As level Biology notes

Unit 1 – Biology and Disease

By Jonathan Curtis

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Contents
As level Biology notes........................................................................................................1 Contents...............................................................................................................................2 Section 1.1: Causes of Disease - Pathogens......................................................................4 Section 1.2: Epidemiology..................................................................................................6 Section 1.3: Lifestyle and Health........................................................................................7 Section 2.1: Enzymes and Digestion................................................................................10 Section 2.2: Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides..............................................................11 Section 2.3: Carbohydrates – disaccharides and polysaccharides. .................................13 Section 2.4 – Carbohydrate digestion...............................................................................14 Section 2.5 – Proteins.......................................................................................................15 Section 2.6 – Enzyme action............................................................................................17 Section 2.7 – Factors affecting enzyme action.................................................................18 Section 2.8 – Enzyme inhabitation...................................................................................19 Section 3.1 – Investigating the structure of cells.............................................................20 Section 3.2 – The electron microscope.............................................................................22 Section 3.3 – Structure of epithelial cells.........................................................................23 Section 3.4 - Lipids...........................................................................................................25 Section 3.5 – The cell surface membrane.........................................................................26 Section 3.6 - Diffusion.....................................................................................................28 Section 3.7 – Osmosis.......................................................................................................29 Section 3.8 – Active transport .........................................................................................30 Section 3.9 – Absorption in the small intestine................................................................31 Section 3.10 – Cholera .....................................................................................................32 Section 3.11- Oral rehydration therapy ...........................................................................33 Section 4.1 – Structure of the human gas-exchange system............................................34 Section 4.2 – The mechanism of breathing......................................................................36 Section 4.3 – Exchange of gas in the lungs .....................................................................37 Section 4.4 – Pulmonary tuberculosis..............................................................................39 Section 4.5 – Fibrosis, asthma and Emphysema .............................................................42 Section 5.1 – The heart and heart disease.........................................................................44 Section 5.2 – The cardiac Cycle ......................................................................................47 Section 5.3 – Heart Disease..............................................................................................51 Section 6.1 – Defence mechanisms .................................................................................53 Section 6.2 – Phagocytosis...............................................................................................54 Section 6.3 – T cells and cell-mediated immunity...........................................................55 Section 6.4 – B cells and humoral immunity ..................................................................56 Section 6.5 – Antibodies...................................................................................................57 Section 6.6 – Vaccination ................................................................................................58 Section 7.1 – Investigating Variation...............................................................................60 Section 7.2 – Types of variation ......................................................................................62 Section 8.1 – Structure of DNA........................................................................................63 Section 8.2 – The triplet code ..........................................................................................66 Section 8.3 – DNA and Chromosomes.............................................................................68 Section 8.4 – Meiosis and Genetic Variation ..................................................................71 Section 9.1 – Genetic Diversity........................................................................................73 Section 10.1 – Haemoglobin.............................................................................................74 Section 10.2 – Oxygen dissociation curves .....................................................................75 Section 10.3 – Starch, glycogen and cellulose ................................................................76 Section 10.4 - Plant cell structure.....................................................................................77 Page 2 of 114

Section 11.1 – Replication of DNA..................................................................................78 Section 11.2 – Mitosis......................................................................................................80 Section 11.3 – The cell cycle............................................................................................83 Section 12.1 – Cellular organisms....................................................................................85 Section 13.1 – Exchange between organisms and their Environment ............................87 Section 13.2 – Gas exchange in single celled organisms and insects .............................88 Section 13.3 – Gas exchange in Fish................................................................................89 Section 13.4 – Gas exchange in the leaf of a plant .........................................................90 Section 13.5 – Circulatory system of a mammal ............................................................91 Section 13.6 – Blood vessels and their functions ............................................................93 Section 13.7 – Movement of water through roots ...........................................................95 Section 13.8 – Movement of water up stems ..................................................................97 Section 13.9 – Transpiration and factors affecting it.......................................................98 Section 13.10 – Limiting water loss in plants .................................................................99 Section 14.1 – Classification .........................................................................................100 Section 15.1 - Genetic comparisons using DNA and proteins ......................................104 Section 15.2- Courtship behaviour ................................................................................105 Section 16.1 – Genetic variation in bacteria ..................................................................106 Section 16.2+16.3 – Antibiotics/Antibiotic use and resistance.....................................109 Section 17.1 – Species diversity ....................................................................................112 Section 17.2 – Species diversity and Human activities .................................................113

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schizophrenia.V rays. Environmental – Abnormal bodily reaction caused by the environment e. mosquitoes. thick and water proof. Psychological disorders – diseases causing changes in the working of the brain E. Disease – An abnormal condition of an organism that impairs bodily functions and is associated with specific symptoms. down syndrome. Infection – process by which a pathogen enters and establishes it’s self. Interfaces are adapted for absorption but also make it easier for pathogens to pass through.g. Social/self induced – Influenced by living conditions or personal behaviour e. Organs and tissue may not work as well due to slower cell renewal and repair. Non-Communicable – disease caused by food/drink or animal vectors e. Degenerate – wholly/partly caused by aging. Skin – Difficult to penetrate.g. Interface – where internal and an external environment meet. U. Infectious – Caused by pathogens Inherited – due to a mistake or alternation in the genetic make-up e.g. cystic fibrosis. Platelets quickly produce scabs. Gas exchange – airborne pathogens Page 4 of 114 . Non-infectious – Sometimes called disorders and can be caused by a broad range of environmental factors.g. etc. STIs. etc. rickets. Note: many diseases can be caused by multiple factors. • • • • Communicable disease – spread via close proximity or contact.1: Causes of Disease . obesity.g. lung cancer. Most microbes are harmless Pathogen –disease causing microbe. Nutritional deficiency – caused by inadequate or unbalanced diet or by overeating E. They cannot be transferred.g.Pathogens • • • • • • • • • • Health – A state of physical and mental well-being.Section 1. free from disease. Huntington’s disease etc. scurvy.

Robert Koch 1. Bacteria reproduction is called binary fusion. 2. Protease also kills microbes. When cultured. Viruses – Invade bodily cells in order to reproduce thus preventing the host cell functioning as normal. Fungal toxins are called mycotoxins. 3. Epidemic – when a new disease spreads rapidly through the population. Bacteria present when disease is present. Fungi – Opportunistic pathogens. Digestive system – concentrated HCl kills microbes. Page 5 of 114 . Defences Gas exchange – thick/sticky mucus traps pathogens. 4. Pandemic – when an outbreak occurs on a global basic.Digestive System – Disease in contaminated food or water. Celia that is on the epithelial cells work together to remove microbes. It kills bodily cells and rarely produces toxins. Endemic – a disease that is always present in the population. It must be possible to isolate and grow the microbe. It should be possible to isolate the microbes from the new host. they are introduced to a healthy host to see if it is infected.

there must be little spread in the data. from high birth rate.g. Strong. Negative Correlation A negative correlation will occur when an increase in one variable causes a decrease in another. positive correlation A positive correlation will occur when an increase in one variable. A correlation is different causal link. In order for the correlation to be “strong”. causes a increase in another. Demographic Transition Explains how the population changes over time e.2: Epidemiology Is the study of patterns in diseases and the various factors that effect the spread of disease. Weak correlation A weak correlation occurs when there is a wide spread of data shown in the graph. How to prove a link • • • Wide samples must be used. Variables must be controlled. Data must be analysed over long periods of time. Page 6 of 114 .Section 1.

Section 1. They are cancer causing agents. Carcinogen – Cause the DNA to mutate. Maligment – grow faster and can spread throughout the body. Usually harmless. Most mutated cells are destroyed. Cancer cells cease to function normally. there is little cause for concern. Not fully understood how cancer starts. Genetics can cause approximately 5% of cancers. If the consequence of the hazard is high and the probability is low. Tumour producing genes (oncogenes). Benign – does not move from the point of origin. This continues if there are nutrients. Age + = more likely. Page 7 of 114 • • • • . The process of moving to another area of the body is called metastasis. One mutated cell can cause a mass of mutated cells. Risk must be relative. Lifestyle factors can expose you to more carcinogens. Can have its own blood supply. however can cause problems depending on where it grows. We need to look at probability that a hazard will occur as a consequence of the hazardous event. Cancer – Cell division in an uncontrollable fashion.3: Lifestyle and Health • • • • Risk – A measure of probability that damage to health will occur as a result of a given hazard. Measuring risk • • • • • • • • • • • 0% (no harm will occur) 100% (will defiantly occur) A timescale is needed to give the data more weight. A major concern is when both are high.

Conclusive evidence • • • Tar in cigarettes contains Benzopyrene (carcinogen) Cancer cells were looked at and scientist found that mutations occurred in 3 places in the DNA. Smoking • • Heavy smoking over a long period of time will drastically increase the risk of developing lung cancer. Treatments • • • • • Prevention is better than cure. Chemotherapy – using drugs to kill cells in the body. Early diagnosis. Diet – low fat. Page 8 of 114 . Radiation. Alcohol – increases risk. Effects all cells that divide rapidly. high fibre. higher the risk. Surgical removal – Easiest when the tumour is benign. Radiotherapy – ionising radiation that destroys tissue. There is a strong correlation. Hormones – high level of sex hormones can increase risk. Physical activity – exercise reduces the risk.• • • • • • More you smoke. fruit etc. The gene that mutates is called a tumour suppressor gene. It may be possible to create drugs which can locate genes which are responsible for mutating and causing each type of cancer. uv light and xrays are carcinogens. but not a causal link. Future treatments • • Hyperthermia may destroy cancer because the immune system is better at detecting cancer cells. Healthy cells suffer less so there are little side-effects.

• • This is still not a causal link because smoking does not defiantly cause cancer. High blood pressure increase the rate at which cholesterol is deposited. If this happens to coronary arteries it is called coronary thrombosis.K Occurs when one of the arteries supplying heart tissue with oxygen is blocked. Diets high in saturated fats will increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease. Smoking narrows blood vessels. Coronary Heart Disease • • • • • • • • • • • • Largest cause of death in the U. even though it is very likely to be the cause. Heart respires anerobically when there is a blood clot. Exercise can lower blood pressure. Page 9 of 114 . Heart attack – myocardial infarction. Anaerobic respiration does not release enough energy. thus increase blood pressure. It is only a correlation because it is a multi-factorial disease. Blood clot – thrombus Process of a blood clot forming is called thrombosis.

Because there is little water within the large intestine. Food is further digested by enzymes in the small intestine. There are glands within it that produce enzymes to digest protein. The digestive system provides an interface between the body and the environment because it allows food to pass through it. thus forming faeces. The enzymes enter the small intestine through its walls and through glands. The mucus prevents the stomach being digested by its own enzymes. Often the water is reabsorbed by the secretion of digestive glands. The microvilli are found on the epithelial cells of each villus. The inner walls of the small intestine are folded into villi. Its roles are to store and digest food (especially proteins). giving them a larger surface area. The stomach is a muscular sac with an inner layer that produces enzymes. Therefore it used for transport. as appose to digestion.1: Enzymes and Digestion • • Glands produce enzymes that are used to break down large molecules into smaller ones that are ready for abortion. Major parts of the digestive system • The Oesophagus is made up of a thick muscular wall and is adapted so that food can pass down it easily from the mouth to the stomach. • • • • Page 10 of 114 . The small intestine is a long muscular tube. This adapts the small intestine so that it can absorb substances into the blood stream. The rectum is where faeces is stored before it is removed through the anus in a process called egestion. The surface area of villi is further increased by millions of tinier projections called microvilli. the food becomes drier. The large intestine absorbs water. Mucus is also produced in the stomach by glands.Section 2.

Usually. Because enzymes are specific. There are two stages of digestion. an enzyme will break down a molecule into smaller sections. Hydrolysis is the process of splitting up molecules by adding water to the bonds that hold them together.• • The salivary glands are positioned near the mouth. Enzymes function by hydrolysis. Carbohydrases break starch molecules down until they become monosaccharides. These new molecules are incorporated into body tissue or are used in processes within the body. This secretion will contain the enzyme amylase. thus making it easier for chemical absorption. This contains protease. Once these molecules have been broken down to become even smaller molecules such as monosaccharides. They pass there secretion via a duct into the mouth.2: Carbohydrates – Monosaccharides Page 11 of 114 . Section 2. Lipase breaks down lips into glycerol and fatty acids. These smaller sections are then hydrolysed into even smaller molecules by additional enzymes. It secretes pancreatic juice. This makes it possible to not only absorb food but to increase its surface area. This is carried out by enzymes. Physical breakdown Large pieces of food are broken down into smaller pieces by processes such as chewing and the churning of food in the stomach. This is called assimilation. Protease breaks protein down to amino acids. The general term for these enzymes is hydrolases. they are absorbed into the body and are often built up again to form larger molecules again. Chemical digestion Chemical digestion is the process of breaking down large molecules into smaller ones so that they can be absorbed. physical breakdown and chemical absorption. The pancreas is a large gland situated near the stomach. more than one is needed to break down a large molecule. lipase and amylase.

Fructose has a very different structure to glucose and is often used as a sweetener. The making of Large molecules • • Carbohydrates are long chains made up of individual molecules called monosaccharides. the hydrogen and oxygen atoms can be arranged in many different ways. However on the left of the diagram you can see how the Hydroxide and hydrogen atoms are arranged differently to glucose. Glucose Galactose Fructose Glucose is the most common sugar. its atoms form a ring. Life based on Carbon • • Carbon atoms are able to readily form bonds with other carbon atoms Life on earth is based on the versatile carbon atom. N can be any number from 3 -7.• Carbohydrates are carbon molecules (carbo) combined with water molecules (hydrate). Glucose is a hexose because it has 6 carbon atoms and has the formula C6H12O6 Even though it has the same chemical formula. Although its molecular arrangement is often shown as a straight line. Galactose has the same chemical formula as glucose. Page 12 of 114 . Monosaccharides • • • Monosaccharides are soluble and have the general formula (CH20)n. A pair of monosaccharides is called a disaccharide and several monosaccharides joined together is called a polysaccharide.

Test for non-reducing sugars To test for a non reducing sugar it must first be hydrolysed then added to Benedict’s reagent.3: Carbohydrates – disaccharides and polysaccharides. • • • Polysaccharides • • • • Polysaccharides are long chains of monosaccharides combined together through glycosidic bonds. add potassium iodine solution. but instead are used to give support to plant cells. This means that they are very suitable for storage. • When two monosaccharides join together a water molecule is removed. the iodine will turn from yellow to blue-black.Section 2. they are often insoluble. A glycosidic bond is an oxygen atom. The bond holding the two monomers together is called a glycosidic bond. In order to break the bond. This is called a condensation reaction. Test for starch To test for starch. • • • Glucose with glucose forms maltose Glucose with fructose forms sucrose Glucose linked with Galactose forms lactose. Some polysaccharides such as starch are not used for storage. Because they are very long molecules. Disaccharides When combined in pairs monosaccharides form disaccharides. If starch is present. polysaccharides break down into disaccharides or monosaccharides. Page 13 of 114 . When hydrolysed. water is added to the molecule in a process called hydrolysis.

milk makes up the majority of their diet. To overcome the problem of lactose intolerance amongst children.Section 2. bacteria digest it and produce lots of gas. This breaks maltose into glucose. Normally one enzyme breaks a large molecule into smaller sections.4 – Carbohydrate digestion • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • It usually takes more than one enzyme to break down a large molecule. The pancreatic juice contains pancreatic amylase which hydrolyses the remaining starch. This can cause stomach cramps. The epithelial lining of the intestine produces the enzyme maltase. Food is physically broken down by teeth to increase surface area. and then other enzymes break these down to monomers. Once the food is swallowed. After the stomach. This enzyme breaks starch into maltose by hydrolysing the glycosidic bonds holding the molecule together. Page 14 of 114 . nausea and diarrhoea. Alkaline salts are produced by the intestine wall and the pancreas to maintain the pH at neutral so that the enzymes can work efficiently. Firstly the enzyme “amylase” is produced in the mouth by salivary glands. lactose can be pre-digested before consumption. For new born babies. This means that no more starch can be digested. People who are lactose intolerant do not produce enough lactase to break down the lactose found in milk. where the pH is kept at neutral by mineral salts. the enzyme is destroyed by the stomach acid where the pH is around 2. Sucrase which is produced by the epithelial lining breaks down sucrose into fructose and glucose. food passes into the small intestine where it mixes with pancreatic juices. When undigested lactose enters the small intestine.

Structure of amino acids There are 4 main parts that make up the general structure of an amino acid.Section 2. Primary Structure After many condensation reactions (removal of water molecules to form a peptide bond). many monomers are joined together in a process called polymerisation. this can be a variety of chemicals. amino acids can join together to form dipeptides. The formation of a peptide bond Through the same process by which monosaccharide join to make disaccharides and polysaccharides. The chain of many amino acids is called a poly peptide.5 – Proteins • • • Each organism has numerous proteins that differ from species to species. There is: The amino group (NH2) this is a basic part of the molecule where it gets the name amino. They create a water molecule by combining the OH from the carboxyl group of one amino acid with the hydrogen atom of another amino acid. The carboxyl group (COOH) this is an acid group. The hydrogen atom (H) The r group. This repeating sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain is known as the primary structure. Each amino acid has a different r group. When there is a repeating sequence of amino acids joined by a peptide bond it is called a polypeptide chain. Page 15 of 114 . Proteins are the most important molecules for life. The structure of one protein molecule differs from that of all other protein molecules.

Ionic bonds – formed by the carboxyl and amino groups.Secondary structure The secondary structure is formed when the -C=O (which has a overall negative charge) is attracted to the hydrogen atom (which has an overall positive charge). Disulphide bond – fairly strong. which is an alpha helix can be further twisted and folded forming a unique 3D structure for each protein. This causes the long chain to twist in on its self creating a coil known as a alpha helix. Hydrogen bonds – there are many of these however they are easily broken down. Quaternary Structure This structure appears when a number of complex molecules containing polypeptide chains that are linked in various ways are associated with non-protein molecules called prosthetic groups. not easily broken down. It is formed by several different types of bonds. Page 16 of 114 . A change in pH can affect an ionic bond. They are weaker than disulphide bonds. Tertiary Structure The secondary structure.

This is sometimes called the induced fit mechanism. rate at an optimum state The substrate and the enzyme must collide with sufficient energy. and making it more likely to change into the product. they cannot change its direction.Section 2. the active site change shape and fits itself around the molecule. otherwise they could make "impossible" reactions happen and break the laws of thermodynamics.6 – Enzyme action • • • • • • • • • All enzymes are globular proteins → spherical in shape Control biochemical reactions in cells They have the suffix "-ase" Intracellular enzymes are found inside the cell Extracellular enzymes act outside the cell Enzymes are catalysts → speed up chemical reactions Reduce activation energy required to start a reaction between molecules Substrates (reactants) are converted into products Reaction may not take place in absence of enzymes (each enzyme has a specific catalytic action) • • • • Enzymes catalyse a reaction at max. Enzymes work by lowering the activation energy required to start a reaction Once the substrate is inside the active site. distorting the molecule in the active site. • It's a bit more complicated than that though. the enzyme changes shape slightly. distorting it into forming the transition state. Although enzymes can change the speed of a chemical reaction. • When a substrate (or product) molecule binds. Page 17 of 114 . and so speeding up the reaction.

• • • Effect of pH • • Enzymes have an optimum pH at which they work fastest. For mammalian enzymes this is about 40°C. The rate of reaction doubles. once it reaches its optimum temperature it will begin to decrease as the temperature rises due to the active site being denatured. • Page 18 of 114 . The two “events” most frequently measured are the volume of gas produced during a reaction and the disappearance of a substrate.g.Section 2. Effect of Temperature • Enzymes have an optimum temperature at which they work fastest. and enzymes from thermophilic bacteria work at 90°C. e. which have an optimum of pH 1. The rate of reaction will increase as temperature increases. but a few enzymes can work at extreme pH. Then. such as protease enzymes in animal stomachs. This is how long it takes to run its course. enzymes from the arctic snow flea work at -10°C. For most enzymes this is about pH 7-8 (physiological pH of most cells). but charged at high pH (COO-).7 – Factors affecting enzyme action Measuring enzyme-catalysed reactions • • To measure the progress of an enzyme-catalysed reaction. The thermal energy breaks the hydrogen bonds holding the secondary and tertiary structure of the enzyme together. approximately almost every ten degrees. The pH affects the charge of the amino acids at the active site. but there are enzymes that work best at very different temperatures. so the enzyme (and especially the active site) loses its shape to become a random coil. its time course is measured. so the properties of the active site change and the substrate can no longer bind. For example a carboxyl acid R groups will be uncharged a low pH (COOH).

so the reaction is slower. They are found naturally.8 – Enzyme inhabitation Inhibitors inhibit the activity of enzymes. There are two kinds of inhibitors. It therefore competes with the substrate for the active site. be bind • • Page 19 of 114 .Section 2. Competitive inhibitor • • A competitive inhibitor molecule has a similar structure to the normal substrate molecule. Poisons like cyanide. reducing the rate of their reactions. The inhibitor is not permanently bonded to the active site so once it leaves a substrate molecule can take its place. but are also used artificially as drugs. Eventually all the substrate molecules will be in the active sites. • • • Non-competitive inhibitors • Non-competitive inhibitors do not fit into the active site but instead they bind to another part of the enzyme molecule. the longer this will take. pesticides and research tools. Non-competitive inhibitors therefore simply reduce the amount of active enzyme (just like decreasing the enzyme concentration). heavy metal ions and some insecticides are all non-competitive inhibitors. However. changing the shape of the whole enzyme. including the active site. It is the difference between the concentration of the inhibitor and the concentration of the substrate that determines the affect it has on the enzymes activity. while those that tightly and cannot be washed out are called irreversible inhibitors. and it can fit into the active site of the enzyme. so that it can no longer bind substrate molecules. Inhibitors that bind fairly weakly and can washed out are sometimes called reversible inhibitors. depending on the concentration of the inhibitor.

The greater the resolution. It can be found using the following formula: Magnification=size of image/size of object The previous formula can also be rearranged to find the size of an object. Cell fractionation Cell fractionation is the process where cells are broken up and the different organelles they contain are separated out. the cells are but in a solution that is: Cold – to reduce enzyme activity that might break down the organelles.1 – Investigating the structure of cells Microscopy Lenses work more effectively if they are in a compound light microscope. therefore. The fluid is called a homogenate. they can only distinguish between objects that are at least 0. An isotonic solution is one that has the same water potential as the original tissue. Beams of electrons have shorter wavelengths and are therefore able to distinguish between objects as close as 0.Section 3. the material seen in called an image. It is then filtered to remove complete cells and large pieces of debris. the greater the clarity of the image that is produced.1nm apart. Magnification tells you how many times bigger the image is in relation to the actual size of the object. Magnification When viewed under a microscope. Light waves a have a relatively long wavelength. Buffered – to maintain a constant pH Homogenation Cells are broken up by a homogeniser that releases the organelles. Before fractionation begins. Size of object=size of image/magnification Resolution The resolving power of a microscope is the minimum distance two objects can be apart in order for them to appear as separate items.2micrometers apart. Page 20 of 114 . Isotonic – to prevent organelles bursting or shrinking as a result of osmotic gain or loss of water.

The spins tubes of the homogenate.Ultracentrifugation Ultracentrifugation is the process by which the homogenate is separated in a machine called a centrifuge. Page 21 of 114 . The heaviest organelles such as the nucleus are forced to the bottom where they form a thin sediment. The next heaviest organelles (mitochondria) are forced the bottom and the process continues until all the organelles are separated. leaving just the sediment of nuclei at the bottom. called the supernatant is removed. The supernatant is then put in another tube where it is spun at an even higher speed than before. • • • • • The tube of filtrate is placed in the ultracentrifuge and spun at a slow speed. The fluid at the top. creating a centrifugal force that forces the mixture to separate.

Because electrons are absorbed by molecules in the air. The scattering of the electrons can be analysed and from this an image can be produced using a computer. Because the process takes place in a vacuum. Some of the electrons are absorbed by the specimen and appear dark on the image. This produces an image of the specimen. Artefacts may appear on the image. The electrons bounce on the contours of the specimen and are scattered. the beam can be focused using an electromagnet. The SEM has a lower resolving power than the TEM (20nm) but is still ten times better than a light microscope. Transmission electron microscope The TEM consists of a gun that fires electrons which are focused onto the specimen be a condenser electromagnet. living specimens cannot be observed. these appear as a result of the way the specimen is prepared.Section 3. There are two types of electron microscope: . other parts allow the electrons through and so appear light. a near vacuum must be created within the chamber of an electron microscope for it to work effectively.2 – The electron microscope Electrons have a shorter wavelength than light and so they have a greater resolving power. A complex staining process is required and even then the image is only in B&W. The beam of electrons is directed over the surface of the specimen in a regular pattern. The specimen must be extremely thin. As electrons are negatively charged. The image that appears on screen is called a photomicrograph.Transmission electron microscope and scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscope All the limitations of the TEM apply to the SEM but the specimen does not have to extremely thin as the electrons do not penetrate. Page 22 of 114 .

Section 3.3 – Structure of epithelial cells
Epithelial cells are eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells have a distinct nucleus and a membrane that surrounds each organelle. The function of an epithelial cells is top absorb and secrete The nucleus The nucleus controls the cells activities and contains hereditary material. • The Nuclear envelope is a double membrane that surrounds the nucleus. Its outer membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum and often has ribosomes on its surface. It can control the substances entering and leaving the nucleus.

• • • •

Nuclear pores allow the passage of large materials into and out of the nucleus. Nucleoplasm is granular jelly like material that makes up the bulk of the nucleus. Chromatin is the DNA found within the nucleoplasm This is the diffuse form chromosomes take up when the cells is not dividing. The nucleolus is small spherical body within the nucleoplasm. It manufactures ribosomal RNA and assembles ribosomes.

The mitochondria • A double membrane surrounds the organelle, the outer one controlling the entry and exit of material. The inner membrane inner membrane is folded to form extensions known as cristae. Cristae are shelf like extensions of the inner membrane. These provide a large surface area for the attachment of enzymes during respiration.

• The matrix makes up the remainder of the mitochondria. It is a semi-rigid material that contains proteins, lipids and traces Page 23 of 114

of DNA that allows the mitochondria to control the production of its own proteins. The enzymes involved in respiration are found in the matrix. Mitochondria are responsible for the production of the energy-carrier molecule ATP. Because of this, high numbers of mitochondria are found in cells where there is a high level of metabolic activity. Endoplasmic Reticulum Rough endoplasmic reticulum – has ribosomes present on the outer surface of the membranes. Its functions are to: a) provide a large surface area for the synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins, b) provide a pathway for the transport of materials, especially proteins throughout the cell. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum lacks ribosomes on its surface and is often more tubular in appearance. Its functions are to: a) synthesise, store and transport lipids, b) synthesise store and transport carbohydrates. Golgi Apparatus The Golgi apparatus is similar to the SER in structure but is more compact. It consists of a stack of membranes that form flattened sacks, or cisternae with small rounded hollow structures called vesicles. The proteins and lipids produced in the ER are passed through the Golgi apparatus in strict sequence. The Golgi apparatus modifies these proteins often by adding non-protein structures to them such as carbohydrates. It is also labels them so they can be sorted and sent to their correct destination. Once sorted and modified, proteins are transported in vesicles which are regularly removed from the edge of the Golgi cisternae. These vesicles move to the cell membrane where they fuse and release their contents to the outside. Lysosomes

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Lysosomes are formed when a vesicle contains enzymes. Lysosomes isolate potentially dangerous enzymes from the rest of the cell before releasing them outside of the cell or into phagocytic vesicles within the cell. Lysosomes digest worn out organelles so that the useful chemicals they are made of can be reused. They can completely break down cells after they have died. (Autolysis) Ribosomes Ribosomes occur in either the cytoplasm or the RER. There are two types depending on which cell they are found in: 80S Type – found in eukaryotic cells, is around 25nm in diameter. 70S Type – found in prokaryotic cells, is slightly smaller. Microvilli Microvilli are finger like projections of the epithelial cells. There function is to increase the surface area for diffusion.

Section 3.4 - Lipids

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Add 5cm^3 of water and shake gently. The proportion of oxygen to carbon and hydrogen is smaller than in carbohydrates. In addition to this. Lipids can provide more than twice the energy of carbohydrate. Each fatty acids combines with glycerol in a condensation reaction. Often stored around delicate organs. Roles of lipids Phospholipids contribute to the flexibility of membranes and the transfer of lipidsoluble substances across them. Waterproofing. Fats are slow conductors of heat.• • • • Lips contain carbon. 2. Section 3. A cloudy white colour indicates the presence of a lipid. Insulation. They are insoluble in water. Lipids are insoluble in water and are therefore suitable for waterproofing. Protection. Test for lipids 1. 4. Take 2cm^3 of the sample being tested and add 5cm^3 of ethanol. 3.5 – The cell surface membrane Page 26 of 114 . hydrogen and oxygen. kept under skin to retain heat in the body. Fatty acid molecules repel water whereas phosphate molecules are attracted to water. Shake the test tube and dissolve the lipids. CH2OH + HOOC  CH2OOC + H2O (Glycerol) + (fatty acid) Phospholipids Phospholipids are similar to lipids except that the fatty acid is replaced with a phosphate molecule. lipids can be used as: An energy source. Triglycerides are so called because they have three fatty acids (tri) combined with glycerol (glyceride). Take a dry. 5. grease free test tube. They are soluble in organic solvents such as alcohol and acetone.

Some transport water soluble molecules across the membrane others are enzymes. potassium. The other has its head pointing outwards. interacting with the water surrounding the cell. Intrinsic proteins – Span the phospholipids bilayer. Phospholipids Phospholipids are important in cell surface membranes because: • • One layer of phospholipids has its hydrophilic head pointing inwards towards the water in the cytoplasm. Fluid-mosaic model of the cell surface membrane Fluid . act as cell receptors for molecules such as hormones. Mosaic – because the proteins are imbedded in the structure in a similar way that stones are imbedded in a mosaic. giving it a flexible structure. Protein molecules in the membrane allow active transport by forming ion channels for sodium. The function of phospholipids in the cell-membrane are to: allow lipid-soluble substances to enter and leave the cell. Prevent water-soluble substances entering and leaving the cell.The cell-surface membrane is a plasma membrane that surrounds that surrounds cells and forms a boundary between the cytoplasm and the environment.because the phospholipids molecules can move relative to each other. The hydrophobic tales point inwards. Proteins The proteins in the phospholipids bilayer are arranged randomly in two main ways: Extrinsic proteins – appear on the surface or partially imbedded. etc. They provide mechanical support or when in conjunction with glycolipids. Make the membrane more flexible. Page 27 of 114 .

The nature of the plasma membrane. The channels only open for specific molecules. This allows water soluble ions and molecules to pass through. The proteins for special water filled channels. The motion is random and there is no set pattern to the way they move. Rate of diffusion • • • • • The greater the difference in concentration. For example smaller molecules diffuse faster than big ones.Section 3. All particles are constantly in motion due to the kinetic energy that they posses. its composition and the number of pores. causing it to release the molecule on the other side of the plasma membrane. the faster the rate of diffusion. When a molecule that is specific to the carrier protein is present. The size and nature of the diffusing molecule. Page 28 of 114 . The thinner the exchange surface.6 . the greater the rate of diffusion. the carrier protein changes shape. Facilitated diffusion can only occur at specific point along the plasma membrane where there are special protein molecules.Diffusion Diffusion is defined as the net movement of molecules or ions from a region where they are more highly concentrated to one where their concentration is lower. Diffusion is proportional to: surface area x difference in concentration Length of diffusion path Facilitated diffusion Facilitated is a passive process as it only relies on the kinetic motion of particles. Such molecules such as glucose and amino acids would take much longer to diffuse through the phospholipids bilayer. the greater the rate of diffusion The larger the area of an exchange surface.

The cell-surface membrane will eventually burst if too much water enters the cells. Water with a solute dissolved in it will have a water potential that is less than 0. Under standard conditions of temperature (25c). Osmosis in animal cells If a red blood cell is place in pure water it will absorb water by osmosis because it has a lower water potential. A hypotonic solution is one where the concentration outside is greater than the concentration inside. The water moves along a water potential gradient. Water potential is measured in Pascal’s. a dynamic equilibrium is established and there is no net movement of water. At the point where the water potentials on either side of a partially permeable membrane are equal. Water molecules move from one side where the water potential is higher (less negative) across a partially permeable membrane to another side where the water potential is lower (more negative). A hypertonic solution is one where the water potential outside the cell is lower than the water potential inside the cell. pure water is said to have a water potential of 0.7 – Osmosis Osmosis is defined as the passage of water from a region where it has a higher water potential to a region where it has a lower water potential through a partially permeable membrane.Section 3. To prevent cells bursting due to too much water entering the cells. cells are often bathed in solutions where the water potential outside the cell is the same as the water potential inside the cell. This is called an isotonic solution. Page 29 of 114 .

Metabolic energy is required for this process. • • • • By using a concentration gradient that has already been set up by direct active transport.Section 3. One example of this is the sodiumpotassium pump Sodium ions are actively taken in by the cell whilst potassium ones are actively removed from the cell.8 – Active transport Active transport allows cells to exchange molecules against a concentration gradient. The molecules of the ions bind to the receptors on the channels of the carrier protein. causes the carrier protein to change shape. the molecule or ion is moved into the cell at the same time as a different one is being removed from it. This is known as co-transport. • Occasionally. The carrier molecules accept molecules or ions to be transport on one side of it. Metabolic energy is needed in the form ATP. This as a result. releasing the molecule onto the other side. • Active transport uses ATP in two main ways: by using ATP to directly move molecules. The phosphate molecule then recombines with the ADP to form ATP again. On the other side of the membrane ATP bind to the carrier protein causing it to split into ADP and a phosphate molecule. which causes the carrier protein to revert back to its original shape. Page 30 of 114 . Active transport is the movement of molecules or ions into or out of a cell from a region of lower concentration to a region on higher concentration using energy and carrier molecules. Carrier molecules which act as “pumps” are involved.

2. The epithelial cells possess Microvilli which further increase the surface area for diffusion. that powers the movement of glucose into the cell. Page 31 of 114 . they are coupled with glucose molecules which are drawn in with them. Villi contain muscles which move the food ensuring the glucose is absorbed from the food adjacent to the villi. The sodium ions diffuse into the cells down a concentration gradient. It is the sodium ion concentration. rather than the ATP directly. 4. There is now a much higher concentration of sodium ions in the lumen than in the cells. thus reducing the distance over which diffusion takes place. Role of active transport in absorption The way in which most glucose is absorbed from small intestine is an example of cotransport. Their properties increase the efficiency of absorption because: • • • • They increase the surface area for diffusion They are very thin walled. They are able to move and so maintain a concentration gradient They are well supplied with blood vessels so that the blood can carry away absorbed molecules and hence maintain a diffusion gradient. thus maintains a concentration gradient for diffusion. Sodium ions are actively transported out of the epithelial cells by the sodium potassium pump.9 – Absorption in the small intestine Villi and Microvilli Villi have walls lined with epithelial cells. 3. As they flood back into the cells. Villi are situated at the interface between the lumen of the intestines and the blood and other tissues inside the body.Section 3. They are situated on the cell surface membrane. 1. The glucose diffuses into the blood through a carrier protein. new glucose rich food replaces it.

Section 3. The causes the ion channels of the cell-surface membrane to open. This establishes a water potential gradient that causes water to move by osmosis from the blood and other tissues into the small intestine.5. Separate from this are smaller circular pieces of DNA. This causes water to move into the small intestine. Many bacteria also protect themselves by producing a capsule of mucilaginous slime around this wall. • • • How the cholera bacterium causes disease Almost all Vibrio cholerae bacteria ingested by humans are killed by the low pH in the stomach but many can still survive. especially if the pH is above 4. They then start to produce a toxic protein. that the chloride ions that are normally contained within the epithelial cells flood into the lumen of the intestine. Ions move by diffusion into the epithelial cells. The genetic material of a bacterium is found in the form of a circular strand of DNA. This is a mixture of polysaccharides and peptides. The loss of ions from the cells establishes a concentration gradient. whereas the other part enters the epithelial cells.10 – Cholera Structure of a bacteria cell The bacterium that causes cholera is called Vibrio Cholerae. called plasmids. Inside the cell-surface membrane is the cytoplasm that contains ribosomes that are smaller than the ones found in eukaryotic cells. • • • • All bacteria possess a cells wall that is made up of peptidoglycan. Flagella occur at certain types of bacteria. (70s type) Bacteria store food as glycogen granules and oil droplets. When the bacteria enter the lumen of the small intestine they use their flagella to propel themselves through the mucus lining of the intestinal wall. The protein has two parts: one part binds to the carbohydrate receptors of the intestinal epithelial cells. The loss of chloride ions from cells increases the water potential in the cell. Page 32 of 114 . but lowers the water potential outside the cells.

Glucose – to stimulate the uptake of sodium ions from the intestine and to provide energy Potassium – to replace lost potassium ions and to stimulate appetite Other electrolytes – such as chloride and citrate ions. The drinking water does not replace electrolytes that are being lost from cells of the intestine.11.Oral rehydration therapy What causes diarrhoea? • • • Damage to the epithelial cells in the lining of the small intestine Loss of Microvilli due to toxins Excessive secretion of water due to toxins What is oral rehydration therapy? Drinking water to treat diarrhoea is ineffective because: Water is not being absorbed by the intestine. Indeed. the water potential falls and water enters the cells by osmosis. As sodium ions are being absorbed. water is actually being lose from cells. Page 33 of 114 . as in the case of cholera.Section 3. to help prevent electrolyte imbalance The solution must be given regularly and in large amounts whilst the person has the illness. A rehydration solution should therefore contain: • • • • • Water – to rehydrate tissues Sodium – to replace the ions lost from the epithelium of the small intestine and to make optimum use of the sodium-glucose carrier proteins.

Mammals must also maintain a high temperature and therefore have high metabolic and respiratory rates. Mammalian Lungs • Lungs are kept inside the body because air is not dense enough to support and protect these delicate structures. The volume of oxygen that needs to be absorbed and the volume of carbon dioxide that needs to be removed is large in mammals because there is a large volume of respiring cells. which lead to the two lungs. The larger airways resemble an upside-down tree. fibrous connective tissue called cartilage. The lungs are a pair of lobed structures made up of a series of bronchioles. It has an indentation. the millions of alveoli of the lungs form a surface of more than 100 square meters. on its medial surface for the apex of the heart. The left lung has two lobes. Within the alveolar walls is a dense network of tiny blood vessels called capillaries. The left lung is longer. Circular airway muscles can dilate or constrict the airways. The right lung is divided into three lobes and each lobe is supplied by one of the secondary bronchi. The airways are held open by flexible. The trachea (windpipe) branches into two smaller airways: the left and right bronchi. called the cardiac notch. At the end of each bronchiole are thousands of small air sacs called alveoli. narrower. These are the narrowest airways – as small as one half of a millimeter across. thus changing the size of the airway. and has a smaller volume than the right lung it shares space in the left side of the chest with the heart. The extremely thin barrier between air and capillaries allows • • • • Page 34 of 114 . which end in tiny sacs called alveoli. keeping them inside the body prevents loss of water and so they will not dry out easily. The bronchi themselves divide many times before branching into smaller airways called bronchioles.1 – Structure of the human gas-exchange system All aerobic organisms require a constant supply of oxygen to release energy in the form of ATP during respiration.Section 4. Lungs provide efficient surface area for effective gas exchange. which is why this part of the respiratory system is often called the bronchial tree. Together. In addition to this.

They are separated from each other by the mediastinum. The lungs are soft and spongy because they are mostly air spaces surrounded by the alveolar cells and elastic connective tissue. • Page 35 of 114 . and it helps to hold the two layers together as the lungs inflate and deflate. which contains the heart. the visceral pleura is continuous with the parietal pleura that lines the wall of the thorax. The fluid acts as a lubricant to reduce friction as the two layers slide against each other. This is where the bronchi. blood vessels. lymphatics. At the hilum. The small space between the visceral and parietal pleurae is the pleural cavity. The visceral pleura is firmly attached to the surface of the lung. The only point of attachment for each lung is at the hilum. or root. • Each lung is enclosed by a double-layered serous membrane. on the medial side. and nerves enter the lungs. It contains a thin film of serous fluid that is produced by the pleura.oxygen to move from the alveoli into the blood and allows carbon dioxide to move from the blood in the capillaries into the alveoli. called the pleura.

The process of breathing is called ventilation. This further increases the volume. air is forced out. This is called expiration. breathing out is a passive process (requires no energy) this is because the force of gravity and the recoil of elastic muscle fibres pull the rib cage downwards and inwards. air is drawn in. the external muscles relax and the internal muscles contract. as a result move upwards and outwards. Due to the increase in volume. Inspiration Inspiration is an active process (requires energy) In order to respire. The diaphragm muscle contracts. During expiration. There is internal muscles and external muscles. this decreases the volume. the internal muscles relax whilst the external muscles contract. The internal muscles contract while the external muscles relax. When air pressure in the lungs is greater than the air pressure of the outside atmosphere. Air pressure in the atmosphere is greater than the air pressure in the lungs. air must be constantly moved into and out of the lungs. This further decreases the volume. The ribs. thus increasing the volume. Pulmonary Ventilation Pulmonary ventilation = tidal volume x ventilation rate (dm^3min^-1) (dm^3) (min^-1) Page 36 of 114 . The diaphragm relaxes and moves back into its domed shape. During inspiration. air is drawn in.2 – The mechanism of breathing To maintain a steep concentration gradient. the air pressure drops. Due to this. and flattens. the external muscles contract. Expiration Normally. and is then lower than the air pressure outside of the lungs.Section 4. The decrease in volume causes an increase in pressure and so air is pushed out. There are two types of intercostals muscles that lie between the ribs. This is known as inspiration.

Breathing in air when there is a high concentration of CO2 can be lethal even when there is a rich supply of oxygen. Alveoli Mammals exchange respiratory gases mainly through the alveoli. Gas exchange surface . Cells in the alveoli wall are flattened with only a thing layer of cytoplasm between the cell membranes. The delicate surface area is protected from damage by being tucked away inside the chest. Single cell organisms can use there cell membrane as a surface for gas exchange.Section 4. The lumen of the capillary is so narrow that the red blood cells slow down as the pass through it. Each alveoli is approximately 75 – 300 micrometers across. Cellular respiration creates a constant demands for oxygen. Particles move down a concentration gradient. This allows for efficient gas exchange. CO2 will not diffuse out if the concentration is higher outside the lungs. The movement of O2 is independent of the movement of CO2. Walls of the alveoli are very thin and close together. Many organisms have developed specialised gas exchange structures called lungs. This reduces the distance for diffusion. Ficks law Rate of diffusion = surface area of the membrane x difference in concentration length of diffusion path Having a vast number of capillaries is very important. They are flattened against the alveoli.3 – Exchange of gas in the lungs Gas exchange is the process by which 02 moves enters the blood and CO2 moves out. This brings haemoglobin very close to the alveoli air. Page 37 of 114 . Diffusion occurs when there is a difference in concentration.where gas enters and leaves the lungs.

this is because the plasma membranes of its cells are permeable to water. The film of water slows down the rate of diffusion because it has increased the distance the gases need to travel. Epithelium and endothelium Epithelial cells – cells from epithelium tissue that lines the internal and external cavity.The inner surface of the alveoli wall is covered in water. Endothelium is a specialised type of epithelium that lines the inner surface of blood vessels. Lung surfactant reduces the surface tension so that the alveoli remain open. For a membrane to be permeable to oxygen it must also be permeable to water. Alveoli must be kept open to increase their surface area. Alveoli structure The wall of the alveoli is made of epithelial cells. Surfactant Surfactant prevents the alveoli from collapsing or sticking together. Page 38 of 114 .

droplets of water are expelled and may contain the bacteria.7 billion people world wide. It is the biggest killer of women of reproductive age. Most commonly affects the lungs. Almost any part of the body can be infected by the pathogen (extra pulmonary tb). TB is the leading cause of death from bacterial infection.Section 4. causing pulmonary TB. Divides once every 16-20 hours. Page 39 of 114 . The disease only develops if the bacterium reaches the alveoli. The disease affects almost 1. If the person has been exposed to the TB bacterium. You can only contract the disease after prolonged exposure. can survive several weeks in dry state. People who are most at risk are: People who have HIV Those taking immune suppressant drugs Those under going cancer treatment The very young/old Those who live in LDCs Those who inject drugs or drink too much alcohol Skin test – the doctor would inject a very dilute extract of the bacterium into your skin. Droplets of MTB can remain suspended in air for several hours. It has an extremely slow growth rate. It is very resistant. Contracting TB Most people with tb only exhale a few bacteria in each breath. It kills approximately 2 million people each year.4 – Pulmonary tuberculosis Tb is an infectious disease caused by an airborne. Can survive week disinfectants. rod-shaped pathogen called mycobacterium tuberculosis. When a person coughs or sneezes. the immune response will cause an area of inflammation. TB is referred to as invasive because it enters and spreads into tissue.

They can then affect other regions of the lungs. The infection can lead to inflammation and enlargement of the lymph nodes responsible for that area of the lung. Symptoms Persistent cough Chest pain Coughing up blood Chill + fever Night sweat Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Fatigue Death – occurs when the sufferer has lost too much weight. Tb bacteria have a cell wall made of a complex. The loss of S. This is called active tuberculosis.Treatment MTB is a bacterium that can be treated with antibiotics. When you are most at risk When you are in regular contact with those who have the disease When your immune system is compromised. the bacteria could break out of the tubercles in the alveoli. Bacteria destroy the lung tissue. waxy material that protects it from the macrophages. Fluid collects in the lungs and breathing becomes difficult. resulting in cavities and scar tissue where the lungs repair. Page 40 of 114 . The antibiotics are affective against most strains of the bacteria.A can reduce the efficiency of gas exchange. bacteria are then engulfed by a type of white blood cell called macrophages which do not actually destroy the bacteria. Immune system responds. other areas of the body can be infected. Disease progression Your immune system kills the bacteria and no further symptoms are experienced. The drug is taken for 6 – 9 months. If the bacterium enters the blood. Most TB is curable using a combination of 4 different types of antibiotics.

These bacteria are then engulfed by more macrophages and the cycle continues. releasing the bacteria. Lysosomes in the macrophages contain enzymes that break down the waste materials. Active TB The bacteria can multiply within the macrophages and eventually cause the cell to burst. if any symptoms and the infection is controlled within a few weeks. Page 41 of 114 . In a healthy person there are few.After 3 – 6 weeks another white blood cell called T-lymphocytes arrive at the site and activate the macrophages so they can destroy the bacteria.

Air laden with fine dust is drawn into the alveoli where there is no celia to sweep away the particles. This makes it harder to ventilate the lungs. Pain and discomfort in the chest – caused by the pressure and damage caused by the tissue. Asthma Allergens cause a chemical called histamine to be produce. Patients suffering from the disease cannot diffuse oxygen into their blood as efficiently. Diagnosed by a lung biopsy The fibrous tissue also reduces the elasticity of the lungs. Fluid leaves capillaries and enters the lungs. which causes the airways to become thickened. However. The lining of these airways become inflamed Goblet cells secrete more mucus. silica and some gases Exposure to ionising radiation Autoimmune response to inhaling gas containing bacterial. asthma and Emphysema Infection Can be caused by environmental agents such as asbestos. Shortness of breath – occurs due to the lack of oxygen diffusing into the blood as a result of the lengthened pathway and shallower concentration gradient. Chronic dry cough – bodies reflex to try and remove fibrous tissue. White blood cells near the alveoli are called alveoli macrophages.5 – Fibrosis. fungal or animal products.. Often linked with occupation Most contaminants that reach the bronchi and brochioles are trapped in the mucus.Section 4. They engulf bacteria and foreign particles. Pulmonary fibrosis Occurs when scars form on the epithelium causing them to become irreversibly thickened. the tissue is virtually irremovable. The muscles surrounding the bronchi and bronchioles contract Page 42 of 114 .

Difficulty breathing – due to constriction of airways A wheezing sound when breathing – caused by air passing through restricted airways A tight feeling in the chest – consequence of not being able to ventilate the lungs properly Emphysema In emphysematous tissue the elastin has become permanently stretched and the lungs are no longer able to force all the air out of the alveoli. the rate of diffusion is reduced and less gas exchange will take place. This causes the concentration gradient to become shallower. Chronic cough – bodies reflex to try and remove damaged tissue. As a result. Bluish skin colouration – due to the lower levels of oxygen within the blood as a result of poor gas exchange Page 43 of 114 . Shortness of breath – air cannot be ventilated as effectively.

The systemic circulation pumps oxygenated blood to every other part of the body that uses oxygen. They need a circulatory system to move substances around the body. Pericardium fluid is secreted by the membranes and reduces friction. It is divided into a left and right side by a septum. The heart produces the main pressure gradient. inelastic membranes which form the pericardium. allowing them to move freely over each other. The pulmonary circulation pumps blood to the lungs to be oxygenated. The human heart • • • Lies in the thoracic cavity Consists mainly of cardiac muscle Its pumping action ensures that fresh supplies of oxygen and nutrients are constantly being supplied to all living cells of the body. from high to low pressure. The circulatory system • • • Mammals have a double circulatory system as blood passes through the twice on one complete circulation of the body. • Pericardium • • The heart is covered by a double layer of tough.Section 5. Blood moves down pressure gradients.1 – The heart and heart disease • • • • Mammals are too large to rely on diffusion. Page 44 of 114 . although contractions of skeletal muscles also push blood along veins.

Ventricle walls are thicker than that of the atria as they have to pump blood over a greater distance. anchors its surrounding structures and prevents overfilling of the heart with blood. Left side of the heart • • • • The left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein. Page 45 of 114 . Atria have only a thin muscular wall as they only need to pump blood a short distance to the ventricle. The right side of the heart • • • • • The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circulation through the vena cava. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood through the pulmonary artery. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood through the aorta into the systemic circulation. the left ventricle has a thicker muscular wall.• This sac. Ventricles • • The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where the left ventricle has to pump blood to the whole body. Each atrium is elastic so it can stretch as it fills up with blood. Although the volume of blood they hold is the same. Heart Chambers • • • • The right side pumps oxygenated blood. The two upper chambers are called the atria and the two lower chambers are called the ventricles. The ventricles pump blood into arteries. to the pulmonary circulation. Each side has two chambers. the left side pumps oxygenated blood. The pulmonary vein is the only vein to carry oxygenated blood. The pulmonary artery is the only artery to carry deoxygenated blood. protects the heart. The atria receive blood from veins.

The tricuspid valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle has three flaps. Page 46 of 114 . Cardiac Muscle • • A special type of muscle. The aortic semi lunar valve is between the left ventricle and the aorta. These tendons to not stretch. Coronary arteries • Some of the bloody leaving the left ventricle goes to the coronary arteries. one between each atrium and ventricle. • The coronary arteries are much narrower than many other arteries and so can become blocked more easily. How valves work • • • • • They prevent the back flow of blood. and one at the base of each artery leading from the ventricles. Valves in the heart are designed to open when there is high pressure forcing the blood on the correct direction. Valves • • • • • There are 4 valves in the mammalian heart. unlike other muscles it never fatigues. The bicuspid valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle has two flaps. Does not tolerate a lack of oxygen or nutrients and soon dies if its supply of blood is cut off. The pulmonary semi-lunar valve is between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.• A thicker muscular wall will allow a stronger contraction to push blood further. If high pressure forces the blood in the wrong direction. they stop the valves turning inside out. These arteries branch out to supply the thick heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients. the valves shut. Thin tendons join to the edges of the valve flaps to the wall of each ventricle.

Both sides of the heart contract together. Page 47 of 114 . The higher pressure in the atria than the ventricles. forces the atrioventricular valves to open. The atrioventricular valves open. blood flows from the atria to the ventricles. pushing more blood into the ventricles. Blood returning to the heart fills the atria. This means that the atria will contract and relax at the same time and so will the two ventricles. This raises the pressure in the atria. This is known as diastole. Even though the atria aren’t contracting. The stages of the cardiac cycle • • • • • There are three stages of the cardiac cycle: atrial systole and ventricular systole and diastole. Atrial systole • • • • • The myocardium of both atria contract.Section 5. When it is relaxing it is in diastole. Diastole • • • Ventricular and atrial myocardium relaxes at the same time. Ventricle systole refers to the contraction of the ventricular myocardium. More blood passes through these valves into the ventricles. The cardiac cycle is the sequence of stages that take place in one heart beat. Atrial systole refers to the contracting of the atrial myocardium (heart muscle). Both semi-lunar valves are closed. When a chamber is contracting it is in systole.2 – The cardiac Cycle • • • • The 4 chambers in the heart are constantly contracting and relaxing in a definite sequence. Between heart beats the myocardium of both atria and ventricles are relaxed.

Ventricular Systole • • • • • • • • The myocardium of both ventricles contract The atria are relaxed The ventricles continue to fill with blood This quickly raises the pressure of the ventricles higher than that of the atria. Myogenic contractions of the myocardium are largely responsible for the cardiac cycle. • • • Page 48 of 114 . The cardiac cycle starts at the sinoatrial node (SA node). Pressure changes are responsible for moving blood through the heart and into the systemic and pulmonary circulations. The SA node is a group of cells found out the top of the right atrium which acts as a natural pacemaker and initiates the heart beat. Pressure changes • • • The events of the cardiac cycle create pressure changes. Both atrioventricular valves are forced closed When the pressure of the ventricles exceeds that of the arteries. The semi-lunar valves close. rather than by the nervous system. stopping blood moving back into the heart. Blood is pushed out of the heart into the pulmonary artery and aorta. Controlling the cardiac cycle • Myogenic contractions are contractions originating from within the muscle. Valves open or close when the balance of pressure on opposite sides of the valves changes. the pulmonary and aortic valves are forced open.

Bundles of his conduct electrical impulses rapidly down the atrioventricular septum. from the top of the atria. The heart rate can also be controlled by nervous impulses and hormones such as during exercise and adrenalin. There is only one location where the impulse can travel from atrium to ventricle – through the atrioventricular node. from the base of the heart upwards. squeezing blood towards the ventricles. Starting the Cardiac cycle • • • • The SA node produces waves of electrical impulses called cardiac impulses. This stops the waves of the atrial muscle contraction continuing through the ventricle muscles as the blood would be forced to the bottom of the heart. These fibres stimulate the muscles of the ventricles to contract rapidly. because it is stopped by a wall of fibrous tissue called the atrioventricular system. to the bottom of the heart. • • • • • Contraction of the ventricles • • • From the AVN two specialised bundles of purkinje tissue run down the atrioventricular septum and up the ventricular wall. The cells in the AVN can conduct electricity but only shortly after a slight delay. The heart beat Page 49 of 114 . The delay allows time for the atria to complete their cycle. This tissue conducts the impulses throughout the atria.• • The rate at which the SA node produces the waves determines the heart rate. (av node) The AV node is another specialised group of cells. The contraction spreads outwards and downwards. Continuing the cardiac cycle • The electrical activity cannot pass from the walls of the atria to the walls of the ventricles. stimulating the myocardium of the atria to contract. The impulses are not carried by nervous tissue but by specialised muscle fibres called purkinje fibres.

• • First heart beat sound “lub” occurs when the atrioventricular valves close. The cardiac output depends on two features: how quickly the heart is beating. and the stroke volume (amount of blood in one beat). Cardiac output =heart rate (min^-1) X stroke volume (dm^3) Page 50 of 114 . Second heart sound “dub” occurs when the semi lunar valves close. Measured in DM^3min^-1 The volume pumped by both ventricles pumped is the same. Cardiac output • • • • • The volume of blood from ventricles in one minute.

but irreversibly with haemoglobin. Nicotine stimulates the production of adrenalin which will increase heart rate and blood pressure. blood filled structure called an aneurysm. or athermanous plaque. In order to supply tissue with the same amount of oxygen the heart must work harder. Thrombosis If an Atheroma breaks through the endothelium of the blood vessel. causing them to swell to form a balloon like. that will stop the flow of blood. Myocardial infarction Occurs when the hear stops beating. thereby increasing blood pressure. glucose and other nutrients being transported to the tissue. Atheroma Begins as fatty streaks which are deposits of white blood cells that have taken up low density lipoproteins These streaks enlarge to form an irregular patch. If blood flow to the heart muscle is interrupted it can cause a myocardial infarction.3 – Heart Disease Atheroma is the build up of fatty deposits that can impair blood flow. the heart must work harder to pump blood into them. Page 51 of 114 . Aneurysm Atheromas that form thrombosis can weaken artery wall. fibres and dead muscle cells. This may cause a thrombus (blood clot). thus reducing the oxygen carry capability of the blood.Section 5. Athermanous plaques are made up of cholesterol. The region of tissue deprived of blood due to the thrombus will not be able to respire as a result of no oxygen. Smoking Carbon monoxide combines easily. otherwise known as a heart attack. it forms a rough surface that interrupts the otherwise smooth flow of blood. Blood pressure If the blood pressure in the arteries is high.

restricting blood flow. leading to the development of Atheroma and hence a heart attack. Diet High levels of salt raise blood pressure. which they infiltrate. e. High levels of saturated fat increase low density lipoprotein levels and hence blood cholesterol concentration. including the artery walls.g. They help protect arteries against heart disease. Foods that act as antioxidants. vitamin c. and so does non-starch polysaccharide (dietary fibre). To resist the high pressure the walls of the arteries tend to become thickened and may harden. Blood Cholesterol High density lipoproteins remove cholesterol from tissue and transport it to the liver for excretion. Low density lipoproteins which transport cholesterol from the liver to the tissue. reduce the risk of heart disease. Page 52 of 114 .High blood pressure in the arteries means there is more chance of an aneurysm forming and bursting causing a haemorrhage.

These mechanisms act immediately and take two forms: A) barrier of entry B) phagocytosis Specific – Mechanisms that do distinguish between different pathogens. There is a high probability that when a pathogen enters the body the antigen on its surface will be complementary to a specific lymphocyte. There are very few of each lymphocyte so response to an infection is slow. If they did not. Tlymphocytes Humoral response Blymphocyte s • • • T-lymphocytes already exist within the body. • Page 53 of 114 . Defence Mechanisms Non specific Response is immediate and the same for all Specific Response is slower and is specific to each pathogen pathogens Physical barrier Phagocytosis Cell mediated response. Given that there are so many different types of lymphocyte in the body. The response involves a type of white blood cell called a lymphocyte and can take two forms: A) cell mediated response (T-lymphocytes) B) Humoral responses (B-Lymphocytes) Recognising your own cells Lymphocytes must be able to distinguish between pathogens and the bodies own cells. There is over 10 million different types of T-lymphocytes. The response is less rapid but provides long lasting immunity.Section 6.1 – Defence mechanisms Defence mechanisms Non-specific – mechanisms that do not distinguish between one type of pathogen and another. but respond to all of them in the same way. they would destroy the body’s tissue.

Enzymes within the Lysosomes join with the phagosome and release their contents. There are phagocytes and lymphocytes.2 – Phagocytosis There are two different types of white blood cells.Section 6. In the lungs pathogens are often caught in the mucus and moved by the cilia. The soluble products of the pathogen are absorbed into the cytoplasm of the phagocyte Page 54 of 114 . Phagocytes attach themselves to the surface of the pathogen. Phagocytosis • • • • • • Pathogens are engulfed by phagocytes in the form of vesicles which are formed on the cell-surface membrane. They engulf the pathogen to form a vesicle known as a “phagosome”. Barriers of entry • • • A protective covering – The skin covers the body’s surface. creating a barrier that is hard for pathogens to penetrate. The enzymes within the Lysosomes digest the pathogen. Chemical products of the pathogen act as attractants which draw the phagocyte towards it. Phagocytes ingest and destroy pathogens by a process called phagocytosis. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach – Provides a low pH that denatures the pathogens enzymes. Epithelia covered in the mucus – Many epithelia produce mucus.

they produce a protein that makes a hole in the pathogen or infected cells. B) The phagocyte places the antigen on its own cell-surface membrane. Body cells that have been invaded by a virus also manage to present some of the virus’ antigens on its surface as a sign of distress. E) The cones T cells: a) Develop into memory cells that provided rapid response in the future. Antigens are normally proteins that are part of the organism’s cell-surface membrane.3 – T cells and cell-mediated immunity Antigens An antigen is any part of an organism or substance that is recognised as foreign and stimulates a response from the immune system.e. Instead. D) This stimulates other T cells to divide rapidly by osmosis to form a clone. or “humour”. c) Stimulate b cells to divide d) Kill infected cells T cells do not kill cells by phagocytosis. C) Receptors on certain T helper cells fit exactly onto these antigens. T – Lymphocytes are associated with cell-mediated immunity i. Cancer cells also present antigens on its cell-surface membrane. A) Pathogens invade body cells or are taken in by phagocytes. Cell-mediated immunity T – Lymphocytes can distinguish foreign material from the bodies own tissue because: Phagocytes have engulfed and broken down a pathogen and have presented some of its antigens on its own cell-surface membrane. b) Stimulate phagocytes to engulf the bacteria by phagocytosis. Page 55 of 114 . The hole then makes the cell freely permeable to all substances and quickly dies as a result. Both types of lymphocytes are formed from stem cells in the bone marrow. T-Lymphocytes only respond to antigens that are attached to a body cell. immunity involving antibodies that are present in the body’s fluids. immunity involving body cells.Section 6. Lymphocytes B –Lymphocytes are associated with humoral immunity i. This type of response is called “cell-mediated immunity”.e.

Antigenic Variability The antigens that pathogens are made of. 7. The surface antigens of the invading pathogen are taken up by the B cells. Due to this the most use its primary immune response. The cloned plasma cells produce antibodies that exactly fit the antigens on the pathogens surface. its antigens are not complimentary to the antigens or the memory cells produced from the last infection. this is known as antigenic variability.4 – B cells and humoral immunity Humoral immunity is so called because it involves antibodies which are soluble in the blood and tissue fluid. This is the secondary immune response.Section 6. This is the primary immune response. T helper cells attach to the processed antigens and B cells thereby activating them. The antibodies attach to antigens on the pathogens and destroy them. Influenza for example has many different strains and so when a new strain enters the body. and the ones they produce are constantly changing. Toxin molecules will also act as an antigen. Page 56 of 114 . 4. When they encounter the same antigen they divide rapidly into plasma cells and more memory cells. 2. also called “humour”. A typical pathogen may have more than one type of antigen on its surface. They only live for a few days but produce more than 2000 antibodies every second. This is known as the primary immune response Memory cells live for decades in some cases. The B cells are now activated to divide by mitosis to give a clone of the plasma cells. The B cells process the antigens and present them on their surface. Some B cells develop into memory cells. 3. 6. 5. 1. This is known as the secondary immune response. This explains why it is possible to get the same diseases more than once. Each B cell develops into two different types of cell: Plasma cells secrete antibodies directly. These can respond to future infections by the same pathogen by dividing rapidly and developing into plasma cells that produce antibodies. The memory cells provide long term immunity.

Antibodies react with antigens by binding with them.Section 6. Page 57 of 114 .5 – Antibodies Antibodies are proteins synthesised by B cells. Structure Antibodies are made up of four different polypeptide chains.

and detecting the immunodeficiency virus (aids test) Cancer treatment – it is possible to manufacture monoclonal antibodies that will attach themselves to cancer cells. while the other pair have shorter chains and are called light chains. testing for drugs in the urine. Transplant surgery – Even with close matching the transplanted tissue will experience some rejection from the T – cells. Monoclonal antibodies A pathogen entering the body is likely to have hundreds of different antigens on its surface. In is generally long-lasting. they are not being replaced when they are broken down in the body and so the immunity is generally short-lived. They will then activate a cytotoxic drug that will kill cells.this is the method of calculating the amount of substance in a mixture.The chains of one pair are long and are called heavy chains. Each clone will produce a different antibody known as a polyclonal antibody. This drug will only be activated by cells to which the antibody is attached. The rest of the antibody is the same and is called the constant region. Monoclonal antibodies have a number of uses such as: The separation of a chemical from a mixture Immunoassay. Page 58 of 114 . As the antibodies are not being produced by the individuals themselves. Active immunity is produced by stimulating the production of antibodies by the individuals own immune system. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to knock out these T – Cells. Each antigen will induce a different B cells to divide and clone its self. Antibodies have a binding site that is very specific to the antigen once together they form and antigen-antibody complex The binding site is different for all antibodies and is known as the variable region. It is used in pregnancy testing kits.6 – Vaccination Passive immunity is produced by the introduction of antibodies into individuals from an outside source. Antibodies that can be isolated and cloned are called monoclonal antibodies. Section 6.

There may be many varieties of a particular pathogen. The increasing amounts of people with HIV has led to more people having impaired immune systems and so are more likely to contract TB.Vaccination is the injection of a substance into the body with the intention of stimulating active immunity. These people have less effective immune systems and so vaccination is less effective at stimulating immunity. Certain pathogens can hide from the body’s immune system by hiding themselves with cells or by living in places that are out of reach. The antigens on the cholera surface change rapidly. Why vaccination does not eliminate a disease • • • • • Vaccination fails induce immunity amongst some individuals. storing and transporting the vaccine must be available. The problems of controlling cholera and tuberculosis by vaccination • • • • Cholera is an intestinal disease and is not easily reached by the immune system. Pathogens may mature rapidly so that their antigens change suddenly rather than gradually. There must be the means of administrating the vaccine at the right time. Means of producing. It must be possible to vaccinate the vast majority of the vulnerable population. This is due to the antigenic variability. Page 59 of 114 . Features of a successful vaccination program • • • • • • The success of a vaccination program depends on a number of factors: A suitable vaccine must be economically available in sufficient quantities There must be very few if any unpleasant side effects from the vaccine. The proportion of elderly people in the population is increasing. Individuals may develop the disease immediately after vaccination but before their immunity levels are high enough to prevent it.

1 – Investigating Variation If one species differs from another it is called interspecific variation.Section 7. Making measurements Page 60 of 114 . If each member of a species differs from one another it is called intraspecific variation.

Fusion of gametes – In sexual reproduction the offspring inherit some characteristics of each parent and are therefore different from both of them. or may not. by pure chance be unrepresentative. the individuals chosen may. Divide the study area into a grid of numbered lines. Environmental differences In most cases variation is due to the combined effects of both genetic differences and environmental influences. Sampling – involves taking measurements of individuals. Chance – Even if sampling bias is avoided. Using numbers generated by a computer to obtain a series of coordinates 3. be passed on to the next generation. forms gametes. all living organisms differ in some way. 2. The affect of chance cannot be removed however it can be minimised by using large sample sizes and analysing the data collected at the end to determine the affect chance had and to what degree it influenced the data. To prevent sampling being biased. Which gamete fuses with which at fertilisation are a random process which further adds variety to the offspring. However. Meiosis – Special form of nuclear division. This mixes up all the genetic material before it is passed into the gametes. • • Sampling bias – The selection process may be biased. Take sample at the intersection of each set of coordinates. random sampling should be carried out instead. possibly due to the investigator making unrepresentative choices. One method is to: 1.Biologists often take measurements of some aspect of a living thing. As a result it is very difficult to draw conclusions about the causes of variation in any particular case. all of which are different. either deliberately or unwittingly. Page 61 of 114 . selected from the population of organisms which is being investigated. Causes of variation Genetic differences – due to differences in the genes of each individual organism Genetic differences occur due to: Mutations – sudden changes to genes and chromosomes may.

Variation can be represented on a bar chart of pie graph.Section 7.2 – Types of variation Variation due to genetic factors Where variation is the result of genetic factors organisms fit into a few distinct forms and there are no intermediate types. Variation due to environmental influences Page 62 of 114 .

Subtract the mean value from the measurement values. Mean and standard deviation Mean – measurement of the maximum height of the curve. Calculating standard deviation 1. provide any information about the range of values within the sample. 2. Section 8.1 – Structure of DNA DNA – deoxyribonucleic acid It is a type of nucleic acid. Page 63 of 114 . forming a continuum. it is the molecule of which our genes are made of. It does not however. Square all the numbers obtained in step 2 to make them positive. The mean provides an average value that can be used when comparing one sample with another. Environmental factors play a major role in determining where on the continuum an organism actually lies. Calculate the mean value (x bar). If we take these data and plot them on a graph we obtain a bell-shaped curve known as a normal distribution curve. do 6-9. Square root the number obtained in step 4. 3. It gives an indication of the range of values either side of the mean. 5. Standard deviation – Is a measurement of the width of the curve.Some characteristics of organisms grade into one another. For example if the mean is 9 and one of the measurement values is 6. A standard deviation is the distance from the mean to the point where the curve changes from being convex to concave. Why is DNA important? Its structure enables it to play a key role in two essential features of all living organisms. to get the standard deviation. 4. Add all the square numbers together and divide by the number of measurements.

Page 64 of 114 . This forms a “sugar-phosphate backbone” with the base petruding outwards. or guanine. They occur singly (mononucleotides). Nucleotides are nitrogen containing. The nucleotides of DNA Each nucleotide has three components: 1. organic molecules that play a vital role in every organisms life. 2.Inheritance – ensuring that DNA is passed on. in twos (dinucleotides). Each chain is sing and unbranched These polynucleotide strands are twisted to for a double helix. The pentose (5 carbon) sugar deoxyribose 3. cytosine. The bases are attached to the backbone. What are nucleotides? DNA is called a polynucleotide. A phosphate group The structure of the nucleotides The nucleotides in each strand of DNA are held together by the bonds between deoxyribose of one nucleotide. and the phosphate group of the next. onto the next generation and protein synthesis. What is DNA made of? Each strand of DNA is made of repeated subunits called nucleotides. The phosphate and sugar molecule make the backbone of the DNA molecule. unaltered. Nucleotides are joined together by a condensation reaction. DNA structure DNA molecules are huge: each molecule consists of two interconnected chains or stands. thymine. The reaction occurs between the deoxyribose sugar and the phosphate group. An organic nitrogenous base: adenine. or in thousands (polynucleotides).

there four different types of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. Nucleotides containing cystine. Complementary bases Page 65 of 114 . The bond can be broken down by hydrolysis. Individually. but in a combination they can be strong. Each run on the ladder must be the same length so long molecules bond with short molecules. C and T have a sing ring structure and are shorter. DNA bases Adenine = A Thymine = B Cytosine = C Guanine = G As there are four different bases. Hydrogen bonds are formed between the organic bases of each polynucleotide strand.The bonds linking the two nucleotides are called covalent phosphodiester bonds. hydrogen bonds are weak. Hydrogen Bonds Hydrogen bonds are weaker that phosphate covalent bonds. Bonding between DNA strands All the atoms in the nucleotides that make up each chain have no free covalent bond site. G and A have a double ring structure and are longer molecules. bond with guanine. Hydrogen bonds break and reform. allowing strands to separate during replication and protein synthesis. Base pairing rule If the nucleotide contains adenine it bonds with thymine. Three hydrogen bonds are formed between G and C Two hydrogen bonds are formed between A and T Reason for pairing Hydrogen bonding only occurs between certain bases. The hydrogen bonds are between the hydrogen atoms of a base in one chain and the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in another chain.

they run in opposite directions. Each of the two polynucleotide chains is anti-parallel. The four different types of nucleotides can join in an infinite number of ways.2 – The triplet code Genes are sequences of nucleotides at a fixed position on a strand of DNA that specify a sequence of amino acids that form the primary structure of a protein. Section 8. At the 3’ end. carbon 3 of the deoxyribose is closest to the end.A and T are complementary bases. The Double helix DNA is similar to twisted ladder Each complete turn has ten base pairs Because of the complementary pairing. Page 66 of 114 . There are equal amounts of A and T and C and G DNA and variety What differs between DNA is the proportion and sequence of bases. the sequence of bases along a polynucleotide chain determines he sequence along another. DNA strands A polynucleotide has two distinct ends: a 3 prime end and a 5 prime end. Genetic code The order of bases in an organisms DNA The order of bases determines what amino acid is produced. that is.

The remaining exons code for amino acids. some found between genes. Joining amino acids Peptide bonds between amino acids. Determining amino acid sequences Each is amino acid is determined by the sequence of bases in the gene. Making proteins DNA codes for amino acids that form the primary structure of a protein. Non – overlapping: each base is part of only one triplet and is therefore involved in specifying only one amino acid. Some non – coding DNA is found within a gene. Coding – non coding Much of the DNA is Eukaryotic cells does not code for polypeptides. All proteins are made from the 20 amino acids. Amino acids Three bases can code for 64 different amino acids.Each gene carries the code for a specific polypeptide. Page 67 of 114 . Different numbers and sequences of these amino acids produce an almost limitless range of proteins. As there are only 20 amino acids. Each protein has a unique tertiary structure due to its sequence of amino acids. most amino acids have more than one code. Non coding regions – introns Coding regions – exons Splicing The introns are spliced out by enzymes. forming polypeptides Genetic code summary Triplet – each of the 20 amino acids used to make proteins is represented by a base triplet in DNA. We say the degenerate code. Each code has three bases – triplet code.

Section 8. Is larger than prokaryotic DNA Page 68 of 114 . Almost universal: the base triplet that codes for a particular amino acid in humans also codes for the same amino acid in most other living organisms.Linear DNA – is always read from 5’ to 3’ Degenerate There are more base triplets than amino acids.3 – DNA and Chromosomes Eukaryotic DNA • • • Is linear and forms chromosomes Found in the nucleus of cells. Some amino acids have more than one code.

The structure of polypeptides • • • • Composed of DNA and histones DNA and histones forms chromatin Nucleosomes are the basic structural unit of chromatin. This is because the cell is smaller and so is less complex.• • A single eukaryotic cell has many different molecules of DNA called chromosomes. Prokaryotic DNA • • • • Forms a closed loop and is circular. Nucleosomes consist of a DNA molecules wrapped around a ball of 8 histone molecules. Each chromosome carries the DNA for a large number of polypeptides. It is not organised into chromosomes. Page 69 of 114 . Each chromosome is made of one DNA molecule Chromosomes are thicker and shorter than individual DNA molecules. Mitochondria + Chloroplasts DNA does not have histones. Found in the cytoplasm Found in a region of the cell called a nucleoid The DNA of prokaryotic cells is smaller than the DNA in eukaryotic cells. ergo it does not need as many genes. therefore it is possible to see them under electron microscopes. • • • Chromosomes • • • • • Human cells has 46 chromosomes (23 pairs) The chromosomes are only visible when the nucleus divides. Does not contain non-coding DNA Many cells contain smaller circular pieces of DNA called plasmids.

Changes in the genetic code can mean that a particular protein is not produce. As we have two of each gene we have two alleles for each gene. Alleles are different version of the same gene. We call the members of each pair. Cells with one chromosome from a homologous pair are called haploid cells. Homologous Chromosomes • • • • • • The members of each pair of chromosomes have the same shape. Page 70 of 114 . Cells with pairs of homologous chromosomes – are called diploid cells. the other from the father (paternal). homologous chromosomes. One chromosomes comes from the mother (maternal). Genes come in more than one form. Karyotyping • A karyotype is a photograph of a person’s chromosomes arranged in order of size.• Alleles • • • • Chromatin takes up special stains and is visible in a non-dividing nucleus. Chromosomes and genes • • • • The largest chromosome can contain approximately 8000 genes. whereas the smallest contains approximately 300. Different genes are active in different cells. Chromosomes come in pairs and so there are two copies of the same gene. Gametes are haploid cells. is not produced properly or is produced in the wrong amounts. size and code for the same genes. Each gene has a specific position on a chromosome called its locus.

• • • Sex chromosomes are the 23rd pair.4 – Meiosis and Genetic Variation The division of the nucleus occurs in two ways: Mitosis – produces two daughter nuclei with the same number of chromosomes as the parent cell and as each other. Meiosis – produces four daughter nuclei. each with half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell. The other 22 chromosomes are called autosomes Karyotyping is used to spot chromosomal disorders Section 8. Why is meiosis necessary? Page 71 of 114 .

each chromosome separates into two chromatids. and consequent independent assortment. the alleles differ. One of each pair will go into the daughter cell. Crossing over occurs. The random distribution. Each of which will enter the daughter cells. Meiosis allows for genetic material from both the mother and the father to be passed on. tensions are created causing portions of the chromatids to break off. Meiosis brings about genetic variation by independent segregation of homologous chromosomes and recombination of homologous chromosomes by crossing over. Variety from new genetic combinations Independent segregation brings about genetic variation because although the homologous chromosomes have the same genes. During the twisting process. At the end of meiosis two there will be 4 new cells. The number of chromosomes in a gamete is a haploid number.When two gametes fuse to give rise to new offspring there chromosomes pair with each other. the combination of chromosomes that go into the daughter cell is also random. The process of meiosis First Division – Homologous chromosomes pair up and their chromatids wrap around each other. The chromatids of each pair twist around one another 2. Page 72 of 114 . Genetic recombination by crossing over 1. In humans each cell will have 23 chromatids. therefore when they fuse the diploid number of the cell is restored. leaving just one chromosomes in the daughter cell. of these chromosomes produces different genetic combinations. Because the chromosomes line up randomly. Gene – section of DNA that codes for a polypeptide Locus – Position of a gene of a chromosome Allele – One of the different forms of a gene Independent Segregation of Homologous Chromosomes When homologous chromosomes line up. where equal proportions of each chromatid are exchanged. the homologous pair would have separated. At the end of this first stage. they do so randomly. Second division – During the second division.

5. These portions of chromatids then join on to the homologous partner. 4. yet differ in terms of the two alleles they will posses for each gene. In this way new genetic combinations are achieved. This is due to the Page 73 of 114 .1 – Genetic Diversity Genetic Diversity • • • • Similarities and differences amongst organisms may be defined in terms of the variation in DNA. the greater the genetic diversity within a species If there is a lot of genetic diversity within a species there is more chance that the species will be able to cope with changes to the environment. Section 9. Usually equivalent portions of chromosomes are exchanged. The greater the number of alleles for genes. Hence it is the differences in DNA that lead to the vast differences in genetic diversity on earth All members of the same species have the same genes.3.

Section 10. the genetic diversity of the population will be restricted. Genetic Bottlenecks • • • Occurs when a species suffers a dramatic drop in numbers The few survivors will possess few alleles than the original population therefore there is less genetic diversity.fact that because there are more alleles. alleles with unwanted characteristics are bread out of the population. involves selecting individuals with desired characteristics and using them to parent the next generation. The founder affect • • • • Occurs when a few individuals colonise a region The few individuals will possess fewer alleles and may not be representative of the whole population. Selective Breeding • • • • Selective breeding. there is therefore a greater probability that there are members within the species that have the characteristics required to adapt to a certain change in the environment. Selective breeding is used to produce high yielding breeds of domestic animals and strains of plants. Offspring without desired characteristics may be killed or prevented from breeding Due to this.1 – Haemoglobin Haemoglobin molecules Primary Structure – Consists of four polypeptide chains Secondary Structure – Chains are coiled into a helix Tertiary Structure – Polypeptide chain is folded into a precise shape. important for its ability to hold oxygen Quaternary Structure – All four polypeptides are chained to form an almost spherical model. or artificial selection. Each polypeptide is associated with a “haem” group (Fe2+) Page 74 of 114 . The new group will show less variation. In time this new population may become a separate species. As these individuals become re-established. yet may be genetically distinct from the original population.

its shape changes so that its affinity for oxygen decreases and so can dissociate from the oxygen molecule more readily. and so haemoglobin with a low affinity for oxygen is necessary. thus making it difficult to absorb oxygen. the Fe groups are close together. An organism living in an environment where there is little oxygen. Why do organisms have haemoglobin with different affinities for oxygen? Different sequence of amino acid changes the shape of the molecules and there for its ability to hold oxygen. When carbon dioxide is present. the greater its affinity for oxygen Page 75 of 114 . This is provided that it has a low metabolic rate and therefore does not need to give up its oxygen as easily to respiring tissues. • The further to the left the curve is. An organism with a high metabolic rate needs to give up its oxygen more readily to tissues.2 – Oxygen dissociation curves At different partial pressures. haemoglobin may not absorb oxygen evenly. Section 10. This is provided that the organism lives in an oxygen rich environment. Why have different haemoglobins? Haemoglobin with a high affinity for oxygen – takes up oxygen more readily but releases it less easily. the polypeptide chains move away making it easier for more oxygen molecules to be absorbed The graph shows that a small decrease impartial pressure can lead to a lot of oxygen being dissociated. Once one oxygen molecule is absorbed. therefore allowing a total of four O2 molecules to be carried. At low concentrations of oxygen. The role of Haemoglobin • • • • • • Transportation of oxygen Haemoglobin must be able to: Readily associate with oxygen at the surface where gas exchange takes place Readily dissociate from oxygen at respiring tissues Haemoglobin can change its affinity for oxygen under certain condition Its shape changes in the presence of certain substances such as carbon dioxide. thus making it easy to take up oxygen. should have haemoglobin with a high affinity for oxygen.Each Fe ion can combine with a single oxygen molecule. Haemoglobin with a low affinity for oxygen – takes up oxygen less easily but releases it more readily.

High rate of respiration  more CO2 produced  lower pH  greater haemoglobin changes shape  oxygen unloaded more readily  more oxygen available for respiration. When CO2 dissolves. It is an important component of food and is the major energy source of most diets. Large amounts are found in seeds as an energy store. haemoglobins affinity for oxygen is reduced. Section 10. Starch is made up of long chains of alpha glucose molecules. The chain is unbranched and winds into a coil making the molecule very compact. The main role of starch is energy storage. The pH is higher due to low CO2 concentrations. thus lowering pH. The haemoglobin molecule changes shape in such away that its affinity for oxygen is reduced. transporting and unloading oxygen • • • • • At the gas exchange surface. High pH changes the shape so that oxygen can be easily absorbed. the lower its affinity for oxygen The affects of Carbon dioxide concentration In the presence of CO2. A low pH can reduce haemoglobins affinity for oxygen. it releases its O2 more readily to respiring cells.3 – Starch.• The further to the right. • Page 76 of 114 . At respiring tissue the level of CO2 is greater. In tissues. thus allowing for O2 to be absorbed more easily. Loading. the haemoglobin therefore has a lower affinity for oxygen. CO2 is constantly being removed. glycogen and cellulose Starch • • • Starch is polysaccharide that is found in many parts of plants in the form of grains. This causes haemoglobins affinity for oxygen to increase. At the gas exchange surface. CO2 is produced by respiring cells. Haemoglobin then releases its O2 into respiring cells. there is a low concentration of CO2 because it is diffusing out of the blood. and the curve shifts to the right. it lowers the pH of the blood. The curve therefore shifts to the right.

the chains are held tightly together. Cellulose molecules are grouped together to form microfibrils which in turn make parallel groups called fibres. Although each hydrogen bond is on its own weak. Glycogen is found in animal cells. The reason for this is that in beta glucose the position of the –H and the –OH group is reverse.Plant cell structure Leaf palisade cells Function – Photosynthesis Main features of its function include: • Long. • • • Section 10. It achieves this by exerting and inwards pressure that stops the influx of water. In animals it is stored as grains in the muscles and the liver. Cellulose is major component in plant cell walls. allowing for hydrogen bonding to occur. alpha glucose can easily be used in respiration. Because it is made up of shorter chains. When glycosidic bonds form between these molecules the result is that the – CH2OH group on each beta glucose molecule alternates from being above and below the chain Rather than forming a coiled chain like starch. Glycogen • • • • Glycogen is similar to starch however it is highly branched and made up of shorter chains. allowing more to be stored in a small space. Cellulose • • • Cellulose differs from starch and glycogen in that it is made up of beta glucose rather than alpha glucose. When hydrolysed.• • • It is insoluble and therefore does not cause osmosis to occur.4 . It is compact. thin cells that form a continuous layer for photosynthesis • Numerous chloroplasts that are arranged in the most effective way for absorbing the maximum amount of light • A large vacuole that ensures that the cytoplasm and chloroplasts are at the edge of the cell Chloroplasts The main features of chloroplasts are: Page 77 of 114 . it is more readily hydrolysed. because there are many hydrogen bonds. It is strong and prevents the cell from bursting due to osmosis. but never in plant cells. This produces fundamental differences in its structure. cellulose forms straight chains that run parallel to one another.

• •

The chloroplast envelope is a double plasma membrane that surrounds the organelle. It is highly selective in what it allows to enter and exit. The grana are stacks of 100 disc – like structures called thylakoids. Within the thylakoids is the photosynthetic pigment called chlorophyll. Some thylakoids have tubular like extensions that join up with thylakoids of adjacent grana. The grana are where the first stage of photosynthesis takes place. The stroma is a fluid –filled matrix where the second stage of photosynthesis takes place. Within the stroma are a number of other structures such as starch grains.

Chloroplasts are adapted to their function in the following ways The granal membrane allows a large surface area for the attachment of chlorophyll, electron carriers and enzymes that carry out the first stage of photosynthesis. These chemicals are attached the membrane in ordered fashion. The fluid of the stroma possesses all the enzymes required for the second stage of photosynthesis. Chloroplasts contain both DNA and ribosomes so they can quickly manufacture some of the proteins needed for photosynthesis. Cell wall • • • Contains microfibrils of cellulose Consist of a number of polysaccharides such as cellulose There is a thin layer called the middle lamella, which marks the boundary between adjacent cell walls and cements cells together.

Functions of cellulose cell wall are: • Provides strength and prevents cell from bursting due to osmotic gain. • Mechanical strength to plant as a whole • Allows water to pass along it and so contributes to the movement of water through a plant.

Section 11.1 – Replication of DNA
Why is DNA replication needed? • • • • • Multi-cellular organisms are constantly loosing cells which need to be replaced. More cells are also needed when the organism grows. Extra cells are only produced when the parent cell divides. New cells must contain the same genetic information as the parent cell. To achieve this, DNA must be able to replicate its self exactly.

Replicated chromosomes

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Following the replication of DNA, a chromosome appears to double its structure composed of two chromatids. The chromatids are identical as the DNA in the original chromosomes has replicated exactly. The two chromatids are temporarily held together by a centromere. The replicated chromosomes has twice the DNA as the regular chromosomes, but still only counts as being one chromosome. The chromatids become separated when the cell divides. Stages of DNA replication Stage 1 Strands of DNA separate The double helix structure of the DNA molecule partially unwinds An enzyme called Helicase breaks hydrogen bonds between complementary basis. The two strands are now separate Stage 2 Free nucleotides bond with the complementary basis exposed on each poly nucleotide. Large numbers of nucleotides are made in the nucleus and are attracted to the exposed basis. Hydrogen bonds form between complementary basis and as a result the strand builds up into a sequence of nucleotides. Stage 3 Nucleotides bond together Bonds have already formed between bases. Through condensation reactions, an enzyme called DNA polymerase forms covalent phosphodiester bonds between the deoxyribose of on nucleotide and the phosphate group of the next. The DNA molecule rewinds into a double helix and the process is complete. Leading and lagging strands Nucleotides can only be joined together in the 5’ to the 3’ On the leading strand, nucleotides can be added continuously in the same direction as the movement of the replication fork. On the lagging strand, continual synthesis is not possible, so small fragments of DNA are constructed. These fragments are linked together by DNA ligase. Origins of replication – replication forks

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The origins of replication are the points where replication begins DNA molecules are very long and so it would take too long if it started at one end and moved along the molecule. Instead, the double helix opens up and is replicated at a number of different sites. Replication forks resemble branching prongs where DNA Helicase is separating DNA into single strands. Semi conservative replication Each DNA molecules is formed from an intact strand from the original DNA and are newly synthesised. Both new DNA molecules are identical to one another and to the original molecule. Evidence for DNA replication Intact DNA acts as a template Mixture of nucleotides DNA polymerase ATP for energy New DNA molecules were formed that contained the same proportions of bases. Strong indication that DNA can copy its self by base pairing Alternative to semi-conservative The conservative model: parental DNA remains intact and the new molecule is built from completely new material. The dispersive model: proposes the new DNA molecules consist of sections of both old and new DNA, interspersed along each strand.

Section 11.2 – Mitosis
When a cell divides to make new cells, the DNA must be copied exactly into each cell. To do this, the parent cell divides by mitosis Why are new cells needed? For growth of a zygote into a multicellular organism

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The chromosomes that were single stranded become a double structure. such as in bacteria amoeba and non flowering plants. Each chromosome contains one molecules of DNA. mitosis Cell divides cytokinesis Mitosis is a continuous process although it is described in 4 stages. Therefore the new cells must have the same structure. Prophase By the start of prophase. Page 81 of 114 . DNA replication is needed Daughter nuclei are identical because the DNA replicates. The centromere The centromere is a constricted region of the chromosome that is made up of two components. Chromatids are held together by a centromere. but which is required for the segregation of chromatids A protein based structure called a kinetochore to which spindle fibres attach Mitotic cell division Two main stages Division of nucleus. Asexual reproduction: offspring are genetically identical to the parent. DNA has replicated and so chromosomes have a double structure. Daughter cells Mitosis results in each daughter nucleus having the same number and same type of chromosomes as the parent nucleus. therefore each daughter nucleus contains exactly the same amount and the same type of DNA as the other daughter cell and parent nucleus. Each structure is chromatid.Differentiation and repair: worn out or damaged cell tissues must be replaced by cells that do the same job. each chromatid in the two chromatids that make up a chromosome are called sister chromatids. A specific sequence of DNA bases that is not transcribed. function and genetic information as the original cell they are replacing.

As soon as the chromosomes condense. Cytokinesis • • • • Cytokinesis is when the plasma membrane forms a constriction across the centre of the cell. The original nucleus has divided into two genetically identical daughter nuclei. Next the cell must divide into two. • • • • Sister chromatids . Telophase • • • • Nuclear envelope reforms around daughter nucleus. This becomes narrower and narrower finally dividing the cytoplasm into two cells. The result is two daughter cells. forming chromosomes that are tightly coiled and appear shorter and thicker. BY the end of anaphase there are two groups of chromosomes. Telophase marks the end of mitosis.The chromatin condenses. Anaphase • • • • • Involves splitting of the centromere The separation of the chromatids Spindle fibres pull chromatids to opposite poles of the cell. Chromosomes become long and thin until they’re a mass of chromatin fibres and can no longer be seen with a microscope. One at each pole Each group contains one chromatid from each pair of sister chromatids. the DNA becomes inactive.attach to the centromere Nuclear envelope breaks down Spindle apparatus appear Nucleolus disappears Metaphase • • • Chromosomes align at the centre of the cell Spindle fibres appear from the poles of the cell and attach to the centromere One sister chromatid of each chromosome is attached by spindle fibres to one pole the other is attached to the other pole. Page 82 of 114 . Some cells such as those of the muscles divide their nuclei without cytokinesis. Nucleoli appear in each daughter nucleus. Chromatids are now referred to as chromosomes.

In actively dividing eukaryotic tissues.Cytokinesis in plants In plant cells. forming the two new cell walls and separating the two daughter plant cells. Page 83 of 114 . The 2 events covered in already are only short parts of the cell cycle. This grows outwards and fuses with the cell wall. the new cells formed by mitosis grow before replicating their DNA and dividing by mitosis again. Key features of mitosis • • • • Only one nuclear division Two daughter cells formed Daughter cells are diploid Daughter cells are identical Section 11. a cell plate is formed in the centre of cells.3 – The cell cycle The cell cycle is the sequence of events that take place in dividing eukaryotic cells.

a non embryonic cell goes through four main phases then divides by cytokinesis. Page 84 of 114 . The first 3 phases (G1 S and G2) are often grouped together and called interphase. Binary fission is different because it cannot be divided into phases because prokaryotes do not have a nucleus and a centromere.Prokaryotic cell division Prokaryotes do not divide by mitosis but instead by binary fission. the cell is terminated. The daughter cells are genetically identical to the parent cell. If it is not. Why do cells need replacing? Cells are constantly being scraped off of the lining of the gut.The cell continues to grow in size. billions of red blood cells are replaced each day and are lost from the surface of the skin. The four main phases Once in the cell cycle. A cell that has formed due to cell division is initially have the size of the parent cell with only half the number of organelle as the parent cell. Chromosomes are now duplicated The amount of DNA remains at this “double level” until cytokinesis because until then the DNA is contained within the cell. Phases of the cell cycle G1 phase of interphase The cell is active growing and increases in size Nucleotides and histones are produced Proteins are produced from which organelles will be synthesised Cellular checks are made to ensure that the DNA is in good enough condition to be replicated. therefore must enlarge and synthesis new organelles. The 4th phase is mitosis. Each part of the cell cycle involves specific cell activities. M phase Chromatids are separated and go into daughter nuclei The nucleus divides before cytokinesis The cytoplasm divides to form new cells. S phase – synthesis of DNA DNA is replicated and combines with newly formed histones to double the amount of chromatin in the nucleus. G2 phase Organelles are replicated Proteins are made to create spindle apparatus that will separate chromosomes during mitosis and synthesis.

Treatments work by blocking some part of the cell cycle. Cancer treatments Effective cancer treatments require early diagnosis. Nerve cells are permanently in G0 phase Genes controlling cell division might mutate. Sometimes the protective mechanisms break down and rogue. The tips must be squashed so that they form a thin single layer that easily allows the light to pass through it. Section 12. Problems with treatments Cancer treatments do not just stop cancer cells. Non-dividing ells are not considered to be in the cell cycle – G0 phase.Length of the cell cycle The length of the cell cycle is important because it determines how quickly an organism can multiply or grow or replace damaged cells. The duration of the cell cycle varies greatly from organism to organism and from cell to cell. Page 85 of 114 . causing cells to enter the cell cycle when there is no need to control growth/repair. Cancer and the cell cycle Most mutated cells that are undergoing unwanted cell division are destroyed by phagocytes. Chromosomes must be treated with a stain to be made visible. The process is carefully controlled by genes Eukaryotic cells normally divide when triggered to enter the cell cycle by one or more chemical factors. DNA replication is generally faster in simpler organisms with smaller genome. formed during fertilization when a sperm and egg nuclei fuse. the whole cycles takes approximately 24hours How to prepare slides Onion roots are often used as their cells are rapidly dividing and so the will be many cells in different phases. These cells continue to divide out of control and form a malignant tumour or cancer. In humans. mutated cells remain in the cell cycle. Mitosis and cancer Most cells only divide by mitosis when required to do so.1 – Cellular organisms Making a multicellular organism All organisms start life as a zygote. Cancer cells are damaged the most as they are the fastest dividing. Cancer drugs target all rapidly dividing cells that have a short or absent G0 phase.

These adult stem cell generally remain inactive until needed. Because different genes are expressed. The primary roles of an adult stem cell in a living organism are to maintain and repair the tissue in which they are found. Injection of stem cells could hopefully lead to regeneration of healthy tissues. Cells in different positions in an embryo develop in different ways to form tissues. embryonic stem cells have the ability to be used in the treatment of degenerate diseases and growing new organs. Epithelial tissues: Lines the body surfaces. Forming different cell types All of out cells have the same DNA but they differ in how these instructions are used. found amongst differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can its self and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialised cell types of the tissue/organ. This resulting in a multicellular organism with cells genetically identical to the original single cell Cells formed during early mitotic division form a hallow ball of cells known as a blastocyst A blastocyst consists of an inner cellular mass surrounded by a layer of cells. Connective tissue: adds support and strength to the body. Page 86 of 114 . Adult stem cells An adult stem cells I thought to be an undifferentiated cells. One a cell becomes specialised it is usually unable to make other types of cells. Muscle tissue: moves the body or body parts. Because they can develop into any tissue. These inner cells are called stem cell and will eventually give rise to nearly all the different adult cells. this determines the size and the shape of the cell and how many of each organelle are produced. but those taken from the blastocyst are called embryonic stem cells. Stem cells become specialised when the genes required for a particular function are switched on and all others are switched off. the rest are switched off. Embryonic stem cells There are different types of stem cells with varying abilities of differentiation. They can develop into and of the 200 different cells that make up the human body. Not all genes work in all cells – only a few genes are switched on I any one cell. Specialised cells They have been differentiated They have lost the ability to carry out other functions.The cell goes through a series of mitotic cell cycles to form two cells. then four. etc. the surfaces of organs or organ cavities and tubes. Nerve tissues: enables quick communication between body parts.

kidneys. This will therefore influence the type of exchange surface and transport system that has evolved. The skin is the largest organ within the human body. Section 13. other organs include the heart. Each tissue performs its own function and is essential to the overall function of the organ. Materials that are exchanged between the organism and the environment include: • Respiratory gases Page 87 of 114 . liver. Organ system An organ system is comprised of two or more different organs working together to a common function.1 – Exchange between organisms and their Environment The size and metabolic rate of an organism will affect the amount of each material that needs to be exchanged.Organs Organs are structures within an organism that are made of at least two types of tissue. etc.

celled organism have large S. ratio and so gases exchange through their cell surface membrane.g. for example the lungs which has a large surface area.g. vitamins and minerals) Excretory products (urea. Diffusion is proportional to surface area X difference in concentration gradient Length of diffusion Section 13. fatty acids.g. and therefore increases the S.2 – Gas exchange in single celled organisms and insects Gas exchange in single celled organisms Single . Very thin so that diffusion distance is short Partial permeable so that only certain materials can diffuse across Movement of the environmental medium to maintain concentration gradient (e. Organisms have evolved in the following ways so that they can provide all their cells with the material necessary in an affective manor: • • A flattened shape means that no cell is ever far away from the exchange surface (e. blood) Diffusion can be explained with fick’s law.A to Vol. Features of specialised gas exchange surfaces Exchange surfaces have the following characteristics: • • • • • Large surface are to volume ratio to increase the exchange rate. Passively – requires no energy (diffusion. air) Movement of internal medium to maintain concentration gradient (e.A: Vol.• Nutrients (glucose. ratio. carbon dioxide) Exchange can happen in two ways 1. a flat worm) A specialised exchange surface. osmosis) 2. Actively – Energy is required (Active transport) For exchange to be affective. the surface area to volume ration of the organism must be high. Page 88 of 114 . amino acids.

Structure of the gills Page 89 of 114 . This has limited the size of insects. • Along diffusion gradient – During respiration. • • • • • Section 13.3 – Gas exchange in Fish Fish have specialised gas exchange surface – the gills. i. Spiracles open periodically to allow gas exchange. In the case of insects this is a waterproof cuticle. This sets up a diffusion gradient where oxygen in the atmosphere moves towards where there is less oxygen. Spiracles are often closed to prevent water loss. Gas exchange in insects Terrestrial insects have a problem where they loose water through the surface of their bodies and so easily become dehydrated. Carbon dioxide is also produced during respiration which sets up a diffusion gradient that moves in the opposite way. The trachea branches into smaller tubes called tracheoles.e. the cell wall does not affect the diffusion of gases as it is completely permeable. oxygen at the end of the tracheoles is reduced. This speeds up gas exchange as it maintains a diffusion gradient between the two mediums. terrestrial organisms usually have the following two features: Water proof coverings over their body surfaces. Small surface area to volume ratio to minimise the area over which water is lost Insects gave developed an internal system of tubes called trachea The trachea has strengthened rings for support.For cells that have a cell wall. To inhibit water loss. the tracheoles. For diffusion to be affective the pathway needs to be short. Gases enter and leave the trachea through small pores called spiracles. Ventilation – The movement of muscles in insects cause mass movements in air into and out of the trachea. Gases move into and out of the respiratory system in the following ways.

some Page 90 of 114 . Without it the maximum amount would be 50% as there would be no diffusion gradient. Due to the counter current flow approx 80% of the available oxygen is absorbed. Therefore diffusion from water to blood takes place. However oxygen diffuses from water to the gills regardless. Blood flows in the opposite direction to the water that moves over the gills. This is known as counter current flow. Blood that is already well loaded with oxygen meets water. which has its maximum concentrations of oxygen. In the same way. At right angle are structures called lamellae which increase the surface area for gas exchange. although some carbon dioxide comes from respiring cells. Water is taken in through the mouth and forced over the gills. • • • • Section 13. Blood with little to no oxygen meets water with most of its oxygen removed.4 – Gas exchange in the leaf of a plant When photosynthesis is taking place. most of it needs to be taken directly from the air. There is a consistent rate of diffusion from the water to the lamella. The counter current flow • The counter current flow ensure that there is a concentration gradient maintained between the two mediums so that gas exchange can take place at a fast rate.• • • • • They made up of gill filaments Gill filaments are stacked up in a pile.

Each stoma is composed of two specialised cells called “guard cells”. Diffusion takes place in the gas phase. Om the same way carbon dioxide produced by respiration diffuses out. Due to this.5 – Circulatory system of a mammal Page 91 of 114 . When photosynthesis is not taking place. Leaves have the following adaptations for gas exchange: • • • A thin. which makes it more rapid than if it was in water. Guard cells can open and close the stomatal pore. oxygen diffuses into the leaf because it is constantly being used by cells during respiration. flat shape that provides a large surface area Many small pores called stomata.oxygen from photosynthesis is used in respiration but most of it diffuses out of the plant. Numerous. Structure of a plant leaf and gas exchange No living cell is far from the external air. There is a short diffusion pathway. and therefore a source of oxygen and carbon dioxide. which are found mostly in the lower epidermis of the leaf. interconnecting air spaces that occur throughout the mesophyll Stomata • • • • • Stomata are pores which occur mainly but not exclusively on the lower epidermis of the leaf. they have the ability to control the rate of gaseous exchange. No specialised transport system is required for moving the respiratory gases in leaves. This means they are able to prevent water loss Section 13.

A mechanism to maintain mass flow in one direction e. ratio and how active the organism is. valves A means of controlling the transport medium Transport system in mammals Mammals have a double circulatory system which means blood travels twice through the heart I one complete circuit. Features of a transport system • • • • • • • Common features include: A suitable medium for carrying materials e. Materials have to be transported from the environment to cells. With out going back to the heart the pressure would be low and so blood would take longer to circulate the body.g. the final part involves diffusion into cells. allowing it to travel around the body.g. across short distances and down a steep concentration gradient. which is necessary as mammals have a high metabolic rate. When blood travels through the lungs is pressure is reduced. Whether or not a specialised transport system is required depends on the S. By going back to the heart to be pumped once more. Why large organisms need a transport system A transport system is required to take materials from cells to exchange surfaces and from exchange surfaces to cells. The final phase where materials pass from the blood to the cells and vise versa is rapid because it takes place over a large surface area.A to vol. They also need to be transported to different parts of the organism. In order to move substances a long distance. Page 92 of 114 .Diffusion is only adequate for the movement of substances over a short distance. A form of mass transport by which the medium is moved A closed system of tubular vessels that contains the transport medium A mechanism that moves the transport medium creates a pressure difference. Although transport systems move materials a over longer distance. blood because it is water based and so substances can dissolve. Substances are quickly delivered to the rest of the body. a specialised transport system is required. its pressure increases.

Veins – Carry blood back to heart Arteries. Arteries – carry blood away from the heart 2. Thickness of the wall is large – prevents vessel from bursting There are no valves – Blood is under constant high pressure and does not move back.6 – Blood vessels and their functions Structure of blood vessels There are 4 different types of blood vessels: 1. Vein structure related to function • Muscle layer is thin – constriction does not control the movement of blood into capillaries because blood is moving away from tissues. The wall stretches (systole) then recoils back (diastole).Section 13. Page 93 of 114 . • • Arteriole structure and function • • Muscle layer is thicker than that of arteries – contraction of muscle layer narrows the lumen and so constricts blood flow and helps control the blood flow into capillaries. Elastic layer is thinner than that of arteries – The pressure in arterioles is lower than in arteries. arterioles and veins have the same basic structure which includes: • A tough outer layer . Capillaries – tiny vessels linked to arterioles 4. Arterioles – smaller arteries that control blood flow to capillaries 3.resist pressure changes • A muscular layer – Contract to control blood flow • Elastic layer – maintains blood pressure by stretching and springing back • Endothelium – smooth to prevent friction and thin to increase diffusion • Lumen – central cavity through which blood flows Artery structure and function • • Muscular layer is thicker than veins – smaller arteries can be constricted and dilated to control blood flow Elastic layer is relatively thick compared to veins – Pressure in arteries is high so that it can reach extremities. Stretching and recoiling helps maintain pressure and creates smooth pressure surges.

Valves also ensure the fluid moves in one direction. Page 94 of 114 . Capillary structure and function Walls consist only of lining layer – short diffusion pathway Numerous and highly branched – increased surface area Narrow diameter – permeate tissues Narrow lumen – pushes red blood cells which reduces diffusion pathway There are spaces between the lining – allows white blood cells to escape Tissue fluid and its formation Blood pumped by the heart passes through arteries.g.• • • Elastic layer is relatively thin – pressure in veins is low and so the blood vessel will not burst. This creates a hydrostatic pressure at the arteriole end of the capillaries. Valves ensure that the pressure directs blood toward the heart. The overall affect means that there is only a small pressure that pushes small molecules out of the capillaries. The content of the lymphatic system is moves by hydrostatic pressure of tissue fluid leaving capillaries. veins are compressed pressurising blood within them. Tissue fluid is then forced back into the capillaries. it allows veins to be flattened thus aiding blood flow There are valves throughout – prevents back flow of blood because pressure is low. and contraction of body muscles that creates pressure changes. Some tissue fluid travels back via the lymphatic system. When blood reaches the venous end its hydrostatic pressure is less than that outside of the capillary. In addition the pressure is to low to create a recoil action The overall thickness of the wall is small – No need for the wall to be thick as the pressure within veins is small. This however is apposed by two forces. Osmotic forces from proteins in the blood pull water back. This is called ultra filtration Return of tissue fluid • • • • Loss of tissue fluid in capillaries reduces hydrostatic pressure. Also. then arterioles then finally narrower capillaries. • • Hydrostatic pressure outside of capillaries Lower water potential of the blood due to its contents e. When body muscles contract. proteins causes water from tissue fluid to move back into the capillary. Hydrostatic pressure forces tissue fluid out of the blood plasma.

Section 13. • This cell then has a higher water potential than the neighbouring cell. and therefore short diffusion pathway. it pulls more water along with it. Each root hair is a long. • Water then moves via osmosis to the first cell of the cortex. which has a much higher water potential to move into the cell by osmosis. They are efficient exchange surfaces because: • They have a large surface area for rapid diffusion of water. They absorb water and mineral ions. Water moves through small pores called plasmodesmata. further into the root. The water moves through the cellulose cells walls. The water then moves by osmosis.7 – Movement of water through roots Uptake of water by root hair cells Root hair cells are the exchange surface of plants. this causes the water in the soil. Page 95 of 114 . The symplastic pathway Water moves through the cytoplasms of cells of the cortex by osmosis. The water potential in root hair cells is very low due to the sugars and amino acids dissolved in them. The process happens in the following way: • Water enters by osmosis and increases the water potential of the root hair cell. Water moves through the plant by the following pathways: • The apoplastic pathway • The symplastic pathway The apoplastic pathway • • As water is drawn in through the endodermal cells. Plants are always loosing water by transpiration and so this must be replaced. This is a result of waters cohesive properties due to it being a polar molecule. thin extension of the root epidermal cell. • They have a thin surface area.

for example Cyanide stop active transport and therefore cause root pressure to cease. Page 96 of 114 . If water in to move into the xylem it must first enter the cytoplasm of endodermal cells.• A water potential gradient is set up along the cells of the cortex. • • • Evidence of root pressure includes the following: • The pressure increases with a rise in temperature and decreases with a fall in temperature. This is explains why water from the apoplastic pathway is forced into the cytoplasm of cells by the Casparian strip. Passage of water into xylem Water travelling by the apoplastic pathway eventually reaches the Casparian strip where it is prevented from travelling further by the waterproof band. • A decrease in oxygen for respiration decreases root pressure. • • Active transport of salts in the most likely way by which water moves into the xylem Endodermal cells actively transport salts into the xylem which sets up a water potential gradient. this carries water through the cytoplasm of cells to the endodermis. Water is then forced into living cells where is joins water travelling via the symplastic pathway. Water moving into the xylem via osmosis creates a force called root pressure. • Metabolic inhibitors.

water molecules are drawn up behind it. • Water is pulled up due to transpiration. • The loss of water from neighbouring cells lowers their water potential • They then take water from their neighbouring cell Movement of water up the stem through the xylem Movement of water up xylem is due to root pressure and cohesion tension Cohesion theory operates as follows: • Water leaves as a result of transpiration • Due to hydrogen bonds. water molecules stick together. water enters by osmosis. This is called transpiration pull. Movement of water across the cells of a leaf Water that evaporates from mesophyll cells is replaced by water reaching the mesophyll cells from the xylem through the apoplastic/symplastic pathway. Change in diameter of tree trunks in relation to the rate of transpiration. the water movement occurs because: • Mesophyll cells loose water to the air spaces • These cells now have a lower water potential.Section 13. For the symplastic pathway. Water that leaves the stomata via evaporation is replaced by water evaporating from the cell wall of mesophyll cells. When transpiration rate is high. • Water forms a continuous unbroken pathway across mesophyll cells and xylem • As water evaporates. Page 97 of 114 . Evidence to support cohesion theory includes: 1.8 – Movement of water up stems Water leaves plants by evaporating and moving out through the stomata Movement of water through stomata When the stomata are open. there is negative pressure in the xylem and so the trunk shrinks. Plants can control there rate of transpiration by opening/closing stomata. water molecules diffuse out into the surrounding air.

When the xylem is broken. water can no longer be drawn up. so the stomata are open when there is a high light intensity (leaves photosynthesising) and close when there is a low light intensity (leaves not photosynthesising). 3. if there is little air movement there is likely to be a smaller water potential gradient and therefore slower transpiration rate. water does not leak out. a water potential gradient is maintained and so transpiration occurs quicker. Page 98 of 114 . Rise in temperature. Transpiration pull is a passive process.9 – Transpiration and factors affecting it The role of transpiration Materials such as minerals and ions are moved around the plant dissolved in water This water is carried up the plant by transpiration pull Without transpiration. In addition xylem vessels are composed of dead cells. water would not be so plentiful and the transport of materials would not be so rapid. Section 13. hence evaporating. Air movement Water that has evaporated accumulates around the leaf and so the water potential gradient is decreased. Factors affecting transpiration Light Carbon dioxide diffuses in to leaves through the stomata so that it can be used in photosynthesis. Humidity When humidity is high (when there is a large amount of water in a given volume of air) the water potential of the air is high. To summarise this. If air is being moved away from the leaf by wind a concentration gradient is maintained. No additional metabolic energy is required. Temperature Temperature affects the water potential of air and how fast water molecules move An increase in temperature increases the kinetic energy of water molecules. rise in transpiration rate. These molecules will then have enough energy to change from its liquid state to its gaseous state. When there is a lot of air movement. and so water evaporates at a slower rate because the osmotic gradient is decreased. If a xylem vessel is broken and air enters it. A rise in temperature decreases the amount of water air can hold. Photosynthesis takes place during the day. This is because the continuous chain of water molecules joined by cohesion is broken.2.

“xerophytes”. A reduced surface are to volume ratio of leaves – by having leaves that are small and roughly circular in cross section. This is due to the fact that the sun provides the heat energy and the light. Xerophytic plants have adaptations to not only limit water loss. This however contradicts the Page 99 of 114 . This creates a region of air that gets saturated with water molecules and increases in water potential. Xerophytic plants Plants that have adapted to limit water loss are called. both of which are factors affecting transpiration rates. there is no net movement of water out of the plant. Once the water potential is the same as within the leaf. Section 13. To compensate for this. the energy that drives it comes from the sun. The thicker the cuticle.10 – Limiting water loss in plants The adaptation of an efficient gas exchange surface.Although transpiration is thought of as a passive process. and so plants have adapted in other ways to limit water loss. contradict the plants ability to retain water. the surface area to volume ration can be considerably be reduced. but also store and increase the uptake of water also. thus lowering the rate of water loss. the lower the amount of water loss Rolling up of leaves – Leaves can wrap up so that their lower epidermis is enclosed within the leaf. Xerophytes have a thicker cuticle. Stomata in pits and grooves – These just like the hairs on the lower epidermis of leaves trap air and so decrease the water potential gradient inside and outside of the leave. Hairy leaves – hairs on the lower epidermis trap moisture in the air and so reduce the water potential gradient inside and outside of the leaf. Examples of these modifications include: A thick cuticle – Plants that have leaves with a waxy cuticle can still loose water through the upper epidermis. This lowers the rate at which water is lost.

What is a species? A group of organisms similar to each other with similar features that can interbreed to produce fertile offspring.1 – Classification What is classification? Classification is the grouping together of things on the basis of features that they have in common. Section 14. We classify things so that we can make sense of the world around us and to know where to find things we want. Relationships are based on the homologous characteristics. The we use is based on dividing living organisms into species. the system must be universal – it has to be usable by biologist anywhere in the world. etc Does not necessarily effect the evolutionary relationship of an organism. To classify all the organisms that w know about. and that are reproductively isolated from other species. The parents of the hybrids are still separate species as they occupy different habitats and are usually reproductively isolated. size. If an organism is fertile it is capable of producing offspring. Occasionally two different species can interbreed to produce organisms known as hybrids. with similar evolutionary origins regardless of their functions in the adult of a species. Phylogenic relationships Page 100 of 114 . Biological classification systems Can be either natural or artificial Artificial classification The grouping of an organism based on characteristics such as colour. Natural classification Attempt to group organisms according to their natural relationship Reflects the way in which different groups are thought to have evolved Classifies species into a hierarchy in which smaller groups are contained within larger groups with no overlaps.plants ability for photosynthesis and so a compromise must be met between the two requirements.

Most classification in use today are natural and aim to reflect the Phylogenic relationships – that is. Each group is called a taxon and contains organism sharing some basic features indication they have a common ancestry. Prokaryotae 2. The study of a classification is called taxonomy Taxa • • • • • • • Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species They are listed in descending order of size – species is the most exclusive group containing the fewest organisms. Phylogeny is putting organisms into groups that reflect their evolutionary history A Phylogenic tree shows the evolutionary relationship between organisms. Plantae Page 101 of 114 . Animalia 5. with the fewest features in common There are five kingdoms: 1. the historical/evolutionary relationships between organisms. Kingdom Is the largest taxon Contains the most organisms. the closer the evolutionary relationship Hierarchy system Uses Phylogenic relationship to group organisms Modern biology places each organism into a taxa: a series of groups arranged in a hierarchy. Protoctista 3. Phylogenic Trees The closer the branches. Fungi 4.

mushrooms. Usually feed on dead organic material but some feed on living hosts Example. contains most organism that do not belong in other kingdoms. Kingdom Animalia • • • • Are multicellular Have eukaryotic cells with no cell walls Develop from blastocyst Most animals: Ingest food into their digestive system. Kingdom Plantae • • • • All plants: Multicellular have eukaryotic cells with a cellulose cell wall Are photosynthetic Examples: mosses.Kingdom Prokaryotae • • • Cells lack true nuclei Cells have circular DNA Cells to not have membranes around organelles Example: bacteria Organisms in other kingdoms have cells with true nuclei. ferns conifers Page 102 of 114 . and are motile. others consist of billions of cells. Some are unicellular. yeast. Kingdom Fungi • • • • • • Common features Non-cellulose wall Are non photosynthetic Eukaryotic cells Secrete enzymes to digest organic materials outside their cells and absorb the products of digestion. chlorophyll and can even photosynthesise Others have no cell walls and are motile. Kingdom Protoctista Very diverse. May be sub divided in the future due to the diverse mix of organisms • • • • All protocistians have eukaryotic cells Some posses’ cells walls. chromosomes and membrane bound organelles.

Genus Species that are very similar to each other are places in the same genus. and anphibia. etc. never a matter of personal opinion. 10 phyla. Order Mammalian order includes primates. Class Classes include mammalia. The second word is the name of the species and it begins with an uppercase letter. the name of the genus and begins with an uppercase letter. Both the species and the genus are used when naming the organisms. Page 103 of 114 . carnivores. reptilia. laid down by international codes. Family Primate families include hominidue. Latin or Greek names are used Each organism is given a name with two words. The first word is the generic name.Viruses are not included in the classification system as they are acellular Autotrophs – make their own food Hetrotrophs – Consume food Phylum The kingdom Animalia contains approx. Species Homosapiens are the only existing species of the genus “homo” Binomial system Is used to name organism based on the system devised by Swedish naturalist Carl Linnaeus Is a universal system.

Genetic comparisons using DNA and proteins Comparing the DNA and proteins of different species it is possible for scientists to determine the evolutionary relationships between them Comparison of DNA base sequences When a species gives rise to another species through evolution. Page 104 of 114 .1 . the more h bonds The greater the number of h bonds the higher the temperature required for separation The closer the species are related. When they cool they reform. It is then mixed with the DNA of the other species. extracted and cut into short pieces DNA from one species is labelled with a fluorescent radioactive tracer. the two species will be very similar genetically. the higher the temperature needed Comparison of amino acid sequences in proteins The sequence of amino acids in proteins is determined by the DNA. The mixture is then heated so that the strands separate. Species that are more closely related will show fewer differences in their DNA compared to species that are less closely related. the hydrogen bonds between the complementary stands break.The two words must be printed in italic when typed or underlined if handwritten to show that it is the biological name. They can be identified because they are 50% labelled The hybrid stands are separated out and the temperature increase in stages At each temperature the degree to which the two strands are still linked together is measured If the two species are closely related they will share many complementary bases The more complementary bases. DNA between two species can be compared in the following manor: DNA is purified. Section 15. The mixture is cooled allowing strands with complementary bases to join Some of the double strands formed with contain one strand for each species. DNA hybridisation • • • • • • • • • • • • • When DNA is heated. The degree of similarity in the amino acid sequence is of the same protein in two species will therefore reflect how closely related they are. causing them to separate.

Section 15. Courtship behaviour ensures this by enabling individuals to: • Recognise members of their own species .Immunological comparisons of proteins The proteins of different species can be compared using immunological techniques. The principle behind this methods is the fact that antibodies of one species will respond to specific antigens on proteins. The longer the courtship ritual lasts. who if she is receptive will respond with another stimulus to the male to carry out a further action. It is therefore possible for animals to identify each other by observing their behaviour. If at one point. one partner fails to respond correctly. The actions of a male act as a stimulus to the female. • Identify a mate that is capable of reproducing – both partners need to be sexually mature and fertile.ensures that mating only takes place within the same species so that offspring are fertile. the female seeks out a male who she can mate with.Courtship behaviour The behaviour of members of the same species is more alike than members of different species. Page 105 of 114 . • Forms a pair bond – leads to successful mating and raising of offspring • Synchronise mating – takes place when there is a maximum chance of the sperm and egg meeting Females have cycles during which they are only fertile for brief periods of time. Why is courtship behaviour necessary? It is important to ensure that mating is successful and that the offspring have the maximum chance of survival.2. It is therefore important that during this time. the sequence is ended. the more likely it is at being successful.

Harmful mutation Page 106 of 114 . Inversion – The reversal of nucleotide sequence in a gene.Section 16. Changing the base sequence leads to a different amino acid being coded for and therefore a different polypeptide is produced. Factors that induce DNA replication are called mutagens. bacterial DNA can also mutate Mutation – changes in the sequence of bases. Binary fission is also known as vertical gene transmission Changes to DNA Like the DNA of all cells. Mutations generally happen during DNA replication. Some bacterial DNA is found as plasmids these are small circular molecules of DNA. separate from the main DNA.1 – Genetic variation in bacteria Bacterial DNA Double stranded Contains two types of DNA Most bacterial DNA is organised into large circular molecules (as appose to linear DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells). but in reality there is still genetic variation which can lead to antibiotic resistance. Mutation A change of a single nucleotide base pair is a point of mutation Different types of mutation Substitution – The replacement of one nucleotide Deletion – loss of a nucleotide Insertion – Extra nucleotide added Duplication – A certain portion a nucleotide sequence of a gene is replicated. Bacterial reproduction Reproduce asexually through binary fission In theory all of springs should be clones.

As there are so many bacteria and they reproduce so quickly. The alternative amino acid sequence may not affect the proteins shape/function. beneficial mutations are bound to happen sooner or later if there are a large number or organisms. even a rare event such as a beneficial mutation is likely to happen in a relatively short time.Most are harmful Man mutation result in a change in the shape of a protein so that the protein cannot function. Conjunction Conjunction is another way in which bacteria increase their genetic variation. Mutations that affect large sections of a gene are often lethal. Silent neutral mutations Some mutations have no effect because the mutation has occurred in a non-coding part of DNA The mutation may also produce a different codon for the same amino acid. Although rare. Page 107 of 114 . Beneficial mutations Very occasionally a mutation occurs that changes the phenotype so that an organism has a better chance of surviving and reproducing.

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The donor cell produces a thin production called a “pilus” that connects the two cells. the ends of the plasmid rejoin and become circular again. Their connection via pilus is broken and each cell is free to conjugate with other cells. only microorganisms produce antibiotics. Once the plasmid has been transferred to the recipient cell. but may give the producer a selective advantage.3 – Antibiotics/Antibiotic use and resistance What is an Antibiotic? An antibiotic is a substance produced by a microorganism that is capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of another organism. The plasmids in each bacterial cell then replicate to become double stranded. Conjugation is also known as horizontal gene transmission. however the term is generally used to include a wide rage of chemicals that damage pathogens. Producing antibiotics According to the strict definitions.2+16. The donor cell has replicated one of its plasmids The plasmid is altered by an enzyme to make it linear. • Antibiotics often include: Page 109 of 114 . Antibiotics are not affective against viruses Antibiotics are known as secondary metabolites as they are not essential for the growth or reproduction of the organism that is producing them. The pilus retracts to draw the cells closer together. Section 16.

Just as in plant cells. These antibiotics only work on bacteria that are actively growing and have no effect on bacteria lying dormant in the body. Chemicals such as penicillin which is produced naturally but altered chemically to make them more affective Chemicals such as chloramphemiol originally produced naturally but now entirely synthesised. animals and plants. so DNA is not replicated. The antibiotics bind to the bacterial ribosomes but do not affect eukaryotic ribosomes which are larger. Disrupt DNA replication 3. so it prevents expansion of the cell and halts further entry of water. Disrupt cell wall synthesis 2. Bacteria are not killed but cell division is halted. How bacteria resist antibiotics Remember that bacterial DNA can mutate Page 110 of 114 . How antibiotics work Antibiotics work by interfering with some metabolic functions of microorganisms. Disrupt protein synthesis These antibiotics either inhibit protein synthesis or promote the synthesis of abnormal proteins. which can stretch. The cell contents push against the cell wall.• • • Chemicals produced by microorganism. known as bacteriostatic antibiotics. There are three main ways antibiotics can do this: 1. bacterial cells become turgid when in a watery environment with higher water potential than they have. Cell walls are made up of long chains of peptidoglycan molecules and allow the bacteria to tolerate osmotic influx of water. but stop them from reproducing. Disrupt protein synthesis Disrupting cell wall synthesis Antibiotics weaken the cell wall and cause osmoticlysis. do not kill the bacteria. The bacterial cells cannot synthesis enzymes and structured proteins. The antibiotics inhibit the synthesis of peptide links that bind molecules together. Disrupt DNA replication These antibiotics disrupt the synthesis of nucleic acids. The cell wall becomes so weak that the bacteria burst when water enters the cell by osmosis. Types of antibiotics Antibiotics that kill bacteria are called bactericidal antibiotics. Some antibiotics.

binary fission/conjugation Binary fission – Both the plasmid and the larger circular DNA in the bacterium replicate prior to cell division. Overuse of antibiotics may have provided an increased selection pressure in favour of resistant bacteria. hence there is a selection pressure that kills off the bacteria without the gene. Antibiotics do not cause mutations Antibiotic resistance most often results from mutations in the plasmid DNA Passing on antibiotic resistance Bacteria can pass on resistance in two ways. A plasmid conferring antibiotic resistance can pass from one bacterium to another Conjugation can also occur between members of the same species. Natural selection The frequency of the allele for resistance consequently increases and will continue to increase with each succeeding generation of the bacteria. An antibiotic strain can be produced by natural selection if the population was exposed to several antibiotics. If a plasmid has a mutation that gives the bacteria resistance to an antibiotic. until an antibiotic resistant strain has been produced. when the cell divides. These bacteria will have an advantage over the other bacteria and will out-compete the normal variety. Multiple resistance A bacterium can accumulate several plasmid DNA via conjugation that give it resistance. A gene for antibiotic resistant gene is only beneficial where there the bacteria are exposed to the antibiotic. Conjugation is the main reason why some bacteria have become resistant to antibiotics. MRSA Page 111 of 114 . This new protein could be an enzyme that is able break down the antibiotic before it has a chance to kill the bacteria. Conjugation – Bacteria can also pass and receive plasmids from other bacteria in the process called conjugation. Antibiotic resistant strains An antibiotic resistant strain is a whole population that has become resistant to an antibiotic. the greater the chance that mutant bacteria will have multiple resistance. This antibiotic resistant strain is a result of natural selection. leaving only the resistant bacteria.A mutation is the change of base sequence in a gene that results in a new protein produced. The greater the amount of antibiotics used. each daughter cell will receive the gene for resistance.

Section 17. The number of different species in a given area 2. The proportion of the community that is made up of an individual species Species diversity is calculated using the index that follows: d=N(N-1) Page 112 of 114 . If the bacterium gets inside the body it can cause deadly infections. MRSA is found on many individuals skin without any ill effects but these people could pass the bacterium to somebody else via skin to skin contact. Absolute cleanliness is particularly important in wards where patients may have open wounds. so the focus is on preventing transmission. Anyone in contact with patients is required to wash their hands. • • • Species diversity – refers to the number of different species and the number of individuals of each species within anyone community Genetic diversity – refers to the variety of genes possessed by the individuals that make up any one species Ecosystem diversity – refers to the rand of different habitats within a particular area Species diversity has two components: 1.Resistant to several antibiotics Because of its multiple resistances. infections caused by this bacterium are difficult to treat.1 – Species diversity Biodiversity is the term given to describe the variety in the living world.

Σn(n-1) Where: • • • • d = species diversity index N = total number of organisms of all species n = total number of organisms of each species Σ = the sum of Number (n) found in habitat X 10 10 10 10 10 Σn(n-1) N(n-1) 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 10(9)=90 450 Number (n) found in habitat Y 3 5 2 36 4 Σn(n-1) N(n-1) 3(2)=6 5(4)=20 2(1)=2 36(25)=1260 4(3)=12 1300 Species A B C D E Habitat X: d = 50(49) 450 =5. this therefore means that they have increased in species diversity. Page 113 of 114 .88 Habitat X has a higher value for d and therefore has more species diversity Section 17. Agriculture and deforestation are two examples of processes carried out by humans that have the affect of lower biodiversity.2 – Species diversity and Human activities The impact of providing more food at a lower cost as resulted in less biodiversity.44 Habitat Y: d =50(49) 1300 =1. becoming more complex communities with many individuals of many different species. therefore these areas must be occupied by the species the farmer feels is most desirable. Impact of agriculture • • • • Ecosystems develop overtime. Any particular area can only support a certain amount of biomass. This means that smaller areas are only available for other species. Selective breeding has reduced the genetic variation of certain species and therefore reduced the variety of alleles in the population.

Species diversity is reduced due to deforestation because: • Habitats are destroyed • Species are not adapted to live anywhere else • The organism in the species will not survive as a result • This note only reduces the amount of organisms in a species. but also reduces the number of different species. The overall affect is that the species diversity is lowered. The most serious consequence of deforestation is the loss of bio diversity where many species are killed each year as a result. Deforestation is the permanent clearing of forests and the conservation of the land to other uses such as agriculture. Page 114 of 114 . • The overall affect is a reduction in the species diversity for the given area. In addition pesticides are used to kill off these species as they can affect crop growth. Impact of deforestation Forests provide numerous habitats where species have become adapted to live.• • Species will compete for the resources around and many will not survive.

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