myocardium.

The cardiac cycle starts at the sinoatrial node (SA node). Valves open or close when the balance of pressure on opposite sides of the valves changes. stopping blood moving back into the heart. Pressure changes • • • The events of the cardiac cycle create pressure changes. the pulmonary and aortic valves are forced open.Ventricular Systole • • • • • • • • The myocardium of both ventricles contract The atria are relaxed The ventricles continue to fill with blood This quickly raises the pressure of the ventricles higher than that of the atria. Both atrioventricular valves are forced closed When the pressure of the ventricles exceeds that of the arteries. rather than by the nervous system. Pressure changes are responsible for moving blood through the heart and into the systemic and pulmonary circulations. Blood is pushed out of the heart into the pulmonary artery and aorta. Myogenic contractions of the myocardium are largely responsible for the cardiac cycle. • • • Page 48 of 114 . The semi-lunar valves close. The SA node is a group of cells found out the top of the right atrium which acts as a natural pacemaker and initiates the heart beat. Controlling the cardiac cycle • Myogenic contractions are contractions originating from within the muscle.

This stops the waves of the atrial muscle contraction continuing through the ventricle muscles as the blood would be forced to the bottom of the heart. stimulating the myocardium of the atria to contract. Bundles of his conduct electrical impulses rapidly down the atrioventricular septum. from the base of the heart upwards. from the top of the atria. The heart rate can also be controlled by nervous impulses and hormones such as during exercise and adrenalin. These fibres stimulate the muscles of the ventricles to contract rapidly. because it is stopped by a wall of fibrous tissue called the atrioventricular system. Continuing the cardiac cycle • The electrical activity cannot pass from the walls of the atria to the walls of the ventricles. • • • • • Contraction of the ventricles • • • From the AVN two specialised bundles of purkinje tissue run down the atrioventricular septum and up the ventricular wall. The cells in the AVN can conduct electricity but only shortly after a slight delay. The delay allows time for the atria to complete their cycle.• • The rate at which the SA node produces the waves determines the heart rate. The contraction spreads outwards and downwards. This tissue conducts the impulses throughout the atria. to the bottom of the heart. The impulses are not carried by nervous tissue but by specialised muscle fibres called purkinje fibres. Starting the Cardiac cycle • • • • The SA node produces waves of electrical impulses called cardiac impulses. (av node) The AV node is another specialised group of cells. squeezing blood towards the ventricles. The heart beat Page 49 of 114 . There is only one location where the impulse can travel from atrium to ventricle – through the atrioventricular node.

and the stroke volume (amount of blood in one beat). Second heart sound “dub” occurs when the semi lunar valves close. The cardiac output depends on two features: how quickly the heart is beating. Cardiac output • • • • • The volume of blood from ventricles in one minute. Measured in DM^3min^-1 The volume pumped by both ventricles pumped is the same. Cardiac output =heart rate (min^-1) X stroke volume (dm^3) Page 50 of 114 .• • First heart beat sound “lub” occurs when the atrioventricular valves close.

The region of tissue deprived of blood due to the thrombus will not be able to respire as a result of no oxygen. Thrombosis If an Atheroma breaks through the endothelium of the blood vessel. thereby increasing blood pressure. Smoking Carbon monoxide combines easily.Section 5. This may cause a thrombus (blood clot). Aneurysm Atheromas that form thrombosis can weaken artery wall. Atheroma Begins as fatty streaks which are deposits of white blood cells that have taken up low density lipoproteins These streaks enlarge to form an irregular patch. that will stop the flow of blood. it forms a rough surface that interrupts the otherwise smooth flow of blood. Myocardial infarction Occurs when the hear stops beating. In order to supply tissue with the same amount of oxygen the heart must work harder. Blood pressure If the blood pressure in the arteries is high. If blood flow to the heart muscle is interrupted it can cause a myocardial infarction. or athermanous plaque. glucose and other nutrients being transported to the tissue. Nicotine stimulates the production of adrenalin which will increase heart rate and blood pressure. blood filled structure called an aneurysm. otherwise known as a heart attack. but irreversibly with haemoglobin. Page 51 of 114 . causing them to swell to form a balloon like. fibres and dead muscle cells.3 – Heart Disease Atheroma is the build up of fatty deposits that can impair blood flow. thus reducing the oxygen carry capability of the blood. the heart must work harder to pump blood into them. Athermanous plaques are made up of cholesterol.

Page 52 of 114 . Diet High levels of salt raise blood pressure. vitamin c. including the artery walls. which they infiltrate. To resist the high pressure the walls of the arteries tend to become thickened and may harden. They help protect arteries against heart disease. Low density lipoproteins which transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissue. reduce the risk of heart disease.High blood pressure in the arteries means there is more chance of an aneurysm forming and bursting causing a haemorrhage. e. restricting blood flow. and so does non-starch polysaccharide (dietary fibre). Blood Cholesterol High density lipoproteins remove cholesterol from tissue and transport it to the liver for excretion. High levels of saturated fat increase low density lipoprotein levels and hence blood cholesterol concentration.g. Foods that act as antioxidants. leading to the development of Atheroma and hence a heart attack.

There is a high probability that when a pathogen enters the body the antigen on its surface will be complementary to a specific lymphocyte. Given that there are so many different types of lymphocyte in the body. Defence Mechanisms Non specific Response is immediate and the same for all Specific Response is slower and is specific to each pathogen pathogens Physical barrier Phagocytosis Cell mediated response. they would destroy the body’s tissue. These mechanisms act immediately and take two forms: A) barrier of entry B) phagocytosis Specific – Mechanisms that do distinguish between different pathogens. Tlymphocytes Humoral response Blymphocyte s • • • T-lymphocytes already exist within the body. The response involves a type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte and can take two forms: A) cell mediated response (T-lymphocytes) B) Humoral responses (B-Lymphocytes) Recognising your own cells Lymphocytes must be able to distinguish between pathogens and the bodies own cells. The response is less rapid but provides long lasting immunity. There is over 10 million different types of T-lymphocytes. but respond to all of them in the same way. If they did not. • Page 53 of 114 .1 – Defence mechanisms Defence mechanisms Non-specific – mechanisms that do not distinguish between one type of pathogen and another.Section 6. There are very few of each lymphocyte so response to an infection is slow.

The enzymes within the Lysosomes digest the pathogen. There are phagocytes and lymphocytes. Barriers of entry • • • A protective covering – The skin covers the body’s surface. Enzymes within the Lysosomes join with the phagosome and release their contents. Phagocytosis • • • • • • Pathogens are engulfed by phagocytes in the form of vesicles which are formed on the cell-surface membrane. Chemical products of the pathogen act as attractants which draw the phagocyte towards it. creating a barrier that is hard for pathogens to penetrate. They engulf the pathogen to form a vesicle known as a “phagosome”. Phagocytes ingest and destroy pathogens by a process called phagocytosis. In the lungs pathogens are often caught in the mucus and moved by the cilia. The soluble products of the pathogen are absorbed into the cytoplasm of the phagocyte Page 54 of 114 .Section 6.2 – Phagocytosis There are two different types of white blood cells. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach – Provides a low pH that denatures the pathogens enzymes. Phagocytes attach themselves to the surface of the pathogen. Epithelia covered in the mucus – Many epithelia produce mucus.

3 – T cells and cell-mediated immunity Antigens An antigen is any part of an organism or substance that is recognised as foreign and stimulates a response from the immune system.Section 6. or “humour”. Antigens are normally proteins that are part of the organism’s cell-surface membrane. The hole then makes the cell freely permeable to all substances and quickly dies as a result. B) The phagocyte places the antigen on its own cell-surface membrane. Instead. Lymphocytes B –Lymphocytes are associated with humoral immunity i. This type of response is called “cell-mediated immunity”. C) Receptors on certain T helper cells fit exactly onto these antigens. Cancer cells also present antigens on its cell-surface membrane.e. D) This stimulates other T cells to divide rapidly by osmosis to form a clone. Body cells that have been invaded by a virus also manage to present some of the virus’ antigens on its surface as a sign of distress. immunity involving body cells. E) The cones T cells: a) Develop into memory cells that provided rapid response in the future. Page 55 of 114 . b) Stimulate phagocytes to engulf the bacteria by phagocytosis.e. T – Lymphocytes are associated with cell-mediated immunity i. c) Stimulate b cells to divide d) Kill infected cells T cells do not kill cells by phagocytosis. Cell-mediated immunity T – Lymphocytes can distinguish foreign material from the bodies own tissue because: Phagocytes have engulfed and broken down a pathogen and have presented some of its antigens on its own cell-surface membrane. they produce a protein that makes a hole in the pathogen or infected cells. A) Pathogens invade body cells or are taken in by phagocytes. Both types of lymphocytes are formed from stem cells in the bone marrow. T-Lymphocytes only respond to antigens that are attached to a body cell. immunity involving antibodies that are present in the body’s fluids.

and the ones they produce are constantly changing. The antibodies attach to antigens on the pathogens and destroy them. Antigenic Variability The antigens that pathogens are made of. 2. The memory cells provide long term immunity. This explains why it is possible to get the same diseases more than once. 6. Due to this the most use its primary immune response. This is the primary immune response. Toxin molecules will also act as an antigen. Page 56 of 114 . They only live for a few days but produce more than 2000 antibodies every second. Each B cell develops into two different types of cell: Plasma cells secrete antibodies directly. this is known as antigenic variability. This is known as the primary immune response Memory cells live for decades in some cases.Section 6. 4. This is the secondary immune response. 5.4 – B cells and humoral immunity Humoral immunity is so called because it involves antibodies which are soluble in the blood and tissue fluid. This is known as the secondary immune response. The B cells process the antigens and present them on their surface. T helper cells attach to the processed antigens and B cells thereby activating them. its antigens are not complimentary to the antigens or the memory cells produced from the last infection. These can respond to future infections by the same pathogen by dividing rapidly and developing into plasma cells that produce antibodies. 7. also called “humour”. The B cells are now activated to divide by mitosis to give a clone of the plasma cells. Some B cells develop into memory cells. The cloned plasma cells produce antibodies that exactly fit the antigens on the pathogens surface. The surface antigens of the invading pathogen are taken up by the B cells. 1. 3. When they encounter the same antigen they divide rapidly into plasma cells and more memory cells. Influenza for example has many different strains and so when a new strain enters the body. A typical pathogen may have more than one type of antigen on its surface.

5 – Antibodies Antibodies are proteins synthesised by B cells. Page 57 of 114 . Antibodies react with antigens by binding with them. Structure Antibodies are made up of four different polypeptide chains.Section 6.

Monoclonal antibodies can be used to knock out these T – Cells.6 – Vaccination Passive immunity is produced by the introduction of antibodies into individuals from an outside source. Each clone will produce a different antibody known as a polyclonal antibody. As the antibodies are not being produced by the individuals themselves.this is the method of calculating the amount of substance in a mixture. and detecting the immunodeficiency virus (aids test) Cancer treatment – it is possible to manufacture monoclonal antibodies that will attach themselves to cancer cells. while the other pair have shorter chains and are called light chains. The rest of the antibody is the same and is called the constant region. testing for drugs in the urine. Section 6. They will then activate a cytotoxic drug that will kill cells. Transplant surgery – Even with close matching the transplanted tissue will experience some rejection from the T – cells. Antibodies that can be isolated and cloned are called monoclonal antibodies. they are not being replaced when they are broken down in the body and so the immunity is generally short-lived. It is used in pregnancy testing kits.The chains of one pair are long and are called heavy chains. In is generally long-lasting. Antibodies have a binding site that is very specific to the antigen once together they form and antigen-antibody complex The binding site is different for all antibodies and is known as the variable region. Each antigen will induce a different B cells to divide and clone its self. Monoclonal antibodies A pathogen entering the body is likely to have hundreds of different antigens on its surface. Monoclonal antibodies have a number of uses such as: The separation of a chemical from a mixture Immunoassay. Active immunity is produced by stimulating the production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system. Page 58 of 114 . This drug will only be activated by cells to which the antibody is attached.

storing and transporting the vaccine must be available. It must be possible to vaccinate the vast majority of the vulnerable population. Why vaccination does not eliminate a disease • • • • • Vaccination fails induce immunity amongst some individuals.Vaccination is the injection of a substance into the body with the intention of stimulating active immunity. This is due to the antigenic variability. The antigens on the cholera surface change rapidly. The problems of controlling cholera and tuberculosis by vaccination • • • • Cholera is an intestinal disease and is not easily reached by the immune system. Pathogens may mature rapidly so that their antigens change suddenly rather than gradually. Means of producing. Page 59 of 114 . Individuals may develop the disease immediately after vaccination but before their immunity levels are high enough to prevent it. Certain pathogens can hide from the body’s immune system by hiding themselves with cells or by living in places that are out of reach. There may be many varieties of a particular pathogen. The increasing amounts of people with HIV has led to more people having impaired immune systems and so are more likely to contract TB. The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing. Features of a successful vaccination program • • • • • • The success of a vaccination program depends on a number of factors: A suitable vaccine must be economically available in sufficient quantities There must be very few if any unpleasant side effects from the vaccine. There must be the means of administrating the vaccine at the right time. These people have less effective immune systems and so vaccination is less effective at stimulating immunity.

1 – Investigating Variation If one species differs from another it is called interspecific variation.Section 7. Making measurements Page 60 of 114 . If each member of a species differs from one another it is called intraspecific variation.

all of which are different. This mixes up all the genetic material before it is passed into the gametes. selected from the population of organisms which is being investigated. Causes of variation Genetic differences – due to differences in the genes of each individual organism Genetic differences occur due to: Mutations – sudden changes to genes and chromosomes may. • • Sampling bias – The selection process may be biased. Meiosis – Special form of nuclear division. forms gametes. all living organisms differ in some way. One method is to: 1. As a result it is very difficult to draw conclusions about the causes of variation in any particular case. Which gamete fuses with which at fertilisation are a random process which further adds variety to the offspring. Chance – Even if sampling bias is avoided. possibly due to the investigator making unrepresentative choices. However. Take sample at the intersection of each set of coordinates. random sampling should be carried out instead. be passed on to the next generation. the individuals chosen may. Environmental differences In most cases variation is due to the combined effects of both genetic differences and environmental influences. Sampling – involves taking measurements of individuals. Page 61 of 114 . Divide the study area into a grid of numbered lines. 2.Biologists often take measurements of some aspect of a living thing. To prevent sampling being biased. Using numbers generated by a computer to obtain a series of coordinates 3. or may not. Fusion of gametes – In sexual reproduction the offspring inherit some characteristics of each parent and are therefore different from both of them. The affect of chance cannot be removed however it can be minimised by using large sample sizes and analysing the data collected at the end to determine the affect chance had and to what degree it influenced the data. either deliberately or unwittingly. by pure chance be unrepresentative.

Section 7.2 – Types of variation Variation due to genetic factors Where variation is the result of genetic factors organisms fit into a few distinct forms and there are no intermediate types. Variation can be represented on a bar chart of pie graph. Variation due to environmental influences Page 62 of 114 .

Square root the number obtained in step 4. 5. For example if the mean is 9 and one of the measurement values is 6. Page 63 of 114 . It does not however. Calculate the mean value (x bar). Why is DNA important? Its structure enables it to play a key role in two essential features of all living organisms. forming a continuum. Calculating standard deviation 1. A standard deviation is the distance from the mean to the point where the curve changes from being convex to concave.Some characteristics of organisms grade into one another. It gives an indication of the range of values either side of the mean. Section 8. Environmental factors play a major role in determining where on the continuum an organism actually lies. do 6-9. provide any information about the range of values within the sample. 3. 4. Square all the numbers obtained in step 2 to make them positive. 2. Standard deviation – Is a measurement of the width of the curve. it is the molecule of which our genes are made of. If we take these data and plot them on a graph we obtain a bell-shaped curve known as a normal distribution curve. Subtract the mean value from the measurement values. The mean provides an average value that can be used when comparing one sample with another. Mean and standard deviation Mean – measurement of the maximum height of the curve. to get the standard deviation.1 – Structure of DNA DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid It is a type of nucleic acid. Add all the square numbers together and divide by the number of measurements.

The pentose (5 carbon) sugar deoxyribose 3. This forms a “sugar-phosphate backbone” with the base petruding outwards. or guanine. Page 64 of 114 . unaltered. organic molecules that play a vital role in every organisms life. What is DNA made of? Each strand of DNA is made of repeated subunits called nucleotides. Nucleotides are nitrogen containing. The bases are attached to the backbone. An organic nitrogenous base: adenine.Inheritance – ensuring that DNA is passed on. 2. A phosphate group The structure of the nucleotides The nucleotides in each strand of DNA are held together by the bonds between deoxyribose of one nucleotide. They occur singly (mononucleotides). onto the next generation and protein synthesis. Each chain is sing and unbranched These polynucleotide strands are twisted to for a double helix. What are nucleotides? DNA is called a polynucleotide. in twos (dinucleotides). and the phosphate group of the next. The nucleotides of DNA Each nucleotide has three components: 1. The phosphate and sugar molecule make the backbone of the DNA molecule. Nucleotides are joined together by a condensation reaction. thymine. DNA structure DNA molecules are huge: each molecule consists of two interconnected chains or stands. The reaction occurs between the deoxyribose sugar and the phosphate group. cytosine. or in thousands (polynucleotides).

Complementary bases Page 65 of 114 . Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonds are weaker that phosphate covalent bonds. hydrogen bonds are weak. G and A have a double ring structure and are longer molecules. bond with guanine. Bonding between DNA strands All the atoms in the nucleotides that make up each chain have no free covalent bond site. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the organic bases of each polynucleotide strand. Three hydrogen bonds are formed between G and C Two hydrogen bonds are formed between A and T Reason for pairing Hydrogen bonding only occurs between certain bases. Base pairing rule If the nucleotide contains adenine it bonds with thymine. Nucleotides containing cystine. Individually. Hydrogen bonds break and reform. but in a combination they can be strong. there four different types of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. C and T have a sing ring structure and are shorter.The bonds linking the two nucleotides are called covalent phosphodiester bonds. The hydrogen bonds are between the hydrogen atoms of a base in one chain and the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in another chain. DNA bases Adenine = A Thymine = B Cytosine = C Guanine = G As there are four different bases. The bond can be broken down by hydrolysis. Each run on the ladder must be the same length so long molecules bond with short molecules. allowing strands to separate during replication and protein synthesis.

Page 66 of 114 . the sequence of bases along a polynucleotide chain determines he sequence along another.A and T are complementary bases. DNA strands A polynucleotide has two distinct ends: a 3 prime end and a 5 prime end. At the 3’ end. that is. they run in opposite directions. The four different types of nucleotides can join in an infinite number of ways.2 – The triplet code Genes are sequences of nucleotides at a fixed position on a strand of DNA that specify a sequence of amino acids that form the primary structure of a protein. Genetic code The order of bases in an organisms DNA The order of bases determines what amino acid is produced. The Double helix DNA is similar to twisted ladder Each complete turn has ten base pairs Because of the complementary pairing. Section 8. There are equal amounts of A and T and C and G DNA and variety What differs between DNA is the proportion and sequence of bases. carbon 3 of the deoxyribose is closest to the end. Each of the two polynucleotide chains is anti-parallel.

As there are only 20 amino acids. Page 67 of 114 . We say the degenerate code.Each gene carries the code for a specific polypeptide. Each code has three bases – triplet code. Determining amino acid sequences Each is amino acid is determined by the sequence of bases in the gene. Each protein has a unique tertiary structure due to its sequence of amino acids. Amino acids Three bases can code for 64 different amino acids. some found between genes. most amino acids have more than one code. Different numbers and sequences of these amino acids produce an almost limitless range of proteins. Coding – non coding Much of the DNA is Eukaryotic cells does not code for polypeptides. All proteins are made from the 20 amino acids. Making proteins DNA codes for amino acids that form the primary structure of a protein. Joining amino acids Peptide bonds between amino acids. The remaining exons code for amino acids. Some non – coding DNA is found within a gene. forming polypeptides Genetic code summary Triplet – each of the 20 amino acids used to make proteins is represented by a base triplet in DNA. Non – overlapping: each base is part of only one triplet and is therefore involved in specifying only one amino acid. Non coding regions – introns Coding regions – exons Splicing The introns are spliced out by enzymes.

Almost universal: the base triplet that codes for a particular amino acid in humans also codes for the same amino acid in most other living organisms. Some amino acids have more than one code.3 – DNA and Chromosomes Eukaryotic DNA • • • Is linear and forms chromosomes Found in the nucleus of cells.Linear DNA – is always read from 5’ to 3’ Degenerate There are more base triplets than amino acids. Is larger than prokaryotic DNA Page 68 of 114 . Section 8.

Page 69 of 114 . • • • Chromosomes • • • • • Human cells has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) The chromosomes are only visible when the nucleus divides. therefore it is possible to see them under electron microscopes. It is not organised into chromosomes. Found in the cytoplasm Found in a region of the cell called a nucleoid The DNA of prokaryotic cells is smaller than the DNA in eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria + Chloroplasts DNA does not have histones. Each chromosome is made of one DNA molecule Chromosomes are thicker and shorter than individual DNA molecules. Prokaryotic DNA • • • • Forms a closed loop and is circular. The structure of polypeptides • • • • Composed of DNA and histones DNA and histones forms chromatin Nucleosomes are the basic structural unit of chromatin. This is because the cell is smaller and so is less complex. Nucleosomes consist of a DNA molecules wrapped around a ball of 8 histone molecules. Does not contain non-coding DNA Many cells contain smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids. Each chromosome carries the DNA for a large number of polypeptides.• • A single eukaryotic cell has many different molecules of DNA called chromosomes. ergo it does not need as many genes.

Karyotyping • A karyotype is a photograph of a person’s chromosomes arranged in order of size. the other from the father (paternal). Different genes are active in different cells. We call the members of each pair. One chromosomes comes from the mother (maternal). homologous chromosomes. As we have two of each gene we have two alleles for each gene. Chromosomes come in pairs and so there are two copies of the same gene. whereas the smallest contains approximately 300. Genes come in more than one form. Cells with one chromosome from a homologous pair are called haploid cells. is not produced properly or is produced in the wrong amounts. Gametes are haploid cells. Cells with pairs of homologous chromosomes – are called diploid cells. Page 70 of 114 . size and code for the same genes. Homologous Chromosomes • • • • • • The members of each pair of chromosomes have the same shape. Chromosomes and genes • • • • The largest chromosome can contain approximately 8000 genes.• Alleles • • • • Chromatin takes up special stains and is visible in a non-dividing nucleus. Each gene has a specific position on a chromosome called its locus. Alleles are different version of the same gene. Changes in the genetic code can mean that a particular protein is not produce.

• • • Sex chromosomes are the 23rd pair. The other 22 chromosomes are called autosomes Karyotyping is used to spot chromosomal disorders Section 8.4 – Meiosis and Genetic Variation The division of the nucleus occurs in two ways: Mitosis – produces two daughter nuclei with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell and as each other. each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. Meiosis – produces four daughter nuclei. Why is meiosis necessary? Page 71 of 114 .

Variety from new genetic combinations Independent segregation brings about genetic variation because although the homologous chromosomes have the same genes. the alleles differ. In humans each cell will have 23 chromatids.When two gametes fuse to give rise to new offspring there chromosomes pair with each other. At the end of this first stage. Crossing over occurs. leaving just one chromosomes in the daughter cell. The random distribution. The number of chromosomes in a gamete is a haploid number. Meiosis brings about genetic variation by independent segregation of homologous chromosomes and recombination of homologous chromosomes by crossing over. Because the chromosomes line up randomly. where equal proportions of each chromatid are exchanged. During the twisting process. The chromatids of each pair twist around one another 2. Gene – section of DNA that codes for a polypeptide Locus – Position of a gene of a chromosome Allele – One of the different forms of a gene Independent Segregation of Homologous Chromosomes When homologous chromosomes line up. the homologous pair would have separated. Page 72 of 114 . Meiosis allows for genetic material from both the mother and the father to be passed on. the combination of chromosomes that go into the daughter cell is also random. of these chromosomes produces different genetic combinations. At the end of meiosis two there will be 4 new cells. Each of which will enter the daughter cells. The process of meiosis First Division – Homologous chromosomes pair up and their chromatids wrap around each other. Second division – During the second division. each chromosome separates into two chromatids. tensions are created causing portions of the chromatids to break off. therefore when they fuse the diploid number of the cell is restored. and consequent independent assortment. Genetic recombination by crossing over 1. One of each pair will go into the daughter cell. they do so randomly.

4. yet differ in terms of the two alleles they will posses for each gene. Section 9. 5. the greater the genetic diversity within a species If there is a lot of genetic diversity within a species there is more chance that the species will be able to cope with changes to the environment. In this way new genetic combinations are achieved. These portions of chromatids then join on to the homologous partner.1 – Genetic Diversity Genetic Diversity • • • • Similarities and differences amongst organisms may be defined in terms of the variation in DNA. The greater the number of alleles for genes. Hence it is the differences in DNA that lead to the vast differences in genetic diversity on earth All members of the same species have the same genes. This is due to the Page 73 of 114 .3. Usually equivalent portions of chromosomes are exchanged.

Each polypeptide is associated with a “haem” group (Fe2+) Page 74 of 114 . Section 10. the genetic diversity of the population will be restricted. or artificial selection. As these individuals become re-established. Offspring without desired characteristics may be killed or prevented from breeding Due to this. involves selecting individuals with desired characteristics and using them to parent the next generation. The founder affect • • • • Occurs when a few individuals colonise a region The few individuals will possess fewer alleles and may not be representative of the whole population. Selective breeding is used to produce high yielding breeds of domestic animals and strains of plants. there is therefore a greater probability that there are members within the species that have the characteristics required to adapt to a certain change in the environment. important for its ability to hold oxygen Quaternary Structure – All four polypeptides are chained to form an almost spherical model. The new group will show less variation. alleles with unwanted characteristics are bread out of the population. In time this new population may become a separate species.1 – Haemoglobin Haemoglobin molecules Primary Structure – Consists of four polypeptide chains Secondary Structure – Chains are coiled into a helix Tertiary Structure – Polypeptide chain is folded into a precise shape. yet may be genetically distinct from the original population.fact that because there are more alleles. Genetic Bottlenecks • • • Occurs when a species suffers a dramatic drop in numbers The few survivors will possess few alleles than the original population therefore there is less genetic diversity. Selective Breeding • • • • Selective breeding.

Why have different haemoglobins? Haemoglobin with a high affinity for oxygen – takes up oxygen more readily but releases it less easily. thus making it difficult to absorb oxygen. the Fe groups are close together. therefore allowing a total of four O2 molecules to be carried.Each Fe ion can combine with a single oxygen molecule. haemoglobin may not absorb oxygen evenly. its shape changes so that its affinity for oxygen decreases and so can dissociate from the oxygen molecule more readily. The role of Haemoglobin • • • • • • Transportation of oxygen Haemoglobin must be able to: Readily associate with oxygen at the surface where gas exchange takes place Readily dissociate from oxygen at respiring tissues Haemoglobin can change its affinity for oxygen under certain condition Its shape changes in the presence of certain substances such as carbon dioxide. Once one oxygen molecule is absorbed. Why do organisms have haemoglobin with different affinities for oxygen? Different sequence of amino acid changes the shape of the molecules and there for its ability to hold oxygen. Section 10. An organism living in an environment where there is little oxygen. At low concentrations of oxygen. When carbon dioxide is present. Haemoglobin with a low affinity for oxygen – takes up oxygen less easily but releases it more readily. • The further to the left the curve is. This is provided that the organism lives in an oxygen rich environment. the polypeptide chains move away making it easier for more oxygen molecules to be absorbed The graph shows that a small decrease impartial pressure can lead to a lot of oxygen being dissociated.2 – Oxygen dissociation curves At different partial pressures. the greater its affinity for oxygen Page 75 of 114 . should have haemoglobin with a high affinity for oxygen. This is provided that it has a low metabolic rate and therefore does not need to give up its oxygen as easily to respiring tissues. An organism with a high metabolic rate needs to give up its oxygen more readily to tissues. thus making it easy to take up oxygen. and so haemoglobin with a low affinity for oxygen is necessary.

The chain is unbranched and winds into a coil making the molecule very compact. The main role of starch is energy storage. CO2 is produced by respiring cells. there is a low concentration of CO2 because it is diffusing out of the blood. The pH is higher due to low CO2 concentrations. it releases its O2 more readily to respiring cells.• The further to the right. At respiring tissue the level of CO2 is greater. the lower its affinity for oxygen The affects of Carbon dioxide concentration In the presence of CO2. Haemoglobin then releases its O2 into respiring cells. haemoglobins affinity for oxygen is reduced. transporting and unloading oxygen • • • • • At the gas exchange surface. When CO2 dissolves. Loading. the haemoglobin therefore has a lower affinity for oxygen. The haemoglobin molecule changes shape in such away that its affinity for oxygen is reduced. • Page 76 of 114 . In tissues. and the curve shifts to the right.3 – Starch. it lowers the pH of the blood. This causes haemoglobins affinity for oxygen to increase. thus allowing for O2 to be absorbed more easily. The curve therefore shifts to the right. A low pH can reduce haemoglobins affinity for oxygen. At the gas exchange surface. Large amounts are found in seeds as an energy store. Section 10. glycogen and cellulose Starch • • • Starch is polysaccharide that is found in many parts of plants in the form of grains. Starch is made up of long chains of alpha glucose molecules. High rate of respiration  more CO2 produced  lower pH  greater haemoglobin changes shape  oxygen unloaded more readily  more oxygen available for respiration. CO2 is constantly being removed. High pH changes the shape so that oxygen can be easily absorbed. It is an important component of food and is the major energy source of most diets. thus lowering pH.

allowing more to be stored in a small space. allowing for hydrogen bonding to occur. Glycogen • • • • Glycogen is similar to starch however it is highly branched and made up of shorter chains. The reason for this is that in beta glucose the position of the –H and the –OH group is reverse. In animals it is stored as grains in the muscles and the liver. This produces fundamental differences in its structure. It achieves this by exerting and inwards pressure that stops the influx of water. cellulose forms straight chains that run parallel to one another. but never in plant cells. • • • Section 10. Although each hydrogen bond is on its own weak. it is more readily hydrolysed. It is compact.4 . When glycosidic bonds form between these molecules the result is that the – CH2OH group on each beta glucose molecule alternates from being above and below the chain Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch. When hydrolysed.Plant cell structure Leaf palisade cells Function – Photosynthesis Main features of its function include: • Long. thin cells that form a continuous layer for photosynthesis • Numerous chloroplasts that are arranged in the most effective way for absorbing the maximum amount of light • A large vacuole that ensures that the cytoplasm and chloroplasts are at the edge of the cell Chloroplasts The main features of chloroplasts are: Page 77 of 114 .• • • It is insoluble and therefore does not cause osmosis to occur. Because it is made up of shorter chains. Cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils which in turn make parallel groups called fibres. Cellulose • • • Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in that it is made up of beta glucose rather than alpha glucose. the chains are held tightly together. Cellulose is major component in plant cell walls. because there are many hydrogen bonds. It is strong and prevents the cell from bursting due to osmosis. alpha glucose can easily be used in respiration. Glycogen is found in animal cells.

• •

The chloroplast envelope is a double plasma membrane that surrounds the organelle. It is highly selective in what it allows to enter and exit. The grana are stacks of 100 disc – like structures called thylakoids. Within the thylakoids is the photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll. Some thylakoids have tubular like extensions that join up with thylakoids of adjacent grana. The grana are where the first stage of photosynthesis takes place. The stroma is a fluid –filled matrix where the second stage of photosynthesis takes place. Within the stroma are a number of other structures such as starch grains.

Chloroplasts are adapted to their function in the following ways The granal membrane allows a large surface area for the attachment of chlorophyll, electron carriers and enzymes that carry out the first stage of photosynthesis. These chemicals are attached the membrane in ordered fashion. The fluid of the stroma possesses all the enzymes required for the second stage of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain both DNA and ribosomes so they can quickly manufacture some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis. Cell wall • • • Contains microfibrils of cellulose Consist of a number of polysaccharides such as cellulose There is a thin layer called the middle lamella, which marks the boundary between adjacent cell walls and cements cells together.

Functions of cellulose cell wall are: • Provides strength and prevents cell from bursting due to osmotic gain. • Mechanical strength to plant as a whole • Allows water to pass along it and so contributes to the movement of water through a plant.

Section 11.1 – Replication of DNA
Why is DNA replication needed? • • • • • Multi-cellular organisms are constantly loosing cells which need to be replaced. More cells are also needed when the organism grows. Extra cells are only produced when the parent cell divides. New cells must contain the same genetic information as the parent cell. To achieve this, DNA must be able to replicate its self exactly.

Replicated chromosomes

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Following the replication of DNA, a chromosome appears to double its structure composed of two chromatids. The chromatids are identical as the DNA in the original chromosomes has replicated exactly. The two chromatids are temporarily held together by a centromere. The replicated chromosomes has twice the DNA as the regular chromosomes, but still only counts as being one chromosome. The chromatids become separated when the cell divides. Stages of DNA replication Stage 1 Strands of DNA separate The double helix structure of the DNA molecule partially unwinds An enzyme called Helicase breaks hydrogen bonds between complementary basis. The two strands are now separate Stage 2 Free nucleotides bond with the complementary basis exposed on each poly nucleotide. Large numbers of nucleotides are made in the nucleus and are attracted to the exposed basis. Hydrogen bonds form between complementary basis and as a result the strand builds up into a sequence of nucleotides. Stage 3 Nucleotides bond together Bonds have already formed between bases. Through condensation reactions, an enzyme called DNA polymerase forms covalent phosphodiester bonds between the deoxyribose of on nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next. The DNA molecule rewinds into a double helix and the process is complete. Leading and lagging strands Nucleotides can only be joined together in the 5’ to the 3’ On the leading strand, nucleotides can be added continuously in the same direction as the movement of the replication fork. On the lagging strand, continual synthesis is not possible, so small fragments of DNA are constructed. These fragments are linked together by DNA ligase. Origins of replication – replication forks

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The origins of replication are the points where replication begins DNA molecules are very long and so it would take too long if it started at one end and moved along the molecule. Instead, the double helix opens up and is replicated at a number of different sites. Replication forks resemble branching prongs where DNA Helicase is separating DNA into single strands. Semi conservative replication Each DNA molecules is formed from an intact strand from the original DNA and are newly synthesised. Both new DNA molecules are identical to one another and to the original molecule. Evidence for DNA replication Intact DNA acts as a template Mixture of nucleotides DNA polymerase ATP for energy New DNA molecules were formed that contained the same proportions of bases. Strong indication that DNA can copy its self by base pairing Alternative to semi-conservative The conservative model: parental DNA remains intact and the new molecule is built from completely new material. The dispersive model: proposes the new DNA molecules consist of sections of both old and new DNA, interspersed along each strand.

Section 11.2 – Mitosis
When a cell divides to make new cells, the DNA must be copied exactly into each cell. To do this, the parent cell divides by mitosis Why are new cells needed? For growth of a zygote into a multicellular organism

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The centromere The centromere is a constricted region of the chromosome that is made up of two components. function and genetic information as the original cell they are replacing. Asexual reproduction: offspring are genetically identical to the parent. Therefore the new cells must have the same structure. Each chromosome contains one molecules of DNA. therefore each daughter nucleus contains exactly the same amount and the same type of DNA as the other daughter cell and parent nucleus. Each structure is chromatid. Daughter cells Mitosis results in each daughter nucleus having the same number and same type of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. mitosis Cell divides cytokinesis Mitosis is a continuous process although it is described in 4 stages. The chromosomes that were single stranded become a double structure. DNA has replicated and so chromosomes have a double structure. Prophase By the start of prophase. but which is required for the segregation of chromatids A protein based structure called a kinetochore to which spindle fibres attach Mitotic cell division Two main stages Division of nucleus.Differentiation and repair: worn out or damaged cell tissues must be replaced by cells that do the same job. DNA replication is needed Daughter nuclei are identical because the DNA replicates. A specific sequence of DNA bases that is not transcribed. each chromatid in the two chromatids that make up a chromosome are called sister chromatids. Page 81 of 114 . Chromatids are held together by a centromere. such as in bacteria amoeba and non flowering plants.

One at each pole Each group contains one chromatid from each pair of sister chromatids. Chromatids are now referred to as chromosomes. The result is two daughter cells. Telophase marks the end of mitosis.attach to the centromere Nuclear envelope breaks down Spindle apparatus appear Nucleolus disappears Metaphase • • • Chromosomes align at the centre of the cell Spindle fibres appear from the poles of the cell and attach to the centromere One sister chromatid of each chromosome is attached by spindle fibres to one pole the other is attached to the other pole. Nucleoli appear in each daughter nucleus. Chromosomes become long and thin until they’re a mass of chromatin fibres and can no longer be seen with a microscope. Anaphase • • • • • Involves splitting of the centromere The separation of the chromatids Spindle fibres pull chromatids to opposite poles of the cell. • • • • Sister chromatids . Next the cell must divide into two. The original nucleus has divided into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. This becomes narrower and narrower finally dividing the cytoplasm into two cells. As soon as the chromosomes condense. Page 82 of 114 .The chromatin condenses. forming chromosomes that are tightly coiled and appear shorter and thicker. Telophase • • • • Nuclear envelope reforms around daughter nucleus. Cytokinesis • • • • Cytokinesis is when the plasma membrane forms a constriction across the centre of the cell. Some cells such as those of the muscles divide their nuclei without cytokinesis. BY the end of anaphase there are two groups of chromosomes. the DNA becomes inactive.

The 2 events covered in already are only short parts of the cell cycle. Key features of mitosis • • • • Only one nuclear division Two daughter cells formed Daughter cells are diploid Daughter cells are identical Section 11.3 – The cell cycle The cell cycle is the sequence of events that take place in dividing eukaryotic cells. forming the two new cell walls and separating the two daughter plant cells. a cell plate is formed in the centre of cells. In actively dividing eukaryotic tissues. Page 83 of 114 . the new cells formed by mitosis grow before replicating their DNA and dividing by mitosis again.Cytokinesis in plants In plant cells. This grows outwards and fuses with the cell wall.

S phase – synthesis of DNA DNA is replicated and combines with newly formed histones to double the amount of chromatin in the nucleus.Prokaryotic cell division Prokaryotes do not divide by mitosis but instead by binary fission. A cell that has formed due to cell division is initially have the size of the parent cell with only half the number of organelle as the parent cell. the cell is terminated. Each part of the cell cycle involves specific cell activities. Why do cells need replacing? Cells are constantly being scraped off of the lining of the gut. The first 3 phases (G1 S and G2) are often grouped together and called interphase.The cell continues to grow in size. therefore must enlarge and synthesis new organelles. billions of red blood cells are replaced each day and are lost from the surface of the skin. Binary fission is different because it cannot be divided into phases because prokaryotes do not have a nucleus and a centromere. M phase Chromatids are separated and go into daughter nuclei The nucleus divides before cytokinesis The cytoplasm divides to form new cells. Page 84 of 114 . Phases of the cell cycle G1 phase of interphase The cell is active growing and increases in size Nucleotides and histones are produced Proteins are produced from which organelles will be synthesised Cellular checks are made to ensure that the DNA is in good enough condition to be replicated. G2 phase Organelles are replicated Proteins are made to create spindle apparatus that will separate chromosomes during mitosis and synthesis. If it is not. The 4th phase is mitosis. The four main phases Once in the cell cycle. Chromosomes are now duplicated The amount of DNA remains at this “double level” until cytokinesis because until then the DNA is contained within the cell. The daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell. a non embryonic cell goes through four main phases then divides by cytokinesis.

causing cells to enter the cell cycle when there is no need to control growth/repair. DNA replication is generally faster in simpler organisms with smaller genome. The process is carefully controlled by genes Eukaryotic cells normally divide when triggered to enter the cell cycle by one or more chemical factors. mutated cells remain in the cell cycle. Page 85 of 114 . Problems with treatments Cancer treatments do not just stop cancer cells. Non-dividing ells are not considered to be in the cell cycle – G0 phase. These cells continue to divide out of control and form a malignant tumour or cancer. The duration of the cell cycle varies greatly from organism to organism and from cell to cell. Nerve cells are permanently in G0 phase Genes controlling cell division might mutate. Cancer and the cell cycle Most mutated cells that are undergoing unwanted cell division are destroyed by phagocytes. Cancer cells are damaged the most as they are the fastest dividing. Cancer drugs target all rapidly dividing cells that have a short or absent G0 phase. the whole cycles takes approximately 24hours How to prepare slides Onion roots are often used as their cells are rapidly dividing and so the will be many cells in different phases. Section 12.Length of the cell cycle The length of the cell cycle is important because it determines how quickly an organism can multiply or grow or replace damaged cells.1 – Cellular organisms Making a multicellular organism All organisms start life as a zygote. formed during fertilization when a sperm and egg nuclei fuse. In humans. Mitosis and cancer Most cells only divide by mitosis when required to do so. Cancer treatments Effective cancer treatments require early diagnosis. Treatments work by blocking some part of the cell cycle. Chromosomes must be treated with a stain to be made visible. The tips must be squashed so that they form a thin single layer that easily allows the light to pass through it. Sometimes the protective mechanisms break down and rogue.

then four. Connective tissue: adds support and strength to the body. Specialised cells They have been differentiated They have lost the ability to carry out other functions. These adult stem cell generally remain inactive until needed. embryonic stem cells have the ability to be used in the treatment of degenerate diseases and growing new organs. Nerve tissues: enables quick communication between body parts. the surfaces of organs or organ cavities and tubes. They can develop into and of the 200 different cells that make up the human body. Cells in different positions in an embryo develop in different ways to form tissues. Because they can develop into any tissue. This resulting in a multicellular organism with cells genetically identical to the original single cell Cells formed during early mitotic division form a hallow ball of cells known as a blastocyst A blastocyst consists of an inner cellular mass surrounded by a layer of cells.The cell goes through a series of mitotic cell cycles to form two cells. etc. Adult stem cells An adult stem cells I thought to be an undifferentiated cells. Injection of stem cells could hopefully lead to regeneration of healthy tissues. One a cell becomes specialised it is usually unable to make other types of cells. Muscle tissue: moves the body or body parts. These inner cells are called stem cell and will eventually give rise to nearly all the different adult cells. Not all genes work in all cells – only a few genes are switched on I any one cell. found amongst differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can its self and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialised cell types of the tissue/organ. Forming different cell types All of out cells have the same DNA but they differ in how these instructions are used. Epithelial tissues: Lines the body surfaces. Embryonic stem cells There are different types of stem cells with varying abilities of differentiation. but those taken from the blastocyst are called embryonic stem cells. this determines the size and the shape of the cell and how many of each organelle are produced. Stem cells become specialised when the genes required for a particular function are switched on and all others are switched off. Page 86 of 114 . Because different genes are expressed. The primary roles of an adult stem cell in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. the rest are switched off.

kidneys. This will therefore influence the type of exchange surface and transport system that has evolved. liver.1 – Exchange between organisms and their Environment The size and metabolic rate of an organism will affect the amount of each material that needs to be exchanged. Materials that are exchanged between the organism and the environment include: • Respiratory gases Page 87 of 114 . etc. Organ system An organ system is comprised of two or more different organs working together to a common function. Section 13. Each tissue performs its own function and is essential to the overall function of the organ.Organs Organs are structures within an organism that are made of at least two types of tissue. The skin is the largest organ within the human body. other organs include the heart.

• Nutrients (glucose. Actively – Energy is required (Active transport) For exchange to be affective.A to Vol. and therefore increases the S. Organisms have evolved in the following ways so that they can provide all their cells with the material necessary in an affective manor: • • A flattened shape means that no cell is ever far away from the exchange surface (e. for example the lungs which has a large surface area. amino acids.g. carbon dioxide) Exchange can happen in two ways 1. Passively – requires no energy (diffusion. Diffusion is proportional to surface area X difference in concentration gradient Length of diffusion Section 13.2 – Gas exchange in single celled organisms and insects Gas exchange in single celled organisms Single . blood) Diffusion can be explained with fick’s law. Page 88 of 114 .g. osmosis) 2.A: Vol. a flat worm) A specialised exchange surface. ratio. fatty acids. Features of specialised gas exchange surfaces Exchange surfaces have the following characteristics: • • • • • Large surface are to volume ratio to increase the exchange rate. vitamins and minerals) Excretory products (urea.g. the surface area to volume ration of the organism must be high. air) Movement of internal medium to maintain concentration gradient (e. Very thin so that diffusion distance is short Partial permeable so that only certain materials can diffuse across Movement of the environmental medium to maintain concentration gradient (e.celled organism have large S. ratio and so gases exchange through their cell surface membrane.

For diffusion to be affective the pathway needs to be short. • • • • • Section 13. The trachea branches into smaller tubes called tracheoles. In the case of insects this is a waterproof cuticle. i.For cells that have a cell wall. the tracheoles. To inhibit water loss. This speeds up gas exchange as it maintains a diffusion gradient between the two mediums. • Along diffusion gradient – During respiration. Carbon dioxide is also produced during respiration which sets up a diffusion gradient that moves in the opposite way. the cell wall does not affect the diffusion of gases as it is completely permeable. terrestrial organisms usually have the following two features: Water proof coverings over their body surfaces. Small surface area to volume ratio to minimise the area over which water is lost Insects gave developed an internal system of tubes called trachea The trachea has strengthened rings for support. Ventilation – The movement of muscles in insects cause mass movements in air into and out of the trachea. Gas exchange in insects Terrestrial insects have a problem where they loose water through the surface of their bodies and so easily become dehydrated. This sets up a diffusion gradient where oxygen in the atmosphere moves towards where there is less oxygen. Gases move into and out of the respiratory system in the following ways. oxygen at the end of the tracheoles is reduced. Structure of the gills Page 89 of 114 . Gases enter and leave the trachea through small pores called spiracles. Spiracles open periodically to allow gas exchange.3 – Gas exchange in Fish Fish have specialised gas exchange surface – the gills. Spiracles are often closed to prevent water loss.e. This has limited the size of insects.

4 – Gas exchange in the leaf of a plant When photosynthesis is taking place. Blood with little to no oxygen meets water with most of its oxygen removed. The counter current flow • The counter current flow ensure that there is a concentration gradient maintained between the two mediums so that gas exchange can take place at a fast rate. Blood flows in the opposite direction to the water that moves over the gills. although some carbon dioxide comes from respiring cells. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water. There is a consistent rate of diffusion from the water to the lamella. which has its maximum concentrations of oxygen. In the same way. Without it the maximum amount would be 50% as there would be no diffusion gradient. Due to the counter current flow approx 80% of the available oxygen is absorbed. • • • • Section 13. some Page 90 of 114 .• • • • • They made up of gill filaments Gill filaments are stacked up in a pile. At right angle are structures called lamellae which increase the surface area for gas exchange. However oxygen diffuses from water to the gills regardless. This is known as counter current flow. Water is taken in through the mouth and forced over the gills. most of it needs to be taken directly from the air. Therefore diffusion from water to blood takes place.

Due to this. oxygen diffuses into the leaf because it is constantly being used by cells during respiration. which are found mostly in the lower epidermis of the leaf. they have the ability to control the rate of gaseous exchange. interconnecting air spaces that occur throughout the mesophyll Stomata • • • • • Stomata are pores which occur mainly but not exclusively on the lower epidermis of the leaf. flat shape that provides a large surface area Many small pores called stomata. which makes it more rapid than if it was in water. Structure of a plant leaf and gas exchange No living cell is far from the external air. When photosynthesis is not taking place. Guard cells can open and close the stomatal pore. Diffusion takes place in the gas phase.5 – Circulatory system of a mammal Page 91 of 114 .oxygen from photosynthesis is used in respiration but most of it diffuses out of the plant. and therefore a source of oxygen and carbon dioxide. Om the same way carbon dioxide produced by respiration diffuses out. There is a short diffusion pathway. This means they are able to prevent water loss Section 13. Each stoma is composed of two specialised cells called “guard cells”. No specialised transport system is required for moving the respiratory gases in leaves. Numerous. Leaves have the following adaptations for gas exchange: • • • A thin.

A to vol. the final part involves diffusion into cells. blood because it is water based and so substances can dissolve. They also need to be transported to different parts of the organism. Page 92 of 114 . Materials have to be transported from the environment to cells. Features of a transport system • • • • • • • Common features include: A suitable medium for carrying materials e. The final phase where materials pass from the blood to the cells and vise versa is rapid because it takes place over a large surface area. With out going back to the heart the pressure would be low and so blood would take longer to circulate the body.g. Whether or not a specialised transport system is required depends on the S. which is necessary as mammals have a high metabolic rate.Diffusion is only adequate for the movement of substances over a short distance. allowing it to travel around the body.g. When blood travels through the lungs is pressure is reduced. Why large organisms need a transport system A transport system is required to take materials from cells to exchange surfaces and from exchange surfaces to cells. A form of mass transport by which the medium is moved A closed system of tubular vessels that contains the transport medium A mechanism that moves the transport medium creates a pressure difference. By going back to the heart to be pumped once more. its pressure increases. Although transport systems move materials a over longer distance. valves A means of controlling the transport medium Transport system in mammals Mammals have a double circulatory system which means blood travels twice through the heart I one complete circuit. A mechanism to maintain mass flow in one direction e. In order to move substances a long distance. ratio and how active the organism is. across short distances and down a steep concentration gradient. Substances are quickly delivered to the rest of the body. a specialised transport system is required.

Elastic layer is thinner than that of arteries – The pressure in arterioles is lower than in arteries. Veins – Carry blood back to heart Arteries.6 – Blood vessels and their functions Structure of blood vessels There are 4 different types of blood vessels: 1. Thickness of the wall is large – prevents vessel from bursting There are no valves – Blood is under constant high pressure and does not move back. Capillaries – tiny vessels linked to arterioles 4. Stretching and recoiling helps maintain pressure and creates smooth pressure surges. arterioles and veins have the same basic structure which includes: • A tough outer layer . The wall stretches (systole) then recoils back (diastole). Vein structure related to function • Muscle layer is thin – constriction does not control the movement of blood into capillaries because blood is moving away from tissues. Arteries – carry blood away from the heart 2. • • Arteriole structure and function • • Muscle layer is thicker than that of arteries – contraction of muscle layer narrows the lumen and so constricts blood flow and helps control the blood flow into capillaries.resist pressure changes • A muscular layer – Contract to control blood flow • Elastic layer – maintains blood pressure by stretching and springing back • Endothelium – smooth to prevent friction and thin to increase diffusion • Lumen – central cavity through which blood flows Artery structure and function • • Muscular layer is thicker than veins – smaller arteries can be constricted and dilated to control blood flow Elastic layer is relatively thick compared to veins – Pressure in arteries is high so that it can reach extremities. Page 93 of 114 .Section 13. Arterioles – smaller arteries that control blood flow to capillaries 3.

it allows veins to be flattened thus aiding blood flow There are valves throughout – prevents back flow of blood because pressure is low. In addition the pressure is to low to create a recoil action The overall thickness of the wall is small – No need for the wall to be thick as the pressure within veins is small. then arterioles then finally narrower capillaries. Page 94 of 114 . When body muscles contract. The content of the lymphatic system is moves by hydrostatic pressure of tissue fluid leaving capillaries. Also. Tissue fluid is then forced back into the capillaries. This however is apposed by two forces. This is called ultra filtration Return of tissue fluid • • • • Loss of tissue fluid in capillaries reduces hydrostatic pressure. The overall affect means that there is only a small pressure that pushes small molecules out of the capillaries. Capillary structure and function Walls consist only of lining layer – short diffusion pathway Numerous and highly branched – increased surface area Narrow diameter – permeate tissues Narrow lumen – pushes red blood cells which reduces diffusion pathway There are spaces between the lining – allows white blood cells to escape Tissue fluid and its formation Blood pumped by the heart passes through arteries.g. This creates a hydrostatic pressure at the arteriole end of the capillaries. Some tissue fluid travels back via the lymphatic system. Valves ensure that the pressure directs blood toward the heart. and contraction of body muscles that creates pressure changes. • • Hydrostatic pressure outside of capillaries Lower water potential of the blood due to its contents e. Valves also ensure the fluid moves in one direction. proteins causes water from tissue fluid to move back into the capillary.• • • Elastic layer is relatively thin – pressure in veins is low and so the blood vessel will not burst. Osmotic forces from proteins in the blood pull water back. When blood reaches the venous end its hydrostatic pressure is less than that outside of the capillary. veins are compressed pressurising blood within them. Hydrostatic pressure forces tissue fluid out of the blood plasma.

Section 13. Page 95 of 114 . which has a much higher water potential to move into the cell by osmosis.7 – Movement of water through roots Uptake of water by root hair cells Root hair cells are the exchange surface of plants. Water moves through small pores called plasmodesmata. They absorb water and mineral ions. The process happens in the following way: • Water enters by osmosis and increases the water potential of the root hair cell. it pulls more water along with it. • They have a thin surface area. The water potential in root hair cells is very low due to the sugars and amino acids dissolved in them. Plants are always loosing water by transpiration and so this must be replaced. • Water then moves via osmosis to the first cell of the cortex. Water moves through the plant by the following pathways: • The apoplastic pathway • The symplastic pathway The apoplastic pathway • • As water is drawn in through the endodermal cells. This is a result of waters cohesive properties due to it being a polar molecule. The water moves through the cellulose cells walls. this causes the water in the soil. further into the root. Each root hair is a long. They are efficient exchange surfaces because: • They have a large surface area for rapid diffusion of water. • This cell then has a higher water potential than the neighbouring cell. The water then moves by osmosis. The symplastic pathway Water moves through the cytoplasms of cells of the cortex by osmosis. thin extension of the root epidermal cell. and therefore short diffusion pathway.

Passage of water into xylem Water travelling by the apoplastic pathway eventually reaches the Casparian strip where it is prevented from travelling further by the waterproof band. Page 96 of 114 . Water is then forced into living cells where is joins water travelling via the symplastic pathway. • A decrease in oxygen for respiration decreases root pressure. for example Cyanide stop active transport and therefore cause root pressure to cease. • • • Evidence of root pressure includes the following: • The pressure increases with a rise in temperature and decreases with a fall in temperature. • • Active transport of salts in the most likely way by which water moves into the xylem Endodermal cells actively transport salts into the xylem which sets up a water potential gradient. This is explains why water from the apoplastic pathway is forced into the cytoplasm of cells by the Casparian strip. • Metabolic inhibitors. this carries water through the cytoplasm of cells to the endodermis. Water moving into the xylem via osmosis creates a force called root pressure. If water in to move into the xylem it must first enter the cytoplasm of endodermal cells.• A water potential gradient is set up along the cells of the cortex.

Evidence to support cohesion theory includes: 1. When transpiration rate is high. For the symplastic pathway. • Water is pulled up due to transpiration. • The loss of water from neighbouring cells lowers their water potential • They then take water from their neighbouring cell Movement of water up the stem through the xylem Movement of water up xylem is due to root pressure and cohesion tension Cohesion theory operates as follows: • Water leaves as a result of transpiration • Due to hydrogen bonds. water enters by osmosis. Change in diameter of tree trunks in relation to the rate of transpiration. water molecules stick together. • Water forms a continuous unbroken pathway across mesophyll cells and xylem • As water evaporates. Movement of water across the cells of a leaf Water that evaporates from mesophyll cells is replaced by water reaching the mesophyll cells from the xylem through the apoplastic/symplastic pathway. the water movement occurs because: • Mesophyll cells loose water to the air spaces • These cells now have a lower water potential. Page 97 of 114 .Section 13. Plants can control there rate of transpiration by opening/closing stomata.8 – Movement of water up stems Water leaves plants by evaporating and moving out through the stomata Movement of water through stomata When the stomata are open. there is negative pressure in the xylem and so the trunk shrinks. water molecules are drawn up behind it. water molecules diffuse out into the surrounding air. This is called transpiration pull. Water that leaves the stomata via evaporation is replaced by water evaporating from the cell wall of mesophyll cells.

When the xylem is broken. 3. if there is little air movement there is likely to be a smaller water potential gradient and therefore slower transpiration rate. When there is a lot of air movement.9 – Transpiration and factors affecting it The role of transpiration Materials such as minerals and ions are moved around the plant dissolved in water This water is carried up the plant by transpiration pull Without transpiration. Humidity When humidity is high (when there is a large amount of water in a given volume of air) the water potential of the air is high. a water potential gradient is maintained and so transpiration occurs quicker. hence evaporating. water does not leak out. No additional metabolic energy is required. Transpiration pull is a passive process. Air movement Water that has evaporated accumulates around the leaf and so the water potential gradient is decreased. Rise in temperature. If a xylem vessel is broken and air enters it. Section 13. and so water evaporates at a slower rate because the osmotic gradient is decreased. Photosynthesis takes place during the day. water would not be so plentiful and the transport of materials would not be so rapid. This is because the continuous chain of water molecules joined by cohesion is broken.2. Factors affecting transpiration Light Carbon dioxide diffuses in to leaves through the stomata so that it can be used in photosynthesis. To summarise this. Page 98 of 114 . water can no longer be drawn up. so the stomata are open when there is a high light intensity (leaves photosynthesising) and close when there is a low light intensity (leaves not photosynthesising). In addition xylem vessels are composed of dead cells. Temperature Temperature affects the water potential of air and how fast water molecules move An increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of water molecules. rise in transpiration rate. If air is being moved away from the leaf by wind a concentration gradient is maintained. These molecules will then have enough energy to change from its liquid state to its gaseous state. A rise in temperature decreases the amount of water air can hold.

This lowers the rate at which water is lost. thus lowering the rate of water loss. contradict the plants ability to retain water. Once the water potential is the same as within the leaf.10 – Limiting water loss in plants The adaptation of an efficient gas exchange surface. To compensate for this. but also store and increase the uptake of water also. Hairy leaves – hairs on the lower epidermis trap moisture in the air and so reduce the water potential gradient inside and outside of the leaf. “xerophytes”. Xerophytic plants have adaptations to not only limit water loss. the lower the amount of water loss Rolling up of leaves – Leaves can wrap up so that their lower epidermis is enclosed within the leaf. the surface area to volume ration can be considerably be reduced. Xerophytic plants Plants that have adapted to limit water loss are called. and so plants have adapted in other ways to limit water loss. Stomata in pits and grooves – These just like the hairs on the lower epidermis of leaves trap air and so decrease the water potential gradient inside and outside of the leave.Although transpiration is thought of as a passive process. there is no net movement of water out of the plant. This however contradicts the Page 99 of 114 . the energy that drives it comes from the sun. Section 13. This creates a region of air that gets saturated with water molecules and increases in water potential. A reduced surface are to volume ratio of leaves – by having leaves that are small and roughly circular in cross section. Xerophytes have a thicker cuticle. The thicker the cuticle. both of which are factors affecting transpiration rates. Examples of these modifications include: A thick cuticle – Plants that have leaves with a waxy cuticle can still loose water through the upper epidermis. This is due to the fact that the sun provides the heat energy and the light.

etc Does not necessarily effect the evolutionary relationship of an organism. Occasionally two different species can interbreed to produce organisms known as hybrids. with similar evolutionary origins regardless of their functions in the adult of a species. Biological classification systems Can be either natural or artificial Artificial classification The grouping of an organism based on characteristics such as colour. Relationships are based on the homologous characteristics.1 – Classification What is classification? Classification is the grouping together of things on the basis of features that they have in common. the system must be universal – it has to be usable by biologist anywhere in the world. We classify things so that we can make sense of the world around us and to know where to find things we want. Section 14. The parents of the hybrids are still separate species as they occupy different habitats and are usually reproductively isolated. If an organism is fertile it is capable of producing offspring. and that are reproductively isolated from other species. Natural classification Attempt to group organisms according to their natural relationship Reflects the way in which different groups are thought to have evolved Classifies species into a hierarchy in which smaller groups are contained within larger groups with no overlaps. What is a species? A group of organisms similar to each other with similar features that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.plants ability for photosynthesis and so a compromise must be met between the two requirements. Phylogenic relationships Page 100 of 114 . size. The we use is based on dividing living organisms into species. To classify all the organisms that w know about.

Most classification in use today are natural and aim to reflect the Phylogenic relationships – that is. The study of a classification is called taxonomy Taxa • • • • • • • Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species They are listed in descending order of size – species is the most exclusive group containing the fewest organisms. the closer the evolutionary relationship Hierarchy system Uses Phylogenic relationship to group organisms Modern biology places each organism into a taxa: a series of groups arranged in a hierarchy. Plantae Page 101 of 114 . Each group is called a taxon and contains organism sharing some basic features indication they have a common ancestry. Protoctista 3. Prokaryotae 2. the historical/evolutionary relationships between organisms. with the fewest features in common There are five kingdoms: 1. Animalia 5. Phylogenic Trees The closer the branches. Kingdom Is the largest taxon Contains the most organisms. Phylogeny is putting organisms into groups that reflect their evolutionary history A Phylogenic tree shows the evolutionary relationship between organisms. Fungi 4.

yeast. Some are unicellular. Usually feed on dead organic material but some feed on living hosts Example.Kingdom Prokaryotae • • • Cells lack true nuclei Cells have circular DNA Cells to not have membranes around organelles Example: bacteria Organisms in other kingdoms have cells with true nuclei. May be sub divided in the future due to the diverse mix of organisms • • • • All protocistians have eukaryotic cells Some posses’ cells walls. mushrooms. and are motile. Kingdom Protoctista Very diverse. Kingdom Fungi • • • • • • Common features Non-cellulose wall Are non photosynthetic Eukaryotic cells Secrete enzymes to digest organic materials outside their cells and absorb the products of digestion. chromosomes and membrane bound organelles. chlorophyll and can even photosynthesise Others have no cell walls and are motile. contains most organism that do not belong in other kingdoms. Kingdom Plantae • • • • All plants: Multicellular have eukaryotic cells with a cellulose cell wall Are photosynthetic Examples: mosses. others consist of billions of cells. ferns conifers Page 102 of 114 . Kingdom Animalia • • • • Are multicellular Have eukaryotic cells with no cell walls Develop from blastocyst Most animals: Ingest food into their digestive system.

Genus Species that are very similar to each other are places in the same genus. The first word is the generic name. reptilia. laid down by international codes. carnivores. the name of the genus and begins with an uppercase letter. 10 phyla. Family Primate families include hominidue.Viruses are not included in the classification system as they are acellular Autotrophs – make their own food Hetrotrophs – Consume food Phylum The kingdom Animalia contains approx. and anphibia. Order Mammalian order includes primates. Class Classes include mammalia. Page 103 of 114 . etc. Latin or Greek names are used Each organism is given a name with two words. Species Homosapiens are the only existing species of the genus “homo” Binomial system Is used to name organism based on the system devised by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus Is a universal system. never a matter of personal opinion. Both the species and the genus are used when naming the organisms. The second word is the name of the species and it begins with an uppercase letter.

Page 104 of 114 . the hydrogen bonds between the complementary stands break. They can be identified because they are 50% labelled The hybrid stands are separated out and the temperature increase in stages At each temperature the degree to which the two strands are still linked together is measured If the two species are closely related they will share many complementary bases The more complementary bases. Species that are more closely related will show fewer differences in their DNA compared to species that are less closely related.The two words must be printed in italic when typed or underlined if handwritten to show that it is the biological name.Genetic comparisons using DNA and proteins Comparing the DNA and proteins of different species it is possible for scientists to determine the evolutionary relationships between them Comparison of DNA base sequences When a species gives rise to another species through evolution. DNA between two species can be compared in the following manor: DNA is purified. When they cool they reform. The degree of similarity in the amino acid sequence is of the same protein in two species will therefore reflect how closely related they are. The mixture is cooled allowing strands with complementary bases to join Some of the double strands formed with contain one strand for each species. DNA hybridisation • • • • • • • • • • • • • When DNA is heated. the more h bonds The greater the number of h bonds the higher the temperature required for separation The closer the species are related.1 . It is then mixed with the DNA of the other species. the higher the temperature needed Comparison of amino acid sequences in proteins The sequence of amino acids in proteins is determined by the DNA. Section 15. The mixture is then heated so that the strands separate. extracted and cut into short pieces DNA from one species is labelled with a fluorescent radioactive tracer. the two species will be very similar genetically. causing them to separate.

It is therefore possible for animals to identify each other by observing their behaviour.Immunological comparisons of proteins The proteins of different species can be compared using immunological techniques. If at one point. • Forms a pair bond – leads to successful mating and raising of offspring • Synchronise mating – takes place when there is a maximum chance of the sperm and egg meeting Females have cycles during which they are only fertile for brief periods of time. Why is courtship behaviour necessary? It is important to ensure that mating is successful and that the offspring have the maximum chance of survival. • Identify a mate that is capable of reproducing – both partners need to be sexually mature and fertile. the female seeks out a male who she can mate with. The longer the courtship ritual lasts. It is therefore important that during this time. Courtship behaviour ensures this by enabling individuals to: • Recognise members of their own species . Section 15.2. The principle behind this methods is the fact that antibodies of one species will respond to specific antigens on proteins. the sequence is ended. the more likely it is at being successful. Page 105 of 114 . one partner fails to respond correctly.ensures that mating only takes place within the same species so that offspring are fertile.Courtship behaviour The behaviour of members of the same species is more alike than members of different species. who if she is receptive will respond with another stimulus to the male to carry out a further action. The actions of a male act as a stimulus to the female.

Some bacterial DNA is found as plasmids these are small circular molecules of DNA. Factors that induce DNA replication are called mutagens.Section 16. Binary fission is also known as vertical gene transmission Changes to DNA Like the DNA of all cells. Inversion – The reversal of nucleotide sequence in a gene. Mutations generally happen during DNA replication. separate from the main DNA. but in reality there is still genetic variation which can lead to antibiotic resistance. Mutation A change of a single nucleotide base pair is a point of mutation Different types of mutation Substitution – The replacement of one nucleotide Deletion – loss of a nucleotide Insertion – Extra nucleotide added Duplication – A certain portion a nucleotide sequence of a gene is replicated.1 – Genetic variation in bacteria Bacterial DNA Double stranded Contains two types of DNA Most bacterial DNA is organised into large circular molecules (as appose to linear DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells). Harmful mutation Page 106 of 114 . Bacterial reproduction Reproduce asexually through binary fission In theory all of springs should be clones. Changing the base sequence leads to a different amino acid being coded for and therefore a different polypeptide is produced. bacterial DNA can also mutate Mutation – changes in the sequence of bases.

Most are harmful Man mutation result in a change in the shape of a protein so that the protein cannot function. beneficial mutations are bound to happen sooner or later if there are a large number or organisms. Although rare. Conjunction Conjunction is another way in which bacteria increase their genetic variation. Page 107 of 114 . The alternative amino acid sequence may not affect the proteins shape/function. Beneficial mutations Very occasionally a mutation occurs that changes the phenotype so that an organism has a better chance of surviving and reproducing. Silent neutral mutations Some mutations have no effect because the mutation has occurred in a non-coding part of DNA The mutation may also produce a different codon for the same amino acid. Mutations that affect large sections of a gene are often lethal. As there are so many bacteria and they reproduce so quickly. even a rare event such as a beneficial mutation is likely to happen in a relatively short time.

Page 108 of 114 .

Producing antibiotics According to the strict definitions. • Antibiotics often include: Page 109 of 114 . The pilus retracts to draw the cells closer together. Section 16. Their connection via pilus is broken and each cell is free to conjugate with other cells. Conjugation is also known as horizontal gene transmission. Antibiotics are not affective against viruses Antibiotics are known as secondary metabolites as they are not essential for the growth or reproduction of the organism that is producing them. The plasmids in each bacterial cell then replicate to become double stranded.2+16. however the term is generally used to include a wide rage of chemicals that damage pathogens. only microorganisms produce antibiotics. The donor cell has replicated one of its plasmids The plasmid is altered by an enzyme to make it linear. but may give the producer a selective advantage. the ends of the plasmid rejoin and become circular again.The donor cell produces a thin production called a “pilus” that connects the two cells. Once the plasmid has been transferred to the recipient cell.3 – Antibiotics/Antibiotic use and resistance What is an Antibiotic? An antibiotic is a substance produced by a microorganism that is capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of another organism.

Disrupt protein synthesis These antibiotics either inhibit protein synthesis or promote the synthesis of abnormal proteins. The antibiotics bind to the bacterial ribosomes but do not affect eukaryotic ribosomes which are larger. The antibiotics inhibit the synthesis of peptide links that bind molecules together. so it prevents expansion of the cell and halts further entry of water. Just as in plant cells. Disrupt cell wall synthesis 2.• • • Chemicals produced by microorganism. How bacteria resist antibiotics Remember that bacterial DNA can mutate Page 110 of 114 . which can stretch. Disrupt DNA replication 3. Types of antibiotics Antibiotics that kill bacteria are called bactericidal antibiotics. so DNA is not replicated. Bacteria are not killed but cell division is halted. Some antibiotics. Cell walls are made up of long chains of peptidoglycan molecules and allow the bacteria to tolerate osmotic influx of water. Disrupt protein synthesis Disrupting cell wall synthesis Antibiotics weaken the cell wall and cause osmoticlysis. Disrupt DNA replication These antibiotics disrupt the synthesis of nucleic acids. animals and plants. Chemicals such as penicillin which is produced naturally but altered chemically to make them more affective Chemicals such as chloramphemiol originally produced naturally but now entirely synthesised. The cell contents push against the cell wall. do not kill the bacteria. These antibiotics only work on bacteria that are actively growing and have no effect on bacteria lying dormant in the body. There are three main ways antibiotics can do this: 1. How antibiotics work Antibiotics work by interfering with some metabolic functions of microorganisms. The cell wall becomes so weak that the bacteria burst when water enters the cell by osmosis. bacterial cells become turgid when in a watery environment with higher water potential than they have. known as bacteriostatic antibiotics. The bacterial cells cannot synthesis enzymes and structured proteins. but stop them from reproducing.

If a plasmid has a mutation that gives the bacteria resistance to an antibiotic. MRSA Page 111 of 114 . Conjugation is the main reason why some bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics.A mutation is the change of base sequence in a gene that results in a new protein produced. hence there is a selection pressure that kills off the bacteria without the gene. The greater the amount of antibiotics used. An antibiotic strain can be produced by natural selection if the population was exposed to several antibiotics. Antibiotics do not cause mutations Antibiotic resistance most often results from mutations in the plasmid DNA Passing on antibiotic resistance Bacteria can pass on resistance in two ways. until an antibiotic resistant strain has been produced. each daughter cell will receive the gene for resistance. A plasmid conferring antibiotic resistance can pass from one bacterium to another Conjugation can also occur between members of the same species. Natural selection The frequency of the allele for resistance consequently increases and will continue to increase with each succeeding generation of the bacteria. Multiple resistance A bacterium can accumulate several plasmid DNA via conjugation that give it resistance. binary fission/conjugation Binary fission – Both the plasmid and the larger circular DNA in the bacterium replicate prior to cell division. This new protein could be an enzyme that is able break down the antibiotic before it has a chance to kill the bacteria. leaving only the resistant bacteria. Overuse of antibiotics may have provided an increased selection pressure in favour of resistant bacteria. when the cell divides. This antibiotic resistant strain is a result of natural selection. A gene for antibiotic resistant gene is only beneficial where there the bacteria are exposed to the antibiotic. These bacteria will have an advantage over the other bacteria and will out-compete the normal variety. the greater the chance that mutant bacteria will have multiple resistance. Antibiotic resistant strains An antibiotic resistant strain is a whole population that has become resistant to an antibiotic. Conjugation – Bacteria can also pass and receive plasmids from other bacteria in the process called conjugation.

infections caused by this bacterium are difficult to treat. If the bacterium gets inside the body it can cause deadly infections.Resistant to several antibiotics Because of its multiple resistances. The number of different species in a given area 2. so the focus is on preventing transmission.1 – Species diversity Biodiversity is the term given to describe the variety in the living world. MRSA is found on many individuals skin without any ill effects but these people could pass the bacterium to somebody else via skin to skin contact. • • • Species diversity – refers to the number of different species and the number of individuals of each species within anyone community Genetic diversity – refers to the variety of genes possessed by the individuals that make up any one species Ecosystem diversity – refers to the rand of different habitats within a particular area Species diversity has two components: 1. Absolute cleanliness is particularly important in wards where patients may have open wounds. The proportion of the community that is made up of an individual species Species diversity is calculated using the index that follows: d=N(N-1) Page 112 of 114 . Anyone in contact with patients is required to wash their hands. Section 17.

therefore these areas must be occupied by the species the farmer feels is most desirable. this therefore means that they have increased in species diversity. Any particular area can only support a certain amount of biomass.Σn(n-1) Where: • • • • d = species diversity index N = total number of organisms of all species n = total number of organisms of each species Σ = the sum of Number (n) found in habitat X 10 10 10 10 10 Σn(n-1) N(n-1) 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 450 Number (n) found in habitat Y 3 5 2 36 4 Σn(n-1) N(n-1) 3(2)=6 5(4)=20 2(1)=2 36(25)=1260 4(3)=12 1300 Species A B C D E Habitat X: d = 50(49) 450 =5.88 Habitat X has a higher value for d and therefore has more species diversity Section 17. Agriculture and deforestation are two examples of processes carried out by humans that have the affect of lower biodiversity. This means that smaller areas are only available for other species. becoming more complex communities with many individuals of many different species.2 – Species diversity and Human activities The impact of providing more food at a lower cost as resulted in less biodiversity. Impact of agriculture • • • • Ecosystems develop overtime.44 Habitat Y: d =50(49) 1300 =1. Selective breeding has reduced the genetic variation of certain species and therefore reduced the variety of alleles in the population. Page 113 of 114 .

The overall affect is that the species diversity is lowered.• • Species will compete for the resources around and many will not survive. • The overall affect is a reduction in the species diversity for the given area. The most serious consequence of deforestation is the loss of bio diversity where many species are killed each year as a result. but also reduces the number of different species. Page 114 of 114 . In addition pesticides are used to kill off these species as they can affect crop growth. Species diversity is reduced due to deforestation because: • Habitats are destroyed • Species are not adapted to live anywhere else • The organism in the species will not survive as a result • This note only reduces the amount of organisms in a species. Deforestation is the permanent clearing of forests and the conservation of the land to other uses such as agriculture. Impact of deforestation Forests provide numerous habitats where species have become adapted to live.

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