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SUBMITTED BY: SAPNA KAPOOR- 1 SHIWANGI CHOUDHARY- 2 VIDHI MANGLIK- 23 SUBMITTED TO: Dr. SUMEET SINGH JASIAL
We take this opportunity to express our gratitude to all those people who extended their cooperation and played an important role in successful completion of this project. It is our foremost duty to offer our service acknowledgment to those honourable personalities of the department who have been a constant source of inspiration and support for preparing this project. We are grateful to Dr. Sumeet Singh Jasial to act as an adherent source of help and motivation. This project would not have been successfully completed without his guidance and instructions. Hope our effort would be duly recognized and be a work of appreciation of from our mentor who has burnt the midnight oil to render his helping hands to amateurs like us and developed confidence in us to make this project a successful one.
THANK YOU (SAPNA KAPOOR) (SHIWANGI CHAUDHARY) (VIDHI MANGLIK)
4 5 9 17 20 25 14000 26 .TABLE OF CONTENTS TOPICS ISO ISO Standards ISO 9000 Case Study: Metflex ISO 14000 Case Study: Copley Square Hotel Difference between ISO 9000 and PAGE NO.
having been set up by national partnerships of industry associations. 1947. On the one hand. Switzerland. industrial. . On the other hand. one member per country. Therefore. with a Central Secretariat in Geneva. Switzerland. Founded on February 23.ISO: INTERNATIOAL ORGANISATION FOR STANDARDIZATION The International Organization for Standardization widely known as ISO is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations. ISO is the world‘s largest developer and publisher of International Standards. It has its headquarters in Geneva. that coordinates the system. many of its member‘s institutes are part of the governmental structure of their countries. ISO is a non-governmental organisation that forms a bridge between the public and private sectors. ISO enables a consensus to be reached on solutions that meet both the requirements of business and the broader needs of the society. other members have their roots uniquely in the private sector. the organization promulgates worldwide proprietary. ISO is a network of the national standards institutes of 163 countries. and commercial standards. or are mandated by their government.
we tend to take this for granted and be unaware of the role of standards. safety. it is often because they meet standards. are unreliable or dangerous. we soon notice. in many cases. a brief abstract. are incomplete with equipments that we already have. When standards are absent. efficiency and interchangeability. do not fit. When products. . WHY STANDARDS MATTER Standards make an enormous and positive contribution to most aspects of our lives. yyyy is the year published. Standards ensure desirable characteristics of products and services such as quality. and Title describes the subject. systems. machinery and devices work well and safely. Users can browse that listing to find bibliographic information on each standard and. And the organization responsible for many thousands of the standards which benefit the world is ISO. The online ISO standards listing integrate both the ISO catalogue of published standards and the ISO Technical programme of standards under development. environmental friendliness. The full range of technical fields can be seen from the listing International Standards. International standards are designated with the format ISO[/IEC] [/ASTM] [IS] nnnnn[p]:[yyyy] Title. where nnnnn is the number of the standard. We soon care when products turn out to be of poor quality. When products and services meet our expectations. we soon notice. p is an optional part number.and at an economical cost. reliability. when standards are absent.ISO STANDARDS ISO has developed over 19000 International Standards on a variety of subjects and more than 1000 new standards are published every year. However.
safety and environmental legislation. WHAT “INTERNATIONAL STANDARDIZATION” MEANS When the large majority of products and services in a particular business or industry sector confirm to International Standards. This facilitates trade and the transfer of technology. manufacturing and supply of product and services more efficient. In this way. a state of industry wide standardization exists. and conformity assessment. or a common technological language between suppliers and their customers. HOW TO RECOGNIZE AN ISO STANDARD In paper form. An ISO Standard carries the ISO logo and the designation. Make life simpler by providing solutions to common problems. in terminology and in the provision of services. It may be anywhere between a four page document and one several hundred pages long. of products and services. The economic stakeholders concerned agree on specification and criteria to be applied consistently in the classification of materials in the manufacture and supply of products in testing and analysis.WHAT STANDARDS DO ISO Standards: Make the development. International Standards provide a reference framework. Facilitate trade between countries and make it fairer. an ISO Standard is published in A4 format. Provide governments with the technical base for health. ―International Standard‖. Disseminate innovation. Share technological advances and good management practice. Safeguards consumers and users in general. . ISO Standards is also available as electronic downloads and many are available as part of a collection on CDs or in handbook. safer and cleaner.which is itself one of the ISO Standard paper sizes.
there were 3 335 technical bodies in the ISO system. They are: CASCO (conformity assessment) COPOLCO (consumer policy). Proposals may also be made to set up technical committees to cover new scopes of activity. the document. ISO has three general policy development committees that provide strategic guidance for the standards' development work on cross-sector aspects. the work item is assigned to an existing technical committee. An industry or business sector communicates its requirement for a standard to one of ISO's national members. . is circulated to the ISO members as a Final Draft International Standard (FDIS). The latter then proposes the new work item to ISO as a whole. Many members have public review procedures for making draft standards known and available to interested parties and to the general public. including 224 ISO technical committees. This is circulated as a Draft International Standard (DIS) to ISO's membership as a whole for comment and balloting. with eventual modifications. The focus of the technical committees is specialized and specific.HOW ISO DECIDES TO DEVELOP A STANDARD ISO launches the development of new standards in response to the sectors that express a clearly established need for them. The ISO members then take account of any feedback they receive in formulating their position on the draft standard. In addition. the document is then published as an International Standard. and DEVCO (developing country matters) HOW ARE ISO STANDARDS DEVELOPED The national delegations of experts of a technical committee meet to discuss debate and argue until they reach consensus on a draft agreement. At the end of 2011. If that vote is positive. If the voting is in favour. If accepted. These committees ensure that the specific technical work is aligned with broader market and stakeholder group interests.
In between meetings. Perform self-analysis audit 6. Submit quality manual for approval 7. Develop and implement the quality system 4. Increasingly.Environmental Management Systems (ISO 14001) . Final assessment by registrar 10. TEN STEPS OF ISO REGISTRATION 1.Food Safety Management Systems (ISO 22000) . Take corrective actions 9.Registration ISO CERTIFICATION SERVICES . Select the appropriate standard 3.ISO Quality Management Systems (ISO 9001) . Pre-assessment by registrar 8. Set the registration objective 2.Information Security Management Systems (ISO/IEC 27001) .Every working day of the year. the experts continue the standards' development work by correspondence. their contacts are made by electronic means and some ISO technical bodies have already gone over entirely to working electronically. Select a third-party registrar and apply 5.Occupational Health & Safety Management Systems (OHSAS 18001) . an average of eight ISO meetings is taking place somewhere in the world. which speeds up the development of standards and cuts travel costs.
including the eight management principles on which the family of standards is based. certification and quality assessments. which is responsible for developing and maintaining the ISO 9000 standards. and available through National standards bodies. Quality management systems Fundamentals and vocabulary. Founded in 1946. . inspection. It introduces the eight quality management principles on which the quality management system standards of the ISO 9000:2000 and ISO 9000:2008 series are based.ISO 9000 SERIES ISO 9000 is a family of standards related to quality management systems and designed to help organizations ensure that they meet the needs of customers and other stakeholders. ISO 9001 deals with the requirements that organizations wishing to meet the standard have to fulfil. laboratory accreditation. ISO (International Organisation for Standardisation) consists of approximately 90 member countries at present and this number is expected to grow. The principles are derived from the collective experience and knowledge of the international experts who participate in ISO Technical Committee ISO/TC 176. The standards are published by ISO. the ISO is responsible for the promotion and development of international standards and related activities. the International Organization for Standardization. Quality management systems Guidelines for performance improvements. and in ISO 9004:2000. it provides examples of the benefits derived from their use and of actions that managers typically take in applying the principles to improve their organizations' performance. ISO 9000 deals with the fundamentals of quality management systems. including conformity assessments such as testing.IEC). In addition. With the exception of the electrical and electronic engineering industries (which are covered by International Electro technical Commission . These principles can be used by senior management as a framework to guide their organizations towards improved performance. This document gives the standardized descriptions of the principles as they appear in ISO 9000:2005 and ISO 9004:2000. Quality management and quality assurance. The eight quality management principles are defined in ISO 9000:2005.
the ISO-9001:2000. while the ISO-9000:2000 and the ISO-9004:2000 merely present information or guidelines. eventually. manufacturers exporting to the EC and. only the ISO-9001:2000 outlines specific requirements for compliance. The ISO 9000 family addresses "Quality management". Of these. to the European Free Trade Association. The main objective of ISO is to facilitate international trade by providing a single internationally-accepted set of standards for everybody's reference. while aiming to Enhance customer satisfaction. This means what the organization does to fulfil: The customer's quality requirements Applicable regulatory requirements. All of these quality standards are process-oriented. The ISO 9000 series standards provide the requirements to which organisations desirous of certification must conform. and the ISO-9004:2000. would need to have a well documented and implemented Quality Assurance System. and not what products it ships or level of product quality it has. The standard finds its origin in the European Community (EC) July 1985 product liability directives (also known as the single market directives) which state that for certain regulated products. . the series is known as the ANSI/ASQC Q 9000 series. One very important aspect of the standards is that they were very generic in nature and ingenuity is required while interpreting the standards' applicability to the industry or firm in question. In the United States. This means that ISO-9000 is more particular about how a company conducts its processes. and not product-oriented. and Achieve continual improvement of its performance in pursuit of these objectives ISO-9000 currently has three quality standards: the ISO-9000:2000.The ISO 9000 series standards have been adopted by some 45 countries and its equivalent standard in the Indian context is the Bureau of Indian Standards' (BIS) 14000 series.
Defines the fundamental terms and definitions used in the ISO 9000 family to avoid confusion in their use ISO 9001:2000 Quality Management Systems – Requirements .ISO9000-2000's Standards and Guidelines: Standards and guidelines ISO 9000:2000 Quality Management Systems Fundamentals and Vocabulary Purpose .Establishes a starting point for understanding the standards . ISO-9002:1994 and ISO-9003-1994 had been dropped. so companies who are certified to any of these two standards only should be re-certified to the ISO-9001:2000. and the ISO9003:1994.Now the only standard in the ISO 9000 family against which third-party certification can be carried out ISO 9004:2000 Quality Management Systems Guidelines for performance improvements . which were revised in 1994 as the ISO9000:1994. The ISO-9000:2000. can be applied to virtually any industry worldwide.Provides guidance for continual improvement of the quality management system to benefit all parties through sustained customer satisfaction The first ISO standards were published in 1987. . The ISO-9000:1994 had 3 standards: the ISO-9001:1994.Defines the requirements for assessing the ability to meet customer and applicable regulatory requirements and thereby address customer satisfaction . being processoriented. and is therefore referred to as "ISO-9000:2000 Standards". The next and latest revision of ISO standards was released in 2000. the ISO-9002:1994. and is certainly widely embraced in the semiconductor industry.
or whether it is in the private. . ISO 9001:2008 is the standard that provides a set of standardized requirements for a quality management system. It consists of standards and guidelines relating to quality management systems and related supporting standards. it will also bring about efficiency and cost-effectiveness as a result of better process controls. documentation. regardless of what the user organization does. operational systems. 3) invitation of an accredited external auditing body to audit the quality system and its implementation. its size. training. or public sector. performance improvements. Getting ISO-certified will not only brings about customer orders. and problem resolution mechanisms. and financial and economic aspects. and 5) conduct of regular surveillance audits to maintain the certification. It is the only standard in the family against which organizations can be certified – although certification is not a compulsory requirement of the standard. The other standards in the family cover specific aspects such as fundamentals and vocabulary. 4) receipt of accreditation if the external auditor approved of the system. ISO 9000 ESSENTIALS The ISO 9000 family of standards represents an international consensus on good quality management practices.Companies certified to the ISO-9001:1994 need to update their quality systems to the ISO9001:2000 requirements for future recertification. The process of getting ISO 9000-certified generally consists of the following steps: 1) development of a quality management system that meets the ISO 9000 standards. 2) conduct of internal audits to ensure that the quality system is working as planned.
An internal audit is a 1st party audit. WHY IS ISO 9000 IMPORTANT The importance of ISO 9000 is the importance of quality. Instead of looking at a company‘s departments and individual processes. but it is those companies who put out the best products and services efficiently that succeed. Therefore. various audits can be done as a check of the effectiveness of your quality management system. many companies choose to become certified with ISO 9000 through a 3rd party audit. an independent certification body comes into an organization and evaluates it in terms of the ISO 9000 guidelines. an organization can identify the root of the problem. it becomes certified in ISO 9000 and carries a seal of quality recognized throughout the world. As a broad range of companies implement the ISO 9000 standards. And because the consumer is most important to a company. It is important to stress that ISO 9000 is not a rigid set of requirements. ISO 9000 makes the customer its focus. With ISO 9000. and in businesses large and small. In this case. this audit process cannot be viewed as impartial.‖ Once this process-oriented approach is implemented. ISO 9000 encourages (and requires) this type of audit so that an organization can get feedback quickly from those who know the company best. . but also the customer realizes the importance of quality. This freedom allows the ISO 9000 standard to be used in a wide range of organizations. There are three main types of audits – 1st. maintain.HOW DOES ISO 9000 WORK ISO 9000 is set up as a collection of guidelines that help a company establish. and marketing a product knows that it is part of internationally known. Each company that participates in the process of developing. One important aspect of ISO 9000 is its process-oriented approach. Not only do businesses recognize the importance of the ISO 9000. and improve a quality management system. reliable system. If an organization meets the requirements of the standard. 2nd party audits allow for a consumer to evaluate the performance on an organization. and therefore find a solution. As an alternative to a 2nd party audit. By improving efficiency. a supply chain with integrity is created. and that organizations have flexibility in how they implement their quality management system. profit can be maximized. Many companies offer products and services. and 3rd party audits. 2nd. manufacturing. However. ISO 9000 requires that a company look at ―the big picture.
Both suppliers and customers will gain confidence in a business‘s abilities. a business‘s dedication will be recognized by the customer. Management system approach Combining management groups may seem like a dangerous clash of titans. 2. and prioritize objectives to maximize effectiveness. interested parties will recognize the consistency. but if done correctly can result in an efficient and effective management system. and time. they will aid each other to achieve improved productivity. Additionally. Their goal is to motivate everyone working on the project. Their role is intimately intertwined with the next ISO 9000 principle. the customer is the primary focus of a business. If people have a vested interest in performance. they will be eager to participate in the continual improvement that ISO 900 facilitates. A Customer Focus As stated before. . 4. personnel. management can focus on goals that are important to the big picture. Involvement of people The inclusion of everyone on a business team is critical to its success. creating customer loyalty. and efficiency that come with a management system. 5. resources can be allocated appropriately and efficiently.WHAT ARE THE ISO 9000 PRINCIPLES 1. Process approach to quality management The best results are achieved when activities and resources are managed together. With knowledge of customer needs. Some results include integration and alignment of key processes. If leaders are dedicated to the goals of an organization. committed workers. Most importantly. This process approach to quality management can lower costs through the effective use of resources. Good Leadership A team of good leaders will establish unity and direction quickly in a business environment. and successful leaders will minimize miscommunication within and between departments. These people will tend towards innovation and creativity. effectiveness. Involvement of substance will lead to a personal investment in a project and in turn create motivated. By understanding and responding to the needs of customers. an organization can correctly targeting key demographics and therefore increase revenue by delivering the products and services that the customer is looking for. and utilize their full abilities to complete a project. And customer loyalty is return business. 3. If a process is controlled as a whole.
The phases include 20 quality-system requirements (sections). 7. Documentation review is usually the second of six steps in the certification process (application. what employees will do. 8.6. If an applicant fails the documentation review. Ready for improvement and change. and surveillance). This will put confidence in current and future decisions. Improvement activities will be aligned. pre-assessment. leading to faster and more efficient development. in what order. The greatest reason why companies fail their ISO audit—document control problems—causes twice as many failures as the second most common reason. an organization will be more likely to make the right decision. Each section contains this statement: "the supplier shall establish and maintain documented procedures. the certification process stops right there. Factual approach to decision making Effective decisions are based on the analysis and interpretation of information and data. • Level II outlines procedures the company will follow. Through close contact and interaction with a supplier. and should a permanent objective of every organization. DOCUMENTATION REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION Documentation control is a critical element of International Standards Organisation (ISO) certification. and with what results. . As companies make this a habit. they will be able to demonstrate the effectiveness of past decisions. structured to reflect the process flow of events. Supplier relationships It is important to establish a mutually beneficial supplier relationship." ISO 9000 registration requires four levels of documentation: • Level I consist of a quality manual that outlines what a company plans to achieve and outlines the policies it plans to implement to achieve its goal. A supplier that recognizes a mutually beneficial relationship will be quick to react when a business needs to respond to customer needs or market changes. By making informed decisions. documentation review. If a whole business is dedicated to continual improvement. such a relationship creates value for both parties. a company can increase profits and gain an advantage over competitors. assessment. Continual Improvement The importance of this principle is paramount. • Level III consists of detailed work instructions—specific written information on how to do a particular task. by whom. Through increased performance. certification. both organizations will be able to optimize resources and costs. businesses will have the flexibility to react quickly to new opportunities.
• A master list identifying revision status of documents must be readily available. Certification is achieved through an on-site audit and assessment of the company's quality system by independent auditors. • Documentation must be easily accessible. When performing the document review. and quality records. • Documentation versioning is necessary. quality system documentation. auditors look at the following: • Intent of ISO 9000 standard. How well does a documented system work? But there are also some general requirements for the documentation itself. The complete process of ISO 90000 implementation and certification typically takes about two years. • Evidence of approval for each document must be available. . including the quality policy. • Documentation must be available for auditors' perusal. We can summarise this requirements as follows: • Documentation must be controlled. How well does a documented system stand against the ISO standard? • Implementation.• Level IV consists of reference material and information not in other categories. Do people within the company follow the documentation? Is the documentation readily available? • Effectiveness.
technology and innovation. service. It can help bring out the best in your organisation by enabling you to better understand your processes for delivering your products and services to your customers.CASE STUDY: METFLEX ISO 9001 is one of the series of quality management system standards. including customised tooling and material development services. . since the company strives to increase the value offered to customers by constantly improving products. The organisation is committed to creating and building new business relationships and strives to act as a partner to its customers rather than just a vendor. Client objectives:•Create a framework to assess customer and market requirements •Improve operational efficiency •Effectively manage risk •Gain third party endorsement of internal claims Business achievements:•Improved operational efficiency •Increased market share •Reduced manufacturing costs •Effective risk management •Improved customer satisfaction •Enhanced brand reputation Metflex specialises in the manufacture of precision moulded rubber components. Understanding customers‘ needs is paramount to Metflex.
‖ explains Steve Parry. IS0 9001 provided Metflex with an established and highly regarded framework through which it could demonstrate commitment to excellent service and product quality.―We made the decision to implement ISO 9001 because it provided us with a framework to assess our customer and market requirements. Director of Development and Quality. monitored and reviewed to ensure the suitability and effectiveness of our operations. The ISO 9001 assessment and certification process ensured that business objectives would be constantly fed into both operational processes and working practices in order to maximise business efficiency and customer satisfaction. . The company identified that ISO 9001 would help bring out the best in the organisation by enabling employees to better understand the processes by which they deliver products and services to customers. ―We also wanted to ensure that our business objectives were continually developed.‖ Why ISO 9001? Metflex believes great service starts with accurate job preparation and ends with the provision of the right solution.
or at least the life span of the company as it pertains to the company being ISO 9000 certified. ISO Certification Process The ISO 9000 certification process does not end with the final implementation of the initial certification. This can lead to unforeseen expenses as well as the need for dedicated and trained ISO 9000 compliance positions that will have to be kept filled. the size of the business and other factors that are different for every type of business. The registration company will also guide you through the rather involved process of certification if you decide to proceed with certification. The cost of the certification process depends greatly on the type of business.LIMITATIONS 1. As a result. It must be maintained throughout the life of the company. you cannot estimate the price that the ISO 9000 certification will cost you. Cost It is not cheap to become an ISO 9000-certified company. . You need to get a quote from an ISO 9000 registration company in order to find out the true cost to you. 2.
) negatively affect the environment (i. plans and actions. strategic approach to an organisation's environmental policy. As with ISO 9000. ensuring they are followed and checking they are effective. (b) Comply with applicable laws. or land).000 voluntary International Standards published by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO). Implementation involves making production procedures explicit.ISO 14000 SERIES ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations: (a) Minimize how their operations (processes etc. The ISO 14000 Series gives the requirements for an environmental management system and is one of more than 15. legal compliance and reporting duties. certification is performed by third-party organizations rather than being awarded by ISO directly. it provides a set of generic requirements for what the organisation must do to manage the processes influencing the impact of the organisation's activities on the environment. foremost concerning performance improvement. documenting them.e. The ISO 19011 audit standard applies when auditing for both 9000 and 14000 compliance at once. It is not a product standard and does not give requirements for specific products or services. The intention of ISO 14001:2004 is to provide a framework for an overall. and other environmentally oriented requirements and (c) Continually improve in the above. A quality management system can be audited by an independent certification body as conforming to the Standard (leading to an ISO 9001:2000 certificate). ISO 14000 is similar to ISO 9000 quality management in that both pertain to the process of how a product is produced. this means what the organization does to minimize harmful effects on the environment of its activities. The requirements of ISO 14000 are an integral part of the European Union‗s environmental management scheme EMAS. It is primarily concerned with "environmental management". EMAS‗s structure and material requirements are more demanding. although this is not compulsory. For the ISO. . rather than to the product itself. water. cause adverse changes to air. rather. regulations.
objectives and targets. systems and support techniques ISO 14015 Environmental assessment of sites and organizations ISO 14020 series (14020 to 14025) Environmental labels and declarations ISO 14031 Environmental performance evaluation—Guidelines . addressing environmental aspects in product standards. conducting the environmental auditing and related investigations. The standard has the aim of making it easier for small and medium-sized enterprises (SME's) to understand. ISO 14001:2004 ensures that organisations are aware of environmental aspects of their work in order to minimise negative impacts and improve environmental performance. List of ISO 14000 series standards ISO 14001 Environmental management systems—Requirements with guidance for use ISO 14004 Environmental management systems—General guidelines on principles. and evaluating environmental performance). set up and benefit from such systems. and understanding terms and definitions). ISO suggests that the Standard can provide significant tangible benefits. However. conducting life cycle assessment). The Standard can be implemented by a wide variety of organisations. including: • • • • • Reduced raw material/resource use Reduced energy consumption Improved process efficiency Reduced waste generation and disposal costs Utilisation of recoverable resources.The ISO 14000 family consists of standards relating to environmental management systems (EMS) and others which are tools to help the organisation realize its environmental policy. To products and services (using environmental declarations and claims. along with a commitment to continuous improvement. whatever their current level of environmental maturity. and classify them by application: At the organisational level (implementing EMS. a commitment to compliance with applicable environmental legislation and regulations is required.
life cycle analysis. ISO 14063 Environmental communication—Guidelines and examples ISO 14064 Measuring. they would have to be specific to each business activity and this would require a specific EMS standard for each business. ISO 19011 which specifies one audit protocol for both 14000 and 9000 series standards together. ISO 14000 ESSENTIALS The ISO 14000 family addresses various aspects of environmental management. The other standards and guidelines in the family address specific environmental aspects. LCA. ISO 14001:2004 provides the requirements for an EMS and ISO 14004:2004 gives general EMS guidelines. they can also be used independently of each other to achieve environmental goals. . That is not the intention. ISO 14062 discusses making improvements to environmental impact goals. ISO 14001:2004 and ISO 14004:2004 deal with environmental management systems (EMS). Although the ISO 14000 standards are designed to be mutually supportive. If it specified levels of environmental performance. discusses preproduction planning and environment goal setting. This replaces ISO 14011 meta-evaluation—how to tell if your intended regulatory tools worked. performance evaluation. The whole ISO 14000 family of standards provides management tools for organizations to manage their environmental aspects and assess their environmental performance. ISO 14050 terms and definitions. and reducing Greenhouse Gas emissions. ISO 14040 series (14040 to 14049). The very first two standards. 19011 are now the only recommended way to determine this. communication and auditing. HOW DOES ISO 14000 WORKS ISO 14001:2004 does not specify levels of environmental performance. quantifying. Life Cycle Assessment. including: labelling.
a commitment to compliance with applicable environmental legislation and regulations is required. ISO 14001:2004 specifies the requirements for such an environmental management system. regulators.ISO has many other standards dealing with specific environmental issues. along with a commitment to continual improvement – for which the EMS provides the framework. and discusses principal issues involved. the standard can to be implemented by a wide variety of organizations. whatever their current level of environmental maturity. the public and other stakeholders. The underlying philosophy is that whatever the organization's activity. The intention of ISO 14001:2004 is to provide a framework for a holistic. This has the effect of establishing a common reference for communicating about environmental management issues between organizations and their customers. EMS STANDARDS ISO 14004:2004 provides guidelines on the elements of an environmental management system and its implementation. However. • ISO 14000 is one of the most nationally and internationally known environmental standards that affirms the independent approval of a management system designed specifically to deliver high levels of customer satisfaction . plans and actions. the requirements of an effective EMS are the same. Because ISO 14001:2004 does not lay down levels of environmental performance. ISO 14001:2004 gives the generic requirements for an environmental management system. Fulfilling these requirements demands objective evidence which can be audited to demonstrate that the environmental management system is operating effectively in conformity to the standard. strategic approach to the organization's environmental policy. POTENTIAL BENEFITS • ISO 14000 covers a wide range of requirements that may go beyond compliance and legislation in seeking to improve the quality of the organisation‘s environmental management activities.
A related limitation is that the quality of the environmental audit depends on the qualifications and integrity of the registrar who performs the audit. For example. and industrial hygiene with Motorola Corporation. Certification of registrars depends on the accrediting body or bodies of individual countries. A fourth limitation is that certification to ISO 14000 series standards does not serve as a substitute for conformance to environmental management standards that have been adopted by other organizations. chairperson of the ISO's working group on environmental auditing. is the U. Thomas Ott.• ISO 14000 can help organisations reduce waste. RAB is a non-profit organization that accredits ISO 9000 registrars. • It has the potential to improve internal and external assurance and communication of management and environmental impacts. and many of those same registrars are beginning to provide ISO 14000 audit services. "Having a certificate doesn't mean you have a clean company. Because participation is voluntary. increased numbers of auditors will be needed for initial audits and continuing. periodic audits. Registrar Accreditation Board (RAB). . He observed. articulation of goals. energy use and resources that can help to reduce costs. The organization must show its commitment through its statement of policy in the EMS. safety. Because membership in the CMA requires conformance with RC. LIMITATIONS OF ISO 14000 A limitation of the ISO 14000 series is that participants are self-selecting. a chemical company may not wish to undergo the number of audits (and costs) involved in conformance with RC and certification to ISO 14001. A second major limitation of the ISO 14000 series is that it depends on self-enforcement.S. and they'll have a certificate. As increased numbers of companies seek certification to ISO 14001. Further. the American National Standards Institute operates as a partner with the U. Even with the services of an accreditation board. the CMA's Responsible Care (RC) program is not as broad as ISO 14001. the company must allocate adequate funds for implementation of its goals and for training of personnel. an organization meeting RC requirements must do more before it can also be certified to ISO 14001.S. and communication of the policy and goals to its personnel. in the United States. For example.… The bad guys who pollute today will still do it. a company must choose its auditors and other consultants carefully." The successful implementation of an EMS within an individual company will depend substantially on the leadership of the managers of the company. corporate manager for environment. it covers only a limited segment of the business community.
The hotel is an historic one with an upscale clientele. The cumulative effect of many small acts of environmental impact reduction may not be quantifiable.Case Study: Copley Square Hotel Prominent hotel created an aggressive environmental program that provides a foundation for ISO 14001 registration.81 years.000 gallons annually.622 annually plus 90% reduction in labour costs. and water use reduction. The major benefit areas were: recycling. • Small savings are as important as big ones. 90 watt incandescent lights in table lamps in the lobby and elevator landings were replaced with 22 watt compact fluorescent lights: savings equal $1. Comments:Some of the reasons the program has been successful are: • Everyone in the hotel participates in the program and can contribute from within their job responsibilities.5 gallon capacity. but it may be significant. Their aggressive approach to reducing their impact on the environment helped them identify many ongoing benefits.540 annually • Install compact fluorescent bulbs in guest room table lamps and hanging lamps: predicted payback equal 1. replacing ones with 3. This recognizes that small savings add up and creates a culture that values contributions at all levels of the organization and of any size. • Showerheads of greater efficiency will save $6.276 and 430. Thus. energy use reduction. the power of each individual to contribute in a positive way is harnessed. Water Use Reduction: • Installing toilets with 1. 60 watt incandescent corridor ceiling lights were replaced 15 watt compact fluorescent lights: savings equal $3. .000 gallons annually. Energy Use Reduction: • Energy efficient lighting was installed in public areas which are light 24 hours per day.5 gallon capacity will save $3.546 and 859.
Many organizations that are already registered to ISO 9000. they are seeking ways to integrate ISO 14000 systems into their existing ISO 9000 systems. however. It is a series of standards designed to lead to quality in design. consumer groups. it focuses on the customer-supplier relationship. Both series promote management systems that focus on prevention rather than corrective action. Noncompliance with environmental law can result in substantial fines or even imprisonment of business managers. As they do so. The ISO 9000 series and the ISO 14000 standards are process standards. produces. water. The ISO 14000 series is of concern to various groups of interested parties or "stakeholders.DISTINGUISHING ISO 14000 FROM ISO 9000 It is important to note that the ISO issued a separate set of management standards in 1987 called the ISO 9000 series. installation. focusing on the business organization's activities and how they affect the land. inspection. In short.S. Second. not performance standards." It concerns businesses and their customers as well as government. testing. and delivers a product or service to a customer. which provides advice to the ISO's Technical Committee charged with formulation of the ISO 14000 standards. the standards are designed to promote quality management practices. also. development. the ISO 14000 series covers a broad area (the environment) and takes a holistic approach to that area. Quality of management is less directly tied to law. Thus. a major goal of the ISO 14000 series is to ensure that businesses are in compliance with their own national and local applicable environmental laws and regulations. the 9000 series is designed to help an organization maintain quality as it designs. have decided to seek ISO 14000 registration. Certification to ISO 9000 is not a precondition to ISO 14000 certification. Fourth. First. and air. Thus. Technical Advisory Group. environmental organizations. the subject of the 14000 series (environmental protection) is heavily regulated by government through thousands of statutes and regulations. but coordination of the two sets of standards has been addressed by the U. the ISO 14000 series involves more strategic planning. production. and others. The quality of management area covered by ISO 9000 is more limited. . Third. and servicing of products. But the ISO 14000 series can be distinguished from the 9000 series in at least four major aspects. it prompts businesses to pursue continuous improvement in their environmental performance.
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