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Torontos Vital Signs 2011 About the Toronto Community Foundation Over the past 30 years, the Toronto Community Foundation has become a significant public foundation that is shaping the city of Toronto. Our mission is to connect philanthropy with community needs and opportunities to ensure the vitality of Toronto and make it the best place to live, work, learn and grow through the power of giving. Our unique position as an independent public foundation enables us to be a catalyst for change. We mobilize hundreds of individual and family donors, and invest in a vast array of high-impact community organizations and cross-sector leaders, to tackle complex quality of life issues in creative and inspiring ways to nurture the soul of our city. We facilitate this by identifying issues in our Torontos Vital Signs Report, convening to explore and develop solutions, and supporting these solutions through our grant programs, special initiatives, and our online Community Knowledge Centre. About the Torontos Vital Signs Report Toronto's Vital Signs provides a snapshot of the trends in our city, highlighting progress we should be proud of and challenges that need to be addressed for Torontos quality of life. The Report is compiled from current statistics and special studies which look at eleven different, yet interconnected, issue areas that are critical to the well-being of our city and its residents. Citations at the end of the report, and live web links throughout, will take you directly to the sources used in this years Report. Toronto's Vital Signs aims to: inspire civic engagement, provide focus for public debate, and guide donors and stakeholders who want to direct their resources to areas of greatest need. Since Torontos first Vital Signs publication ten years ago in 2001, the Report has been adopted by 22 communities across Canada. About the Community Knowledge Centre The Community Knowledge Centre (CKC) is an online showcase of community solutions and the organizations behind them, developed in partnership with IBM. Stories are at its core, with prose and video that bring to life the impact of the
Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

work carried out by community organizations as they improve the quality of life in our communities. The Community Knowledge Centre is central to what we do at the Toronto Community Foundation: connect philanthropy to community needs and opportunities. The Community Knowledge Centre is a natural complement to Vital Signs . It answers the now what question, offering a jumping off point for inspiration, information and contacts that make it easy for donors and other stakeholders to connect and respond to key issues facing the community. At the end of each issue area section in this Report, you will find lists of highimpact community organizations that are addressing Vital Signs trends and data through their innovative community-based programs. These groups have profiles on the Community Knowledge Centre, and live web links to those profiles are provided. About community foundations Community foundations are independent public foundations that strengthen their communities by partnering with donors to build permanent endowments, which support community projects, and by providing leadership on issues of broad community concern. Vital Signs is a community check-up conducted by community foundations across Canada that measures the vitality of our communities, identifies significant trends, and supports action on issues that are critical to our quality of life. Vital Signs is coordinated nationally by Community Foundations of Canada. The Vital Signs trademark is used with permission from Community Foundations of Canada.

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 message from John B. MacIntyre and Rahul K. Bhardwaj

The World Needs Toronto to Succeed


When the world looks at Toronto, what does it see? The internationally respected Economist magazine says we are the fourth most liveable city in the world a top 5 city on the planet! Were recognized for offering a quality of life where residents can live, breathe, work and prosper together in harmony. The global management consultancy PricewaterhouseCoopers ranks Toronto second among 26 globally competitive cities surveyed in intellectual capital and innovation, as well as health, safety and security. The conclusion drawn by the researchers is that the worlds most competitive cities are not necessarily those with the biggest economic clout, but those where the citys creators and innovators are able to live safe and healthy lives. Our financial indicators are also strong. The Toronto Region took first place on the CIBC economic activity index of 25 major Canadian metropolitan regions. International visitors pick Toronto second after only New York as their preferred destination in North America. We had almost 10 million overnight visitors last year, generating $4.3 million in direct municipal taxes. Culture where we express ourselves and what we value was a major tourism driver attracting four times as many visitors as sports attractions. As the world continues to migrate, Canada is recognized for exemplary newcomer integration policies, ranking third among 31 countries. As the top Canadian destination for immigrants, Torontos immigration levels grew by 11.5% in 2010 after three years of declining numbers. Theres something special happening here. Crime rates dropped again for the fourth year in a row in 2010. Eighty-three percent of Canadians report not being worried about being alone in our homes at night. Even the majority of high-rise apartment dwellers in Torontos inner suburbs generally feel safe. Weve assembled the hearts and minds of people from all over the world making us among the most diverse cities on the planet. Weve established neighbourhoods where we can live peacefully. Weve grown businesses that provide jobs for many and prosperity for most. Weve worked hard to balance economic and social agendas for shared results rather than pitting one against the other and tipping the scales. Despite our differences and because of our commonalities, together weve created a city that largely works and inspires others. We are a city of builders and a model for the world.

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

But with the passage of time and the relentlessness of change, no structure is permanent. Fractures can form that with neglect will spread. When we look around the world, what do we see? Not so long ago in a suburb of Paris, immigrant youth were blamed for the spreading mob violence that was later found to involve 2nd and 3rd generation residents disconnected from their community. More recently the riots in London, seemingly nonsensical acts of excessive adolescent rebellion, underlie a youth disconnected from community, aimless and hopeless in the face of limited opportunity. And when the recent mass killings devastated Oslo, and the rest of Norway, Islamic extremism was first to be blamed for the horrors that were ultimately attributed to one, native Norwegian sociopath. Paris, London, Oslo. All three are cities just like Toronto where people from all over the world have come together to make a living and build a life. They are cities with long, proud histories and places where change is the only constant. Cities just like ours but whose social and economic systems are eroding. These cities are now face to face with massive change, at times leading to civil strife with serious and lasting consequences. Will this be our fate too? Will we end up on the same path? Or will we be viewed as a beacon of hope for a positive future for global cities? We have the chance to lead and the choice is ours. And when we cast our sights even closer to home, we witness how the American motto E Pluribus Unum, out of many, one, is now reduced to Whats in it for me? Financial crises have transformed valued citizens into transactional taxpayers and simple consumers of public services, and along the way diminished the stature of government through partisan posturing. But before we get too smug, there are cracks appearing in our social and economic structures too. Torontos Vital Signs tells us this. Our Community Foundations annual report measuring the state of the citys quality of life uncovers who we are today and where this might lead us. Today we see not one city united but the emergence of three cities in Toronto resulting in over one million people in a city of 2.7 million, living in low and very low income neighbourhoods. If these trends continue as predicted, by 2025 low and very low income neighbourhoods will cover 60% of our city. We also know that shifting demographics highlight an aging population; from 2001 to 2031 people over the age of 85 will increase by 85% in Toronto. The number of people without the English literacy rates needed to thrive will reach chronic proportions, rising 64% over the next 20 years. At the same time our hourglass economy will likely
Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

continue to shrink the availability of middle positions, leaving workers to languish in low-wage, dead-end jobs. Even today, we are not reaping the benefits of our current workforce. We draw young people from across Canada and around the world to our nine post-secondary institutions, yet upon graduation, their prospects are few. The youth unemployment rate in the Toronto Region was 22% above the national average in 2010. For the 80,000 highly skilled, well-educated immigrants who arrive here in search of opportunity, they are twice as likely as Canadian-born to be unemployed. In one year, poverty in the Toronto Region rose 22% and the rate of child poverty was up by more than 43%. For those struggling, the Region offers one of the most severely unaffordable housing markets in the world, ranking 75th least affordable among 325 markets surveyed. And transit, the underlying network that connects us, continues to rank poorly when compared to other major metropolitan centres. Chronic underinvestment in transportation has been identified as the Toronto Regions greatest threat to global competitiveness. Our commute time is one of the longest and when compared to 14 other major international cities, we spend the least on public transit. Our skeleton is fragile. This is not the time to dismantle the machinery of our city. Instead, we must recognize what makes our city great and build upon it. Collaboration, compassion, compromise these are the values that build the trust that binds us and make us a magnet for the world. Especially now, when rewarding short-term thinking and quick fixes are in vogue, we must construct a vision for our city and commit to the long-term. We need to build the city we all want smarter, healthier, more inclusive, more creative, more prosperous simply put, more Toronto. We believe whats more important than what we stand for is what we stand up for. Now is the time to stand up for Toronto. The world needs Toronto to succeed.

John B. MacIntyre Chair, Board of Directors __ Now is the time to stand up for Toronto.

Rahul K. Bhardwaj President & CEO

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

Notes: 1. Toronto or the city refers to the former Municipality of Metropolitan Toronto, which consisted of the former cities of Toronto, Etobicoke, North York, Scarborough, York and the Borough of East York. City of Toronto or City refers to the municipal government. Province refers to the provincial government. 2. The Toronto Region or Region refers to the Toronto Census Metropolitan Area (CMA), the largest metropolitan area in Canada, stretching from Ajax and Pickering on the east, to Milton on the west and New Tecumseth and Georgina on the north. Almost half the population of the Toronto Region resides in the City of Toronto. The Toronto Region is an area slightly smaller than the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and is comprised of the city of Toronto plus 23 other municipalities: Ajax, Aurora, Bradford-West Gwillimbury, Brampton, Caledon, East Gwillimbury, Georgina, Georgina Island, Halton Hills, King Township, Markham, Milton, Mississauga, Mono Township, Newmarket, Tecumseth, Oakville, Orangeville, Pickering, Richmond Hill, Uxbridge, Whitchurch-Stouffville and Vaughan. 3. The Greater Toronto Area (GTA) refers to the entire area covered by the Region of Halton, Region of Peel, Region of York, Region of Durham and city of Toronto. The area is slightly larger than the CMA.

Source: City of Toronto, Toronto Economic Development and Culture

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

4.

Change over time is illustrated by the use of red and green symbols. The symbol attached to indicators that do not include comparisons over time, or where a trend could be interpreted both positively and negatively. ! ! positive change negative or no change

5.

Ideas and Innovations that point the way forward for Toronto are identified with the following icon: See Glossary at the back of this document for a list of definitions.

6.

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

Table of Contents Arts and Culture: ............................................................................................. 38! Work: ............................................................................................................... 46! Getting Around: .............................................................................................. 56! Getting Started in Toronto: ............................................................................. 68! Environment: ................................................................................................... 87! Safety: ............................................................................................................ 110! Gap Between Rich and Poor: ......................................................................... 118! Leadership, Civic Engagement and Belonging: ............................................ 130! Glossary ............................................................................................................. 137! Acknowledgements .......................................................................................... 143!

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

Torontos Vital Signs 2011

A snapshot of the city at the street level


6:00 AM
Your day begins early; preparing school lunches, rounding up homework projects, making a quick call to your elderly father, who still lives alone and appreciates your morning call to check in on him. You are thankful that you arent trying to manage your family responsibilities all by yourself.
More than 25% of seniors in Toronto were living alone at the last census. 1 in 5 Toronto families is headed by a lone parent.

7:00 AM
You get ready for the daily commute. With a walk to the bus stop, one transit change and a stop to drop off your youngest daughter at daycare, it takes over an hour to get to work. Even so, you consider yourself very lucky to have found a space in a local child care centre.
The citys 952 licensed child care centres serve only 21% of the 268,575 children aged 0 - 9 living in the city. The average one-way commute takes 49 minutes on public transit in the Greater Toronto Area.

8:30 AM
Your work is challenging and stretches you to use all your skill and imagination. You moved to Toronto, in spite of the high cost of living, to join a new high-tech start-up company. You know the work carries little job security and the company may not be around in ve years, but your skills and experience will likely land you something else. You worry more about your eldest son, who may have a much harder time nding work when he graduates.
Toronto is Canadas high-tech hub, with a young (36% under 35) and highly educated workforce (97% have post-secondary education, compared to 74% for the total labour force). In 2010, the youth (15-24 years old) unemployment rate in the Toronto Region was 18.1%, 3.3 percentage points above the national average.

12:00 PM
As usual, you take your lunch to the local park, marveling again at how much cooler the sidewalk feels under the leafy canopy of trees. You join a co-worker on a bench and watch the children running and climbing in the playground.
Half of the people in the city visit one of Torontos 1,500 parks at least once a week, and almost 14% make daily visits. Toronto Parks and Recreation maintains 833 playgrounds.

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

5:30 PM
Leaving work a bit early, you meet up with your neighbour and her young son new arrivals in the city. You go with them to the local library, and help them get their library cards and sign up for a new library program. Its fun re-discovering your own city through their eyes.
92,184 new permanent residents made Toronto their home in 2010 an 11.5% increase over 2009. The Toronto public library offered 28,706 programs in 2010 many in partnerships with other organizations to enhance literacy, help newcomers integrate and encourage civic engagement.

6:30 PM
You have run out of time for a quick workout at the local gym, before dinner. Somehow, with all the good intentions in the world, there always seems to be a dozen things that get in the way of exercise. You promise yourself again that next week will be different.
Only about 4 out of every 10 Torontonians (12 and over) are active or moderately active during their leisure time (compared to about 5 in 10 across Ontario).

7:00 PM
Returning home, you walk con dently along the street, grateful to live in a neighbourhood where you feel safe. Finding a decent, affordable apartment wasnt easy. You werent sure at rst that it would be a good location for you and your family; but now, you feel that you belong here.
In a recent study, only 13.3% of tenants in Torontos inner suburban highrises reported feeling unsafe walking alone to their apartment after dark. Two-thirds of Torontonians feel a sense of belonging to their local community (the rate has been growing slightly in recent years).

8:30 PM
Tonight is the opening night of one of the biggest cultural festivals of the year in your neighbourhood. You have been a volunteer helping to advertise the event and dont want to miss it, even though tomorrow will be another early morning start.
In 2009, 20,000 volunteers were working on behalf of 460 arts organizations that received city funding through the Toronto Arts Council. Those arts groups produced 26,000 performances, exhibitions and festivals, and generated $40,000,000 in ticket sales. Attendance at more than 750 City-funded or programmed cultural events grew to 17.4 million in 2010.

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

Who we are:
Canadas urban regions play a critical role in the life of the country, comprising 15.3 million voters (two-thirds of all voters) and generating $910 billion annually in GDP. The core cities of Canadas urban centres alone now account for more than 40% of the population of the country and generate almost two-thirds (62%) of new jobs:1 ! One in five people in Ontario lives in the city of Toronto. On July 1, 2010 the city of Torontos population was 2,720,024 (20.6% of Ontarios population and an increase of 1.9% from 2009).2 ! Torontos population ages, as the proportion of youth shrinks and the proportion of seniors climbs steadily: ! The share of youth (under 15) in the city was 15.2% in 2010 (2.2 percentage points lower than the 17.4% in 2001). ! The proportion is well below that of the province as a whole (18%) and of the country (17.7%).3 ! The percentage of seniors (65 years and older) in the city population grew to 13.7%, up from 13.2% in 2001. ! Below the 2010 national average of 14.1%, and below the provincial rate of 13.9%, the slower growth in the seniors share of population is likely due to high rates of new immigrants.4 Even so, the number of people over the age of 85 is projected to be 85% higher in Toronto in 2031 than in 2001.

Projected Population of Persons Aged 65 and Over, City of Toronto 2001 2031:5

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The Toronto Region ranked 6th (of 24 global metropolitan regions) in average population growth between 2004 and 2009 (Calgary and Vancouver were in 1st and 5th spot) with an annual compound growth rate of 1.7%.6 !

How We Rank on the World Stage:


The Toronto Region is near the top again this year, on a number of international rankings of global cities: 7

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Torontos high ranking on the PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC) Cities of Opportunity points to the areas where the Region shines on the global stage. What marks the top-ranked cities (and is deemed vital in a contemporary metropolis), is the extent to which residents feel that they have a stake in their city, economically, socially, and emotionally. Emotion in particular (measured by life satisfaction), was highlighted as a critically important indicator of an outstanding city. o Among the 26 PwC Cities of Opportunity, Toronto ranked 2nd on intellectual capital and innovation and health, safety and security, the two areas most Torontos Vital Signs 2011 13 !

highly correlated with each other in the study. The conclusion drawn by the researchers is that the worlds most globally competitive cities are not necessarily those with the biggest economic clout, but those where the citys creators and innovators are able to live safe and healthy lives.8 The 2010 Toronto Board of Trade Scorecard on Prosperity moved the R e g i o n t o 8 th s p o t ( T o r o n t o w a s i n 4 th p l a c e l a s t y e a r , o u t o f 2 4 metropolitan regions): ! ! Despite a relatively strong performance during the recent recession, Toronto continues to rank poorly in relation to the leaders in the group (Paris, San Francisco, Calgary, Boston and London) on a number of key economic indicators: productivity, GDP, Initial Public Offerings (IPOs) and venture capital investment. o The size of the Toronto Region market (the total income of the population within a 500-mile radius) makes it an attractive place for new investment. Toronto was the 5th largest market (of 24 centres) in 2010 (behind only Paris, London, Milan and Berlin). o However, on venture capital investment, the Toronto Region was in 10th place out of 12 North American centres. Torontos investment of $873 per million dollars GDP was just 8% that of second-placed Boston and only half that of Halifax (per million dollars GDP). o Toronto dropped from 13th to 18th place on productivity in 2010, with average five-year productivity growth of less than 1%. ! On GDP, the Region also fell from 10th to 16th place on per capita GDP (only about 60% that of first-placed San Francisco). ! Average GDP growth was 2.9% compared to Calgarys (in 2nd place with 5.3% growth). o Toronto continues to earn high marks for labour attractiveness (in 4th place), and could rank higher, but long commute times still drag the Region down (Toronto remains in last place on this indicator).9 Toronto is one of the 15 most globalized cities in the world: ! On the KOF Swiss Economic Institute 2011 Index of Globalization (for 168 countries), Toronto ranks with 14 European nations as having the highest levels of economic, social and political globalization.10 As the impact of the recession on tourism eased in 2010, the Region welcomed close to 9.9 million overnight visitors: ! After New York City, Toronto is the top destination for international visitors to North America.11 o Overnight visitors contributed $4.4 billion to the Regional economy in 2010. Toronto had the 6th highest hotel occupancy rate (68%) among major North American centres (up from 10th in 2009). ! o Overseas visits increased significantly in 2010 from the year prior. ! The majority continued to come from the UK, China and Germany, but rapidly expanding tourism markets included Brazil (a 59% increase), and India (28% increase). Chinese visits also increased by 26%. ! o A decline of 4% in visitors travelling from the US by car ! was mostly offset by a 7% increase in US air travel to Toronto. !

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Visits to the Region generated $4.3 million in direct municipal taxes in 2010, up from $4 million in 2009 ! (taxation generated $514.8 million for the Province, $560 million for the Federal government).12

O v e r n i g h t V i s i t o r s t o t h e T o r o n t o R e g i o n , b y O r i g i n 2 0 0 8 - 2 0 1 1 : 13
7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 2,150,000 1,390,000 2,050,000 1,190,000 1,980,000 1,320,000 6,560,000 6,570,000

6,340,000

2008

2009 Canada USA Overseas

2010

The Financial Profile of the City in 2011:


! The city is showing some positive signs of economic recovery from the 2008 recession, but mid-year economic forecasts for 2011 include GDP growth of only 2.4% (lower than the 3% in 2010).14 !

T h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o 2 0 1 1 budget w a s b a l a n c e d w i t h n o i n c r e a s e i n p r o p e r t y tax rates and no major service cuts: ! This was achieved mainly with a $346 million surplus from 2009/2010, better than expected revenue growth due to economic recovery, cost reductions of $57 million, and reserve draws. It is not expected that the same level of one-time revenues will be available for 2012. The cancellation of the Personal Vehicle Tax in December 2010 reduced annual revenues by close to $50 million.15 ! For 2012, the City budget has an opening budget pressure of $774 million (the initial gap between anticipated revenues and expenditures). This was driven primarily by cost of living adjustments, inflation, and the loss of one-time revenues. The gap is not new for the City, and has been higher in prior years (in 2010 the initial budget pressure was $821 million, and the City still achieved a substantial surplus and avoided service cuts). City administrators have already identified an additional $88 million in 2010 surplus as well as other revenues that will considerably reduce the 2012 budget pressure. o A property tax increase at the level of inflation (property taxes are already among the lowest in the province), would generate $47 million in 2012.16

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However, Toronto does have an ongoing structural financial deficit (estimated at $145 million per year for the next 10 years).17 To close that gap the City needs to find both revenue solutions and expenditure solutions. o Selling City-owned assets that generate annual revenue is one revenuegenerating strategy, although the City is constrained in the assets it is able to sell. Enwave and the Toronto Parking Authority (TPA) are key candidates under review. The TPA currently generates more than $44 million annually in net income for the City.18 o Long-term revenue solutions still focus on funding relationships with other levels of government (restoring a 50% provincial sharing of TTC operating funding; provincial uploading of social housing; and a share of the HST). o In 2011 the City initiated a core service review, service level review and a comprehensive user fee review, in an attempt to find efficiencies.

C i t y o f T o r o n t o 2 0 1 1 T o t a l Revenues, $ 9 , 3 9 6 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 : 19 ,
Provincial Subsidies and Grants 20% Federal Grants and Subsidies 2%

Reserves / Reserve Funds 4%

User Fees 16%

Municipal Land Transfer Tax 2%

Other Revenues* 18%

Property Taxes 38%

*Other revenues include investment income, fines, transfers from capital and prior year surpluses.

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C i t y o f T o r o n t o 2 0 1 1 T o t a l Operating Budget ( $ 9 , 3 9 6 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o p e r t y t a x b u d g e t a n d e x p e n d i t u r e s f u n d e d t h r o u g h o t h e r s o u r c e s ) : 20

Toronto Public Health* . 2.5%

Shelter, Support and Housing Admin.* 9.8% TTC 16.3%

Children's Services* 4.1% Long Term Care* Homes and Services 2.4% Toronto Employment and Social Services* 12.9% Emergency Medical Services 1.8% Fire Services 4.0%

Transportation Services 3.1%

Toronto Public Library 2.0% Economic Development and Culture 0.4% Parks, Forestry and Recreation 4.0% Licensing and Standards 0.5%

Debt Charges 4.7% Toronto Police Service 10.5% Administration and Other 20.7%

City Planning 0.4%

* Indicates provincially mandated and shared services.

Salaries and benefits for the TTC, emergency medical (EMS) and fire services alone made up close to 17% of the total 2011 operating budget21.

38% of the total operating budget is supported by property taxes ($3.579 billion in 2011). The tax portion of the total budget was significantly higher (46%) in 1999. ! o The 2009 Toronto average residential tax levy was 75.7% of the average in six surrounding cities (Oakville, Vaughan, Oshawa, Markham, Brampton and Mississauga) and among the lowest in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA).22

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

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2009 Municipal Residential Taxes (average for all property types) Toronto v s . S u r r o u n d i n g C i t i e s : 23

T h e P r o p o r t i o n o f Tax Dollars i n T o r o n t o S p e n t o n V a r i o u s C i t y S e r v i c e s , 2 0 1 1 : 24
City Planning 0.35% City Council 0.53% Municipal Licensing and Standards 0.60% Toronto Public Health* 1.24% Long Term Care Homes and Services* 1.30% Community Partnerships and Investment Program 1.32% Information and Technology 1.76% Emergency Medical Services 1.84% Children's Services* 2.06% Toronto Public Library 4.76% Transportation Services 4.85% Employment and Social Services* 5.59% Parks, Forestry and Recreation 7.69% Shelter, Support and Housing Administration* 8.16% Fire Services Debt Charges Police Service and Board 9.95% 11.39% 25.63% $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $500 $8.38 $12.73 $14.48 $29.84 $31.09 $31.64 $42.27 $44.27 $49.56 $114.30 $116.32 $134.27 $184.55 $195.78 $238.76 $273.33 $337.95 $615.12 $600 $700

Total = $2,400.40 Based on property tax of $2,400 on an average house assessed at $427,177

TTC (Iincluding Wheel Trans) 14.08%

* Indicates provincially mandated and shared services.

Again in 2011, the majority of the property-tax-supported operating budget (81.24%) goes to police, fire and emergency services, provincially mandated programs (down from 21.1% in 2010), the TTC (down from 14.5% in 2010), and debt charges.

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T h e C i t y s $ 2 . 0 4 9 b i l l i o n 2 0 1 1 capital budget i s p a r t o f a $ 1 3 b i l l i o n l o n g e r term plan (2011-2022): ! 83% of capital expenditures are dedicated to either State of Good Repair projects replacing critical infrastructure or are growth-related expenses tied to increasing population. The remainder is dedicated to service improvement, legislated capital projects and health and safety. ! The long-term capital plan is 33% funded by borrowing. Debt charges as a percentage of the tax levy are expected to rise to 15% by 2015. ! By far the largest share of the 2011 capital budget (71%) is being spent on transportation infrastructure, including the Spadina Subway extension ($510 million), the TTC ($650 million) and reconstruction of Union Station ($86 million). Parks and recreation receives 4% ($89 million) of the 2011 capital budget and 2% ($46 million) will be spent on readying Toronto for the 2015 Pan/Parapan American Games.25 o There are still $8.56 billion in emerging and unmet capital needs related to the TTC that are not included in the capital budget.26 On 118 measures of efficiency, service and community impact, Toronto ranks above the median on almost half (48%) in relation to other Ontario municipalities, in the annual Ontario Municipal Benchmarking Initiative (OMBI): ! There was little change in Torontos results on the 2009 OMBI. The City continues to have the lowest rate of governance and corporate management costs, the highest quality of road paving and the lowest rate of residential fire related injuries (of 14 Ontario municipalities). ! ! On other measures affected by high urban population density, Toronto performs less well, falling below the median in areas such as vehicle collision rate, cost of solid waste disposal, violent crime and traffic congestion. ! ! The City improved its performance in a number of municipal service areas in 2009, increasing public transit vehicle hours, investment in childcare, the number of police officers, and the extent of its library collection.27 !

Indicators of Economic Vitality:


The Toronto Region led the country in economic activity in the first quarter of 2011: ! Toronto was not at the top on any of the sub-measures of economic performance, but ranked highly enough to take first place on the CIBC economic activity index of 25 major Canadian metropolitan regions. The momentum was credited to the diversity of the Regions economy, and to robust activity in the labour and housing markets.

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M e t r o p o l i t a n E c o n o m i c A c t i v i t y I n d e x , 1 9 9 5 - 2 0 1 1 ( 1 st q u a r t e r ) :

28

Source: CIBC World Markets

GDP grew in 2010 in the city of Toronto for the first time since 2007: ! Toronto contributes 10% of the national GDP and 27.5% of the provincial total (largely unchanged since the early 2000s). GDP per worker was $94,820 in 2010 (up 1.2% from 2009, ! and 21.9% higher than the Canadian average. Compound average growth has been 0.5% since 2001; the Ontario growth rate was only 0.1%). ! Torontos total estimated 2010 GDP (in constant 2002 dollars) was $132.7 billion (3.1% growth over 2009). ! However compound average annual growth has been a sluggish 0.8% between 2001 and 2009 (compared to 1.7% for Canada).29 E s t i m a t e d G D P , C i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 8 7 - 2 0 1 0 : 30
140,000

Millions of Dollars

120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0

19 96

19 98

20 00

20 02

20 04

20 06

20 08

GDP at basic prices, 2002 constant dollars

Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

20 10

20

R e a l G D P G r o w t h ( a t 2 0 0 2 b a s i c p r i c e s ) : 31

The high cost of rental accommodation, combined with a strong Canadian dollar pushed Toronto to the top of the list in 2011, as Canadas most expensive c i t y : ! The latest Mercer cost-of-living survey showed the Toronto Region in 59th spot (out of 214 global cities) up from 79th last year. ! Vancouver was in 65th place (after ranking ahead of Toronto in 75th place overall last year).32 ! The median after-tax income for economic families in the Region was $69,200 in 2009 (2009 constant dollars). This was 8.5% higher than the national median ($63,800) in 2009, and 4.5% higher than the provincial figure ($66,200) but was still 3% lower than the $71,400 median for the Region in 2001.33 !

Toronto is still among the worlds most expensive cities in 2011, but ranks 1 5 th i n d o m e s t i c p u r c h a s i n g p o w e r : ! Based on a 2011 update of the cost of a basket of 122 basic goods and services (excluding rent) in 73 major global metropolises, only 8 were more expensive than Toronto in 2010 (Toronto was in 8th place in 2009). The appreciation of several currencies against the US dollar meant that New York was the only US city in the top 30. Montreal was in 17th place. o Despite the high cost of living, domestic purchasing power was higher in Toronto than in many places in the world when net hourly wages were factored in, and after the deduction of taxes and social security contributions. On the entire cost of basic goods and services (including rent), Toronto was in 15th place in 2010, compared to 17th in 2009. ! Zurich and Sydney were in 1st and 2nd spot again in 2010, and Montreal was in 11th.34

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The number of business and consumer bankruptcies dropped sharply in 2010: ! 10,996 personal bankruptcies in the Toronto Region in 2010 (almost one-third of the provincial total) represented a 28.7% decline from the 15,423 the year before. ! The decline was most evident in Ontario, but was reflected in an overall drop of 20.4% across the country.35 ! ! There were 714 business bankruptcies in the Toronto Region in 2010. Business bankruptcies fell by 31.8% from 2009 (compared to declines of 59.5% nationally and 47.6% at the provincial level).36 ! Retail sales for the Region are estimated to be $61.7 billion (current dollars) in 2011, an increase of 3.9% from $59.4 billion in 2010. ! This is in line with the provincial estimated increase of 4.0% in 2011, but lower than the 4.8% increase projected nationally.37 o Retail sales in the Toronto Region totalled $5.7 billion in May 2011, up from $5.6 billion in the same month in 2009.38 ! Building permits are an important marker of economic health. Toronto has closed the gap between the city and surrounding 905 municipalities in total value of permits issued, but both residential and institutional permit values are down somewhat in Toronto in 2011. The total value of building permits issued in the city in June 2011 was $354,466,000 (25.8% lower than the same month in 2010).39 !

T o t a l v a l u e o f Building Permits, C i t y o f T o r o n t o a n d 9 0 5 M u n i c i p a l i t i e s , , 2 0 0 0 - J u l y 2 0 1 1 : 40

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H i g h - R i s e B u i l d i n g s U n d e r C o n s t r u c t i o n , M a r c h 2 0 1 1 : 41

Indicators of a Social and Economic Divide:


Toronto is increasingly becoming a divided city; a projection of current neighbourhood income trends to 2025 predicts an almost complete d i s a p p e a r a n c e o f t h e c i t y s m i d d l e i n c o m e n e i g h b o u r h o o d s : 42 ! Analysis of income trends in Toronto over the 35-year period 1970 - 2005, by researchers at the Cities Centre, University of Toronto, reveals that Torontos middle income neighbourhoods are disappearing, as Three Cities emerge with markedly different social and economic prospects: o The first set of maps below demonstrates the loss of the citys middle income neighbourhoods (beige on the maps) over 35 years. o A comparison of the second set of maps shows the emergence of Torontos Three Cities. City #1 (blue on the maps) indicates neighbourhoods where average incomes increased 20% or more between 1970 and 2005, compared to the average income for the entire Toronto Region. City #2 (white on the maps) indicates neighbourhoods where the increase or decrease was less than 20%, and City #3 (brown on the maps) shows neighbourhoods where incomes decreased 20% or more between 1970 and 2005.

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Average Individual Income, City of Toronto, relative to the Toronto Region a v e r a g e , 1 9 7 0 : 43

Average Individual Income, City of Toronto, relative to the Toronto Region average, 2005:

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Change in average individual income, City of Toronto, relative to the T o r o n t o R e g i o n , 1 9 7 0 - 2 0 0 5 : 44

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P r o j e c t i o n o f i n c o m e t r e n d s i n T o r o n t o s Three Cities t o 2 0 2 5 :

Compared to the City of Toronto, City #3 (1,076,410 people, or 43% of Torontos population in 2006), is comprised of somewhat larger households, higher percentages of foreign-born, recent immigrant and visible minority residents, and a population with lower economic status, including much lower levels of university education, a higher prevalence of blue-collar occupations and low household incomes.45

A City website provides an in-depth look at the City of Torontos 140 neighbourhoods: ! Two years in development, the Wellbeing Toronto website allows access to data at the neighbourhood level, across all the domains covered in Torontos Vital Signs. Residents, planners, and researchers are able to compile detailed neighbourhood profiles, and create custom rankings on any of the dozens of indicators included. In collaboration with several other Canadian cities, Toronto is committed to an open data framework, where transparency is valued over any potential harm (such as stigmatization of a particular neighbourhood) that open access to data might cause.46

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Learning

Photo by Tenzin Dolkar for Greenest City

Learning: Torontos strongest advantage? - a highly educated population


! In 2010, 55.4% of the population of the Toronto Region had completed postsecondary education. This is 6.9% higher than the national rate (51.8% and 5.1% higher than the provincial rate 52.7%). The 2010 post-secondary completion rate in the Region is up 56.1% from the 1990 level (34.3%).47 !

Percentage of the Labour Force with Post-Secondary Education, City of T o r o n t o :48


80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00%

19 90

19 92

19 94

19 96

19 98

20 00

20 02

20 04

20 06

20 08

(Post-secondary completion means an earned degree, diploma or certificate.)

In the Toronto Region, 16.8% of the population (15 years and over) had not completed high school in 2010, down 15.5 percentage points from 32.3% in 1990. ! The rate was lower than the national average (20.2%) and also below the provincial average (18.7%). The rate of high school non-completion in the Toronto Region has dropped by 92% since 1990.49 !

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Population (25-64 years) with post-secondary qualifications acquired outside Canada, b y C i t y o f T o r o n t o n e i g h b o u r h o o d ( 2 0 0 6 ) : 50 ,

College and university enrolments grew in the Toronto Region in 20092010, as employment options remained limited: ! Enrolment in the Regions five colleges (Centennial, George Brown, Humber, Seneca and Sheridan) continued to grow, up 6.7% to 85,359 full- and part-time students in 2009-2010.51 ! At the same time, enrolments at Torontos universities OCAD University, Ryerson, the University of Toronto, and York grew by 5.4% in 2009-2010, to 154,191 full- and part-time students.52 ! Teacher-student ratios are among the best in the world, but enrolment in many of Torontos high schools continues to decline: ! Enrolment dropped 10% in the Toronto District School Board between 2001 and 2010 (26,000 fewer students), with a projected decline of a further 4,000 students in 2011-2012.53 ! ! Enrolments have also dropped over the decade in the Toronto Catholic District School Board, which is projecting a small decrease (1% or 478 students) in elementary enrolment in the coming year, as steep housing prices (which encourage settlement in less expensive communities outside Toronto), and immigration from non-Catholic countries contribute to declining kindergarten enrolments. ! However, secondary school enrolment is expected to increase by 1% in 2011-2012.54 ! In 2010, across its four school boards, the Toronto Region had the second-best teacher-student ratio among the 24 global metropolitan regions surveyed by the Toronto Board of Trade (Vancouver was in first place).55

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The Toronto District School Board (TDSB) will close at least 8 schools between 2011 and 2013, the largest number in a decade: ! Due to a decrease of about 4,000 students a year (attributed to falling birth rates and migration out of the city in recent years), the TDSB has 110 half-empty schools in Toronto. ! Eight have been identified to close, beginning in September 2011. Ten elementary schools will be converted to the junior kindergarten-to-Grade 8 model, to accommodate the closing of middle schools (Grades 7-8). The school closings generate immense concern within the affected neighbourhoods about the potential loss of important community hubs, but will allow the Board to create operating efficiencies and save almost $60 million in overdue repairs. o Across Ontario, 172 schools were under review in 2010.56 The City of Toronto has licensed child care spots for only 1 in 5 of its children, and pressure to cut subsidized spaces is growing in spite of the continually growing need: ! The number of spaces in Torontos 952 child care centres and home child care agencies has dropped 0.6% over a year (56,382 spaces in the spring of 2011 compared to 56,750 in 2010), ! and is able to serve only 21% of the 268,575 children between the ages of 0 and 9 living in the city. ! There was no increase in the 24,000 child care subsidies available to Torontos low income families, in spite of a steadily growing waiting list (more than 20,000 children were waiting for a subsidy by August, 2011, an increase of 2,000 children in a year).57 ! The City receives base funding for childrens services through a cost-sharing agreement with the Province. But the Citys 2011 funding shortfall is expected to be almost $11.5 million (the agreement is not indexed to inflation and frozen at 1995 levels). Without additional funding, there could be a loss of up to 3,500 subsidized child care spaces within the next two years.58

C h i l d r e n w a i t i n g f o r a c h i l d c a r e f e e s u b s i d y , C i t y o f T o r o n t o , 2 0 0 4 - 2 0 1 1 : 59

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Full-day kindergarten was offered at 101 of Torontos elementary schools in 2010/2011; another 20 schools are running full-day programs in 2 0 1 1 / 2 0 1 2 w i t h a f u l l r o l l o u t o f t h e p r o g r a m b y 2 0 1 5 / 2 0 1 6 : 60 ! ! 20.3% of Toronto schools were operating a full-day, full-week kindergarten program in 2010/2011. 30.5% of those schools supported daily before and after school programs for students up to age 12 (an increase from 25% in 2009/2010). ! ! 56.8% of schools now support a school-based child care centre (a 5% increase from 54% of schools in 2009, and the highest percentage in any region in the province). ! o Of the schools that offer school-based child care, the largest percentage serve kindergarten and school-age children (44%); only 19% accept infants and toddlers (up from 16% a year ago). o Only 58.5% of schools reported in 2010/2011, that they have a system to keep track of children with special needs as they leave child care and go to school (up from 47% in 2009/2010).61 Schools with professional library staff score higher on standardized reading tests, and help young learners develop critical information literacy: ! Toronto elementary schools continue to benefit far more than other areas of the province from the presence of teacher-librarians. 91.8% of Toronto schools have either full- or part-time teacher-librarians on staff (compared to 56% provincewide and only 19% in Eastern Ontario). Just over 1 in 5 Toronto schools have fulltime librarians in 2010/2011 (22% up from 19% in 2009). ! o When almost 80% of Torontos teacher-librarians work part-time, the libraries are open fewer hours, and less available to students before, during and after the school day. This particularly affects students who dont have access to books and resources at home. 62 ! Slightly fewer Toronto elementary schools reported in 2010/2011 that they have students whose special education needs are not being met (26.2% compared to 28% the year before). ! This is a 6.8% improvement, and below the 30% of schools across the GTA. However more than a quarter of schools do have students waiting for special education services (5,800 children in 2010/2011; 1,100 more than in 2009/2010 but about the same number as in 2004 and 2007). ! o The average number of elementary students on special education waiting lists is more than twice as long in Ontario schools with a high percentage of low-income students. On average, there are 10 students on special education waiting lists in low-income schools, compared to 4 in other schools.63

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More than 90% of Torontos elementary schools still need to support English Language Learners (ELL), but the number of schools without a specialized language teacher is going down: ! More than 1 in 4 of all Ontario student English Language Learners (27%) attend Toronto schools, and 90.4% of Toronto schools have students who require English language support (down from 94% last year). On average, 13% of Toronto students require English language support, but in some schools as many as 90% of students are learning English. 23% of Torontos schools have no specialized language teacher (a 13% decrease from the 26% who reported no specialized support in 2009/2010). 64 ! Almost half of Torontos schools now have full-time Health and Physical Education teachers, and more than 1 in 3 have a full-time music teacher: ! The percentage of schools with specialist teachers has risen to 2007/2008 levels again, after a two-year decline. 81.5% of Toronto schools have Health and Physical Education teachers (compared to 70% in 2009, and only 52% in 2004). 49.7% of schools have full-time teachers, compared to 48% in 2009 and 30% in 2004. ! ! A similar improvement is reported in elementary music specialist teachers. Twothirds of Toronto schools (67.3%) have full- or part-time teachers and 34% of schools have a full-time music teacher (compared to 61% and 31% respectively in 2009).65 ! Students in Toronto schools with a high proportion of students living below the poverty line are less likely to have access to the support and enrichment paid for by fundraising: ! Toronto school councils raised almost $70 million through fundraising in 2009/2010, but amounts per school ranged from $0 to $250,000, widening the gap between advantaged and disadvantaged students. ! 16.5% of the citys schools raised $20,000 or more in 2009/2010 through means such as fees, donations and vending machines (about the same percentage as the year before).66 Course and activity fees can create barriers to students participation and sense of belonging: ! 68% of Ontario secondary schools charge fees for courses, 73% charge athletic fees, and almost all (92%) charge student activity fees. The average student activity fee has been rising since 2000 from $22 to $38 in 2010/2011. ! 14% of Ontario schools charge fees for science courses, and 6% charge fees for English classes, which are mandatory for students in all grades. o The top 10% of Ontario schools that charge fees generate the same revenue as the bottom 65%. Children attending schools with a high proportion of low income households pay on average, lower fees, but also dont benefit from the equipment, supplies and activities that the fees cover. The disparity appears to run counter to the draft 2010 Ministry of Education fees guideline, which states that each student should have an equal opportunity to benefit from the education system without being required to pay a fee.67
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The Toronto Region is facing a 64% increase in the adult population with low literacy, over the next 20 years: ! By 2031, the Canadian Council on Learning projects that nearly 3.2 million adults in the Toronto Region will not have the English literacy skills they will need, to thrive in the 21st century workplace. Thats a small decline in the proportion of the population with low literacy (from 50% in 2001 to 48%), ! but a large jump in total numbers. ! o Within 20 years, about 1 in 5 immigrants across the country with low English literacy levels (1,033,600 people) will be living in Toronto a 79% increase over the current number of adult immigrants in the Region who have difficulty functioning with written material.68 ! Numeracy skills vary dramatically across the country and across the city, mirroring the disparities in many other areas: ! More than half of all Canadian adults lack the basic numeracy skills they need to get by in life simple skills like understanding a budget. A series of maps produced by the Canadian Council on Learning, reveal striking differences not only between, but within communities; differences that are linked to life spans, health and wellness, and homelessness.69 Children of immigrants have, on average, much higher educational levels than those with Canadian-born parents, but educational attainment varies significantly across student groups from different ethno-linguistic backgrounds: ! The educational attainment of immigrants entering Canada has been rising since the 1980s. Immigrant parents are likely to view education as a key determinant of their childrens future possibilities. Even taking into account family type and place of residence, language, and income, children of immigrants (second generation Canadians) have higher levels of educational achievement than thirdand-higher generation Canadians (second-generation Canadians have a university participation rate of 54.3% compared to 37.7% for third-and-higher generations). Immigrants are generally more highly educated than the general Canadian population, and level of parental education plays some role, but even children of less well educated immigrant parents are more likely to attain higher levels of education than the children of similarly educated Canadian-born parents.70

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Percentage of second generation Canadians aged 25-34, with a university degree, b y r e g i o n o f p a r e n t a l o r i g i n : 71 Second generation with a university degree 50.1% 27.8% 62.4% 41.1% 50.1% 23.3% 33.0% 41.1% 44.8% 33.3% 35.1%

Africa Caribbean China Eastern Europe India Latin America Philippines West Asia/Middle East Other Asia U.K. U.S. Children of Canadian-born parents (3rd generation Canadians, or higher, from all geographic backgrounds) 23.8% Source, Abada, Hou and Ram (2008) with Statistics Canada data (2006)

Latino/a students in Toronto are among those most at risk of not completing high school: ! A 2011 Toronto District School Board study has begun to probe the reasons for consistently lower average achievement test scores among Torontos Latino/a students, about 40% of whom dont complete secondary education. While almost all participating students stated that education is crucial to their future success, preliminary findings point to: o barriers Latino/a students face in English language learning (such as lack of Spanish-speaking teachers); o economic challenges many face in working full-time to support their families while staying in school; o stereotyping of Latinos/as in Canada and the pervasive discrimination that leads students to disengage from school; o the profoundly important role that teachers play in helping Latino/a students succeed.72 Toronto middle school students who regularly participate in a school breakfast program achieve better grades and are less at-risk than those who dont: ! The Feeding Our Future pilot program has provided a healthy morning meal to 6,000 students in 7 schools in the Jane and Finch area of Toronto since 2008. Results in 2010 indicated that students who ate breakfast on most days had significantly better learning skills and academic achievement than those who participated infrequently or not at all. On the measure of learning skills, the differences were marked. 70% achieved excellent or good on Term 3 report cards in the area of independent work, compared to 56% of those who rarely ate breakfast at school. For class participation the percentage was 72% compared to 60%, and for problem solving, it was 66% compared to 53%.73
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Promoting Education and Community Health (PEACH) promotes the educational and social well-being of marginalized teenagers in Torontos Jane and Finch community, many of whom have come into conflict with the law and cannot stay in school. Started in 2004, the School Away from School program promotes youths ability to bounce back from adversity in order to stay engaged with their education during a time of crisis. In partnership with the Toronto District School Board, PEACHs resiliency model provides education and additional support to the hardest to serve youth, improving their learning skills and giving them hope and a voice for the future.74

The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Learning through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Agincourt Community Services Association Art Starts Arts for Children and Youth Applegrove Community Complex Arthritis & Autoimmunity Research Centre Foundation The Amadeus Choir Art City in St. James Town ArtReach Toronto Big Brothers and Big Sisters of Toronto Boundless Adventures Association Centennial Infant and Child Centre Foundation Clean Air Partnership Central Toronto Youth Services Child Development Institute Daily Bread Food Bank Davenport-Perth Neighbourhood and Community Health Centre Dixon Hall Frontier College Geneva Centre for Autism Habitat For Humanity Toronto Hot Docs Harbourfront Centre Harmony Movement / Harmony Education Foundation Interval House Jane/Finch Community and Family Centre JUMP Math Lakeshore Area Multi-Service Project (LAMP) Luminato, Toronto Festival of Arts & Creativity Learning Enrichment Foundation Licensed to Learn Inc. Macaulay Child Development Centre Merry Go Round Childrens Foundation Manifesto Community Projects The Massey Centre for Women

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

March of Dimes Canada Nightwood Theatre Parent-Child Mother Goose Program PEACH Promoting Education and Community Health Pathways to Education Canada People for Education Peacebuilders International (Canada) The Psychology Foundation of Canada Regent Park School of Music The Redwood Ronald McDonald House Toronto Roots of Empathy / Racines de lempathie San Romanoway Revitalization Association Sherbourne Health Centre St. Stephen's Community House Second Harvest Skills for Change of Metro Toronto Sheenas Place Social Planning Toronto Toronto Artscape Toronto Foundation for Student Success Toronto Youth Development Toronto Centre for Community Learning & Development Toronto Kiwanis Boys & Girls Club Trails Youth Initiatives Toronto City Mission Toronto Public Library Foundation Unison Health and Community Services UrbanArts Windfall Working Skills Centre

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Arts & Culture

Photo courtesy of Manifesto Documentation Team

Arts and Culture: Torontos finest attribute? creative capital that enriches the city and drives prosperity

The highest concentration of artists in Canada (66% more than any other city) and one quarter of the workers in the countrys creative sector. Consistently ranked among the top world cities on measures of safety, environmental quality, labour attractiveness and cultural diversity. Over 750 City-sponsored or organized arts events, more than 70 film festivals, and countless community and neighbourhood arts experiences. More than 90 agencies, professional associations and trade organizations, and 9 postsecondary institutions offering world class training, mentoring and support. A highly educated artistic workforce (the percentage of artists with a bachelors degree or higher is nearly double that of the general workforce). 200 professional performing arts organizations, including internationally renowned orchestras, a world class opera, ballet company and ballet school and North Americas fourth largest school of art (OCAD University). Performers, artists, and audiences representing more than 200 ethnic backgrounds. Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

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T o r o n t o i s m a k i n g p r o g r e s s i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g culture as a major driver of prosperity, a n d i s w e l l - p o s i t i o n e d t o b e a g l o b a l l e a d e r i n a r t s a n d c u l t u r e , , but needs to make a sustained investment in its artists and arts organizations: ! Almost all Ontarians polled in 2010 (95%) believe that the arts enrich the quality of life; 81% approve government investment in the arts; and 80% of Torontonians polled in 2009 said that municipal investment in arts in public spaces was likely to boost the local economy.75 The Toronto Region is one of the top five in North America to experience growth i n t h e A r t s a n d C u l t u r e s e c t o r , a n d e m p l o y m e n t i s e x p a n d i n g : ! Between 1991 and 2009, the Regions creative industries experienced a compound annual growth of 2.9%, ahead of financial services (2.4%), the medical and biotechnology sector (1.7%) and the food and beverage industry (1.4%).76 ! C o m p o u n d A n n u a l G r o w t h r a t e b y S e c t o r , 1 9 9 1 - 2 0 0 9 , T o r o n t o R e g i o n : 77
Creative Industries Financial Industries Medical and Biotechnology Industries Food and Beverage Industries 0.0% 0.5% 1.0% 1.5% 2.0% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5%

In 2010, cultural industries employed 90,600 persons, 20.2% more than in 2000 (75,400). ! The sector accounted for 3.1% of total employment in the Region (compared to 2.3% of total employment in Quebec and 2.0% of employment in Canada).78 o Screen-based production and digital media are two of the fastest growing creative industries. They directly employ more than 25,000 (1 in 4 jobs out of the whole Canadian sector) and together contribute in excess of $1 billion to the Toronto Regions economy.79

Cultural workers in sole enterprises and small partnerships are vulnerable to the effects of recession: ! A large majority of workers in the creative and cultural sector are self-employed or employed in micro-enterprises. Of 9,500 cultural enterprises in Toronto surveyed in 2009, almost 80% had fewer than 10 employees and only 3% employed more than 250. These sole enterprises and small partnerships, many of which are start-ups (41% had been in business less than five years in a 2008 survey) suffered reduced revenues and wages during the 2008-2010 recession.80
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Toronto needs to strengthen and sustain the fragile environment that supports cultural entrepreneurship: ! The arts and culture sector contributes $9 billion annually to the Toronto Regions GDP. However, a year-long 2010 study discovered that many workers coming into the sector are focused more on survival than on growth, and lack the entrepreneurial mindset and essential business skills they will need to thrive. Consolidating and linking the currently fragmented training opportunities that do exist, and providing a single portal to arts and culture workers, will help to ensure that the sector is able to continue to contribute to the Regions prosperity.81 City spending on Arts and Culture is still short of the goal set for 2008: ! In 2011, the City reaffirmed its goal of $25 per capita arts and culture spending. Proposed in 2003, the goal was unmet by 2008, and the target has been pushed forward to 2013. Spending in 2011 is unchanged from 2010, at approximately $18 per capita (about 1% of the net operating budget - $45 million is spent on culture). ! o Toronto continues to lose ground to its competitors in markets such as Chicago, New York and San Francisco.82 !
2009 Per Capita Investment in Culture
(Canadian Dollars) $100 $80 $60 $40 $20 $0 Toronto Chicago New York San Francisco $18 $26 $74 $87

Municipal investment is vital in leveraging other public and private funding: ! Direct investment in artists and arts organizations translates into more than $17 for each municipal dollar, in earned revenues and leveraged private funding and investment from other levels of government. This is powerfully illustrated by the Citys support of Nuit Blanche. An initial $600,000 investment in the successful all-night arts festival translated in 2010, into more than 138,000 visitors to the city, generated $48.4 million in direct spending, 611 jobs and $34.7 million additional GDP (direct and indirect).83 o In 2009, the private sector contributed $91 million in operating funding to City-funded organizations through individual, foundation and corporate philanthropy (in addition to the $1 billion in capital funding given over the previous decade). However, in Canada, private funding generally depends on the lead taken by the public sector.84

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Cultural activities attracted four times as many tourists to the Toronto R e g i o n a s s p o r t s e v e n t s d i d i n 2 0 0 9 : 85 ! Cultural activities such as Torontos Pride Week and the Scotiabank Caribbean Carnival Toronto (North Americas largest cultural festival) both attracted more than a million visitors to the city each year. And attendance at the Toronto International Film Festival surpassed 500,000 in 2009 and attracted more than 365,000 attendees in 2010.86

The value of film production in Toronto was up for the second year in a row in 2010, despite a strong Canadian dollar: ! Total on-location production spending rose in Toronto in 2010 by 2.9% to $903,350,000. (The figure does not include agency costs, post-production or instudio productions, so it does not account for total spending.) ! ! U.S. spending on-location in Toronto increased by 57% over 2009, to $360,500,000, the second significant increase in a row, after three years of major declines, and16% higher than the 2006 figure, when the Canadian dollar was at only $0.88 USD. ! ! Domestic production declined somewhat (by 7.4%) to $403,900,000 due to a drop in the number of projects (from 229 to 172). ! ! Television series production spending increased by 31.4% to $512,915,000 - a new high in Toronto. ! ! The number of on-location permits in the city increased modestly to 3,081 after declines over the past five years (4,302 permits were issued in 2004).87 ! o Small film festivals generated more than $11 million in local economic activity in the Toronto Region in 2010.88

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More than half a million people of all ages in the Toronto region participated in performing arts educational outreach programs in 20092010: ! There are almost 90 organizations in the Toronto Region committed to performing arts outreach, education and public engagement. A 2010 survey of 50 of them (including 24 theatre companies, 7 dance and 3 opera companies, 7 music organizations and 6 multi-disciplinary organizations) explored the strength and reach of their programming. o The goals of educational programs include building future audiences (a goal of 92% of responding groups) ensuring exposure to the arts (a goal of 88%) and community building (a goal of 74% of respondents). o $12 million went to arts education over the year. o 72% of responding organizations create city-wide opportunities for arts education. 38% are neighbourhood-based. o 4,371 different schools benefited from educational programs offered by arts organizations. o Performing arts organizations are strongly committed to helping children and youth better access the performing arts. 64% of responding organizations create teacher resource guides and more than half create student study guides for their productions.89 ! 80% of the organizations funded by the Toronto Arts Council are active in arts education and outreach.90 The completion of Corus Quay in 2010 signaled the beginning of Torontos waterfront revitalization, and marks Toronto as a media and entertainment hub: ! 1,100 of Torontos highly skilled creative industry workers have a new state-ofthe-art workspace. Corus Quays imaginative design includes public performance space and major public art installations, and is built to the highest environmental standards, including a five-storey bio wall for air filtration and a green roof.91 Lack of affordable live/work space and increasing competition for expensive rehearsal space jeopardize the citys ability to attract and keep independent musicians: ! Toronto is facing the displacement of its musicians (approximately 95% of whom are operating independently of a record label) to smaller cities like Halifax where housing and rehearsal space are both more available and affordable. The increase in numbers of independent musicians since the early 1990s, as music became easier to record and distribute, combined with the precipitous drop in value of recorded music since 2000, has significantly increased competition for scarce space. o In the city of Toronto, musicians can expect to pay between $4 and $5 per square foot, monthly, for downtown rehearsal space.92

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Attendance at City-funded or programmed cultural events grew to 17.4 m i l l i o n i n 2 0 1 0 , r e f l e c t i n g T o r o n t o n i a n s l i v e l y e n g a g e m e n t w i t h t h e a r t s : 93 ! ! In 2009, 20,000 volunteers were working on behalf of the 460 arts organizations receiving city funding through the Toronto Arts Council. Those arts groups produced 26,000 performances, exhibitions and festivals, and generated $40,000,000 in ticket sales.94 ! In spite of the ongoing impact of the recession, household spending on arts and culture was 6.2% higher in the Toronto Region in 2009 than the year before. ! Toronto residents spent an average of $1,074 on cultural activities over the year close to the average for Ontario ($1,052) but well above the Canadian average ($962).95 In 2010, half the population in the Toronto Region aged 15 and older, reportedly attended at least one theatrical performance. 16% attended a symphonic or classical music concert, and 40% attended a cultural festival.96

The Toronto Public Library welcomed 18,352,210 million visitors to its 99 branches in 2010, making it the worlds busiest urban public library system: ! The library is the heart of many Toronto neighbourhoods. Its 28,000 programs served 790,000 children, youth, adults and seniors in 2010. Its often the place newcomers go to first for access to community resources and support, and information in their home language. o More than half of all Torontonians have library cards (a 4.4% increase in new registrations in 2010 means that 53.2% of the city population are now card-holders). ! o In 2010, residents borrowed over 32.3 million items books, CDs, eBooks, DVDs, eResources and magazines a million more items than in 2009. ! o Downloads of eBooks and other e-resources (such as job search & business support) increased significantly (close to 200% over 2009) and it is expected to double again in 2011. ! o In-person visits and book circulation also increased, and the Toronto Public Library experienced its busiest year ever. 97 ! o Virtual visits to the library system increased by 15% over 2009, to 27 million, and more than 1 million people used the free Wi-Fi services available at all branches (an increase of 65% over last year). ! o Attendance at adult literacy programs increased by 28% in 2010.98 ! o 93% of users report that they are satisfied or very satisfied with the library services, which are now available in more than 100 languages.99 ! Torontonians used the library system an equivalent of 34 times each in 2009 (the median among large Ontario municipalities was 28 uses per capita). The City was at the median on cost per library use, at $1.74 in 2009:

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Comparative Cost per Library Use Among Nine Ontario Municipalities, 2 0 0 9 : 100

The cost to an average City of Toronto taxpayer for the library system represented approximately 0.32% of all taxes paid by that taxpayer in 2010 (based on an average Ontario family income).101

The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Arts and Culture through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
Art City in St. James Town Arts for Children and Youth Art Starts The Amadeus Choir ArtReach Toronto Canadian Journalists for Free Expression ! CultureLink Settlement Services ! Coleman Lemieux & Compagnie ! Creative Trust Diaspora Dialogues Charitable Society ! Dixon Hall ! Drum Artz Canada ! Greenest City ! Harbourfront Centre ! Hot Docs ! Jumblies Theatre ! Lakeshore Area Multi-Service Project (LAMP) ! Luminato, Toronto Festival of Arts & Creativity ! Mammalian Diving Reflex ! Manifesto Community Projects ! Nightwood Theatre ! Peace Theatre ! Regent Park School of Music ! Sistering: A Womans Place ! SKETCH Working Arts ! Toronto Artscape ! UNITY Charity ! UrbanArts ! YWCA Toronto Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report ! ! ! ! !

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Work

Photo by Laura Brown

Work: Torontos largest liability? the inability to capitalize on a young, diverse and highly educated workforce
The Toronto Region continues to earn high marks for labour attractiveness on the Toronto Board of Trade 2011 Scorecard on Prosperity: ! On 15 measures of labour attractiveness, Toronto scored 4th out of 24 global metropolises, behind only London, Paris and Calgary. The Regions shift in the rankings from 2nd place in 2010 is in part attributable to the removal of the cost of living indicator, which allowed high-cost cities like Paris and London to score well. Toronto ranks particularly highly for its high immigrant population, relatively affordable housing, low homicide rate and high number of teachers per 1,000 school-age children. Calgary outstrips Toronto in areas like population growth (with a rate double that of Toronto), the relative youth of its labour force (17.2% between the ages of 25 and 34 compared to Torontos 14.9%), and its more equal distribution of income.102 Total employment figures inched upward in Toronto in 2010: ! Total employment in Toronto grew slightly in 2010, adding 51,000 jobs (0.4% growth), indicating the beginning of the recovery from the recession. ! The employment figure was still below the 2008 18-year high, and growth was well short of the 1.9% growth in the province, and 2.4% growth in Canada, over the same period. ! o The citys increase in employment was almost entirely due to gains in the Office sector, which grew by 2% (12,400 jobs). ! All other sectors declined. The Institutional sector lost 3,000 jobs (a 1.4% decline) as health service workers were transferred out of Toronto to meet growing needs in partner hospitals in the 905 region. ! ! The ratio of full- to part-time employment remains stable. Just over 1 million jobs were full-time in 2010 (6,200 more than in 2009); part-time employment decreased by 0.4% (1,100 jobs).103 Total Employment in t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 8 3 - 2 0 1 0 : 104

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At 62.2% in 2010, the Toronto Regional employment rate was 0.6% higher than the national rate (61.6%) and 0.9% higher than the provincial rate (61.3%). The rate was down 4.5% from a high of 65% per cent in 2001.105 !

Almost 1 in 10 people remained without work in Toronto in 2010, as rates dropped slightly in the Region: ! Unemployment in the city remained high in 2010 (9.94% compared to 9.99% in 2009); ! in the Region the rates dipped to just over 9% (9.06% compared to 9.44% the year before).106 ! In July 2011, the citys unemployment rate was still 9.0% (compared with 9.8% in July 2010). ! The July 2011 rate for the Toronto Region was 8.3% (the national rate was lower at 7.3%). Declining rates may indicate that a number of people have dropped out of the workforce.107 Unemployment Rates, J a n u a r y 2 0 0 8 - J u l y 2 0 1 1 108 ,

Unemployment rates for both youth and immigrants remain high, and employers are losing out on what an attractive labour force has to offer the city: ! The young people from across Canada and around the world who are drawn to the Toronto Regions nine post-secondary institutions and the highly skilled, welleducated immigrants who arrive every year in Toronto (an estimated 80,000 in 2011), help to maintain a highly attractive and relatively young labour force. Currently 50% is between the ages of 25 and 44 (compared to 27% in that age group in Canada, according to the most recent census).109

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L a b o u r F o r c e b y E d u c a t i o n a l A t t a i n m e n t : 110

In 2010, the youth unemployment rate in the Toronto Region was 22.3% above the national average: ! In 2010, the youth (15-24 years old) unemployment rate in the Toronto Region was 18.1% (the national youth unemployment rate was 14.8% and the provincial rate was 17.2%). The rate was almost unchanged from 18.3% in 2009 and a full 7.6 percentage points higher than the 10.5% rate in 2000.111 ! o Long-term youth unemployment rates reflect the larger economic climate in the Region. Rates in 2009 and 2010 mirror the recession of the early 1990s. o The average seasonally unadjusted unemployment rate for youth during the first half of 2011 was 14.8% in the Toronto Region (slightly above the national average of 14.4% and 21.5% below the average for the second half of 2010.)112 Y o u t h U n e m p l o y m e n t R a t e , T o r o n t o R e g i o n 1 9 8 7 - 2 0 1 0 : 113
20.0% 18.0% 16.0% 14.0% 12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0%
2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 1987

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T h e immigrant unemployment rate i n t h e T o r o n t o R e g i o n w a s m o r e t h a n double that of Canadian-born at the end of 2010: ! While immigrants are generally more likely to be unemployed than Canadianborn workers, the gap widened considerably during the recession. ! ! Canadian-born workers made much larger gains in job numbers than immigrants in the Region between 2009 and 2010 (113,200 net jobs compared to 4,800). ! Immigrant employment in information, culture and recreation and health care grew, but Canadian-born workers made larger gains in finance, insurance, real estate and leasing and public administration jobs.114 The unemployment rate of recent immigrants (in the country five years or less) was 19.1% in Toronto in 2010 (compared to 18.9% in the Toronto Region), almost twice the overall rate for the city.115 !

Unemployment Rates in the City of Toronto by Educational Attainment and P e r i o d o f I m m i g r a t i o n : 116 Percentages Unemployed in the City of Toronto Population 15 years and over

2010 2008 Total Landed immigrant In Canada less than 5 years In Canada 5-10 years With a college or university credential (born in Canada) With a college or university credential (in Canada less than 5 years) With less than high school completion Total In Canada less than 5 years In Canada 5-10 years Total With a college or university credential With a college or university credential (in Canada less than 5 years) 7.5% 8.7% 13.3% 9.5% 2009 10.0% 11.7% 17.0% 15.1% 9.9% 11.8% 19.1% 12.2% 6.5% 5.8% 8.7%

10.0% 12.7% 15.2% 21.4% 15.5% 6.6% 6.3%

13.7% 18.7% 18.2% 17.8% 30.4% 10.1% 10.4%

13.5% 18.6% 18.5% 25.0% 23.3% 9.4% 8.8%

15- 24 year-olds

25- 44 year-olds

6.6%

16.4%

16.3% 49

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The Toronto Regions highly educated knowledge workers are somewhat buffered from the recessionary effects on employment: ! The Region has a high number of workers in the creative class. These highly educated knowledge workers still experience some seasonal bumps in employment, but are less vulnerable to major surges in unemployment and maintain higher employment levels than other workers during a recession. U n e m p l o y m e n t i n C a n a d a b y O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s , 2 0 0 8 - 2 0 1 0 : 117

N o t e : FFF refers to the primary industries of Farming, Forestry and Fisheries.

C a n a d a s colour-coded workplace m e a n s a b i g w a g e a n d e m p l o y m e n t g a p in a city like Toronto: ! Almost half of the Toronto population (47% or 1,162,635 people) considered themselves part of a visible minority in 2006. But high rates of overall employment dont translate into higher employment levels or wages for most visible minority groups. Based on the most recent census data (during a period of economic prosperity), racialized Canadian workers: ! earned on average, 81.4 cents for every dollar earned by nonracialized workers (the earnings gap was wider for some groups: for example, Korean Canadians earned only 69.5 cents per dollar); ! were over-represented in low-paid employment (such as call centres and cleaning services); ! were much more likely to be unemployed. Racialized women for example, (with lowest employment levels) were 48% more likely to be unemployed than non-racialized men (with the highest employment levels);
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earned less, as first generation immigrants, than non-racialized immigrants. Even controlling for age and education, first generation racialized men earned a third (68.7%) of that earned by the non-racialized first generation cohort; saw their incomes decline by 0.2%, on average, in a period when the Canadian economy grew by 13% and average incomes of nonracialized workers grew 2.7%.118 !

Workers in the city of Toronto made wage gains in 2011, as the median hourly wage rose to the level of the Region as a whole: ! In July 2011, the median hourly wage in Toronto (unadjusted) had risen to $20.22 from $19.10 a year earlier (a 5.9% increase). The median for the Toronto Region was $20.19 up 0.9% from $20.00 a year earlier.119 ! The number of business establishments in Toronto was unchanged in 2010: ! There was no growth in the overall number of business locations in the city (73,600, compared to a high of 75,500 in 2007 before the recent recession). ! ! Of the 3,340 new businesses starting up in Toronto, the majority were restaurants, law firms, computer services and financing services (the latter includes cheque-cashing/payday loan services).120 The Toronto Region is Canadas high-tech hub: ! The Regions Information and Communications Technology (ICT) sector (6% of the total regional workforce and more than half of all ICT workers in Ontario) directly employs more than 161,500 people in 11,500 companies (28.7% of Canadas ICT firms), and generated revenues of $52.2 billion in 2009. o The workforce is young more than a third (36.4%) is under 35 and highly educated (97% have a post-secondary credential, compared to 74% for the total labour force). o The sectors unemployment rate is only 4%, with a large majority working in small and medium-sized companies (97.7% with fewer than 100 employees). The sector has weathered recent economic turbulence; employment levels have remained stable and 2,000 mostly small companies have entered the market since 2002. ! o The Toronto Region is an international leader in ICT research and commercialization. Its ICT companies represent almost 1 in 3 (31%) of the top 100 Canadian R&D investors in all sectors; Toronto ranked 6th globally between 2005 and 2009 for ICT-related patents (after the U.S., Japan, South Korea, Germany and Taiwan). o The Regions colleges and universities offer 40 ICT diploma programs and 21 ICT-related degrees. o Venture capital investment increased 8.3% in the Toronto Region in 2010, in spite of a climate of decreasing Canadian ICT venture capital investment since 2007.121 !

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Torontos leading environmental policies and programs, and Ontarios Green Energy Act are growing the regional green economy: ! There is potential in the Greater Toronto Area for thousands of new green collar jobs (work that reduces waste and pollution, improves the environment, and pays a living wage), and new green careers in fields such as environmental auditing, engineering, retrofitting and the development of sustainable technologies: o The Ontario Power Authority is investing up to $30 million in the GTA over the next five years, in efforts to reduce industrial electricity and gas consumption. o There is growing emphasis on, and demand for, energy efficient and LEED certified building in new construction and neighbourhood revitalization (major green projects include Torontos Waterfront, Regent Park and Lawrence Heights renewal, and the sites for the Pan/Parapan American Games).122 The erosion of the traditional career ladder as well as the decline in unionization rates, particularly in the manufacturing sector, makes many entry-level positions dead-end jobs, and increases Torontos social and economic polarization:

In Ontario, one-third of college graduates and 1 in 5 university graduates with a bachelors degree were employed in entry-level positions in 2006 (the last census).123 The Toronto Region will only be able to develop a high-performing and globally competitive labour force by implementing policies and practices that promote workforce development and mobility (including more apprenticeships) and an increase in middle-level jobs that pay decent wages.124

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Toronto workers in low-wage and precarious employment often face serious workplace violations and feel that they have little recourse: ! A 2010-2011 survey of low-wage workers in Toronto, the GTA and Windsor, Ontario, discovered that workers rights are frequently being infringed, and that the impact on physical and mental health can be significant: o 22% of workers reported making less than minimum wage (Ontarios minimum wage was $10.25 in 2010). These workers were primarily in janitorial, retail, childcare, delivery and construction jobs. o 33% reported being owed wages from their employer and more than three-quarters of those had been unsuccessful in their attempts to recover unpaid wages. Only 4% filed a complaint against their employer and many expressed fear that there would be reprisals for speaking up. o 60% of respondents reported working overtime during the previous five years, but only 1 in 4 received overtime pay; o 62% of workers were required to work on public holidays, but more than half of those received no wage premium for doing so.125 Fewer workers in the city of Toronto received employment insurance in 2010, after a spike in 2009, but monthly averages remain high in 2011: ! ! There were 28,870 employment insurance recipients in Toronto in May 2011, 22.1% fewer than the same month in 2010.126 o Employment insurance numbers dropped consistently through 2010 in the Toronto Region. Monthly figures fell by 16,600 to 71,300 in December 2010, the 10th consecutive month of year-over-year declines.127 Employment Insurance Recipients, c i t y o f T o r o n t o , t o J u l y 3 1 , 2 0 1 1 : 128 ,

Source: Statistics Canada

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In the Toronto Region, total 2010 employment insurance benefits beneficiaries numbered 134,461 (an 11.1% decrease from the 151,169 figure in 2009, but still an increase from the 74,078 beneficiaries in 1997).129 As older workers choose to remain in the workforce, Torontos workplaces must learn to live with a new kind of diversity: ! Many older workers cannot afford to, or have chosen not to retire. The citys emerging multigenerational workforce (for the first time ever, there will be four generations in the labour force) will increasingly need to accommodate different perspectives, work ethics and working styles.130 ! The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Work through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Canadian Journalists for Free Expression Common Ground Co-operative Daily Bread Food Bank Elizabeth Fry Toronto Frontier College Green Innovation Awards Interval House Learning Enrichment Foundation Local Food Plus/Land Food People Foundation New Circles Community Services The PACT Urban Peace Program Scadding Court Community Center Skills for Change of Metro Toronto Sheenas Place St. Stephen's Community House Sistering: A Womans Place Toronto Artscape Wellspring Cancer Support Foundation Windfall

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Getting around

Photo by Laura Brown

Getting Around: Torontos weakest link? traffic congestion that prevents us from becoming a truly great global city
Viewed through the lens of transportation, Toronto continues to be a poor performer compared to other major metropolitan regions (metros). Chronic underinvestment in transportation infrastructure has been identified as the Regions greatest threat to global competitiveness: ! The Toronto Board of Trade 2011 Scorecard on Prosperity measured 11 transportation indicators and ranked the Toronto Region a dismal 19th out of 23 metros. ! The Region scored poorly on adequacy of commuter rail infrastructure, ridership, average km travelled by rail, and transit expenditures. o Toronto Region residents travel an average of 16.7 km (per 1,000 persons) by rail transit annually, compared to Londons 104 km, Berlins 99.2 km, New Yorks 48.6 km and Montreals 31.6 km. Toronto performs better on bus transit, ranking 7th of 22 metros with an average 42 km (per 1,000 residents), compared to Berlins 28.3 km, New Yorks 31.4 km and Montreals 33.8 km averages. o The Toronto Region continues to trail 20 other metros included in the Board of Trade study, with an average round trip commute of 80 minutes (compared to Boston at 56.8, San Francisco at 57.2 and Calgary and Vancouver at an average 67 minutes). The Region continued to score last on commute times, even with the addition of Tokyo and Paris to the study. ! ! In the Toronto Region, 29% of full-time workers are stuck in traffic jams every day of the workweek.131 ! With an 80-minute daily round-trip commute over a 40-year career, one could expect to spend more than 1.5 years of ones life just getting to and from work.

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W e e k d a y M o r n i n g V e h i c l e t r a f f i c , C i t y o f T o r o n t o 1 9 8 5 2 0 0 6 : 132

350,000 300,000 250,000 200,000 150,000 100,000 50,000 0

1986

1988

1990

1992

1994

1996

1998

2000

2002

2004

Mean Number of Vehicles entering the City between 6:30 and 9:30 AM on weekday mornings

The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) recently cited Torontos transportation woes (congestion and the need for expanded infrastructure) as the key liability threatening the Regions future prosperity. Canada is currently the only one of the 31 OECD member countries without a long-term federal transit investment policy. The US federal administration, for example, funds about 80% of transit capital projects.133

In 2010, it took transit users about 20 minutes longer than car users, to get to work: ! One-way commuting times across the GTA averaged about 33 minutes (by all modes) in 2010, but the average one-way commute took 49 minutes on public transit in the GTA.134 o Toronto ranked 15th on transit ridership in the Board of Trade study, with an average 111 trips per year. New Yorkers make an average 160 trips and Londoners, 389 trips. Montreal is the only higher ranked Canadian metro, with an average 136 annual trips per capita.135 ! The annual expenditure on public transit (including all capital and operating costs) average $338 per capita in the Toronto Region, placing it at number 15 of 21 metros and behind Calgary and Montreal. London spends an average $1,112 per capita, New York $703, and Berlin $831.

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A n n u a l p e r c a p i t a expenditure on public transit ( i n c l u d i n g a l l c a p i t a l a n d o p e r a t i n g c o s t s ) : 136


London Hong Kong Oslo Berlin Paris New York Stockholm San Francisco Madrid Seattle Calgary Milan Boston Montreal Toronto $0 $200 $1,112.60 $908.30 $885.90 $831.10 $745.10 $703.40 $665.30 $575.50 $484.70 $437.80 $380.60 $373.80 $344.90 $338.70 $337.80 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200

Per Capita Transit Expenditure

Congestion is likely linked to dispersed employment throughout the Region: ! The Toronto Regions commuting patterns may be as much of a contributor to congestion as the available road network, which rates well against most regions in North America (ahead of Montreal, Chicago, New York and San Francisco). For example, in 2009, only 15% of the jobs in the Region were in downtown Toronto (compared to almost 20% in the early 1990s). As a result, many downtown residents are commuting to widely dispersed jobs throughout the GTA. Planning for complex commuting patterns presents more of a challenge than meeting the demands of a single direction (suburbs to downtown) commute.137 Percentage of Toronto Region workers commuting more than 30 km round t r i p : 138
35.0% 30.0% 25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0% Toronto Region

Vancouver

Montreal

Calgary

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The TTC carries approximately one billion passengers every 26 months: ! In 2010, the now 90-year old TTC set a new ridership record (447,300,000 rides 6,124,000 more than in 2009). ! More than 1.5 million passengers now travel into and out of the city on an average weekday. Each subway train replaces almost 900 cars on the Regions roads.139 ! Each year, about 100,000 people move into the Toronto Region the equivalent of a population about the size of Waterloo putting enormous pressures on transit infrastructure and services. In 2012, ridership is expected to increase by 15 million (3.1%) over 2011, to 502 million. o The first of Torontos new fully accessible Toronto Rocket subway trains began running in July 2011. Installation of the 70 new trains (420 cars), which will replace equipment dating from the 1970s, will take three years to complete and increase capacity by 9% ! (the total cost is projected to be over $426 million). o The use of hybrid buses reduces the consumption of diesel fuel by about 4 million litres every year.140 ! Regional transit served 57 million passengers in 2010 and introduced a new electronic fare system: ! Typical weekday GO train ridership averaged 180,000 along 391 route km. 96% of train commuters ride to and from Union Station and 70% of bus commuters (25,900 people on an average workday) travel into and out of the city of Toronto.141 ! GO Transit partnered with 8 municipal transit systems in the Greater Toronto and Hamilton area to introduce a new electronic fare system throughout the GO network. Fully implemented in 2011, the PRESTO system calculates and deducts a fare from the balance on a riders card, allowing for faster, easier travel. A loyalty program rewards frequent travelers with discounted fares.142 A five-year $640 million revitalization of Union Station, Canadas busiest transportation hub, began in 2010: ! In 2010, 250,000 people passed through Union Station on an average work day all of them on foot. A much-needed overhaul of the stations infrastructure will improve platforms, access points and commuter concourses, alleviating congestion while restoring and retaining the architectural features of the historic 1927 site.143 Toronto Pearson is Canadas largest and most-used airport: ! 2,684,600 people passed through Torontos Pearson International Airport in April 2011, 6.1% more than the 2,529,300 air travelers in the same month in 2010.144 !

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Neighbourhoods with highest incomes have almost four times better t r a n s i t s e r v i c e t h a n t h o s e w i t h l o w e s t i n c o m e s i n T o r o n t o s transit deserts: : ! The citys inner suburbs, where incomes have decreased 20% or more in the last 30 years (the geographic City #3, referenced in Torontos Vital Signs in 2009 and 2010) are significantly underserviced by rapid transit. City #3 has 19 local subway stops, compared to the 40 stops locally accessible to City #1 residents (the wealthiest and most advantaged of the three Cities within Toronto. The ratio of the gap in transit service between the two Cities (3.7) is larger than the ratio of the gap in incomes (3.3).145 Torontos revised transit plan does little to address suburban transit deserts: ! ! The City of Toronto and the Ontario Government reached an agreement in 2011 on a revised transit plan for the city. Ontario will contribute $8.4 billion to complete a single 25.2 km Light Rail Transit (LRT) line across the city. The line will add 26 LRT stops and will operate largely underground and along the existing Scarborough Rapid Transit right-of-way. Toronto will need to raise approximately $4.15 billion to extend the Sheppard subway line east and west, between Downsview Station and Scarborough City Centre, creating 9 new stations on 13 km of line. The city will also operate a new bus service route from Finch West station west to Humber College. Under the agreement, the City will be solely responsible for any project overruns, as well as all operational expenses related to the new subway.146

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Torontos City #3 (Neighbourhoods with Declining Incomes between 19702 0 0 5 ) , a n d t h e O r i g i n a l l y P r o p o s e d 2 0 0 9 T r a n s i t C i t y P l a n : 147

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Torontos City #3 (Neighbourhoods with Declining Incomes between 19702 0 0 5 ) , a n d t h e N e w l y P r o p o s e d 2 0 1 1 T r a n s i t C i t y P l a n : 148

Mobility hubs offer a vision for vibrant sustainable communities and increased active transportation in Toronto: ! A major component of Torontos regional transportation plan is a system of interconnected mobility hubs 51 key nodes in the regions transportation system where people are able to move seamlessly from one transportation mode to another (from walking, to biking, to public transit). Mobility hubs are also centres of high density and intensive development and are lively, attractive communities. o In 2010, intensive planning began for the Dundas West-Bloor Mobility Hub, scheduled to open by 2014, providing enhanced regional GO service and including an Air Rail Link to Pearson Airport by the 2015 opening of the Pan/Parapan-American Games. The proposed design addresses problems common to many transit hubs in the Toronto Region: ! fragmented site development not oriented to the street ! lack of definition of, and access to, public space ! inefficient and inhospitable pedestrian environments ! limited and inconvenient access to transportation modes.149

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Before...

and after...

Proposed Mobility Hubs in the Toronto R e g i o n : 150

Map courtesy of Metrolinx.

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T o r o n t o s f i r s t bicycle count c r e a t e d a b e n c h m a r k f o r t r a c k i n g c y c l i n g t r e n d s : ! On a typical weekday in September 2010, just over 19,000 cyclists headed into the citys downtown core between 7 AM and 7 PM, and more than 15,000 exited (this figure does not include the cyclists who rode within that area without crossing the boundaries). The majority (62%) were male; almost half (46%) wore a helmet and 95% rode on the street rather than the sidewalk. Less than half of one percent were child passengers (in a seat or trailer).151 o Not surprisingly, researchers have noted a link between a high mode share of bicycle transportation and a high level of fitness. In the US, cities with the best health outcomes are most likely to be those where a high percentage of the population bike to work. Those cities are also likely to have more affluent, well-educated populations, with a higher proportion working in creative and high-tech occupations.152 ! Ten years after the City adopted its bike plan, less than 25% of the planned 495 km of bike lanes have been created. By the end of 2010, there were 116.8 km of bike lanes and 168 km (out of a projected 268 km) of bike trails in a city with 5,600 km of roads.153 ! o Drivers have experienced only small delays when lanes are installed, and bike traffic increased by 30% on one North-South Toronto artery between May and October 2010, after bike lanes were installed.154 ! In May 2011, Toronto became the third city in Canada to implement a public bike-sharing system. Public Bike Systems mounted 1,000 Bixi bikes (Bicycle + Taxi = Bixi) at 80 stations in the downtown core in the first phase of operation. In Montreal where the system was launched in 2009, subscribers have 5,000 bikes available for use at 400 stations.155 o In July 2011, two months after its launch, Bixi Toronto passed the 100,000ride milestone. 156 .

Toronto is more dangerous for cyclists and pedestrians than any other Canadian city, but rates of collisions with cars remained below the five year average in 2010: ! The rate of collisions between pedestrians and cars was 78 (per 100,000 population) in the first 9 months of 2010, compared to 71 in Montreal, 48 in Calgary and 42 in Ottawa. The most recently available data indicate that the rate of cyclist/car collisions in Toronto was 42 between January and September 2010. In Montreal it was 38; in Calgary 27; in Ottawa 31; and in Vancouver 33. o Despite an alarming 14 pedestrian fatalities in 15 days of January 2010, there were no further pedestrian deaths between January and September 2010, and the number of collisions (1,461) was well below the five-year average of 2,221. ! The majority of injuries (36% of the total) resulted from a vehicle turning left into the path of a pedestrian crossing with right-of-way at an intersection. o There was 1 reported cycling fatality in the first 9 months of 2010 (there were 3 in 2009 and the five-year average is 2). 904 injuries were reported from collisions between cars and bikes. The largest number of injuries (273) occurred when a bike and vehicle sideswiped each other or when a driver opened a car door into a passing bike.157
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There is a clear link between access to good biking infrastructure, bicycle safety and the number of people who choose to bike: o Better infrastructure (a dense, linked bikeway network; bikeways that are separated from motorists; and clearly emphasized bike positions for riders and drivers) increases road safely for bicyclists and also increases biking as a share of transportation mode. More bicycles on the road also leads to increased safety, as both cyclists and drivers become more comfortable sharing the roads.158 Density of On-Street Bikeways Compared with Bikes as a Share of Total Transportation (2007):

Bikes as a Share of Total Transportation Compared with Rate of Bicycle F a t a l i t i e s a n d I n j u r i e s ( 2 0 0 7 ) : 159

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Toronto adopted a strategy in 2009 aimed at transforming the city into one where people choose to walk rather than drive: ! The City of Toronto received the Federation of Canadian Municipalities (FCM) 2011 Sustainable Communities award for transportation for its Walking Strategy. The strategy, adopted in 2009, focuses on improving the safety and ease of walking, and increasing access to public spaces and private businesses. More Torontonians walking translates into more social interaction and greater individual and community health. Further benefits accrue over time in reduced road maintenance costs and a contribution to the citys goal of a 30% reduction in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 2020. The Walking Strategy includes: o Pedestrian Sundays at the end of each month in Kensington market; o Pilot testing three pedestrian-only streets in the areas of Ryerson University and the University of Toronto, and pedestrian priority intersections at three major Yonge Street intersections; o A new walking tours database that allows residents to plan walking routes.160 ! More than half the residents who live and work downtown, walk to work (58% in 2008), and the number of those driving to work dropped from 16% to 6% between 2001 and 2008.161 ! The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Getting Around through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Clean Air Partnership Daily Bread Food Bank Dixon Hall Evergreen Family Service Toronto Janes Walk Macaulay Child Development Centre Parent-Child Mother Goose Program Pollution Probe Toronto Atmospheric Fund Toronto Cyclists Union Windfall

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Getting started

Photo by Katherine Fleitas for Jumblies Theatre

Getting Started in Toronto: Torontos greatest asset? immigrants who make this city their home and want to contribute skills and experience
Canada had the third best immigrant integration policies, out of 31 countries, on the 2011 Migrant Integration Policy Index: ! Canada ranked 3rd behind Sweden and Portugal, in its ability to integrate newcomers, scoring near best practice in the areas of anti-discrimination and family reunion (see diagram below). The Migrant Integration Policy Index includes 29 European states, the US and Canada.162 o Canada increased its score by 1 point in 2010 (to 72) by committing to a Pan-Canadian framework for assessment and accreditation of foreign qualifications. !
Fifteen top-ranked countries on the Migrant Integration Policy Index: Sweden (83) Portugal (79) Canada (72) Finland (69) Belgium (67) Norway (66) Spain (63) USA (62) Italy (60) Luxembourg (59) Germany (57) United Kingdom (57) Denmark (53) France (51)
Note: Access to nationality refers to ease of acquiring citizenship.

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The Toronto Regions immigration levels were up by 11.5% in 2010, after three years of declining numbers: ! 92,184 new permanent residents chose the Toronto Region as their home in 2010 (up from 82,637 in 2009). ! That number is half of all new immigrants to Ontario and one third of total immigration to Canada in 2010 (which also increased by 11% over the year prior). ! The Region remains the top destination for immigrants, receiving twice as many as second-place Montreal (46,460) and two and half times as many as Vancouver (37,336), but the increase is still 7.7% below 2006 levels. ! The Regions share of temporary foreign workers coming to Canada rose for the third year in a row. 30,384 workers (16.6% of the total) arrived in the Toronto Region in 2010, up from 24,417 in 2009. The number of temporary foreign workers in the Toronto Region has risen by 58% since 2006.163

Categories of immigrants l a n d i n g i n t h e T o r o n t o R e g i o n , 1 9 8 0 - 2 0 0 9 : 164

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In 2010, Filipinos became the top source of immigrants to Canada, mostly due to the Live-in Caregiver program: ! The Philippines has overtaken India (in second place) and China, with the largest share of Canadian immigrants. There were close to 40,000 new Filipino permanent residents in the first nine months of 2010, including almost 6,000 livein caregivers. The GTA is home to the largest Filipino population and the place where almost 1 in 2 Filipino immigrants choose to settle.165 ! The Live-in Caregiver program is over 90% Filipina (a small proportion are men or Indian-born). The program has been growing since 2003. Overall, Live-In Caregivers are better educated than other immigrant categories, including the skilled worker class. 63% were university-educated in 2009 compared to 5% in 1993. In the Toronto Region more than 1 in 3 (37%) of first generation Filipinos has a university degree but the number drops to 24% in the second generation as children of immigrants struggle with discrimination and extended periods of family dislocation (see also Learning section).166 o Many Filipina workers who come to the Region as nannies or housekeepers are subject to deprofessionalization the process whereby their potential to use professional training is eroded. Many arrive without financial assets, are separated from families that they continue to support, for lengthy periods of time, and suspend further education while in survival jobs. o Although many have excellent education and training (in English), one third of participants in a recent Toronto Region study said they had considered leaving Ontario because of barriers they perceive to practicing in professions for which they trained. A major barrier is accreditation, but Filipino immigrants also face racial discrimination (the assumption that certain groups are more suited to particular low-paying professions, such as care-giving).167

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In the Toronto Region, immigrants educational background and o c c u p a t i o n a r e o f t e n p o o r l y m a t c h e d : 168 ! The mismatch between education and employment is demonstrated by the number of relatively small number of recent immigrants working in the fields of natural and applied sciences (10.6%) relative to the more than one-third of new immigrants who arrive in the Region with education and training in that field:
Top five major fields of study for recent immigrants, Toronto Region (2006) Immigrated % of 2001-2006 total Architecture, engineering and related technologies 57,080 24.8% Business, management, public administration 52,190 22.6% Health, parks, recreation and fitness 23,750 10.3% Social and behavioural sciences, law 21,580 9.4% Mathematics, computer and information sciences 19,875 8.6% Top five occupational categories for recent immigrants, Toronto Region (2006) Immigrated % of 2001-2006 total Sales and service occupations 63,055 25.8% Business, finance and administrative occupations 40,670 16.6% Occupations unique to processing, manufacturing and utilities 31,855 13.0% Trades, transport and equipment operators (and related) 27,695 11.3% Natural and applied sciences 25,930 10.6%

1 2 3 4 5

1 2 3 4 5

" Indicates the fields of study and occupations related to natural and applied sciences.

The underemployment of immigrants costs the Canadian economy dearly: ! According to 2006 census data, not even one quarter (24%) of employed university-educated immigrants were working in a profession that matched their field of study (compared to 62% of Canadian-born workers). Among the 76% of mismatched immigrant workers, more than three-quarters were working at jobs that dont normally require a university degree. ! The Conference Board of Canada estimates that if all immigrants were employed at the full level of their qualifications, it would add between $3.4 and $5 billion to the economy each year, with the largest share in the Toronto Region.169

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Immigrants in the Toronto Region continue to suffer the effects of the recession, reflected in sustained high unemployment: ! Prior to the recession in late 2008, the immigrant unemployment rate was somewhat higher than that of Canadian-born (and much higher for recent immigrants). That pattern continued through the recession but the gap between immigrants and Canadian-born widened, and grew even more significantly between recent immigrants and Canadian-born workers. ! Unemployment rates in June 2011 for recent immigrants in Canada were down slightly from the same month the year before ! (from 14.3% to 13.6%, but have been continuously above 12% since early 2009). ! o The unemployment rate for immigrants in the Toronto Region was 8.8% in June 2011, three percentage points higher than the rate for those born in Canada (5.8%).170

Note that these figures are based on a three-month moving average (3MMA) and are not seasonally adjusted.

In June 2011, similar proportions of both employed Canadian-born Torontonians and employed immigrants were working full-time (89.5% compared to 88.7%). But immigrants in Toronto are often restricted to more precarious work in low-paying occupations, and they are more likely than Canadian-born workers, to be employed in these positions full-time.171 Gains in the Toronto Region labour market between June 2010 and 2011 have tended to benefit immigrants, who gained 74,700 jobs in the year, compared to a net gain of 900 jobs for Canadian-born workers. Immigrant employment in service sector jobs increased by 40,300 jobs over the year, primarily in information, culture and recreation, and business, building and other support services.172

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Restricted job mobility encourages many immigrants to be self-employed and seek entrepreneurial opportunities in the informal sector: ! According to the latest census figures (2006), more than 116,000 immigrants are self-employed in the Toronto Region (compared to about 101,000 nonimmigrants). ! The most common languages of origin of these self-employed workers are English, Chinese and Indo-Iranian languages. Self-employed immigrants are most likely to be working in construction (19% of men), professional, scientific and technical services (18.6% of men and 17.2% of women) or health care and social assistance (17.4% of women).173

Immigrants generally fare better in terms of labour force participation and employment rates in smaller Canadian metropolitan areas: ! Immigrants generally have lower median incomes and higher unemployment rates than Canadian-born workers. However, a study of Canadas ten census metropolitan areas (CMAs) points to regional disparities among them. Labour force participation rates tend to be lower, unemployment rates higher, and the gap in median income between immigrants and Canadian-born workers larger in the three gateway areas of Toronto, Montreal and Vancouver than in the non-gateway communities.174

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In December 2010, the Federal government announced cuts of $43 million in funding to newcomer settlement programs in Ontario: ! ! In Toronto, the province-wide cuts to the Settlement Workers in Schools (SWIS) program means a loss of programming that assists vulnerable students in navigating the school system and accessing services in the community. The loss of settlement programs like SWIS will likely make the adjustment more difficult for newcomer students and have a negative impact on academic outcomes.175 Four years after landing, only 7% of new immigrants report they are dissatisfied with their life in Canada, and almost half say that life is somewhat, or much better than they expected it to be: ! Almost 3 out of 4 participants in a longitudinal survey of immigrants who came to Canada in the early 2000s were satisfied or very satisfied with their lives. A large majority (87%) reported after four years in the country, that if faced with the same decision again, they would choose to immigrate to Canada. o Younger immigrants (aged 15-34), family class immigrants and refugees, those in good health, and those with strong contacts with friends, neighbours and religious organizations (social capital) were more likely to assess their lives positively. Immigrants with high educational attainment, principle applicants in the skilled worker immigration category, and those who encountered discrimination, or problems accessing housing, health care or education/training, were less likely to be satisfied or report that their expectations had been met or exceeded. In particular, perceptions of unfair treatment or discrimination were linked to large decreases in the probability of positive responses. o Unmet expectations and dissatisfaction may be linked to lack of recognition of foreign credentials and experience a persistent problem for highly educated immigrants. After four years in Canada, only 28% of immigrants with foreign credentials had those credentials recognized, and 39% with foreign work experience (not two mutually exclusive groups) had their work experience recognized. In the skilled worker category (immigrants selected precisely for their skills and experience) the figures were only 38% and 51% respectively.176 o Not surprisingly, economic wellbeing was a factor in assessments of satisfaction and fulfilled expectations. The 20% of immigrants with personal incomes of $40,000 or more, were significantly more likely to be satisfied with their lives. However, 1 in 3 immigrant respondents in the skilled worker category said that they felt materially worse off than prior to immigrating.177

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An award-winning Toronto program will benefit almost 25,000 children in over 100 priority neighbourhood schools in 2011, while providing immigrant professionals with all-important Canadian work experience: ! 18,000 Toronto students will receive vision screening and 7,000 will h a v e t h e i r h e a r i n g s c r e e n e d b y international medical graduates ( I M G s ) h i r e d b y the Gift of Sight and Sound Program, a p r i v a t e l y f u n d e d , program of the Toronto Foundation for Student Success. The program is committed to serving vulnerable children and to helping foreign-trained doctors acquire critical Canadian experience, as they work towards accreditation. The Program manager, clinic coordinators and vision screeners are all IMGs. In addition to their high level of expertise, many speak multiple languages and reflect the diversity of the schools where they are working. In 2011, the program was awarded the CBC T o r o n t o V i s i o n A w a r d f o r I m m i g r a n t I n c l u s i o n . 178 Active transportation is a path to community integration and sense of belonging: ! A c t i v e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n i n i t i a t i v e s i n T o r o n t o , l i k e t h e Walking School Bus ( s e e a l s o t h e Health s e c t i o n ) a r e s u p p o r t i v e w a y s f o r n e w c o m e r s to integrate into their communities. To deliver their kids safely to school, a number of families collaborate to form a human bus with adult drivers and a defined route, collecting children along t h e w a y . 179 ! An innovative partnership between the Toronto Cyclists Union and Culturelink Settlement Services helps recent arrivals in the city take advantage of a healthy, affordable and convenient transportation option. The Partnership for Integration and Sustainable Transportation makes a guidebook on cycling available in 17 languages, covering topics such as safety, maintenance and dressing for Toronto weather. It also matches newcomers with cycling hosts to help them access affordable equipment and safe and easy bike routes.180

The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Getting Started in Toronto through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Central Toronto Youth Services COSTI Immigrant Services CultureLink Settlement Services Davenport-Perth Neighbourhood and Community Health Centre Delta Family Resource Centre Dixon Hall FutureWatch Environment and Development Education Partners Habitat For Humanity Toronto Learning Enrichment Foundation North York Community House Parent-Child Mother Goose Program

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! ! ! ! ! ! !

The Psychology Foundation of Canada The Redwood SKETCH Working Arts St. Stephen's Community House Toronto Public Library Foundation UrbanArts Working Skills Centre

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Health & wellness


Photo by Danielle Jessamy

Health and Wellness: Torontos most critical long-term investment? nurturing active, healthy communities
Torontos 2010 health checkup:

( p o p u l a t i o n 1 2 y e a r s a n d o v e r ) 181

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One of the key determinants of happiness is perceived mental health; in 2011, almost three in four Torontonians rate their mental health as good or excellent: ! The 2011 Canadian Community Health Survey reported that 73.2% of Toronto residents reported their mental health as good or excellent (up slightly from last year but still down from 77.5% in the 2009 survey). ! Thats close to the national average, but Toronto still scores relatively poorly on overall life satisfaction among Canadian metropolitan regions. Other drivers, such as higher average stress levels, lower sense of community belonging, a high proportion of recent immigrants and students, relatively high unemployment and low levels of physical activity may all contribute to making the Toronto Region one of the least happy of the 32 Canadian metropolises (on a scale of 1 to 5, average happiness ranged from 4.37 in Sherbrooke to 4.15 in Toronto in 2007-2008. The Canadian average for those 20 and older was 4.26).182 o Close to 8 in 10 (78%) of youth (12 - 19 years old) in Toronto rated their mental health as good or excellent in 2009-2010. o A little over 15% of Toronto adults (18 years and over) reported recent elevated psychological distress (about same percentage as ten years ago). However, the ten-year trend shows an increase in the use of prescription medication for anxiety and depression in Toronto (from 2.2% in 1999 to 6.1% in 2008).183 ! Toronto has a suicide rate below the provincial average: ! The suicide rate in the city is about 6.9 per 100,000 population, according to the 2011 Community Health Survey (compared to a rate of 7.7 for Ontario). The rate for self-injury hospitalizations is 36 per 100,000 population (compared to a provincial rate of 58).184 Smoking rates in the city continue their steady decline: ! Daily or occasional smokers made up 15.9% of the population in 2010, well below the 18.9% provincial percentage, and 25% lower than in 2003.185 ! 9% of boys and only 4% of girls are meeting the new Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines, according to the 2011 Canadian Health Measures Survey: ! Canadian children and youth continue to receive a failing grade for physical activity. Levels havent changed significantly in five years. ! Guidelines state that children and youth should be moderately to vigorously active for at least an hour a day.186 Almost two-thirds of youth in the city of Toronto reported being moderately active or active during leisure time in 2009-2010, although the figure may underestimate sedentary behaviour: ! According to the Canadian Community Health Survey, 61.8% of youth (aged 12 -19 years) were moderately active or active during leisure time (based on an index of daily energy expenditure over the previous three months) in 20092010. 38.2% reported being inactive during leisure time. Other studies suggest that self-reported figures significantly overestimate physical activity levels.187
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Outside school hours, children and youth are focused on screen time, spending, on average, 6 hours a day each weekday and over 7 hours on weekends, in front of a computer, smart phone or television. Canadas children are, on average, sedentary for almost two-thirds of their waking hours (62% of the time), including 59% of the time between 3 and 6 PM. On average, children spend only about 14 minutes of those three hours even moving around.188 o 5 -19 year olds who play outdoors after school take, on average, 2,000 more steps than those who dont.189 The fact that children are largely passive is not because sports facilities and physical activity programs arent available locally. 93% of Canadian parents report that they are available, and 95% report that parks and outdoor play spaces exist nearby. Reasons for non-participation are more likely to include lack of time (especially among those with low incomes), and feelings of social isolation, or intimidation, rather than lack of access to, or the availability of, programming.190 o Even when children can access supervised after-school programs, they may still not be engaging in physical activity. Fewer than half the afterschool programs surveyed in the Canadian Health Measures Survey had physical activity as their primary purpose. Increased levels of sedentary behaviour are linked to higher risks for physical and mental health problems (even when physical activity guidelines are being met).191

Active transportation produces benefits to individual health and to the environment: ! About 1 in 4 Canadian children and youth (24%) use active modes of transportation (either biking or walking) to get to and from school. 62% use inactive modes of transportation exclusively. o 40% of Toronto District School Board elementary students live less than 1km from their school. 76% of those children walk to school and 78% walk home. Of the children living between 1 and 2 km from school, the percentages drop to 28% and 32% respectively. The children who walk to school are twice as likely to meet recommended physical activity levels. o The City of Toronto participates in the Canada-wide Active and Safe Routes to School program, promoting and supporting school and community-based initiatives to encourage walking to school. The program provides resources to organize Walking School Buses, an initiative that originated in the 1990s in Australia to address personal safety and traffic concerns. Just 9 families participating in a Walking School Bus over one school year, results in close to 1,000 fewer kg of carbon dioxide being released into the atmosphere192.

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Obesity levels have increased 20% in the city of Toronto since 2003, but are still below the Ontario level: ! 14.2% of Torontonians 18 years and older (15.4% of males and 13% of females) are obese (Body Mass Index of 30 or higher) according to the latest Canadian Community Health Survey. ! The rate compares to 18.0% in Ontario (where 19.4% or nearly 1 in 5 men are obese). The Toronto obesity rate is twice the rate in Vancouver (where 7% of residents are reported to be obese) but lower than rates in Calgary (15.%) Ottawa (17.3%) and Montreal (15.7%). Provincial rates vary significantly across the country from a high in Newfoundland and Labrador and New Brunswick of close to 28% to a low of 13.5% in BC. Obesity is linked to increased risk of a wide range of diseases and chronic health problems including coronary heart disease, Type 2 diabetes, cancers and stroke. 193 o The 2010 obesity rate for the population in the Toronto Region (18 years and older) was 14.8%, an increase of 6.4% from a year earlier.194 ! Youth participation in City of Toronto recreation programs is rising, but overall was registration was below 2008 levels in 2010: ! Participation in City recreation programs rose in 2010 after a labour dispute impacted 2009 attendance and program offerings but registration in programs was almost 3% below the 2008 level. ! Total program attendance was up in 2010 to 8.5 million (from 6.4 million in 2009 and 8.2 million in 2008), largely because of a substantial increase in drop-in attendance (up 7.4% over 2008). ! ! 62,673 courses were offered in 2010 (up from 62,246 in 2008). ! ! 375,815 children and youth registered for programs (a 1.4% decrease over 2008). ! ! 19,296 youth were registered in recreation programs (an increase of 13.7% over 2008 and almost 15% higher than five years ago).195 ! The percentage of Toronto households reporting spending to access recreational facilities has dropped by more than 25% since 2002: ! 36.7% of the households in the Toronto Region reported spending to use recreational facilities in 2009. In 2002, that figure was 46% (a 25.3% drop, and 6.5% lower than the provincial level of 39.1%).196 ! Family physicians ! There were 2,900 family physicians practicing in the city of Toronto in 2010. The rate per 100,000 population was 106.62, almost unchanged from 107.9 in 2009.197 The rate for the total number of physicians (family medicine and specialists) has been rising in the city since 2006 (293 per 100,000 population in 2009 compared to 280 in 2008). ! The rate for Ontario was only 187 in 2009, and 202 for Canada as a whole.198 ! 90.3% of Toronto residents had access to a regular medical doctor in 2010, unchanged from 2009. 6.4% of youth (12 -19 years) were without a regular family physician.199

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Hospital stays for Torontos homeless cost an average of $2,500 more than those for the general population: ! Torontos homeless are hospitalized more often than the general population, (the rate is estimated at 23 hospitalizations per 100 people per year, compared to 5 per 100 per year in the general population). They enter hospital with more acute health problems (particularly mental health issues) and stay longer, often because they cannot return to a shelter and have nowhere else to go. o Toronto has one facility, open to all homeless patients, that provides a less costly alternative to hospital. The infirmary at the Sherbourne Health Centre provides nursing and medical care and doesnt require homeless people to leave during the day, as other shelters do. However, it has only a 20-bed capacity.200 Almost 1 in 5 homeless people diagnosed with TB in Toronto die within one year; the death rate hasnt improved in ten years, and new drugresistant strains are showing up among immigrants from countries where TB is common: ! ! Between 1998 and 2007, 91 homeless people were diagnosed with active TB in Toronto. Most were highly contagious, advanced cases. About 40% of homeless people diagnosed with TB between 2003 and 2007, were born outside Canada, reflecting the larger demographic shift in the city. ! TB rates in Toronto and in Canada have been falling over a decade. ! About one-third of all cases in the country are in the GTA. Although the last major TB outbreak in the Toronto shelter system occurred in 2001, and prevention and control measures have improved, the likelihood of a new drug-resistant infection may be increasing.201 Since 1985, 65% of all positive HIV tests in Ontario have been reported in Toronto. Between 2006 and 2008, 1 in 4 new cases of HIV infection in Ontario were women: ! After a decline in reported HIV infections in the late 1990s, new known infection rates grew in Ontario by 20% between 2000 and 2008. ! o 93% of new HIV infections among women are acquired through sexual transmission and 7% through drug use. More than half of women infected in 2008 were immigrants coming from a country where HIV is endemic. o Currently, there are 2.2 HIV deaths per 100,000 population, each year in Toronto, compared to a rate of 0.9 across Ontario.202 The cost of providing long-term care in the city of Toronto rose by 66% (adjusted dollars) between 2000 and 2009, primarily as a result of increased staffing salaries and standards: ! It cost $209 to provide one long-term bed for a day in Toronto in 2009. The city ranked 9th (of 14 Ontario municipalities) in terms of cost. ! Only 8.7% of the population aged 75 or over (180,470 in 2009) have access to long term care. Toronto ranks 11th of 14 municipalities on that measure. The percentage has declined from 10.1% in 2005, as the supply of beds (unchanged over the period) lags behind the growth in the elderly population (almost 2% growth between 2007 and 2009). !
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Almost all residents (over 98%) continue to be satisfied or highly satisfied with Toronto long-term care homes as a place to live (the second highest 2009 rating among 14 Ontario municipalities).203 ! Bedbugs have become an increasing problem in communities across the continent; in 2010 the City heard from almost 1,300 people who were dealing with bedbug infestations in Toronto: ! A self-completed 2010 survey, initiated by the City, does not identify the extent of the bedbug problem in Toronto, but does give some idea of its impact on homeowners, landlords and tenants. 24% of homeowners reported that they spent more than $600 on pest control, and 75% of all respondents said that they had not yet resolved their infestation. ! The reasons for an increase in bedbug infestations over the past ten years are not fully known, but may include a reduction in the use of broad-spectrum residual pesticides in pest control, more pesticide-resistant strains of bedbugs, and an increase in international travel and resident mobility.204 ! The urban physical environment worsens health inequalities in Toronto: ! Many of the air pollutants that contribute to circulatory and respiratory problems among urban dwellers cluster around major roads and high-traffic arteries. In the Toronto Region, low-income neighbourhoods are 3.5 times more likely to be located within 200 metres of a major highway than the highest income areas. One quarter of those neighbourhoods are also within 1 km of a pollution emitting facility (vs. 7% of highest income areas). o For residents in Torontos poorest neighbourhoods, rates of hospitalization for respiratory and circulatory diseases decrease significantly the further they are from these sources of pollution. One of the likely reasons is that these residents already suffer from a wider range of health problems and are more vulnerable to the effects of air pollution.205
!

In 2010, Toronto Public Health published a series of maps tracking levels of heat vulnerability (a combination of exposure and sensitivity to heat) across Toronto neighbourhoods. Exposure was tracked using indicators such as surface temperatures, distance from green space and rental dwellings in older high rises. Sensitivity was tracked using a wide range of demographic and health indicators such as income, education, emergency visits for cardiovascular and respiratory disease, disability, and a seniors-specific sensitivity index:206

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Toronto Community Health Profiles provide detailed health statistics at the community-level, and links to neighbourhood demographic profiles: ! Torontonians are able to access the website, Toronto Community Health Profiles launched in 2005, for information about their own community and how it compares with the City of Toronto overall. The site offers data, maps and equity analyses. 207 The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Health and Wellness through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Agincourt Community Services Association Arthritis & Autoimmunity Research Centre Foundation Alzheimer Society of Toronto Art Starts Big Brothers and Big Sisters of Toronto Black Coalition for AIDS Prevention Canadian Diabetes Association Centre for Spanish Speaking People Coleman Lemieux & Compagnie The Conservation Foundation of Greater Toronto Centennial Infant and Child Centre Foundation Child Development Institute

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

COSTI Immigrant Services Central Toronto Youth Services Clean Air Partnership CultureLink Settlement Services Daily Bread Food Bank Dixon Hall Davenport-Perth Neighbourhood and Community Health Centre Distress Centres Elizabeth Fry Toronto Evergreen Family Service Toronto Greenest City The Gatehouse Child Abuse Investigation & Support Site Habitat For Humanity Toronto Hospice Toronto John Howard Society of Toronto Lakeshore Area Multi-Service Project (LAMP) Local Enhancement and Appreciation of Forests (LEAF) March of Dimes Canada The Massey Centre for Women Neighbourhood Information Post (NIP) New Circles Community Services North York Community House Parent-Child Mother Goose Program PEACH Promoting Education and Community Health The Psychology Foundation of Canada Regeneration Housing and Support Services Ronald McDonald House Toronto San Romanoway Revitalization Association Senior Peoples' Resources in North Toronto Incorporated (SPRINT) Sistering: A Womans Place Second Harvest Sheenas Place SKETCH Working Arts Seeds of Hope Foundation Sherbourne Health Centre The Stop Community Food Centre Toronto Cyclists Union Toronto Public Library Foundation Toronto Foundation for Student Success Toronto Youth Development Toronto Lords Community Association Trails Youth Initiatives Unison Health and Community Services Wellspring Cancer Support Foundation Youth Assisting Youth YouthLink

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Environment

Photo by Laura Brown

Environment: Torontos most significant change in a decade? our efforts to become a more sustainable environmentally friendly city
The city of Toronto ranks among the best on the US and Canada Green City Index: ! As the 2011 research study, sponsored by Siemens and conducted by the Economist Intelligence Unit points out, urban centres (where more than 80% of Canadians now reside) can magnify environmental problems like air pollution and sprawl, but also have the creative and economic resources to be the laboratories where innovative solutions are generated and tested. Of the 27 cities assessed in the study, representing some of the most Toronto populous metropolitan areas in North America, Toronto ranked 9th overall. o The city scored well on measures of waste (4th place), energy (in spite of being one of the colder cities on the index) and CO2 emissions. o On environmental governance, Toronto was almost at the bottom of the list (24th). The report noted that although the city has a number of environmental action plans, reporting and transparency falls below the standards of most other cities on the index.208 In 2011, Corporate Knights ranked the city of Toronto Canadas most sustainable large city for the second year in a row: ! ! Toronto scored 69%, 2% below Victoria and Vancouver (the winners in the small and medium sized city categories). The city gets high marks for greenhouse gas emission reduction, limiting household waste, green transportation and local food production and access, but scores relatively poorly on percentage of green space and several economic security indicators in this broadly-based review of sustainability.209

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T h e G r e a t e r T o r o n t o A r e a h a s r e c e i v e d i t s l a t e s t e n v i r o n m e n t a l report card: marks for air quality, municipal water conservation and residential waste diversion are quite good; on stormwater control, commercial waste diversion and transportation systems, the GTA gets a failing grade: ! Per capita carbon emissions in the GTA fell by 10% between 2008 and 2009, mostly due to the shift in electrical production from coal to natural gas. The annual rate of decline between 2005 and 2009 was 4.4%.! However, much more aggressive action would be required to meet longer-term targets of a reduction from 1990 levels of 6% by 2012 and 30% by 2020 (City of Toronto targets). ! o Transportation fuel use is the largest contributor to carbon emissions (48.3%); natural gas use to heat buildings contributes 31.3% and electricity 12.1%.

Source: Greening Greater Toronto, Living City Report Card 2011

Gasoline consumption dropped by 4% between 2005 and 2009 ! (both fuel and electricity consumption tend to drop during a recession, but fuel economy is also improving), and the higher price of gas is expected to stimulate a shift to hybrid/electric vehicles and fewer vehicle trips. Emissions from waste management (landfills and incineration) rose by 8% during the same period, as the amount of GTA waste sent to landfills increased from 3.25 to 3.52 million tonnes. ! o Corporate leaders, through participation in initiatives such as the Commercial Building Energy Initiative (owners representing over 40% of total GTA office space and tenants occupying almost 40 million square feet of commercial space) are collectively agreeing to meet energy reduction targets. !

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The Greening Canada Fund, an innovative voluntary carbon offset investment program allows Canadian corporations to buy credits from local organizations that are reducing their emissions. The Toronto District School Board (TDSB) signed an agreement in 2010 to sell credits to the fund. One of the first of its kind, the agreement is expected to generate $1.7 million for the TDSB over five years. Since 2000, the TDSB has invested $38 million in energy savings and has achieved an 18% reduction in emissions. A 2011 agreement with an Ontario company to install and maintain solar photovoltaic panels on up to 450 school rooftops (12 million sq ft of roof space), will achieve the double benefit of $120 million of rooftop repairs and the generation of 58-66 MW of electricity each year (the equivalent of 6,000 households electrical usage) for the next 20 years.210

The City of Toronto is a leader in Canada in green building: ! Toronto has the largest number of certified green buildings in Canada (72 BOMA BESt and 24 LEED Certified buildings) totalling over 3.5 million m2 of floor space. Vancouver has 26 green buildings and Montreal has 12.211 Torontos Tower Renewal pilot studies show dramatic opportunities for improving the energy efficiency and quality of life in the citys 1,000 aging concrete highrises: ! Studies were completed in 2010 on 4 diverse pilot sites selected for initial assessment among the citys 1,189 multi-unit concrete frame residential buildings constructed between 1945 and 1984 (buildings 8 storeys or higher, 800 of which are privately owned). They indicate that retrofits can achieve sizeable reductions in water and energy use, higher levels of waste diversion, safer healthier communities and many green jobs: o A typical building in the study emits 1,712 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions annually. Retrofits would achieve reductions of up to 74% per year, contributing significantly to meeting Torontos overall targets. o Straightforward proposals for reducing private vehicle transportation (such as car pooling and group rate TTC Metropasses), and improved facilities for walking and biking could reduce transportation emissions from 12%-22%. o 20 years is the time estimated to completely retrofit all of Torontos concrete towers the equivalent of 30,000 person years of green employment and $2.12 billion in wages. ! Goals in the Tower Renewal project for 2011 involve developing a city-wide rollout strategy, and creating the financing structures so that building owners have the incentive to invest in major retrofits.212

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Air quality has improved significantly in the GTA since 2005, but cleaner transportation will be key to meeting future targets: ! Air quality in the GTA is only half determined within its borders (50% of smogforming pollutants come from outside the region). Emissions of four major pollutants Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Volatile Organic Compounds, Particulate Matter and Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) all decreased between 2005 and 2009 (the 44% decrease in SO2 almost all attributable to the phase out of coal plants, scheduled for completion in 2014). But meeting 2016 targets for Particulate Matter and NOx will require considerable improvement in transit, such as more use of alternative fuels like biomethane in heavy-duty vehicles, better transit choices throughout the region and much higher use of current options, and increased use of electric vehicles.213 o For the 35% of city residents who own two or more cars, an electric vehicle will be an increasingly attractive option for short trips (the median length of all trips in Toronto was 5.1 km in 2006). o The Toronto Green Standard (TGS) guidelines for sustainable new development include a commitment to improving air quality. The TGS requires new mid- and high-rise developments with more than the minimum number of parking spaces to include roughed-in electrical conduits, to allowing for future electric vehicle outlets.214 ! Air pollution contributes to an estimated 1,700 early deaths and 6,000 hospital visits each year in Toronto. Based on the provincial Air Quality Index, Toronto experienced 8 smog alert days in 2010, twice as many as in 2009, ! but still well below the ten-year average of 16.4 smog alerts days per year.215 !

A v e r a g e n u m b e r o f S m o g A l e r t D a y s , C i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 9 3 - 2 0 1 0 : 216

On average, heat contributes to an estimated 120 premature deaths per year in Toronto.217 In 2010, Toronto experienced 5 heat alert days and 11 extreme heat alert days higher than the five-year average of 12 alert days (heat and extreme heat alert days combined). (See also Health section.) !

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Temperature trends indicate that the city continues to get warmer. This likely reflects a combination of a warming climate and the urban heat island effect. The urban heat island effect is a phenomenon where cities are hotter than surrounding rural environments because typical urban landscapes tend to absorb and retain heat. o Minimum daily temperatures are rising faster than maximum daily temperatures. Minimum temperatures usually occur at night, a time when people can get some relief from hot weather. With less cooling at night, vulnerable Torontonians (those with chronic illnesses, the young, the elderly and those poorly housed or homeless) will find it more difficult to cope with extended periods of hot weather. ! o The trends also appear to show that recently, average temperatures can vary dramatically from year-to-year. Climate change modeling predicts this phenomenon that there is no longer a typical year.218

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Toronto made no progress in 2010 in its long-term goal of reduced water consumption, and the city is vulnerable to extreme weather events and needs to continue to manage stormwater runoff better: ! One of the consequences of a warming climate will be more intense weather patterns, including more violent storms. The region began to implement stormwater management systems in the 1980s to deal with the impact of increased runoff in such events, but many municipalities still do not have adequate stormwater controls. The city needs to invest in small-scale stormwater management controls, at source, such as the conversion of pavement to porous surfaces. o In 2007, the City of Toronto adopted a mandatory downspout disconnection program, to prevent stormwater entering the sewer system. About 37,600 households were eligible to receive a disconnection between 2008-2016 at a cost to the city of $57 million. In 2011, the city cancelled funding support for the program with 7,100 city properties still to be inspected. Mandatory disconnection will continue, and low income property owners may be eligible for financial support for the estimated $1,000 cost as voluntary disconnection continues.219 o Less than 5% of the city has stormwater control, compared to the average of 23% of the urbanized area within the Toronto Region Conservation Authoritys jurisdiction.220
Number of Urban Hectares within the Municipality Area (Ha) 6,026 22,511 61,140 29,711 Urban Stormwater Control221 % 20.9 31.8 4.9 54.4

Regional Municipality Durham Peel Toronto York

8 of Torontos 12 beaches were open for swimming more than 80% of the time during the summer of 2010: ! ! Although 8 beaches continue to meet the stringent standards for Blue Flag designation, several city swimming spots suffer ongoing high levels of contamination. Unacceptably high E. coli counts closed 3 of Torontos 12 beaches for about half the summer season, or longer, in 2010. (Marie Curtis Park East Beach was open 43% of the season; Sunnyside Beach was open 54% of the time and the Sunnyside Enclosure beach was safe for swimming for only 34% of the summer).222 o Ontarios beach water quality standard (100 e.coli/100ml of water) is the most stringent in the world.223

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City of Toronto Beaches:

Source: City of Toronto, Parks, Forestry and Recreation.

Progress is slow in Torontos long-term goal of reducing water consumption: ! Torontos total annual water consumption increased by 8% in 2010 to 1,194 ML/day. ! The rise follows several years of reduced demand, and is still 5.3% below the 2001 figure. ! Canadian households water usage is more than twice that of many European countries. Since 2010, in Amsterdam, where smart water meters have been installed to allow householders to track water use and detect leaks, consumption has decreased by 10 -15%.224 ! In 2011, the city cancelled its water efficiency rebate program, created in 2003 to encourage residents to replace inefficient toilets, and reduce the strain and high cost of expanding municipal infrastructure. Toilets are the biggest users of indoor water (accounting for 28% of the total).225

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City of Torontos total average annual water consumption (cubic metres), 19702 0 1 0 : 226

o 1,400,000
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Toronto ranks well in comparison with other Canadian municipalities in residential water consumption, but industrialized countries outside North America draw on less than half the average Canadian households water. Average residential consumption in Britain is 106 Lpd.227

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Less than half the waste generated in the city is diverted from landfills, falling far short of a goal of 70% diversion by 2010: ! 47% of the 813,429 tonnes of residential waste generated in Toronto in 2010 was diverted from landfill. This is a slight improvement over the 46% estimated for 2009. ! (The diversion rate for the whole GTA, with a far higher percentage of single family dwellings, was 50% in 2009, and the target for 2016 is 75%). o The Citys waste disposal contract with a Michigan landfill expired at the end of 2010. Beginning in 2011, all waste requiring landfill disposal is shipped to the City-owned Green Lane site near London, Ontario. At a 50% diversion rate, the capacity of the landfill is about 19 years. Even if the city is able to divert 70% of total waste from the landfill, the life of the facility is only 28 years. 2 0 1 0 R e s i d e n t i a l W a s t e D i v e r s i o n i n t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o : 228

The city still faces a major challenge in recycling material from multi-unit dwellings. The diversion rate in 2010 was 18% (up only slightly from 15% in 2008). ! Lack of consistent practices and facilities across multi-unit dwellings, combined with inconvenience and the absence of social pressure to recycle exacerbate the difficulties faced by tenants. The City of Toronto requires developers of new multi-unit residences to make waste diversion as easy as garbage disposal, but the policy will have only limited impact in the short-term.

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R e s i d e n t i a l w a s t e d i v e r s i o n i n t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o , 2 0 1 0 229

Diversion rates do not reflect the level of contamination of recyclable material, which must then be added to the landfill. GTA estimates of paper contamination are as high as 20%. Plastic waste also becomes contaminated when products such as biodegradable plastic bags, which are plant-based and meant to break down, enter the recycling process.230

Almost 3 in 4 households in the Toronto Region now compost kitchen waste: ! 73% of all households in the Region reported composting kitchen waste in 2009, and 59% of households not living in apartment buildings, who had a lawn or garden, reported composting their yard waste. By comparison, 62% of all households in Ontario reported composting kitchen waste, the same percentage as composted yard waste. Canada-wide, 43% of households composted kitchen waste, and 50% of single unit households with a lawn or garden composted yard waste.231 There is little progress on commercial and industrial waste diversion in the GTA: ! Institutional, commercial and industrial waste (IC&I) represents about 65% of the waste transported to landfill every year, but lack of data make it difficult to estimate diversion rates assessed at a rate of 13%-18%, far lower than residential rates. ! Waste diversion represents an economic opportunity (reducing operating costs and opening up markets for resale of recyclable material) as well as an environmental obligation. Several businesses in Toronto have shown significant leadership in commercial waste diversion: o The Simpson Tower was the first zero waste office tower in Canada in 2008, with an audited diversion rate of 96.9%. o Downtown Torontos TD Centre achieved a 76% waste diversion rate in 2009.232

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Half of the people in the city visit one of its 1,500 parks at least once a week, and almost 14% make daily visits: ! Parks play a crucial role in the life of the city, accruing social, ecological, economic and health benefits to its citizens, attracting visitors, and providing a welcome refuge from the stress of urban existence.233

The City of Toronto manages 80 sq km of parkland (42% of which is natural habitat). 18.1% of the city surface is parkland and natural spaces (compared to 27.4% which is covered by roads and highways). Most parkland is in the extensive ravines that run north-south through the city the largest urban network of ravines in the world.234 Toronto parks face a number of problems: A $230 million backlog in maintenance and repairs; lack of dedicated on-site staff (leading to less connection between staff and local community members; and a perception of a rules-based park bureaucracy, owing to the fact that the primary interaction with park staff for most Torontonians is in seeking a permit for park activity, an especially challenging process for recent immigrants. The pressures on Torontos parks will grow as the city population swells by an anticipated half a million people in the next 20 years.

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Toronto parks can play a role in implementing the Toronto Food Strategy, by expanding community gardening and urban farming (particularly in large parks like Downsview); encouraging farmers markets in parks in neighbourhoods that are currently food deserts; and introducing more cafs, food stands and picnicking facilities.235

Torontos 860,000 ash trees face extinction by 2017: ! Since the emerald ash borer first made an appearance in Toronto in 2007, the invasive insect has steadily infested Torontos ash trees, all of which may die by 2017. The cost of cutting down the 40% of ash trees on public land alone is estimated at $60 million over the next decade.236 An innovative volunteer program harvested almost 20,000 pounds of fruit from 228 trees growing in Toronto parks, gardens and laneways in 2010: ! Not Far from the Tree, an award-winning program begun in 2008, is contributing to urban food security by recovering some of the estimated 1.5 million pounds of fruit that rots on the ground every year in Toronto. In 2010, 700 volunteers were enlisted to pick the fruit. 1/3 of the harvest goes to the tree owner; 1/3 is shared among the pickers; and 1/3 is delivered to a local food bank.237 Torontos Rouge Valley is set to become Canadas first urban national park: ! The 47,000 square km (10,000 acre) Rouge Valley Rouge Valley park lies on the border between Scarborough and Pickering. 13 times larger than New York Citys Central Park, the area has resisted development over the years and retained a high level of biodiversity, including the most significant coastal wetlands remaining in the city. The process of transfer to Parks Canada could take up to two years of negotiation among numerous stakeholders, including more than a dozen government agencies currently involved in managing the Park.238

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Rouge Park, City of Toronto

The following groups are addressing the issues relating to the Environment through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Clean Air Partnership The Conservation Foundation of Greater Toronto Earthroots Fund Evergreen FutureWatch Environment and Development Education Partners Green Innovation Awards Greenest City Jane/Finch Community and Family Centre Local Enhancement and Appreciation of Forests (LEAF) Local Food Plus/Land Food People Foundation Not Far From The Tree Pollution Probe The PACT Urban Peace Program Second Harvest The Stop Community Food Centre Toronto ACORN Toronto Atmospheric Fund

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Housing

Photo by Laura Brown

Housing: Torontos slowest area of progress? addressing the citys affordable housing crisis
The Toronto Region remains in the ranks of severely unaffordable housing markets one of six in Canada: ! The 7th annual Demographia International Housing Affordability Survey (2011) ranked the Toronto Region as the 75th least affordable housing market across 325 markets in seven regions (Canada, the US, UK, Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and China (Hong Kong)). ! Median house prices were 5.1 times median household incomes in 2010 (down slightly from 5.2 in 2009). ! A ratio of 3.0 or less is considered affordable. Metropolitan Montreal edged past the Toronto Region in the top ranks of the severely unaffordable, with a ratio of 5.2 to join Kelowna (5.9), Abbotsford (6.5), Victoria (7.1) and Vancouver (9.5 and 3rd least affordable market overall after Hong Kong and Sydney). o The median ratio of housing prices to incomes for all metropolitan markets in Canada is 4.6. Edmonton is Canadas most affordable major housing market with a ratio of 3.5.239 o The average price of a standard two-storey house in the city of Toronto in 2010 was $657,125 (compared to $398,020 in the Toronto area). o There was strong momentum in the housing market in the early months of 2011. In May, new home sales in the city were up by 42.8% to 4,289 from 3,004 in May 2010. ! However, affordability remained near long-term average levels. For bungalows and two-storey houses, owners are typically spending far more than 30% of household income (the general measure of affordability). o The June 2011 average price of a house in the city of Toronto was up 6% over 2010, at $453,796.240

Source: Statistics Canada, RBC Economics Research (August, 2011).

Full Report

Vacancy rates declined in the Toronto Region in 2010 to just over 2%, increasing housing pressures on Torontos 579,000 renter households. ! According to most recent census estimates, about 36% of the Regions households are renters, Torontos Vital Signs 2011 101 !

compared to close to 50% in the city of Toronto. Across the country, a little over 30% of households are renters, on a par with the US, Australia and the UK; France and Germany in contrast, have a closer to 50/50 ratio of renters to homeowners.241 o In Fall 2010, vacancy rates were at 2.1% in the Region (well below the 3.1% level of 2009 and below the 2.6% average across 35 major Canadian metropolitan centres. The former Toronto (Central) rate was 1.8% (see map below). ! o By April 2011, the Toronto Region vacancy rate was 1.6% lower only than Qubec City, Winnipeg and Regina, among 35 centres (the national average was 2.5%).242 !
!

Slower housing demand (keeping first-time buyers in rental housing) and higher numbers of immigrants (who move first into rental housing before becoming homeowners) were two factors that suppressed vacancy rates. Another was the modest job recovery in the 25-44 age segment of the GTA population - the age group that makes up about half of all renters.243 !

Source: CMHC Rental Market Report Greater Toronto Area

Rental rates in the GTA dropped slightly between 2010 and 2011:
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The average rent for a 2-bedroom apartment in the GTA dropped between April 2010 and April 2011 to $1,124. ! However, excluding new buildings, average rents in existing structures rose by 2.1% between 2010 and 2011 (about the same as the average increase across all major centres). ! The Canadian average twobedroom rental was $860 in 2010.244

Average market rents in the former City of Toronto for a 2-bedroom unit stood at $1,395 in the fall of 2010 (thats the equivalent of 17 eight-hour days at minimum wage before taxes).245 In 2009, in the Toronto Region, the average annual rent for a 2-bedroom apartment was 17.7% of the median family income (up 4.5% from 16% in 2008). ! The 2009 figure was 24% higher than the national average of 13.5% and 9% higher than the provincial average.246

Housing starts in the city of Toronto in 2010 increased by 12.6% over 2009: ! The 13,425 housing starts in 2010 were still well below the 2008 figure of 19,710. ! In May 2011, there were 1,666 housing starts in the city (an increase of 16.3% over the same month in 2010). ! Across the Toronto Region housing starts were down 5.8% over the previous year.247 ! The City is meeting its goals to build new units of affordable housing, but i s n o t c l o s e t o m e e t i n g t h e need f o r a f f o r d a b l e h o u s i n g i n T o r o n t o : ! In 2010, the City of Toronto approved 1,073 new affordable rental and ownership homes, supported by funding from other levels of government. In mid-2011, 313 new units of affordable rental housing had been recently completed; 14 projects (2,198 units of affordable rental housing) were in various stages of construction; and 704 units of affordable ownership homes were ready for move-in. The City is on track to surpass its goal, which is 1,000 new units of rental housing and 200 units of affordable homes for ownership every year.248 !

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In June 2011, the Federal and Provincial governments announced funding of $24.4 million for 204 new units of rental housing for low income seniors in Etobicoke. The Federal funding is provided from the two-year Economic Action Plan, which includes close to $2 billion nationally, for the construction and renovation of social housing. The Provincial funding is part of the Provinces commitment of almost $183 million since 2009, to build housing for low-income seniors. The Federal government is shedding its affordable housing operating subsidies to the provinces over the next 10 years. By 2020, funding will be $1 billion lower than in 1996, even though housing stock is aging and increasingly in a state of disrepair.249 !

Both the supply of seniors housing and the residency rate grew in the GTA between 2010 and 2011: The supply of seniors housing increased from 37.6 spaces per 1,000 seniors (aged 75 and over) in 2010, to 40 spaces in the GTA in 2011. ! The resident growth rate over that time was 8.6% in the GTA (above the 8% provincial average). Growth in numbers of residents was attributable to new supply that more closely responded to current needs (e.g. suites and private/studio spaces vs. wards), and improved employment for the adult children of residents (3% growth in total employment the 45-64 age category in Ontario, vs. 0.9% in 2009), which better enabled them to afford to support retirement home living for their parents.250 !

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The increasing number of households waiting for social housing reflects the impact of the recession, and underscores the need for more affordable housing: ! The City of Toronto currently administers 93,198 units of social housing. 70,379 of these are rent-geared-to-income, where rents are fixed at 30% of household income. (The average annual income of social housing residents is $14,854). ! In May 2011, the number of households on the active waiting list for social housing (eligible candidates who are waiting for availability) stood at 66,460 (up 10.4% from May 2010 and a 34.3% increase since 2008). ! 43.5% of the total households waiting for housing in Ontario are in the city of Toronto (although it represents only 20.6% of the provinces population). ! 18,740 seniors are on the active list. The projected wait time for housing is more than 5 years. The 21,147 families on the list are projected to wait almost 6.5 years, but the actual wait could be closer to15 years (429 applicants on the list were housed in May 2011).

Households on the Active Waiting List for Social Housing, City of Toronto, t o M a y 2 0 1 1 : 251
160,000 150,000 140,000 130,000 120,000 110,000 100,000 90,000 80,000 70,000 60,000 50,000 40,000 30,000 20,000 10,000 0 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

City of Toronto

Ontario

By the end of June 2011, the citys active waiting list had grown to 68,453 households.252 !

254 community-based not-for-profit and co-op housing organizations provide social housing in the city. But 63% of the total housing stock is currently Cityowned.253 The Toronto Community Housing Corporation (TCHC) is facing an estimated $650 million backlog in social housing repair costs. The TCHC is proposing to sell off up to 900 units in order to reduce the repair bill, and hopes to generate $400

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million (an average of $445,000 per unit, which may be unrealistic given that some of these are currently uninhabitable). However: o The loss of 900 units would cost the City millions in lost annual revenues, and further deplete the total supply of rental housing in Toronto, (which already shrank by 1,353 units (net) between October 2009 and 2010); o The current tenants would have to be re-housed in remaining TCHC housing, further increasing the waiting time of those on the active list. o The City has yet to explore other viable options to finance the muchneeded repairs, including accessing the Provinces affordable housing loan fund or issuing housing or community bonds. o Rent supplements appear to offer a cheaper option to maintaining affordable housing stock, but prove more expensive in the long-term. The Citys 2011 budget assesses the monthly per capita subsidy for social housing at $190.32, far less than rent supplements that typically range from $350-600 monthly. In addition, US research shows that rent supplements tend to inflate rents for all tenants.254 Households Spending 30% or More of Their Incomes on Shelter, City of T o r o n t o 1 9 8 1 2 0 0 6 : 255
50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 1981 1986 1991 Renters 1996 Owners 2001 2006

5 7 shelter facilities w e r e o p e r a t i n g i n T o r o n t o i n M a y 2 0 1 1 ( 9 C i t y - o w n e d ) : ! 22,276 different people made use of the 3,800 beds that were available on an average night in 2010 (the rate was higher than in 2009, ! but still 40% below the most recent peak of 31,375 in 2001). ! ! The average shelter occupancy rate for single adults and youth was 93%. ! An average of 879 people (including children) stayed in family shelters every night in 2010. The occupancy rate for families in shelters is actually higher, because additional demand is met through the use of area motels.256 Adequate and affordable housing is directly linked to individual health, social cohesion and equality, and economic prosperity: ! Of the 12 million households in Canada, about 1.5 million (more than 1 in 10) are in core housing need (in inadequate, unsuitable, unaffordable shelter). ! This precarious housing is linked to poor health, shorter lifespans, and growing levels of inequality. Lack of access to good housing is a barrier to participation in the social and economic life of the community and impacts the economy not
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least because employers count on good homes and neighbourhoods to attract highly qualified workers. A large part of the problem of precarious housing is hidden from view (see Canadas precarious housing iceberg below).257

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Poor housing conditions are linked to a weaker sense of belonging to the local community: ! 43% of the more than 600,000 low-income residents in the city live in high-rises. A recent survey of these renters living in Torontos inner suburbs found that many live in housing in need of major repair. 1 in 4 had needed a major repair in the previous 12 months. One-third had 3 or more problems. Overall, more people wanted to move away from their neighbourhood than wanted to stay (46.2% compared to 35.3%), and their sense of belonging to the community was connected to the number of repair problems experienced.258 The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Housing through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Agincourt Community Services Association Elizabeth Fry Toronto Habitat For Humanity Toronto Interval House John Howard Society of Toronto Lakeshore Area Multi-Service Project (LAMP) LOFT Community Services The Massey Centre for Women Neighbourhood Information Post (NIP) Regeneration Housing and Support Services The Redwood Seeds of Hope Foundation Social Planning Toronto Sheenas Place Social and Enterprise Development Innovations (SEDI) Toronto ACORN Toronto Artscape Toronto Atmospheric Fund Unison Health and Community Services YWCA Toronto

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Safety

Photo by Laura Brown

Safety: Torontos least recognized achievement? a decade-long reduction in crime rates Total reported crime in the city of Toronto decreased by 9% (16,214 offenses in 2010 to 169,878 offenses: ! Total criminal code offenses (excluding traffic offenses) in the City of Toronto dropped for the fourth straight year, to a rate of 5,864 per 100,000 population in 2010. The rate was 8.9% lower than in 2009 and 29% lower than in 2006.259 ! O v e r a l l C r i m e R a t e i n t h e C i t y o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 9 8 2 0 1 0 : 260
9,000

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T h e T o r o n t o R e g i o n s t o t a l crime rate i s s t i l l t h e l o w e s t o f a n y o f t h e 3 2 metropolitan areas in Canada: ! The Toronto Regions overall crime rate dropped by 6% in 2010 over 2009, to 3,563. ! The average rate across the country also dropped by 5% to 6,145 in 2010.261 A decades-long decline in crime rates in Canada may be linked to rising rates of high school graduation: ! Research has long found that engagement in the educational process is linked to not just better academic outcomes, but lower rates of delinquency. A strong school bond has been shown to have a protective role for at-risk children against both violent and non-violent behaviours. But recent research goes even further, and suggests that high school graduates are more than 90% less likely to have an adult offending record than dropouts with similar early life experience. The employment and social possibilities offered by graduation appear to reduce the risk of criminal activity in early adulthood. (The rate of high school noncompletion in the Toronto Region has dropped by 92% since 1990. !)262

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Reported violent crime dropped in Toronto for the fifth year in a row in 2010: ! The number of reported violent crimes declined again in 2010 to 31,593 (a 1.3% drop from 2009 and an 18% decline over a decade). ! The 2010 reported rate of 1,159 crimes per 100,000 population compares to a rate of 1,171 the year before, and 1,437 per 100,000 population in 2001. o The number of violent crimes in the Region also dropped in 2010 (by 3.7% over 2009) to 907 per 100,000 population. ! The regional rate was 29.3% below the national rate (1,282) and 7.9% below the provincial rate of 985 per 100,000.263 Violent Crime Rate in the City o f T o r o n t o , 1 9 9 8 - 2 0 1 0 : 264

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After a spike between 2005 and 2008, the annual number of homicides in the city has returned to the averages of the past 15 years: ! Homicides are considered a good barometer of violent crime levels because they are almost invariably reported to police. There were 61 homicides in the City of Toronto in 2010 (one fewer than in 2009). ! The average since 1995 is 64. In 2011, the number of homicides reported in the first half the year was more than 20% lower than in 2010. ! Homicides in the City of Toronto, 1995 2010:

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The rate of homicides in the Toronto Region, declined by 7% in 2010 to 1.4 homicides per 100,000 population (80 deaths), compared to a rate of 2.2 for the city (unchanged from 2009) and 1.6 for all of Canada.265 ! The youth violent crime rate in Toronto (persons 12 -17 years old) was largely unchanged in 2010 at 14% of the total number of persons charged, and below the 13-year average of 15.2% (the average in 2009 was 13.5%).266 o 13 young offenders (aged 12 -17) were charged with murder in 2010, and 7 with attempted murder (the ten-year average is 7.9 and 14.7 respectively). The 2010 figure is significantly higher than the numbers charged with murder in 2008 (5) and 2009 (7), ! but still below the 15 youth charged in 2007.267 ! o The youth violent crime rate has been declining in Canada since 2006. The 2010 rate of 1,838 (per 100,000 population) was 7.9% lower than a decade earlier. ! o 56 youth (under 17 years old) were accused of homicide across Canada in 2010, 23 fewer than in 2009, and a 29% drop in the rate to about the average for the past decade.268

Rate of youth accused of violent crime, Canada, 2001-2010


2,100 2,000 1,900 1,800 1,700 1,600 1,500 1,400 1,300 1,200 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

R e p o r t e d property crimes d r o p p e d i n t h e c i t y o f T o r o n t o b y m o r e t h a n 1 0 % in 2010, mostly due to a reduction in business break-ins (down 15.7%) and fewer stolen vehicles: ! There have been downward trends over the past five years in both business break-and-enters and vehicle thefts in the city. ! Vehicles reported stolen decreased by 18% in 2010 (4,479 vehicles compared to 5,462 in 2009). The overall reported property crime rate stood at 3,468 per 100,000 population, compared to 3,822 a decade earlier.269 ! o Property crimes in the Toronto Region were still significantly below the national rate in 2010 (38.8% lower) and among the lowest of any large centre in the country. The 2010 reported property crime rate of 2,353 per 100,000 population compares to 2,942 in Ontario, and 3,846 across the country. The rate was down 42% from 1998, the earliest year that data is available.270 !
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The Crime Severity Index (CSI) first introduced in 2009, and Youth Crime Severity Index released in 2010, assigns a weight to crimes based on sentences handed down. o Most of Canadas metropolitan centres reported a decrease in the severity of crime over the year. Regina, Saskatoon and Winnipeg continue to have the highest crime severity rates. Qubec, Toronto and Guelph still have the lowest. Again in 2010, the Toronto Region had the third lowest CSI among all 32 metropolitan areas (7% below the index rating for 2009). ! o Almost every area of Canada reported declines in both the rate and the severity of youth crime in 2010. Ontario dropped by 7% on the overall Youth Crime Severity Index, and 3% on the Youth Violent Crime Severity Index from 2009, the province was below the average for Canada (90.5) on the former, but almost 3% above the national average on the Youth Violent Crime Severity Index.271

Police reported cases of child pornography have risen 123% in Canada since 2003: ! In 2002, legislation was introduced to include the use of the Internet as a means of committing child pornography. Technological and societal changes have affected both the committing and reporting of this criminal behaviour, but as with other sexual offenses, there is likely an underreporting of the actual number of offenses.272 ! There was a decrease in the number of reported hate/bias crimes in Toronto in 2010 from 174 in 2009 to 132, resulting in 45 charges and 20 arrests. ! o Underreporting may affect our understanding of the true level of hate/bias crime and the ability to undertake investigation and prevention. However, after a spike in 2001 (following 9/11), the trend in numbers of reported cases has not changed significantly since 2003 (the average over the last decade is 175 reported cases annually the majority being mischief e.g. graffiti).

Incidents of reported hate/bias crimes in the city of Toronto, 1998-2010:


400 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

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The three most affected groups since 2006 have been the Jewish community (the subject of 68% of attacks based on religion, two-thirds of those being mischief), the LGBT (Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender) community (the subjects of 14.4% of occurrences in 2010 unchanged from 2009) and the Black community, (8% of the city population but victimized in 18% of cases and the most victimized by assault and threatening death).273

Victimization rates in Canada remained stable between 2004 and 2009, and almost half of Canadians are very satisfied with their personal safety: ! According to the latest General Social Survey (GSS) on victimization, conducted every five years, 69% of violent victimizations, 62% of household victimizations (break and enter, vandalism, etc.) and 71% of personal property thefts go unreported to police. Violent victimization is highest among youth and young adults (18-24-year-olds comprise 10% of the population and commit 26% of the violent crimes). o 93% of Canadians reported feeling somewhat, or very satisfied with their personal safety (the same percentage overall as in 2004, although the number of very satisfied rose from 44% to 48%). 83% report not being at all worried about being alone in their homes at night. o The Toronto Region has the lowest rate of violent victimization and among the lowest rates of household victimization among all Canadian metropolitan centres.274 ! A number of factors affect crime rates and reporting rates: o Demographics (an older population means that a smaller proportion are in a high crime-risk group (15 - 24 year-olds)); o Perception of the importance of the crime (almost 70% of victims think a crime too unimportant to report, and close to 60% believe that police would not do anything about it); o Technological changes (new crimes become possible or impossible); o Legislative changes (the introduction of new offenses).275

High rise apartment-dwellers in Torontos inner suburbs generally view their communities and buildings as safe places to call home: ! Only 12.6% of tenants in a recent major study of private-sector high-rises felt that their apartment building was unsafe. Over half of the tenants (54.3%) believed that safety levels had not changed in the two years prior to the study. And about an equal number (close to 16%) said the building had become safer vs. less safe. The geographic variation across the city was not wide, although tenants in midScarborough and close to Jane/Finch were more likely to report lowered safety levels in two years (18% and 19.5% respectively). ! Overall, only 13.3% of tenants reported feeling unsafe walking alone to their apartment after dark, although the percentages rose for those living in highpoverty neighbourhoods (to 20% in Jane/Finch and 17.5% in Rexdale and Weston/Mt. Dennis). ! Despite generally feeling safe, a relatively high percentage of high-rise tenants reported being victims of property crime, compared to Torontonians at large:
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12.0% 10.0% 8.0% 6.0% 4.0% 2.0% 0.0% Toronto PrivateSector Tenants Canadians Ontarians Torontonians

Source: Experience of crime victimization taken from Statistics Canadas General Social Survey, Cycle 23 on Victimization, 2009.

A majority of apartment-dwellers in Torontos not-for-profit high-rise housing also view their buildings as safe places to live. However, a much higher percentage reported feeling unsafe in the course of daily activities, and 1 in 4 felt that their building had become less safe over the last two years.

Tenants perceptions of safety in Toronto's inner s u b u r b a n h i g h - r i s e s ( p r i v a t e - s e c t o r a n d n o t - f o r - p r o f i t ) : 276 Using the Walking to Walking laundry building Percent who feel alone to room parking 'very' or 'fairly' apartment at areas at unsafe after dark night night Private-sector tenants 13.3% 14.1% 14.4% Not-for-profit sector tenants 21.3% 25.1% 21.1%

According to the 2009 General Social Survey, half of all residents in the Toronto Region (49.4%) mistrust their neighbours (and take the approach that one cannot be too careful), vs. the 44.5% of the population who think that people can be trusted. On average, the proportion of private sector tenants in inner-city highrises who are trusting is close to the regional average (41.8%) and the proportion who are mistrustful of their neighbours is lower than the regional average (41.5%). Friendships and common bonds among high numbers of newcomers may account for the variation from the average.277

Street youth experience high levels of victimization in Toronto; 3 in 4 young homeless teens are likely to have been victims of violent crime in a year: ! In a 2010 study of homeless youth in the city, more than 76% report least one instance of criminal victimization in the last year. Almost 2 in 3 (63.6%) report being victims of violent crime, and more than half (56.5%) have been victims of property crime.
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o o

Isolation and the lack of trustworthy adult networks mean that most street youth victimization is hidden. Almost one quarter (23%) tell noone not even friends that they have been victimized. Only about 20% go to the police (reinforcing the image of homeless youth as perpetrators rather than victims of crime). More than one-third (38.2%) of female street youth in the study had been victims of sexual assault. Almost half of young black women on the street (47%) were likely to have experienced sexual assault. More than half (55%) of young homeless women experience violent abuse at the hands of their intimate partners. The measures that street youth adopt to try and make themselves safer (moving around frequently, altering their appearance to make themselves look tougher, or carrying weapons) are more likely to further undermine their physical safety.278

The number of police officers per 100,000 population in Toronto is 8% higher than the provincial average; the police service now costs close to $1 billion annually: ! At 216 police officers per 100,000 in 2010 (up 1.9% from 212 in 2009), the rate of per capita policing was 6.4% higher than the national average (203). The rate in the Toronto Region as a whole was 181 in 2010.279 o The Citys gross operating budget for police services increased by 4% in 2010, to close to $957 million (an increase of almost $40 million). This amounts to a per capita expenditure of $338.30 (compared to $296.40 in 2006 a 14% increase over five years).280 The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Safety through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Daily Bread Food Bank Elizabeth Fry Toronto Family Service Toronto The Gatehouse Child Abuse Investigation & Support Site Interval House Jane/Finch Community and Family Centre John Howard Society of Toronto Macaulay Child Development Centre March of Dimes Canada METRAC The PACT Urban Peace Program Recipe for Community The Redwood San Romanoway Revitalization Association Seeds of Hope Foundation Senior Peoples' Resources in North Toronto Incorporated (SPRINT) UrbanArts YWCA Toronto

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Gap between rich & poor

Photo by Laura Brown

Gap Between Rich and Poor: Torontos biggest challenge? overcoming the widening income gap between its richest and poorest residents
The recession stalled progress in closing the gap between rich and poor, and Canadas big cities are losing ground to smaller centres with poverty rates far above the national average: ! The Toronto Region is second only to Vancouver in rates of poverty in Canadas large urban centres. Measures of poverty are imprecise (Statistics Canada does not use the term), but the trends appear to be clear: low-income people, who may be stigmatized in smaller communities, move away to larger centres, attracted by the wider range of services and supports available to them. Immigrants, especially recent arrivals with typically lower incomes, are also drawn to larger centres for the potential social and support networks they may find there.281 A C o m p a r i s o n o f Poverty Rates, a m o n g m a j o r C a n a d i a n M e t r o p o l i t a n , R e g i o n s , 2 0 0 0 a n d 2 0 0 9 : 282
Vancouver Toronto Montral Victoria Quebec City Canada 2000 17.8% 12.4% 19.7% 16.2% 15.7% 2009 16.9% 13.2% 13.1% 6.3% 4.9% 9.6%

The poverty rate rose 22% in one year in the Toronto Region and the rate of children in poverty was up by more than 43%: ! The poverty rate in 2009, based on the after-tax Low Income Cut Off (LICO), was 13.2%, up from 10.8% in 2008. ! The figure was 30.7% higher than the provincial average and 37.5% higher than the national average of 9.6%.283 There are more than 100,000 low-income families in the city of Toronto, over 10,000 more than ten years ago: ! The poverty rate in Toronto was 28.8% in 2009 up 6.7% from 27% in 2001 (based on another measure of relative poverty, the pre-tax Low Income Measure (LIM), which is equivalent to 50% of adjusted median family income).284 ! Toronto has made no progress in a decade in eliminating child poverty: ! The rate of child poverty in the city has risen by 5.3% in ten years (based on the pre-tax LIM). ! 317,340 children (17 years and under) were living in low-income families in 2009, a figure unchanged from 2008, and compared to 273,020 children in 2001.285 o Almost 1 in 5 Toronto families is headed by a lone parent (compared to 15.8% in Ontario and 15.9% in Canada).286
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The prevalence of children in poverty in the Toronto Region in 2009 was still lower than the 2000 rate of 17.4%, ! but rose by 43.2% in 2009 (from 9.5% in 2008 to 13.6%). ! The figure, based on the after-tax LICO, was 34.7% higher than the provincial average (10.1%) and 43.2% higher than the national average (9.5%).287

Incidence of Child Poverty in the Toronto Region (After-Tax LICO) 1980 - 2 0 0 9 :288

25.0% 20.0% 15.0% 10.0% 5.0% 0.0%


19 1980 1981 8 19 2 1983 1984 1985 8 19 6 1987 1988 8 19 9 1990 1991 9 19 2 1993 1994 1995 9 19 6 1997 1998 9 20 9 2000 2001 0 20 2 2003 2004 2005 0 20 6 2007 2008 09

The rate of elder poverty rate (persons 65 and over) in the Toronto Region, which increased dramatically in 2008, after a period of steady decline between 1980 and the early 2000s, fell slightly in 2009. ! Based on the LICO after-tax, it stood at 8.4% (compared to 8.7% in 2008). However, it was still almost twice the 2009 provincial rate (4.3%) and 61.5% higher than the national average (5.2%).289 In 2009, the rate of elder poverty in the city of Toronto (based on the pre-tax Low Income Measure) was 17.7%, up slightly from 17.5% in 2001. ! The 2009 rate was 53.5% higher than the provincial average of 11.6% and 38% higher than the national rate of 12.9%.290

Full Report

Income inequality is growing in Canada: ! Income inequality has been growing in Canada since the late 1980s. From a low of .28 in 1989 (measured by the Gini coefficient, the most common measure of income equality, where zero means totally equal distribution of income), inequality rose by almost 14%, on after-tax adjusted incomes, to about .32 in 2009. ! o Average incomes have grown in Canada by about 17% since the late 1970s. But median incomes (the median is the halfway point 50% of the population is above; 50% is below) have grown only 5.5% over the same 33-year period, and the gap between the average and the median is growing. ! One-third of all the income growth between 1998 and 2007 (a recent period of economic growth) went to the 1% of wealthiest Torontos Vital Signs 2011 119

Canadians (those whose incomes averaged $405,000). That income came primarily from paid compensation rather than assets. Growing income inequality means that while incomes may be rising minimally for the low-income population, in relative terms they are becoming much worse off. Relative measures of poverty (like the Low Income Cut Off used in this report) are most commonly used to measure poverty because research shows that changes in relative income have a much larger impact on wellbeing than changes in absolute income.291

Canada ranked 12 out of 17 of its peer OECD countries in income inequality in the mid-2000s.292

Median Family Income in the Toronto Region (after-tax, 2009 constant d o l l a r s ) : 293

$100,000 $90,000 $80,000 $70,000 $60,000 $50,000 $40,000 $30,000 $20,000 $10,000 $0
19 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 2099 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 09

The widening income gap between Canadas richest and poorest, is also a growing health gap: ! The connection between low income and poor health is well established. Statistics Canada reports that based on data gathered from 1991-2001, there is a difference in life expectancy of 7.4 years for men and 4.5 years for women between the poorest 10% of the Canadian population and the richest 10%. Life expectancy at age 25 increases for both men and women, with each 10% increase in income level.294

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O n t a r i o h a d m a d e s o m e p r o g r e s s o n k e y c o m m i t m e n t s i n i t s Poverty Reduction Strategy i n 2 0 1 0 , a l t h o u g h i t i s s t i l l a l o n g w a y f r o m b r e a k i n g t h e c y c l e o f p o v e r t y i n t h e p r o v i n c e : 295


Key Commitments (2008) Raise Ontario Child Benefit to a maximum of $1,310/child/year by 2013. Review Social Assistance. Progress by 2010 Increased to $1,100/child/year in 2009.

Review report released, with recommendations, in June 2010. No increase in welfare benefits (as low in 2010 as they were in 1967 in adjusted dollars) and no changes to Ontario Works or Ontario Disability Support Program to loosen barriers that restrict recipients from getting out of poverty. $622 million in stimulus funding for affordable housing in 2009-2011 (matched by federal funding). Public consultations in 2009. No housing strategy to date. Minimum wage raised to $10.25/hour in March 2010. Full-day kindergarten began in September 2010. $63.6 million/year committed to protect child care subsidies Low income dental program for children and youth but none for adults.

Develop long-term affordable housing strategy. Continue to raise minimum wage. Phase in full-day kindergarten by 2015. Invest in dental care for low income Ontarians.

The average monthly social assistance caseload for the City of Toronto was 94,635 in 2010, 6.93% higher than in 2009 when there were an average 8 8 , 5 0 5 c a s e s e a c h m o n t h : 296 ! With sustained high unemployment rates, the number of people relying on Ontario Works assistance continued to rise in 2010. ! The number of cases had already risen by 19% between the start of the recession in October 2008 and the end of 2009. In September 2009, the 94,466 cases represented an historic high since October 1996. However, caseloads continued to rise into 2011. In May 2011, caseloads had reached a new high (6.1% higher than in May the year before at 100,379). 297 ! C i t y o f T o r o n t o O n t a r i o W o r k s C a s e l o a d , J a n u a r y 2 0 0 7 - M a y 2 0 1 1 : 298
120,000 100,000 80,000 60,000 40,000 20,000 0

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Social assistance does not cover even the basic cost of nutritious food and shelter for families and single households in the city, forcing many to rely on food banks: ! The Nutritious Food Basket is a measurement that Boards of Health in Ontario are required to complete each year, costing out 67 basic food items (at the lowest available price) representing current nutritional guidelines. Because it excludes essential non-food items such as soap and laundry detergent, the actual grocery bills of the average Toronto resident are higher than the estimate. ! The average cost of basic nutritious food for a family of four in the City of Toronto rose by 0.6% over 2009 to $715/month in May 2010. 299 ! o This same family on social assistance would need to spend 37% of its income on food and 69% on rent, leaving minus $133.00 per month for all other basic needs, such as transportation, clothing, telephone and school supplies. ! o A single person household renting a bachelor apartment would have even less for basic needs after paying for rent and food (minus $422).300 ! T h e poor still pay more for food i n O n t a r i o : ! The proportion of food purchased from the five major food groups does not vary significantly across income levels. Low income families in Ontario are purchasing the same amount of meat, fruit and vegetables and dairy as high income groups. However, within those food groups, low income households are spending a proportionately higher percentage of their total income, buying food with lower nutritional content (more cured meat and canned vegetables, for example), and have less access to healthy food choices. o The cost of food has outpaced inflation since 2000, particularly in major food groups like bakery, dairy and meat (60% of the recommended daily intake of a healthy diet). The impact has been felt acutely by those on social assistance, hitting single people the hardest.301 ! F o o d i n f l a t i o n v s . s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e r a t e s i n O n t a r i o s i n c e 2 0 0 0 : 302

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The high cost of milk in Canada is a particular concern for low income families. By 2007, Canadian dairy prices were 46% higher than average prices in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries. Resulting unhealthy diets contribute to lower life expectancy, chronic health problems and poorer mental health.303

Too many of our residents still rely on food banks in the GTA, and half of them are spending almost three-quarters of their monthly income just to pay the rent or mortgage: Food bank use i n t h e G T A , b y t h e n u m b e r s :

908,000 173,000

# Visits to food banks in the city of Toronto, April 2010-March 2011 # People served in the rest of the GTA. The total represents a 9.8%

drop over the same period last year, but the number of member agencies also dropped by the same percentage.

72% $925 41% 46% 36% 60,000

# Percentage of income spent on rent/mortgage (including utilities) # Median monthly income of food bank users. # New food bank visitors with job loss or reduced hours down from # Food bank users with a serious illness or disability up from 45% a # Children more than one third of all food bank users up from 34% #

up from 68% a year ago. !

46% last year. ! year ago. !

in 2009-2010. ! Children in the city of Toronto who go hungry at least once a week (19% of children relying on food banks).304

Poverty is increasingly concentrated in Torontos inner suburbs, where improving the quality and affordability of high-rise rental housing will be key to neighbourhood revitalization and wellbeing: ! There is a clear connection between poverty and poor housing. Inferior housing is often all that low income families can afford. However, a major new study undertaken by United Way Toronto points to the role that high-rise rental housing plays in the citys growing geographic polarization of poverty and wealth. Vertical Poverty focuses primarily on private-sector housing stock (about 75% of the total rental market in Toronto) and on the 60% of high-rise stock that is located in the inner suburbs, providing the only affordable housing options for many low income families. Built originally in neighbourhoods that were middle income, many of the buildings are over 40 years old and in a significant state of disrepair. ! The percentage of low income families renting units in Torontos high-rise apartments grew from 34% to 43% between 1981 and 2006. ! At the same time, the percentage of families renting in high-rise apartment buildings who were low

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income rose from 25% to 39% (much higher in some neighbourhoods in the former municipalities of Scarborough and York). The total number of low-income families in the city grew from 16% to 21% over the period.305 ! Percentage of family renters in high-rise apartment buildings (five storeys o r m o r e ) t h a t w e r e l o w i n c o m e , b y n e i g h b o u r h o o d , 1 9 8 1 a n d 2 0 0 6 : 306 !

The number of low income families almost doubled in Toronto over 25 years, as median incomes declined and rents increased: ! Between 1981 and 2006 (the latest census), the median income of all households in the city of Toronto declined; the average decline in incomes among renters ($6,396 based on 2006 adjusted dollars) was almost double that of homeowners. At the same time, average rents rose:307 !

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Average rent, (buildings of 5 storeys and higher) City of Toronto, 1981 and 2006 ( 1 9 8 1 r e n t s a d j u s t e d t o 2 0 0 6 d o l l a r s ) : 308

Vertical Poverty surveyed more than 2,000 renters in both high-and low-poverty neighbourhoods including six clusters of high-poverty neighbourhoods in Toronto. Among the findings: o Almost half of Torontos private market tenants (44.8%) and more than one-third (35.6%) of those receiving rental subsidy worry about being able to pay the rent. Subsidies are not large, averaging only $189 less than fullmarket rents. Tenants in both privately and publically owned high-rises experience major problems with disrepair, mechanical breakdown, infestations, the loss and inaccessibility of common space, vandalism, disorder and property damage. o 44% of private-market high-rises have no common spaces or recreational facilities. o 23% of respondents to the survey reported a refrigerator or stove not working. o Housing conditions in neighbourhoods with a high incidence of poverty were worse than those in low-poverty neighbourhoods. Residents reported greater disrepair and non-functioning elevators, and more problems with pests. But conditions were far worse in neighbourhood clusters of high-poverty in the north and north-west areas of the city. o 30% of Torontos high-rise tenants experience problems with drug dealers (the Canadian average is 12%).

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Percentage of privately owned apartment buildings where residents r e p o r t e d b u i l d i n g p r o b l e m s :309

The high degree of disrepair was similar in both private and not-for-profit high-rises. However, not-for-profit tenants experienced an even greater problem with pests such as rats, mice, cockroaches and bedbugs, either all, or nearly all the time than private market renters (71.5% compared to 55.7%). 30% of not-for-profit tenants reported bedbug infestations. Aging infrastructure is making life difficult for many high-rise residents. Tenants, particularly in not-for-profit high rises, reported long waits for the single working elevator in a building, and described carrying groceries up many flights of stairs to avoid risking being trapped in an elevator. Almost 1 in 5 tenants in not-for-profit high rises reported that their children were sometimes late for school because the elevator wasnt working.

Percentage of tenants who reported at least monthly elevator b r e a k d o w n s ( b y b u i l d i n g t y p e ) : 310

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In spite of their current poor condition, high-rises are a vital asset to the city of Toronto, providing lower-income families with a viable and decent housing option. They warrant the major reinvestment required to bring them into good repair, and reestablish and upgrade community spaces: ! One in two Toronto residents is a renter, and demand for rental housing is expected to grow by 20% in the next 20 years the equivalent of 4,000 renter households per year. Investments in existing building stock will be critical, especially as new building is primarily geared to owners and high-income renters (between 1996 and 2006, only 5% of all new housing was rental). ! Poorly housed residents are more likely to have a weaker sense of belonging in their neighbourhood. Even so, most high-rise tenants ranked their buildings and their neighbourhoods well on measures of social capital. A significant majority of study respondents agreed that their building encourages social cohesion: that people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds get along (79.8%); that people are willing to help their neighbours (69.5%), that they can build relationships of safety and trust (65.9%), and that their neighbourhood is a good place to raise children (61.4%). While this varies across neighbourhoods, even in some of Torontos high-poverty neighbourhoods, especially in areas with high numbers of recent immigrants, the benefit of social connection ranks highly.311 The most important reason for moving to the neighbourhood for privates e c t o r t e n a n t s i n s o m e o f Torontos high-poverty neighbourhoods: 312 :

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The following groups are addressing the issues relating to the Gap Between Rich and Poor through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! Agincourt Community Services Association Arts for Children and Youth COSTI Immigrant Services Daily Bread Food Bank Dixon Hall Elizabeth Fry Toronto Frontier College FutureWatch Environment and Development Education Partners Habitat For Humanity Toronto Jane/Finch Community and Family Centre JUMP Math Lakeshore Area Multi-Service Project (LAMP) LOFT Community Services Merry Go Round Childrens Foundation Moorelands Community Services The Massey Centre for Women New Circles Community Services Pathways to Education Canada The PACT Urban Peace Program PEACH Promoting Education and Community Health People for Education Recipe for Community Regeneration Housing and Support Services The Redwood Scadding Court Community Center Sistering: A Womans Place The Stop Community Food Centre Seeds of Hope Foundation Social and Enterprise Development Innovations (SEDI) Sherbourne Health Centre Social Planning Toronto Toronto ACORN Toronto Kiwanis Boys & Girls Club Toronto City Mission Toronto Lords Community Association Toronto Foundation for Student Success Toronto Public Library Foundation Windfall YouthLink YWCA Toronto

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Leadership, civic engagement, & belonging


Photo by Michael Salem

Leadership, Civic Engagement and Belonging: What will be key to building the city we all want? a city that leverages our diversity and strengthens our sense of belonging
Half of Torontos voters marked a ballot in the 2010 municipal election; most were knowledgeable about the process and felt it was important to vote: ! Torontos municipal election in 2010 brought out just more than half of eligible voters (50.55% compared to a much lower 39% in 2003 and 2006). 1 in 10 was a first-time voter.313 ! ! In a post-election 2010 survey, most voters and even non-voters agreed that it is important to vote. Young people who responded were more likely to say they dislike politics and that their vote doesnt matter: C i t y o f T o r o n t o P o s t - e l e c t i o n S u r v e y : 314
General Population Reasons for Voting It's a civic responsibility Want change Knowledge of the voting process Somewhat or very knowledgeable Importance of Voting Somewhat or very important that people vote Attitudes towards Voting I often talk to my family and friends about politics Don't like politics My vote doesn't matter
*small sample

Voters 27% 22%

Nonvoters

Disabled Voters*

18-34 yearold

80%

95%

62%

85%

90%

98%

81%

93%

85%

64% 57% 29%

76% 43% 12%

51% 73% 48%

67% 50% 20%

60% 67% 42%

In the 2011 federal election, the voter turnout in the city of Toronto was 61.9%. This figure was slightly higher than the Regional and national levels (60.7% and 61.4% respectively) and a little lower than the provincial level (62.2%). The city voter turnout increased by 9.2% from 56.7% in 2008.315 !

T h e v o t e s o f t h o u s a n d s o f T o r o n t o s n e w i m m i g r a n t s c o u n t f o r l e s s , a s vote dilution l e s s e n s t h e i n f l u e n c e o f u r b a n i s s u e s i n f e d e r a l p o l i t i c s : ! Canadas urban ridings have traditionally had much larger populations than rural ones (current legislation allows for deviations ranging up to 25% above the average riding population). Most immigrants settle in Canadas largest urban centres (about 70% of the 1.1 million immigrants who came to Canada between 2001 and 2006 settled in Toronto, Montreal or Vancouver and only 3% settled in
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a rural area). Their particular concerns and perspectives are increasingly muted as population growth is not reflected in increased representation in Parliament.316 Over 200,000 permanent Toronto residents are denied the opportunity to fully engage in their community: ! Thousands of newcomers to Toronto who have chosen to make the city their permanent home must wait for several years sometimes longer before they have the privilege of voting in municipal elections, even though they work, pay taxes, and send their children to local schools. The city is losing out on the active participation and vital perspectives of these residents who play important roles in the economic and social life of their local communities.317 Two-thirds of Torontonians reported feeling a sense of belonging to their local community in 2010, at the average for communities across the country: ! 65.7% of Toronto residents reported feeling a strong or somewhat strong sense of belonging (a 6.3% higher rate than in 2009 when the rate was 61.8%). ! The Ontario rate was higher than the average at 67.7%.318 ! Young adults (aged 20 - 34) in have, on average, a weaker sense of belonging than older adults, although the percentage reporting a strong or somewhat strong sense of belonging rose in the city of Toronto to 65.4% in 2010.319 ! Young adults (age 20 - 34) whose sense of belonging to the local community is a strong or somewhat strong, City of Toronto:
70.0% 60.0% 50.0% 40.0% 30.0% 20.0% 10.0% 0.0% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010

Toronto youth face barriers to accessing safe and welcoming public space: ! Access to public space enhances a sense of belonging and builds strong engaged communities. The first phase of a study of youth and public space in . Toronto, indicates that youth face a number of barriers in accessing public spaces in which to play, develop skills, generate youth-led enterprises and nurture civic engagement. Policies, procedures and attitudes that limit youth access include the fact that: o Youth are rarely consulted in decisions around the creation and use of space;
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Access to free space is limited and youth have difficulty especially in accessing space on an ongoing basis (a requirement for a number of initiatives and social enterprises); Youth lack the partnerships and mentorships with existing institutions that they desire, in order to hone skills and access resources.320

Leadership is becoming gradually more diverse in key sectors in the GTA, but at the current rate, it will be 30 years before leadership reflects the racial/ethnic diversity of the Toronto region: ! DiverseCity Counts, a multi-year review of more than 3,200 leaders in six key sectors, found an improvement of 8% in diversity in leadership in the GTA between 2009 and 2011 (from 13.4% to 14.5%, compared to almost 50% of the population across the GTA). ! o The greatest increase occurred among elected officials, where visible minority leadership rose to 19% after the 2010 municipal elections. ! o Educational institutions and municipal Agencies, Boards and Commissions (ABCs) have the highest levels of diversity, although there is variability within the sectors (visible minorities make up 26% of college leadership but only 8.3% of school boards). The City of Torontos ABCs have the highest level of diversity (33%). o Corporate boards continue to be the least diverse (unchanged at just over 4% in 2011). ! o A number of not-for-profit organizations have shown leadership in creating more diverse leadership. United Way Toronto is an exceptional example: In 2001, 25% of its 44-member board was visible minorities; by 2010, visible minorities were reflected in almost half (48%) of a much smaller 23-member board.321 o Diverse leadership strengthens institutions by increasing access to domestic and international markets, attracting talented labour, creating social cohesion and building social capital.

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Diversity in Leadership i n t h e G T A , 2 0 0 9 - 2 0 1 1 :

After the municipal election in 2010, visible minority representation on GTA councils rose to 13.5% (a 31% increase from the 10.3% representation in 2009). ! However the federal election produced no change in the percentage of elected members from the GTA who are visible minority (14.3% in 2009 and 2011).322 !

Visible minorities comprise only 6.8% of leaders in the GTA legal system: ! In a sector that ought to reflect the population it serves, diverse leadership is all but non-existent. Of 2,410 legal leaders surveyed in the 2011 DiverseCity Counts study, 6.8% are visible minorities: o 15 of 249 judges (8.3%); o 4 (10.5%) of the 38 governing bodies and law school leaders; o 6.6% (144) of the 2,191 partners in GTA law firms; o none of the 14 Crown and deputy Crown attorneys.323 C a n a d a s charitable organizations s t i l l f a c e h i g h d e m a n d f o r s e r v i c e s , b u t stress levels have dropped: ! About 1 in 10 of the more than 80,000 registered charities in Canada is located in the Toronto Region. In mid-2011, more than half of all charities (55%) were still dealing with an increasing demand for their products and services (as in 2010), but fewer (44%) were having difficulty fulfilling their mission (49% in late 2010). ! o 19% anticipated having difficulty covering expenses for the rest of the year (compared to 24% in mid-2010). ! o 1 in 8 (12%) were experiencing high levels of stress (compared to a high of 17% in mid-2010). ! Over half (53%) were not stressed, and small and
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mid-sized charities (1-24 staff) were more likely to be facing high stress levels (17% for those with revenues between $150,000 and $499,000 compared to 3% for those with revenues over $5 million). Arts, culture, sports and recreation organizations were more likely to be under stress than others. About 30% of all charitable organizations reported decreased revenues (down from 33% in late 2009) and 28% reported in increase (compared to 32% in 2009) !, whereas almost half (46%) experienced an increase in expenditures in both 2010 and 2011. In spite of these challenges, confidence in the future has grown. 48% of all organizations believed they would be stronger in carrying out their mission in a years time (compared to 44% in late 2010).324 !

Ontarios new Social Venture Exchange (SVX) the first of its kind in Canada aims to enhance the viability of organizations with a social mission by attracting investment in revenue-generating social enterprises: ! An innovative project has been launched to better understand the profile of Ontarios social ventures (organizations and businesses with a social purpose), and the challenges they face, in order to link their social enterprises (revenuegenerating bodies and projects) with the capital and other resources that are vital to their achieving an impact. ! About 250 social ventures responded to a 2010 survey. The Social Finance Census found that the sector is mature and growing. 20% of the responding social enterprises had been in operation for more than 25 years. But nearly half had started up within the previous five years. o In spite of difficult economic times, 63% of respondents reported revenues for 2009 similar to those earned in 2008; more than half expected revenues to remain stable and 41% expected increased revenues in 2010. o Social ventures are a major contributor to the Ontario economy,325 but 80% of social purpose businesses responding to the census, reported difficulty in accessing capital (for growth, infrastructure or working capital).The combined capital demand of all responding social ventures was estimated at $170 million over the next two years. o Other barriers to increased impact include lack of business development support, lack of access to legal and financial advice, difficulty measuring impact and a complex, poorly understood legal and regulatory framework.326 o In 2010, the Canadian Task Force on Social Finance published a series of recommendations for leveraging new sources of capital, creating a more enabling regulatory environment and supporting social enterprises in order to mobilize private capital for public benefit.327

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The percentage of tax filers reporting charitable donations declined by 5.5% in the Toronto Region in 2009, to 22.8% ! (the provincial rate was 24.2%).328 o The median charitable donation among tax filers in the Toronto Region returned to the 2007 level of $350 in 2009 (from $340 in 2008). ! The median for Canada was $250. Median charitable donations rose by 34.6% between 2001 and 2009.329 !

In a climate of economic uncertainty, Torontonians contributed more than $113 million to the United Way campaign in 2010: ! United Way Torontos 2010 campaign surpassed its $113-million goal by $200,000 (up from $109 million in 2009). ! The funding supports more than 200 health and social service agencies in the city as well as long-term work aimed at strengthening Torontos inner suburbs.330

The following groups are addressing the issues relating to Leadership, Civic Engagement and Belonging through their innovative community-based programs. Click on the name of the group to be directed to their profile on the Community Knowledge Centre to learn more about how.
! Agincourt Community Services Association ! ArtReach Toronto ! Applegrove Community Complex ! Arts for Children and Youth ! Art Starts ! The Amadeus Choir ! Big Brothers and Big Sisters of Toronto ! Black Coalition for AIDS Prevention ! Boundless Adventures Association ! Canadian Journalists for Free Expression ! Common Ground Co-operative ! Central Toronto Youth Services ! Creative Trust ! Centre for Spanish Speaking People ! CultureLink Settlement Services ! Davenport-Perth Neighbourhood and Community Health Centre ! Distress Centres ! Delta Family Resource Centre ! Drum Artz Canada ! Diaspora Dialogues Charitable Society ! Earthroots Fund ! Family Service Toronto ! FutureWatch Environment and Development Education Partners ! Geneva Centre for Autism ! Greenest City ! The Gatehouse Child Abuse Investigation & Support Site ! Habitat For Humanity Toronto ! Hot Docs ! Harmony Movement / Harmony ! Education Foundation ! Hospice Toronto ! Jane/Finch Community and Family Centre Torontos Vital Signs 2011 Full Report

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! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Janes Walk Jumblies Theatre Lakeshore Area Multi-Service Project (LAMP) Local Enhancement and Appreciation of Forests (LEAF) Learning Enrichment Foundation Luminato, Toronto Festival of Arts & Creativity Licensed to Learn Inc. Macaulay Child Development Centre March of Dimes Canada The Massey Centre for Women Mammalian Diving Reflex METRAC Manifesto Community Projects Moorelands Community Services Neighbourhood Information Post (NIP) Not Far From The Tree New Circles Community Services North York Community House Peace Theatre People for Education Peacebuilders International (Canada) The PACT Urban Peace Program PEACH Promoting Education and Community Health Recipe for Community Roots of Empathy / Racines de lempathie The Redwood San Romanoway Revitalization Association Seeds of Hope Foundation SKETCH Working Arts The Stop Community Food Centre Scadding Court Community Center Sheenas Place Skills for Change of Metro Toronto Second Harvest Sherbourne Health Centre Social Planning Toronto Toronto Centre for Community Learning & Development Toronto Foundation for Student Success Toronto Youth Development Toronto City Mission Toronto Kiwanis Boys & Girls Club Toronto Cyclists Union Toronto Public Library Foundation Unison Health and Community Services UNITY Charity UrbanArts Youth Assisting Youth YWCA Toronto

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Glossary
A f f o r d a b l e H o u s i n g - Affordable housing is defined as housing costs that do not exceed 30% of household income, in contrast to other definitions based on the housing market for example: affordable housing defined as rental housing that is 80% or less than gross market rents. B u s i n e s s E s t a b l i s h m e n t - An establishment refers to any business or firm location. Some businesses, such as a restaurant chain, may have a number of establishments at different locations. C h i l d P o v e r t y - Children are defined as living in poverty when they are a part of low income families (see the definition of low income families included in the L o w I n c o m e M e a s u r e below). C o r e H o u s i n g N e e d - Households are said to be in core housing need if they are occupying housing that falls below any of three dwelling standards: adequacy not requiring major repairs, suitability enough bedrooms for the size and make-up of resident household, or affordability not requiring the household to spend 30% or more of their before-tax income to pay for the median rent of alternative local market housing.
(from the CMHC Canada Housing Observer 2008)

C r e a t i v e S e c t o r - (see also O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s e s ) Defined by the UK Department of Culture Media and Sport as those industries which have their origin in individual creativity, skill and talent and which have the potential for wealth and job creation through the generation and exploitation of intellectual property. C i t y - f u n d e d A r t s a n d C u l t u r e O r g a n i z a t i o n - A City-funded organization is one that receives an annual municipal operating grant. C r i m e S e v e r i t y I n d e x - The new police-reported Crime Severity Index (CSI) was introduced in the spring of 2009 to enable Canadians to track changes in the severity of police-reported crime from year to year. The Police Reported Crime Rate (PRCR), which measures changes in the volume of crime, counts each criminal incident equally. As a result, the rate is dominated by high volume, less-serious offenses. The police-reported Crime Severity Index (PRCSI) measures changes in the severity of crime from year to year. Each type of offence is assigned a weight derived from actual sentences handed down by courts in all provinces and territories. Weights are calculated using the five most recent years of available sentencing data. More serious crimes are assigned higher weights, less serious offenses lower weights. As a result, when all crimes are included, more serious offenses have a greater impact on changes in the Index. In contrast to the Police Reported Crime Rate (PRCR), which is a rate per 100,000 population, the PRCSI is an index where the base year in 2006 is equal to 100. Data for the Index are available back to 1998 only.
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D o w n t o w n C o r e - For the purposes of this report, the Torontos downtown core refers to the area bounded on the north by Bloor St., on the west by Spadina Ave., on the east by Jarvis St., and on the south by Queens Quay. E c o n o m i c F a m i l y - (Statistics Canada Definition) An economic family refers to a group of two or more persons who live in the same dwelling and are related to each other by blood, marriage, common-law or adoption. A couple may be of opposite or same sex. Foster children are included. By definition, all persons who are members of a C e n s u s F a m i l y are also members of an economic family. Examples of the broader concept of economic family include the following: two co-resident census families who are related to one another are considered one economic family; co-resident siblings who are not members of a census family are considered as one economic family; and, nieces or nephews living with aunts or uncles are considered one economic family. G i n i C o e f f i c i e n t - Named after the Italian statistician Corrado Gini, the Gini coefficient is the most commonly used measure of income inequality. It calculates the extent to which income distribution varies from a perfectly equal distribution. A Gini coefficient of 0 represents perfect equality, and a coefficient of 100, represents perfect inequality that is one person has all the income, and the rest of the population has nothing. G r o s s D o m e s t i c P r o d u c t ( G D P ) - GDP is a measure of a jurisdictions annual official economic output. The most direct way of determining GDP is to add up the value of production in all categories of economic enterprise. To bring the Canadian System of National Economic Accounts into line with international standards, the valuation of production is now calculated according to basic prices. GDP at basic prices (as opposed to GDP at factor costs or at market prices) includes indirect taxes (for example property taxes, capital taxes and payroll taxes) but excludes taxes and subsidies attached to the factors of production (for example sales taxes, fuel taxes, duties and taxes on imports, excise taxes on tobacco and alcohol products and subsidies paid on agricultural commodities, transportation services and energy).331 H e a t V u l n e r a b i l i t y - Vulnerability to heat is defined as a combination of exposure to heat and sensitivity to heat. Exposure to heat describes the likelihood that a person will encounter heat, how hot it is, and for how long. Exposure may be affected by factors related to a persons home and community environment such as access to air conditioning in the home, type of residence (e.g. unit on an upper floor of a multiresidential building vs. detached house), presence of shade near the home, and presence of green space in the neighbourhood. Sensitivity refers to decreased ability to cope with hot weather, and usually arises because of individual physiological, medical, behavioural, and social factors. For example, very young people, the elderly, and people with some pre-existing illnesses are at increased risk from heat, because their ability to thermoregulate and respond to physical hazards is diminished. Sensitivity to heat also arises from peoples personal circumstances such as isolation or poverty.
http://www.torontohealthprofiles.ca/a_documents/aboutTheData/9_1_QandA_HeatVulner_HV_2010.pdf

I n i t i a l P u b l i c O f f e r i n g ( I P O ) - An initial public offering (IPO) is a companys first offer of shares to the general public.
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L o c a t i o n Q u o t i e n t - The term compares local employment in a particular industry or sector with employment in another, usually larger region, It is a number found by comparing percent employment in one location (e.g. Toronto) with percent employment nationwide, and is derived using the formula: ei / e LQ = Ei /E Where: ei = Local employment in industry i e = Total local employment Ei = Reference area employment in industry I E = Total reference area employment L o w I n c o m e C u t O f f ( L I C O ) - The LICO is defined as the income levels at which 70% or more of a familys before tax income is spent on food, shelter and clothing. It takes into account the total family income, the number of people supported by that income and the population size of the municipality where they live.332 L o w I n c o m e M e a s u r e ( L I M ) - In contrast to the LICO, The LIM is a relative measure of low income. LIMs are a fixed percentage (50%) of adjusted median family income where adjusted indicates a consideration of family needs. The family size adjustment used in calculating the Low Income Measures reflects the precept that family needs increase with family size. For the LIM, each additional adult, first child (regardless of age) in a lone-parent family, or child over 15 years of age, is assumed to increase the familys needs by 40% of the needs of the first adult. Each child less than 16 years of age (other than the first child in a lone-parent family), is assumed to increase the familys needs by 30% of the first adult. A family is considered to be low income when their income is below the Low Income Measure (LIM) for their family type and size. M e d i a n - The median equals the mid-point in distribution of a number of values being studied where one half is above and the other half below. The A v e r a g e , equals the sum of all the values, divided by the number of values being studied. Average values can be misleading. For example, in a population of ten people, if one person earns $1 million and 9 earn $30,000, the average income would be $127,000. However, the median income in the sample would be $30,000. O c c u p a t i o n a l C l a s s e s - The Martin Prosperity Institute breaks down the Canadian Labour Force into four occupational groups (following Richard Floridas 2002 occupational typology) . These categories are based on the type of work that workers are employed to do, rather than simply their educational credentials: ! The Creative Class knowledge-based workers, such as those working in healthcare, business and finance, the legal sector, and education, whose work involves a high degree of problem-solving; including a core of professionals involved in the creative process of knowledge generation and innovation. ! The Service Class workers in the service sector, such as food service workers, secretaries, groundskeepers and clerks who perform routine tasks on behalf of clients (about 46% of the Canadian labour force).
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! !

The Working Class workers involved in the skilled trades The Fishing, Farming and Forestry Class Farmers, fishers, and workers involved in the extraction of natural resources from the ground and seas.

O f f i c e S e c t o r - Employment activity in the city of Toronto is categorized by sector. The broadest breakdown is into six sectors: Manufacturing, Retail, Office, Service, Institutions (Education, Health, Religious and other institutions) and Other. The Office sector includes: ! Mining, Manufacturing, Transportation, Utilities, Construction and Resource Production (office workers) ! Finance, Insurance and Real Estate ! Business and Technical Services ! Communications and Media ! Trade and Personal Services ! Health Service Offices ! Government ! Associations O n t a r i o M u n i c i p a l B e n c h m a r k i n g I n i t i a t i v e ( O M B I ) - The Ontario Municipal Benchmarking Initiative is a partnership project to push for service excellence in municipal government. The 15 participating municipalities (providing regional services to more than 9.3 million residents or 73% of Ontarios population) work together to identify and share performance statistics and operational best practices. O n t a r i o W o r k s - Ontario Works is the name of the provincial social assistance program that provides eligible Ontario residents with financial assistance to help cover the costs of basic needs (e.g. food and housing costs), and employment assistance to assist in preparing for and finding employment. P r i o r i t y N e i g h b o u r h o o d s - In 2005, the Citys Strong Neighbourhoods Task Force recommended the designation of 13 areas of the city that faced particular economic and social challenges (low income, high levels of unemployment, high numbers of recent immigrants, etc.) for particular attention and investment. These 13 Priority Neighbourhoods (sometimes referred to as Priority Areas) are:
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! #1Jamestown #2 Jane-Finch #3 Malvern #4 Kingston-Galloway #5 Lawrence Heights #6 Steeles-L'Amoreaux #7 Eglinton East-Kennedy Park #8 Crescent Town #9 Weston-Mt. Dennis #10 Dorset Park #11 Scarborough Village #12 Flemingdon Park-Victoria Village #13 Westminster-Branson

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R a c i a l i z e d - The term is increasingly used in place of visible minority or racial minority. It affirms that race is a social and cultural, rather than biological, construct imposed upon certain groups on the basis of perceived physical characteristics. Racialization often leads to discrimination on the basis of those physical traits. R e c e n t I m m i g r a n t - Recent immigrants refer to those who arrived in Canada in the five years between January 1, 2001 and Census Day, May 16, 2006. Established immigrants are those who have resided in Canada 10 years or more. R e t r o f i t For the purposes of this report, a retrofit entails making improvements to the fabric and systems of an existing building (rather than starting over from scratch), in order to increase efficiency and livability. S e d e n t a r y B e h a v i o u r - Sedentary behaviour is behaviour marked by little physical movement and low energy expenditure. Such behaviours include using a computer, watching TV or playing passive video games, prolonged sitting and motorized transportation. S o c i a l E n t e r p r i s e - A social enterprise is an organization or business that uses marketoriented production and sale of goods and/or services to pursue a public benefit mission. This can take many organizational forms, such as a charity, a not-for-profit business, a cooperative, a social purpose business, or a for-profit business with a social mission (from the Canadian Task Force on Social Finance, December 2010). S o c i a l C a p i t a l - Social capital is an imprecise concept but generally refers to networks of social relationships between individuals and groups with shared values and assets, that benefit those individuals, groups and communities, and the larger society. Examples of social capital include networks of social support, membership in voluntary organizations and associations, civic participation and levels of trust and sense of belonging to the community. By investing in and leveraging social networks, social capital can be developed to help communities build and create together. S u b s i d i z e d H o u s i n g - Sometimes called S o c i a l H o u s i n g , subsidized housing is housing that receives some form of government or not-for-profit subsidy. Forms of subsidized housing include some housing co-ops (with rent geared to income for low income residents, or housing geared to specific low income groups such as seniors or artists), public housing (where the government directly manages the property) and rent supplements (paid to landlords). Tenants must generally meet eligibility requirements for subsidized housing.

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S t r u c t u r a l D e f i c i t - A government budget deficit occurs when a government spends more than it receives in taxation and other revenues. A s t r u c t u r a l d e f i c i t is the persistence of a budget deficit over a long period of time. A structural deficit poses a problem for any government, as deficits are typically financed by borrowing, and continued borrowing leads to an accumulation of debt. However, a municipal government is allowed to borrow only for capital purposes, and the City of Toronto is required to balance its operating budget without going into debt. Therefore, a structural deficit (which may be dealt with in the short term through the infusion of one-time revenues), must ultimately be solved either by raising revenues (taxes, user fees, etc.) or by reducing expenses. T r a n s i t D e s e r t s -Torontos transit deserts, as measured by the Martin Prosperity Institute, are those neighbourhoods in the citys inner suburbs most poorly connected to public transit. The existence of a transit desert is based on a score that combines the number of stops within 500m of the centre of a census block and how often a bus, subway or streetcar stops there. Transit scores are highest where more streetcars and subways are found and lowest towards the neighbourhoods at the outer edge of the city that are only served by buses. The average transit score for the city is 66.5. But the score for David Hulchanskis City#1 (described in his Three Cities report) is three times the score for City#3 (102.8 in City #1 compared to 27.8 in City #3). U r b a n H e a t I s l a n d - In the context of this report, an urban heat island is defined as an area within a metropolitan centre, where surface temperatures are at least 5o above the average for the whole of the metropolis. Heat islands are caused by the combined effects of heat-generating and heat-trapping construction materials; lack of vegetation; tall buildings that block wind; air pollution; and waste heat from energy generation, industrial processes, air conditioning and automobiles. V i s i b l e M i n o r i t y - Visible minority refers to whether or not a person, under criteria established by the Employment Equity Act, is non-Caucasian in race or non-white in colour. Under the Act, an Aboriginal person is not considered to be a Visible Minority.333

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Acknowledgements
Thanks to our Partners and Sources Toronto Community Foundation has been publishing the Torontos Vital Signs Report for the past 10 years. The Report has evolved into an annual snapshot of the quality of life in Toronto. It uncovers who we are today and where we should be focusing our efforts to build the kind of city that supports the needs of all its residents for the longterm. Torontos Vital Signs is an important framework for debate and planning used by politicians, city officials and policy makers; a curriculum resource for teachers and our future workforce professors and students at colleges and universities; a valued strategic compass for donors to connect philanthropy with community needs; and it provides a platform for civic engagement for all Torontonians. Its a collaborative effort - over 170 individual researchers, institutions, and organizations and over 30 Vital Toronto Fund donors support Torontos Vital Signs each year. Our thanks also goes to George Brown College, our lead research partner, and Community Foundations of Canada and The J. W. McConnell Family Foundation who have made it possible for Vital Signs to be replicated in 22 communities across Canada. The Toronto Community Foundation also thanks all the individuals and organizations who provide information, statistics, and advice for the Report: Anne Marie Aikins Don Altman Paul Bedford* Rosalee Bender Matt Bentley Elena Bird Mike Brady Jason S. Campbell Ruby Chui Liz Corson Marisol D'Andrea Anthony N. Doob Suzanne Dwyer Jane Farrow Paul Fleiszer Andrea Garcia Sally Han Laura Heidbuechel Allyson Hewitt* Paul Hess Shana Hillman Leanne Holt
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J. David Hulchanski Juliet Huntly* Marie Kamel* Annie Kidder Brenda Lafleur Rose Lee Eva Ligeti Robert Luke* Richard Maaranen Ben Macintosh John B. MacIntyre Richard Matern Andrew McConahan Randy McLean* David McLeod Catherine McVitty* Nuala Meagher Eric Miller* James Milway Shazia Mirza Dylan Moeller Bob Murdie Terry Nicholson Doug Norris Tobias Novogrodsky* Charlie Pane Shannon Quesnelle Laural Raine Barbara Reid Brad Ross Doug Rollins Andrew Sharpe Nancy Smith Lea Gay Stephenson Nicole Stewart Caitlin Stidwill Fei Wang Soraya Walker Ross Wallace* Emilie White Greg Wilkinson * Advisory Group Active Healthy Kids Canada AIDS Committee of Toronto Bixi Toronto British Council Campaign 2000 Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation Canadian Association of Retired Persons
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Canadian Broadcasting Corporation Canadian Council on Learning Canadian Index of Wellbeing Canadian Institute for Health Information Canadian Society for Exercise Psychology Canadian Task Force on Social Finance Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Centre for Social Innovation Centre for the Study of Living Standards (National Research Partner) CIBC World Markets Cities Centre, University of Toronto Citizenship and Immigration Canada City of Toronto: Affordable Housing Office City Clerk's Office City Managers Office Corporate Finance Cultural Services Diversity Management and Community Engagement Economic Development Film and Television Office Finance & Administration Communications Medical Officer of Health Parks and Recreation Pedestrian and Cycling Planning Division Public Health Shelter, Support and Housing Administration Social Development and Administration Social Housing Unit Solid Waste Management Services Strategic and Corporate Policy Toronto Water Toronto Childrens Services Traffic Safety Unit Clean Air Partnership Colleges Ontario Community Alliance for Social Justice Toronto Conference Board of Canada Corporate Knights Council of Ontario Universities Creative Trust Daily Bread Food Bank Demographia The Economist Elections Canada Environment Canada FDI Intelligence
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Federation of Canadian Municipalities George Brown College (Lead Research Partner) Get Active Toronto GO Transit Greater Toronto CivicAction Alliance Hill Strategies Research Imagine Canada Industry Canada Institute for Chartered Accountants Institute for Clinical Evaluative Studies Institute for Competitiveness & Prosperity Ipsos Reid Justice for Children and Youth KOF Swiss Economic Institute MaRS Discovery District Martin Prosperity Institute Maytree Foundation Mercer Metcalf Foundation Metrolinx Migration Integration Policy Index Next Generation Consulting Not Far from the Tree Office of the Superintendent of Bankruptcy Canada Ontario Government Ministry of Education Ministry of Health Ministry of the Environment Ministry of Municipal Affairs and Housing Newsroom Ontario Non-Profit Housing Association Ontario Physician Human Resource Data Centre Ontario Trillium Foundation People for Education Playing for Keeps Pollution Probe PricewaterhouseCoopers Promoting Education and Community Health (PEACH) RBC Settlement Workers in Schools Siemens Canada Limited Social Planning Toronto Statistics Canada Toronto Coalition for Active Transportation The Toronto Star Toronto Arts Council Toronto Board of Trade Toronto Business Development Centre
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Toronto Catholic District School Board Toronto Coalition for Active Transportation Toronto Cyclists Union Toronto District School Board Toronto Immigrant Employment Data Initiative Toronto International Film Festival Toronto Foundation for Student Success Toronto Police Services Toronto Public Library Toronto Transit Commission Toronto Workforce Innovation Group Tourism Toronto United Way Toronto University of Toronto Centre for Criminology and Sociolegal Studies Wellesley Institute York University

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Endnotes Martin Prosperity Institute. (2011). Who Cares about 15 Million Urban Voters?. Pg. 25. Last accessed on August 5, 2011 from http://martinprosperity.org/research-and-publications/publication/who-caresabout-15-million-urban-voters. 2 Statistics Canada. (2011). Estimates of Population. Special request. In NVS, Table XI-1-ii: Post-Censal Estimates of the Population in Vital Signs CMAs on July 1st, 1986, 1991, 1996, and 2001-2010. 3 Statistics Canada. (2011). Estimates of Population Cansim table 051-0046 for CMAs, Cansim table 051-0001 for Canada and Provinces, Cansim table 0510052 for Census Divisions. Special request. In NVS, Table XI-3:ii: Share of Youth, under 15 in Population in Vital Signs CMAs as of July 1 (post-censal estimates). 4 Statistics Canada. (2011). Community Profiles Census 2001 and 2006. Special reqest. In NVS, Table XI-3-i: Share of Elderly (65+) in Population in Vital Signs CMAs as of July 1 (post-censal estimates). 5 Canadian Association of Retired Persons (CARP). (2010). The Case for an age-friendly Toronto, pg. 1. Last accessed on August 28, 2011 from http://www1.carp.ca/PDF/Age%20Friendly%20Cities%20FINAL.pdf. 6 Toronto Board of Trade. (2011). Report Card on Prosperity. Pps.14 and 47. Last accessed on July 27, 2011 from http://www.bot.com/Content/NavigationMenu/Policy/Scorecard/Scorecard_2011_ Final.pdf. The selection of the 24 metropolises is based on:
1. Comparably-sized to Toronto: Barcelona, Boston, Dallas, Madrid, Berlin, San Francisco, and Seattle; 2. Torontos main Canadian competitors: Montreal, Calgary, and Vancouver; 3. Global cities to which Toronto is sometimes compared: Chicago, London, Los Angeles, New York, Paris, Tokyo, and Sydney; 4. Metro regions within North America to allow for a regional comparison: Halifax and Dallas; 5. Metro regions with progressive social and environmental policies: Oslo and Stockholm; 6. Metro regions in rapidly emerging economies: Hong Kong and Shanghai.
1

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